Science.gov

Sample records for conventional survey techniques

  1. Monitoring beach changes using GPS surveying techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert; Leach, Mark P.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Cardoza, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    The adaptation of Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying techniques to beach monitoring activities is a promising response to this challenge. An experiment that employed both GPS and conventional beach surveying was conducted, and a new beach monitoring method employing kinematic GPS surveys was devised. This new method involves the collection of precise shore-parallel and shore-normal GPS positions from a moving vehicle so that an accurate two-dimensional beach surface can be generated. Results show that the GPS measurements agree with conventional shore-normal surveys at the 1 cm level, and repeated GPS measurements employing the moving vehicle demonstrate a precision of better than 1 cm. In addition, the nearly continuous sampling and increased resolution provided by the GPS surveying technique reveals alongshore changes in beach morphology that are undetected by conventional shore-normal profiles. The application of GPS surveying techniques combined with the refinement of appropriate methods for data collection and analysis provides a better understanding of beach changes, sediment transport, and storm impacts.

  2. Monitoring Fine-Grained Sediment in the Colorado River Ecosystem, Arizona - Control Network and Conventional Survey Techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hazel, Joseph E.; Kaplinski, Matt; Parnell, Roderic A.; Kohl, Keith; Schmidt, John C.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, fine-grained sediment (sand, silt, and clay) monitoring in the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam was initiated to survey channel topography at scales previously unobtainable in this canyon setting. This report presents the methods used to establish the high-resolution global positioning system (GPS) control network required for this effort as well as the conventional surveying techniques used in the study. Using simultaneous, dual-frequency GPS vector-based methods, the network points were determined to have positioning accuracies of less than 0.03 meters (m) and ellipsoidal height accuracies of between 0.01 and 0.10 m at a 95-percent degree of confidence. We also assessed network point quality with repeated, electronic (optical) total-station observations at 39 points for a total of 362 measurements; the mean range was 0.022 m in horizontal and 0.13 in vertical at a 95-percent confidence interval. These results indicate that the control network is of sufficient spatial and vertical accuracy for collection of airborne and subaerial remote-sensing technologies and integration of these data in a geographic information system on a repeatable basis without anomalies. The monitoring methods were employed in up to 11 discrete reaches over various time intervals. The reaches varied from 1.3 to 6.4 kilometers in length. Field results from surveys in 2000, 2002, and 2004 are described, during which conventional surveying was used to collect more than 3000 points per day. Ground points were used as checkpoints and to supplement areas just below or above the water surface, where remote-sensing data are not collected or are subject to greater error. An accuracy of +or- 0.05 m was identified as the minimum precision of individual ground points. These results are important for assessing digital elevation model (DEM) quality and identifying detection limits of significant change among surfaces generated from remote-sensing technologies.

  3. Discrete square root filtering - A survey of current techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaminskii, P. G.; Bryson, A. E., Jr.; Schmidt, S. F.

    1971-01-01

    Current techniques in square root filtering are surveyed and related by applying a duality association. Four efficient square root implementations are suggested, and compared with three common conventional implementations in terms of computational complexity and precision. It is shown that the square root computational burden should not exceed the conventional by more than 50% in most practical problems. An examination of numerical conditioning predicts that the square root approach can yield twice the effective precision of the conventional filter in ill-conditioned problems. This prediction is verified in two examples.

  4. Comparison of three different adenoidectomy techniques in children - has the conventional technique been surpassed?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Mayra Soares; Mangussi-Gomes, João; Ximendes, Roberta; Evangelista, Anne Rosso; Miranda, Eloá Lumi; Garcia, Leonardo Bomediano; Stamm, Aldo C

    2018-01-01

    Pharyngeal tonsil hyperplasia is the most frequent cause of nasal obstruction and chronic mouth breathing during childhood. Adenoidectomy is the procedure of choice for the resolution of these symptoms. It is not yet known, however, whether the conventional technique ("blind curettage") has been surpassed by more modern adenoidectomy techniques (video-assisted, with the aid of instruments). This study aimed to compare the conventional adenoidectomy technique with two other emerging techniques, performed in a reference otorhinolaryngology center. This is a prospective and observational study of 33 children submitted to adenoidectomy using 3 different techniques that were followed up for a period of 3 months after surgery. The patients were divided into 3 different groups, according to the adenoidectomy technique: Group A (conventional technique - "blind curettage"); Group B (video-assisted adenoidectomy with microdebrider); Group C (video-assisted adenoidectomy with radiofrequency - Coblation ® ). The surgical time of each procedure was measured, being considered from the moment of insertion of the mouth gag until complete hemostasis was achieved. The questionnaire for quality of life OSA-18 was applied to all caregivers on the day of the surgery and 30-90 days after the procedure. Postoperative complications were also analyzed. For the entire patient sample, there was an improvement in quality of life after the surgery (p < 0.05). When analyzing the evolution of OSA-18 index, all groups showed statistically significant improvement, for all assessed domains. There were no statistically significant differences between the 3 techniques assessed for quality of life improvement after the surgery (p > 0.05). Regarding the duration of the procedure, the conventional technique showed the shortest surgical time when compared to the others (p < 0.05). No postoperative complications were noted, for any patient. The adenoidectomy resulted in improvement of quality of

  5. Comparative Analysis Between Computed and Conventional Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Techniques.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Gabriela Madeira; Barbalho, Jimmy Charles Melo; Dias, Tasiana Guedes de Souza; Santos, Thiago de Santana; Vasconcellos, Ricardo José de Holanda; de Morais, Hécio Henrique Araújo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was to compare the computed and conventional inferior alveolar nerve block techniques in symmetrically positioned inferior third molars. Both computed and conventional anesthetic techniques were performed in 29 healthy patients (58 surgeries) aged between 18 and 40 years. The anesthetic of choice was 2% lidocaine with 1: 200,000 epinephrine. The Visual Analogue Scale assessed the pain variable after anesthetic infiltration. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using the Likert Scale. Heart and respiratory rates, mean time to perform technique, and the need for additional anesthesia were also evaluated. Pain variable means were higher for the conventional technique as compared with computed, 3.45 ± 2.73 and 2.86 ± 1.96, respectively, but no statistically significant differences were found (P > 0.05). Patient satisfaction showed no statistically significant differences. The average computed technique runtime and the conventional were 3.85 and 1.61 minutes, respectively, showing statistically significant differences (P <0.001). The computed anesthetic technique showed lower mean pain perception, but did not show statistically significant differences when contrasted to the conventional technique.

  6. Survey of Conventional and Complementary and Alternative Therapy in Patients With Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    O'Gara, Tadhg; Kemper, Kathi J; Birkedal, John; Curl, Walton; Miller, Neal; Abadie, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Both conventional and alternative medical therapies are used by patients to treat low back pain, a condition that affects approximately 33% of the U.S. Little is known about patients' perceptions of conventional versus alternative therapies. Patients recruited from an orthopedic spine clinic completed surveys containing questions about their use of many conventional and alternative therapies. Patients rated perceived helpfulness, side effects, and their recommendation for each therapy. They also completed a questionnaire that detailed demographic information, stress, and pain. Questionnaires were completed by 166 patients. Conventional medications were used by 154 (95%) patients, most commonly acetaminophen and opioid derivatives. Alternative therapies were used by 159 (96%) patients, including therapeutic exercises, salves, supplements, and stress management techniques. Generally, patients reported that alternative therapies are more effective and have fewer side effects and would more likely recommend their use. These data can be used to counsel patients and guide future research.

  7. Comparison of marginal accuracy of castings fabricated by conventional casting technique and accelerated casting technique: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S Srikanth; Revathi, Kakkirala; Reddy, S Kranthikumar

    2013-01-01

    Conventional casting technique is time consuming when compared to accelerated casting technique. In this study, marginal accuracy of castings fabricated using accelerated and conventional casting technique was compared. 20 wax patterns were fabricated and the marginal discrepancy between the die and patterns were measured using Optical stereomicroscope. Ten wax patterns were used for Conventional casting and the rest for Accelerated casting. A Nickel-Chromium alloy was used for the casting. The castings were measured for marginal discrepancies and compared. Castings fabricated using Conventional casting technique showed less vertical marginal discrepancy than the castings fabricated by Accelerated casting technique. The values were statistically highly significant. Conventional casting technique produced better marginal accuracy when compared to Accelerated casting. The vertical marginal discrepancy produced by the Accelerated casting technique was well within the maximum clinical tolerance limits. Accelerated casting technique can be used to save lab time to fabricate clinical crowns with acceptable vertical marginal discrepancy.

  8. Biomechanical comparison of the double-push technique and the conventional skate skiing technique in cross-country sprint skiing.

    PubMed

    Stöggl, Thomas; Müller, Erich; Lindinger, Stefan

    2008-09-01

    The aims of the study were to: (1) adapt the "double-push" technique from inline skating to cross-country skiing; (2) compare this new skiing technique with the conventional skate skiing cross-country technique; and (3) test the hypothesis that the double-push technique improves skiing speed in a short sprint. 13 elite skiers performed maximum-speed sprints over 100 m using the double-push skate skiing technique and using the conventional "V2" skate skiing technique. Pole and plantar forces, knee angle, cycle characteristics, and electromyography of nine lower body muscles were analysed. We found that the double-push technique could be successfully transferred to cross-country skiing, and that this new technique is faster than the conventional skate skiing technique. The double-push technique was 2.9 +/- 2.2% faster (P < 0.001), which corresponds to a time advantage of 0.41 +/- 0.31 s over 100 m. The double-push technique had a longer cycle length and a lower cycle rate, and it was characterized by higher muscle activity, higher knee extension amplitudes and velocities, and higher peak foot forces, especially in the first phase of the push-off. Also, the foot was more loaded laterally in the double-push technique than in the conventional skate skiing technique.

  9. Evaluation of the Accuracy of Conventional and Digital Impression Techniques for Implant Restorations.

    PubMed

    Moura, Renata Vasconcellos; Kojima, Alberto Noriyuki; Saraceni, Cintia Helena Coury; Bassolli, Lucas; Balducci, Ivan; Özcan, Mutlu; Mesquita, Alfredo Mikail Melo

    2018-05-01

    The increased use of CAD systems can generate doubt about the accuracy of digital impressions for angulated implants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different impression techniques, two conventional and one digital, for implants with and without angulation. We used a polyurethane cast that simulates the human maxilla according to ASTM F1839, and 6 tapered implants were installed with external hexagonal connections to simulate tooth positions 17, 15, 12, 23, 25, and 27. Implants 17 and 23 were placed with 15° of mesial angulation and distal angulation, respectively. Mini cone abutments were installed on these implants with a metal strap 1 mm in height. Conventional and digital impression procedures were performed on the maxillary master cast, and the implants were separated into 6 groups based on the technique used and measurement type: G1 - control, G2 - digital impression, G3 - conventional impression with an open tray, G4 - conventional impression with a closed tray, G5 - conventional impression with an open tray and a digital impression, and G6 - conventional impression with a closed tray and a digital impression. A statistical analysis was performed using two-way repeated measures ANOVA to compare the groups, and a Kruskal-Wallis test was conducted to analyze the accuracy of the techniques. No significant difference in the accuracy of the techniques was observed between the groups. Therefore, no differences were found among the conventional impression and the combination of conventional and digital impressions, and the angulation of the implants did not affect the accuracy of the techniques. All of the techniques exhibited trueness and had acceptable precision. The variation of the angle of the implants did not affect the accuracy of the techniques. © 2018 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  10. Survey-based naming conventions for use in OBO Foundry ontology development

    PubMed Central

    Schober, Daniel; Smith, Barry; Lewis, Suzanna E; Kusnierczyk, Waclaw; Lomax, Jane; Mungall, Chris; Taylor, Chris F; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta

    2009-01-01

    Background A wide variety of ontologies relevant to the biological and medical domains are available through the OBO Foundry portal, and their number is growing rapidly. Integration of these ontologies, while requiring considerable effort, is extremely desirable. However, heterogeneities in format and style pose serious obstacles to such integration. In particular, inconsistencies in naming conventions can impair the readability and navigability of ontology class hierarchies, and hinder their alignment and integration. While other sources of diversity are tremendously complex and challenging, agreeing a set of common naming conventions is an achievable goal, particularly if those conventions are based on lessons drawn from pooled practical experience and surveys of community opinion. Results We summarize a review of existing naming conventions and highlight certain disadvantages with respect to general applicability in the biological domain. We also present the results of a survey carried out to establish which naming conventions are currently employed by OBO Foundry ontologies and to determine what their special requirements regarding the naming of entities might be. Lastly, we propose an initial set of typographic, syntactic and semantic conventions for labelling classes in OBO Foundry ontologies. Conclusion Adherence to common naming conventions is more than just a matter of aesthetics. Such conventions provide guidance to ontology creators, help developers avoid flaws and inaccuracies when editing, and especially when interlinking, ontologies. Common naming conventions will also assist consumers of ontologies to more readily understand what meanings were intended by the authors of ontologies used in annotating bodies of data. PMID:19397794

  11. Dimensional changes of acrylic resin denture bases: conventional versus injection-molding technique.

    PubMed

    Gharechahi, Jafar; Asadzadeh, Nafiseh; Shahabian, Foad; Gharechahi, Maryam

    2014-07-01

    Acrylic resin denture bases undergo dimensional changes during polymerization. Injection molding techniques are reported to reduce these changes and thereby improve physical properties of denture bases. The aim of this study was to compare dimensional changes of specimens processed by conventional and injection-molding techniques. SR-Ivocap Triplex Hot resin was used for conventional pressure-packed and SR-Ivocap High Impact was used for injection-molding techniques. After processing, all the specimens were stored in distilled water at room temperature until measured. For dimensional accuracy evaluation, measurements were recorded at 24-hour, 48-hour and 12-day intervals using a digital caliper with an accuracy of 0.01 mm. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) using t-test and repeated-measures ANOVA. Statistical significance was defined at P<0.05. After each water storage period, the acrylic specimens produced by injection exhibited less dimensional changes compared to those produced by the conventional technique. Curing shrinkage was compensated by water sorption with an increase in water storage time decreasing dimensional changes. Within the limitations of this study, dimensional changes of acrylic resin specimens were influenced by the molding technique used and SR-Ivocap injection procedure exhibited higher dimensional accuracy compared to conventional molding.

