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Sample records for conventional serological screening

  1. Effective serological and molecular screening of deceased tissue donors.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, A D; Newham, J A; Gillan, H L

    2013-12-01

    A comprehensive and effective screening programme is essential to support the banking of tissues from deceased donors. However, the overall quality of the samples obtained from deceased donors, quantity and condition, is often not ideal, and this may lead to problems in achieving accurate and reliable results. Additionally a significant percentage of referrals are still rejected upon receipt as unsuitable for screening. We are actively involved in improving the overall quality of deceased donor screening outcomes, and have specifically evaluated and validated both serological and molecular assays for this purpose, as well as developing a specific screening strategy to minimise the specificity issues associated with serological screening. Here we review the nature and effectiveness of the deceased donor screening programme implemented by National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT), the organisation with overall responsibility for the supply of tissue products within England. Deceased donor screening data, serological and molecular, from August 2007 until May 2012 have been collated and analysed. Of 10,225 samples referred for serology screening, 5.5 % were reported as reactive; of 2,862 samples referred for molecular screening, 0.1 % were reported as reactive/inhibitory. Overall 20 % of the serological and 100 % of the molecular screen reactivity was confirmed as reflecting true infection. The use of a sequential serology screening algorithm has resulted in a marked reduction of tissues lost unnecessarily due to non-specific screen reactivity. The approach taken by NHSBT has resulted in the development of an effective and specific approach to the screening of deceased tissue donors. PMID:23354598

  2. Serological screening for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Logar, J; Novak-Antolic, Z; Zore, A

    1995-01-01

    In the period from 1981 to 1994, serological screening for toxoplasmosis was carried out in 20,953 pregnant women in Slovenia. Seropositivity among pregnant women was found to have decreased from 52% in the 1980s to 37% in the recent period, 1991-94, while during the same period the incidence of suspected primary infections acquired in pregnancy rose from 0.33% to 0.75%. These latest figures ought to promote an informed debate on the possible need for obligatory serological screening of pregnant women in Slovenia for toxoplasmosis.

  3. Facts and myths in serological screening of ART couples

    PubMed Central

    Mocanu, E.V.

    2012-01-01

    Serological screening of couples attending for ART therapy is now common practice. The frequency of such screening is a topic of debate as few publications have addressed this question. Emerging evidence shows that the ART population has similar prevalence of infectious diseases compared with the general EU population. The need to pursue repeat screening is mainly related to the risk of seroconversion in this highly selected population. The evidence presented here shows that seroconversion among cohabitating ART couples is negligible. Even if a theoretical risk of seroconversion during therapy exists, with correct laboratory practice the risk of cross-contamination is negligible as laboratory processing eliminates the infective risk. As such ART laboratory processing of contaminated samples becomes an indication rather than a risk. To strengthen the evidence it is recommended that data on prevalence and incidence should be prospectively collected by all ART units. PMID:24753908

  4. Serological responses to Cryptosporidium antigens among women using riverbank-filtered water, conventionally filtered surface water and groundwater in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Frost, Floyd; Craun, Gunther; Mihály, Kádár; György, Berencsi; Calderon, Rebecca; Muller, Tm

    2005-03-01

    We compared serological responses to Cryptosporidium parvum antigens using surplus sera from females undergoing routine screening for pregnancy from three counties in Hungary where bank-filtered surface water, conventionally filtered and disinfected surface water, and groundwater from either a karst or confined aquifer are commonly used for drinking water. The primary purpose was to determine whether the prevalence and intensity of serological responses, indicators of prior Cryptosporidium infection were similar for these populations. Women using groundwater from a confined aquifer had significantly lower mean serological responses for both the 15/17-kDa and 27-kDa (p < 0.0001) antigen groups than women using conventionally filtered and disinfected surface water or karst well water. This is suggestive of less frequent infections. Women using bank-filtered water also had lower mean responses for both antigen groups. Among women using bank-filtered water, the mean intensity of response for both antigen groups was almost one-third of the mean response observed for women using conventionally filtered and disinfected surface water. These findings suggest that riverbank filtration may be an effective alternative to conventional treatment for reducing Cryptosporidium exposures and infection from surface drinking water sources.

  5. Surveillance of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission by serological screening of schoolchildren.

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, A. L.; Zicker, F.; Luquetti, A. O.; Oliveira, R. M.; Silva, S. A.; Souza, J. M.; Martelli, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    The seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among children is a sensitive indicator for assessing the effectiveness of programmes for control of Chagas disease. In this study we report the result of a cross-sectional serological survey carried out among schoolchildren living in a poor rural area in central Brazil. Eluates of blood collected on filter-paper were tested for anti-T. cruzi antibodies using immunofluorescence, haemagglutination, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The overall seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection was 7.9%, which compared with the findings of the national survey carried out in 1975-80 indicates that a twofold-to-threefold reduction in prevalence has occurred over the last 10 years. This is consistent with a reduction of transmission in the area, probably related to vector control efforts. Based on our results, the incidence of new cases was estimated to be 44 per annum in the study region. In rural areas with a scattered population, surveillance of T. cruzi transmission by serological screening of children at school entry is more practical and economical than entomological evaluation for assessing both the risk of transmission in the community and the efficacy of vector control measures. A sample size of around 1000 schoolchildren is sufficient to detect prevalences as low as 2%, and such an approach would be practical and applicable to most areas where Chagas disease is endemic. PMID:1464149

  6. First TBEV serological screening in Flemish wild boar

    PubMed Central

    Roelandt, Sophie; Suin, Vanessa; Van der Stede, Yves; Lamoral, Sophie; Marche, Sylvie; Tignon, Marylène; Saiz, Juan Carlos; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Casaer, Jim; Brochier, Bernard; Van Gucht, Steven; Roels, Stefan; Vervaeke, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    In the frame of a Flemish wildlife surveillance in 2013, a serological screening was performed on sera from wild boar (Sus scrofa; n=238) in order to detect tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV)-specific antibodies. Neutralising antibodies were titrated with a seroneutralisation test (SNT), using two cut-off titres (1/10–1/15). Seven wild boars were found TBEV-seropositive and showed moderate (>1/15) to high (>1/125) SNT-titres; three individuals had borderline results (1/10–1/15). This study demonstrated the presence of TBEV-specific antibodies in wild boar and highlighted potential TBEV-foci in Flanders. Additional surveillance including direct virus testing is now recommended. PMID:27087689

  7. Barriers impeding serologic screening for celiac disease in clinically high-prevalence populations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Celiac disease is present in ~1% of the general population in the United States and Europe. Despite the availability of inexpensive serologic screening tests, ~85% of individuals with celiac disease remain undiagnosed and there is an average delay in diagnosis of symptomatic individuals with celiac disease that ranges from ~5.8-11 years. This delay is often attributed to the use of a case-based approach for detection rather than general population screening for celiac disease, and deficiencies at the level of health care professionals. This study aimed to assess if patient-centered barriers have a role in impeding serologic screening for celiac disease in individuals from populations that are clinically at an increased risk for celiac disease. Methods 119 adults meeting study inclusion criteria for being at a higher risk for celiac disease were recruited from the general population. Participants completed a survey/questionnaire at the William K. Warren Medical Research Center for Celiac Disease that addressed demographic information, celiac disease related symptoms (gastrointestinal and extraintestinal), family history, co-morbid diseases and conditions associated with celiac disease, and patient-centered barriers to screening for celiac disease. All participants underwent serologic screening for celiac disease using the IgA tissue transglutaminase antibody (IgA tTG) and, if positive, testing for IgA anti-endomysial antibody (IgA EMA) as a confirmatory test. Results Two barriers to serologic testing were significant across the participant pool. These were participants not knowing they were at risk for celiac disease before learning of the study, and participants not knowing where to get tested for celiac disease. Among participants with incomes less than $25,000/year and those less than the median age, not having a doctor to order the test was a significant barrier, and this strongly correlated with not having health insurance. Symptoms and co

  8. Screening for Celiac Disease in a North American Population: Sequential Serology and Gastrointestinal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Kent D.; Rashtak, Shahrooz; Lahr, Brian D.; Melton, L Joseph; Krause, Patricia K.; Maggi, Kristine; Talley, Nicholas J.; Murray, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of diagnosed celiac disease is less than 1 in 2,000 in the United States, but screening studies undertaken in European and other populations have revealed a much higher prevalence. Objectives To determine the prevalence of celiac disease and the utility of screening in the general adult population of a geographically isolated area. Methods Serum tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTG-IgA) were measured in volunteer health care participants aged 18 years and over at Annual Casper, Wyoming Blue Envelope Health Fair Blood Draw. Subjects with positive tTG-IgA tests had their endomysial IgA antibodies checked. Double positives were offered endoscopy with small bowel biopsy. All subjects completed a short GI symptom questionnaire. Results 3850 residents of the Natrona County had serologic evaluation for celiac disease, 34 of whom tested positive for both tTG and EMA IgA. Excluding three individuals with previous diagnosis of celiac disease, the overall prevalence of celiac serology positive in this community sample was 0.8%. All 31 subjects were offered a small bowel biopsy. Seventeen of the 18 biopsied subjects (94%) had at least partial villous atrophy. Symptoms that were reported by the fair attendees did not predict positivity. Conclusions Screening for celiac disease was widely accepted in this preventative healthcare setting. Undiagnosed celiac disease affects 1 in 126 individuals in this Wyoming community. Most were asymptomatic or had atypical presentations. Serologic testing can readily detect this disease in a general population. PMID:21364545

  9. Maternal Serologic Screening to Prevent Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Decision-Analytic Economic Model

    PubMed Central

    Stillwaggon, Eileen; Carrier, Christopher S.; Sautter, Mari; McLeod, Rima

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine a cost-minimizing option for congenital toxoplasmosis in the United States. Methodology/Principal Findings A decision-analytic and cost-minimization model was constructed to compare monthly maternal serological screening, prenatal treatment, and post-natal follow-up and treatment according to the current French (Paris) protocol, versus no systematic screening or perinatal treatment. Costs are based on published estimates of lifetime societal costs of developmental disabilities and current diagnostic and treatment costs. Probabilities are based on published results and clinical practice in the United States and France. One- and two-way sensitivity analyses are used to evaluate robustness of results. Universal monthly maternal screening for congenital toxoplasmosis with follow-up and treatment, following the French protocol, is found to be cost-saving, with savings of $620 per child screened. Results are robust to changes in test costs, value of statistical life, seroprevalence in women of childbearing age, fetal loss due to amniocentesis, and to bivariate analysis of test costs and incidence of primary T. gondii infection in pregnancy. Given the parameters in this model and a maternal screening test cost of $12, screening is cost-saving for rates of congenital infection above 1 per 10,000 live births. If universal testing generates economies of scale in diagnostic tools—lowering test costs to about $2 per test—universal screening is cost-saving at rates of congenital infection well below the lowest reported rates in the United States of 1 per 10,000 live births. Conclusion/Significance Universal screening according to the French protocol is cost saving for the US population within broad parameters for costs and probabilities. PMID:21980546

  10. SEROLOGIC SCREENING FOR HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2 IN PERSONS WITH HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    VAN WAGONER, NICHOLAS J; MORROW, RHODA; LEE, JEANNETTE; DIXON, PAULA; HOOK, EDWARD W.

    2013-01-01

    Screening for subclinical HSV-2 may be a useful adjunct in HIV care. However, HSV-2 serologic tests have been suggested to perform less well in HIV-infected populations. We compared HerpeSelect® HSV-2 ELISA to the Sure-Vue® Rapid HSV-2 Test for HSV-2 screening of sera from 310 HIV-infected persons receiving care at an HIV-dedicated clinic in the Southeastern United States. We determined assay agreement and whether performance of both tests, rather than 1 test alone, would improve screening accuracy. Overall percent test agreement was 96%. Negative percent agreement was best at a HerpeSelect® index value < 0.90 and positive percent agreement was best at a HerpeSelect® index value ≥ 3.0 (97% and 100%, respectively). Using the manufacturer’s established cutoffs for a HerpeSelect® positive versus negative test result discordant results between assays occurred in 4% of cases and the majority of these occurred when the HerpeSelect® index value was between 0.9 and 2.9. These data suggest good correlation between HerpeSelect® and the Sure-Vue® HSV-2 Rapid Test in a U.S. HIV-infected population and suggest that confirmatory testing may not help in HSV-2 diagnosis except in cases where HerpeSelect® index values are between 0.9–3.0. PMID:23154653

  11. Prevention of prenatal toxoplasmosis by serological screening of pregnant women in Austria.

    PubMed

    Aspöck, H; Pollak, A

    1992-01-01

    In 1975 Austria introduced an obligatory serological screening of pregnant women for toxoplasmosis. Every woman is tested for antibodies at the beginning of her pregnancy and, in case of seronegativity, again in the second and third trimester. Basic tests are--alternatively--Dye test (SFT) and Indirect Fluorescent Antibody test IFAT); for further clarification, complement fixation test (CFT) and, particularly, various tests for detection of specific IgM and IgA antibodies and, in certain cases, for circulating antigen are carried out. If a primary Toxoplasma gondii infection of the pregnant woman is suspected, immediate therapy--with spiramycin before the 16th week of gestation and with pyrimethamin plus sulfadiazin after the 15th week of gestation--is carried out. Before the introduction of the screening programme, the incidence of prenatal toxoplasma infections was 50-70 per 10,000 births, presently it is below 1 per 10,000 births. Seropositivity among pregnant woman has decreased from almost 50% at the end of the seventies, to 36.7% in recent years (1989-1991). The percentage of suspected primary infection during pregnancy has, however, in the same period increased from less than 0.4% to 0.83%.

  12. Serologic screening for 13 infectious agents in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Flanders

    PubMed Central

    Tavernier, Paul; Sys, Stanislas U.; De Clercq, Kris; De Leeuw, Ilse; Caij, Anne Brigitte; De Baere, Miet; De Regge, Nick; Fretin, David; Roupie, Virginie; Govaerts, Marc; Heyman, Paul; Vanrompay, Daisy; Yin, Lizi; Kalmar, Isabelle; Suin, Vanessa; Brochier, Bernard; Dobly, Alexandre; De Craeye, Stéphane; Roelandt, Sophie; Goossens, Els; Roels, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In order to investigate the role of roe deer in the maintenance and transmission of infectious animal and human diseases in Flanders, we conducted a serologic screening in 12 hunting areas. Materials and methods Roe deer sera collected between 2008 and 2013 (n=190) were examined for antibodies against 13 infectious agents, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, virus neutralisation, immunofluorescence, or microagglutination test, depending on the agent. Results and discussion High numbers of seropositives were found for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (45.8%), Toxoplasma gondii (43.2%) and Schmallenberg virus (27.9%), the latter with a distinct temporal distribution pattern following the outbreak in domestic ruminants. Lower antibody prevalence was found for Chlamydia abortus (6.7%), tick-borne encephalitis virus (5.1%), Neospora caninum (4.8%), and Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (4.1%). The lowest prevalences were found for Leptospira (1.7%), bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (1.3%), and Coxiella burnetii (1.2%). No antibodies were found against Brucella sp., bovine herpesvirus 1, and bluetongue virus. A significant difference in seroprevalence between ages (higher in adults >1 year) was found for N. caninum. Four doubtful reacting sera accounted for a significant difference in seroprevalence between sexes for C. abortus (higher in females). Conclusions Despite the more intensive landscape use in Flanders, the results are consistent with other European studies. Apart from maintaining C. abortus and MAP, roe deer do not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of the examined zoonotic and domestic animal pathogens. Nevertheless, their meaning as sentinels should not be neglected in the absence of other wild cervid species. PMID:26609692

  13. Serologic Screening for Herpes Simplex Virus among University Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Hayley; Nanda, Joy P.; Joffe, Alain; Roberts, Jessica; Rompalo, Anne; Melendez, Johan; Zenilman, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the feasibility of conducting serologic testing for the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) among university students and assessed the psychosocial impact of an HSV-2 diagnosis. Methods: The authors recruited a convenience sample of 100 students (aged 18-39 years) without a history of genital herpes from 1 university…

  14. Comparative Accuracy of the InBios Scrub Typhus Detect IgM Rapid Test for the Detection of IgM Antibodies by Using Conventional Serology.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Hugh W F; Blacksell, Stuart D; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Laongnualpanich, Achara; Basnyat, Buddha; Day, Nicholas P J; Paris, Daniel H

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the comparative accuracy of a recombinant 56-kDa type-specific antigen-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for scrub typhus for the detection of IgM antibodies by using conventional serology in well-characterized serum samples from undifferentiated febrile illness patients. The RDT showed high specificity and promising comparative accuracy, with 82% sensitivity and 98% specificity for samples defined positive at an IgM indirect immunofluorescence assay positivity cutoff titer of ≥1:1,600 versus 92% and 95% at ≥1:6,400, respectively.

  15. Swine cysticercosis in the Karangasem district of Bali, Indonesia: An evaluation of serological screening methods.

    PubMed

    Swastika, Kadek; Dharmawan, Nyoman Sadra; Suardita, I Ketut; Kepeng, I Nengah; Wandra, Toni; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Mizuki; Giraudoux, Patrick; Nakao, Minoru; Yoshida, Takahiko; Eka Diarthini, Luh Putu; Sudarmaja, I Made; Purba, Ivan Elisabeth; Budke, Christine M; Ito, Akira

    2016-11-01

    A serological assessment was undertaken on pigs from the Kubu and Abang sub-districts of Karangasem on the island of Bali, Indonesia, where earlier studies had detected patients with cysticercosis. Antigens purified from Taenia solium cyst fluid by cation-exchange chromatography were used to evaluate antibody responses in the pigs and the serological tests were also evaluated using sera from pigs experimentally infected with T. solium eggs. A total of 392 serum samples from naturally exposed pigs were tested using an ELISA that could be read based on both a colour change perceptible by the naked eye and an ELISA based on absorbance values. Twenty six (6.6%) pigs were found seropositive by the naked-eye ELISA and were categorized into three groups: strongly positive (absorbance values >0.8, n=6), moderately positive (absorbance values between 0.2 and 0.8, n=7), and weakly positive (absorbance values <0.2, n=13). Necropsies performed on 11 strongly and moderately positive pigs revealed that six strongly positive pigs were infected either solely with T. solium cysticerci (n=3), or co-infected with both T. solium and Taenia hydatigena (n=3). Four moderately positive pigs were infected solely with T. hydatigena. No cysticerci were found in one pig that was moderately positive by the naked-eye ELISA. Two experimentally infected pigs became antibody positive by 6 weeks post-infection, whereas eight control pigs remained negative. An additional 60 pigs slaughtered at authorized abattoirs on Bali were tested using the same ELISA. All 60 pigs were seronegative with no evidence of Taenia infection at necropsy. The results confirm the presence of porcine cysticercosis on Bali and, while the serological responses seen in T. solium infected animals were much stronger than those infected with T. hydatigena, the diagnostic antigens are clearly not species specific. Further studies are necessary to confirm if it is possible to draw a cut off line for differentiation of pig infected

  16. Swine cysticercosis in the Karangasem district of Bali, Indonesia: An evaluation of serological screening methods.

    PubMed

    Swastika, Kadek; Dharmawan, Nyoman Sadra; Suardita, I Ketut; Kepeng, I Nengah; Wandra, Toni; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Mizuki; Giraudoux, Patrick; Nakao, Minoru; Yoshida, Takahiko; Eka Diarthini, Luh Putu; Sudarmaja, I Made; Purba, Ivan Elisabeth; Budke, Christine M; Ito, Akira

    2016-11-01

    A serological assessment was undertaken on pigs from the Kubu and Abang sub-districts of Karangasem on the island of Bali, Indonesia, where earlier studies had detected patients with cysticercosis. Antigens purified from Taenia solium cyst fluid by cation-exchange chromatography were used to evaluate antibody responses in the pigs and the serological tests were also evaluated using sera from pigs experimentally infected with T. solium eggs. A total of 392 serum samples from naturally exposed pigs were tested using an ELISA that could be read based on both a colour change perceptible by the naked eye and an ELISA based on absorbance values. Twenty six (6.6%) pigs were found seropositive by the naked-eye ELISA and were categorized into three groups: strongly positive (absorbance values >0.8, n=6), moderately positive (absorbance values between 0.2 and 0.8, n=7), and weakly positive (absorbance values <0.2, n=13). Necropsies performed on 11 strongly and moderately positive pigs revealed that six strongly positive pigs were infected either solely with T. solium cysticerci (n=3), or co-infected with both T. solium and Taenia hydatigena (n=3). Four moderately positive pigs were infected solely with T. hydatigena. No cysticerci were found in one pig that was moderately positive by the naked-eye ELISA. Two experimentally infected pigs became antibody positive by 6 weeks post-infection, whereas eight control pigs remained negative. An additional 60 pigs slaughtered at authorized abattoirs on Bali were tested using the same ELISA. All 60 pigs were seronegative with no evidence of Taenia infection at necropsy. The results confirm the presence of porcine cysticercosis on Bali and, while the serological responses seen in T. solium infected animals were much stronger than those infected with T. hydatigena, the diagnostic antigens are clearly not species specific. Further studies are necessary to confirm if it is possible to draw a cut off line for differentiation of pig infected

  17. Comparative evaluation of Rose Bengal plate agglutination test, mallein test, and some conventional serological tests for diagnosis of equine glanders.

    PubMed

    Naureen, Abeera; Saqib, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulan; Hussain, Muhammad H; Asi, Muhammad N

    2007-07-01

    The Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBT) was evaluated for the diagnosis of equine glanders, and its diagnostic efficiency was compared with that of mallein and other serological tests, including indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT), complement fixation test (CFT), and modified counter immunoelectrophoresis test (mCIET). Sera from 70 naturally infected culture-positive, 96 potentially exposed cohorts, and 110 healthy equines were tested. All tests but mCIET showed 100% specificity when testing the sera from glanders-negative equines. The calculated sensitivities of RBT, IHAT, CFT, mCIET, and mallein test when testing culture-positive equines were 90.0, 97.1, 91.4, 81.4, and 75.7%, respectively. The RBT was significantly (P < 0.05) more sensitive than the mallein test and mCIET. The positive and negative predictive values of each test (RBT, IHAT, CFT, mallein test, and mCIET) were as follows: 100 and 94, 100 and 98.2, 100 and 96.7, 100 and 86.6, and 90.5 and 88.6, respectively. On comparing glandered and nonglandered animals, the highest agreement (0.987) was found between RBT and CFT followed by RBT and IHAT (0.940), RBT and mallein test (0.871), and RBT and mCIET (0.852). Because the RBT is simpler and rapid to perform, the inclusion of the test as a supplementary test for the diagnosis of glanders in field conditions is recommended.

  18. A comparison of four serologic assays in screening for Brucella exposure in Hawaiian monk seals.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, O; Nielsen, K; Braun, R; Kelly, L

    2005-01-01

    A survey for Brucella spp. antibodies was undertaken on 164 serum samples from 144 Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) from the northwestern Hawaiian Islands collected between 1995 and 2002. The buffered antigen plate agglutination test (BPAT), the indirect enzyme immunoassay (I-ELISA), the competitive enzyme immunoassay (C-ELISA), and the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) were compared with regard to their ability in detecting antibodies to Brucella spp. in the serum samples. Overall, antibodies were detected in 28 (17.1%) animals, using the BPAT test, 25 (15.2%) by the C-ELISA, and 19 (11.6%) in the I-ELISA and the FPA test, using thresholds established for cattle. No evidence of gross pathology consistent with clinical brucellosis was noted in any of the seropositive animals tested. Although further work would be necessary to validate these tests for use with monk seals it appears that both the C-ELISA and the FPA tests would be appropriate as diagnostic screening tests for detection of antibodies to Brucella spp. in this species. PMID:15827218

  19. Comparison of HIV antibody detection by conventional method and dried tube specimen: stability and validation study for HIV serology.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Shashi; Arora, Usha

    2011-06-01

    This study was carried out to compare HIV antibody detection by conventional method and serum dried in test tube and to check the stability of dried tube specimen (DTS) at ambient temperature. A total of 50 serum samples were tested for HIV antibodies, which were sent for testing in the state reference laboratory, by conventional method according to NACO guidelines. The same serum samples were dried in test tubes and then after elution with PBS again tested for HIV antibodies by same method and kits at 0 day and after 30 days. DTS eluted by PBS showed linear correlation to the serum samples. The antibodies in DTS were found to be stable at 37 degrees c up to 30 days. This method is simple, sensitive and specific and can be used in resource limited settings embarking on scaling up of HIV testing.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of Universal Serological Screening to Prevent Non-Traumatic Hip and Vertebral Fractures in Patients with Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, KT; Tsai, Raymond; Wang, Louise; Khavari, Nasim; Bachrach, Laura; Bass, Dorsey

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Patients with asymptomatic or poorly managed celiac disease can experience bone loss, placing them at risk for hip and vertebral fractures. We analyzed the cost-effectiveness of universal serologic screening (USS) vs symptomatic at-risk screening (SAS) strategies for celiac disease, given the risk of non-traumatic hip and vertebral fractures if untreated or undiagnosed. Method We developed a lifetime Markov model of the screening strategies, each with male or female cohorts of 1000 patients, 12 years old when screening began. We screened serum samples for levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA), compared with tissue transglutaminase and total IgA, and findings were confirmed by mucosal biopsy. Transition probabilities and quality of life estimates were obtained from the literature. We used generalizable cost estimates and Medicare reimbursement rates, and ran deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Result For men, the average life-time costs were $8532 and $8472 for USS and SAS strategies, respectively, corresponding to average quality adjusted life years (QALY) gains of 25.511 and 25.515. Similarly, for women, costs were $11,383 and $11,328 for USS and SAS strategies, corresponding to QALY gains of 25.74 and 25.75. Compared to the current standard of care (SAS), USS produced higher average lifetime costs and lower quality of life for each sex. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses showed that the model was robust to realistic changes in all the variables, making USS cost ineffective, based on these outcomes. Conclusion USS and SAS are similar in lifetime costs and quality of life, although the current SAS strategy was overall more cost effective in preventing bone loss and fractures among patients with undiagnosed or subclinical disease. Based on best available supportive evidence, it is more cost effective to maintain the standard celiac screening practices, although future robust population-based evidence in other health

  1. Cervical screening by visual inspection, HPV testing, liquid-based and conventional cytology in Amazonian Peru.

    PubMed

    Almonte, Maribel; Ferreccio, Catterina; Winkler, Jennifer L; Cuzick, Jack; Tsu, Vivien; Robles, Sylvia; Takahashi, Rina; Sasieni, Peter

    2007-08-15

    Cervical cancer is an important public health problem in many developing countries, where cytology screening has been ineffective. We compared four tests to identify the most appropriate for screening in countries with limited resources. Nineteen midwives screened 5,435 women with visual inspection (VIA) and collected cervical samples for HPV testing, liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). If VIA was positive, a doctor performed magnified VIA. CC was read locally, LBC was read in Lima and HPV testing was done in London. Women with a positive screening test were offered colposcopy or cryotherapy (with biopsy). Inadequacy rates were 5% and 11% for LBC and CC respectively, and less than 0.1% for VIA and HPV. One thousand eight hundred eighty-one women (84% of 2,236) accepted colposcopy/cryotherapy: 79 had carcinoma in situ or cancer (CIS+), 27 had severe- and 42 moderate-dysplasia on histology. We estimated a further 6.5 cases of CIS+ in women without a biopsy. Sensitivity for CIS+ (specificity for less than moderate dysplasia) was 41.2% (76.7%) for VIA, 95.8% (89.3%) for HPV, 80.3% (83.7%) for LBC, and 42.5% (98.7%) for CC. Sensitivities for moderate dysplasia or worse were better for VIA (54.9%) and less favourable for HPV and cytology. In this setting, VIA and CC missed the majority of high-grade disease. Overall, HPV testing performed best. VIA gives immediate results, but will require investment in regular training and supervision. Further work is needed to determine whether screened-positive women should all be treated or triaged with a more specific test. PMID:17437272

  2. Screening Donated Blood for Transfusion Transmitted Infections by Serology along with NAT and Response Rate to Notification of Reactive Results: An Indian Experience.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Rahul; Zaman, Shamsuz; Das, Bankim; Chatterjee, Kabita

    2014-01-01

    Background. Transfusion safety begins with healthy donors. A fundamental part of preventing transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) is to notify and counsel reactive donors. Donor notification and counselling protect the health of the donor and prevent secondary transmission of infectious diseases. Methods. 113,014 donations were screened for TTIs, namely, HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis, by serology and nucleic acid testing. All reactive donors were retested (wherever possible) and notified of their status by telephone or letter. All initial reactive screens were followed over six months. Results. We evaluated 2,838 (2.51%) cases with reactive screening test results (1.38% HBV, 0.54% HCV, 0.27% HIV, and 0.32% syphilis). Only 23.3% of donors (662) responded to notification. The response among voluntary donors was better as compared to the replacement donors (43.6% versus 21.2%). Only 373 (56.3%) responsive donors followed their first attendance at referral specialties. Over six months, only 176 of 662 (26.6%) reactive donors received treatment. Conclusion. Our study shed light on the importance of proper donor counselling and notification of TTI status to all reactive donors who opt to receive this information. There is also an urgent need to formulate the nationally acceptable guidelines for notification and follow-up of reactive donors. PMID:25485163

  3. Factors associated with failure of clinical screening among blood donors who have altered serological results in the Centro Regional de Hemoterapia de Ribeirão Preto

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Oranice; Passos, Afonso Dinis Costa

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the frequency of positive results for hepatitis B and C, HIV and syphilis in blood donations at the Centro Regional de Hemoterapia de Ribeirão Preto, to describe donors with positive results according to some demographic and socioeconomic variables, to identify risk factors associated to these donors and the reasons that they were not detected during clinical screening. Methods A descriptive study was performed between July 1st 2005 and July 31st 2006 by interviewing 106 donorsafter medical consultations where they were informed of positive results for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV or syphilis. Results There was a predominance of first-time donors, males, under 50-year olds, married individuals, from Ribeirão Preto, with elementary education, low economic status and of people who donated at the request of friends or relatives. Hepatitis C was the most frequently detected infection (56.6%), followed by hepatitis B (20.7%), HIV (12.3%) and syphilis(10.4%). About 40% of donors had omitted risk factors for different reasons: because they trusted the results of serological tests, did not feel comfortable about talking of risk factors or did not consider them relevant. Other justifications were the duration of the interview, the interviewer was unskilled, embarrassment and doubts about confidentiality. Conclusion The results indicate the need for changes in the approach to clinical screening and a review of methods to attract and guide potential donors. PMID:23323063

  4. Risk factors associated with human cystic echinococcosis in Florida, Uruguay: results of a mass screening study using ultrasound and serology.

    PubMed

    Carmona, C; Perdomo, R; Carbo, A; Alvarez, C; Monti, J; Grauert, R; Stern, D; Perera, G; Lloyd, S; Bazini, R; Gemmell, M A; Yarzabal, L

    1998-05-01

    Sonographic evidence of asymptomatic Echinococcus granulosus lesions in the liver was found in 156 of 9,515 persons in the Department of Florida, Uruguay. The sensitivity of ELISA and latex agglutination serology compared with ultrasound was 47.6% and 28.1%, respectively, and specificity was > 85%. There was a significant positive association between positive sonography and a personal history of previous but treated Echinococcus infection while those that were seropositive but ultrasound-negative were significantly more likely to have a personal history of infection or a history of infection in their family. Prevalence of infection increased significantly with age. There was no correlation between echinococcosis and dog ownership or home slaughter of sheep but offal disposal was important, with an increased prevalence of infection of 3.2%, 2.8%, and 3.1%, respectively, in persons feeding offal to dogs or burying or burning it compared with a prevalence of 0.8-1.5% in those using other methods of disposal. Almost half the population, when questioned, seemed to have sound knowledge about E. granulosus and described correct treatment of E. granulosus in dogs but this did not affect prevalence. There was a significant positive association between infection and the presence of a fenced fruit/vegetable garden and use of rural waters, particularly the cachimba (a small dam) and the aljibe (a cistern or tank) that collect rainwater from the ground surface and roofs, respectively.