  12. Evaluation of marginal gap of Ni-Cr copings made with conventional and accelerated casting techniques.

    PubMed

    Tannamala, Pavan Kumar; Azhagarasan, Nagarasampatti Sivaprakasam; Shankar, K Chitra

    2013-01-01

    Conventional casting techniques following the manufacturers' recommendations are time consuming. Accelerated casting techniques have been reported, but their accuracy with base metal alloys has not been adequately studied. We measured the vertical marginal gap of nickel-chromium copings made by conventional and accelerated casting techniques and determined the clinical acceptability of the cast copings in this study. Experimental design, in vitro study, lab settings. Ten copings each were cast by conventional and accelerated casting techniques. All copings were identical, only their mold preparation schedules differed. Microscopic measurements were recorded at ×80 magnification on the perpendicular to the axial wall at four predetermined sites. The marginal gap values were evaluated by paired t test. The mean marginal gap by conventional technique (34.02 μm) is approximately 10 μm lesser than that of accelerated casting technique (44.62 μm). As the P value is less than 0.0001, there is highly significant difference between the two techniques with regard to vertical marginal gap. The accelerated casting technique is time saving and the marginal gap measured was within the clinically acceptable limits and could be an alternative to time-consuming conventional techniques.

  13. 40Ar/39Ar technique of KAr dating: a comparison with the conventional technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brent, Dalrymple G.; Lanphere, M.A.

    1971-01-01

    K-Ar ages have been determined by the 40Ar/39Ar total fusion technique on 19 terrestrial samples whose conventional K-Ar ages range from 3.4 my to nearly 1700 my. Sample materials included biotite, muscovite, sanidine, adularia, plagioclase, hornblende, actinolite, alunite, dacite, and basalt. For 18 samples there are no significant differences at the 95% confidence level between the KAr ages obtained by these two techniques; for one sample the difference is 4.3% and is statistically significant. For the neutron doses used in these experiments (???4 ?? 1018 nvt) it appears that corrections for interfering Ca- and K-derived Ar isotopes can be made without significant loss of precision for samples with K/Ca > 1 as young as about 5 ?? 105 yr, and for samples with K/Ca < 1 as young as about 107 yr. For younger samples the combination of large atmospheric Ar corrections and large corrections for Ca- and K-derived Ar may make the precision of the 40Ar/39Ar technique less than that of the conventional technique unless the irradiation parameters are adjusted to minimize these corrections. ?? 1971.

  14. A Survey of Shape Parameterization Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of shape parameterization techniques for multidisciplinary optimization and highlights some emerging ideas. The survey focuses on the suitability of available techniques for complex configurations, with suitability criteria based on the efficiency, effectiveness, ease of implementation, and availability of analytical sensitivities for geometry and grids. The paper also contains a section on field grid regeneration, grid deformation, and sensitivity analysis techniques.

  15. Dimensional Changes of Acrylic Resin Denture Bases: Conventional Versus Injection-Molding Technique

    PubMed Central

    Gharechahi, Jafar; Asadzadeh, Nafiseh; Shahabian, Foad; Gharechahi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Acrylic resin denture bases undergo dimensional changes during polymerization. Injection molding techniques are reported to reduce these changes and thereby improve physical properties of denture bases. The aim of this study was to compare dimensional changes of specimens processed by conventional and injection-molding techniques. Materials and Methods: SR-Ivocap Triplex Hot resin was used for conventional pressure-packed and SR-Ivocap High Impact was used for injection-molding techniques. After processing, all the specimens were stored in distilled water at room temperature until measured. For dimensional accuracy evaluation, measurements were recorded at 24-hour, 48-hour and 12-day intervals using a digital caliper with an accuracy of 0.01 mm. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) using t-test and repeated-measures ANOVA. Statistical significance was defined at P<0.05. Results: After each water storage period, the acrylic specimens produced by injection exhibited less dimensional changes compared to those produced by the conventional technique. Curing shrinkage was compensated by water sorption with an increase in water storage time decreasing dimensional changes. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, dimensional changes of acrylic resin specimens were influenced by the molding technique used and SR-Ivocap injection procedure exhibited higher dimensional accuracy compared to conventional molding. PMID:25584050

  16. Quiet PROPELLER MRI techniques match the quality of conventional PROPELLER brain imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Corcuera-Solano, I; Doshi, A; Pawha, P S; Gui, D; Gaddipati, A; Tanenbaum, L

    2015-06-01

    Switching of magnetic field gradients is the primary source of acoustic noise in MR imaging. Sound pressure levels can run as high as 120 dB, capable of producing physical discomfort and at least temporary hearing loss, mandating hearing protection. New technology has made quieter techniques feasible, which range from as low as 80 dB to nearly silent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the image quality of new commercially available quiet T2 and quiet FLAIR fast spin-echo PROPELLER acquisitions in comparison with equivalent conventional PROPELLER techniques in current day-to-day practice in imaging of the brain. Thirty-four consecutive patients were prospectively scanned with quiet T2 and quiet T2 FLAIR PROPELLER, in addition to spatial resolution-matched conventional T2 and T2 FLAIR PROPELLER imaging sequences on a clinical 1.5T MR imaging scanner. Measurement of sound pressure levels and qualitative evaluation of relative image quality was performed. Quiet T2 and quiet T2 FLAIR were comparable in image quality with conventional acquisitions, with sound levels of approximately 75 dB, a reduction in average sound pressure levels of up to 28.5 dB, with no significant trade-offs aside from longer scan times. Quiet FSE provides equivalent image quality at comfortable sound pressure levels at the cost of slightly longer scan times. The significant reduction in potentially injurious noise is particularly important in vulnerable populations such as children, the elderly, and the debilitated. Quiet techniques should be considered in these special situations for routine use in clinical practice. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  17. Computer-assisted versus conventional free fibula flap technique for craniofacial reconstruction: an outcomes comparison.

    PubMed

    Seruya, Mitchel; Fisher, Mark; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

    2013-11-01

    There has been rising interest in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing for preoperative planning and execution of osseous free flap reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes between computer-assisted and conventional fibula free flap techniques for craniofacial reconstruction. A two-center, retrospective review was carried out on patients who underwent fibula free flap surgery for craniofacial reconstruction from 2003 to 2012. Patients were categorized by the type of reconstructive technique: conventional (between 2003 and 2009) or computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (from 2010 to 2012). Demographics, surgical factors, and perioperative and long-term outcomes were compared. A total of 68 patients underwent microsurgical craniofacial reconstruction: 58 conventional and 10 computer-aided design and manufacturing fibula free flaps. By demographics, patients undergoing the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing method were significantly older and had a higher rate of radiotherapy exposure compared with conventional patients. Intraoperatively, the median number of osteotomies was significantly higher (2.0 versus 1.0, p=0.002) and the median ischemia time was significantly shorter (120 minutes versus 170 minutes, p=0.004) for the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technique compared with conventional techniques; operative times were shorter for patients undergoing the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technique, although this did not reach statistical significance. Perioperative and long-term outcomes were equivalent for the two groups, notably, hospital length of stay, recipient-site infection, partial and total flap loss, and rate of soft-tissue and bony tissue revisions. Microsurgical craniofacial reconstruction using a computer-assisted fibula flap technique yielded significantly shorter ischemia times amidst a higher number of osteotomies compared with conventional

  18. A Retrospective Comparison of Conventional versus Transverse Mini-Incision Technique for Carpal Tunnel Release

    PubMed Central

    Gülşen, İsmail; Ak, Hakan; Evcılı, Gökhan; Balbaloglu, Özlem; Sösüncü, Enver

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this retrospective study, we aimed to compare the results of two surgical techniques, conventional and transverse mini-incision. Materials and Methods. 95 patients were operated between 2011 and 2012 in Bitlis State Hospital. 50 patients were operated with conventional technique and 45 of them were operated with minimal transverse incision. Postoperative complications, incision site problems, and the time of starting to use their hands in daily activities were noted. Results. 95 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 48. 87 of them were female and 8 were male. There was no problem of incision site in both of the two surgical techniques. Only in one patient, anesthesia developed in minimal incision technique. The time of starting to use their hands in daily activities was 22,2 days and 17 days in conventional and minimal incision technique, respectively. Conclusion. Two surgical techniques did not show superiority to each other in terms of postoperative complications and incision site problems except the time of starting to use their hands in daily activities. PMID:24396607

  19. Extraction of kiwi seed oil: Soxhlet versus four different non-conventional techniques.

    PubMed

    Cravotto, Giancarlo; Bicchi, Carlo; Mantegna, Stefano; Binello, Arianna; Tomao, Valerie; Chemat, Farid

    2011-06-01

    Kiwi seed oil has a nutritionally interesting fatty acid profile, but a rather low oxidative stability, which requires careful extraction procedures and adequate packaging and storage. For these reasons and with the aim to achieve process intensification with shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption and higher yields, four different non-conventional techniques were experimented. Kiwi seeds were extracted in hexane using classic Soxhlet as well as under power ultrasound (US), microwaves (MWs; closed vessel) and MW-integrated Soxhlet. Supercritical CO₂ was also employed and compared to the other techniques in term of yield, extraction time, fatty acid profiles and organoleptic properties. All these non-conventional techniques are fast, effective and safe. A sensory evaluation test showed the presence of off-flavours in oil samples extracted by Soxhlet and US, an indicator of partial degradation.

  20. Dental Students' Perceptions of Digital and Conventional Impression Techniques: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Zitzmann, Nicola U; Kovaltschuk, Irina; Lenherr, Patrik; Dedem, Philipp; Joda, Tim

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to analyze inexperienced dental students' perceptions of the difficulty and applicability of digital and conventional implant impressions and their preferences including performance. Fifty undergraduate dental students at a dental school in Switzerland were randomly divided into two groups (2×25). Group A first took digital impressions in a standardized phantom model and then conventional impressions, while the procedures were reversed for Group B. Participants were asked to complete a VAS questionnaire (0-100) on the level of difficulty and applicability (user/patient-friendliness) of both techniques. They were asked which technique they preferred and perceived to be more efficient. A quotient of "effective scan time per software-recorded time" (TRIOS) was calculated as an objective quality indicator for intraoral optical scanning (IOS). The majority of students perceived IOS as easier than the conventional technique. Most (72%) preferred the digital approach using IOS to take the implant impression to the conventional method (12%) or had no preference (12%). Although total work was similar for males and females, the TRIOS quotient indicated that male students tended to use their time more efficiently. In this study, dental students with no clinical experience were very capable of acquiring digital tools, indicating that digital impression techniques can be included early in the dental curriculum to help them catch up with ongoing development in computer-assisted technologies used in oral rehabilitation.

  1. Techniques for Submitting Successful Proposals for SHAPE America National Conventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens-Smith, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    This article covers the basic components of the submission process before submitting a proposal for the SHAPE America national convention. The article discusses various techniques specific to the process, including the unique discipline areas. Other issues addressed include an understanding of the SHAPE America review process and how it works,…

  2. An in vitro comparison of photogrammetric and conventional complete-arch implant impression techniques.

    PubMed

    Bergin, Junping Ma; Rubenstein, Jeffrey E; Mancl, Lloyd; Brudvik, James S; Raigrodski, Ariel J

    2013-10-01

    Conventional impression techniques for recording the location and orientation of implant-supported, complete-arch prostheses are time consuming and prone to error. The direct optical recording of the location and orientation of implants, without the need for intermediate transfer steps, could reduce or eliminate those disadvantages. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a photogrammetric technique to record the location and orientation of multiple implants and to compare the results with those of a conventional complete-arch impression technique. A stone cast of an edentulous mandibular arch containing 5 implant analogs was fabricated to create a master model. The 3-dimensional (3D) spatial orientations of implant analogs on the master model were measured with a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) (control). Five definitive casts were made from the master model with a splinted impression technique. The positions of the implant analogs on the 5 casts were measured with a NobelProcera scanner (conventional method). Prototype optical targets were attached to the master model implant analogs, and 5 sets of images were recorded with a digital camera and a standardized image capture protocol. Dimensional data were imported into commercially available photogrammetry software (photogrammetric method). The precision and accuracy of the 2 methods were compared with a 2-sample t test (α=.05) and a 95% confidence interval. The location precision (standard error of measurement) for CMM was 3.9 µm (95% CI 2.7 to 7.1), for photogrammetry, 5.6 µm (95% CI 3.4 to 16.1), and for the conventional method, 17.2 µm (95% CI 10.3 to 49.4). The average measurement error was 26.2 µm (95% CI 15.9 to 36.6) for the conventional method and 28.8 µm (95% CI 24.8 to 32.9) for the photogrammetric method. The overall measurement accuracy was not significantly different when comparing the conventional to the photogrammetric method (mean difference = -2.6 µm, 95% CI

  3. Comparison of digital and conventional impression techniques: evaluation of patients' perception, treatment comfort, effectiveness and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Yuzbasioglu, Emir; Kurt, Hanefi; Turunc, Rana; Bilir, Halenur

    2014-01-30

    The purpose of this study was to compare two impression techniques from the perspective of patient preferences and treatment comfort. Twenty-four (12 male, 12 female) subjects who had no previous experience with either conventional or digital impression participated in this study. Conventional impressions of maxillary and mandibular dental arches were taken with a polyether impression material (Impregum, 3 M ESPE), and bite registrations were made with polysiloxane bite registration material (Futar D, Kettenbach). Two weeks later, digital impressions and bite scans were performed using an intra-oral scanner (CEREC Omnicam, Sirona). Immediately after the impressions were made, the subjects' attitudes, preferences and perceptions towards impression techniques were evaluated using a standardized questionnaire. The perceived source of stress was evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Scale. Processing steps of the impression techniques (tray selection, working time etc.) were recorded in seconds. Statistical analyses were performed with the Wilcoxon Rank test, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. There were significant differences among the groups (p < 0.05) in terms of total working time and processing steps. Patients stated that digital impressions were more comfortable than conventional techniques. Digital impressions resulted in a more time-efficient technique than conventional impressions. Patients preferred the digital impression technique rather than conventional techniques.

  4. A comparison of piezosurgery with conventional techniques for internal osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Koçak, I; Doğan, R; Gökler, O

    2017-06-01

    To compare conventional osteotomy with the piezosurgery medical device, in terms of postoperative edema, ecchymosis, pain, operation time, and mucosal integrity, in rhinoplasty patients. In this prospective study, 49 rhinoplasty patients were randomly divided into two groups according to osteotomy technique used, either conventional osteotomy or piezosurgery. For all patients, the total duration of the operation was recorded, and photographs were taken and scored for ecchymosis and edema on postoperative days 2, 4, and 7. In addition, pain level was evaluated on postoperative day 2, and mucosal integrity was assessed on day 4. All scoring and evaluation was conducted by a physician who was blinded to the osteotomy procedure. In the piezosurgery group, edema scores on postoperative day 2 and ecchymosis scores on postoperative days 2, 4, and 7 were significantly lower than in the conventional osteotomy group (p < 0.05). On postoperative day 2, the pain level was lower in the piezosurgery group than in the conventional osteotomy group (p < 0.05). In an endoscopic examination on postoperative day 4, while 24% of the patients in the conventional osteotomy group had mucosal damage, no such damage was observed in the piezosurgery group. When total operation duration was compared, there was no significant difference between the groups (p > 0.05). Piezosurgery is a safe osteotomy method, with less edema (in the early postoperative period) and ecchymosis compared with conventional osteotomy, as well as less pain, a similar operation duration, and no mucosal damage.

  5. Comparison of digital and conventional impression techniques: evaluation of patients’ perception, treatment comfort, effectiveness and clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare two impression techniques from the perspective of patient preferences and treatment comfort. Methods Twenty-four (12 male, 12 female) subjects who had no previous experience with either conventional or digital impression participated in this study. Conventional impressions of maxillary and mandibular dental arches were taken with a polyether impression material (Impregum, 3 M ESPE), and bite registrations were made with polysiloxane bite registration material (Futar D, Kettenbach). Two weeks later, digital impressions and bite scans were performed using an intra-oral scanner (CEREC Omnicam, Sirona). Immediately after the impressions were made, the subjects’ attitudes, preferences and perceptions towards impression techniques were evaluated using a standardized questionnaire. The perceived source of stress was evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Scale. Processing steps of the impression techniques (tray selection, working time etc.) were recorded in seconds. Statistical analyses were performed with the Wilcoxon Rank test, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results There were significant differences among the groups (p < 0.05) in terms of total working time and processing steps. Patients stated that digital impressions were more comfortable than conventional techniques. Conclusions Digital impressions resulted in a more time-efficient technique than conventional impressions. Patients preferred the digital impression technique rather than conventional techniques. PMID:24479892

  6. Comparison of the fit of cast gold crowns fabricated from the digital and the conventional impression techniques

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Young-Chan; Jeong, Chang-Mo

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare the fit of cast gold crowns fabricated from the conventional and the digital impression technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS Artificial tooth in a master model and abutment teeth in ten patients were restored with cast gold crowns fabricated from the digital and the conventional impression technique. The forty silicone replicas were cut in three sections; each section was evaluated in nine points. The measurement was carried out by using a measuring microscope and I-Soultion. Data from the silicone replica were analyzed and all tests were performed with α-level of 0.05. RESULTS 1. The average gaps of cast gold crowns fabricated from the digital impression technique were larger than those of the conventional impression technique significantly. 2. In marginal and internal axial gap of cast gold crowns, no statistical differences were found between the two impression techniques. 3. The internal occlusal gaps of cast gold crowns fabricated from the digital impression technique were larger than those of the conventional impression technique significantly. CONCLUSION Both prostheses presented clinically acceptable results with comparing the fit. The prostheses fabricated from the digital impression technique showed more gaps, in respect of occlusal surface. PMID:28243386

  7. Postextraction Dental Implant in the Aesthetic Zone, Socket Shield Technique Versus Conventional Protocol.

    PubMed

    Bramanti, Ennio; Norcia, Antonio; Cicciù, Marco; Matacena, Giada; Cervino, Gabriele; Troiano, Giuseppe; Zhurakivska, Khrystyna; Laino, Luigi

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the survival rate, the marginal bone level, and the aesthetic outcome; at 3 years' follow-up, of dental implants placed into a high-esthetic aesthetic zone by comparing 2 techniques of postextraction implant with immediate loading: the socket shied technique and the conventional insertion technique.Several clinical studies suggested that the avulsion of a dental element causes dimensional alterations of both soft and hard tissues at the postextractive site. To increase the aesthetic outcomes, the "socket-shield technique" has been proposed. This method involves maintaining the vestibular root portion and immediate insertion of the dental implant in close proximity to the root.Patients enrolled in this study were randomized to receive a postextraction implant in the aesthetic zone, either with the socket shied technique or with the conventional insertion technique. Implant survival, marginal bone level, and the pink aesthetic score were the outcomes evaluated.Implant survival rate was 100% in both the groups at 3 years. Implants inserted with the socket shield technique showed better values of both marginal bone level and pink aesthetic score (P < 0.05).Although such preliminary results need to be further confirmed, the socket shield technique seems to be a safe surgical technique that allows an implant rehabilitation characterized by better aesthetic outcomes.

  8. S-192 analysis: Conventional and special data processing techniques. [Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F. (Principal Investigator); Morganstern, J.; Cicone, R.; Sarno, J.; Lambeck, P.; Malila, W.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Multispectral scanner data gathered over test sites in southeast Michigan were analyzed. This analysis showed the data to be somewhat deficient especially in terms of the limited signal range in most SDOs and also in regard to SDO-SDO misregistration. Further analysis showed that the scan line straightening algorithm increased the misregistration of the data. Data were processed using the conic format. The effects of such misregistration on classification accuracy was analyzed via simulation and found to be significant. Results of employing conventional as well as special, unresolved object, processing techniques were disappointing due, at least in part, to the limited signal range and noise content of the data. Application of a second class of special processing techniques, signature extension techniques, yielded better results. Two of the more basic signature extension techniques seemed to be useful in spite of the difficulties.

  9. In vivo evaluation of inter-operator reproducibility of digital dental and conventional impression techniques.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Emi; Tanaka, Shinpei; Takaba, Masayuki; Tachi, Keita; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the inter-operator reproducibility of three-dimensional (3D) images of teeth captured by a digital impression technique to a conventional impression technique in vivo. Twelve participants with complete natural dentition were included in this study. A digital impression of the mandibular molars of these participants was made by two operators with different levels of clinical experience, 3 or 16 years, using an intra-oral scanner (Lava COS, 3M ESPE). A silicone impression also was made by the same operators using the double mix impression technique (Imprint3, 3M ESPE). Stereolithography (STL) data were directly exported from the Lava COS system, while STL data of a plaster model made from silicone impression were captured by a three-dimensional (3D) laboratory scanner (D810, 3shape). The STL datasets recorded by two different operators were compared using 3D evaluation software and superimposed using the best-fit-algorithm method (least-squares method, PolyWorks, InnovMetric Software) for each impression technique. Inter-operator reproducibility as evaluated by average discrepancies of corresponding 3D data was compared between the two techniques (Wilcoxon signed-rank test). The visual inspection of superimposed datasets revealed that discrepancies between repeated digital impression were smaller than observed with silicone impression. Confirmation was forthcoming from statistical analysis revealing significantly smaller average inter-operator reproducibility using a digital impression technique (0.014± 0.02 mm) than when using a conventional impression technique (0.023 ± 0.01 mm). The results of this in vivo study suggest that inter-operator reproducibility with a digital impression technique may be better than that of a conventional impression technique and is independent of the clinical experience of the operator.

  10. In vivo evaluation of inter-operator reproducibility of digital dental and conventional impression techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kamimura, Emi; Tanaka, Shinpei; Takaba, Masayuki; Tachi, Keita; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the inter-operator reproducibility of three-dimensional (3D) images of teeth captured by a digital impression technique to a conventional impression technique in vivo. Materials and methods Twelve participants with complete natural dentition were included in this study. A digital impression of the mandibular molars of these participants was made by two operators with different levels of clinical experience, 3 or 16 years, using an intra-oral scanner (Lava COS, 3M ESPE). A silicone impression also was made by the same operators using the double mix impression technique (Imprint3, 3M ESPE). Stereolithography (STL) data were directly exported from the Lava COS system, while STL data of a plaster model made from silicone impression were captured by a three-dimensional (3D) laboratory scanner (D810, 3shape). The STL datasets recorded by two different operators were compared using 3D evaluation software and superimposed using the best-fit-algorithm method (least-squares method, PolyWorks, InnovMetric Software) for each impression technique. Inter-operator reproducibility as evaluated by average discrepancies of corresponding 3D data was compared between the two techniques (Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Results The visual inspection of superimposed datasets revealed that discrepancies between repeated digital impression were smaller than observed with silicone impression. Confirmation was forthcoming from statistical analysis revealing significantly smaller average inter-operator reproducibility using a digital impression technique (0.014± 0.02 mm) than when using a conventional impression technique (0.023 ± 0.01 mm). Conclusion The results of this in vivo study suggest that inter-operator reproducibility with a digital impression technique may be better than that of a conventional impression technique and is independent of the clinical experience of the operator. PMID:28636642

  11. A color video display technique for flow field surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkelmann, A. E.; Tsao, C. P.

    1982-01-01

    A computer driven color video display technique has been developed for the presentation of wind tunnel flow field survey data. The results of both qualitative and quantitative flow field surveys can be presented in high spatial resolutions color coded displays. The technique has been used for data obtained with a hot-wire probe, a split-film probe, a Conrad (pitch) probe and a 5-tube pressure probe in surveys above and behind a wing with partially stalled and fully stalled flow.

  12. A comparison of two waterfowl brood survey techniques

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Rumble; Lester D. Flake

    1982-01-01

    Aerial surveys, brood beat outs, road surveys, and brood observations have been used to estimate numbers of waterfowl broods (M. E. Anderson, unpubl. reps., South Dakota Dep. Game, Fish, and Parks Fed. Aid Proj. W-17-R-7 and 8,1953, 1955; Bennett 1967). M. C. Hammond (unpubl. rep., U.S. Bur. Sport Fish and Wildl., 1970) summarized several brood survey techniques and...

  13. Fish habitat characterization and quantification using lidar and conventional topographic information in river survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchamalo, Miguel; Bejarano, María-Dolores; García de Jalón, Diego; Martínez Marín, Rubén

    2007-10-01

    This study presents the application of LIDAR data to the evaluation and quantification of fluvial habitat in river systems, coupling remote sensing techniques with hydrological modeling and ecohydraulics. Fish habitat studies depend on the quality and continuity of the input topographic data. Conventional fish habitat studies are limited by the feasibility of field survey in time and budget. This limitation results in differences between the level of river management and the level of models. In order to facilitate upscaling processes from modeling to management units, meso-scale methods were developed (Maddock & Bird, 1996; Parasiewicz, 2001). LIDAR data of regulated River Cinca (Ebro Basin, Spain) were acquired in the low flow season, maximizing the recorded instream area. DTM meshes obtained from LIDAR were used as the input for hydraulic simulation for a range of flows using GUAD2D software. Velocity and depth outputs were combined with gradient data to produce maps reflecting the availability of each mesohabitat unit type for each modeled flow. Fish habitat was then estimated and quantified according to the preferences of main target species as brown trout (Salmo trutta). LIDAR data combined with hydraulic modeling allowed the analysis of fluvial habitat in long fluvial segments which would be time-consuming with traditional survey. LIDAR habitat assessment at mesoscale level avoids the problems of time efficiency and upscaling and is a recommended approach for large river basin management.

  14. Comparison of denture base adaptation between CAD-CAM and conventional fabrication techniques.

    PubMed

    Goodacre, Brian J; Goodacre, Charles J; Baba, Nadim Z; Kattadiyil, Mathew T

    2016-08-01

    Currently no data comparing the denture base adaptation of CAD-CAM and conventional denture processing techniques have been reported. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the denture base adaptation of pack and press, pour, injection, and CAD-CAM techniques for fabricating dentures to determine which process produces the most accurate and reproducible adaptation. A definitive cast was duplicated to create 40 gypsum casts that were laser scanned before any fabrication procedures were initiated. A master denture was made using the CAD-CAM process and was then used to create a putty mold for the fabrication of 30 standardized wax festooned dentures, 10 for each of the conventional processing techniques (pack and press, pour, injection). Scan files from 10 casts were sent to Global Dental Science, LLC for fabrication of the CAD-CAM test specimens. After specimens for each of the 4 techniques had been fabricated, they were hydrated for 24 hours and the intaglio surface laser scanned. The scan file of each denture was superimposed on the scan file of the corresponding preprocessing cast using surface matching software. Measurements were made at 60 locations, providing evaluation of fit discrepancies at the following areas: apex of the denture border, 6 mm from the denture border, crest of the ridge, palate, and posterior palatal seal. The use of median and interquartile range was used to assess accuracy and reproducibility. The Levine and Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences between processing techniques at the 5 specified locations (α=.05). The ranking of results based on median and interquartile range determined that the accuracy and reproducibility of the CAD-CAM technique was more consistently localized around zero at 3 of the 5 locations. Therefore, the CAD-CAM technique showed the best combination of accuracy and reproducibility among the tested fabrication techniques. The pack and press technique was more accurate at

  15. Biomechanical comparison of a novel engine-driven ridge spreader and conventional ridge splitting techniques.

    PubMed

    Jung, Gyu-Un; Kim, Jun Hwan; Lim, Nam Hun; Yoon, Gil Ho; Han, Ji-Young

    2017-06-01

    Ridge splitting techniques are used for horizontal ridge augmentation in implant dentistry. Recently, a novel engine-driven ridge splitting technique was introduced. This study compared the mechanical forces produced by conventional and engine-driven ridge splitting techniques in porcine mandibles. In 33 pigs, mandibular premolar areas were selected for the ridge splitting procedures, designed as a randomized split-mouth study. The conventional group underwent a chisel-and-mallet procedure (control group, n = 20), and percussive impulse (Newton second, Ns) was measured using a sensor attached to the mallet. In the engine-driven ridge spreader group (test group, n = 23), a load cell was used to measure torque values (Newton centimeter, Ncm). Horizontal acceleration generated during procedures (control group, n = 10 and test group, n = 10) was compared between the groups. After ridge splitting, the alveolar crest width was significantly increased both in the control (1.23 ± 0.45 mm) and test (0.98 ± 0.41 mm) groups with no significant differences between the groups. The average impulse of the control group was 4.74 ± 1.05 Ns. Torque generated by rotation in the test group was 9.07 ± 2.15 Ncm. Horizontal acceleration was significantly less in the test group (0.82 ± 1.05 g) than the control group (64.07 ± 42.62 g) (P < 0.001). Narrow edentulous ridges can be expanded by novel engine-driven ridge spreaders. Within the limits of this study, the results suggested that an engine-driven ridge splitting technique may be less traumatic and less invasive than a conventional ridge splitting technique. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Conventional and conformal technique of external beam radiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer: Dose distribution, tumor response, and side effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutrikah, N.; Winarno, H.; Amalia, T.; Djakaria, M.