  5. [Methicillin resistance detection in Staphylococcus aureus: comparison between conventional methods and MRSA-Screen latex agglutination technique].

    PubMed

    Soloaga, R; Corso, A; Gagetti, P; Faccone, D; Galas, M

    2004-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant pathogen that has emerged over the last four decades, causing both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Rapid and accurate detection of methicillin resistance in S. aureus is important for the use of appropriate antimicrobial therapy and for the control of nosocomial spread of MRSA strains. We evaluated the efficiency of conventional methods for detection of methicillin resistance such as the disk diffusion, agar dilution, oxacillin agar screen test, and the latex agglutination test MRSA-Screen latex, in 100 isolates of S. aureus, 79 mecA positive and 21 mecA negative. The MRSA-Screen latex (Denka Seiken, Niigata, Japón), is a latex agglutination method that detects the presence of PLP-2a, product of mecA gene in S. aureus. The PCR of the mecA gene was used as the "gold standard" for the evaluation of the different methods tested. The percentages of sensitivity and specificity were as follows: disk difusión 97 and 100%, agar dilution 97 and 95%, oxacillin agar screen test 100 and 100%, and MRSA-Screen latex, 100 and 100 %. All methods presented high sensitivity and specificity, but MRSA-Screen latex had the advantage of giving a reliable result, equivalent to PCR, in only 15 minutes.

  6. The serological diagnostic challenges of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yisu; Hunter, Terrence; Offer, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Serological screening tests for multiple myeloma are commonly requested by physicians in both primary and secondary care to investigate patients presenting with anaemia or renal impairment of unknown cause. This article reviews the interpretation of these tests.

  7. Accuracy of liquid based versus conventional cytology: overall results of new technologies for cervical cancer screening: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Cuzick, Jack; Pierotti, Paola; Cariaggi, Maria Paola; Palma, Paolo Dalla; Naldoni, Carlo; Ghiringhello, Bruno; Giorgi-Rossi, Paolo; Minucci, Daria; Parisio, Franca; Pojer, Ada; Schiboni, Maria Luisa; Sintoni, Catia; Zorzi, Manuel; Segnan, Nereo; Confortini, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of conventional cytology with liquid based cytology for primary screening of cervical cancer. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Nine screening programmes in Italy. Participants Women aged 25-60 attending for a new screening round: 22 466 were assigned to the conventional arm and 22 708 were assigned to the experimental arm. Interventions Conventional cytology compared with liquid based cytology and testing for human papillomavirus. Main outcome measure Relative sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or more at blindly reviewed histology, with atypical cells of undetermined significance or more severe cytology considered a positive result. Results In an intention to screen analysis liquid based cytology showed no significant increase in sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or more (relative sensitivity 1.17, 95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.56) whereas the positive predictive value was reduced (relative positive predictive value v conventional cytology 0.58, 0.44 to 0.77). Liquid based cytology detected more lesions of grade 1 or more (relative sensitivity 1.68, 1.40 to 2.02), with a larger increase among women aged 25-34 (P for heterogeneity 0.0006), but did not detect more lesions of grade 3 or more (relative sensitivity 0.84, 0.56 to 1.25). Results were similar when only low grade intraepithelial lesions or more severe cytology were considered a positive result. No evidence was found of heterogeneity between centres or of improvement with increasing time from start of the study. The relative frequency of women with at least one unsatisfactory result was lower with liquid based cytology (0.62, 0.56 to 0.69). Conclusion Liquid based cytology showed no statistically significant difference in sensitivity to conventional cytology for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or more. More positive results were found, however, leading to a lower positive

  8. Application of Rapid Serologic Tests for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Free-Ranging Warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus)--Implications for Antemortem Disease Screening.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michele; Buss, Peter; de Klerk-Lorist, Lin-Mari; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Hausler, Guy; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Lane, Emily P; Botha, Louise; Parsons, Sven; van Helden, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) have been implicated as potential maintenance hosts of Mycobacterium bovis. Our preliminary investigation of bovine tuberculosis in three warthogs describes pathologic findings and associated positive serologic results in two infected animals. This demonstrates the potential use of serodiagnostic tests for M. bovis infection in this species.

  9. Sediment toxicity screening with cost-effective microbiotests and conventional assays: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Vanciheluwe, M.L.; Janssen, C.R.; Persoone, G.

    1995-12-31

    A large monitoring study of freshwater sediments, using the TRIAD approach, was conducted in Flanders (Belgium). This paper reports on the results of the toxicity assessment of 80 sediment samples evaluated with a battery of microbiotests and conventional assays. Sediment pore waters, extracted by squeezing, were tested with the Microtox{reg_sign} (Vibrio fischerii) and Thamnotoxkit{trademark} F (Thamnocephalus platyurus) microbiotests and the conventional (acute) assays with algae (Selenastrum capricornutum) and daphnids (Daphnia magna). A newly developed 5 day ELS test with the catfish Clarias gariepinus was also applied to the pore waters. Solid-phase testing was performed with the Microtox Sp{reg_sign} assay and the 10 day tests with Chironomus riparius and Hyalella azteca. Uni- and multivariate statistical techniques were applied to the data matrix to select a minimal test battery from the water phase and solid phase assays and from all tests combined. The influence of sediment associated confounding factors on the validity of the test results obtained with the various assays will be discussed. Finally a comparison of the predictive power of the selected battery of signal tests and that of the complete battery will be made and the potential use of the minimal battery for the initial hazard assessment of contaminated sediments will be reviewed.

  10. Comparison of narrow-band imaging and conventional nasopharyngoscopy for the screening of unaffected members of families with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ching-Yin; Chan, Kee-Tak; Chu, Pen-Yuan

    2013-09-01

    Familial aggregation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been widely reported. The excess risk is about 4-8-fold among first-degree relatives of NPC patients compared with those without a family history of the disease. We used nasopharyngoscopy and a narrow-band image system (NBI) to screen NPC high-risk patients and identify a good tool for the early detection of NPC in these high-risk groups. We recruited all available, affected blood relations of the patients. When NPC patients were more distant relatives, such as cousins, we recruited their shared second-degree relatives, such as unaffected aunts and uncles, to genetically connect the NPC cases. We performed transnasal endoscopy, first in white-light mode, then under the NBI system. There were two NBI patterns in NPC: microvascular proliferation and engorged blood vessels. The NBI pattern in normal nasopharyngeal mucosa was a regular cobblestone pattern. A prospective study included 211 asymptomatic members from 154 NPC families. We found four cases of NPC, all with a tumor stage of T1. In one patient (1/4), MRI revealed a 2-cm-diameter neck lymphadenopathy (N1). The correlation between conventional nasopharyngoscopy and NBI was very high (κ = 0.798, P = 0.000). In conclusions, NBI is not superior to conventional nasopharyngoscopy for the early detection of NPC in unaffected members of families with NPC history. The long-term follow-up is necessary in high-risk NPC patients. Further studies will be needed to determine which screening tool-conventional nasopharyngoscopy, NBI, or EB virus titer-is most effective.

  11. Evaluation of atypical squamous cells on conventional cytology smears: An experience from a screening program practiced in limited resource settings

    PubMed Central

    Rekhi, Bharat; Ajit, Dulhan; Joseph, Santhosh K; Gawas, Sonali; Deodhar, Kedar K

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Bethesda system (TBS) 2001 has subdivided the category of atypical squamous cells (ASC) into: ASC-US (undetermined significance) and ASC-H (cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL)). The present study is an analysis of ASC-US and ASC-H cases diagnosed in a screening program practiced in limited resource settings. Methods: During the period January 2005 to December 2008, a total of 9190 smears were received, of which 568 were unsatisfactory. Cases initially diagnosed as ASC-US (n=74) and ASC-H (n=29) on conventional cytology smears were reviewed. Biopsy and human papilloma virus (HPV) results were available in limited cases. Results: On review, diagnosis of ASC-US was retained in 49 (66.2%) of the 74 initially diagnosed ASC-US cases. Remaining 12 cases were re-labeled as negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM), nine as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), three as ASC-H and one case as squamous carcinoma (SCC). Similarly, on review, diagnosis of ASC-H cases was retained in 17 of the 29 initially diagnosed ASC-H cases. Seven cases were re-labeled as NILM, three as HSIL and one case each as ASC-US and SCC. Overall, 8622 cases (96.6%) were diagnosed as NILM, 72 (0.83%) as LSIL, 121 (1.40%) as HSIL, 23 (0.26%) as SCC, 50 (0.57%) as ASC-US cases, 20 (0.23%) as ASC-H, five (0.05%) as atypical glandular cells (AGC) and two cases as adenocarcinomas. Out of 50 ASC-US cases, biopsy in 23 cases showed presence of CIN 1 in 16 cases (69.5%) and CIN 2 in one case (4.34%), while the remaining six cases were negative for CIN/malignancy. The remaining 20 cases with unavailable biopsy results were HPV-positive. Out of 20 ASC-H cases, biopsy in 15 revealed CIN 2 and above in 11 cases (73.3%). Three cases (20%) revealed CIN 1. Conclusions: Critical review is helpful in further reducing the number of ASC cases. The percentage of cases with CIN 2 and above is higher with ASC-H cases. The reason for relative increase in

  12. Accuracy of advanced versus strictly conventional 12-lead ECG for detection and screening of coronary artery disease, left ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricular systolic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Resting conventional 12-lead ECG has low sensitivity for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and low positive predictive value (PPV) for prediction of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). We hypothesized that a ~5-min resting 12-lead advanced ECG test ("A-ECG") that combined results from both the advanced and conventional ECG could more accurately screen for these conditions than strictly conventional ECG. Methods Results from nearly every conventional and advanced resting ECG parameter known from the literature to have diagnostic or predictive value were first retrospectively evaluated in 418 healthy controls and 290 patients with imaging-proven CAD, LVH and/or LVSD. Each ECG parameter was examined for potential inclusion within multi-parameter A-ECG scores derived from multivariate regression models that were designed to optimally screen for disease in general or LVSD in particular. The performance of the best retrospectively-validated A-ECG scores was then compared against that of optimized pooled criteria from the strictly conventional ECG in a test set of 315 additional individuals. Results Compared to optimized pooled criteria from the strictly conventional ECG, a 7-parameter A-ECG score validated in the training set increased the sensitivity of resting ECG for identifying disease in the test set from 78% (72-84%) to 92% (88-96%) (P < 0.0001) while also increasing specificity from 85% (77-91%) to 94% (88-98%) (P < 0.05). In diseased patients, another 5-parameter A-ECG score increased the PPV of ECG for LVSD from 53% (41-65%) to 92% (78-98%) (P < 0.0001) without compromising related negative predictive value. Conclusion Resting 12-lead A-ECG scoring is more accurate than strictly conventional ECG in screening for CAD, LVH and LVSD. PMID:20565702

  13. Serological thymidine kinase 1 is a biomarker for early detection of tumours--a health screening study on 35,365 people, using a sensitive chemiluminescent dot blot assay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi Heng; Huang, Shou Qing; Wang, Yande; Yang, Ai Zhen; Wen, Jian; Xu, Xiao Hong; Chen, Yan; Chen, Qu Bo; Wang, Ying Hong; He, Ellen; Zhou, Ji; Skog, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Serological thymidine kinase 1 (STK1) is a reliable proliferation marker for prognosis, monitoring tumour therapy, and relapse. Here we investigated the use of STK1 in health screening for early detection of pre-malignant and malignant diseases. The investigation was based on 35,365 participants in four independent health screening studies in China between 2005-2011. All participants were clinically examined. The concentration of STK1 was determined by a sensitive chemiluminescent dot blot ECL assay. The ROCvalue of the STK1 assay was 0.96. At a cut-off STK1 value of 2.0 pM, the likelihood (+) value was 236.5, and the sensitivity and the specificity were 0.78 and 0.99, respectively. The relative number of city-dwelling people with elevated STK1 values (≥2.0 pM) was 0.8% (198/26,484), while the corresponding value for the group of oil-field workers was 5.8% (514/8,355). The latter group expressed significantly higher frequency of refractory anaemia, fatty liver, and obesity, compared to the city dwellers, but no cases of breast hyperplasia or prostate hyperplasia. Furthermore, people working in oil drilling/oil transportation showed higher STK1 values and higher frequency of pre-malignancies and benign diseases than people working in the oil-field administration. In the STK1 elevated group of the city-dwelling people, a statistically significantly higher number of people were found to have malignancies, pre-malignancies of all types, moderate/severe type of hyperplasia of breast or prostate, or refractory anaemia, or to be at high risk for hepatitis B, compared to people with normal STK1 values (<2.0 pM). No malignancies were found in the normal STK1 group. In the elevated STK1 group 85.4% showed diseases linked to a higher risk for pre-/early cancerous progression, compared to 52.4% of those with normal STK1 values. Among participants with elevated STK1 values, 8.8% developed new malignancies or progress in their pre-malignancies within 5 to 72 months, compared

  14. A New Surface Plasmon Resonance Immunosensor for Triazine Pesticide Determination in Bovine Milk: A Comparison with Conventional Amperometric and Screen-Printed Immunodevices

    PubMed Central

    Tomassetti, Mauro; Martini, Elisabetta; Campanella, Luigi; Favero, Gabriele; Sanzó, Gabriella; Mazzei, Franco

    2015-01-01

    A detailed comparison was made of the analytical features of a new Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) immunodevice for triazine pesticide determination with those of two other amperometric (conventional and screen-printed) immunosensors and the advantages and disadvantages of the SPR method were thoroughly investigated. For conventional amperometric and screen-printed devices, “competitive” assays were used; conversely, the SPR transduction technique allowed a “direct” measurement format to be used. As far as the main analytical data are concerned, the SPR method does not seem to offer substantial advantages. Nevertheless the measurement time is much shorter and the measurement itself much easier to perform. Lastly several applications and recovery tests were carried out on bovine milk samples, before and after spiking, to check for triazine pesticides in the samples, obtaining satisfactory results. PMID:25942643

  15. Serology for tularemia

    MedlinePlus

    Tularemia test; Serology for Francisella tularensis ... This blood test is done when tularemia is suspected. ... Saunders; 2011:chap 44. Penn RL. Francisella tularensis (Tularemia). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. ...

  16. The UK National External Quality Assessment Scheme in Blood Group Serology. ABO and D grouping and antibody screening 1982-1983.

    PubMed

    Holburn, A M; Prior, D

    1986-01-01

    In seven surveys of blood grouping the overall rates of major error were 0.12% and 0.37% for uncomplicated ABO and D grouping respectively. Of 17 errors of ABO grouping, 13 were errors of transposition or interpretation and four were apparently technical. Of 52 errors of D grouping, 20 appeared to be errors of transposition or interpretation and 32 were apparently technical. Of the 32 technical errors of D grouping, 31 were D-negative grouped as Du (29) or D-positive (2) and most of these errors were due to misgrouping in the antiglobulin test. Causes of error in D grouping by antiglobulin test include anti-Bg and other contaminating immune antibodies, residual unabsorbed anti-A and the inherently high rate of false positive results obtained in the antiglobulin test. In view of the lack of benefit of Du testing to blood recipients or to pregnant women and of the possible adverse consequences of misgrouping D-negative patients as Du or D-positive, it is recommended that Du testing be abandoned in these groups of patients. The surveys of antibody screening demonstrated lack of standardisation and error rates similar to those previously reported in the UK for compatibility testing.

  17. Rapid screening of Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg and Typhimurium using a serologically-correlative allelotyping PCR targeting the O and H antigen alleles

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yang; Liu, Tongrui; Lee, Margie D; Hofacre, Charles L; Maier, Marie; White, David G; Ayers, Sherry; Wang, Lihua; Berghaus, Roy; Maurer, John J

    2008-01-01

    Background Classical Salmonella serotyping is an expensive and time consuming process that requires implementing a battery of O and H antisera to detect 2,541 different Salmonella enterica serovars. For these reasons, we developed a rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based typing scheme to screen for the prevalent S. enterica serovars Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, and Typhimurium. Results By analyzing the nucleotide sequences of the genes for O-antigen biosynthesis including wba operon and the central variable regions of the H1 and H2 flagellin genes in Salmonella, designated PCR primers for four multiplex PCR reactions were used to detect and differentiate Salmonella serogroups A/D1, B, C1, C2, or E1; H1 antigen types i, g, m, r or z10; and H2 antigen complexes, I: 1,2; 1,5; 1,6; 1,7 or II: e,n,x; e,n,z15. Through the detection of these antigen gene allele combinations, we were able to distinguish among S. enterica serovars Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, and Typhimurium. The assays were useful in identifying Salmonella with O and H antigen gene alleles representing 43 distinct serovars. While the H2 multiplex could discriminate between unrelated H2 antigens, the PCR could not discern differences within the antigen complexes, 1,2; 1,5; 1,6; 1,7 or e,n,x; e,n,z15, requiring a final confirmatory PCR test in the final serovar reporting of S. enterica. Conclusion Multiplex PCR assays for detecting specific O and H antigen gene alleles can be a rapid and cost-effective alternative approach to classical serotyping for presumptive identification of S. enterica serovars Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, and Typhimurium. PMID:18845003

  18. Serology in leprosy

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, J. Oliveira

    1970-01-01

    A critical survey of the literature on serology in leprosy has shown that sera taken from lepromatous patients display some striking differences in comparison with sera from tuberculoid patients. The tests most frequently employed were complement-fixation, haemagglutination, electrophoresis, precipitation and immunofluorescence, together with a variety of antigens not only from lepromas but also from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other actinomycetales. With the exception of the Rubino test, all these serological tests are lacking in specificity for leprosy since leprous sera have a broad range of reactivity with different antigens, including those employed in the serological diagnosis of syphilis. Some features of the leprous sera could be related to a hypersensitivity state involving circulating immune complexes, low levels of complement and the presence of antibodies similar to those found in sera from patients with autoimmune diseases. PMID:20604357

  19. Spatial awareness comparisons between large-screen, integrated pictorial displays and conventional EFIS displays during simulated landing approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Russell V.; Busquets, Anthony M.; Williams, Steven P.; Nold, Dean E.

    1994-01-01

    An extensive simulation study was performed to determine and compare the spatial awareness of commercial airline pilots on simulated landing approaches using conventional flight displays with their awareness using advanced pictorial 'pathway in the sky' displays. Sixteen commercial airline pilots repeatedly made simulated complex microwave landing system approaches to closely spaced parallel runways with an extremely short final segment. Scenarios involving conflicting traffic situation assessments and recoveries from flight path offset conditions were used to assess spatial awareness (own ship position relative the the desired flight route, the runway, and other traffic) with the various display formats. The situation assessment tools are presented, as well as the experimental designs and the results. The results demonstrate that the integrated pictorial displays substantially increase spatial awareness over conventional electronic flight information systems display formats.

  20. Comparison of storage phosphor computed radiography with conventional film-screen radiography in the recognition of pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed

    Laney, A S; Petsonk, E L; Wolfe, A L; Attfield, M D

    2010-07-01

    Traditional film-screen radiography (FSR) has been useful in the recognition and evaluation of interstitial lung diseases, but is becoming increasingly obsolete. To evaluate the applicability of storage phosphor digital computed radiography (CR) images in the recognition of small lung opacities, we compared image quality and the profusion of small opacities between FSR and CR radiographs. We screened 1,388 working coal miners during the course of the study with FSR and CR images obtained on the same day from all participants. Each traditional chest film was independently interpreted by two of eight experienced readers using the International Labour Office (ILO) classification of radiographs of pneumoconiosis, as were CR images displayed on medical-grade computer monitors. The prevalence of small opacities (ILO category 1/0 or greater) did not differ between the two imaging modalities (5.2% for FSR and 4.8% for soft copy CR; p>0.50). Inter-reader agreement was also similar between FSR and CR. Significant differences between image modalities were observed in the shape of small opacities, and in the proportion of miners demonstrating high opacity profusion (category 2/1 and above). Our results indicate that, with appropriate attention to image acquisition and soft copy display, CR digital radiography can be equivalent to FSR in the identification of small interstitial lung opacities. PMID:19926739

  1. Serology of coccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed Central

    Pappagianis, D; Zimmer, B L

    1990-01-01

    Serologic tests have assisted in the diagnosis and prognosis of coccidioidomycosis for a half-century. The causative agent, Coccidioides immitis, is a dimorphic fungus existing in a hyphal form with arthroconidia in nature and in the usual culture. The arthroconidia represent the inhaled infective forms which in vivo and under special laboratory conditions form spherules which endosporulate. The culture filtrate/autolysate (coccidioidin) from the hyphal phase has provided antigens of suitable reliability for currently used serologic tests. These tests are primarily to determine the two major antibody responses: the early immunoglobulin M (IgM) response is useful in the diagnosis of acute primary coccidioidomycosis. Later, IgG is produced and usually outlasts the IgM, persisting in chronic coccidioidomycosis. The IgM is detectable by tube precipitin, a corresponding immunodiffusion, or latex particle agglutination tests. The pertinent antigen(s) is heat stable and pronase resistant and appears to be largely carbohydrate, mainly mannose with some 3-O-methyl mannose. The IgG detectable in the serum and other body fluids by complement fixation and a corresponding immuno-diffusion is useful in diagnosis, and its quantitation provides an indicator of progression of disease (increasing titer) or regression (decreasing titer). The pertinent antigen appears to be a heat-labile, pronase-sensitive protein which in an unreduced form has a molecular weight of 110,000. A third very useful serologic procedure is the exoantigen test for identification of putative cultures of C. immitis. Images PMID:2200605

  2. [Serological markers of fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Varo, Guillermo

    2012-12-01

    Liver biopsy has classically been considered the gold standard to evaluate the degree of fibrosis, since it allows direct measurement of this entity. However, this technique carries an inherent risk of complications and observer variability and technical limitations can provoke sampling errors, all of which has prompted the search for alternative, noninvasive methods. The use of routine clinical laboratory tests has been investigated and various indexes that combine indirect serological markers have been developed and validated. These indexes are useful, low-cost, noninvasive tests to detect significant fibrosis or cirrhosis. Direct serological markers are those that reflect changes in the composition of the extracellular matrix. Several studies have analyzed the utility of these markers (either individually or combined with other direct and indirect markers) in the detection of the severity and progression of liver fibrosis and in the follow-up of changes related to antiviral therapy. In the last few years, imaging tests based on the measurement of liver stiffness, such as FibroScan or acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI), have been found to be rapid and reproducible methods to evaluate liver fibrosis. Recently, the results obtained by combining distinct serological markers and imaging techniques have shown a higher diagnostic yield and this strategy seems promising. The present article reviews the most widely discussed noninvasive markers, the most recent alternatives, and the perspectives for their use in clinical practice. PMID:23298654

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi in Persons without Serologic Evidence of Disease, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Basquiera, Ana L.; Sembaj, Adela; Aguerri, Ana M.; Reyes, María E.; Omelianuk, Mirtha; Fernández, Ruth A.; Enders, Julio; Palma, Atilio; Barral, José Moreno; Madoery, Roberto J.

    2003-01-01

    Current diagnosis of chronic Chagas disease relies on serologic detection of specific immunoglobulin G against Trypanosoma cruzi. However, the presence of parasites detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in patients without positive conventional serologic testing has been observed. We determined the prevalence and clinical characteristics of persons with seronegative results for T. cruzi DNA detected by PCR in a population at high risk for chronic American trypanosomiasis. We studied a total of 194 persons from two different populations: 110 patients were recruited from an urban cardiology clinic, and 84 persons were nonselected citizens from a highly disease-endemic area. Eighty (41%) of persons had negative serologic findings; 12 (15%) had a positive PCR. Three patients with negative serologic findings and positive PCR results had clinical signs and symptoms that suggested Chagas cardiomyopathy. This finding challenges the current recommendations for Chagas disease diagnosis, therapy, and blood transfusion policies. PMID:14720396

  4. Canine hip dysplasia radiographic screening. Prevalence of rotation of the pelvis along its length axis in 7,012 conventional hip extended radiographs.

    PubMed

    Genevois, J-P; Cachon, T; Fau, D; Carozzo, C; Viguier, E; Collard, F; Remy, D

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of rotation of the pelvis along its length axis was noted, as was the number of rotations towards the right or left hand side of the dog, on 7,012 conventional hip extended radiographs, which were sent for official screening. 29.8% of the radiographs showed a rotation the pelvis. The rotation was statistically more frequent towards the left hand side of the dog. The number of rejected radiographs for too important pelvis rotation was only 5.2%. The consequences of the pelvis rotation on the Norberg-Olsson angle, on the dorsal femoral head coverage, and in the aspect of cranial acetabular edge have to be taken into account when scoring the dog for hip dysplasia. PMID:18038007

  5. Canine hip dysplasia radiographic screening. Prevalence of rotation of the pelvis along its length axis in 7,012 conventional hip extended radiographs.

    PubMed

    Genevois, J-P; Cachon, T; Fau, D; Carozzo, C; Viguier, E; Collard, F; Remy, D

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of rotation of the pelvis along its length axis was noted, as was the number of rotations towards the right or left hand side of the dog, on 7,012 conventional hip extended radiographs, which were sent for official screening. 29.8% of the radiographs showed a rotation the pelvis. The rotation was statistically more frequent towards the left hand side of the dog. The number of rejected radiographs for too important pelvis rotation was only 5.2%. The consequences of the pelvis rotation on the Norberg-Olsson angle, on the dorsal femoral head coverage, and in the aspect of cranial acetabular edge have to be taken into account when scoring the dog for hip dysplasia.

  6. From the application of antibiotics to antibiotic residues in liquid manures and digestates: A screening study in one European center of conventional pig husbandry.

    PubMed

    Widyasari-Mehta, Arum; Hartung, Susen; Kreuzig, Robert

    2016-07-15

    In conventional pig husbandry, antibiotics are frequently applied. Together with excreta, antibiotic residues enter liquid manures finally used as organic soil fertilizers or input materials for biogas plants. Therefore, this first screening study was performed to survey the application patterns of antibiotics from fall 2011 until spring 2013. Manures and digestates were then analyzed for selected antibiotic residues from spring 2012 to 2013. The data analysis of veterinary drug application documents revealed the use of 34 different antibiotics belonging to 11 substance classes at 21 farms under study. Antibiotics, particularly tetracyclines, frequently administered to larger pig groups were detected in manure samples up to higher mg kg(-1) dry weight (DW) concentrations. Antibiotic residues in digestates, furthermore, show that a full removal capacity cannot be guaranteed through the anaerobic digestion process in biogas plants. PMID:27088209

  7. From the application of antibiotics to antibiotic residues in liquid manures and digestates: A screening study in one European center of conventional pig husbandry.

    PubMed

    Widyasari-Mehta, Arum; Hartung, Susen; Kreuzig, Robert

    2016-07-15

    In conventional pig husbandry, antibiotics are frequently applied. Together with excreta, antibiotic residues enter liquid manures finally used as organic soil fertilizers or input materials for biogas plants. Therefore, this first screening study was performed to survey the application patterns of antibiotics from fall 2011 until spring 2013. Manures and digestates were then analyzed for selected antibiotic residues from spring 2012 to 2013. The data analysis of veterinary drug application documents revealed the use of 34 different antibiotics belonging to 11 substance classes at 21 farms under study. Antibiotics, particularly tetracyclines, frequently administered to larger pig groups were detected in manure samples up to higher mg kg(-1) dry weight (DW) concentrations. Antibiotic residues in digestates, furthermore, show that a full removal capacity cannot be guaranteed through the anaerobic digestion process in biogas plants.

  8. Serological testing in malaria*

    PubMed Central

    1974-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate, in a critical manner, various serological tests with general emphasis on their value in the epidemiological assessment of malaria. Several tests have been employed in the past. However, the present memorandum will deal only with the methods that have been widely used recently—i.e., indirect immunofluorescence (IFA), passive haemagglutination (IHA), and gel-diffusion. The three immunoglobulins most commonly involved in these tests are IgG, IgM, and—to a lesser extent—IgA. PMID:4218506

  9. Serological diagnosis of neurobrucellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Sousa, A; Torres, C; Campello, M G; Garcia, C; Parras, F; Cercenado, E; Baquero, F

    1990-01-01

    The presence of antibodies was determined in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid in six patients with neurobrucellosis using the Rose Bengal test, the microdilution agglutination test, and the Coombs' test. Four of the patients were followed up for more than three months. The Rose Bengal test and the microagglutination test were positive in cerebrospinal fluid in five of the six cases at some stage. The Coombs' test was positive in cerebrospinal fluid in every patient and in one was the only positive serological test. Cerebrospinal fluid positivity is not excluded by low titres or negative results of antibodies in the serum for any of the three methods. A Coombs' test or some equivalent must always be made on the cerebrospinal fluid to diagnose neurobrucellosis. PMID:2312754

  10. Serological findings in leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Ruge, H. G. S.; Fromm, G.; Fühner, F.; Guinto, R. S.

    1960-01-01

    In serological tests for syphilis, leprosy sera often give biologically false positive reactions. These may be due to the presence of non-specific elements—for example, the ubiquitous lipid antibodies—in the leprosy sera; or they may be the result of errors in technique or unfavourable working conditions in the laboratory. This paper presents the results of an investigation in which several hundred sera from lepers were submitted to four of the so-called ”standard” serological tests for syphilis (STS), using either cardiolipin or crude lipid antigens; to a complement-fixation test using as antigen a suspension of Reiter treponemes (PR test); and to the Treponema pallidum immobilization (TPI) test. The investigation was carried out in a moderate climate and in technically well-equipped laboratories. It was found that the number of biologically false positive reactions was not as high as had been expected in the light of previous investigations. It was discovered, moreover, that it was the lipid antigens that were mainly responsible for the non-specific reactions, since both the PR and the TPI test showed a far greater specificity than any of the STS. But the TPI test, though highly specific, is also technically very complicated and therefore not suitable for use in regions where technical facilities are lacking. The authors consider that, in such regions, the simpler PR test will give sufficiently accurate results in the serodiagnosis of treponematoses. It must, however, be recognized that even the treponemal tests are not capable of differentiating between syphilis and yaws infections. PMID:13744600

  11. Serological Strains of Tobacco Ringspot Virus Transmitted by Xiphinema americanum.

    PubMed

    Rush, M C

    1970-07-01

    Five serological strains of tobacco ringspot virus isolated from naturally infected tobacco in North Carolina, and a strain isolated from watermelon in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas were transmitted from cucumber to cucumber by mass-screened and handpicked Xiphinerna americanum from North Carolina. The Eucharis mottle strain from Peru was not transmitted, indicating that a specific strain-vector relationship may exist between the geographically isolated strains from North and South America.

  12. Serological diagnosis with recombinant N antigen for hantavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro

    2014-07-17

    Hantaviruses are causative agents of two rodent-borne zoonoses, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and nephropathia epidemica (NE) in the Old World and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the New World. Serological examinations to detect hantavirus antibodies have been most widely used for surveillance among humans and rodent reservoirs. Here, we will review antigenic structure of nucleocapsid (N) protein of hantaviruses and application of recombinant N protein as diagnostic antigen for screening and serotyping.