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare conventional and conformal techniques of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in terms of the dose distribution, tumor response, and side effects in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on cervical cancer patients who underwent EBRT before brachytherapy in the Radiotherapy Department of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. The prescribed dose distribution, tumor response, and acute side effects of EBRT using conventional and conformal techniques were investigated. In total, 51 patients who underwent EBRT using conventional techniques (25 cases using Cobalt-60 and 26 cases using a linear accelerator (LINAC)) and 29 patients who underwent EBRT using conformal techniques were included in the study. The distribution of the prescribed dose in the target had an impact on the patient’s final response to EBRT. The complete response rate of patients to conformal techniques was significantly greater (58%) than that of patients to conventional techniques (42%). No severe acute local side effects were seen in any of the patients (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grades 3-4). The distribution of the dose and volume to the gastrointestinal tract affected the proportion of mild acute side effects (RTOG grades 1-2). The urinary bladder was significantly greater using conventional techniques (Cobalt-60/LINAC) than using conformal techniques at 72% and 78% compared to 28% and 22%, respectively. The use of conformal techniques in pelvic radiation therapy is suggested in radiotherapy centers with CT simulators and 3D Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems (RTPSs) to decrease some uncertainties in radiotherapy planning. The use of AP/PA pelvic radiation techniques with Cobalt-60 should be limited in body thicknesses equal to or less than 18 cm. When using conformal techniques, delineation should be applied in the small bowel, as it is considered a critical organ according to RTOG

  17. A smart rotary technique versus conventional pulpectomy for primary teeth: A randomized controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Negar; Shirazi, Alireza-Sarraf; Ebrahimi, Masoumeh

    2017-11-01

    Techniques with adequate accuracy of working length determination along with shorter duration of treatment in pulpectomy procedure seems to be essential in pediatric dentistry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of root canal length measurement with Root ZX II apex locator and rotary system in pulpectomy of primary teeth. In this randomized control clinical trial complete pulpectomy was performed on 80 mandibular primary molars in 80, 4-6-year-old children. The study population was randomly divided into case and control groups. In control group conventional pulpectomy was performed and in the case group working length was determined by electronic apex locator Root ZXII and instrumented with Mtwo rotary files. Statistical evaluation was performed using Mann-Whitney and Chi-Square tests ( P <0.05). There were no significant differences between electronic apex locator Root ZXII and conventional method in accuracy of root canal length determination. However significantly less time was needed for instrumenting with rotary files ( P =0.000). Considering the comparable results in accuracy of root canal length determination and the considerably shorter instrumentation time in Root ZXII apex locator and rotary system, it may be suggested for pulpectomy in primary molar teeth. Key words: Rotary technique, conventional technique, pulpectomy, primary teeth.

  18. Survey of Non-Destructive Tire Inspection Techniques

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1971-07-01

    The status of several promising methods for non-destructive tire inspection is surveyed with the conclusion that radiographic, infrared, holographic and ultrasonic techniques warrant further evaluation. A program plan is outlined to correlate non-des...

  19. Comparison of survey techniques on detection of northern flying squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diggins, Corinne A.; Gilley, L. Michelle; Kelly, Christine A.; Ford, W. Mark

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect a species is central to the success of monitoring for conservation and management purposes, especially if the species is rare or endangered. Traditional methods, such as live capture, can be labor-intensive, invasive, and produce low detection rates. Technological advances and new approaches provide opportunities to more effectively survey for species both in terms of accuracy and efficiency than previous methods. We conducted a pilot comparison study of a traditional technique (live-trapping) and 2 novel noninvasive techniques (camera-trapping and ultrasonic acoustic surveys) on detection rates of the federally endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) in occupied habitat within the Roan Mountain Highlands of North Carolina, USA. In 2015, we established 3 5 × 5 live-trapping grids (6.5 ha) with 4 camera traps and 4 acoustic detectors systematically embedded in each grid. All 3 techniques were used simultaneously during 2 4-day survey periods. We compared techniques by assessing probability of detection (POD), latency to detection (LTD; i.e., no. of survey nights until initial detection), and survey effort. Acoustics had the greatest POD (0.37 ± 0.06 SE), followed by camera traps (0.30 ± 0.06) and live traps (0.01 ± 0.005). Acoustics had a lower LTD than camera traps (P = 0.017), where average LTD was 1.5 nights for acoustics and 3.25 nights for camera traps. Total field effort was greatest with live traps (111.9 hr) followed by acoustics (8.4 hr) and camera traps (9.6 hr), although processing and examination for data of noninvasive techniques made overall effort similar among the 3 methods. This pilot study demonstrated that both noninvasive methods were better rapid-assessment detection techniques for flying squirrels than live traps. However, determining seasonal effects between survey techniques and further development of protocols for both noninvasive techniques is

  20. Survey of Software Assurance Techniques for Highly Reliable Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Stacy

    2004-01-01

    This document provides a survey of software assurance techniques for highly reliable systems including a discussion of relevant safety standards for various industries in the United States and Europe, as well as examples of methods used during software development projects. It contains one section for each industry surveyed: Aerospace, Defense, Nuclear Power, Medical Devices and Transportation. Each section provides an overview of applicable standards and examples of a mission or software development project, software assurance techniques used and reliability achieved.

  1. Hall versus conventional stainless steel crown techniques: in vitro investigation of marginal fit and microleakage using three different luting agents.

    PubMed

    Erdemci, Zeynep Yalçınkaya; Cehreli, S Burçak; Tirali, R Ebru

    2014-01-01

    This study's purpose was to investigate microleakage and marginal discrepancies in stainless steel crowns (SSCs) placed using conventional and Hall techniques and cemented with three different luting agents. Seventy-eight human primary maxillary second molars were randomly assigned to two groups (N=39), and SSCs were applied either with the Hall or conventional technique. These two groups were further subgrouped according to the material used for crown cementation (N=13 per group). Two specimens in each group were processed for scanning electron microscopy investigation. The extent of microleakage and marginal fit was quantified in millimeters on digitally photographed sections using image analysis software. The data were compared with a two-way independent and a two-way mixed analysis of variance (P=.05). The scores in the Hall group were significantly worse than those in the conventional technique group (P<.05). In both groups, resin cement displayed the lowest extent of microleakage, followed by glass ionomer and polycarboxylate cements (P<.05). Stainless steel crowns applied using the Hall technique displayed higher microleakage scores than those applied using the conventional technique, regardless of the cementation material. When the interaction of the material and technique was assessed, resin cement presented as the best choice for minimizing microleakage in both techniques.

  2. Comparison of denture tooth movement between CAD-CAM and conventional fabrication techniques.

    PubMed

    Goodacre, Brian J; Goodacre, Charles J; Baba, Nadim Z; Kattadiyil, Mathew T

    2018-01-01

    Data comparing the denture tooth movement of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) and conventional denture processing techniques are lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the denture tooth movement of pack-and-press, fluid resin, injection, CAD-CAM-bonded, and CAD-CAM monolithic techniques for fabricating dentures to determine which process produces the most accurate and reproducible prosthesis. A total of 50 dentures were evaluated, 10 for each of the 5 groups. A master denture was fabricated and milled from prepolymerized poly(methyl methacrylate). For the conventional processing techniques (pack-and-press, fluid resin, and injection) a polyvinyl siloxane putty mold of the master denture was made in which denture teeth were placed and molten wax injected. The cameo surface of each wax-festooned denture was laser scanned, resulting in a standard tessellation language (STL) format file. The CAD-CAM dentures included 2 subgroups: CAD-CAM-bonded teeth in which the denture teeth were bonded into the milled denture base and CAD-CAM monolithic teeth in which the denture teeth were milled as part of the denture base. After all specimens had been fabricated, they were hydrated for 24 hours, and the cameo surface laser scanned. The preprocessing and postprocessing scan files of each denture were superimposed using surface-matching software. Measurements were made at 64 locations, allowing evaluation of denture tooth movement in a buccal, lingual, mesial-distal, and occlusal direction. The use of median and interquartile range values was used to assess accuracy and reproducibility. Levene and Kruskal-Wallis analyses of variance were used to evaluate differences between processing techniques (α=.05). The CAD-CAM monolithic technique was the most accurate, followed by fluid resin, CAD-CAM-bonded, pack-and-press, and injection. CAD-CAM monolithic technique was the most reproducible, followed by pack-and-press, CAD

  3. High quality tissue miniarray technique using a conventional TV/radio telescopic antenna.

    PubMed

    Elkablawy, Mohamed A; Albasri, Abdulkader M

    2015-01-01

    The tissue microarray (TMA) is widely accepted as a fast and cost-effective research tool for in situ tissue analysis in modern pathology. However, the current automated and manual TMA techniques have some drawbacks restricting their productivity. Our study aimed to introduce an improved manual tissue miniarray (TmA) technique that is simple and readily applicable to a broad range of tissue samples. In this study, a conventional TV/radio telescopic antenna was used to punch tissue cores manually from donor paraffin embedded tissue blocks which were pre-incubated at 40oC. The cores were manually transferred, organized and attached to a standard block mould, and filled with liquid paraffin to construct TmA blocks without any use of recipient paraffin blocks. By using a conventional TV/radio antenna, it was possible to construct TmA paraffin blocks with variable formats of array size and number (2-mm x 42, 2.5-mm x 30, 3-mm x 24, 4-mm x 20 and 5-mm x 12 cores). Up to 2-mm x 84 cores could be mounted and stained on a standard microscopic slide by cutting two sections from two different blocks and mounting them beside each other. The technique was simple and caused minimal damage to the donor blocks. H and E and immunostained slides showed well-defined tissue morphology and array configuration. This technique is easy to reproduce, quick, inexpensive and creates uniform blocks with abundant tissues without specialized equipment. It was found to improve the stability of the cores within the paraffin block and facilitated no losses during cutting and immunostaining.

  4. Comparison of stromal hydration techniques for clear corneal cataract incisions: conventional hydration versus anterior stromal pocket hydration.

    PubMed

    Mifflin, Mark D; Kinard, Krista; Neuffer, Marcus C

    2012-06-01

    Anterior stromal pocket hydration was compared with conventional hydration for preventing wound leak after 2.8 mm uniplanar clear corneal incisions (CCIs) in patients having routine cataract surgery. Conventional hydration involves hydration of the lateral walls of the main incision with visible whitening of the stroma. The anterior stromal pocket hydration technique involves creation of an additional supraincisional stromal pocket overlying the main incision, which is then hydrated instead of the main incision. Sixty-six eyes of 48 patients were included in the data analysis with 33 assigned to each study group. The anterior stromal pocket hydration technique was significantly better than conventional hydration in preventing wound leak due to direct pressure on the posterior lip of the incision. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A smart rotary technique versus conventional pulpectomy for primary teeth: A randomized controlled clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Negar; Shirazi, Alireza-Sarraf

    2017-01-01

    Background Techniques with adequate accuracy of working length determination along with shorter duration of treatment in pulpectomy procedure seems to be essential in pediatric dentistry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of root canal length measurement with Root ZX II apex locator and rotary system in pulpectomy of primary teeth. Material and Methods In this randomized control clinical trial complete pulpectomy was performed on 80 mandibular primary molars in 80, 4-6-year-old children. The study population was randomly divided into case and control groups. In control group conventional pulpectomy was performed and in the case group working length was determined by electronic apex locator Root ZXII and instrumented with Mtwo rotary files. Statistical evaluation was performed using Mann-Whitney and Chi-Square tests (P<0.05). Results There were no significant differences between electronic apex locator Root ZXII and conventional method in accuracy of root canal length determination. However significantly less time was needed for instrumenting with rotary files (P=0.000). Conclusions Considering the comparable results in accuracy of root canal length determination and the considerably shorter instrumentation time in Root ZXII apex locator and rotary system, it may be suggested for pulpectomy in primary molar teeth. Key words:Rotary technique, conventional technique, pulpectomy, primary teeth. PMID:29302280

  6. Do e-cigarettes have the potential to compete with conventional cigarettes?: a survey of conventional cigarette smokers' experiences with e-cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Kralikova, Eva; Novak, Jan; West, Oliver; Kmetova, Alexandra; Hajek, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are becoming increasingly popular globally. If they were to replace conventional cigarettes, it could have a substantial impact on public health. To evaluate EC's potential for competing with conventional cigarettes as a consumer product, we report the first data, to our knowledge, on the proportion of smokers who try ECs and become regular users. A total of 2,012 people seen smoking or buying cigarettes in the Czech Republic were approached to answer questions about smoking, with no mention made of ECs to avoid the common bias in surveys of EC users. During the interview, the volunteers' experience with ECs was then discussed. A total of 1,738 smokers (86%) participated. One-half reported trying ECs at least once. Among those who tried ECs, 18.3% (95% CI, 0.15.7%-20.9%) reported using them regularly, and 14% (95% CI, 11.6%-16.2%) used them daily. On average, regular users used ECs daily for 7.1 months. The most common reason for using ECs was to reduce consumption of conventional cigarettes; 60% of regular EC users reported that ECs helped them to achieve this. Being older and having a more favorable initial experience with ECs explained 19% of the variance in progressing to regular EC use. Almost one-fifth of smokers who try ECs once go on to become regular users. ECs may develop into a genuine competitor to conventional cigarettes. Government agencies preparing to regulate ECs need to ensure that such moves do not create a market monopoly for conventional cigarettes.