  13. 42 CFR 493.923 - Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Syphilis serology. 493.923 Section 493.923 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.923 Syphilis serology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing in syphilis serology, a...

  14. 42 CFR 493.923 - Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Syphilis serology. 493.923 Section 493.923 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.923 Syphilis serology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing in syphilis serology, a...

  15. 42 CFR 493.923 - Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Syphilis serology. 493.923 Section 493.923 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.923 Syphilis serology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing in syphilis serology, a...

  16. 42 CFR 493.923 - Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Syphilis serology. 493.923 Section 493.923 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.923 Syphilis serology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing in syphilis serology, a...

  17. 42 CFR 493.923 - Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Syphilis serology. 493.923 Section 493.923 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.923 Syphilis serology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing in syphilis serology, a...

  18. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Serological Diagnosis of Chagas' Disease Employing a Trypanosoma cruzi Recombinant Antigen That Consists of Four Different Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, A. W.; Belem, Z. R.; Lemos, E. A.; Reed, S. G.; Campos-Neto, A.

    2001-01-01

    Serological tests to detect Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies have been used for screening blood donors, for epidemic studies, and for diagnosis of probably infected persons. Among different tests, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with total, semipurified, or synthetic antigens has been widely used, mainly due to its easy automation. Aiming to improve serological studies concerning Chagas' disease, we have developed and evaluated a new test, the TcF-ELISA, using an artificially engineered recombinant antigen, which contains tandem sequences of different T. cruzi-specific peptides. The sensibility of the TcF-ELISA was determined with 101 serum samples from chagasic patients well-defined by clinical and epidemiological criteria. The specificity was determined with 39 serum samples from leishmaniasis or kala-azar patients and 150 serum samples from nonchagasic blood donors from Sao Paulo, Brazil. The TcF-ELISA showed 100% sensitivity and 98.94% of specificity. Compared with conventional ELISA (with semipurified T. cruzi epimastigote antigens), the TcF-ELISA showed advantages; for example, it distinguishes better between reagent and nonreagent serum and provides better precision and a lower occurrence of leishmaniasis cross-reactions. Our studies demonstrate high reproducibility between two different lots of the TcF ELISA and its applicability for the serological diagnosis of Chagas' disease. PMID:11724850

  19. Effect-Based Screening Methods for Water Quality Characterization Will Augment Conventional Analyte-by-Analyte Chemical Methods in Research As Well As Regulatory Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional approaches to water quality characterization can provide data on individual chemical components of each water sample. This analyte-by-analyte approach currently serves many useful research and compliance monitoring needs. However these approaches, which require a ...

  20. New Platform Technology for Comprehensive Serological Diagnostics of Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Willitzki, Annika; Hiemann, Rico; Peters, Vanessa; Sack, Ulrich; Schierack, Peter; Rödiger, Stefan; Anderer, Ursula; Conrad, Karsten; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Reinhold, Dirk; Roggenbuck, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Antibody assessment is an essential part in the serological diagnosis of autoimmune diseases. However, different diagnostic strategies have been proposed for the work up of sera in particular from patients with systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease (SARD). In general, screening for SARD-associated antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) is followed by confirmatory testing covering different assay techniques. Due to lacking automation, standardization, modern data management, and human bias in IIF screening, this two-stage approach has recently been challenged by multiplex techniques particularly in laboratories with high workload. However, detection of antinuclear antibodies by IIF is still recommended to be the gold standard method for antibody screening in sera from patients with suspected SARD. To address the limitations of IIF and to meet the demand for cost-efficient autoantibody screening, automated IIF methods employing novel pattern recognition algorithms for image analysis have been introduced recently. In this respect, the AKLIDES technology has been the first commercially available platform for automated interpretation of cell-based IIF testing and provides multiplexing by addressable microbead immunoassays for confirmatory testing. This paper gives an overview of recently published studies demonstrating the advantages of this new technology for SARD serology. PMID:23316252

  1. Serological malaria surveys in Nigeria*

    PubMed Central

    Voller, A.; Bruce-Chwatt, L. J.

    1968-01-01

    A parasitological and serological malaria survey of 2 large and 2 small areas of Nigeria was carried out in connexion with the activities of the WHO Treponematoses Epidemiological Team. The results, based on data obtained from 1082 subjects, showed that all the areas were holoendemic with the usual pattern of malariometric indices, and that the differences between the parasite rates of the two large areas were due to the different timing of the survey in relation to the seasonal wave of transmission. The fluorescent antibody test was positive (≥1:20) in 92% of the 914 sera collected from these 2 areas. The serological profile of the population in the 2 areas was similar, but the immunofluorescence titres were higher in all age-groups in the area south of the Benue river, indicating the antibody response to the previous endemic wave rather than the actual amount of transmission taking place at the time of the survey. This study confirms the value of the immunofluorescent technique for large-scale malaria surveys, but indicates the need for caution in interpreting the results and stresses the importance of good knowledge of the local epidemiology of malaria before embarking on application of serological methods. PMID:4893493

  2. Validation according to OIE criteria of a monoclonal, recombinant p26-based, serologic competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as screening method in surveillance programs for the detection of Equine infectious anemia virus antibodies.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Roberto; Autorino, Gian Luca; Ricci, Ida; Frontoso, Raffaele; Rosone, Francesca; Simula, Massimiliano; Scicluna, Maria Teresa

    2016-03-01

    The Italian National Reference Center for equine infectious anemia (CRAIE; Rome, Italy) developed and validated a monoclonal, recombinant p26-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for the detection of EIA virus antibodies employing the 2010 criteria of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). The following parameters were evaluated: cutoff values, repeatability, reproducibility, concordance, analytical sensitivity (Se), absolute analytical specificity (Sp), and diagnostic Se and Sp. Positive and negative predictive values were also defined in relation to the estimated prevalence. When the cELISA was used as a screening test for 96,468 samples in the Italian EIA surveillance program, 17% more EIA cases were detected than by the agar gel immunodiffusion test, and the apparent diagnostic Sp estimated from these samples was 99.8%, which was more than the diagnostic Sp (80.2%) estimated from validation. The high Se and Sp of the cELISA confirm its fit for purpose as a screening test.

  3. Evaluation of an array-based method for human papillomavirus detection and genotyping in comparison with conventional methods used in cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    García-Sierra, Nerea; Martró, Elisa; Castellà, Eva; Llatjós, Mariona; Tarrats, Antoni; Bascuñana, Elisabet; Díaz, Rosana; Carrasco, María; Sirera, Guillem; Matas, Lurdes; Ausina, Vicente

    2009-07-01

    Cervical cancer is the second-most prevalent cancer in young women around the world. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), especially high-risk HPV types (HR-HPV), is necessary for the development of this cancer. HPV-DNA detection is increasingly being used in cervical cancer screening programs, together with the Papanicolau smear test. We evaluated the usefulness of introducing this new array-based HPV genotyping method (i.e., Clinical Arrays Papillomavirus Humano) in the cervical cancer screening algorithm in our center. The results obtained using this method were compared to those obtained by the hybrid capture II high-risk HPV DNA test (HC-II) and Papanicolau in a selected group of 408 women. The array-based assay was performed in women that were HC-II positive or presented cytological alterations. Among 246 array-positive patients, 123 (50%) presented infection with >or=2 types, and HR-HPV types were detected in 206 (83.7%), mainly HPV-16 (24.0%). Up to 132 (33.2%) specimens were classified as ASCUS (for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance), and only 48 (36.4%) of them were HPV-DNA positive by either assay; however, 78.7% of these cases were caused by HR-HPV types. The agreement between both HPV-DNA detection techniques was fairly good (n = 367). Screening with Papanicolau smear and HC-II tests, followed by HPV detection and genotyping, provided an optimal identification of women at risk for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, with the identification of specific genotypes, either in single or multiple infections, a better prediction of disease progression was achieved. The array method also made allowed us to determine the possible contribution of the available vaccines in our setting.

  4. Clinical Utility of Serologic Testing for Celiac Disease in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    the celiac disease group. English language. Human studies. Studies published from 2000 on. Clearly defined cut-off value for the serology test. If more than one test was evaluated, only those tests for which a cut-off was provided were included. Description of small bowel biopsy procedure clearly outlined (location, number of biopsies per patient), unless if specified that celiac disease diagnosis guidelines were followed. Patients in the treatment group had untreated CD. Studies on screening of the general asymptomatic population. Studies that evaluated rapid diagnostic kits for use either at home or in physician’s offices. Studies that evaluated diagnostic modalities other than serologic tests such as capsule endoscopy, push enteroscopy, or genetic testing. Cut-off for serologic tests defined based on controls included in the study. Study population defined based on positive serology or subjects pre-screened by serology tests. Celiac disease status known before study enrolment. Sensitivity or specificity estimates based on repeated testing for the same subject. Non-peer-reviewed literature such as editorials and letters to the editor. Population The population consisted of adults and children with untreated, undiagnosed celiac disease with symptoms consistent with the disease. Serologic Celiac Disease Tests Evaluated Anti-gliadin antibody (AGA) Anti-endomysial antibody (EMA) Anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG) Anti-deamidated gliadin peptides antibody (DGP) Combinations of some of the serologic tests listed above were evaluated in some studies Both IgA and IgG antibodies were evaluated for the serologic tests listed above. Outcomes of Interest Sensitivity Specificity Positive and negative likelihood ratios Diagnostic odds ratio (OR) Area under the sROC curve (AUC) Small bowel biopsy was used as the gold standard in order to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of each serologic test. Statistical Analysis Pooled estimates of sensitivity, specificity and

  5. Relevance of serologic studies in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Vernier, Gwenola; Sendid, Boualem; Poulain, Daniel; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric

    2004-12-01

    The serologic panel for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rapidly expanding. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan antibodies (ASCA) have remained the most widely studied markers, but immune reactivity against a new group of bacterial antigens such as I2, OmpC (outer membrane porin C), and flagellin, has been described in Crohn's disease. Several clinical avenues have been explored, such as the usefulness of serologic markers as screening tools for IBD and in accelerating a diagnosis in patients with indeterminate colitis. Another area of interest is disease stratification. Emerging data suggest there is a diversity of qualitative and quantitative responses to environmental antigens that differs among groups of IBD patients and may be associated with different clinical behaviors. As a result, it may be possible to tailor therapy on the basis of serologic responses. Prospective studies are needed before translating this concept into clinical practice. Clustering of IBD patients into more homogeneous subgroups based on antibody responses may help to unravel the pathophysiology of subsets of IBD. PMID:15527678

  6. Serological Detection of Capillaria hepatica by Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay

    PubMed Central

    Juncker-Voss, Martina; Prosl, Heinrich; Lussy, Helga; Enzenberg, Ulrike; Auer, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a serological assay for the detection of antibodies to Capillaria hepatica, a zoonotic parasite, is described. In the past, the only way of detecting Capillaria hepatica was to perform a liver biopsy. The indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assay, based on liver sections of naturally infected mice and human serum samples, is suitable for detecting early stages of human infections and for screening purposes. No cross-reactivity with other parasitic infections was detected. We have applied the IIF assay to serum samples of 60 employees of the Zoological Garden of Vienna, Schönbrunn, Austria, and found one positive and one questionable sample. PMID:10618135

  7. Serological assessment of gastric mucosal atrophy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-invasive tools for gastric cancer screening and diagnosis are lacking. Serological testing with the detection of pepsinogen 1 (PG1), pepsinogen 2 (PG2) and gastrin 17 (G17) offers the possibility to detect preneoplastic gastric mucosal conditions. Aim of this study was to assess the performance of these serological tests in the presence of gastric neoplasia. Methods Histological and serological samples of 118 patients with gastric cancer have been assessed for tumor specific characteristics (Laurén type, localisation), degree of mucosal abnormalities (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy) and serological parameters (PG1, PG2, PG1/2-ratio, G17, H. pylori IgG, CagA status). Association of the general factors to the different serological values have been statistically analyzed. Results Patients with intestinal type gastric cancer had lower PG1 levels and a lower PG1/2-ratio compared to those with diffuse type cancer (p = 0.003). The serum levels of PG2 itself and G17 were not significantly altered. H. pylori infection in general had no influence on the levels of PG1, PG2 and G17 in the serum of gastric cancer patients. There was a trend towards lower PG1 levels in case of positive CagA-status (p = 0.058). The degree of both intestinal metaplasia and atrophy correlated inversely with serum levels for PG1 and the PG1/2-ratio (p < 0.01). Laurén-specific analysis revealed that this is only true for intestinal type tumors. Univariate ANOVA revealed atrophy and CagA-status as the only independent factors for low PG1 and a low PG1/2-ratio. Conclusions Glandular atrophy and a positive CagA status are determinant factors for decreased pepsinogen 1 levels in the serum of patients with gastric cancer. The serological assessment of gastric atrophy by analysis of serum pepsinogen is only adequate for patients with intestinal type cancer. PMID:22289789

  8. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. serological reagents are devices... streptococci are associated with infections, such as sore throat, impetigo (an infection characterized by...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. serological reagents are devices... streptococci are associated with infections, such as sore throat, impetigo (an infection characterized by...

  10. Malaria transmission rates estimated from serological data.

    PubMed Central

    Burattini, M. N.; Massad, E.; Coutinho, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model was used to estimate malaria transmission rates based on serological data. The model is minimally stochastic and assumes an age-dependent force of infection for malaria. The transmission rates estimated were applied to a simple compartmental model in order to mimic the malaria transmission. The model has shown a good retrieving capacity for serological and parasite prevalence data. PMID:8270011

  11. Celiac disease in Tunisian children: a second screening study using a "new generation" rapid test.

    PubMed

    Hariz, Mongi Ben; Laadhar, Lilia; Kallel-Sellami, Maryam; Siala, Nadia; Bouraoui, Saadia; Bouziri, Sonia; Borgi, Abdelhafidh; Karouia, Faouzia; Maherzi, Ahmed; Makni, Sondès

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to estimate celiac disease prevalence in school-children in the island of Djerba and assess rapid method feasibility for screening. We screened 2064 schoolchildren by a rapid method to detect IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase and IgA deficiency. Children with positive results were tested for IgA anti-transglutaminase and anti-endomysium by conventional tests. In positive children, intestinal biopsy was performed. IgA deficiency suspected by rapid method was confirmed by nephelometry. In these cases IgG anti-endomysium was performed. Rapid test was positive in 7 children; conventional serology was positive in all and 6 of them accepted the biopsy. Total villous atrophy was observed in 5 while intestinal mucosa was normal in one. Among children with positive serology, 3 had silent form, 1 chronic diarrhea, one growth failure and 2 had borderline growth. IgA deficiency was suspected in 13 cases and was confirmed in 11 children tested. Prevalence of celiac disease was 0.24-0.34% and that of IgA deficiency 0.5-0.6%. This screening study confirms that celiac disease is relatively common in schoolchildren in Tunisia. It confirms also that even those with symptoms typical for celiac disease escape diagnosis. Rapid test is better accepted by parents and children than test requiring a venous blood sample. PMID:23883201

  12. High-throughput screening of a large collection of non-conventional yeasts reveals their potential for aroma formation in food fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gamero, Amparo; Quintilla, Raquel; Groenewald, Marizeth; Alkema, Wynand; Boekhout, Teun; Hazelwood, Lucie

    2016-12-01

    Saccharomyces yeast species are currently the most important yeasts involved in industrial-scale food fermentations. However, there are hundreds of other yeast species poorly studied that are highly promising for flavour development, some of which have also been identified in traditional food fermentations. This work explores natural yeast biodiversity in terms of aroma formation, with a particular focus on aromas relevant for industrial fermentations such as wine and beer. Several non-Saccharomyces species produce important aroma compounds such as fusel alcohols derived from the Ehrlich pathway, acetate esters and ethyl esters in significantly higher quantities than the well-known Saccharomyces species. These species are Starmera caribaea, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Galactomyces geotrichum, Saccharomycopsis vini and Ambrosiozyma monospora. Certain species revealed a strain-dependent flavour profile while other species were very homogenous in their flavour profiles. Finally, characterization of a selected number of yeast species using valine or leucine as sole nitrogen sources indicates that the mechanisms of regulation of the expression of the Ehrlich pathway exist amongst non-conventional yeast species. PMID:27554157

  13. Sputum screening for lung cancer in radon exposed uranium miners: a comparison of semi-automated sputum cytometry and conventional cytology.

    PubMed

    Marek, W; Richartz, G; Philippou, S; Marek, L; Kotschy-Lang, N

    2007-11-01

    Preparing for a prospective study on early lung cancer, correlation between semi-automated sputum cytometry (ASC) and conventional cytology (CY) was examined in 1517 former uranium miners with posterior-anterior and lateral chest roentgenograms. A hundred and twenty sputum specimens were classified as suspicious (grade II) and another 18 as highly suspicious (grade III) by ASC. Within grade III group, 9 samples were classified by CY as tumor cell positive, 7 severe, and 1 mild and 1 moderate dysplasias. In the group of grade II ASC, 7 were tumor cell positive, 27 classified as severe dysplasia or CIS, 20 as moderate and 19 as mild dysplasia. Twenty seven contained metaplasias and 18 were normal or inflammatory. Of the 1358 samples classified as benign (grade I) by ASC, only 5 samples were classified by CY as severe dysplasia, 6 as moderate and 34 as mild dysplasia, 173 as metaplasia, the others were normal or inflammatory. Twenty one samples were judged as inadequate for ASC and CY. At present, 23 tumors were found in final diagnosis. Sensitivity of ASC was 87% at a specificity of 92%, while CY, at high grade alterations as a threshold, had a sensitivity of 83% at 97% specificity. We conclude that, along with modern radiological procedures and molecular biological markers, ASC and CY should be included in a controlled prospective randomized study on early lung cancer.

  14. High-throughput screening of a large collection of non-conventional yeasts reveals their potential for aroma formation in food fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gamero, Amparo; Quintilla, Raquel; Groenewald, Marizeth; Alkema, Wynand; Boekhout, Teun; Hazelwood, Lucie

    2016-12-01

    Saccharomyces yeast species are currently the most important yeasts involved in industrial-scale food fermentations. However, there are hundreds of other yeast species poorly studied that are highly promising for flavour development, some of which have also been identified in traditional food fermentations. This work explores natural yeast biodiversity in terms of aroma formation, with a particular focus on aromas relevant for industrial fermentations such as wine and beer. Several non-Saccharomyces species produce important aroma compounds such as fusel alcohols derived from the Ehrlich pathway, acetate esters and ethyl esters in significantly higher quantities than the well-known Saccharomyces species. These species are Starmera caribaea, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Galactomyces geotrichum, Saccharomycopsis vini and Ambrosiozyma monospora. Certain species revealed a strain-dependent flavour profile while other species were very homogenous in their flavour profiles. Finally, characterization of a selected number of yeast species using valine or leucine as sole nitrogen sources indicates that the mechanisms of regulation of the expression of the Ehrlich pathway exist amongst non-conventional yeast species.

  15. Screening Brucella spp. in bovine raw milk by real-time quantitative PCR and conventional methods in a pilot region of vaccination, Edirne, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kaynak-Onurdag, F; Okten, S; Sen, B

    2016-05-01

    samples were Brucella positive, by both bacteriological method and the novel qPCR method. We concluded that, to obtain true-positive results in Brucella spp. screening studies for milk, differentiating the virulent and vaccine strain should not be disregarded.

  16. Serologic celiac disease in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Tavakkoli, Hamid; Haghdani, Saeid; Adilipour, Haiedeh; Daghaghzadeh, Hamed; Minakari, Mohammad; Adibi, Peyman; Ahmadi, Khalil; Emami, Mohammah Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is an association of celiac disease (CD) with several gastrointestinal illnesses. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CD in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to evaluate the value of the routine serological tests for CD in these patients. Materials and Methods: patients with IBD underwent screening test for CD. The screening test was based on IgA anti-tTG antibody evaluated by ELISA method and IgA EMA (endomysial antibody) measured by the indirect immunofluorescence method. Fisher exact and chi-square and t tests were used for data analysis. Results: the study was conducted on 100 patients, with a mean age of 34.74 ± 12.03 (SD) years. The mean simplified Crohn's disease activity index was 90 ± 17 (SE) and the mean colitis activity index was 3.46± 0.96 (SE). Seventeen patients (17%) had IgA anti-tTG antibody levels above the cutoff point (> 20). Thirty-two patients were positive for IgA EMA. IgA EMA was positive in nine IgA anti-tTG positive patients (three patients with Crohn's Disease and six ones with ulcerative colitis). Then, the prevalence of serologic CD was 9% that was higher than that of general population. A significant correlation was found between the results of IgA EMA and those of IgA anti-tTG (P=0.001) whereas Fisher exact test revealed significant difference between frequency distribution of positive and negative results of IgA EMA and IgA anti-tTG in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (P=0). Conclusion: the prevalence of serologic CD in general population in Iran has been reported to be 0.6–0.96%. Then, its prevalence in our sample size was about ten times more than that in general population. PMID:23264789

  17. Rapid polyvalent screening for largescale environmental Spiroplasma surveys

    PubMed Central

    French, Frank E.; Whitcomb, Robert F.; Williamson, David L.; Regassa, Laura B.

    2009-01-01

    Surface serology is an important determinant in Spiroplasma systematics. Reciprocal antigen/antibody reactions between spiroplasmas and individual antisera delineate the 38 described groups and species. However, reciprocal serology is impractical for large-scale studies. This report describes a successful, streamlined polyvalent screening approach used to examine isolates from an environmental survey. PMID:24031412

  18. Serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and standardization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kuo; Lin, Guigao; Han, Yanxi; Li, Jinming

    2016-10-01

    Humans can be infected by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which causes toxoplasmosis, a common parasitic disease. Although the infection is generally asymptomatic for most adults, severe complications may occur in some individuals, especially women in early pregnancy. Serologic diagnosis is used as a routine practice to determine the immune status for infection by T. gondii. In this review, we attempt to provide an overview of the serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, including diagnostic strategy, current problems in detection with specific antibodies, and the standardization of T. gondii serological detection.

  19. Serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and standardization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kuo; Lin, Guigao; Han, Yanxi; Li, Jinming

    2016-10-01

    Humans can be infected by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which causes toxoplasmosis, a common parasitic disease. Although the infection is generally asymptomatic for most adults, severe complications may occur in some individuals, especially women in early pregnancy. Serologic diagnosis is used as a routine practice to determine the immune status for infection by T. gondii. In this review, we attempt to provide an overview of the serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, including diagnostic strategy, current problems in detection with specific antibodies, and the standardization of T. gondii serological detection. PMID:27470936

  20. Course of Chronic Trypanosoma cruzi Infection after Treatment Based on Parasitological and Serological Tests: A Systematic Review of Follow-Up Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sguassero, Yanina; Cuesta, Cristina B.; Roberts, Karen N.; Hicks, Elizabeth; Comandé, Daniel; Ciapponi, Agustín; Sosa-Estani, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    screened, 54 studies (six RCTs and 48 cohort studies) were included. The smoothed curves for positive xenodiagnosis and positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were characterized by a sharp decrease at twelve month posttreatment. Afterwards, they reached 10–20% and 40% for xenodiagnosis and PCR, respectively. The smoothed curves for negative conventional serological tests increased up to 10% after 48 months of treatment. In the long-term, the rate of negativization was between 20% and 45%. The main sources of bias identified across cohort studies were the lack of control for confounding and attrition bias. In general, RCTs were judged as low risk of bias in all domains. The level of heterogeneity across included studies was moderate to high. Additional analysis were incomplete because of the limited availability of data. In this regard, the country of origin of study participants might affect the results of parasitological and molecular tests, while the level of risk of bias might affect serological outcomes. Subgroup analysis suggested that seronegativization occurs earlier in children compared to adults. Conclusions We acknowledge that there is a dynamic pattern of response based on parasitological, molecular and serological tests in subjects chronically infected with T. cruzi after treatment. Our findings suggest a trypanocidal effect in the long-term follow-up. Further research is needed to explore potential sources of heterogeneity and to conduct reliable subgroup analysis. PMID:26436678

  1. Serological studies of yaws in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    D'Mello, Joseph M. F.; Krag, P.

    1955-01-01

    The serological aspects of anti-yaws campaigns are discussed. Serological reactions in untreated yaws are considered according to each type of lesion and by age-groups; the serological pattern in types I and II show much similarity in that the majority of cases fall in the high titre levels while with types IV and V there appears to be a more even distribution of cases at all titre levels. A uniform serological response is seen in the early lesions for all age-groups and this is also true of hyperkeratosis cases. There are more type IV cases among the younger age-groups showing high titres, while in the older groups there is an upward trend towards the negative side. Type V also shows a regressive serology. The serological response to treatment with penicillin in three different schedules (4 ml × 2, 2 ml × 2, and a single injection of 4 ml) is then compared. There was no marked difference between the response at the end of one year with all three schedules; with a larger amount of material, however, it is likely that the 2 ml × 2 dosage would be seen to be less effective than the other two schedules. Serological response to treatment with any schedule would be governed by the number of cases having a high initial titre among the group under consideration. The decrease in titre, after being comparatively rapid in the first six months after treatment, is slow, and reversal to seronegativity at the end of a year occurs only in a small number of cases. The role of mass serological examinations in large-scale campaigns is considered. While the serological approach is shown to be the only scientific one, the impracticability of mass serological investigation is brought out. It is stressed, however, that in a mass campaign a serological service is essential for pilot studies, orientation of incidence of latent yaws, check on diagnosis, and assessment of dosage and of the necessity for re-treatment. The possible reasons for prozone phenomena in slide flocculation tests

  2. Serological markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuna, Andrea Tešija

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a heterogeneous group of chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract with two main distinguishable entities, Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). IBD-unclassified (IBD-U) is a diagnosis that covers the “grey” zone of diagnostic uncertainty between UC and CD. Current diagnosis of IBD relies on the clinical, endoscopic, radiological, histological and biochemical features, but this approach has shortcomings especially in cases of overlapping symptoms of CD and UC. The need for a diagnostic tool that would improve the conventional methods in IBD diagnosis directed the search towards potential immunological markers, since an aberrant immune response against microbial or endogenous antigens in a genetically susceptible host seems to be implicated in IBD pathogenesis. The spectrum of antibodies to different microbial antigens and autoantibodies associated with IBD is rapidly expanding. Most of these antibodies are associated with CD like anti-glycan antibodies: anti-Saccharomices cerevisiae (ASCA) and the recently described anti-laminaribioside (ALCA), anti-chitobioside (ACCA), anti-mannobioside (AMCA), anti-laminarin (anti-L) and anti-chitin (anti-C) antibodies; in addition to other antibodies that target microbial antigens: anti-outer membrane porin C (anti-OmpC), anti-Cbir1 flagellin and anti-I2 antibody. Also, autoantibodies targeting the exocrine pancreas (PAB) were shown to be highly specific for CD. In contrast, UC has been associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (pANCA) and antibodies against goblet cells (GAB). Current evidence suggests that serologic panels of multiple antibodies are useful in differential diagnosis of CD versus UC and can be a valuable aid in stratifying patients according to disease phenotype and risk of complications. PMID:23457764

  3. Serological markers of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Kuna, Andrea Tesija

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a heterogeneous group of chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract with two main distinguishable entities, Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). IBD-unclassified (IBD-U) is a diagnosis that covers the "grey" zone of diagnostic uncertainty between UC and CD. Current diagnosis of IBD relies on the clinical, endoscopic, radiological, histological and biochemical features, but this approach has shortcomings especially in cases of overlapping symptoms of CD and UC. The need for a diagnostic tool that would improve the conventional methods in IBD diagnosis directed the search towards potential immunological markers, since an aberrant immune response against microbial or endogenous antigens in a genetically susceptible host seems to be implicated in IBD pathogenesis. The spectrum of antibodies to different microbial antigens and autoantibodies associated with IBD is rapidly expanding. Most of these antibodies are associated with CD like anti-glycan antibodies: anti-Saccharomices cerevisiae (ASCA) and the recently described anti-laminaribioside (ALCA), anti-chitobioside (ACCA), anti-mannobioside (AMCA), anti-laminarin (anti-L) and anti-chitin (anti-C) antibodies; in addition to other antibodies that target microbial antigens: anti-outer membrane porin C (anti-OmpC), anti-Cbir1 flagellin and anti-12 antibody. Also, autoantibodies targeting the exocrine pancreas (PAB) were shown to be highly specific for CD. In contrast, UC has been associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (pANCA) and antibodies against goblet cells (GAB). Current evidence suggests that serologic panels of multiple antibodies are useful in differential diagnosis of CD versus UC and can be a valuable aid in stratifying patients according to disease phenotype and risk of complications.

  4. A comparison survey of organic and conventional broiler chickens for infectious agents affecting health and food safety.

    PubMed

    Van Overbeke, I; Duchateau, L; De Zutter, L; Albers, G; Ducatelle, R

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the health status of organic broiler chickens and the contamination rate with Salmonella and Campylobacter in organic broiler production in Belgium. The broilers were screened for antibodies against routinely monitored poultry diseases at 1 day old and at slaughter. Fecal examination for the presence of worm eggs was done at slaughter. Bacteriological examination for the detection of Salmonella and Campylobacter was performed at day 1, week 2, week 4, week 7, week 10, and slaughter. Conventional broilers of the same poultry integration and reared in the same geographic area were also screened and served as reference. Serologic data indicated lower antibody titers against infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease in organic flocks. No significant differences could be found in prevalence of Salmonella between organic and conventional broilers at slaughter. In contrast, Campylobacter infections at slaughter were significantly higher in organic flocks. Organic flocks most probably become infected with Campylobacter between week 7 and week 10. Worm eggs were found in neither the organic flocks nor the conventional flocks. In conclusion, there are indications that the respiratory health status is better in organic broilers but that organic flocks are more often infected with Campylobacter than are conventional flocks.

  5. Diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia: evaluation of four serologic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Esteves, F; Calé, S S; Badura, R; de Boer, M G; Maltez, F; Calderón, E J; van der Reijden, T J; Márquez-Martín, E; Antunes, F; Matos, O

    2015-04-01

    The diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) relies on microscopic visualization of Pneumocystis jirovecii organisms or DNA detection in pulmonary specimens. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of (1-3)-β-d-glucan (BG), Krebs von den Lungen-6 antigen (KL-6), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) as serologic biomarkers in the diagnosis of PCP. Serum levels of BG, KL-6, LDH and SAM were investigated in 145 Portuguese patients, 50 patients from the Netherlands, 25 Spanish patients and 40 Portuguese blood donors. Data on clinical presentation, chest imaging and gasometry tests were available. PCP cases were confirmed by microscopy and PCR techniques. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed. BG was found to be the most reliable serologic biomarker for PCP diagnosis, followed by KL-6, LDH and SAM. The BG/KL-6 combination test was the most accurate serologic approach for PCP diagnosis, with 94.3% sensitivity and 89.6% specificity. Although less sensitive/specific than the reference standard classic methods based on bronchoalveolar lavage followed by microscopic or molecular detection of P. jirovecii organisms, the BG/KL-6 test may provide a less onerous procedure for PCP diagnosis, as it uses a minimally invasive and inexpensive specimen (blood), which may be also a major benefit for the patient's care. The BG/KL-6 combination test should be interpreted within the clinical context, and it may be used as a preliminary screening test in patients with primary suspicion of PCP, or as an alternative diagnostic procedure in patients with respiratory failure or in children, avoiding the associated risk of complications by the use of bronchoscopy.

  6. Present status of serological tests for syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ad; Olansky, Sidney

    1956-01-01

    The authors first discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various serological tests now in common use, or coming into use, for the detection and management of syphilis and also compare the different antigens used in those tests. They lay stress on the difficulties caused by the “unit” system of recording results, whereby identical findings with two or more tests may be given different numerical values for each test, and suggest that results should instead be given in dilution reactivity end-points (dils). False positive reactions to serological tests and discrepancies in the results of different tests are then considered; it is pointed out that these discrepancies may be due to causes in the patient himself, in transit, or in the testing laboratory. Finally, the authors consider that in view of the growing number of serological tests for syphilis, and of modifications to those tests, there is now a need for selecting, in different areas of the world, a certain number of procedures which can be standardized for routine testing. Regional serological evaluation studies can be used to this end. A brief outline is given of the United States Public Health Service programme to assist State laboratories to maintain a high level of efficiency in serological testing and thus to exert an influence on other laboratories within each State. PMID:13329847

  7. Serological classification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Tam, M R; Buchanan, T M; Sandström, E G; Holmes, K K; Knapp, J S; Siadak, A W; Nowinski, R C

    1982-01-01

    Hybrid cells producing monoclonal antibodies against antigens of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were obtained by the polyethylene glycol-mediated fusion of mouse myeloma cells and lymphocytes from mice immunized with gonococcal protein I or outer membrane proteins. From four fusions, 16 phenotypically stable, independently cloned hybrid cell lines were selected for continued study. Each of the cell lines produced a characteristically different monoclonal antibody which reacted in immunoprecipitation assays with a unique antigenic determinant on protein I of the outer membrane complex of the bacteria. In antibody binding, immunofluorescence, and coagglutination assays these antibodies each reacted with a restricted group of N. gonorrhoeae strains. None of the monoclonal antibodies reacted with 17 other different species of Neisseria or with Branhamella catarrhalis. When tested on 34 N. gonorrhoeae reference serotyping strains, the monoclonal antibodies demonstrated serological relationships between the strains which paralleled those observed with conventional polyvalent antisera. These antibodies now provide standardized reagents for the rapid and precise serological characterization of many strains of N. gonorrhoeae. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:6807844

  8. Diagnostic performance of serological tests for swine brucellosis in the presence of false positive serological reactions.

    PubMed

    Dieste-Pérez, L; Blasco, J M; de Miguel, M J; Moriyón, I; Muñoz, P M

    2015-04-01

    Swine brucellosis caused by Brucella suis biovar 2 is an emerging disease in Europe. Currently used diagnostic tests for swine brucellosis detect antibodies to the O-polysaccharide (O-PS) of Brucella smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS) but their specificity is compromised by false-positive serological reactions (FPSRs) when bacteria carrying cross-reacting O-PS infect pigs. FPSRs occur throughout Europe, and the only tool available for a specific B. suis diagnosis is the intradermal test with Brucella protein extracts free of O-PS or S-LPS. Using sera of 162 sows naturally infected by B. suis biovar 2, 406 brucellosis-free sows, and 218 pigs of brucellosis-free farms affected by FPSR, we assessed the diagnostic performance of an indirect ELISA with rough LPS (thus devoid of O-PS) and of gel immunodiffusion, counterimmunoelectrophoresis, latex agglutination and indirect ELISA with O-PS free proteins in comparison with several S-LPS tests (Rose Bengal, complement fixation, gel immunodiffusion and indirect ELISA). When adjusted to 100% specificity, the sensitivity of the rough LPS ELISA was very low (30%), and adoption of other cut-offs resulted in poor specificity/sensitivity ratios. Although their specificity was 100%, the sensitivity of protein tests (ELISA, latex agglutination, counterimmunoelectrophoresis, and gel immunodiffusion) was only moderate (45, 58, 61 and 63%, respectively). Among S-LPS tests, gel immunodiffusion was the only test showing acceptable sensitivity/specificity (68 and 100%, respectively). Despite these shortcomings, and when the purpose is to screen out FPSR at herd level, gel immunodiffusion tests may offer a technically simple and practical alternative to intradermal testing.

  9. Musculoskeletal injuries in a resource-constrained environment: comparing diagnostic accuracy of on-the-spot ultrasonography and conventional radiography for bone fracture screening during the Paris–Dakar rally raid

    PubMed Central

    Larbi, Ahmed; Lefere, Mathieu; Perozziello, Anne; Hauger, Olivier; Pommerie, Florence; Fraboulet, Bénédicte; Jacob, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Background Ultrasound (US) is a good first-line alternative for the diagnosis of bone fractures in adults as well as children. Our study shows that, compared to X-ray, in a resource-constrained environment, on-site US has a high sensitivity (98%) and specificity (96%) in the diagnosis of bone fractures. Purpose To compare the accuracy of on-the-spot US with conventional radiography in the screening for bone fractures during the Paris–Dakar rally raid. Material and Methods Eighty-three patients (81 men, 2 women) with clinically suspected bone fractures were included in 2013 and 2014. They underwent X-ray and US on the spot, blindly interpreted by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Using X-ray as gold standard, we calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for US, for each anatomic location. The accuracy of US and radiography were also assessed, as were the number of fragments and their degree of displacement (Student’s t-test). Results Compared with X-ray, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of on-site US were, respectively, for the presence (or absence) of fractures: 98%, 98%, 100%, and 95%. The accuracy of US was 99%. Only one radial styloid process fracture was misdiagnosed with US. There was no significant difference between US and X-ray (P > 0.93) concerning the number of fragments and their degree of displacement. Conclusion Bedside musculoskeletal ultrasound performed by trained musculoskeletal radiologists is a useful method in determining and assessing bone fractures in a resource constrained environment. PMID:26034643

  10. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... epidemiological information on these diseases. Certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus produce an...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... epidemiological information on these diseases. Certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus produce an...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... epidemiological information on these diseases. Certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus produce an...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... epidemiological information on these diseases. Certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus produce an...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... epidemiological information on these diseases. Certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus produce an...

  15. Serological and bacteriological study of swine brucellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lord, V R; Cherwonogrodzky, J W; Marcano, M J; Melendez, G

    1997-01-01

    A serological and bacteriological study was performed with sera taken from 2,228 swine from six states in Venezuela. None of the animals were vaccinated against brucellosis, and the prevalence of the disease varied from 5 to 89% on farms located in these states. Our studies indicated that the animals could be categorized into four groups depending on the degree of reactivity in serological tests. Brucella suis biovar 1 was isolated from the lymph nodes, spleens, and semen samples of seropositive animals and identified by oxidative metabolic techniques. B. suis could not be isolated from tissues of seronegative swine even from farms with cases of the disease (detected by serology). Results suggest that, although the immunodiffusion assay using Brucella melitensis B115 polysaccharide B or B. abortus 1119-3 O-polysaccharide could be useful in the detection of active infections, it is perhaps not as sensitive as some of the other standard serological tests used in this study for the detection of swine brucellosis. PMID:8968931

  16. Serological and bacteriological study of swine brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Lord, V R; Cherwonogrodzky, J W; Marcano, M J; Melendez, G

    1997-01-01

    A serological and bacteriological study was performed with sera taken from 2,228 swine from six states in Venezuela. None of the animals were vaccinated against brucellosis, and the prevalence of the disease varied from 5 to 89% on farms located in these states. Our studies indicated that the animals could be categorized into four groups depending on the degree of reactivity in serological tests. Brucella suis biovar 1 was isolated from the lymph nodes, spleens, and semen samples of seropositive animals and identified by oxidative metabolic techniques. B. suis could not be isolated from tissues of seronegative swine even from farms with cases of the disease (detected by serology). Results suggest that, although the immunodiffusion assay using Brucella melitensis B115 polysaccharide B or B. abortus 1119-3 O-polysaccharide could be useful in the detection of active infections, it is perhaps not as sensitive as some of the other standard serological tests used in this study for the detection of swine brucellosis.

  17. [Diagnosis of whooping cough by serology and real-time PCR].

    PubMed

    Mikešová, Romana; Stiborová, Ivana; Richter, Josef; Rajnohová Dobiášová, Lucie; Král, Vlastimil

    2013-09-01

    The goal of this study is to summarize the results of the detection of Bordetella pertussis (BP) and Bordetella parapertussis (BPP) by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and serological methods. In 2008-2010, 73 patients of the Department of Clinical Immunology and Allergology of the Centre for Immunology and Microbiology, Public Health Institute in Ústí nad Labem were screened for pertussis. They were selected according to the WHO and ECDC criteria, i. e. they presented with a persistent cough lasting more than two weeks. Direct detection of BP and BPP DNA from nasopharyngeal wash specimens was performed using a RT PCR assay. The serological responses were evaluated by a direct agglutination test for the detection of total antibodies and by enzyme-linked immunosobent assay (ELISA) for the detection of IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies against pertussis toxin. Forty-two patients were positive for BP and/or BPP, 19 of them by RT-PCR (group A) and 23 by serology (group B). Ten group A patients (52.6%) were also positive by serology. Our results show that pertussis needs to be a consideration in persistent cough. We believe that increased awareness of the medical community, along with improved laboratory tests will result in increased detection of pertussis that is still considered by many physicians as a childhood infection.

  18. Comparative study of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus serological assays using clinically and serologically defined reference standards and latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Maria Claudia; de Souza, Vanda Akico; Sumita, Laura Masami; Freire, Wilton; Munoz, Fernando; Kim, Joseph; Pannuti, Claudio S; Mayaud, Philippe

    2007-03-01

    Accurate determination of infection with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has been hindered by the lack of a "gold standard" for comparison of serological assays used to estimate KSHV prevalence in serosurveys conducted in different settings. We have evaluated the performance of five in-house (developed at University College London [UCL], United Kingdom, and at the virology laboratory of the Instituto de Medicine Tropical [IMT] in Sao Paulo, Brazil) and two commercial (ABI and DIAVIR) serological assays to detect antibodies to latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) and to lytic KSHV antigens. We used a variety of serum samples assembled to represent populations likely to be at high, intermediate, and low risk of KSHV infection in Brazil. Composite reference standard panels were prepared based on clinical and serological parameters, against which assay performances were assessed using conventional Bayesian statistics and latent class analysis (LCA). Against the clinical reference standard, in-house immunofluorescence assays to detect anti-LANA antibodies (IFA-LANA) produced at UCL and IMT had similar performances, with sensitivities of 61% (95% confidence interval [CI], 48% to 74%) and 72% (95% CI, 58% to 83%) and specificities of 99% (95% CI, 94% to 100%) and 100% (95% CI, 96% to 100%), respectively, and only the IMT IFA-LANA was included in LCA, together with the IMT IFA-lytic and four enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The LCA indicated that the IMT whole-virus ELISA performed best (sensitivity, 87% [95% CI, 81% to 91%]; and specificity, 100% [95% CI, 98% to 100%]), confirming the results obtained with the conventional statistical approach. Commercially available ELISA-based tests yielded the lowest specificities using a spectrum of serum samples. The evaluation of KSHV serological assays is warranted before planning serosurveys in various settings.

  19. Serological and molecular tools to detect neurologic parasitic zoonoses in rural Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Moyou-Somo, Roger; Ito, Akira

    2011-11-01

    Parasitic helminthiases, such as toxocariasis, cysticercosis and paragonimiasis are a public health threat, since they can affect the brain leading to neurological disorders. Epilepsy and paragonimiasis are common in southwestern Cameroon. We reviewed the literature for studies using antigens to diagnose toxocariasis, cysticercosis, and paragonimiasis. Serology revealed that 61 (36.3%), 26 (15.5%) and 2 (1.2%) of 168 persons examined [78 males (15.2 +/- 8.2 years old), 90 females (12.9 +/- 5.9 years old), 143 persons < 20 years old] had antibody responses to toxocariasis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis, respectively. Of the 14 people with epilepsy, 5 were seropositive for Toxocara antigens and 1 was positive for both Toxocara and Paragonimus antigens. Two children were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis. Serologic screening for cysticercosis may be feasible to detect asymptomatic cysticercosis in children in endemic areas leading to early treatment. The causative Paragonimus species was confirmed to be P. africanus by molecular sequencing. Education, screening and confirmation test for these diseases may be needed for control in Cameroon.

  20. Viral and bacterial serology of free-ranging Pacific walrus.

    PubMed

    Calle, Paul P; Seagars, Dana J; McClave, Catherine; Senne, Dennis; House, Carol; House, James A

    2002-01-01

    Serum or heparinized plasma samples were obtained between 1994 and 1996 from 20 male and 20 female adult free-ranging Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) from St. Lawrence Island and Round Island, Alaska. Samples were screened for antibodies to some potentially pathogenic bacteria and viruses. No sample had detectable antibody to Brucella spp. Three of 40 (8%) had low antibody titers to Leptospira interrogans serovars. Phocine distemper virus antibodies were not detected. Serologic responses to one or more caliciviruses (San Miguel sea lion virus 12 or vesicular exanthema of swine serotypes E54, F55, G55, 1934B) were detected in 18% (seven of 40) walrus. Antibodies to one or more subtypes of influenza A virus (H10, N2, N3, N5, N6, N7) were detected in 21% (eight of 38). Periodic screening of free-ranging populations for exposure to infectious diseases has become an important component of bio-monitoring programs to facilitate understanding and detecting trends in marine mammal populations.

  1. Lassa Serology in Natural Populations of Rodents and Horizontal Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Lassa virus causes hemorrhagic fever in West Africa. Previously, we demonstrated by PCR screening that only the multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis, hosts Lassa virus in Guinea. In the present study, we used the same specimen collection from 17 villages in Coastal, Upper, and Forest Guinea to investigate the Lassa virus serology in the rodent population. The aim was to determine the dynamics of antibody development in M. natalensis and to detect potential spillover infections in other rodent species. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody screening was performed using the indirect immunofluorescence assay with the Guinean Lassa virus strain Bantou 289 as antigen. The overall seroprevalence was 8% (129/1551) with the following rodents testing positive: 109 M. natalensis, seven Mastomys erythroleucus, four Lemniscomys striatus, four Praomys daltoni, three Mus minutoides, and two Praomys rostratus. Nearly all of them (122/129) originated from Bantou, Tanganya, and Gbetaya, where Lassa virus is highly endemic in M. natalensis. The antibody seroprevalence in M. natalensis from this high-endemic area (27%; 108/396) depended on the village, habitat, host age, and host abundance. A main positive factor was age; the maximum seroprevalence reached 50% in older animals. Our data fit with a model implicating that most M. natalensis rodents become horizontally infected, clear the virus within a period significantly shorter than their life span, and develop antibodies. In addition, the detection of antibodies in other species trapped in the habitats of M. natalensis suggests spillover infections. PMID:25229705

  2. Serologic responses in diagnostic tests for brucellosis in cattle vaccinated with Brucella abortus 19 or RB51.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M G; Hennager, S G; Olsen, S C; Cheville, N F

    1994-04-01

    Serologic responses in the particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay and the card, complement fixation, and tube agglutination tests were measured for 10 weeks after vaccination of cattle with either Brucella abortus 19 or the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen-deficient mutant, strain RB51. The responses of strain 19-vaccinated cattle were positive, whereas those of strain RB51-vaccinated cattle were negative, in all of the tests. These results indicate that cattle vaccinated with strain RB51 fail to produce antibodies that can be detected by conventional serologic tests that are used to diagnose bovine brucellosis.

  3. [A serological survey of arboviruses in Gabon].

    PubMed

    Jan, C; Languillat, G; Renaudet, J; Robin, Y

    1978-01-01

    Serological studies for arbovirus antibodies were carried out on 1.279 human serum specimens collected from adults in south-eastern part of Gabon from June to September 1975 during a multipurpose epidemiological survey. More than 80% of the population surveyed have neutralizing antibodies for yellow fever virus as consequence of mass vaccination campaign. Chikungunya, Zika, Wesselsbron and Koutango virus showed some activity, especially in woodland savannahs.

  4. Moving past serology: Diagnostic options without serum.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Michael P; Lanyon, Sasha R; Hill, Fraser I

    2016-09-01

    Detecting antibodies formed in serum in response to infection is the traditional function of serology. Diagnostic modalities have included complement fixation tests, agar gel immune-diffusion, radioimmunoassay, ELISA and immunofluorescence. More recent technology now allows for the direct detection of pathogens by PCR. This review details the options for diagnostic testing using specimen types other than serum, identifying the advantages and disadvantages of these options and providing evidence for more widespread use of these techniques and specimen types. PMID:27160006

  5. Section 1A: Rh serology. Coordinator's report.

    PubMed

    Scott, M

    2002-01-01

    One hundred forty-two Rh-specific monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) were evaluated by serology in 27 laboratories. Evaluators were asked to test each Mab at three dilutions in specified serological techniques against normal positive and normal negative phenotype cells, and any Rh variant cells that they had available. Raw data was submitted to the coordinator for overall analysis. Results were analysed by expressing the sum of reaction grades for each Mab with each variant cell as a percentage of the sum of reaction grades of that Mab with normal phenotype cells. Anti-D Mabs were sorted into 23 groups which had the same pattern of reactions with different partial D phenotype cells. Eighteen of these corresponded to previously defined patterns; five were new patterns. Combined with data from the previous workshop, this means that 30 different reaction patterns have been defined. A new nomenclature is introduced for numbering the epitopes. Reactions with new variants DNB, DNU and DAR indicated some further subsplits of these patterns. Reactions with Category Va cells indicated that there were five different types of Va cells that could be distinguished serologically with monoclonal antibodies. No patterns of reactivity corresponding to the epitope groups could be observed with the different types of weak D tested. Anti-E Mabs were sorted into 14 groups, and the E variant cells into seven groups.

  6. Display screen and method of manufacture therefor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubin, Matthew B. (Inventor); Larson, Brent D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A screen assembly that combines an angle re-distributing prescreen with a conventional diffusion screen. The prescreen minimizes or eliminates the sensitivity of the screen assembly to projector location. The diffusion screen provides other desirable screen characteristics. Compatible screen structures, along with methods for fabricating high resolution prescreens and methods and devices for maintaining the desired relationship between the prescreen and the diffusion screen are contemplated.

  7. Serological cross-reactions between toxoplasma and hammondia.

    PubMed

    Weiland, G; Rommel, M; von Seyerl, F

    1979-07-01

    Toxoplasma and Hammondia infected mice, dogs, rabbits, and pigs were tested for Toxoplasma antibodies by means of 5 serological methods. All Toxoplasma infected animals showed Toxoplasma-specific antibodies. Only sera of Hammondia infected mice and dogs showed positive serological reactions with Toxoplasma antigen in the SFT, CFT, and ELISA. IFAT and IHA, however, proved to be Toxoplasma-specific. The influence of Hammondia infections on the Toxoplasma serology is discussed.

  8. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus... derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3930 Vibrio... from cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus... derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus... derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3930 Vibrio... from cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3930 Vibrio... from cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3930 Vibrio... from cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3930 Vibrio... from cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis...

  16. Anti-Rga: identifying serologic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Strohm, P L; Molthan, L

    1982-12-01

    Anti-Rga is a rare alloantibody that is difficult to recognize and identify. Although posing no apparent transfusion risk itself, it can mask the presence of underlying alloantibodies which could be transfusion risks. The five patients reported here demonstrate the serologic findings characteristic of anti-Rga. Known Rg(a-) test cells and multiple "target cells" in neutralization studies are needed to demonstrate partial neutralization findings and to detect underlying alloantibody. Other observations were that clotted samples of red cells retained Rga reactivity for 49 days, whereas EDTA-anticoagulated red cell samples lost such reactivity after 13 days. Frozen red cells tested within hours of deglycerolization showed excellent Rga reactivity.

  17. [Unrecognized intrauterine toxoplasmosis despite screening].

    PubMed

    Fast, C M; Rosegger, H; Mayer, H O; Aspöck, H; Schuhmann, G

    1984-01-01

    A female small for date infant (BW 1500 g) was delivered after uncomplicated pregnancy in the 36th week of gestation. On routine screening for toxoplasmosis a negative SFT had been obtained in the 13th week of gestation. The second examination in the 32nd week was positive (SFT 1:16384). The mother was then put on specific chemotherapy (sulfametoxydiazine and pyrimethamine). The infant, however, had severe- and characteristic lesions (cerebral calcifications, chorioretinitis) not responding to therapy. Morphology of the lesions and serology led to the conclusion that the infant was infected between the 17th and the 24th week of gestation and that the disease remained undetected until the 32nd week, when treatment came already too late. This indicates that in case of a negative test further serological examinations should be carried out at closer intervals to establish the diagnosis in due time.

  18. Development and Implementation of Autoverification Rules for ELISA Results of HBV Serological Markers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiancheng; Cheng, Bizhen; Yang, Li; Zhao, Ying; Pan, Meichen; Zheng, Gaozhe; Xu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Jing; Xiao, Tongtong; Cai, Yingmu

    2016-10-01

    Autoverification is a process of using computer-based rules to verify clinical laboratory test results without manual review. But to date, there are few published articles on the use of autoverification over the course of years in a clinical laboratory. In our study, we firstly described the development and implementation of autoverification rules for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results of hepatitis B virus (HBV) serological markers in a clinical immunology laboratory. We designed the autoverification rules for HBV by using Boolean logic on five clinically used serological markers in accordance with the framework of AUTO-10A, issued by the American Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute in 2006. The rules were written into the laboratory information system (LIS) and installed in the computer, so we could use the LIS to screen the test results. If the results passed the autoverification rules, they could be sent to doctors immediately. To evaluate the autoverification rules, we applied the real-time data of 11,585 patients with the autoverification rules. The autoverification rate of the five HBV serological markers was 79.5%. Furthermore, the turnaround time (TAT) was reduced by 38% (78 minutes vs. 126 minutes). The error rate was nearly eliminated. These results show that using LIS with autoverification rules can shorten TAT, enhance efficiency, and reduce manual review errors.

  19. [Comparison of 4 technics for serologic titration of antibodies against rabies virus in dogs].

    PubMed

    Blancou, J; Aubert, M F; Cain, E

    1983-10-01

    Four different serological techniques were used for the determination of antibody levels against rabies virus in 55 vaccinated street dogs: mouse neutralization test (reference), rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test, plaque reduction test and immunoenzymatic test (protein A). The results obtained with each of the last three methods were compared with those obtained with the reference test: correlation coefficients were, respectively, 0.810, 0.812 and 0.682, each being significantly correlated with the others. Therefore the three techniques may each be recommended as an alternative to the mouse neutralization test for routine titrations; the immunoenzymatic method, which titrates not only neutralizing antibodies being, nevertheless, better used as a screening test.

  20. Turbulent flow through screens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed experimental investigation has been carried out on the effects of different types of screens on turbulent flow, in particular turbulent boundary layers. The effect of a screen on a turbulent boundary layer is to give it a 'new lease of life'. The boundary layer turbulence is reorganized and the thickness reduced, thus making it less susceptible to separation. The aerodynamic properties of plastic screens are found to differ significantly from those of the conventional metal screens, evidently because of differences in the weaving properties. The 'overshoot' in mean velocity profile near the boudnary layer edge is shown to be a result of the effect of screen inclination on pressure drop coefficient. A more accurate formulation for the deflection coefficient of a screen is also proposed.

  1. Determination of whether screening tests for chronic atrophic gastritis really has a positive predictive value.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Flaviano; D'Angelo, Valentina; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Barchiesi, Vittoria; Rizzo, Marianna; Cantile, Monica; Botti, Gerardo; Cavalcanti, Ernesta

    2015-09-01

    Intestinal‑type gastric adenocarcinomas are preceded by precancerous lesions, which begin with chronic atrophic gastritis. Over the last few years, multiple serological screening techniques have been performed and commercialized for the diagnosis of chronic atrophic gastritis. In the present study, 123 patients were recruited at the International Cancer Institute 'G. Pascale' Foundation (Naples, Italy) to test commercial kits for the serological determination of chronic atrophic gastritis, supported by histological analysis, according to the International Group of Gastroenterologists 'Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment Staging System'. The results revealed a significant discrepancy between serological screening and histological evaluation in 10.6% of patients, which highlighted the dubious positive predictive value of commercial serological screening kits.

  2. Multiyear Serological Surveillance of Notifiable Influenza A Viruses in Belgian Poultry: A Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Marché, Sylvie; Houdart, Philippe; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2015-12-01

    Surveillance of notifiable avian influenza (NAI) virus is mandatory in European member states, and each year a serological survey is performed to detect H5 and H7 circulation in poultry holdings. In Belgium, this serological monitoring is a combination of a stratified and a risk-based approach and is applied to commercial holdings with more than 200 birds. Moreover, a competitive nucleoprotein (NP) ELISA has been used as first screening method since 2010. A retrospective analysis of the serological monitoring performed from 2007 through 2013 showed sporadic circulation of notifiable low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in Belgian holdings with a fluctuating apparent flock seroprevalence according to years and species. Overall, the highest apparent flock seroprevalence was detected for the H5 subtype in domestic Anatidae, with 20%-50% for breeding geese and 4%-9% for fattening ducks. Positive serology against non-H5/H7 viruses was also observed in the same species with the use of the IDScreen influenza A antibody competition ELISA kit (ID-vet NP ELISA), and confirmed by isolation of H2, H3, H6, and H9 LPAI viruses. Among Galliformes, the apparent flock seroprevalence was lower, ranging between 0.3% and 1.3%. Circulation of notifiable LPAI viruses was only observed in laying hens with a similar seroprevalence for H5 and H7. Based on ID-vet NP ELISA results, no circulation of LPAI viruses, regardless the subtype, was observed in breeding chickens and fattening turkeys. Retrospectively, the use of an ELISA as first-line test not only reduced the number of hemagglutination inhibition tests to be performed, but also gave a broader evaluation of the prevalence of LPAI viruses in general, and might help to identify the most at-risk farms.

  3. Multiyear Serological Surveillance of Notifiable Influenza A Viruses in Belgian Poultry: A Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Marché, Sylvie; Houdart, Philippe; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2016-05-01

    Surveillance of notifiable avian influenza (NAI) virus is mandatory in European member states, and each year a serological survey is performed to detect H5 and H7 circulation in poultry holdings. In Belgium, this serological monitoring is a combination of a stratified and a risk-based approach and is applied to commercial holdings with more than 200 birds. Moreover, a competitive nucleoprotein (NP) ELISA has been used as first screening method since 2010. A retrospective analysis of the serological monitoring performed from 2007 through 2013 showed sporadic circulation of notifiable low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in Belgian holdings with a fluctuating apparent flock seroprevalence according to years and species. Overall, the highest apparent flock seroprevalence was detected for the H5 subtype in domestic Anatidae, with 20%-50% for breeding geese and 4%-9% for fattening ducks. Positive serology against non-H5/H7 viruses was also observed in the same species with the use of the IDScreen influenza A antibody competition ELISA kit (ID-vet NP ELISA), and confirmed by isolation of H2, H3, H6, and H9 LPAI viruses. Among Galliformes, the apparent flock seroprevalence was lower, ranging between 0.3% and 1.3%. Circulation of notifiable LPAI viruses was only observed in laying hens with a similar seroprevalence for H5 and H7. Based on ID-vet NP ELISA results, no circulation of LPAI viruses, regardless the subtype, was observed in breeding chickens and fattening turkeys. Retrospectively, the use of an ELISA as first-line test not only reduced the number of hemagglutination inhibition tests to be performed, but also gave a broader evaluation of the prevalence of LPAI viruses in general, and might help to identify the most at-risk farms. PMID:27309088

  4. Multiyear Serological Surveillance of Notifiable Influenza A Viruses in Belgian Poultry: A Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Marché, Sylvie; Houdart, Philippe; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2015-12-01

    Surveillance of notifiable avian influenza (NAI) virus is mandatory in European member states, and each year a serological survey is performed to detect H5 and H7 circulation in poultry holdings. In Belgium, this serological monitoring is a combination of a stratified and a risk-based approach and is applied to commercial holdings with more than 200 birds. Moreover, a competitive nucleoprotein (NP) ELISA has been used as first screening method since 2010. A retrospective analysis of the serological monitoring performed from 2007 through 2013 showed sporadic circulation of notifiable low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in Belgian holdings with a fluctuating apparent flock seroprevalence according to years and species. Overall, the highest apparent flock seroprevalence was detected for the H5 subtype in domestic Anatidae, with 20%-50% for breeding geese and 4%-9% for fattening ducks. Positive serology against non-H5/H7 viruses was also observed in the same species with the use of the IDScreen influenza A antibody competition ELISA kit (ID-vet NP ELISA), and confirmed by isolation of H2, H3, H6, and H9 LPAI viruses. Among Galliformes, the apparent flock seroprevalence was lower, ranging between 0.3% and 1.3%. Circulation of notifiable LPAI viruses was only observed in laying hens with a similar seroprevalence for H5 and H7. Based on ID-vet NP ELISA results, no circulation of LPAI viruses, regardless the subtype, was observed in breeding chickens and fattening turkeys. Retrospectively, the use of an ELISA as first-line test not only reduced the number of hemagglutination inhibition tests to be performed, but also gave a broader evaluation of the prevalence of LPAI viruses in general, and might help to identify the most at-risk farms. PMID:26629630

  5. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Serratia spp. serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660 Section 866.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660 Section 866.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3680 - Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents. 866.3680 Section 866.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3850 - Trichinella spiralis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trichinella spiralis serological reagents. 866.3850 Section 866.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3680 - Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents. 866.3680 Section 866.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Serratia spp. serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3850 - Trichinella spiralis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trichinella spiralis serological reagents. 866.3850 Section 866.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Serratia spp. serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866.3520 Section 866.3520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3850 - Trichinella spiralis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trichinella spiralis serological reagents. 866.3850 Section 866.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3850 - Trichinella spiralis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trichinella spiralis serological reagents. 866.3850 Section 866.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Serratia spp. serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3680 - Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents. 866.3680 Section 866.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3680 - Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents. 866.3680 Section 866.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660 Section 866.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660 Section 866.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660 Section 866.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Serratia spp. serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866.3520 Section 866.3520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3680 - Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents. 866.3680 Section 866.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866.3520 Section 866.3520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  7. 42 CFR 493.835 - Standard; Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard; Syphilis serology. 493.835 Section 493.835 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.835 Standard; Syphilis serology. (a) Failure to attain an overall testing event...

  8. 42 CFR 493.835 - Standard; Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard; Syphilis serology. 493.835 Section 493.835 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.835 Standard; Syphilis serology. (a) Failure to attain an overall testing event...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1207 - Condition: Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Syphilis serology. 493.1207 Section 493.1207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1207 Condition: Syphilis serology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1207 - Condition: Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Syphilis serology. 493.1207 Section 493.1207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1207 Condition: Syphilis serology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of...

  11. 42 CFR 493.835 - Standard; Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard; Syphilis serology. 493.835 Section 493.835 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.835 Standard; Syphilis serology. (a) Failure to attain an overall testing event...

  12. 42 CFR 493.1207 - Condition: Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Syphilis serology. 493.1207 Section 493.1207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1207 Condition: Syphilis serology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of...

  13. 42 CFR 493.835 - Standard; Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard; Syphilis serology. 493.835 Section 493.835 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.835 Standard; Syphilis serology. (a) Failure to attain an overall testing event...

  14. 42 CFR 493.1207 - Condition: Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Syphilis serology. 493.1207 Section 493.1207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1207 Condition: Syphilis serology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of...