  7. Comparison of intraoral scanning and conventional impression techniques using 3-dimensional superimposition.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Ye-Kyu; Huh, Yoon-Hyuk; Cho, Lee-Ra; Park, Chan-Jin

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the appropriate impression technique by analyzing the superimposition of 3D digital model for evaluating accuracy of conventional impression technique and digital impression. Twenty-four patients who had no periodontitis or temporomandibular joint disease were selected for analysis. As a reference model, digital impressions with a digital impression system were performed. As a test models, for conventional impression dual-arch and full-arch, impression techniques utilizing addition type polyvinylsiloxane for fabrication of cast were applied. 3D laser scanner is used for scanning the cast. Each 3 pairs for 25 STL datasets were imported into the inspection software. The three-dimensional differences were illustrated in a color-coded map. For three-dimensional quantitative analysis, 4 specified contact locations(buccal and lingual cusps of second premolar and molar) were established. For twodimensional quantitative analysis, the sectioning from buccal cusp to lingual cusp of second premolar and molar were acquired depending on the tooth axis. In color-coded map, the biggest difference between intraoral scanning and dual-arch impression was seen (P<.05). In three-dimensional analysis, the biggest difference was seen between intraoral scanning and dual-arch impression and the smallest difference was seen between dual-arch and full-arch impression. The two- and three-dimensional deviations between intraoral scanner and dual-arch impression was bigger than full-arch and dual-arch impression (P<.05). The second premolar showed significantly bigger three-dimensional deviations than the second molar in the three-dimensional deviations (P>.05).

  8. Comparison of intraoral scanning and conventional impression techniques using 3-dimensional superimposition

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Ye-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study is to evaluate the appropriate impression technique by analyzing the superimposition of 3D digital model for evaluating accuracy of conventional impression technique and digital impression. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-four patients who had no periodontitis or temporomandibular joint disease were selected for analysis. As a reference model, digital impressions with a digital impression system were performed. As a test models, for conventional impression dual-arch and full-arch, impression techniques utilizing addition type polyvinylsiloxane for fabrication of cast were applied. 3D laser scanner is used for scanning the cast. Each 3 pairs for 25 STL datasets were imported into the inspection software. The three-dimensional differences were illustrated in a color-coded map. For three-dimensional quantitative analysis, 4 specified contact locations(buccal and lingual cusps of second premolar and molar) were established. For twodimensional quantitative analysis, the sectioning from buccal cusp to lingual cusp of second premolar and molar were acquired depending on the tooth axis. RESULTS In color-coded map, the biggest difference between intraoral scanning and dual-arch impression was seen (P<.05). In three-dimensional analysis, the biggest difference was seen between intraoral scanning and dual-arch impression and the smallest difference was seen between dual-arch and full-arch impression. CONCLUSION The two- and three-dimensional deviations between intraoral scanner and dual-arch impression was bigger than full-arch and dual-arch impression (P<.05). The second premolar showed significantly bigger three-dimensional deviations than the second molar in the three-dimensional deviations (P>.05). PMID:26816576

  9. Single site and conventional totally extraperitoneal techniques for uncomplicated inguinal hernia repair: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Felipe Brandão Corrêa; Starling, Eduardo Simão; Maricevich, Marco; Tobias-Machado, Marcos

    2014-10-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of endoscopic extraperitoneal single site (EESS) inguinal hernia repair and compare it outcomes with the conventional totally extraperitoneal (TEP) technique. TEP inguinal hernia repair is a widely accepted alternative to conventional open technique with several perioperative advantages. Transumbilical laparoendoscopic singlesite surgery (LESS) is an emerging approach and has been reported for a number of surgical procedures with superior aesthetic results but other advantages need to be proven. Thirty-eight uncomplicated inguinal hernias were repaired by EESS approach between January 2010 and January 2011. All procedures were performed through a 25 cm infraumbilical incision using the Alexis wound retractor attached to a surgical glove and three trocars. Body mass index, age, operative time, blood loss, complications, conversion rate, analgesia requirement, hospital stay, return to normal activities and patient satisfaction with aesthetic results were analysed and compared with the last 38 matched-pair group of patients who underwent a conventional TEP inguinal hernia repair by the same surgeon. All procedures were performed successfully with no conversion. In both unilateral and bilateral EESS inguinal repairs, the mean operative time was longer than conventional TEP (55± 20 vs. 40± 15 min, P = 0.049 and 70± 15 vs. 55± 10 min, P = 0.014). Aesthetic result was superior in the EESS group (2.88± 0.43 vs. 2.79± 0.51, P = 0.042). There was no difference between the two approaches regarding blood loss, complications, hospital stay, time until returns to normal activities and analgesic requirement. EESS inguinal hernia repair is safe and effective, with superior cosmetic results in the treatment of uncomplicated inguinal hernias. Other advantages of this new technique still need to be proven.

  10. A Survey of Techniques for Approximate Computing

    DOE PAGES

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2016-03-18

    Approximate computing trades off computation quality with the effort expended and as rising performance demands confront with plateauing resource budgets, approximate computing has become, not merely attractive, but even imperative. Here, we present a survey of techniques for approximate computing (AC). We discuss strategies for finding approximable program portions and monitoring output quality, techniques for using AC in different processing units (e.g., CPU, GPU and FPGA), processor components, memory technologies etc., and programming frameworks for AC. Moreover, we classify these techniques based on several key characteristics to emphasize their similarities and differences. Finally, the aim of this paper is tomore » provide insights to researchers into working of AC techniques and inspire more efforts in this area to make AC the mainstream computing approach in future systems.« less

  11. Radiofrequency wire for the recanalization of central vein occlusions that have failed conventional endovascular techniques.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Marcelo; Schonholz, Claudio; Hannegan, Christopher; Anderson, Michael Bret; Shi, June; Selby, Bayne

    2012-08-01

    To report the technique and acute technical results associated with the PowerWire Radiofrequency (RF) Guidewire used to recanalize central vein occlusions (CVOs) after the failure of conventional endovascular techniques. A retrospective study was conducted from January 2008 to December 2011, which identified all patients with CVOs who underwent treatment with a novel RF guide wire. Forty-two symptomatic patients (with swollen arm or superior vena cava [SVC] syndrome) underwent RF wire recanalization of 43 CVOs, which were then implanted with stents. The distribution of CVOs in central veins was as follows: six subclavian, 29 brachiocephalic, and eight SVC. All patients had a history of central venous catheter placement. Patients were monitored with regular clinical evaluations and central venography after treatment. All 42 patients had successful recanalization of CVOs facilitated by the RF wire technique. There was one complication, which was not directly related to the RF wire: one case of cardiac tamponade attributed to balloon angioplasty after stent placement. Forty of 42 patients (95.2%) had patent stents and were asymptomatic at 6 and 9 months after treatment. The present results suggest that the RF wire technique is a safe and efficient alternative in the recanalization of symptomatic and chronic CVOs when conventional endovascular techniques have failed. Copyright © 2012 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Poisson and negative binomial item count techniques for surveys with sensitive question.

    PubMed

    Tian, Guo-Liang; Tang, Man-Lai; Wu, Qin; Liu, Yin

    2017-04-01

    Although the item count technique is useful in surveys with sensitive questions, privacy of those respondents who possess the sensitive characteristic of interest may not be well protected due to a defect in its original design. In this article, we propose two new survey designs (namely the Poisson item count technique and negative binomial item count technique) which replace several independent Bernoulli random variables required by the original item count technique with a single Poisson or negative binomial random variable, respectively. The proposed models not only provide closed form variance estimate and confidence interval within [0, 1] for the sensitive proportion, but also simplify the survey design of the original item count technique. Most importantly, the new designs do not leak respondents' privacy. Empirical results show that the proposed techniques perform satisfactorily in the sense that it yields accurate parameter estimate and confidence interval.

  13. A Survey of Architectural Techniques For Improving Cache Power Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh

    Modern processors are using increasingly larger sized on-chip caches. Also, with each CMOS technology generation, there has been a significant increase in their leakage energy consumption. For this reason, cache power management has become a crucial research issue in modern processor design. To address this challenge and also meet the goals of sustainable computing, researchers have proposed several techniques for improving energy efficiency of cache architectures. This paper surveys recent architectural techniques for improving cache power efficiency and also presents a classification of these techniques based on their characteristics. For providing an application perspective, this paper also reviews several real-worldmore » processor chips that employ cache energy saving techniques. The aim of this survey is to enable engineers and researchers to get insights into the techniques for improving cache power efficiency and motivate them to invent novel solutions for enabling low-power operation of caches.« less

  14. MO-G-BRD-01: Point/Counterpoint Debate: Arc Based Techniques Will Make Conventional IMRT Obsolete

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, D; Popple, R; Balter, P

    2014-06-15

    A variety of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery techniques have been developed that have provided clinicians with the ability to deliver highly conformal dose distributions. The delivery techniques include compensators, step-and-shoot IMRT, sliding window IMRT, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and tomotherapy. A key development in the field of IMRT was the introduction of new planning algorithms and delivery control systems in 2007 that made it possible to coordinate the gantry rotation speed, dose rate, and multileaf collimator leaf positions during the delivery of arc therapy. With these developments, VMAT became a routine clinical tool. The use of VMATmore » has continued to grow in recent years and some would argue that this will soon make conventional IMRT obsolete, and this is the premise of this debate. To introduce the debate, David Shepard, Ph.D. will provide an overview of IMRT delivery techniques including historical context and how they are being used today. The debate will follow with Richard Popple, Ph.D. arguing FOR the Proposition and Peter Balter, Ph.D. arguing AGAINST it. Learning Objectives: Understand the different delivery techniques for IMRT. Understand the potential benefits of conventional IMRT. Understand the potential benefits of arc-based IMRT delivery.« less

  15. A Clinical Comparative Study of 3-Dimensional Accuracy between Digital and Conventional Implant Impression Techniques.

    PubMed

    Alsharbaty, Mohammed Hussein M; Alikhasi, Marzieh; Zarrati, Simindokht; Shamshiri, Ahmed Reza

    2018-02-09

    To evaluate the accuracy of a digital implant impression technique using a TRIOS 3Shape intraoral scanner (IOS) compared to conventional implant impression techniques (pick-up and transfer) in clinical situations. Thirty-six patients who had two implants (Implantium, internal connection) ranging in diameter between 3.8 and 4.8 mm in posterior regions participated in this study after signing a consent form. Thirty-six reference models (RM) were fabricated by attaching two impression copings intraorally, splinted with autopolymerizing acrylic resin, verified by sectioning through the middle of the index, and rejoined again with freshly mixed autopolymerizing acrylic resin pattern (Pattern Resin) with the brush bead method. After that, the splinted assemblies were attached to implant analogs (DANSE) and impressed with type III dental stone (Gypsum Microstone) in standard plastic die lock trays. Thirty-six working casts were fabricated for each conventional impression technique (i.e., pick-up and transfer). Thirty-six digital impressions were made with a TRIOS 3Shape IOS. Eight of the digitally scanned files were damaged; 28 digital scan files were retrieved to STL format. A coordinate-measuring machine (CMM) was used to record linear displacement measurements (x, y, and z-coordinates), interimplant distances, and angular displacements for the RMs and conventionally fabricated working casts. CATIA 3D evaluation software was used to assess the digital STL files for the same variables as the CMM measurements. CMM measurements made on the RMs and conventionally fabricated working casts were compared with 3D software measurements made on the digitally scanned files. Data were statistically analyzed using the generalized estimating equation (GEE) with an exchangeable correlation matrix and linear method, followed by the Bonferroni method for pairwise comparisons (α = 0.05). The results showed significant differences between the pick-up and digital groups in all of the

  16. The state of the art of conventional flow visualization techniques for wind tunnel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Settles, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    Conventional wind tunnel flow visualization techniques which consist of surface flow methods, tracers, and optical methods are presented. Different surface flow methods are outlined: (1) liquid films (oil and fluorescent dye and UV lighting, renewable film via porous dispenser in model, volatile carrier fluid, cryogenic colored oil dots, oil film interferometry); (2) reactive surface treatment (reactive gas injection, reversible dye); (3) transition and heat transfer detectors (evaporation, sublimation, liquid crystals, phase change paints, IR thermography); and (4) tufts (fluorescent mini tufts, cryogenic suitability). Other methods are smoke wire techniques, vapor screens, and optical methods.

  17. "Clothesline technique" for proximal tibial shaft fracture fixation using conventional intramedullary nail: a simple, useful, and inexpensive technique to prevent fracture malalignment.

    PubMed

    Belangero, William Dias; Santos Pires, Robinson Esteves; Livani, Bruno; Rossi, Felipe Lins; de Andrade, Andre Luis Lugnani

    2018-05-01

    Treatment of proximal tibial shaft fractures is always challenging. Despite the development of modern techniques, the literature still shows high complication rates, especially regarding proximal fragment malalignment. It is well known that knee position in flexion during tibial nailing is responsible for extension and valgus deformities of the proximal fragment. Unlike in tibial shaft fractures, nails do not reduce proximal tibial fractures due to the medullary canal width. This study aims to describe a simple, useful, and inexpensive technique to prevent valgus and extension deformities when treating proximal tibial fractures using conventional nails: the so-called clothesline technique.

  18. Survey of adaptive image coding techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habibi, A.

    1977-01-01

    The general problem of image data compression is discussed briefly with attention given to the use of Karhunen-Loeve transforms, suboptimal systems, and block quantization. A survey is then conducted encompassing the four categories of adaptive systems: (1) adaptive transform coding (adaptive sampling, adaptive quantization, etc.), (2) adaptive predictive coding (adaptive delta modulation, adaptive DPCM encoding, etc.), (3) adaptive cluster coding (blob algorithms and the multispectral cluster coding technique), and (4) adaptive entropy coding.

  19. Clinical application of microsampling versus conventional sampling techniques in the quantitative bioanalysis of antibiotics: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Guerra Valero, Yarmarly C; Wallis, Steven C; Lipman, Jeffrey; Stove, Christophe; Roberts, Jason A; Parker, Suzanne L

    2018-03-01

    Conventional sampling techniques for clinical pharmacokinetic studies often require the removal of large blood volumes from patients. This can result in a physiological or emotional burden, particularly for neonates or pediatric patients. Antibiotic pharmacokinetic studies are typically performed on healthy adults or general ward patients. These may not account for alterations to a patient's pathophysiology and can lead to suboptimal treatment. Microsampling offers an important opportunity for clinical pharmacokinetic studies in vulnerable patient populations, where smaller sample volumes can be collected. This systematic review provides a description of currently available microsampling techniques and an overview of studies reporting the quantitation and validation of antibiotics using microsampling. A comparison of microsampling to conventional sampling in clinical studies is included.