  15. 42 CFR 493.1207 - Condition: Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Syphilis serology. 493.1207 Section 493.1207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1207 Condition: Syphilis serology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of...

  16. 42 CFR 493.835 - Standard; Syphilis serology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Syphilis serology. 493.835 Section 493.835 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.835 Standard; Syphilis serology. (a) Failure to attain an overall testing event...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. 866.3400 Section 866.3400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3400...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3480 - Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents. 866.3480 Section 866.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3175 - Cytomegalovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. 866.3175 Section 866.3175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3050 - Beta-glucan serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beta-glucan serological assays. 866.3050 Section 866.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3050...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3175 - Cytomegalovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. 866.3175 Section 866.3175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. 866.3400 Section 866.3400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3400...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Haemophilus spp. serological reagents. 866.3300 Section 866.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3300...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3510 - Rubella virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubella virus serological reagents. 866.3510 Section 866.3510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3510 Rubella...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3145 - Coxsackievirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coxsackievirus serological reagents. 866.3145 Section 866.3145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240 Section 866.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200 Section 866.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255 Section 866.3255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3255...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. 866.3125 Section 866.3125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3125...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section 866.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3175 - Cytomegalovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. 866.3175 Section 866.3175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adenovirus serological reagents. 866.3020 Section 866.3020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255 Section 866.3255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3255...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. 866.3125 Section 866.3125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3125...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3250 - Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents. 866.3250 Section 866.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3320 - Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents. 866.3320 Section 866.3320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3470 - Reovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reovirus serological reagents. 866.3470 Section 866.3470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3470...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3405 - Poliovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Poliovirus serological reagents. 866.3405 Section 866.3405 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3405...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3480 - Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents. 866.3480 Section 866.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200 Section 866.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section 866.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3480 - Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents. 866.3480 Section 866.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3145 - Coxsackievirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coxsackievirus serological reagents. 866.3145 Section 866.3145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3165 - Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents. 866.3165 Section 866.3165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3250 - Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents. 866.3250 Section 866.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3405 - Poliovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Poliovirus serological reagents. 866.3405 Section 866.3405 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3405...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3470 - Reovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reovirus serological reagents. 866.3470 Section 866.3470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3470...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3320 - Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents. 866.3320 Section 866.3320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3280 - Francisella tularensis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Francisella tularensis serological reagents. 866.3280 Section 866.3280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Haemophilus spp. serological reagents. 866.3300 Section 866.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3300...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rhinovirus serological reagents. 866.3490 Section 866.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3490...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240 Section 866.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. 866.3125 Section 866.3125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3125...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3500 - Rickettsia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rickettsia serological reagents. 866.3500 Section 866.3500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3500...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3320 - Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents. 866.3320 Section 866.3320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3480 - Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents. 866.3480 Section 866.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adenovirus serological reagents. 866.3020 Section 866.3020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents. 866.3220 Section 866.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section 866.3360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350 Section 866.3350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section 866.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866.3520 Section 866.3520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3145 - Coxsackievirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coxsackievirus serological reagents. 866.3145 Section 866.3145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adenovirus serological reagents. 866.3020 Section 866.3020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents. 866.3220 Section 866.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3145 - Coxsackievirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coxsackievirus serological reagents. 866.3145 Section 866.3145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350 Section 866.3350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866.3520 Section 866.3520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866.3330 Section 866.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3330...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adenovirus serological reagents. 866.3020 Section 866.3020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3175 - Cytomegalovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. 866.3175 Section 866.3175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents. 866.3220 Section 866.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3500 - Rickettsia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rickettsia serological reagents. 866.3500 Section 866.3500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3500...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3380 - Mumps virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mumps virus serological reagents. 866.3380 Section 866.3380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3380 Mumps...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3270 Section 866.3270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3050 - Beta-glucan serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beta-glucan serological assays. 866.3050 Section 866.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3050...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3165 - Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents. 866.3165 Section 866.3165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866.3330 Section 866.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3330...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3135 - Coccidioides immitis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coccidioides immitis serological reagents. 866.3135 Section 866.3135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section 866.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3470 - Reovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reovirus serological reagents. 866.3470 Section 866.3470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3470...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3380 - Mumps virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mumps virus serological reagents. 866.3380 Section 866.3380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3380 Mumps...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Listeria spp. serological reagents. 866.3355 Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3060 - Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents. 866.3060 Section 866.3060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3010 - Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents. 866.3010 Section 866.3010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3060 - Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents. 866.3060 Section 866.3060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3060 - Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents. 866.3060 Section 866.3060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3510 - Rubella virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubella virus serological reagents. 866.3510 Section 866.3510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3510 Rubella...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200 Section 866.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3205 - Echovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Echovirus serological reagents. 866.3205 Section 866.3205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3205...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3270 Section 866.3270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350 Section 866.3350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3395 - Norovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Norovirus serological reagents. 866.3395 Section 866.3395 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3395...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3470 - Reovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reovirus serological reagents. 866.3470 Section 866.3470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3470...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3336 - John Cunningham Virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false John Cunningham Virus serological reagents. 866.3336 Section 866.3336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents. 866.3220 Section 866.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255 Section 866.3255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3255...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3135 - Coccidioides immitis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coccidioides immitis serological reagents. 866.3135 Section 866.3135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. 866.3400 Section 866.3400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3400...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3380 - Mumps virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mumps virus serological reagents. 866.3380 Section 866.3380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3380 Mumps...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section 866.3360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3500 - Rickettsia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rickettsia serological reagents. 866.3500 Section 866.3500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3500...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3060 - Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents. 866.3060 Section 866.3060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3320 - Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents. 866.3320 Section 866.3320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3140 Section 866.3140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3050 - Beta-glucan serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beta-glucan serological assays. 866.3050 Section 866.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3050...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3250 - Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents. 866.3250 Section 866.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. 866.3125 Section 866.3125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3125...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3270 Section 866.3270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3010 - Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents. 866.3010 Section 866.3010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3205 - Echovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Echovirus serological reagents. 866.3205 Section 866.3205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3205...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Listeria spp. serological reagents. 866.3355 Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3135 - Coccidioides immitis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coccidioides immitis serological reagents. 866.3135 Section 866.3135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3270 Section 866.3270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3165 - Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents. 866.3165 Section 866.3165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Listeria spp. serological reagents. 866.3355 Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240 Section 866.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866.3330 Section 866.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3330...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200 Section 866.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3140 Section 866.3140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3165 - Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents. 866.3165 Section 866.3165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3380 - Mumps virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mumps virus serological reagents. 866.3380 Section 866.3380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3380 Mumps...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. 866.3400 Section 866.3400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3400...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3280 - Francisella tularensis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Francisella tularensis serological reagents. 866.3280 Section 866.3280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section 866.3360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arizona spp. serological reagents. 866.3035 Section 866.3035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3510 - Rubella virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rubella virus serological reagents. 866.3510 Section 866.3510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3510 Rubella...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rhinovirus serological reagents. 866.3490 Section 866.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3490...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3140 Section 866.3140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240 Section 866.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Listeria spp. serological reagents. 866.3355 Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3205 - Echovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Echovirus serological reagents. 866.3205 Section 866.3205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3205...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3135 - Coccidioides immitis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coccidioides immitis serological reagents. 866.3135 Section 866.3135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3280 - Francisella tularensis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Francisella tularensis serological reagents. 866.3280 Section 866.3280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section 866.3360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350 Section 866.3350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3140 Section 866.3140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3010 - Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents. 866.3010 Section 866.3010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3010 - Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents. 866.3010 Section 866.3010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arizona spp. serological reagents. 866.3035 Section 866.3035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhinovirus serological reagents. 866.3490 Section 866.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3490...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866.3330 Section 866.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3330...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arizona spp. serological reagents. 866.3035 Section 866.3035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3050 - Beta-glucan serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beta-glucan serological assays. 866.3050 Section 866.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3050...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3395 - Norovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Norovirus serological reagents. 866.3395 Section 866.3395 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3395...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255 Section 866.3255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3255...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3280 - Francisella tularensis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Francisella tularensis serological reagents. 866.3280 Section 866.3280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3500 - Rickettsia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rickettsia serological reagents. 866.3500 Section 866.3500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3500...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3405 - Poliovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Poliovirus serological reagents. 866.3405 Section 866.3405 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3405...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Haemophilus spp. serological reagents. 866.3300 Section 866.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3300...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3250 - Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents. 866.3250 Section 866.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3205 - Echovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Echovirus serological reagents. 866.3205 Section 866.3205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3205...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haemophilus spp. serological reagents. 866.3300 Section 866.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3300...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arizona spp. serological reagents. 866.3035 Section 866.3035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rhinovirus serological reagents. 866.3490 Section 866.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3490...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255 Section 866.3255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3255...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arizona spp. serological reagents. 866.3035 Section 866.3035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3145 - Coxsackievirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coxsackievirus serological reagents. 866.3145 Section 866.3145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3060 - Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents. 866.3060 Section 866.3060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section 866.3360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3140 Section 866.3140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Listeria spp. serological reagents. 866.3355 Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3320 - Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents. 866.3320 Section 866.3320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3470 - Reovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reovirus serological reagents. 866.3470 Section 866.3470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3470...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. 866.3400 Section 866.3400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3400...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3050 - Beta-glucan serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beta-glucan serological assays. 866.3050 Section 866.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3050...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3395 - Norovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Norovirus serological reagents. 866.3395 Section 866.3395 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3395...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3405 - Poliovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Poliovirus serological reagents. 866.3405 Section 866.3405 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3405...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rhinovirus serological reagents. 866.3490 Section 866.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3490...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section 866.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents. 866.3220 Section 866.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3205 - Echovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Echovirus serological reagents. 866.3205 Section 866.3205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3205...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Haemophilus spp. serological reagents. 866.3300 Section 866.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3300...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3500 - Rickettsia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rickettsia serological reagents. 866.3500 Section 866.3500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3500...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3380 - Mumps virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mumps virus serological reagents. 866.3380 Section 866.3380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3380 Mumps...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3480 - Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents. 866.3480 Section 866.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3270 Section 866.3270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866.3330 Section 866.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3330...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3135 - Coccidioides immitis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coccidioides immitis serological reagents. 866.3135 Section 866.3135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3165 - Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents. 866.3165 Section 866.3165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3280 - Francisella tularensis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Francisella tularensis serological reagents. 866.3280 Section 866.3280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3175 - Cytomegalovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. 866.3175 Section 866.3175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3510 - Rubella virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rubella virus serological reagents. 866.3510 Section 866.3510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3510 Rubella...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adenovirus serological reagents. 866.3020 Section 866.3020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350 Section 866.3350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3010 - Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents. 866.3010 Section 866.3010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240 Section 866.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3250 - Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents. 866.3250 Section 866.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. 866.3125 Section 866.3125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3125...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200 Section 866.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200...

  11. Serological diagnosis of Besnoitia bennetti infection in donkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Besnoitiosis is an emerging infectious disease of donkeys in the United States for which there are currently no serologic methods of diagnosis. A study was performed to evaluate physical examination findings and three serologic assays for the detection of B. bennetti infection in donkeys. A prospect...

  12. New serological biomarkers of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuhang; Conklin, Laurie; Alex, Philip

    2008-09-01

    Serological biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are a rapidly expanding list of non-invasive tests for objective assessments of disease activity, early diagnosis, prognosis evaluation and surveillance. This review summarizes both old and new biomarkers in IBD, but focuses on the development and characterization of new serological biomarkers (identified since 2007). These include five new anti-glycan antibodies, anti-chitobioside IgA (ACCA), anti-laminaribioside IgG (ALCA), anti-manobioside IgG (AMCA), and antibodies against chemically synthesized (Sigma) two major oligomannose epitopes, Man alpha-1,3 Man alpha-1,2 Man (SigmaMan3) and Man alpha-1,3 Man alpha-1,2 Man alpha-1,2 Man (SigmaMan4). These new biomarkers serve as valuable complementary tools to existing biomarkers not only in differentiating Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), normal and other non-IBD gut diseases, but also in predicting disease involvement (ileum vs colon), IBD risk (as subclinical biomarkers), and disease course (risk of complication and surgery). Interestingly, the prevalence of the antiglycan antibodies, including anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA), ALCA and AMCA, was found to be associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IBD susceptible genes such as NOD2/CARD15, NOD1/CARD4, toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4, and beta-defensin-1. Furthermore, a gene dosage effect was observed: anti-glycan positivity became more frequent as the number of NOD2/CARD15 SNPS increased. Other new serum/plasma IBD biomarkers reviewed include ubiquitination factor E4A (UBE4A), CXCL16 (a chemokine), resistin, and apolipoprotein A-IV. This review also discusses the most recent studies in IBD biomarker discovery by the application of new technologies such as proteomics, fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy, and multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)'s (with an emphasis on cytokine/chemokine profiling). Finally, the prospects of developing more

  13. Serological study of yaws in Java

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huan-Ying; Soebekti, R.

    1955-01-01

    This report presents the results of serological analyses made by the laboratory of the Treponematoses Control Project, Indonesia, from its establishment in April 1951 until April 1953. All sera were tested quantitatively with the VDRL and Kline slide-tests or the Kahn test, or with all three. A study of the mean reagin titre in untreated yaws cases showed that the percentage of seronegative reactors among clinically positive cases was low. Less seronegativity was observed among females than males. Examination of decrease in mean reagin titre after treatment by clinical group showed maximum to minimum decrease in the following sequence: early contagious, early contagious plus hyperkeratosis, ulcerative plus osteo-articular, ulcerative, hyperkeratosis, and osteo-articular lesions. The decrease tended to be greater in females than males and in patients with high than with low titre; it also varied with the age of the patient. No significant variation in decrease was noted when four different PAM treatment schedules were tested comparatively. The percentage of serological cure and improvement with all schedules was highest in the cases with early lesions, and in the younger age-groups. A study of patients requiring re-treatment at the time of resurvey showed no important difference in mean reagin titre between clinically cured and uncured patients suffering from palmar or plantar hyperkeratosis and ulcerative or osteo-articular lesions. Serological testing of sera from clinically negative household contacts and non-contacts, with or without previous history of yaws, gave the following results: Among the household contacts, the number of seronegative reactors, while not affected by age-distribution, was significantly higher in the history-positive than in the history-negative groups. The percentage of seropositive reactors was in direct proportion to the prevalence of yaws, the seropositivity-rate being high in villages with a yaws incidence of 11%-30%. The report also

  14. New serological biomarkers of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuhang; Conklin, Laurie; Alex, Philip

    2008-09-01

    Serological biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are a rapidly expanding list of non-invasive tests for objective assessments of disease activity, early diagnosis, prognosis evaluation and surveillance. This review summarizes both old and new biomarkers in IBD, but focuses on the development and characterization of new serological biomarkers (identified since 2007). These include five new anti-glycan antibodies, anti-chitobioside IgA (ACCA), anti-laminaribioside IgG (ALCA), anti-manobioside IgG (AMCA), and antibodies against chemically synthesized (Sigma) two major oligomannose epitopes, Man alpha-1,3 Man alpha-1,2 Man (SigmaMan3) and Man alpha-1,3 Man alpha-1,2 Man alpha-1,2 Man (SigmaMan4). These new biomarkers serve as valuable complementary tools to existing biomarkers not only in differentiating Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), normal and other non-IBD gut diseases, but also in predicting disease involvement (ileum vs colon), IBD risk (as subclinical biomarkers), and disease course (risk of complication and surgery). Interestingly, the prevalence of the antiglycan antibodies, including anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA), ALCA and AMCA, was found to be associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IBD susceptible genes such as NOD2/CARD15, NOD1/CARD4, toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4, and beta-defensin-1. Furthermore, a gene dosage effect was observed: anti-glycan positivity became more frequent as the number of NOD2/CARD15 SNPS increased. Other new serum/plasma IBD biomarkers reviewed include ubiquitination factor E4A (UBE4A), CXCL16 (a chemokine), resistin, and apolipoprotein A-IV. This review also discusses the most recent studies in IBD biomarker discovery by the application of new technologies such as proteomics, fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy, and multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)'s (with an emphasis on cytokine/chemokine profiling). Finally, the prospects of developing more

  15. Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network laboratory guidelines for the use of serological tests (excluding point-of-care tests) for the diagnosis of syphilis in Canada.

    PubMed

    Levett, Paul N; Fonseca, Kevin; Tsang, Raymond Sw; Kadkhoda, Kamran; Serhir, Bouchra; Radons, Sandra M; Morshed, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis, caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, is an infection recognized since antiquity. It was first reported at the end of the 15th century in Europe. Infections may be sexually transmitted as well as spread from an infected mother to her fetus or through blood transfusions. The laboratory diagnosis of syphilis infection is complex. Because this organism cannot be cultured, serology is used as the principal diagnostic method. Some of the issues related to serological diagnoses are that antibodies take time to appear after infection, and serology screening tests require several secondary confirmatory tests that can produce complex results needing interpretation by experts in the field. Traditionally, syphilis screening was performed using either rapid plasma reagin or Venereal Disease Research Laboratory tests, and confirmed by treponemal tests such as MHA-TP, TPPA or FTA-Abs. Currently, that trend is reversed, ie, most of the laboratories in Canada now screen for syphilis using treponemal enzyme immunoassays and confirm the status of infection using rapid plasma reagin or Venereal Disease Research Laboratory tests; this approach is often referred to as the reverse algorithm. This chapter reviews guidelines for specimen types and sample collection, treponemal and non-treponemal tests utilized in Canada, the current status of serological tests for syphilis in Canada, the complexity of serological diagnosis of syphilis infection and serological testing algorithms. Both traditional and reverse sequence algorithms are recommended and the algorithm used should be based on a combination of local disease epidemiology, test volumes, performance of the proposed assays and available resources.

  16. [Evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of six qualitative serological methods for the detection of Helicobacter pylori antibodies].

    PubMed

    Doweck, J; Quintana, C; Barrios, A; Monastra, L; Lopetegui, G; Zerbo, O; Schenone, L; Giordano, A; Valero, J; Kogan, Z; Bartellini, M A; Corti, R

    1997-01-01

    Screening tests for IG g antibodies against Helicobacter pylori are usefull for a long follow up of patients who were well eradicated. The aim of this study was to determinate and compared sensibility, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of six qualitative serological tests for IG g antibodies detection in the diagnosis of H. Pylori infections. Between May and October 1996 52 patients (30 males and 22 females; median age 42.4 years, range 21-68) with H. Pylori infection assessed on two antral and two corpus biopsies by means of Giema stain and a rapid urease test were tested for IG g antibodies detection. The serological tests used were: Inmunocomb II (Orgenics) Enzimo Inmuno Assay Inmunoadsorbent qualitative, Flex Pack (Smith Kline Diagnostics, Abbott) inmunocromatographic cualitative, Pylori Stat test (Biowhittaker) Enzimo Inmuno Assay (ELISA) qualitative, Premier (Meridian Diagnostics) Enzimo Inmuno Assay ELISA) qualitative. Pyloristest (Orion Diagnóstica) latex aglutination qualitative, H. Pylori (Bio Tre) Enzimo Inmuno Assay cualitative. 10 healthy subjects with negative gastric biopsies and negative rapid ureasa test were used as control group. The six evaluated serological tests have a comparable sensibility (89-95%) and specificity (77-83%) for the diagnosis of HP infection. The presence of specific HP antibodies in infected patients revealed a strong correlation with the histological demonstration of the microrganisms. We can recommend this qualitative serological tests due to their high sensibility and specificity, simplicity and low cost.

  17. The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay systems for serology and antigen detection in parvovirus, coronavirus and rotavirus infections in dogs in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Rimmelzwaan, G F; Groen, J; Egberink, H; Borst, G H; UytdeHaag, F G; Osterhaus, A D

    1991-01-01

    Complex trapping blocking (CTB) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and indirect ELISAs for the detection of antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV), canine coronavirus (CCV) and rotavirus in sera of dogs were established. Double antibody sandwich ELISAs for the detection of CPV-, CCV- and rotavirus antigens in fecal samples were also developed. Both the serological and antigen-detection ELISAs were used to screen samples from dogs in The Netherlands, with or without a history of acute diarrhea. It was shown that the results of the respective serological ELISAs correlated well and that CPV was the major cause of virus-induced acute diarrhea in dogs in The Netherlands. PMID:1850889

  18. Tumor antigen analysis in neuroblastoma by serological interrogation of bioinformatic data.

    PubMed

    Kohler, M Eric; Johnson, Bryon D; Palen, Katie; Chen, Qing-Rong; Khan, Javed; Orentas, Rimas J

    2010-11-01

    The identification of tumor antigens remains a major objective in tumor immunology, especially in pediatric malignancies where solid tumors often do not express a single dominant antigen. Methods such as the Serological Screening of Recombinant cDNA Expression Libraries (SEREX) have been used in the discovery of tumor-expressed proteins by virtue of their ability to induce an antibody response. To focus and accelerate this approach, we first identified candidate antigens by gene expression profiling data from clinical neuroblastoma specimens and then used an animal model to generate an antibody response to an engineered cell-based vaccine. Candidate tumor antigens were expressed as recombinant proteins in a mammalian system and screened for antibody recognition using serum from mice vaccinated with a neuroblastoma cell-based vaccine engineered to express CD80 and CD86, with or without Treg depletion. Through this procedure, the never in mitosis A (NIMA)-related kinase NEK2 was identified as a tumor-associated antigen. Direct testing of serum from patients newly diagnosed with neuroblastoma showed specific serological responses in two of 20 patients. Although NEK2 was not universally recognized, it may serve as a tumor antigen for some patients.

  19. No evidence for the diagnostic value of Borrelia serology in patients with sudden hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Renée; Aarts, Mark C J; van der Heijden, Geert J M G; Rovers, Maroeska M

    2012-04-01

    In this evidence-based case report, we address the following clinical question: What is the predictive value of serological testing for Borrelia for diagnosing neuroborreliosis in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss? We searched for relevant articles in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. We retrieved 49 unique publications and screened the title and abstract of these articles for relevance. We included 2 of 12 studies initially considered relevant to answer our question. These 2 studies reported a seroprevalence of antibodies against Borrelia of 16% in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SHL) as compared with 13.5% in the general population, but in neither patients with definite neuroborreliosis were they found. To date, there is no evidence regarding the added value of routine diagnostic serologic testing for Borrelia in diagnosing neuroborreliosis in patients with sudden SHL. Neuroborreliosis seems to be a rare cause of sudden SHL, and routine screening of patients for borrelia antibodies in serum should therefore not be recommended.

  20. Clinical Utility of Serologic Testing for Celiac Disease in Asymptomatic Patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    disease without any symptoms consistent with the disease presenting with one of the non-gastrointestinal conditions evaluated. When evaluating the risk of lymphoma and all-cause mortality, the study population consisted of asymptomatic individuals with a positive celiac disease serologic test and/or small bowel biopsy. Literature Search Search Strategy Literature searches were performed for each disease/condition evaluated between December 2010 and March 2011 using OVID MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA). No restrictions for start date of search were used. Abstracts were reviewed by a single reviewer and, for those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Reference lists were also examined for any additional relevant studies not identified through the search. Articles with an unknown eligibility were reviewed with a second clinical epidemiologist and then a group of epidemiologists until consensus was established. Inclusion Criteria Studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses that assessed the effects of a GFD in patients with newly diagnosed asymptomatic celiac disease presenting with one of the non-gastrointestinal conditions evaluated. If symptoms were not reported in the study but subjects were identified through screening for celiac disease the study was included. Studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses that assessed the prevalence of newly diagnosed asymptomatic celiac disease in patients with one of the non-gastrointestinal conditions evaluated. If symptoms were not reported in the study but subjects were identified through screening for celiac disease the study was included. Studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses that evaluated the risk of all-cause mortality or lymphoma in individuals with asymptomatic celiac disease. Sample size ≥ 10. Publications in English. Exclusion Criteria Studies that retrospectively assessed the prevalence of

  1. Importance of foot and mouth disease vaccine purity in interpreting serological surveys.

    PubMed

    Smitsaart, E; Espinoza, A M; Maradei, E; Cosentino, B; Guinzburg, M; Madonni, G; Cadenazzi, G; Bottini, R; Filippi, J; Bergmann, I

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the degree of purity achieved in conventional vaccines against the foot and mouth disease virus in Argentina interferes with the interpretation of seroepidemiological surveys for confirming the absence of viral activity, which are performed to support the recognition of free zones practising vaccination. The evaluation of 168 vaccine series due to be marketed in Argentina (2006-2012) and subjected to official control testing in cattle, as well as repeated vaccination of cattle and other species using vaccines with high antigen concentrations, demonstrated that they did not induce antibodies to non-structural proteins (NSPs). The results show clearly that vaccines with satisfactory potency do not induce a response to NSPs, even by forcing the immune response through more concentrated doses with multiple valences and revaccination protocols at shorter irtervals than in vaccination campaigns. These results confirm that the vaccines used in routine vaccination programmes have a degree of antigen purification consistent with the needs observed on the basis of sampling for serological surveillance. Moreover, serological surveys conducted in 2006-2011 by Argentina's official Veterinary Services--the National Health and Agrifood Quality Service (SENASA)--on more than 23,000 sera per year from cattle included in the vaccination programme, in order to confirm the absence of virus circulation, revealed an average 0.05% of reactive results, consistent with the specificity of the tests. In conclusion, the vaccines produced by conventional methods and with proven potencythat are available in Argentina are sufficiently purified to ensure thatthey do not interfere with the interpretation of sampling for serological surveillance performed to support the recognition of FMD-free zones practising vaccination.

  2. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3940 West Nile... detection aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of viral meningitis/encephalitis caused by West...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3940 West Nile... detection aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of viral meningitis/encephalitis caused by West...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella... isolates derived from clinical specimens. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of antisera... clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella... isolates derived from clinical specimens. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of antisera... clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella... isolates derived from clinical specimens. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of antisera... clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3940 West Nile... detection aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of viral meningitis/encephalitis caused by West...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3940 West Nile... detection aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of viral meningitis/encephalitis caused by West...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella... isolates derived from clinical specimens. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of antisera... clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3940 West Nile... detection aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of viral meningitis/encephalitis caused by West...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella... isolates derived from clinical specimens. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of antisera... clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in...

  12. Infection by hepatitis B and C virus in female and transsexual Greek prostitutes with serological evidence of active syphilis.

    PubMed

    Tsakris, A; Kyriakis, K P; Chryssou, S; Papoutsakis, G

    1997-11-01

    Two hundred and thirty female and 43 male-to-female transsexual Greek prostitutes were screened for serological evidence of active syphilis as judged by positivity in both rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test and treponemal (FTA-ABS and TPHA) tests. The rate of active syphilis was 20.9% in the male-to-female transsexual prostitutes and 4.3% in the female ones (P < 0.001, odds ratio = 5.82). In the former group 65.1% had evidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and 4.7% of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection while the respective rates among the latter group were 50.4% and 3.9%. There was no correlation of viral hepatitis marker prevalence with positive syphilis serology.

  13. Screening for Schistosoma mansoni and Strongyloides stercoralis Infection Among Brazilian Immigrants in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Alison B.; McCormick, Danny; Cohen, Pieter A.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of schistosomiasis and strongyloidiasis among Brazilian immigrants in the United States is unknown. We performed a retrospective chart review of serologic screening of asymptomatic Brazilian immigrants during routine physicals. Of 208 eligible patients, 189 were screened: 27.7% (n = 52) had elevated Schistosoma antibodies and 5.8% (n = 11) had elevated Strongyloides stercoralis antibodies. PMID:26034754

  14. A multipurpose serological survey in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Geser, Anton; Henderson, Brian E.; Christensen, Svend

    1970-01-01

    Arbovirus infections are of public health interest in East Africa, where a very widespread epidemic of o'nyong-nyong fever was reported in 1959-60 and where the threat of yellow fever, present in neighbouring areas such as Ethiopia, remains. Sera collected in a serological survey in Kenya were therefore tested for antibodies against 3 group-A arboviruses (chikungunya, o'nyong-nyong and Sindbis), 6 group-B arboviruses (Zika, yellow fever, West Nile, Banzi, Wesselsbron and dengue 1), and Bunyamwera virus. The sera were examined mainly by the haemagglutination-inhibition test but a small proportion were also subjected to virus neutralization tests. The results showed that the prevalence of arbovirus tnfection varies markedly from area to area in Kenya. All types of arbovirus infections were more frequent on the coast than on the dry plateau around Kitui and the Lake Victoria area, The only exceptions were o'nyong-nyong and chikungunya, which were found to be just as prevalent on the coast as in Nyanza, where an epidemic was reported in 1959-60. Yellow fever antibodies were found to be present in about half of the people living on the coast but practically absent from the other two areas. It was concluded that the yellow fever antibodies in the coastal area must be due either to vaccination or to cross-reactions with other group-B arboviruses. PMID:5313066

  15. Treponemal serology on Bali Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed Central

    Ney, R; Garner, M F; Backhouse, J L; Duarsa, N W; Breguet, D; Breguet, G

    1982-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary study of the population of Bali, Indonesia, treponemal serology was carried out on 2452 serum samples from subjects of both sexes. Sera reactive to the Treponema pallidum immobilisation test (TPI) were found in 81 (3.3%) subjects with a male prevalence of 4% and a female prevalence of 2%. All the reactive sera were from villagers. Of 1118 students sampled in various towns, none had reactive TPI tests. The prevalence of reactive sera varied greatly from one village to another; up to 50% of the sera examined were reactive. Geographical and socioeconomic analyses of the data show a strict correlation between poor socioeconomic status and high reactivity rates to the TPI test. Fifty-seven per cent of all the reactive sera originated from subjects living in two districts where yaws had recently been reported. Only three of the 1406 subjects, aged 15-29 years, had reactive sera. The reactivity rate steadily increased in the age groups 30-44, 45-59, and 60 years and over. Biological false-positive reactions occurred in 3.8% of the sera tested. PMID:6756541

  16. Syphilis serology in pregnancy: an eight-year study (2005-2012) in a large teaching maternity hospital in Dublin, Ireland.

    PubMed

    McGettrick, Padraig; Ferguson, Wendy; Jackson, Valerie; Eogan, Maeve; Lawless, Mairead; Ciprike, Vaneta; Varughese, Alan; Coulter-Smith, Sam; Lambert, John S

    2016-03-01

    All cases of positive syphilis serology detected in antenatal and peripartum screening in a large teaching maternity hospital in inner city Dublin, Ireland over an eight-year period (2005-2012 inclusive) were reviewed and included in our study. Demographic, antenatal registration, laboratory (including co-infections), partner serology, treatment and delivery data were recorded in our database. Infant follow-up, treatment and outcome data were also collected. During this period, 194 women had positive syphilis serology, of which 182 completed their pregnancies at the institution. This accounts for 0.28% of the total number of women completing their pregnancies during this time (N = 66038); 79 had no previous diagnosis of infection. There was one case of re-infection during pregnancy. Thirty-two women were co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B or hepatitis C. There was one case suggestive of congenital syphilis infection. Our study is a comprehensive analysis of the diagnosis, management and clinical outcomes of women testing positive for syphilis infection in pregnancy. It reveals the relatively high prevalence of syphilis infection in the population utilising the maternity services in north inner-city Dublin. It re-enforces the importance of continued active surveillance to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with maternal syphilis infection. It also highlights the importance of strategies such as re-testing high-risk groups and definitive screening of spouse serology.

  17. Mortality in Schizophrenia: Clinical and Serological Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Faith; Stallings, Cassie; Origoni, Andrea; Schroeder, Jennifer; Khushalani, Sunil; Yolken, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Persons with schizophrenia have a reduced life expectancy largely due to death from natural causes. Factors that have been previously associated with excess mortality include cigarette smoking and antipsychotic medication. The role of other environmental factors such as exposure to infectious agents has been the subject of only limited investigation. We prospectively assessed a cohort of persons with schizophrenia with a clinical evaluation and a blood sample from which antibodies to human herpes viruses and Toxoplasma gondii were measured. Mortality was determined with data from the National Death Index following a period of up to 11 years. We examined the role of demographic, serological, and clinical factors on mortality. A total of 25 (5%) of 517 persons died of natural causes. The standardized mortality ratio was 2.80 (95% CI 0.89, 6.38). After adjusting for age and gender, mortality from natural causes was predicted in separate models by cigarette smoking (relative risk [RR] = 4.66, P = .0029); lower cognitive score (RR = 0.96, P = .013); level of antibodies to Epstein–Barr virus (RR = 1.22, P = .0041) and to Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (RR = 1.19, P = .030); immunologic disease (RR = 3.14, P = .044); and genitourinary disease (RR = 2.70; P = .035). Because cigarette smoking confers an almost 5-fold risk of mortality, smoking cessation is an urgent priority. Having an elevated level of antibodies to Epstein–Barr virus and to Herpes Simplex virus type 1 are also significant predictors of death from natural causes. PMID:23943410

  18. Immunoglobulin M-specific serologic testing in an outbreak of foodborne viral hepatitis, type A.

    PubMed

    Osterholm, M T; Kantor, R J; Bradley, D W; Hall, W N; Francis, D P; Aaron, H C; Washburn, J W; Velde, D

    1980-07-01

    Ninety-seven symptomatic and five asymptomatic infections with viral hepatitis, type A (102 cases) were identified in members, guests and employees of a private country club in an outbreak associated with consuming food and ice prepared or handled by an employee of the club's kitchen pantry. Twenty-three symptomatic persons were tested by differential radioimmunoassay for immunoglobulin M (IgM) (acute-phase) hepatitis A antibody (anti-HAV) and all 23 were documented to be infected with hepatitis A virus (HAV). Forty-one member/guest cases had only a single exposure at the county club. Their incubation periods ranged from 21 to 40 days, with a mean of 30 days. The exposure of these single-day patrons occurred over a 14-day period. The index case was not icteric and only moderately symptomatic and was diagnosed retrospectively to have viral hepatitis, type A by serologic determination of IgM anti-HAV in blood samples. Four items implicated in disease transmission were potato salad, hot dogs, molded salmon and ice handled by the index case. Serologic screening of controls did not appear to alter the conclusions of the food item analysis.

  19. Tokamak coordinate conventions: COCOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, O.; Medvedev, S. Yu.

    2013-02-01

    Dealing with electromagnetic fields, in particular current and related magnetic fields, yields "natural" physical vector relations in 3-D. However, when it comes to choosing local coordinate systems, the "usual" right-handed systems are not necessarily the best choices, which means that there are several options being chosen. In the magnetic fusion community such a difficulty exists for the choices of the cylindrical and of the toroidal coordinate systems. In addition many codes depend on knowledge of an equilibrium. In particular, the Grad-Shafranov axisymmetric equilibrium solution for tokamak plasmas, ψ, does not depend on the sign of the plasma current Ip nor that of the magnetic field B0. This often results in ill-defined conventions. Moreover the sign, amplitude and offset of ψ are of less importance, since the free sources in the equation depend on the normalized radial coordinate. The signs of the free sources, dp/dψ and dF2/dψ (p being the pressure, ψ the poloidal magnetic flux and F=RBφ), must be consistent to generate the current density profile. For example, RF and CD calculations (Radio Frequency heating and Current Drive) require an exact sign convention in order to calculate a co- or counter-CD component. It is shown that there are over 16 different coordinate conventions. This paper proposes a unique identifier, the COCOS convention, to distinguish between the 16 most-commonly used options. Given the present worldwide efforts towards code integration, the proposed new index COCOS defining uniquely the COordinate COnventionS required as input by a given code or module is particularly useful. As codes use different conventions, it is useful to allow different sign conventions for equilibrium code input and output, equilibrium being at the core of any calculations in magnetic fusion. Additionally, given two different COCOS conventions, it becomes simple to transform between them. The relevant transformations are described in detail.

  20. Interpretation of Conventional Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungjun; Kim, Kwang Pyo

    The conventional mass is not a precise physical quantity but useful virtual one in mass metrology. Because the precise level of conventional mass is related to the OIML class, it is necessary to check if the assignment of weight class is under control. The documents of OIML (International Organization of Legal Metrology) D 28 and R 111 describe the limitation of the quantity in real application. In this presentation, we are trying to interpret and review the concept of conventional mass, for example, by estimating buoyancy deviation and maximum permissible error, in weight calibrations in Korea. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

  1. [Solid phase techniques in blood group serology].

    PubMed

    Uthemann, H; Sturmfels, L; Lenhard, V

    1993-06-01

    As alternatives to hemagglutination, solid-phase red blood cell adherence assays are of increasing importance. The adaptation of the new techniques to microplates offers several advantages over hemagglutination. Using microplates the assays may be processed semiautomatically, and the results can be read spectrophotometrically and interpreted by a personal computer. In this paper, different red blood cell adherence assays for AB0 grouping, Rh typing, Rh phenotyping, antibody screening and identification, as well as crossmatching will be described.

  2. Airport Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2011 Photo courtesy of Dan Paluska/Flickr Denver Airport Security Screening Introduction With air travel regaining popularity and increased secu- rity measures, airport security screening has become an area of interest for ...

  3. Health Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Screenings are tests that look for diseases before you have symptoms. Screening tests can find diseases early, when they're easier ... Overweight and obesity Prostate cancer in men Which tests you need depends on your age, your sex, ...

  4. MRSA Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? MRSA Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening Related tests: Wound Culture At a Glance ...

  5. Current issues and future perspectives of gastric cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Hamashima, Chisato

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. About half of the incidence of gastric cancer is observed in East Asian countries, which show a higher mortality than other countries. The effectiveness of 3 new gastric cancer screening techniques, namely, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, serological testing, and “screen and treat” method were extensively reviewed. Moreover, the phases of development for cancer screening were analyzed on the basis of the biomarker development road map. Several observational studies have reported the effectiveness of endoscopic screening in reducing mortality from gastric cancer. On the other hand, serologic testing has mainly been used for targeting the high-risk group for gastric cancer. To date, the effectiveness of new techniques for gastric cancer screening has remained limited. However, endoscopic screening is presently in the last trial phase of development before their introduction to population-based screening. To effectively introduce new techniques for gastric cancer screening in a community, incidence and mortality reduction from gastric cancer must be initially and thoroughly evaluated by conducting reliable studies. In addition to effectiveness evaluation, the balance of benefits and harms must be carefully assessed before introducing these new techniques for population-based screening. PMID:25320514

  6. Current issues and future perspectives of gastric cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Hamashima, Chisato

    2014-10-14

    Gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. About half of the incidence of gastric cancer is observed in East Asian countries, which show a higher mortality than other countries. The effectiveness of 3 new gastric cancer screening techniques, namely, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, serological testing, and "screen and treat" method were extensively reviewed. Moreover, the phases of development for cancer screening were analyzed on the basis of the biomarker development road map. Several observational studies have reported the effectiveness of endoscopic screening in reducing mortality from gastric cancer. On the other hand, serologic testing has mainly been used for targeting the high-risk group for gastric cancer. To date, the effectiveness of new techniques for gastric cancer screening has remained limited. However, endoscopic screening is presently in the last trial phase of development before their introduction to population-based screening. To effectively introduce new techniques for gastric cancer screening in a community, incidence and mortality reduction from gastric cancer must be initially and thoroughly evaluated by conducting reliable studies. In addition to effectiveness evaluation, the balance of benefits and harms must be carefully assessed before introducing these new techniques for population-based screening. PMID:25320514

  7. Cincinnati; Our Convention City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchin, Anna

    1970-01-01

    During Easter week, 1971, Cincinnati will be the hostess of the 50th anniversary convention of the Catholic Library Association. Items of historical interest concerning the city are briefly described. (NH)

  8. Serological Diagnosis of Brucella Infections in Odontocetes▿

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; Manire, Charles A.; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Staggs, Lydia; Thompson, Rachel; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Moreno, Edgardo

    2009-01-01

    Brucella ceti causes disease in Odontoceti. The absence of control serum collections and the diversity of cetaceans have hampered the standardization of serological tests for the diagnosis of cetacean brucellosis. Without a “gold” standard for sensitivity and specificity determination, an alternative approach was followed. We designed an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) that recognizes immunoglobulins G (IgGs) from 17 odontocete species as a single group. For the standardization, we used Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharides, serum samples from seven resident odontocetes with no history of infectious disease displaying negative rose bengal test (RBT) reactions, and serum samples from seven dolphins infected with B. ceti. We compared the performance of the iELISA with those of the protein G ELISA (gELISA), the competitive ELISA (cELISA), and the immunofluorescence (IF) and dot blot (DB) tests, using 179 odontocete serum samples and RBT as the reference. The diagnostic potential based on sensitivity and specificity of the iELISA was superior to that of gELISA and cELISA. The correlation and agreement between the iELISA and the gELISA were relatively good (Ri/g2 = 0.65 and κi/g = 0.66, respectively), while the correlation and agreement of these two ELISAs with cELISA were low (Ri/c2 = 0.46, Rg/c2 = 0.37 and κi/c = 0.62, κg/c = 0.42). In spite of using the same anti-odontocete IgG antibody, the iELISA was more specific than were the IF and DB tests. An association between high antibody titers and the presence of neurological symptoms in dolphins was observed. The prediction is that iELISA based on broadly cross-reacting anti-dolphin IgG antibody would be a reliable test for the diagnosis of brucellosis in odontocetes, including families not covered in this study. PMID:19386800

  9. Serological pattern of Hepatitis B, C, and HIV infections among immigrants in Sicily: epidemiological aspects and implication on public health.

    PubMed

    Tramuto, Fabio; Mazzucco, Walter; Maida, Carmelo Massimo; Affronti, Andrea; Affronti, Mario; Montalto, Giuseppe; Vitale, Francesco

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in a cohort of immigrants living in Palermo, Sicily. The study was carried out in the period May 2006-June 2010 and recruited a total of 393 patients (59.8% males-median age of 32.6 years). All patients were tested for serological markers of HBV, HCV, and HIV infection. One-hundred thirty-eight (35.1%) individuals did not show any HBV/HCV/HIV serological marker, while 186 (47.3%) were indicative of past or current HBV infection. A total of 42 (10.7%) subjects were HBsAg positive, 59 (15.0%) showed the serological profile "anti-HBc alone", and only 40 (10.1%) were anti-HBs alone. Overall, 22/393 (5.6%) immigrants were anti-HCV positive and 13/327 (4.0%) were infected with HIV. Findings from this study suggest that a suitable screening protocol for the viral blood/sexually transmissible diseases is recommended on entering Italy, and the adoption of health control strategies should also be considered to safeguard the health of the local population.

  10. High Incidence of Serologic Markers of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Asymptomatic Patients with Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Nicole T; Chengsupanimit, Tayoot; Brown, Laurie M; Weinstein, David A

    2015-01-01

    Most patients with glycogen storage disease (GSD) type Ib show features related to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The development of IBD seems to be associated with the defect of neutrophil function in GSD Ib. Patients with GSD Ia were not recognized to have similar gastrointestinal complaints until recently and are not associated with a neutrophil defect. Fifty consecutive GSD Ia inpatients over the age of 2 years without a diagnosis of IBD were screened using serologic and genetic markers via the Prometheus IBD sgi Diagnostic test. Eleven patients were tested positive for IBD (22%), with five fitting the pattern for Crohn's disease, five for ulcerative colitis, and one with nonspecific IBD. Only 2 out of the 11 patients had any gastrointestinal complaints. No pattern could be distinguished from individual inflammatory markers, genetics, inflammation antibodies, age, complications, or metabolic control. Of note, 9 out of 11 patients testing positive were female. Patients with GSD Ia were found to have a higher rate of serologically indicated IBD when compared with the general population. While these subjects will need to be followed to determine if these serologic markers correlate with clinical disease, this study supports that IBD may be more common in the GSD Ia population. Further studies are warranted to explain the relationship between IBD and GSD I since it may provide clues regarding the pathogenesis of IBD development in the general population. PMID:26093626

  11. Towards measles elimination in Italy: monitoring herd immunity by Bayesian mixture modelling of serological data.

    PubMed

    Del Fava, Emanuele; Shkedy, Ziv; Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo; Manfredi, Piero

    2012-08-01

    The analysis of post-vaccination serological data poses nontrivial issues to the epidemiologists and policy makers who want to assess the effects of immunisation programmes. This is especially true for infections on the path to elimination as is the case for measles. We address these problems by using Bayesian Normal mixture models fitted to antibody counts data. This methodology allows us to estimate the seroprevalence of measles by age and, in contrast to conventional methods based on fixed cut-off points, to also distinguish between groups of individuals with different degrees of immunisation. We applied our methodology to two serological samples collected in Tuscany (Italy) in 2003 and in 2005-2006 respectively, i.e., before and after a large vaccination campaign targeted to school-age children. Besides showing the impact of the campaign, we were able to accurately identify a large pocket of susceptible individuals aged about 13-14 in 2005-2006, and a larger group of weakly immune individuals aged about 20 in 2005-2006. These cohorts therefore represent possible targets for further interventions towards measles elimination.

  12. Expression from baculovirus and serological reactivity of the nucleocapsid protein of dolphin morbillivirus.

    PubMed

    Grant, Rebecca J; Kelley, Karen L; Maruniak, James E; Garcia-Maruniak, Alejandra; Barrett, Tom; Manire, Charles A; Romero, Carlos H

    2010-07-14

    The nucleocapsid (N) protein of dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) was expressed from a baculovirus (Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus) vector and shown by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis to be about 57 kDa. Transmission electron microscopy revealed fully assembled nucleocapsid-like particles (NLPs) exhibiting the typical helical herringbone morphology. These NLPs were approximately 20-22 nm in diameter and varied in length from 50 to 100 nm. Purified DMV-N protein was used as antigen in an indirect ELISA (iELISA) and shown to react with rabbit and human antisera to measles virus (MV) and dog sera with antibodies to canine distemper virus (CDV). The iELISA was used for the demonstration of morbillivirus antibodies in the serum of cetaceans and manatees, showing potential as a serological tool for the mass screening of morbillivirus antibodies in marine mammals. PMID:20005643

  13. Comparison of serological tests for the detection of antibody to natural and experimental murine cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Lussier, G; Guénette, D; Descôteaux, J P

    1987-04-01

    Three serological tests, i.e. complement fixation test, indirect immunofluorescent assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were compared for sensitivity in the detection and titration of murine cytomegalovirus antibody. The three tests were compared using sera from experimentally inoculated and naturally infected mice bled at intervals from 3 to 140 days postinfection. In the acute infection, complement fixation and indirect immunofluorescent assay tests were of comparable sensitivity for early detection of antibody, whereas the ELISA was less sensitive. In persistent infection, higher titers were recorded with ELISA. Since murine cytomegalovirus has been shown to exert significant effects on the immune response of infected mice, this antigen should be included routinely in viral antibody screening programs.

  14. Molecular and serological rapid tests as markers of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in dogs in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Lizundia, Regina; Picado, Albert; Cordero, Marlen; Calderón, Alejandra; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Montenegro, Victor M.; Urbina, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Chagas disease is a zoonotic disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and dogs are one of the main domestic reservoirs. Materials and Methods: One molecular (OligoC-TesT, Coris Bioconcept) and one serological (T. cruzi-Detect, Inbios) rapid tests were evaluated as infection markers for T. cruzi in 102 dogs living in eight villages endemic for Chagas in Costa Rica. Results: T. cruzi-Detect performed well as screening tool with 23.3% positive samples. The large number of invalid results (66.7%) observed in samples tested with OligoC-TesT precluded assessing the use of this new method as epidemiological tool to detect T. cruzi infection in dogs. PMID:25250232

  15. Evaluation of three serological tests manufactured in Belarus for the diagnosis of syphilis.

    PubMed

    Shimanskaya, Iryna; Zhurauskaya, Larisa; Pankratov, Oleg; Unemo, Magnus; Ballard, Ronald C; Domeika, Marius

    2011-05-01

    The performance of three serological tests manufactured in Belarus for the diagnosis of syphilis, i.e. a microprecipitation reaction (MPR) and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were compared with internationally recognized assays, namely the rapid plasma reagin test and the Treponema pallidum passive particle agglutination assay (TPPA). Sera from 392 consecutive patients attending Brest (Belarus) regional dermatovenereological dispensaries were tested. The sensitivity of the MPR test was low (77.3%) compared with the rapid plasma reagin test, while the specificity was high (100%). In contrast, both Belarusian ELISAs performed well when compared with the TPPA (sensitivities of 99.2% and 100%, specificities of 98.7% and 99.0%, respectively). There is a clear need to improve the sensitivity of the existing Belarusian MPR test or to use a more sensitive screening test in order to improve diagnosis of the disease in Belarus.

  16. Comparative Study of Serological Tests for Mycoplasma synoviae Diagnosis in Commercial Poultry Breeders

    PubMed Central

    Luciano, R. L.; Cardoso, A. L. S. P.; Stoppa, G. F. Z.; Kanashiro, A. M. I.; de Castro, A. G. M.; Tessari, E. N. C.

    2011-01-01

    Avian mycoplasmosis causes great economic losses to the poultry industry, and one of the major agents involved is Mycoplasma synovie (MS). Serum from commercial poultry breeders (n = 2781) was tested for MS by serum plate agglutination (SPA), hemagglutination inhibition (HI), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). From 2,781 samples tested, 736 (26.46%) were positive in SPA. From 712 SPA-positive sera, 30 samples (4.21%) were positive in HI, and 150 samples (21.06%) were positive in ELISA. Copositivity between ELISA and HI was 90%, and conegativity was 82.0%. Agreement between HI and ELISA was rejected by McNemar's test (P ≤ .001), and Kappa coefficient showed a weak correlation between the two techniques (k = 0.25; 0.21 ≤ k < 0.40). Weak statistical correlation was observed between all serological tests (SPA, HI, and ELISA), and they should only be used for initial screening for MS. PMID:21547263

  17. Rh Immunoprophylaxis for Women With a Serologic Weak D Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Virk, Mrigender; Sandler, S Gerald

    2015-01-01

    It is standard practice for pregnant RhD-negative women who have not already formed anti-D to receive antepartum Rh immunoprophylaxis and, if they deliver an RhD-positive neonate, to receive postpartum Rh immunoprophylaxis. An estimated 0.6% to 1.0% of white women have red blood cells that express a serologic weak D phenotype. Of these women, approximately 80% will have a weak D type 1, 2, or 3 that could be managed safely as RhD-positive. Surveys of laboratory practice reveal a lack of standards for interpreting the RhD type for women with a serologic weak D and for determining their need for Rh immunoprophylaxis. RhD genotyping is recommended to determine the molecular basis of serologic weak D phenotypes in pregnant women as a basis for determining their candidacy for Rh immunoprophylaxis. PMID:26199257

  18. Rh Immunoprophylaxis for Women With a Serologic Weak D Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Virk, Mrigender; Sandler, S Gerald

    2015-01-01

    It is standard practice for pregnant RhD-negative women who have not already formed anti-D to receive antepartum Rh immunoprophylaxis and, if they deliver an RhD-positive neonate, to receive postpartum Rh immunoprophylaxis. An estimated 0.6% to 1.0% of white women have red blood cells that express a serologic weak D phenotype. Of these women, approximately 80% will have a weak D type 1, 2, or 3 that could be managed safely as RhD-positive. Surveys of laboratory practice reveal a lack of standards for interpreting the RhD type for women with a serologic weak D and for determining their need for Rh immunoprophylaxis. RhD genotyping is recommended to determine the molecular basis of serologic weak D phenotypes in pregnant women as a basis for determining their candidacy for Rh immunoprophylaxis.

  19. Atypical serological profiles in hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pondé, Robério A A

    2013-04-01

    During hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, at least four antigen-antibody systems are observed: HBsAg and anti-HBs; preS antigen and anti-preS antibody; HBcAg and anti-HBc; and HBeAg and anti-HBe. Through the examination of these antigen-antibody systems, hepatitis B infection is diagnosed and the course of the disorder may be observed. Although the serologic findings that allow both the diagnosis of HBV infection as well as assessing of its clinical course are already well established, the dynamics of viral proteins expression and of the antibodies production may vary during the infection natural course. This causes the HBV infection to be occasionally associated with the presence of uncommon serological profiles, which could lead to doubts in the interpretation of results or suspicion of a serological result being incorrect. This paper is dedicated to the discussion of some of these profiles and their significance.

  20. Biologically false positive reactions to serological tests for syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Kostant, George H.

    1956-01-01

    The frequency of biologically false positive reactions to serological tests for syphilis depends on a number of factors, including the individual immunological response, the number and type of serological tests performed, and the stage of the disease producing such reactions; the relative importance of such factors is discussed. The author also considers in detail the diseases or conditions giving rise to acute or chronic biologically false positive reactions. A variety of verification tests exists for differentiating the true syphilitic reaction from the biologically false positive reaction, but none is so accurate as the Treponema pallidum immobilization and immune adherence tests, which the author considers should be used when others have proved inconclusive. In the final section of his paper, he indicates the steps to be followed in attempting to distinguish between latent syphilis and biologically false positive reactions in persons with positive serological tests but no anamnestic or clinical evidence of syphilis. PMID:13329848

  1. Detection of serological biomarkers by proximity extension assay for detection of colorectal neoplasias in symptomatic individuals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the potential of biomarkers to aid in early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is recognized and numerous biomarker candidates have been reported in the literature, to date only few molecular markers have been approved for daily clinical use. Methods In order to improve the translation of biomarkers from the bench to clinical practice we initiated a biomarker study focusing on a novel technique, the proximity extension assay, with multiplexing capability and the possible additive effect obtained from biomarker panels. We performed a screening of 74 different biomarkers in plasma derived from a case–control sample set consisting of symptomatic individuals representing CRC patients, patients with adenoma, patients with non-neoplastic large bowel diseases and healthy individuals. Results After statistical evaluation we found 12 significant indicators of CRC and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Transferrin Receptor-1 (TFRC), Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), Osteopontin (OPN/SPP1) and cancer antigen 242 (CA242) showed additive effect. This biomarker panel identified CRC patients with a sensitivity of 56% at 90% specificity and thus the performance is sufficiently high to further investigate this combination of five proteins as serological biomarkers for detection of CRC. Furthermore, when applying the indicators to identify early-stage CRC a combination of CEA, TFRC and CA242 resulted in a ROC curve with an area under the curve of 0.861. Conclusions Five plasma protein biomarkers were found to be potential CRC discriminators and three of these were additionally found to be discriminators of early-stage CRC. These explorative data in symptomatic individuals demonstrates the feasibility of the multiplex proximity extension assay for screening of potential serological protein biomarkers and warrants independent analyses in a larger sample cohort, including asymptomatic individuals, to

  2. Discordances Between Serology and Culture for Strongyloides in an Ethiopian Adopted Child With Multiple Parasitic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-Arandes, Antoni; Sulleiro, Elena; Zarzuela, Francesc; Ruiz, Edurne; Clavería, Isabel; Espasa, Mateu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: infectious diseases screening of international adoptees is complex because of the concurrence of different pathogens in a child at same time. We describe an international adopted child born at Ethiopia infected by 5 different pathogens (Hymenolepis nana, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris trichiura), 2 of them S. stercoralis and E. histolytica with a capacity to develop severe clinical complications if not detected promptly with appropriate diagnosis tests. Concerns of the patient: according to the screening protocol a stool sample is always processed for culture addressed to find out protozoan and helminthic pathogens but not specifically for S. stercoralis. Only, when eosinophilia is detected 3 serial stool samples are collected to rule out intestinal parasitic infection including S. stercoralis. Interventions: in our case, S. stercoralis would not have been detected if we had followed the protocol because eosinophilia was absent and its specific serology was negative. Fortunately, the initial inclusion of the feces charcoal culture for S. stercoralis allowed us to detect this infection. Outcomes: discordances between direct methods such as culture and indirect as serology or antigen test forces us to be very cautious before ruling out S. stercoralis or E. histolytica infection, respectively. Also, if a child from tropical areas has persistent symptoms (such as diarrhea or fever) that have not been treated we have to rule out other infections that have not been detected yet. Main lessons: The introduction of different sequencing tests and the insistence to find out pathogens such as S. stercoralis or E. histolytica was determinant to be able to cure this symptomatic child and to prevent potential severe clinical forms in case of immunosuppression. PMID:26962825

  3. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  4. Alternatives to Serologic Testing for Diagnosis of Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    Alby, Kevin; Capraro, Gerald A

    2015-12-01

    Although serologic testing remains the gold standard for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease, the antibody response may take several weeks to increase greater than the limit of detection. Because of this extended time frame, it is necessary to identify new diagnostic methods for earlier diagnosis and appropriate treatment of Lyme disease. Alternative diagnostic modalities, such as Borrelia culture or nucleic acid amplification testing, may be beneficial in specific clinical scenarios. In early phases of acute infection, before the development of an immune response, detection of Borrelia DNA from clinical specimens may help establish the diagnosis sooner than serologic methods.

  5. Convents as homes.

    PubMed

    Arias, Enrique Alberto

    2005-01-01

    The present article discusses convents as homes. Resulting from the study of a Gregorian source presently housed at DePaul University's Richardson library, this article probes the complexities and restrictions of convent life in 17th century Spain. The Sanctoral de Visperas (1653) functions as a backdrop for a consideration of how singing chant and attendant rituals enriched the lives of nuns. Also included are references to nuns from this period who were outstanding musicians and poets and whose works have recently received enthusiastic attention. PMID:16556588

  6. Convents as homes.

    PubMed

    Arias, Enrique Alberto

    2005-01-01

    The present article discusses convents as homes. Resulting from the study of a Gregorian source presently housed at DePaul University's Richardson library, this article probes the complexities and restrictions of convent life in 17th century Spain. The Sanctoral de Visperas (1653) functions as a backdrop for a consideration of how singing chant and attendant rituals enriched the lives of nuns. Also included are references to nuns from this period who were outstanding musicians and poets and whose works have recently received enthusiastic attention.

  7. [Serological diagnosis of sporotrichosis using an antigen of Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto mycelium].

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Primavera; Ostos, Ana; Franquiz, Nohelys; Roschman-González, Antonio; Zambrano, Edgar A; Mendoza, Mireya

    2015-06-01

    We developed and analyzed an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) in order to detect antibodies in sera from sporotrichosis patients. We used a crude antigen of Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto, obtained from the mycelial phase of the fungi. Positive sera were analyzed by other serological techniques such as double immunodiffusion (IGG) and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE). The assay was validated by using sera from patients with other pathologies such as: histoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, lupus and healthy individuals as negative controls. For the Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto antigen, we found a 100% of specificity by every technique and sensitivity higher than 98% with IDD, CIE and ELISA. Our results show a high sensitivity and specificity for the Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto antigen, so it can be used for IDD, CIE and ELISA. The results suggest that this antigen could be used in conjunction with other conventional tests for differential diagnosis and may be useful for monitoring the disease progression and response to treatment.

  8. Convention Problems - 1787.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Deroy L.

    Designed to motivate eighth-grade civics students in the study of the United States Constitution, this game is intended to simulate the basic problems faced by the delegates to the Philadelphia Convention of 1787. The four parts of the game introduce the governmental concepts of the bicameral legislature, the executive branch, the judicial branch,…

  9. Interpretation of screen factor measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, T.; Uhl, J.T.; Prud'Homme, R.K.

    1983-08-01

    Screen viscometer measurements give different information about polymer molecular weight and molecular weight distribution than intrinsic viscosity or relative viscosity measurements. This study shows that conventional screen viscometers measure elongation flow properties of solutions, and that for flexible polymers such as polyacrylamides, a sharp transition in conformation from a coiled to a stretched state is observed, which occurs at a Deborah number of 0.5. Conventional screen viscometers operate just above this critical Deborah number. Evidence for this transition in polymer conformation comes from measurements on a modified screen viscometer, from extensive work by Durst and Interhal on the sudden pressure jumps during flow of polyacrylamide solutions through porous media, and from polymer kinetic theory modeling of molecular deformation in flow. ll references.

  10. 21 CFR 866.3900 - Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. 866... Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents... varicella-zoster in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3900 - Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. 866... Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents... varicella-zoster in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3900 - Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. 866... Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents... varicella-zoster in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3900 - Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. 866... Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents... varicella-zoster in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3900 - Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. 866... Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents... varicella-zoster in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by...

  15. [Lectinology as a section of forensic medical serology].

    PubMed

    Potapov, M I

    2006-01-01

    General and special properties of lectins are compared with their serological peculiarities and diversity. For forensic medicine, lectins difference, with lectins anti-H as illustration, is demonstrated as manifestation of immunochemical relativity. Judgements on the function and origin of lectins are presented. PMID:16509205

  16. Identifying Recent HIV Infections: From Serological Assays to Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Moyo, Sikhulile; Wilkinson, Eduan; Novitsky, Vladimir; Vandormael, Alain; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Essex, Max; Engelbrecht, Susan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review serological and molecular based methods to identify HIV infection recency. The accurate identification of recent HIV infection continues to be an important research area and has implications for HIV prevention and treatment interventions. Longitudinal cohorts that follow HIV negative individuals over time are the current gold standard approach, but they are logistically challenging, time consuming and an expensive enterprise. Methods that utilize cross-sectional testing and biomarker information have become an affordable alternative to the longitudinal approach. These methods use well-characterized biological makers to differentiate between recent and established HIV infections. However, recent results have identified a number of limitations in serological based assays that are sensitive to the variability in immune responses modulated by HIV subtypes, viral load and antiretroviral therapy. Molecular methods that explore the dynamics between the timing of infection and viral evolution are now emerging as a promising approach. The combination of serological and molecular methods may provide a good solution to identify recent HIV infection in cross-sectional data. As part of this review, we present the advantages and limitations of serological and molecular based methods and their potential complementary role for the identification of HIV infection recency. PMID:26512688

  17. 21 CFR 866.3510 - Rubella virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3510 Rubella virus... Clinical Laboratory Standards': (i) 1/LA6 “Detection and Quantitation of Rubella IgG Antibody: Evaluation... Products in the Clinical Laboratory, October 1997,” (ii) 1/LA18 “Specifications for Immunological...

  18. Serologic incidence of some diseases in Kansas wild turkeys.

    PubMed

    Veatch, J K; Applegate, R D; Osborne, S J

    1998-01-01

    Wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo, n = 1164) were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma meleagridis, Mycoplasma synoviae, and Salmonella pullorum from 1990 to 1997. Although 3.3% of the turkeys were suspect for one or more diseases, only 0.9% were serologically positive for M. gallisepticum. These 11 positives were all from one country in south-central Kansas.