  20. A Survey on Nickel Titanium Rotary Instruments and their Usage Techniques by Endodontists in India.

    PubMed

    Patil, Thimmanagowda N; Saraf, Prahlad A; Penukonda, Raghavendra; Vanaki, Sneha S; Kamatagi, Laxmikant

    2017-05-01

    The preference and usage of nickel titanium rotary instruments varies from individual to individual based on their technique, experience with the rotary systems and the clinical situation. Very limited information is available to explain the adoption of changing concepts with respect to nickel titanium rotary instruments pertaining to the endodontists in India. The aim of this study was to conduct a questionnaire survey to acquire the knowledge concerning different NiTi rotary instruments and their usage techniques by endodontists in India. A Survey questionnaire was designed which consisted of 32 questions regarding designation, demographics, experience with rotary instruments, usage of different file systems, usage techniques, frequency of reuse, occurrence of file fracture, reasons and their management was distributed by hand in the national postgraduate convention and also disseminated via electronic medium to 400 and 600 endodontists respectively. Information was collected from each individual to gain insight into the experiences and beliefs of endodontists concerning the new endodontic technology of rotary NiTi instrumentation based on their clinical experience with the rotary systems. The questions were designed to ascertain the problems, patterns of use and to identify areas of perceived or potential concern regarding the rotary instruments and the data acquired was statistically evaluated using Fisher's-exact test and the Chi-Square test. Overall 63.8% (638) endodontists responded. ProTaper was one of the most commonly used file system followed by M two and ProTaper Next. There was a significant co relation between the years of experience and the file re use frequency, preparation technique, file separation, management of file separation. A large number of Endodontists prefer to reuse the rotary NiTi instruments. As there was an increase in the experience, the incidence of file separation reduced with increasing number of re use frequency and with

  1. Evaluation of the marginal fit of metal copings fabricated on three different marginal designs using conventional and accelerated casting techniques: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Sharad; Parkash, Hari; Bhargava, Akshay; Gupta, Sharad

    2014-01-01

    Abundant resources and techniques have been used for complete coverage crown fabrication. Conventional investing and casting procedures for phosphate-bonded investments require a 2- to 4-h procedure before completion. Accelerated casting techniques have been used, but may not result in castings with matching marginal accuracy. The study measured the marginal gap and determined the clinical acceptability of single cast copings invested in a phosphate-bonded investment with the use of conventional and accelerated methods. One hundred and twenty cast coping samples were fabricated using conventional and accelerated methods, with three finish lines: Chamfer, shoulder and shoulder with bevel. Sixty copings were prepared with each technique. Each coping was examined with a stereomicroscope at four predetermined sites and measurements of marginal gaps were documented for each. A master chart was prepared for all the data and was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version. Evidence of marginal gap was then evaluated by t-test. Analysis of variance and Post-hoc analysis were used to compare two groups as well as to make comparisons between three subgroups . Measurements recorded showed no statistically significant difference between conventional and accelerated groups. Among the three marginal designs studied, shoulder with bevel showed the best marginal fit with conventional as well as accelerated casting techniques. Accelerated casting technique could be a vital alternative to the time-consuming conventional casting technique. The marginal fit between the two casting techniques showed no statistical difference.

  2. Balloon Blocking Technique (BBT) for Superselective Catheterization of Inaccessible Arteries with Conventional and Modified Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Morishita, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hmorif@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp, E-mail: mori-h33@xa2.so-net.ne.jp; Takeuchi, Yoshito, E-mail: yotake62@qg8.so-net.ne.jp; Ito, Takaaki, E-mail: takaaki@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp

    2016-06-15

    PurposeThe purpose of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of the balloon blocking technique (BBT).Materials and MethodsThe BBT was performed in six patients (all males, mean 73.5 years) in whom superselective catheterization for transcatheter arterial embolization by the conventional microcatheter techniques had failed due to anatomical difficulty, including targeted arteries originating steeply or hooked from parent arteries. All BBT procedures were performed using Seldinger’s transfemoral method. Occlusive balloons were deployed and inflated at the distal side of the target artery branching site in the parent artery via transfemoral access. A microcatheter was delivered from a 5-F cathetermore » via another femoral access and was advanced over the microguidewire into the target artery, under balloon blockage of advancement of the microguidewire into non-target branches. After the balloon catheter was deflated and withdrawn, optimal interventions were performed through the microcatheter.ResultsAfter success of accessing the targeted artery by BBT, optimal interventions were accomplished in all patients with no complications other than vasovagal hypotension, which responded to nominal therapy.ConclusionThe BBT may be useful in superselective catheterization of inaccessible arteries due to anatomical difficulties.« less

  3. Linking India Global Health Professions Student Survey data to the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Sinha, D N; Singh, G; Gupta, P C; Pednekar, M; Warrn, C W; Asma, S; Lee, J

    2010-07-01

    The 2003 India Tobacco Control Act (ITCA) includes provisions designed to reduce tobacco consumption and protect citizens from exposure to secondhand smoke. India ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) on February 27, 2005. The WHO FCTC is the world's first public health treaty that aims to promote and protect public health and reduce the devastating health and economic impact of tobacco. The Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS) was developed to track tobacco use among third-year dental, medical, nursing, and pharmacy students across countries. Data from the dental (2005), medical (2006), nursing(2007), and pharmacy (2008) GHPSS conducted in India showed high prevalence of tobacco use and a general lack of training by health professionals in patient cessation counseling techniques. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare could use this information to monitor and evaluate the existing tobacco control program effort in India as well as to develop and implement new tobacco control program initiatives.

  4. Perspectives on Tobacco Product Waste: A Survey of Framework Convention Alliance Members' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs.

    PubMed

    Javadian, Sanas; Stigler-Granados, Paula; Curtis, Clifton; Thompson, Francis; Huber, Laurent; Novotny, Thomas E

    2015-08-18

    Cigarette butts (tobacco product waste (TPW)) are the single most collected item in environmental trash cleanups worldwide. This brief descriptive study used an online survey tool (Survey Monkey) to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among individuals representing the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA) about this issue. The FCA has about 350 members, including mainly non-governmental tobacco control advocacy groups that support implementation of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Although the response rate (28%) was low, respondents represented countries from all six WHO regions. The majority (62%) have heard the term TPW, and nearly all (99%) considered TPW as an environmental harm. Most (77%) indicated that the tobacco industry should be responsible for TPW mitigation, and 72% felt that smokers should also be held responsible. This baseline information may inform future international discussions by the FCTC Conference of the Parties (COP) regarding environmental policies that may be addressed within FCTC obligations. Additional research is planned regarding the entire lifecycle of tobacco's impact on the environment.

  5. Neural networks: Alternatives to conventional techniques for automatic docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinz, Bradley L.

    1994-01-01

    Automatic docking of orbiting spacecraft is a crucial operation involving the identification of vehicle orientation as well as complex approach dynamics. The chaser spacecraft must be able to recognize the target spacecraft within a scene and achieve accurate closing maneuvers. In a video-based system, a target scene must be captured and transformed into a pattern of pixels. Successful recognition lies in the interpretation of this pattern. Due to their powerful pattern recognition capabilities, artificial neural networks offer a potential role in interpretation and automatic docking processes. Neural networks can reduce the computational time required by existing image processing and control software. In addition, neural networks are capable of recognizing and adapting to changes in their dynamic environment, enabling enhanced performance, redundancy, and fault tolerance. Most neural networks are robust to failure, capable of continued operation with a slight degradation in performance after minor failures. This paper discusses the particular automatic docking tasks neural networks can perform as viable alternatives to conventional techniques.

  6. Comparison of effectiveness and time-efficiency between multimedia and conventional counselling on metered-dose inhaler technique education.

    PubMed

    King, Teck Long; Kho, Evelyn Kui Yee; Tiong, Yiek Hung; Julaihi, Siti Norhajariah Binti

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether multimedia counselling (MC) using a touchscreen computer is as effective and time-efficient as conventional counselling (CC) in promoting correct metered-dose inhaler (MDI) technique, with or without the valved holding chamber (VHC). Participants in the MDI-only and MDI-with-VHC groups were randomly assigned to the MC group or CC group. No blinding was imposed. Inhalation technique was assessed using checklists before and after counselling. Time spent on counselling was determined for all participants, while time taken to perfect the technique was determined only for participants who achieved perfect technique within one hour. The CC group had more elderly participants than the MC group, but the difference was not significant. MDI-only and MDI-with-VHC users showed significant improvement in their inhaler technique after multimedia (44.5 ± 28.0% and 44.1 ± 14.4%, respectively) and conventional counselling (36.8 ± 20.5% and 37.0 ± 14.6%, respectively). No significant difference in MDI technique enhancement was found between the two groups. Although no significant difference was found between the MC and CC groups with regard to the time spent on counselling and the time taken to perfect the technique, the average time spent on counselling was longer for MDI-only users. MDI-only users had 13.5 times the odds of failing to achieve perfect technique compared to MDI-with-VHC users (95% confidence interval 1.50-121.32, p = 0.020). MC and CC significantly improved MDI technique. Both methods showed comparable short-term effectiveness and time-efficiency in MDI technique education. VHC was beneficial, especially for MDI-users with hand-lung coordination problems.

  7. A comparison of conventional capture versus PIT reader techniques for estimating survival and capture probabilities of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, L.E.; O'Shea, T.J.; Neubaum, D.J.; Neubaum, M.A.; Pearce, R.D.; Bowen, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    We compared conventional capture (primarily mist nets and harp traps) and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagging techniques for estimating capture and survival probabilities of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) roosting in buildings in Fort Collins, Colorado. A total of 987 female adult and juvenile bats were captured and marked by subdermal injection of PIT tags during the summers of 2001-2005 at five maternity colonies in buildings. Openings to roosts were equipped with PIT hoop-style readers, and exit and entry of bats were passively monitored on a daily basis throughout the summers of 2002-2005. PIT readers 'recaptured' adult and juvenile females more often than conventional capture events at each roost. Estimates of annual capture probabilities for all five colonies were on average twice as high when estimated from PIT reader data (P?? = 0.93-1.00) than when derived from conventional techniques (P?? = 0.26-0.66), and as a consequence annual survival estimates were more precisely estimated when using PIT reader encounters. Short-term, daily capture estimates were also higher using PIT readers than conventional captures. We discuss the advantages and limitations of using PIT tags and passive encounters with hoop readers vs. conventional capture techniques for estimating these vital parameters in big brown bats. ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.

  8. Comparison of computer-assisted surgery with conventional technique for the treatment of axial distal phalanx fractures in horses: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Andritzky, Juliane; Rossol, Melanie; Lischer, Christoph; Auer, Joerg A

    2005-01-01

    To compare the precision obtained with computer-assisted screw insertion for treatment of mid-sagittal articular fractures of the distal phalanx (P3) with results achieved with a conventional technique. In vitro experimental study. Thirty-two cadaveric equine limbs. Four groups of 8 limbs were studied. Either 1 or 2 screws were inserted perpendicular to an imaginary axial fracture of P3 using computer-assisted surgery (CAS) or conventional technique. Screw insertion time, predetermined screw length, inserted screw length, fit of the screw, and errors in placement were recorded. CAS technique took 15-20 minutes longer but resulted in greater precision of screw length and placement compared with the conventional technique. Improved precision in screw insertion with CAS makes insertion of 2 screws possible for repair of mid-sagittal P3 fractures. CAS although expensive improves precision in screw insertion into P3 and consequently should yield improved clinical outcome.

  9. Comparison the Marginal and Internal Fit of Metal Copings Cast from Wax Patterns Fabricated by CAD/CAM and Conventional Wax up Techniques.

    PubMed

    Vojdani, M; Torabi, K; Farjood, E; Khaledi, Aar

    2013-09-01

    Metal-ceramic crowns are most commonly used as the complete coverage restorations in clinical daily use. Disadvantages of conventional hand-made wax-patterns introduce some alternative ways by means of CAD/CAM technologies. This study compares the marginal and internal fit of copings cast from CAD/CAM and conventional fabricated wax-patterns. Twenty-four standardized brass dies were prepared and randomly divided into 2 groups according to the wax-patterns fabrication method (CAD/CAM technique and conventional method) (n=12). All the wax-patterns were fabricated in a standard fashion by means of contour, thickness and internal relief (M1-M12: representative of CAD/CAM group, C1-C12: representative of conventional group). CAD/CAM milling machine (Cori TEC 340i; imes-icore GmbH, Eiterfeld, Germany) was used to fabricate the CAD/CAM group wax-patterns. The copings cast from 24 wax-patterns were cemented to the corresponding dies. For all the coping-die assemblies cross-sectional technique was used to evaluate the marginal and internal fit at 15 points. The Student's t- test was used for statistical analysis (α=0.05). The overall mean (SD) for absolute marginal discrepancy (AMD) was 254.46 (25.10) um for CAD/CAM group and 88.08(10.67) um for conventional group (control). The overall mean of internal gap total (IGT) was 110.77(5.92) um for CAD/CAM group and 76.90 (10.17) um for conventional group. The Student's t-test revealed significant differences between 2 groups. Marginal and internal gaps were found to be significantly higher at all measured areas in CAD/CAM group than conventional group (p< 0.001). Within limitations of this study, conventional method of wax-pattern fabrication produced copings with significantly better marginal and internal fit than CAD/CAM (machine-milled) technique. All the factors for 2 groups were standardized except wax pattern fabrication technique, therefore, only the conventional group results in copings with clinically acceptable

  10. Ultrathin Silicon Sheet in the Management of Unilateral Post-traumatic Temporo-Mandibuar Joint Ankylosis in Children: A Good Alternative to Conventional Techniques.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Sushil Kumar; Ankur, Bhatnagar; Jain, R K

    2015-09-01

    We have described a new technique of using ultra-thin silicon sheet (0.2 mm) between two transected bony ends for temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis in children with advantages of short operative time, minimal foreign material insertion and faster recovery time post-operatively which makes our technique a good alternative to conventional techniques. Our study is a non-randomized prospective study conducted on 10 children aged between 4 and 15 years who presented to our tertiary care institute with severe trismus after traumatic injury and were willing to undergo this new technique. The main outcome measure taken into consideration was difference between pre-operative, intra-operative (on table) and post-operative mouth opening (minimum 2 years follow-up). The pre-operative mouth opening in our cases varied from 1 to 5 mm. The intra-operative mouth opening achieved ranged from 2.8 to 3.2 cm. The mouth opening was about more than 2.7 cm in all our cases at 2 years of follow-up. Our technique is a good alternative to conventional techniques used for TMJ ankylosis in children but few more randomized controlled trials are required to assess its effectiveness in comparison to conventional techniques and for universal adoption of this technique.