  19. Serologic analysis of returned travelers with fever, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Askling, Helena H; Lesko, Birgitta; Vene, Sirkka; Berndtson, Angerd; Björkman, Per; Bläckberg, Jonas; Bronner, Ulf; Follin, Per; Hellgren, Urban; Palmerus, Maria; Ekdahl, Karl; Tegnell, Anders; Struwe, Johan

    2009-11-01

    We studied 1,432 febrile travelers from Sweden who had returned from malaria-endemic areas during March 2005-March 2008. In 383 patients, paired serum samples were blindly analyzed for influenza and 7 other agents. For 21% of 115 patients with fever of unknown origin, serologic analysis showed that influenza was the major cause.

  20. A multipurpose serological survey in Kenya. 2. Results of arbovirus serological tests.

    PubMed

    Geser, A; Henderson, B E; Christensen, S

    1970-01-01

    Arbovirus infections are of public health interest in East Africa, where a very widespread epidemic of o'nyong-nyong fever was reported in 1959-60 and where the threat of yellow fever, present in neighbouring areas such as Ethiopia, remains. Sera collected in a serological survey in Kenya were therefore tested for antibodies against 3 group-A arboviruses (chikungunya, o'nyong-nyong and Sindbis), 6 group-B arboviruses (Zika, yellow fever, West Nile, Banzi, Wesselsbron and dengue 1), and Bunyamwera virus. The sera were examined mainly by the haemagglutination-inhibition test but a small proportion were also subjected to virus neutralization tests.The results showed that the prevalence of arbovirus tnfection varies markedly from area to area in Kenya. All types of arbovirus infections were more frequent on the coast than on the dry plateau around Kitui and the Lake Victoria area, The only exceptions were o'nyong-nyong and chikungunya, which were found to be just as prevalent on the coast as in Nyanza, where an epidemic was reported in 1959-60. Yellow fever antibodies were found to be present in about half of the people living on the coast but practically absent from the other two areas. It was concluded that the yellow fever antibodies in the coastal area must be due either to vaccination or to cross-reactions with other group-B arboviruses.

  1. [Neonatal conventional ventilation guidelines].

    PubMed

    2001-09-01

    Respiratory pathology is a frequent problem in Neonatal Intensive Care Units; the last few years, our knowledge about its management has improved enormously. Conventional Ventilatory support is a high-specialized technique that maintains a correct alveolar gas exchange while the primary aetiology is to present some clinical guidelines for every professional working with newborns who have respiratory failure improves. The aim of this document is to present some clinical guidelines for every professional working with newborns who have respiratory pathology

  2. Laparoscopic versus conventional appendectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Vallina, V L; Velasco, J M; McCulloch, C S

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to prospectively define the impact of laparoscopy on the management of patients with a presumed diagnosis of appendicitis. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: While the role of laparoscopy in the management of cholelithiasis is well established, its impact on the management of acute appendicitis needs to be objectively defined and compared to that of conventional management. Several authors have predicted that laparoscopic appendectomy will become the preferred treatment for appendicitis. METHODS: Two groups of consecutive patients with similar clinical characteristics of acute appendicitis were compared. Data on the laparoscopic group were compiled prospectively on standardized forms; data on the conventional group were collected retrospectively. Operative time, hospital stay, analgesia, cost, and return to normal activities were noted. RESULTS: Seventeen consecutive patients who underwent appendectomy were compared to 18 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopy (16 of these 18 had laparoscopic appendectomy). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of clinical characteristics and appendiceal histopathology. The mean operative times were 61 +/- 4.1 minutes and 46 +/- 2.9 minutes for the laparoscopy and conventional groups, respectively (p < 0.01). Hospital stay was significantly shorter in the laparoscopic appendectomy group, with 81% of patients being discharged on their first postoperative day (p < 0.001). The laparoscopic appendectomy patients required significantly less narcotic analgesia (p < 0.02). Return to normal activity was not significantly different between the two groups. The average total cost of laparoscopic appendectomy was 30% greater than that of conventional appendectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopy is a useful adjunct to the management of patients with a presumed clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. PMID:8239785

  3. Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in naturally-infected dogs and cats using serological, parasitological and molecular methods

    PubMed Central

    Enriquez, G.F.; Cardinal, M.V.; Orozco, M.M.; Schijman, A.G.; Gürtler, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic dogs and cats are major domestic reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi and a risk factor for parasite transmission. In this study we assessed the relative performance of a polymerase chain reaction assay targeted to minicircle DNA (kDNA-PCR) in reference to conventional serological tests, a rapid dipstick test and xenodiagnosis to detect T. cruzi infection in dogs and cats from an endemic rural area in northeastern Argentina. A total of 43 dogs and 13 cats seropositive for T. cruzi by an immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), which had been examined by xenodiagnosis, were also tested by kDNA-PCR. kDNA-PCR was nearly as sensitive as xenodiagnosis for detecting T. cruzi- infectious dogs and cats. kDNA-PCR was slightly more sensitive than xenodiagnosis in seropositive dogs (91% versus 86%, respectively) and cats (77% against 54%, respectively), but failed to detect all of the seropositive individuals. ELISA and IHA detected all xenodiagnosis-positive dogs and both outcomes largely agreed (kappa coefficient, κ = 0.92), whereas both assays failed to detect all of the xenodiagnosis-positive cats and their agreement was moderate (κ = 0.68). In dogs, the sensitivity of the dipstick test was 95% and agreed closely with the outcome of conventional serological tests (κ = 0.82). The high sensitivity of kDNA-PCR to detect T. cruzi infections in naturally-infected dogs and cats supports its application as a diagnostic tool complementary to serology and may replace the use of xenodiagnosis or hemoculture. PMID:23499860

  4. Adequacy of the ELISA test for screening corneal transplant donors.

    PubMed

    Goode, S M; Hertzmark, E; Steinert, R F

    1988-10-15

    Using a simple mathematical model, we calculated the risk for a patient undergoing penetrating keratoplasty to receive a cornea from a human immunodeficiency virus-infected donor despite negative results on serologic testing of donor serum. This error in serologic testing occurred when false-negative results were obtained from the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay used to screen donor corneas for human immunodeficiency virus exposure. The average risk of transplanting an infected cornea was low, 0.03%, but increased by a factor of ten when donor tissue from donors at high risk for AIDS was used. Current screening procedures are probably adequate to prevent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, but increased vigilance for high-risk donor populations may be appropriate.

  5. Serological speciation of human schistosome infections by ELISA with a panel of three antigens

    PubMed Central

    Turner, P; Lalloo, K; Bligh, J; Armstrong, M; Whitty, C J M; Doenhoff, M J; Chiodini, P L

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To find out whether serology can reliably speciate human schistosomiasis using a simple enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Methods: Stored sera from 66 patients with microscopically confirmed schistosomiasis were subjected to ELISA using a panel of three antigens, namely: unfractionated Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA); CEF6, a cationic fraction of SEA; and crude S margrebowiei egg antigen, prepared from an animal schistosome closely related to S haematobium. Results: The optical densities (ODs) obtained using CEF6 as antigen were significantly higher in sera from S mansoni infected patients than in sera from S haematobium infected patients (median OD, 0.810 v 0.595). Using S margrebowiei egg antigen, the optical densities were significantly higher in S haematobium sera than in S mansoni sera (median OD, 0.794 v 0.544). There was no significant difference in optical densities between S mansoni and S haematobium sera using SEA (median OD, 0.725 v 0.737). The ratio of ODs (CEF6 to S margrebowiei egg antigen) was calculated: a ratio of >1 indicated S mansoni infection (sensitivity, 88%) and a ratio of <1 indicated S haematobium infection (sensitivity, 84%). The odds ratio for S haematobium having an OD ratio of <1 was 36.8 (95% confidence interval, 7.0 to 194). Conclusions: The identity of the infecting species of schistosome can be determined using the panel of antigens described. SEA should be used to screen serum samples, and the CEF6 : S margrebowiei egg antigen ELISA optical density ratio can be used where serological speciation is required. PMID:15509682

  6. Serological Diagnosis of Chronic Chagas Disease: Is It Time for a Change?

    PubMed

    Abras, Alba; Gállego, Montserrat; Llovet, Teresa; Tebar, Silvia; Herrero, Mercedes; Berenguer, Pere; Ballart, Cristina; Martí, Carmen; Muñoz, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    Chagas disease has spread to areas that are nonendemic for the disease with human migration. Since no single reference standard test is available, serological diagnosis of chronic Chagas disease requires at least two tests. New-generation techniques have significantly improved the accuracy of Chagas disease diagnosis by the use of a large mixture of recombinant antigens with different detection systems, such as chemiluminescence. The aim of the present study was to assess the overall accuracy of a new-generation kit, the Architect Chagas (cutoff, ≥1 sample relative light units/cutoff value [S/CO]), as a single technique for the diagnosis of chronic Chagas disease. The Architect Chagas showed a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 99.5 to 100%) and a specificity of 97.6% (95% CI, 95.2 to 99.9%). Five out of six false-positive serum samples were a consequence of cross-reactivity with Leishmania spp., and all of them achieved results of <5 S/CO. We propose the Architect Chagas as a single technique for screening in blood banks and for routine diagnosis in clinical laboratories. Only gray-zone and positive sera with a result of ≤6 S/CO would need to be confirmed by a second serological assay, thus avoiding false-positive sera and the problem of cross-reactivity with Leishmania species. The application of this proposal would result in important savings in the cost of Chagas disease diagnosis and therefore in the management and control of the disease.

  7. Serologic assays for the detection and strain identification of Pteropine orthoreovirus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harpal; Shimojima, Masayuki; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Fukuma, Aiko; Tani, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Yang, Ming; Sugamata, Masami; Morikawa, Shigeru; Saijo, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV), potentially of bat origin, is reported to be a causative agent of emerging respiratory tract infections among humans in Southeast Asia. We evaluated the efficacy of serologic assays using the major outer capsid and cell attachment proteins (CAP) of PRV strains in the screening, confirmation and identification of three groups of human PRV infections; Indonesian/Japanese, Indonesian/Hong Kong and Malaysian strains. The different serologic assays were tested using rabbit polyclonal antisera raised against these proteins of selected PRV strains, and validation was carried out using sera from a Miyazaki-Bali/2007 PRV-infected patient and the patient's contacts. The results of this study showed that rabbit polyclonal antisera raised against the CAP of the Miyazaki-Bali/2007 PRV strain showed the highest reactivity to the Miyazaki-Bali/2007 PRV and to a lesser extent, cross-reactivity with the HK23629/07 and Melaka PRVs, respectively. Neutralization activity against the Miyazaki-Bali/2007 PRV was observed using rabbit anti-Miyazaki-Bali/2007 PRV CAP (320) but not with rabbit anti-HK23629/07 (<20) and Melaka (<20) PRV CAP. This lack of cross-neutralization, suggests the potential for human reinfection with different strains. The use of sera collected from contacts of the Miyazaki-Bali/2007 PRV-infected patient suggested that human-to-human infections with PRV are unlikely. Previously reported cases of PRV infections among human have been mild. However, the expanding geographic distribution of these viruses, of which its virulence remains unknown, warrants close monitoring to enable the development of prevention and control strategies in the event that a change in virulence occurs. PMID:27165561

  8. Serologic assays for the detection and strain identification of Pteropine orthoreovirus

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harpal; Shimojima, Masayuki; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Fukuma, Aiko; Tani, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Yang, Ming; Sugamata, Masami; Morikawa, Shigeru; Saijo, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV), potentially of bat origin, is reported to be a causative agent of emerging respiratory tract infections among humans in Southeast Asia. We evaluated the efficacy of serologic assays using the major outer capsid and cell attachment proteins (CAP) of PRV strains in the screening, confirmation and identification of three groups of human PRV infections; Indonesian/Japanese, Indonesian/Hong Kong and Malaysian strains. The different serologic assays were tested using rabbit polyclonal antisera raised against these proteins of selected PRV strains, and validation was carried out using sera from a Miyazaki-Bali/2007 PRV-infected patient and the patient's contacts. The results of this study showed that rabbit polyclonal antisera raised against the CAP of the Miyazaki-Bali/2007 PRV strain showed the highest reactivity to the Miyazaki-Bali/2007 PRV and to a lesser extent, cross-reactivity with the HK23629/07 and Melaka PRVs, respectively. Neutralization activity against the Miyazaki-Bali/2007 PRV was observed using rabbit anti-Miyazaki-Bali/2007 PRV CAP (320) but not with rabbit anti-HK23629/07 (<20) and Melaka (<20) PRV CAP. This lack of cross-neutralization, suggests the potential for human reinfection with different strains. The use of sera collected from contacts of the Miyazaki-Bali/2007 PRV-infected patient suggested that human-to-human infections with PRV are unlikely. Previously reported cases of PRV infections among human have been mild. However, the expanding geographic distribution of these viruses, of which its virulence remains unknown, warrants close monitoring to enable the development of prevention and control strategies in the event that a change in virulence occurs. PMID:27165561

  9. Rising trends of neurocysticercosis: A serological report from tertiary-care hospital in South India

    PubMed Central

    Thamilselvan, Piriyatharisini; Muthuraman, Krishna Raj; Mandal, Jharna; Parija, Subash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Taenia solium is a common two-host parasitic cestode, residing in both humans (definitive) and pigs (intermediate). Invasion of this parasitic cyst into central nervous system leads to a condition known as neurocysticercosis (NCC). The World Health Organization (WHO) considers NCC as one of the “most neglected” tropical zoonotic diseases. The disease is presented with pleomorphic clinical manifestations, of which epilepsy is the most common. Diagnosis of NCC is carried out by serological tests and imaging methods. Only a few studies from Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Pondicherry are available regarding the seropositive levels of NCC in South India. Materials and Methods: A descriptive analysis was carried out on NCC suspected patients attending outpatient or inpatient department of different clinics majorly from neurology, medicine, pediatrics, ophthalmology, and skin at Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, a tertiary care hospital in South India. A total of 391 patient samples (either serum or cerebrospinal fluid or urine) for 5 years from January 2011 to December 2015 were taken into the study. Serological investigations such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme-linked immunoelectro transfer blot were performed for assessing the seropositivity levels of NCC. Results: The overall seropositive cases of NCC in the study population were found to be 32.5% of which positive male cases (59.1%) exceeding females (40.9%). The frequency of adult positive cases (77.2%) was more than that of pediatrics cases (22.8%) with an average of 30.9 years of age. Conclusions: NCC seropositive levels show an increasing trend with the study period. This necessitates a proper attention to the unnoticed spread of the parasitic disease, which affects the quality of life in the community. Quality screening and diagnostic strategy should be implied along with proper awareness for preventive measure practices

  10. Streptococcal screen

    MedlinePlus

    A negative strep screen most often means group A streptococcus is not present. It is unlikely that you have strep throat. If your provider still thinks that you may have strep throat, a throat culture will be done.

  11. Hypertension screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  12. Developmental Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Learn More about Your Child’s Development: Developmental Monitoring and Screening Taking a first step, waving “bye-bye,” and pointing to something interesting are all developmental milestones, ...

  13. TORCH screen

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a newborn. TORCH stands for toxoplasmosis , rubella , cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, and HIV, but it can also ... to screen infants for infections such as toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, syphilis and others. These infections may ...

  14. Get Screened

    MedlinePlus

    ... Get Ready 3 of 4 sections Take Action: Cost and Insurance What about cost? Depending on your insurance plan, you may be able to get screening tests at no cost to you. Most insurance plans, including Medicaid and ...

  15. Newborn Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pulse Oximetry Screening for CCHDs Sickle Cell Disease Laboratory SCID Quality Assurance Training and Resources For Lab Professionals Data and Reports Laboratory Reports National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) Resources ...

  16. Conventional magnetic superconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Wolowiec, C. T.; White, B. D.; Maple, M. B.

    2015-07-01

    We discuss several classes of conventional magnetic superconductors including the ternary rhodium borides and molybdenum chalcogenides (or Chevrel phases), and the quaternary nickel-borocarbides. These materials exhibit some exotic phenomena related to the interplay between superconductivity and long-range magnetic order including: the coexistence of superconductivity and antiferromagnetic order; reentrant and double reentrant superconductivity, magnetic field induced superconductivity, and the formation of a sinusoidally-modulated magnetic state that coexists with superconductivity. We introduce the article with a discussion of the binary and pseudobinary superconducting materials containing magnetic impurities which at best exhibit short-range “glassy” magnetic order. Early experiments on these materials led tomore » the idea of a magnetic exchange interaction between the localized spins of magnetic impurity ions and the spins of the conduction electrons which plays an important role in understanding conventional magnetic superconductors. Furthermore, these advances provide a natural foundation for investigating unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds, cuprates, and other classes of materials in which superconductivity coexists with, or is in proximity to, a magnetically-ordered phase.« less

  17. Conventional magnetic superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Wolowiec, C. T.; White, B. D.; Maple, M. B.

    2015-07-01

    We discuss several classes of conventional magnetic superconductors including the ternary rhodium borides and molybdenum chalcogenides (or Chevrel phases), and the quaternary nickel-borocarbides. These materials exhibit some exotic phenomena related to the interplay between superconductivity and long-range magnetic order including: the coexistence of superconductivity and antiferromagnetic order; reentrant and double reentrant superconductivity, magnetic field induced superconductivity, and the formation of a sinusoidally-modulated magnetic state that coexists with superconductivity. We introduce the article with a discussion of the binary and pseudobinary superconducting materials containing magnetic impurities which at best exhibit short-range “glassy” magnetic order. Early experiments on these materials led to the idea of a magnetic exchange interaction between the localized spins of magnetic impurity ions and the spins of the conduction electrons which plays an important role in understanding conventional magnetic superconductors. Furthermore, these advances provide a natural foundation for investigating unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds, cuprates, and other classes of materials in which superconductivity coexists with, or is in proximity to, a magnetically-ordered phase.

  18. SEROLOGY OF THE SOLUBLE ANTIGENS OF THE PATHOGENIC CLOSTRIDIA

    PubMed Central

    Ellner, Paul D.; Green, Stanley S.

    1963-01-01

    Ellner, Paul D. (University of Vermont, Burlington), and Stanley S. Green. Serology of the soluble antigens of the pathogenic clostridia. J. Bacteriol. 86:1084–1097. 1963.—Soluble antigens of 42 strains, representing nine species of clostridia commonly occurring in human infections, were prepared by growing the organisms in a nonantigenic medium. Serological studies demonstrated the occurrence of considerable strain variation within each species. Interactions among the nine species, as well as with the previously characterized Clostridium perfringens, were also investigated. Extreme heterogeneity was observed among the species studied, with many cross-reactions due to common antigens, although species-specific antigens were also found in some cases. Occasional weak reactions were also demonstrated between certain clostridial antisera and the soluble antigens of three of the four species of Bacillus studied. Images PMID:14080776

  19. Serological and histological diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Goudie, R. B.; Macsween, R. N. M.; Goldberg, D. M.

    1966-01-01

    A simple immunofluorescence test for antibody to a mitochondrial antigen present in many tissues is a reliable method of distinguishing most cases of primary biliary cirrhosis from jaundice due to extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction. Of 30 cases diagnosed as primary biliary cirrhosis, 26 had antimitochondrial antibody whereas none of 77 cases with jaundice due to extrahepatic bile duct obstruction showed this serological abnormality. The antibody was also found in the serum of three of 42 patients who had other forms of cirrhosis and in two of 266 patients with no evidence of liver disease. Clinical, biochemical, and serological findings favour the view that primary biliary cirrhosis is a real entity which, in our present state of knowledge, cannot be defined clearly by any single method of investigation. In particular, the liver may show a variety of histological appearances which, interpreted without regard to the other features of the case, may lead to errors in diagnosis. Images PMID:5333256

  20. Prevalence of Treponema pallidum DNA among blood donors with two different serologic tests profiles for syphilis in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, S C; de Almeida-Neto, C; Nishiya, A S; Di-Lorenzo-Oliveira, C; Ferreira, J E; Alencar, C S; Levi, J E; Salles, N A; Mendrone-Junior, A; Sabino, E C

    2014-05-01

    The presence of Treponema pallidum DNA was assessed by real-time PCR in samples of blood donors with reactive serologic tests for syphilis. Treponema pallidum DNA was detected in two (1·02%) of 197 samples of VDRL>8, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ donors, and in no sample from 80 VDRL−, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ donors. Donors VDRL−, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ lack demonstrable T. pallidum DNA in their blood and are unlike to transmit syphilis. Donors VDRL>8, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ carry the risk of syphilis infectivity even in concomitance to antibodies detection. Serologic screening for syphilis may still play a role to prevent its transfusion transmission. PMID:24877236

  1. Recent Trends in the Serologic Diagnosis of Syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ameeta E.

    2014-01-01

    Complexities in the diagnosis of syphilis continue to challenge clinicians. While direct tests (e.g., microscopy or PCR) are helpful in early syphilis, the mainstay of diagnosis remains serologic tests. The traditional algorithm using a nontreponemal test (NTT) followed by a treponemal test (TT) remains the standard in many parts of the world. More recently, the ability to automate the TT has led to the increasingly widespread use of reverse algorithms using treponemal enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). Rapid, point-of-care TTs are in widespread use in developing countries because of low cost, ease of use, and reasonable performance. However, none of the current diagnostic algorithms are able to distinguish current from previously treated infections. In addition, the reversal of traditional syphilis algorithms has led to uncertainty in the clinical management of patients. The interpretation of syphilis tests is further complicated by the lack of a reliable gold standard for syphilis diagnostics, and the newer tests can result in false-positive reactions similar to those seen with older tests. Little progress has been made in the area of serologic diagnostics for congenital syphilis, which requires assessment of maternal treatment and serologic response as well as clinical and laboratory investigation of the neonate for appropriate management. The diagnosis of neurosyphilis continues to require the collection of cerebrospinal fluid for a combination of NTT and TT, and, while newer treponemal EIAs look promising, more studies are needed to confirm their utility. This article reviews current tests and discusses current controversies in syphilis diagnosis, with a focus on serologic tests. PMID:25428245

  2. Aseptic Laboratory Techniques: Volume Transfers with Serological Pipettes and Micropipettors

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Erin R.

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are everywhere - in the air, soil, and human body as well as on inanimate surfaces like laboratory benches and computer keyboards. The ubiquity of microbes creates a copious supply of potential contaminants in a laboratory. To ensure experimental success, the number of contaminants on equipment and work surfaces must be minimized. Common among many experiments in microbiology are techniques involving the measurement and transfer of cultures containing bacterial cells or viral particles. To do so without contacting non-sterile surfaces or contaminating sterile media requires (1) preparing a sterile workspace, (2) precisely setting and accurately reading instruments for aseptic transfer of liquids, and (3) properly manipulating instruments, cultures flasks, bottles and tubes within a sterile field. Learning these procedures calls for training and practice. At first, actions should be slow, deliberate, and controlled with the goal being for aseptic technique to become second nature when working at the bench. Here we present the steps for measuring volumes using serological pipettes and micropipettors within a sterile field created by a Bunsen burner. Volumes range from microliters (μl) to milliliters (ml) depending on the instrument used. Liquids commonly transferred include sterile broth or chemical solutions as well as bacterial cultures and phage stocks. By following these procedures, students should be able to: •Work within the sterile field created by the Bunsen burner flame. •Use serological pipettes without compromising instrument sterility.• Aspirate liquids with serological pipettes, precisely reading calibrated volumes by aligning the meniscus formed by the liquid to the graduation marks on the pipette. •Keep culture bottles, flasks, tubes and their respective caps sterile during liquid transfers. •Identify different applications for plastic versus glass serological pipettes. •State accuracy limitations for micropipettors.

  3. Recent trends in the serologic diagnosis of syphilis.

    PubMed

    Morshed, Muhammad G; Singh, Ameeta E

    2015-02-01

    Complexities in the diagnosis of syphilis continue to challenge clinicians. While direct tests (e.g., microscopy or PCR) are helpful in early syphilis, the mainstay of diagnosis remains serologic tests. The traditional algorithm using a nontreponemal test (NTT) followed by a treponemal test (TT) remains the standard in many parts of the world. More recently, the ability to automate the TT has led to the increasingly widespread use of reverse algorithms using treponemal enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). Rapid, point-of-care TTs are in widespread use in developing countries because of low cost, ease of use, and reasonable performance. However, none of the current diagnostic algorithms are able to distinguish current from previously treated infections. In addition, the reversal of traditional syphilis algorithms has led to uncertainty in the clinical management of patients. The interpretation of syphilis tests is further complicated by the lack of a reliable gold standard for syphilis diagnostics, and the newer tests can result in false-positive reactions similar to those seen with older tests. Little progress has been made in the area of serologic diagnostics for congenital syphilis, which requires assessment of maternal treatment and serologic response as well as clinical and laboratory investigation of the neonate for appropriate management. The diagnosis of neurosyphilis continues to require the collection of cerebrospinal fluid for a combination of NTT and TT, and, while newer treponemal EIAs look promising, more studies are needed to confirm their utility. This article reviews current tests and discusses current controversies in syphilis diagnosis, with a focus on serologic tests.

  4. Lipopolysaccharides as Determinants of Serological Variability in Pseudomonas corrugata

    PubMed Central

    Siverio, F.; Cambra, M.; Gorris, M. T.; Corzo, J.; Lopez, M. M.

    1993-01-01

    The variation in biochemical and serological features of 128 isolates of Pseudomonas corrugata has been studied with 56 isolates from Spain and 72 isolates from other countries. Isolates were analyzed with common diagnostic tests and with the AP150CHE system. Variability among isolates for some standard tests usually listed as positive or negative for this species, such as arginine dihydrolase and gelatin hydrolysis, lipase and lecithinase activities, pigment production, and wrinkled colony morphology, was observed. Three antisera were raised against the type strain and two Spanish isolates from tomato and pepper plants. Serological reactions were studied by indirect immunofluorescence and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Eighty-three isolates reacted with a single antiserum, 6 reacted with two antisera, and none reacted with three antisera. Thirty-nine isolates did not react with any of the three antisera. These results suggest that serology will not be a useful method for routine diagnosis of P. corrugata unless common antigens can be identified. Electrophoresis and immunoelectrotransfer were used to study the antigens involved. Each antiserum reacted with whole-cell lysates, giving two common bands for P. corrugata isolates and other Pseudomonas species and a ladder-like pattern characteristic of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Common bands were not observed after proteinase K treatment. More than 10 LPS patterns were distinguished in 98 isolates after silver staining of polyacrylamide gels. There was no correlation between the geographical origin or host of the isolates and the LPS patterns. A correlation between LPS groups and serological reaction was observed. Images PMID:16348957

  5. Seroprevalence of human brucellosis in and around Jammu, India, using different serological tests

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, H. K.; Kotwal, S. K.; Singh, D. K.; Malik, M. A.; Kumar, Arvind; Rajagunalan; Singh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Brucellosis is a disease of zoonotic importance as it affects both human as well as animal’s health, and therefore, directly affects animal productivity and human efficiency. Therefore, a study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans in Jammu and surrounding areas. Materials and Methods: A total of 121 sera samples from humans occupied with professional related to animals were collected and tested for anti-Brucella antibodies by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), modified RBPT (mRBPT), standard tube agglutination test (STAT), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). Sampling was done keeping in view with the occupation, sex, and age. Results: The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis recorded was 4.96%. The test-wise seroprevalence was 9.91% by RBPT, 9.91% by mRBPT, 9.09% by STAT, and 16.52% by I-ELISA. The prevalence of brucellosis was higher in >35-50 years age group compared to >20-35 years and >50-65 years. Sex-wise seroprevalence was higher in males than females. Taking I-ELISA as standard, the relative sensitivities of mRBPT, RBPT, and I-ELISA were in the order of mRBPT=RBPT>STAT. All the tests revealed high specificity values; however, among different serological tests, I-ELISA detected a maximum number of positive sera samples. Conclusions: The prevalence of brucellosis was found to be approximately 5%. The adult (>35-50 years) age male group was most vulnerable. The routine diagnosis of brucellosis involved the conventional serological tests, viz., RBPT and STAT, but each was associated with drawbacks which could give either false-positive or false-negative interpretation. Therefore, it is always recommended to use a battery of tests in the diagnosis of brucellosis. PMID:27536036

  6. Establishment of serological test to detect antibody against ferret coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    MINAMI, Shohei; TERADA, Yutaka; SHIMODA, Hiroshi; TAKIZAWA, Masaki; ONUMA, Mamoru; OTA, Akihiko; OTA, Yuichi; AKABANE, Yoshihito; TAMUKAI, Kenichi; WATANABE, Keiichiro; NAGANUMA, Yumiko; KANAGAWA, Eiichi; NAKAMURA, Kaneichi; OHASHI, Masanari; TAKAMI, Yoshinori; MIWA, Yasutsugu; TANOUE, Tomoaki; OHWAKI, Masao; OHTA, Jouji; UNE, Yumi; MAEDA, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Since there is no available serological methods to detect antibodies to ferret coronavirus (FRCoV), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant partial nucleocapsid (N) proteins of the ferret coronavirus (FRCoV) Yamaguchi-1 strain was developed to establish a serological method for detection of FRCoV infection. Many serum samples collected from ferrets recognized both a.a. 1–179 and a.a. 180–374 of the N protein, but two serum samples did not a.a. 180–374 of the N protein. This different reactivity was also confirmed by immunoblot analysis using the serum from the ferret.Therefore, the a.a. 1–179 of the N protein was used as an ELISA antigen. Serological test was carried out using sera or plasma of ferrets in Japan. Surprisingly, 89% ferrets in Japan had been infected with FRCoV. These results indicated that our established ELISA using a.a. 1–179 of the N protein is useful for detection of antibody to FRCoV for diagnosis and seroepidemiology of FRCoV infection. PMID:26935842

  7. Serological diagnosis of Besnoitia bennetti infection in donkeys (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Ness, SallyAnne L; Schares, Gereon; Peters-Kennedy, Jeanine; Mittel, Linda D; Dubey, Jitender P; Bowman, Dwight D; Mohammed, Hussni O; Divers, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Besnoitiosis is an emerging infectious disease of donkeys (Equus asinus) in the United States for which there are currently no serologic methods of diagnosis. A study was performed to evaluate physical examination findings and 3 serologic assays for the detection of Besnoitia bennetti infection in donkeys. A prospective study of 416 donkeys from 6 privately owned herds across 5 U.S. states (New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Oregon, and Washington) was performed. Donkeys were examined for clinical lesions suggestive of besnoitiosis and evaluated for antibodies against B. bennetti using a fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and 2 immunoblot assays specific for bradyzoite and tachyzoite antigens, respectively. Donkeys were confirmed to be infected with B. bennetti by histology (cases; n = 32) and were compared to those with no clinical signs of besnoitiosis (controls; n = 384). Identifying clinical lesions in 2 or more locations correctly identified infected donkeys 83% of the time. Donkeys with besnoitiosis had significantly higher FAT titers (P < 0.001) and numbers of bradyzoite (P < 0.001) and tachyzoite (P < 0.001) immunoblot bands than control donkeys. The sensitivity and specificity of the serologic assays for detecting besnoitiosis was 88% and 96% for FAT, 81% and 91% for bradyzoite immunoblot, and 91% and 92% for tachyzoite immunoblot, respectively. Fluorescent antibody and immunoblot assays are effective at identifying donkeys with besnoitiosis and provide a more efficient and less invasive diagnostic alternative to histology.