  11. The preparation of liposomes using compressed carbon dioxide: strategies, important considerations and comparison with conventional techniques.

    PubMed

    Bridson, R H; Santos, R C D; Al-Duri, B; McAllister, S M; Robertson, J; Alpar, H O

    2006-06-01

    Numerous strategies are currently available for preparing liposomes, although no single method is ideal in every respect. Two methods for producing liposomes using compressed carbon dioxide in either its liquid or supercritical state were therefore investigated as possible alternatives to the conventional techniques currently used. The first technique used modified compressed carbon dioxide as a solvent system. The way in which changes in pressure, temperature, apparatus geometry and solvent flow rate affected the size distributions of the formulations was examined. In general, liposomes in the nano-size range with an average diameter of 200 nm could be produced, although some micron-sized vesicles were also present. Liposomes were characterized according to their hydrophobic drug-loading capacity and encapsulated aqueous volumes. The latter were found to be higher than in conventional techniques such as high-pressure homogenization. The second method used compressed carbon dioxide as an anti-solvent to promote uniform precipitation of phospholipids from concentrated ethanolic solutions. Finely divided solvent-free phospholipid powders of saturated lipids could be prepared that were subsequently hydrated to produce liposomes with mean volume diameters of around 5 microm.

  12. Thermal effusivity measurement of conventional and organic coffee oils via photopyroelectric technique.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, A; Gordillo-Delgado, F; Cruz-Santillana, Y E; Plazas, J; Marin, E

    2017-12-01

    In this work, oil samples extracted from organic and conventional coffee beans were studied. A fatty acids profile analysis was done using gas chromatography and physicochemical analysis of density and acidity index to verify the oil purity. Additionally, Mid-Infrared Fourier Transform Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) aided by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to identify differences between the intensities of the absorption bands related to functional groups. Thermal effusivity values between 592±3 and 610±4Ws 1/2 m -2 K -1 were measured using the photopyroelectric technique in a front detection configuration. The acidity index was between 1.11 and 1.27% and the density changed between 0.921 and 0.94g/mL. These variables, as well as the extraction yield between 12,6 and 14,4%, showed a similar behavior than that observed for the thermal effusivity, demonstrating that this parameter can be used as a criterion for discrimination between oil samples extracted from organic and conventional coffee beans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical and arthroscopic outcome of single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: Comparison of remnant preservation versus conventional technique.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sungwook; Kim, Myung-Ku; Kwon, Yong Suk; Kang, Hyunseong

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes and second-look arthroscopic findings of remnant preservation technique with those of conventional anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in single bundle ACL reconstructions. One hundred sixty two consecutive patients underwent ACL reconstruction by one surgeon, with 93 patients receiving remnant preservation technique (Group A) and 69 patients receiving conventional ACL reconstruction (Group B). The mean follow-up was 15months. Clinical outcomes were assessed using Lysholm scores and the International Knee Documentation Committee form (IKDC form) evaluation. Post-operative knee stability was evaluated through manual knee laxity evaluation, pivot-shift test, and a Telos device. Differences in post-operative stability (manual knee laxity, pivot shift test and Telos device) were not significant between the groups (p=0.681, p=0.610, p=0.696). And also no significant differences were noted with respect to the IKDC form and the latest Lysholm scores. But in the second-look arthroscopic findings, synovial coverage was confirmed to be excellent in 36% (22/61) of Group A patients and 23% (7/30) of Group B patients. ACL reconstruction with both techniques was found to result in acceptable stability, clinical outcomes and second-look arthroscopic findings. With regard to synovial coverage, the remnant reservation techniques were found to be superior to conventional ACL reconstruction. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A survey of fault diagnosis technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedesel, Joel

    1989-01-01

    Existing techniques and methodologies for fault diagnosis are surveyed. The techniques run the gamut from theoretical artificial intelligence work to conventional software engineering applications. They are shown to define a spectrum of implementation alternatives where tradeoffs determine their position on the spectrum. Various tradeoffs include execution time limitations and memory requirements of the algorithms as well as their effectiveness in addressing the fault diagnosis problem.

  15. A Survey of Techniques for Modeling and Improving Reliability of Computing Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Mittal, Sparsh; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-04-24

    Recent trends of aggressive technology scaling have greatly exacerbated the occurrences and impact of faults in computing systems. This has made `reliability' a first-order design constraint. To address the challenges of reliability, several techniques have been proposed. In this study, we provide a survey of architectural techniques for improving resilience of computing systems. We especially focus on techniques proposed for microarchitectural components, such as processor registers, functional units, cache and main memory etc. In addition, we discuss techniques proposed for non-volatile memory, GPUs and 3D-stacked processors. To underscore the similarities and differences of the techniques, we classify them based onmore » their key characteristics. We also review the metrics proposed to quantify vulnerability of processor structures. Finally, we believe that this survey will help researchers, system-architects and processor designers in gaining insights into the techniques for improving reliability of computing systems.« less

  16. A Survey of Techniques for Modeling and Improving Reliability of Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    Recent trends of aggressive technology scaling have greatly exacerbated the occurrences and impact of faults in computing systems. This has made `reliability' a first-order design constraint. To address the challenges of reliability, several techniques have been proposed. In this study, we provide a survey of architectural techniques for improving resilience of computing systems. We especially focus on techniques proposed for microarchitectural components, such as processor registers, functional units, cache and main memory etc. In addition, we discuss techniques proposed for non-volatile memory, GPUs and 3D-stacked processors. To underscore the similarities and differences of the techniques, we classify them based onmore » their key characteristics. We also review the metrics proposed to quantify vulnerability of processor structures. Finally, we believe that this survey will help researchers, system-architects and processor designers in gaining insights into the techniques for improving reliability of computing systems.« less

  17. Marginal and internal fit of cobalt-chromium copings fabricated using the conventional and the direct metal laser sintering techniques: A comparative in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Ullattuthodi, Sujana; Cherian, Kandathil Phillip; Anandkumar, R; Nambiar, M Sreedevi

    2017-01-01

    This in vitro study seeks to evaluate and compare the marginal and internal fit of cobalt-chromium copings fabricated using the conventional and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) techniques. A master model of a prepared molar tooth was made using cobalt-chromium alloy. Silicone impression of the master model was made and thirty standardized working models were then produced; twenty working models for conventional lost-wax technique and ten working models for DMLS technique. A total of twenty metal copings were fabricated using two different production techniques: conventional lost-wax method and DMLS; ten samples in each group. The conventional and DMLS copings were cemented to the working models using glass ionomer cement. Marginal gap of the copings were measured at predetermined four points. The die with the cemented copings are standardized-sectioned with a heavy duty lathe. Then, each sectioned samples were analyzed for the internal gap between the die and the metal coping using a metallurgical microscope. Digital photographs were taken at ×50 magnification and analyzed using measurement software. Statistical analysis was done by unpaired t -test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results of this study reveal that no significant difference was present in the marginal gap of conventional and DMLS copings ( P > 0.05) by means of ANOVA. The mean values of internal gap of DMLS copings were significantly greater than that of conventional copings ( P < 0.05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it was concluded that the internal fit of conventional copings was superior to that of the DMLS copings. Marginal fit of the copings fabricated by two different techniques had no significant difference.

  18. Clinical forensic sample collection techniques following consensual intercourse in volunteers - cervical canal brush compared to conventional swabs.

    PubMed

    Joki-Erkkilä, Minna; Tuomisto, Sari; Seppänen, Mervi; Huhtala, Heini; Ahola, Arja; Rainio, Juha; Karhunen, Pekka J

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the research was to evaluate gynecological evidence collection techniques; the benefit of cervical canal brush sample compared to vaginal fornix and cervical swab samples and the time frame for detecting Y-chromosomal material QiAmp DNA Mini Kit(®) and Quantifiler Y Human Male DNA Quantification Kit(®) in adult volunteers following consensual intercourse. Eighty-four adult female volunteers following consensual intercourse were recruited for the study. By combining all sample collecting techniques, 81.0% of the volunteers were Y-DNA positive. Up to 60 h the conventional swab sampling techniques detected more Y-DNA positive samples when compared to the brush technique. However, after 60 h, the cervical canal brush sample technique showed its benefit by detecting 27.3% (6/22) of Y-DNA positive samples, which were Y-DNA negative in both conventional swab sampling techniques. By combining swab and brush techniques, 75% of the volunteers were still Y-DNA positive in 72-144 post-coital hours. The rate of measurable Y-DNA decreased approximately 3% per hour. Despite reported consensual intercourse, 6.8% (3/44) of volunteers were Y-DNA negative within 48 h. Y-DNA was not detected after 144 post-coital hours (6 days). In conclusion, the brush as a forensic evidence collection method may provide additional biological trace evidence from the cervical canal, although the best biological trace evidence collection can be obtained by combining all three sampling techniques. The time frame for gynecological forensic evidence sample collection should be considered to be at least a week if sexual violence is suspected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Imaging technique for the complete edentulous patient treated conventionally or with mini implant overdenture

    PubMed Central

    Meleşcanu Imre, M; Preoteasa, E; Țâncu, AM; Preoteasa, CT

    2013-01-01

    Rationale. The imaging methods are more and more used in the clinical process of modern dentistry. Once the implant based treatment alternatives are nowadays seen as being the standard of care in edentulous patients, these techniques must be integrated in the complete denture treatment. Aim. The study presents some evaluation techniques for the edentulous patient treated by conventional dentures or mini dental implants (mini SKY Bredent) overdentures, using the profile teleradiography. These offer data useful for an optimal positioning of the artificial teeth and the mini dental implants, favoring to obtain an esthetic and functional treatment outcome. We proposed also a method to conceive a simple surgical guide that allows the prosthetically driven implants placement. Material and method. Clinical case reports were made, highlighting the importance of cephalometric evaluation on lateral teleradiographs in complete edentulous patients. A clinical case that gradually reports the surgical guide preparation (Bredent silicon radio opaque), in order to place the mini dental implants in the best prosthetic and anatomic conditions, was presented. Conclusions. The profile teleradiograph is a useful tool for the practitioner. It allows establishing the optimal site for implant placement, in a good relation with the overdenture. The conventional denture can be easily and relatively costless transformed in a surgical guide used during implant placement. PMID:23599828

  20. A Survey on Nickel Titanium Rotary Instruments and their Usage Techniques by Endodontists in India

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, Prahlad A; Penukonda, Raghavendra; Vanaki, Sneha S; Kamatagi, Laxmikant

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The preference and usage of nickel titanium rotary instruments varies from individual to individual based on their technique, experience with the rotary systems and the clinical situation. Very limited information is available to explain the adoption of changing concepts with respect to nickel titanium rotary instruments pertaining to the endodontists in India. Aim The aim of this study was to conduct a questionnaire survey to acquire the knowledge concerning different NiTi rotary instruments and their usage techniques by endodontists in India. Materials and Methods A Survey questionnaire was designed which consisted of 32 questions regarding designation, demographics, experience with rotary instruments, usage of different file systems, usage techniques, frequency of reuse, occurrence of file fracture, reasons and their management was distributed by hand in the national postgraduate convention and also disseminated via electronic medium to 400 and 600 endodontists respectively. Information was collected from each individual to gain insight into the experiences and beliefs of endodontists concerning the new endodontic technology of rotary NiTi instrumentation based on their clinical experience with the rotary systems. The questions were designed to ascertain the problems, patterns of use and to identify areas of perceived or potential concern regarding the rotary instruments and the data acquired was statistically evaluated using Fisher’s-exact test and the Chi-Square test. Results Overall 63.8% (638) endodontists responded. ProTaper was one of the most commonly used file system followed by M two and ProTaper Next. There was a significant co relation between the years of experience and the file re use frequency, preparation technique, file separation, management of file separation. Conclusion A large number of Endodontists prefer to reuse the rotary NiTi instruments. As there was an increase in the experience, the incidence of file separation reduced

  1. Comparison the Marginal and Internal Fit of Metal Copings Cast from Wax Patterns Fabricated by CAD/CAM and Conventional Wax up Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Vojdani, M; Torabi, K; Farjood, E; Khaledi, AAR

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Metal-ceramic crowns are most commonly used as the complete coverage restorations in clinical daily use. Disadvantages of conventional hand-made wax-patterns introduce some alternative ways by means of CAD/CAM technologies. Purpose: This study compares the marginal and internal fit of copings cast from CAD/CAM and conventional fabricated wax-patterns. Materials and Method: Twenty-four standardized brass dies were prepared and randomly divided into 2 groups according to the wax-patterns fabrication method (CAD/CAM technique and conventional method) (n=12). All the wax-patterns were fabricated in a standard fashion by means of contour, thickness and internal relief (M1-M12: representative of CAD/CAM group, C1-C12: representative of conventional group). CAD/CAM milling machine (Cori TEC 340i; imes-icore GmbH, Eiterfeld, Germany) was used to fabricate the CAD/CAM group wax-patterns. The copings cast from 24 wax-patterns were cemented to the corresponding dies. For all the coping-die assemblies cross-sectional technique was used to evaluate the marginal and internal fit at 15 points. The Student’s t- test was used for statistical analysis (α=0.05). Results: The overall mean (SD) for absolute marginal discrepancy (AMD) was 254.46 (25.10) um for CAD/CAM group and 88.08(10.67) um for conventional group (control). The overall mean of internal gap total (IGT) was 110.77(5.92) um for CAD/CAM group and 76.90 (10.17) um for conventional group. The Student’s t-test revealed significant differences between 2 groups. Marginal and internal gaps were found to be significantly higher at all measured areas in CAD/CAM group than conventional group (p< 0.001). Conclusion: Within limitations of this study, conventional method of wax-pattern fabrication produced copings with significantly better marginal and internal fit than CAD/CAM (machine-milled) technique. All the factors for 2 groups were standardized except wax pattern fabrication technique, therefore