  8. Serological antibodies in inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Prideaux, Lani; De Cruz, Peter; Ng, Siew C; Kamm, Michael A

    2012-07-01

    The diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is traditionally based on a combination of clinical, endoscopic, histological, and radiological criteria. However, further testing is needed in cases of diagnostic uncertainty and in predicting disease course. This systematic review focuses on the potential for 10 serological antibodies to fill these roles: pANCA, ASCA, anti-OmpC, anti-CBir1, anti-I2, ALCA, ACCA, AMCA, anti-L, and anti-C. We discuss their prevalence in IBD and health; their role in disease diagnosis and risk stratification; their stability over time; their presence in unaffected relatives; their association with genetic variants; and differences across ethnic groups. Serological antibodies have some role in primary diagnosis and in differentiating between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. In indeterminate colitis, preoperative measurement of serological antibodies can help to predict the likelihood of complications among patients undergoing pouch surgery. The combined presence and magnitude of a large panel of antibodies appear to be of value in predicting disease progression. There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend the use of antibody testing to predict responses to treatment or surgery in patients with IBD.

  9. Specificity dependence between serological tests for diagnosing bovine brucellosis in Brucella-free farms showing false positive serological reactions due to Yersinia enterocolitica O:9

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract When brucellosis false positive serological reactions happen in cattle, the serial use of pairs of specificity-correlated serological tests (rose bengal, complement fixation, competitive ELISA) results in specificities lower than expected. In this situation, highly specific tests, such as the indirect ELISA used alone, may be more adequate than serial testing. PMID:16454384

  10. Serologic response in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus infected with Brucella sp. using a dolphin-specific indirect ELISA.

    PubMed

    Meegan, Jenny; Dunn, J Lawrence; Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Smith, Cynthia R; Sidor, Inga; Jensen, Eric D; Van Bonn, William G; Pugh, Roberta; Ficht, Thomas; Adams, L Garry; Nielsen, Klaus; Romano, Tracy A

    2012-12-01

    Marine-origin Brucella infections and serologic evidence of exposure have been documented in multiple cetacean species. A dolphin-specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to screen bottlenose dolphin sera for anti-Brucella antibodies. A total of 131 serum samples collected over a 2 to 18 yr period from 6 bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus with confirmed Brucella infections were analyzed for the presence and magnitude of antibody titers against marine-origin Brucella to compare individual antibody responses to various disease manifestations. Additionally, an epidemiologic serologic survey of a managed population of 64 bottlenose dolphins was performed to evaluate for the presence of antibodies and to determine whether there were any clinical pathology predictors for exposure or infection. The serologic results revealed that the dolphins with Brucella-associated abortions were seronegative for 7 to 18 yr until after the abortion and maintained positive titers for several years, with 2 of 3 animals returning to seronegative status. In contrast, the dolphins with Brucella-associated pulmonary or bone lesions maintained persistent positive titers for 2 to 18 yr. The population serosurvey revealed no significant differences in antibody levels among males and females, and dolphins between the ages of 17 and 25 yr were 6.8 times more likely to be Brucella antibody positive compared to those that were younger or older. Seropositive dolphins did not have significant inflammation compared to seronegative dolphins but were more likely to have higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Among 16 dolphins that tested seropositive, 13 (81.3%) had previously been seropositive for at least 3 to 5 yr.

  11. Conventional mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Joseph D.

    2010-01-01

    The provision of mechanical ventilation for the support of infants and children with respiratory failure or insufficiency is one of the most common techniques that are performed in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Despite its widespread application in the PICUs of the 21st century, before the 1930s, respiratory failure was uniformly fatal due to the lack of equipment and techniques for airway management and ventilatory support. The operating rooms of the 1950s and 1960s provided the arena for the development of the manual skills and the refinement of the equipment needed for airway management, which subsequently led to the more widespread use of endotracheal intubation thereby ushering in the era of positive pressure ventilation. Although there seems to be an ever increasing complexity in the techniques of mechanical ventilation, its successful use in the PICU should be guided by the basic principles of gas exchange and the physiology of respiratory function. With an understanding of these key concepts and the use of basic concepts of mechanical ventilation, this technique can be successfully applied in both the PICU and the operating room. This article reviews the basic physiology of gas exchange, principles of pulmonary physiology, and the concepts of mechanical ventilation to provide an overview of the knowledge required for the provision of conventional mechanical ventilation in various clinical arenas. PMID:20927268

  12. Clinically and/or Serologically Misleading Findings Surrounding Immune Haemolytic Anaemias.

    PubMed

    Salama, Abdulgabar

    2015-09-01

    Autoimmune haemolytic anaemias (AIHAs) are well-characterized disorders. They can be differentiated from one another and from other non-immune haemolytic anaemias by clinical, laboratory and serological testing. However, several misleading clinical presentations and/or serological findings may result in misinterpretation, delay and/or misdiagnosis. Such failures are avoidable by adequate clinical and serological experience of the responsible physicians and serologists or, at least, by an optimised bidirectional communication. As long as this has not been achieved, unpleasant failures are to be expected. A true diagnosis of AIHA can neither be verified by clinical nor serological findings alone. Thus, a collective clinical and serological picture remains obligatory for fulfilling the criteria of optimal diagnosis and therapy. Ultimately, the majority of pioneer scientific and practical work in this field stems from scientists who were simultaneously involved in both the clinic and serology.

  13. Screening for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains three sections: Fundamentals of Screening, Screening Tests, and Screening for Specific Cancer Sites. Each section consists of several chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Principles of Screening and of the Evaluation of Screening Programs; Economic Aspects of Screening; Cervical Cytology; Screening Tests for Bladder Cancer; Fecal Occult Blood Testing; Screening for Cancer of the Cervix; Screening for Gastric Cancer; and Screening for Oral Cancer.

  14. ESD and the Rio Conventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.; Ravindranath, Shailaja; Schwarz, Rixa; Vyas, Purvi

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, a key document of the 1992 Earth Summit, emphasised reorienting education towards sustainable development. While two of the Rio conventions, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developed communication, education and public awareness (CEPA)…

  15. Sparse serological evidence of H5N1 avian influenza virus infections in domestic cats, northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lingshuang; Zhou, Pei; He, Shuyi; Luo, Yongfeng; Jia, Kun; Fu, Cheng; Sun, Yao; He, Huamei; Tu, Liqing; Ning, Zhangyong; Yuan, Ziguo; Wang, Heng; Li, Shoujun; Yuan, Liguo

    2015-05-01

    Today the cross-species transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV) are a great concern. A number of AIV strains are now enzootic among poultry, with H9N2 and highly pathogenic H5N1 AIV strains prevalent in China. H5N1 strains have been recognized to infect zoo and domestic feline species. In this serological study we sought to examine evidence that H5N1 strains have infected domestic cats in northeastern China. In 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional serological study of 916 healthy cats in Heilongjian, Jilin, and Liaonin Provinces. Sera were screened with a hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) assay and seropositive specimens (HI ≥ 1:20) were further evaluated with a microneutralization (MN) assay against a clade 2.3.2 H5N1 AIV, a H9N2 AIV, A (H1N1)pdm09, and a canine H3N2 virus. While ∼2% of cats had elevated HI assays against H5N1, no elevations were confirmed (MN ≥ 1:80). These data serve as baseline for future surveillance for AIV infections among domestic cats. Conducting such surveillance seems important for geographical areas recognized as endemic for AIVs. This is especially true for countries such as China where domestic cats and poultry are often in close contact.

  16. SEROLOGIC SURVEY AND RESULTS OF URINARY PCR TESTING FOR LEPTOSPIROSIS IN CAPTIVE BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS (CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS).

    PubMed

    Olds, June E; Sun, Yaxuan; Baum, David H; Gauger, Phillip

    2015-12-01

    Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease occurring clinically and subclinically in humans and a wide variety of mammal species worldwide. Often, rodents and wild animals are identified as important reservoirs for the disease. Twenty-two captive black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) housed within a zoo were examined as part of a routine census and preventive medicine program. During examinations, blood and urine were collected to screen for exposure to, or infection with, leptospirosis. All animals were apparently healthy at the time of examination. Leptospira microscopic agglutination test identified 12 of 22 (54.5%) prairie dogs with antibody titers ≥1 : 100 against Leptospira interrogans serovar bratislava on initial serologic examination. All prairie dogs within this collection were serologically negative for L. interrogans serovars canicola, hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, and pomona and Leptospira kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa. Leptospira polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of urine was negative in all animals tested. This report describes evidence that captive prairie dogs may be exposed to leptospirosis, most likely from wild rodent reservoirs; however, serum titers are low, and lack of leptospiral DNA detected by PCR indicates that these captive animals are unlikely to be important reservoirs for the disease. PMID:26667541

  17. Screening for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    al-Meshari, A A; Chowdhury, M N; Chattopadhyay, S K; De Silva, S K

    1989-05-01

    Randomly collected sera from 386 pregnant women attending obstetric and gynecology clinics at Kind Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were examined for toxoplasma antibodies by five serological methods, i.e. latex agglutination test (LAT), two indirect hemagglutination tests (IHAT) (Carter-Wallace, USA and Ismunit, Italy), enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The percentage of sensitivity, specificity and coincidence value of these tests were compared with IFAT which was used as a reference test. For routine screening of toxoplasmosis, LAT has proved in this study to be the most suitable test. The LAT is cost effective and easy to perform. In this study of the three tests (IFAT, EIA, immunosorbent agglutination assay) to demonstrate specific IgM for toxoplasmosis, the EIA test proved to be the most satisfactory because of its 99% specificity. If EIA equipment is available, it can be used for routine screening (IgG) as well as IgM determination. The incidence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women varied between 25.4% and 36.3% depending on the method used.

  18. Hearing Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  19. Diagnosis of Dengue Infection Using Conventional and Biosensor Based Techniques.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Om; Shueb, Rafidah Hanim

    2015-10-19

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral disease caused by four antigenically different serotypes of dengue virus. This disease is considered as a major public health concern around the world. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine or antiviral drug available for the prevention and treatment of dengue disease. Moreover, clinical features of dengue are indistinguishable from other infectious diseases such as malaria, chikungunya, rickettsia and leptospira. Therefore, prompt and accurate laboratory diagnostic test is urgently required for disease confirmation and patient triage. The traditional diagnostic techniques for the dengue virus are viral detection in cell culture, serological testing, and RNA amplification using reverse transcriptase PCR. This paper discusses the conventional laboratory methods used for the diagnosis of dengue during the acute and convalescent phase and highlights the advantages and limitations of these routine laboratory tests. Subsequently, the biosensor based assays developed using various transducers for the detection of dengue are also reviewed.

  20. Diagnosis of Dengue Infection Using Conventional and Biosensor Based Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, Om; Hanim Shueb, Rafidah

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral disease caused by four antigenically different serotypes of dengue virus. This disease is considered as a major public health concern around the world. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine or antiviral drug available for the prevention and treatment of dengue disease. Moreover, clinical features of dengue are indistinguishable from other infectious diseases such as malaria, chikungunya, rickettsia and leptospira. Therefore, prompt and accurate laboratory diagnostic test is urgently required for disease confirmation and patient triage. The traditional diagnostic techniques for the dengue virus are viral detection in cell culture, serological testing, and RNA amplification using reverse transcriptase PCR. This paper discusses the conventional laboratory methods used for the diagnosis of dengue during the acute and convalescent phase and highlights the advantages and limitations of these routine laboratory tests. Subsequently, the biosensor based assays developed using various transducers for the detection of dengue are also reviewed. PMID:26492265

  1. Model-based clustered-dot screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Ho

    2006-01-01

    I propose a halftone screen design method based on a human visual system model and the characteristics of the electro-photographic (EP) printer engine. Generally, screen design methods based on human visual models produce dispersed-dot type screens while design methods considering EP printer characteristics generate clustered-dot type screens. In this paper, I propose a cost function balancing the conflicting characteristics of the human visual system and the printer. By minimizing the obtained cost function, I design a model-based clustered-dot screen using a modified direct binary search algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate the superior quality of the model-based clustered-dot screen compared to a conventional clustered-dot screen.

  2. Serological responses to Cryptosporidium antigens in inhabitants of Hungary using conventionally filtered surface water and riverbank filtered drinking water.

    PubMed

    Farkas, K; Plutzer, J; Moltchanova, E; Török, A; Varró, M J; Domokos, K; Frost, F; Hunter, P R

    2015-10-01

    In this study the putative protective seroprevalence (PPS) of IgG antibodies to the 27-kDa and 15/17-kDa Cryptosporidium antigens in sera of healthy participants who were and were not exposed to Cryptosporidium oocysts via surface water-derived drinking water was compared. The participants completed a questionnaire regarding risk factors that have been shown to be associated with infection. The PPS was significantly greater (49-61%) in settlements where the drinking water originated from surface water, than in the control city where riverbank filtration was used (21% and 23%). Logistic regression analysis on the risk factors showed an association between bathing/swimming in outdoor pools and antibody responses to the 15/17-kDa antigen complex. Hence the elevated responses were most likely due to the use of contaminated water. Results indicate that waterborne Cryptosporidium infections occur more frequently than reported but may derive from multiple sources.

  3. Unusual observations on a serologically negative bluetongue virus infected bull.

    PubMed

    Schultz, R D; Rhodes, P; Panangala, V S; Kaproth, M

    1985-01-01

    A Holstein bull named "Regency" born in New York in July 1968, maintained in an artificial insemination (AI) stud for 9 years, unremarkable from the point of view of health history or semen production, was discovered "by accident" to have bluetongue (BT) virus (BTV) in his semen. A microscopic study in 1975 and 1977 revealed unusual cytoplasmic vacuoles in the sperm of "Regency" prompting us to send semen to A. J. Luedke, USDA-ARS, Denver, Colorado, USA, to attempt virus isolation. Serotype 13 BTV was isolated from the semen. Serum sent with the semen was negative for antibody by the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and complement fixation (CF) tests. Annual AGID serologic tests begun in 1975 and continuing to the present have been negative for antibody to BTV for all bulls in this AI stud. "Regency" was moved to Auburn, Alabama, USA in 1978 and further studies were performed. The bull was maintained with the Veterinary School herd. The BT serologic status of the cattle did not change during the year the bull was in the herd nor were the cows he bred or their calves serologically positive for BT. Studies on insemination of cattle with experimentally contaminated semen indicated that 5X10(4) infectious doses of BTV were required for infection. These results suggest that since "Regency's" semen did not infect cows, the semen probably contained less than this amount of virus. The rete testis was cannulated, rete fluid collected, a testis removed and virus isolation attempted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2989933

  4. Analyzing the Hidden Curriculum of Screen Media Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lance E.

    2015-01-01

    This media literacy article introduces a questioning framework for analyzing screen media with students and provides an example analysis of two contemporary commercials. Investigating screen conventions can help students understand the persuasive functions of commercials, as well as how the unique sensory experience of screen viewing affects how…

  5. GROUND-WATER SAMPLING BIAS OBSERVED IN SHALLOW, CONVENTIONAL WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A previous field demonstration project on nitrate-based bioremediation of a fuel-contaminated aquifer used short-screened clustered well points in addition to shallow (10 foot), conventional monitoring wells to monitor the progress of remediation during surface application of rec...

  6. [The clinical and serological manifestations of Lyme disease in Russia].

    PubMed

    Anan'eva, L P; Skripnikova, I A; Barskova, V G; Steere, A C

    1995-01-01

    Out of 86 Lyme's disease patients with a history of migrating erythema nervous system, cardiovascular and articular involvement was observed in 27, 6 and 43% of cases. Acrodermatitis was diagnosed in 2% of patients. Affection of locomotor system manifested with acute arthritis episodes or pains in major joints. 11 patients of 12 examined at arthritis onset showed elevated titer of anti-Borrelia IgG antibodies. Serologically, of 80 patients with arthritis or arthralgia without prior migrating erythema 6 demonstrated antibodies to 5 and more Borrelia polypeptides.

  7. Serological identification of botulinum neurotoxins: A critical overview.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Domingo F

    2016-08-01

    The reasons that gave rise to the controversy over the serological method (SerM) and genetics regarding the identification of an alleged novel botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), type H, have been concisely examined. This discussion will remain opened inasmuch as the SerM is not performed according to the recommended procedures outlined in this overview and thoroughly discussed on previous publications. If correctly performed and interpreted, the SerM will keep its preeminence in the identification, typing and taxonomy of BoNTs. PMID:27130373

  8. Red cell antibody screening and identification: a comparison of two column technology methods.

    PubMed

    Bromilow, I M; Eggington, J A; Owen, G A; Duguid, J K

    1993-12-01

    Two commercial column techniques for use in antibody screening and identification procedures were tested in parallel with 1000 random samples sent for ante-natal serological investigation. The DiaMed ID microtyping system uses a sephadex gel contained in microtubes, either neutral or impregnated with anti-human globulin (AHG), for use in two-stage enzyme methods and LISS indirect antiglobulin testing (IAT) respectively. The Ortho Biovue technique consists of a slurry of micro glass spheres which act as the filter to retain haemagglutination reactions within the matrix. Columns containing AHG also possess a macromolecular density barrier to prevent test serum from passing into the column and neutralising the AHG. Both systems offer the advantage of 'no-wash' IAT, which minimises the potential for problems and errors associated with conventional spin-tube techniques. In this comparison of the two column methods, antibody detection rates were found to be similar and the sensitivity of both methods was comparable, although the Biovue technique was prone to exhibit equivocal results, particularly in the IAT.

  9. The screening of donors enrolled in an artificial insemination program.

    PubMed

    Narod, S A

    1988-04-01

    Artificial insemination is currently offered in Ontario to couples when infertility arises from a male factor. The majority of practitioners are using fresh sperm, but because of the threat of transmitted infection, a change to the use of frozen semen, which can be screened concurrently, is anticipated. Screening can prevent the transmission of both genetic and infectious disease and the principles of a possible program are outlined below. Elements of screening include a genetic history, blood count, selected biochemical and serological assays, and a semen analysis and culture. Because of the high cost and the few cases of genetic disease that will be prevented, routine karyotyping is not recommended. It remains to be seen whether changing the donor pool from an unscreened group of medical personnel to a screened sperm bank derived from the general population will provide increased protection for the mother and child. PMID:3396256

  10. Serological diagnosis of Trypanosoma rangeli infected patients. A comparison of different methods and its implications for the diagnosis of Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, J E; Krusnell, J; Orn, A; Sousa, O E; Harris, R A

    1997-03-01

    Venous blood from 65 Panamanian schoolchildren living in an area endemic for both Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli were screened for the presence of these parasites. Trypanosoma rangeli were isolated and cultured from four individuals. Serological tests of all 65 sera were performed, including immunohaemagglutination (IHA), indirect immunofluorescence assay (IF) and ELISA using both T. rangeli and T. cruzi as antigens, as well as T. cruzi synthetic peptides in an ELISA assay. Results indicated a higher immunoreactivity to T. rangeli preparations than to T. cruzi within the studied population, which could be divided into four 'serological responder' groups. Interestingly, the panel of SAPA and other T. cruzi synthetic peptides were not useful in the discrimination of patients. Furthermore, patients from whom parasites had been isolated could not be distinguished from those of two other groups. Significant immunoreactivity to T. cruzi preparations was displayed in all responder sera, despite total lack of evidence of infection with this parasite. The immunobiological significance of T. rangeli infection is unclear, but these data indicate that it is a compounding problem in the accurate diagnosis of pathological T. cruzi infection by serological analysis. The relationship of these cohabiting species, in respect to infection outcome and immunological activation, is discussed.

  11. A protein microarray immunoassay for the serological evaluation of the antibody response in vertically transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Ardizzoni, A; Capuccini, B; Baschieri, M C; Orsi, C F; Rumpianesi, F; Peppoloni, S; Cermelli, C; Meacci, M; Crisanti, A; Steensgaard, P; Blasi, E

    2009-09-01

    The detection of specific serum antibodies is mainly achieved by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Here, we describe the setting up of a microarray-based serological assay to screen for IgG and IgM against vertically transmitted pathogens (Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, varicella zoster virus, Chlamydia trachomatis). The test, accommodated onto a restricted area of a microscope slide, consists of: (a) the immobilization of antigens and human IgG and IgM antibody dilution curves, laid down in an orderly manner; (b) addition of serum samples; (c) detection of antigen-serum antibodies complexes by indirect immunofluorescence. The IgG and IgM curves provide an internal calibration system for the interpolation of the signals from the single antigens. The test was optimized in terms of spotting conditions and processing protocol. The detection limit was 400 fg for the IgG assay and 40 fg for the IgM assay; the analytical specificity was >98%. The clinical sensitivity returned an average value of 78%, the clinical specificity was >96%, the predictive values were >73%, and the efficiency was >88%. The results obtained make this test a promising tool, suitable for introduction in the clinical diagnostic routine of vertically transmitted infections, in parallel (and in future as an alternative) to ELISA. PMID:19415353

  12. Serological and molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Khudhair, Yahia Ismail; Hasso, Saleem Amin; Yaseen, Nahi Y; Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the absolute number of lymphocytes, five of the 31 positive PCR cases had PL. Among these leukemic cattle, one case exhibited overt neutrophilia. Serum samples were used to detect BLV antibodies, which were observed in 28 (7%) samples. PCR detected BLV provirus in 31 samples (7.75%). All 28 of the seropositive samples and the 3 seronegative samples were positive using PCR. Associations were observed between bovine leukosis and cattle breed, age and sex. Age-specific analysis showed that the BLV percentage increased with age in both breeds. Female cattle (29 animals; 7.34%) exhibited significantly higher infectivity than male cattle (two animals; 4.34%). In conclusion, comprehensive screening for all affected animals is needed in Iraq; programs that segregate cattle can be an effective and important method to control and/or eliminate the BLV.

  13. Pathogenicity, serological responses, and diagnosis of experimental and natural malarial infections in native Hawaiian thrushes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, C.T.; Lease, J.K.; Drake, B.M.; Shema, N.P.

    2001-01-01

    Omao (Myadestes obscurus) from the Hawaiian Islands typically have very low prevalences of infection with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and it is not clear whether they share the same high susceptibility to this parasite that has been documented in native Hawaiian honeycreepers. We exposed four captive Omao to single infective mosquito bites and measured parasitemia, serological responses, and mortality over time. All four birds experienced transient infections with low parasitemias and were immune when rechallenged with multiple infective mosquito bites. By contrast, three of four honeycreepers (Maui Alauahio, Paroreomyza montana) that were exposed to the same dose and parasite isolate succumbed to infection. All four Omao developed antibodies to a common suite of malarial antigens that were detectable on immunoblots of a crude red blood cell extract of P. relictum. We used this technique to screen plasma samples from wild Omao and endangered Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri) that were captured at elevations between 900 and 1300 m on the islands of Hawaii and Kauai. We found that the true prevalence of infection at elevations where active malaria transmission occurs is much higher than estimates based on blood smears alone. Hawaiian thrushes appear to have a high tolerance for malaria, with most individuals developing chronic, low-level infections after exposure that cannot be diagnosed accurately by blood smears.

  14. Serological and molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Khudhair, Yahia Ismail; Hasso, Saleem Amin; Yaseen, Nahi Y; Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the absolute number of lymphocytes, five of the 31 positive PCR cases had PL. Among these leukemic cattle, one case exhibited overt neutrophilia. Serum samples were used to detect BLV antibodies, which were observed in 28 (7%) samples. PCR detected BLV provirus in 31 samples (7.75%). All 28 of the seropositive samples and the 3 seronegative samples were positive using PCR. Associations were observed between bovine leukosis and cattle breed, age and sex. Age-specific analysis showed that the BLV percentage increased with age in both breeds. Female cattle (29 animals; 7.34%) exhibited significantly higher infectivity than male cattle (two animals; 4.34%). In conclusion, comprehensive screening for all affected animals is needed in Iraq; programs that segregate cattle can be an effective and important method to control and/or eliminate the BLV. PMID:27273225

  15. Significance of serological monitoring in a Bombay Rh (D) negative phenotype pregnant woman: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ashish; Kumawat, Vijay; Patil, Sandeep S; Kumar, Praveen; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Ratti Ram

    2012-12-01

    A 32 year old Indian female was referred to our hospital at 32 weeks of gestation because of difficulty in blood group determination and further antenatal care. The results of cell and serum grouping of her blood sample were suggestive of Bombay (O(h)) Rh (D) negative phenotype. An indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) using a pool of red cells from two Bombay Rh (D) positive blood donors gave negative result using the tube as well as the gel technique (LISS-Coombs Card, BioRad, Switzerland), thus ruling out anti-D antibody in her serum. The anti-H titer was 16 (tube technique) and with dithiothreitol (DTT) treated patient's serum the antibody screening was negative suggestive of IgM type of anti-H antibodies. Within the patient's family, only one member (younger sister) was of O(h) phenotype and also was Rh (D) negative. The baby was born vaginally at 38+6 weeks of gestation and was non-hydropic with a packed cell volume (PCV) of 55%. The baby's blood group was AB Rh (D) negative and the cord blood direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was negative. Thus, a careful serological testing of O(h) phenotype antenatal women especially with Rh (D) negative phenotype is of utmost importance in determining the isoimmunization status.

  16. Serological Evidence of Lyssaviruses among Bats on Southwestern Indian Ocean Islands

    PubMed Central

    Mélade, Julien; McCulloch, Stewart; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Lagadec, Erwan; Turpin, Magali; Pascalis, Hervé; Goodman, Steven M.; Markotter, Wanda; Dellagi, Koussay

    2016-01-01

    We provide serological evidence of lyssavirus circulation among bats on southwestern Indian Ocean (SWIO) islands. A total of 572 bats belonging to 22 species were collected on Anjouan, Mayotte, La Réunion, Mauritius, Mahé and Madagascar and screened by the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test for the presence of neutralising antibodies against the two main rabies related lyssaviruses circulating on the African continent: Duvenhage lyssavirus (DUVV) and Lagos bat lyssavirus (LBV), representing phylogroups I and II, respectively. A total of 97 and 42 sera were able to neutralise DUVV and LBV, respectively. No serum neutralised both DUVV and LBV but most DUVV-seropositive bats (n = 32/220) also neutralised European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1) but not Rabies lyssavirus (RABV), the prototypic lyssavirus of phylogroup I. These results highlight that lyssaviruses belonging to phylogroups I and II circulate in regional bat populations and that the putative phylogroup I lyssavirus is antigenically closer to DUVV and EBLV-1 than to RABV. Variation between bat species, roost sites and bioclimatic regions were observed. All brain samples tested by RT-PCR specific for lyssavirus RNA were negative. PMID:27501458

  17. Serological characterization and gene localization of an Escherichia coli-expressed 37-kilodalton Treponema pallidum antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, G C; Laird, W J; Coates, S R; Mack, D H; Huston, M; Sninsky, J J

    1986-01-01

    A recombinant plasmid containing a 5.6-kilobase-pair DNA fragment of the Treponema pallidum genome was characterized by endonuclease mapping, and the encoded proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and analyzed by use of in vitro transcription and translation. One of the proteins, identified as having a molecular weight of 37,000 (37K protein), was selected for further study. Initially, the seroreactivity of the partially purified 37K antigen was demonstrated by immunoblotting. After its purification to near homogeneity, the cloned T. pallidum protein was assessed for diagnostic significance by radioimmunoassay. Although first identified as seroreactive by screening with secondary syphilitic sera (T. E. Fehniger, A. M. Walfield, T. M. Cunningham, J. D. Radolf, J. N. Miller, and M. A. Lovett, Abstr. Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. 1985, B156, p. 44), the antigen was shown to be serologically reactive with antibodies in serum from all stages of syphilis but was not recognized by serum from controls by both immunoblotting and radioimmune assay. Further, a monospecific polyclonal rabbit antiserum generated to the 37K antigen recognized a polypeptide of the same molecular weight from T. pallidum but did not efficiently recognize proteins from five nonpathogenic treponemes tested. Therefore, because of reactivity with and specificity for T. pallidum antibodies, the 37K antigen may be of serodiagnostic value in the detection of syphilis. Images PMID:3522427

  18. Sensitivity and specificity of parallel or serial serological testing for detection of canine Leishmania infection.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Mauro Maciel de; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Barbosa, José Ronaldo; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2016-03-01

    In Brazil, human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) caused by Leishmania infantum has undergone urbanisation since 1980, constituting a public health problem, and serological tests are tools of choice for identifying infected dogs. Until recently, the Brazilian zoonoses control program recommended enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) as the screening and confirmatory methods, respectively, for the detection of canine infection. The purpose of this study was to estimate the accuracy of ELISA and IFA in parallel or serial combinations. The reference standard comprised the results of direct visualisation of parasites in histological sections, immunohistochemical test, or isolation of the parasite in culture. Samples from 98 cases and 1,327 noncases were included. Individually, both tests presented sensitivity of 91.8% and 90.8%, and specificity of 83.4 and 53.4%, for the ELISA and IFA, respectively. When tests were used in parallel combination, sensitivity attained 99.2%, while specificity dropped to 44.8%. When used in serial combination (ELISA followed by IFA), decreased sensitivity (83.3%) and increased specificity (92.5%) were observed. Serial testing approach improved specificity with moderate loss in sensitivity. This strategy could partially fulfill the needs of public health and dog owners for a more accurate diagnosis of CVL. PMID:26910354

  19. Sensitivity and specificity of parallel or serial serological testing for detection of canine Leishmania infection

    PubMed Central

    de Arruda, Mauro Maciel; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Barbosa, José Ronaldo; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) caused byLeishmania infantum has undergone urbanisation since 1980, constituting a public health problem, and serological tests are tools of choice for identifying infected dogs. Until recently, the Brazilian zoonoses control program recommended enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) as the screening and confirmatory methods, respectively, for the detection of canine infection. The purpose of this study was to estimate the accuracy of ELISA and IFA in parallel or serial combinations. The reference standard comprised the results of direct visualisation of parasites in histological sections, immunohistochemical test, or isolation of the parasite in culture. Samples from 98 cases and 1,327 noncases were included. Individually, both tests presented sensitivity of 91.8% and 90.8%, and specificity of 83.4 and 53.4%, for the ELISA and IFA, respectively. When tests were used in parallel combination, sensitivity attained 99.2%, while specificity dropped to 44.8%. When used in serial combination (ELISA followed by IFA), decreased sensitivity (83.3%) and increased specificity (92.5%) were observed. Serial testing approach improved specificity with moderate loss in sensitivity. This strategy could partially fulfill the needs of public health and dog owners for a more accurate diagnosis of CVL. PMID:26910354

  20. Development of an Indirect ELISA for Serological Diagnosis of Bovine herpesvirus 5.

    PubMed

    Dummer, Luana A; Araujo, Itauá L; Campos, Fabrício S; da Rosa, Matheus C; Finger, Paula F; de Oliveira, Patricia D; Conceição, Fabricio R; Fischer, Geferson; Roehe, Paulo M; Leite, Fábio P L

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesviruses 1 and 5 (BoHV-1 and BoHV-5) are economically important pathogens, associated with a variety of clinical syndromes, including respiratory and genital disease, reproductive failure and meningoencephalitis. The standard serological assay to diagnose BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 infections is the virus neutralization test (VNT), a time consuming procedure that requires manipulation of infectious virus. In the present study a highly sensitive and specific single dilution indirect ELISA was developed using recombinant glycoprotein D from BoHV-5 as antigen (rgD5ELISA). Bovine serum samples (n = 450) were screened by VNT against BoHV-5a and by rgD5ELISA. Compared with the VNT, the rgD5ELISA demonstrated accuracy of 99.8%, with 100% sensitivity, 96.7% specificity and coefficient of agreement between the tests of 0.954. The rgD5ELISA described here shows excellent agreement with the VNT and is shown to be a simple, convenient, specific and highly sensitive virus-free assay for detection of serum antibodies to BoHV-5.