  2. Surgical Techniques at Cesarean Delivery: A U.S. Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lyell, Deirdre J.; Power, Michael; Murtough, Katie; Ness, Amen; Anderson, Britta; Erickson, Kristine; Schulkin, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Objective  To assess the frequency of surgical techniques at cesarean delivery (CD) among U.S. obstetricians. Methods  Members of the American College of Obstetrician Gynecologists were randomly selected and e-mailed an online survey that assessed surgical closure techniques, demographics, and reasons. Data were analyzed using SPSS (IBM Corp., Armonk, New York, United States), descriptive statistics, and analysis of variance. Results  Our response rate was 53%, and 247 surveys were analyzed. A similar number of respondents either “always or usually” versus “rarely or never” reapproximate the rectus muscles (38.4% versus 43.3%, p  = 0.39), and close parietal peritoneum (42.5% versus 46.9%, p  = 0.46). The most frequently used techniques were double-layer hysterotomy closure among women planning future children (73.3%) and suturing versus stapling skin (67.6%); the least frequent technique was closure of visceral peritoneum (12.2%). Surgeons who perform double-layer hysterotomy closure had fewer years in practice (15.0 versus 18.7 years, p  = 0.021); surgeons who close visceral peritoneum were older (55.5 versus 46.4 years old, p  < 0.001) and had more years in practice (23.8 versus 13.8 years practice; p  < 0.001). Conclusion  Similar numbers of obstetricians either reapproximate or leave open the rectus muscles and parietal peritoneum at CD, suggesting that wide variation in practice exists. Surgeon demographics and safety concerns play a role in some techniques. PMID:28825004

  3. The role of FDG PET/CT in patients with locoregional breast cancer recurrence: a comparison to conventional imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Aukema, T S; Rutgers, E J Th; Vogel, W V; Teertstra, H J; Oldenburg, H S; Vrancken Peeters, M T F D; Wesseling, J; Russell, N S; Valdés Olmos, R A

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) on clinical management in patients with locoregional breast cancer recurrence amenable for locoregional treatment and to compare the PET/CT results with the conventional imaging data. From January 2006 to August 2008, all patients with locoregional breast cancer recurrence underwent whole-body PET/CT. PET/CT findings were compared with results of the conventional imaging techniques and final pathology. The impact of PET/CT results on clinical management was evaluated based on clinical decisions obtained from patient files. 56 patients were included. In 32 patients (57%) PET/CT revealed additional tumour localisations. Distant metastases were detected in 11 patients on conventional imaging and in 23 patients on PET/CT images (p < 0.01). In 25 patients (45%), PET/CT detected additional lesions not visible on conventional imaging. PET/CT had an impact on clinical management in 27 patients (48%) by detecting more extensive locoregional disease or distant metastases. In 20 patients (36%) extensive surgery was prevented and treatment was changed to palliative treatment. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values of FDG PET/CT were respectively 97%, 92%, 95%, 94% and 96%. PET/CT, in addition to conventional imaging techniques, plays an important role in staging patients with locoregional breast cancer recurrence since its result changed the clinical management in almost half of the patients. PET/CT could potentially replace conventional staging imaging in patients with a locoregional breast cancer recurrence. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of marginal and internal gaps of metal ceramic crowns obtained from conventional impressions and casting techniques with those obtained from digital techniques.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rathika; Kumar, S Arun; Prabhu, R; Govindan, Ranjani Thillai; Tanveer, Faiz Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Accuracy in fit of cast metal restoration has always remained as one of the primary factors in determining the success of the restoration. A well-fitting restoration needs to be accurate both along its margin and with regard to its internal surface. The aim of the study is to evaluate the marginal fit of metal ceramic crowns obtained by conventional inlay casting wax pattern using conventional impression with the metal ceramic crowns obtained by computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique using direct and indirect optical scanning. This in vitro study on preformed custom-made stainless steel models with former assembly that resembles prepared tooth surfaces of standardized dimensions comprised three groups: the first group included ten samples of metal ceramic crowns fabricated with conventional technique, the second group included CAD/CAM-milled direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) crowns using indirect scanning, and the third group included DMLS crowns fabricated by direct scanning of the stainless steel model. The vertical marginal gap and the internal gap were evaluated with the stereomicroscope (Zoomstar 4); post hoc Turkey's test was used for statistical analysis. One-way analysis of variance method was used to compare the mean values. Metal ceramic crowns obtained from direct optical scanning showed the least marginal and internal gap when compared to the castings obtained from inlay casting wax and indirect optical scanning. Indirect and direct optical scanning had yielded results within clinically acceptable range.

  5. Diagnosis of Dengue Infection Using Conventional and Biosensor Based Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, Om; Hanim Shueb, Rafidah

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral disease caused by four antigenically different serotypes of dengue virus. This disease is considered as a major public health concern around the world. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine or antiviral drug available for the prevention and treatment of dengue disease. Moreover, clinical features of dengue are indistinguishable from other infectious diseases such as malaria, chikungunya, rickettsia and leptospira. Therefore, prompt and accurate laboratory diagnostic test is urgently required for disease confirmation and patient triage. The traditional diagnostic techniques for the dengue virus are viral detection in cell culture, serological testing, and RNA amplification using reverse transcriptase PCR. This paper discusses the conventional laboratory methods used for the diagnosis of dengue during the acute and convalescent phase and highlights the advantages and limitations of these routine laboratory tests. Subsequently, the biosensor based assays developed using various transducers for the detection of dengue are also reviewed. PMID:26492265

  6. Implant alignment in total elbow arthroplasty: conventional vs. navigated techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Colin P.; Johnson, James A.; King, Graham J. W.; Peters, Terry M.

    2009-02-01

    Incorrect selection of the native flexion-extension axis during implant alignment in elbow replacement surgery is likely a significant contributor to failure of the prosthesis. Computer and image-assisted surgery is emerging as a useful surgical tool in terms of improving the accuracy of orthopaedic procedures. This study evaluated the accuracy of implant alignment using an image-based navigation technique compared against a conventional non-navigated approach. Implant alignment error was 0.8 +/- 0.3 mm in translation and 1.1 +/- 0.4° in rotation for the navigated alignment, compared with 3.1 +/- 1.3 mm and 5.0 +/- 3.8° for the non-navigated alignment. Five (5) of the 11 non-navigated alignments were malaligned greater than 5° while none of the navigated alignments were placed with an error of greater than 2.0°. It is likely that improved implant positioning will lead to reduced implant loading and wear, resulting in fewer implantrelated complications and revision surgeries.

  7. Conventional and Piecewise Growth Modeling Techniques: Applications and Implications for Investigating Head Start Children's Early Literacy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindman, Annemarie H.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Miller, Alison L.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the mechanics of conventional and piecewise growth models to demonstrate the unique affordances of each technique for examining the nature and predictors of children's early literacy learning during the transition from preschool through first grade. Using the nationally representative Family and Child Experiences Survey…

  8. Land-based lidar mapping: a new surveying technique to shed light on rapid topographic change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Brian D.; Kayen, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The rate of natural change in such dynamic environments as rivers and coastlines can sometimes overwhelm the monitoring capacity of conventional surveying methods. In response to this limitation, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are pioneering new applications of light detection and ranging (lidar), a laser-based scanning technology that promises to greatly increase our ability to track rapid topographic changes and manage their impact on affected communities.

  9. Survey of intravitreal injection techniques among retina specialists in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Ori; Segal-Trivitz, Yael; Nemet, Arie Y; Geffen, Noa; Nesher, Ronit; Mimouni, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe antivascular endothelial growth factor intravitreal injection techniques of retinal specialists in order to establish a cornerstone for future practice guidelines. Methods All members of the Israeli Retina Society were contacted by email to complete an anonymous, 19-question, Internet-based survey regarding their intravitreal injection techniques. Results Overall, 66% (52/79) completed the survey. Most (98%) do not instruct patients to discontinue anticoagulant therapy and 92% prescribe treatment for patients in the waiting room. Three quarters wear sterile gloves and prepare the patient in the supine position. A majority (71%) use sterile surgical draping. All respondents apply topical analgesics and a majority (69%) measure the distance from the limbus to the injection site. A minority (21%) displace the conjunctiva prior to injection. A majority of the survey participants use a 30-gauge needle and the most common quadrant for injection is superotemporal (33%). Less than half routinely assess postinjection optic nerve perfusion (44%). A majority (92%) apply prophylactic antibiotics immediately after the injection. Conclusion The majority of retina specialists perform intravitreal injections similarly. However, a relatively large minority performs this procedure differently. Due to the extremely low percentage of complications, it seems as though such differences do not increase the risk. However, more evidence-based medicine, a cornerstone for practice guidelines, is required in order to identify the intravitreal injection techniques that combine safety and efficacy while causing as little discomfort to the patients as possible. PMID:27366050

  10. Development and evaluation of the impulse transfer function technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantus, M.

    1972-01-01

    The development of the test/analysis technique known as the impulse transfer function (ITF) method is discussed. This technique, when implemented with proper data processing systems, should become a valuable supplement to conventional dynamic testing and analysis procedures that will be used in the space shuttle development program. The method can relieve many of the problems associated with extensive and costly testing of the shuttle for transient loading conditions. In addition, the time history information derived from impulse testing has the potential for being used to determine modal data for the structure under investigation. The technique could be very useful in determining the time-varying modal characteristics of structures subjected to thermal transients, where conventional mode surveys are difficult to perform.

  11. Is the 'blue' colour convention for inhaled reliever medications important? A UK-based survey of healthcare professionals and patients with airways disease.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Monica; Scullion, Jane; White, John; Thompson, Bronwen; Capstick, Toby

    2016-11-03

    In many countries, short-acting β 2 -agonist inhalers have traditionally been coloured blue. This inhaled therapy has also conventionally been known as a 'reliever' by patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs), in comparison with 'preventer' medications (inhaled steroids). With the rapidly changing market in inhaled therapy for COPD and asthma and growing numbers of devices, there has been some concern that the erosion of traditional colour conventions is leading to patients (and HCPs) becoming confused about the role of different therapies. In order to assess whether there was concern over the perceived changing colour conventions, the UK Inhaler Group carried out a large online survey of patients and HCPs. The aim was to determine how patients and HCPS identify and describe inhaled drugs, and how this might impact on use of medicines and safety. The results of the survey highlighted the importance of the term 'blue inhaler' for patients with only 11.3% never referring to the colour when referring to their inhaler. For HCPs, 95% felt colour conventions were important when referring to reliever medication. In addition, HCPs appear to refer to inhalers mainly by colour when talking to patients. Our conclusions were that the concept of a 'blue inhaler' remains important to patients and healthcare professionals. These results add to the debate about the need to formalise the colour coding of inhaled therapies, in particular using the colour blue for inhalers for rapid relief of symptoms, as this convention may be an important measure and contributor to patient safety. Our survey should provide impetus for all interested parties to discuss and agree a formal industry-wide approach to colour coding of inhaled therapies for the benefit of patients and carers and HCPs.

  12. Comparison on extraction yield of sennoside A and sennoside B from senna (Cassia angustifolia) using conventional and non conventional extraction techniques and their quantification using a validated HPLC-PDA detection method.

    PubMed

    Dhanani, Tushar; Singh, Raghuraj; Reddy, Nagaraja; Trivedi, A; Kumar, Satyanshu

    2017-05-01

    Senna is an important medicinal plant and is used in many Ayurvedic formulations. Dianthraquinone glucosides are the main bioactive phytochemicals present in leaves and pods of senna. The extraction efficiency in terms of yield and composition of the extract of senna prepared using both conventional (cold percolation at room temperature and refluxing) and non conventional (ultrasound and microwave assisted solvent extraction as well as supercritical fluid extraction) techniques were compared in the present study. Also a rapid reverse phase HPLC-PDA detection method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of sennoside A and sennoside B in the different extracts of senna leaves. Ultrasound and microwave assisted solvent extraction techniques were more effective in terms of yield and composition of the extracts compared to cold percolation at room temperature and refluxing methods of extraction.

  13. A survey of visual preprocessing and shape representation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olshausen, Bruno A.

    1988-01-01

    Many recent theories and methods proposed for visual preprocessing and shape representation are summarized. The survey brings together research from the fields of biology, psychology, computer science, electrical engineering, and most recently, neural networks. It was motivated by the need to preprocess images for a sparse distributed memory (SDM), but the techniques presented may also prove useful for applying other associative memories to visual pattern recognition. The material of this survey is divided into three sections: an overview of biological visual processing; methods of preprocessing (extracting parts of shape, texture, motion, and depth); and shape representation and recognition (form invariance, primitives and structural descriptions, and theories of attention).

  14. Dosimetric Comparison of Bone Marrow-Sparing Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Versus Conventional Techniques for Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mell, Loren K.; Tiryaki, Hanifi; Ahn, Kang-Hyun

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To compare bone marrow-sparing intensity-modulated pelvic radiotherapy (BMS-IMRT) with conventional (four-field box and anteroposterior-posteroanterior [AP-PA]) techniques in the treatment of cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: The data from 7 cervical cancer patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT without BMS were analyzed and compared with data using four-field box and AP-PA techniques. All plans were normalized to cover the planning target volume with the 99% isodose line. The clinical target volume consisted of the pelvic and presacral lymph nodes, uterus and cervix, upper vagina, and parametrial tissue. Normal tissues included bowel, bladder, and pelvic bone marrow (PBM), which comprisedmore » the lumbosacral spine and ilium and the ischium, pubis, and proximal femora (lower pelvis bone marrow). Dose-volume histograms for the planning target volume and normal tissues were compared for BMS-IMRT vs. four-field box and AP-PA plans. Results: BMS-IMRT was superior to the four-field box technique in reducing the dose to the PBM, small bowel, rectum, and bladder. Compared with AP-PA plans, BMS-IMRT reduced the PBM volume receiving a dose >16.4 Gy. BMS-IMRT reduced the volume of ilium, lower pelvis bone marrow, and bowel receiving a dose >27.7, >18.7, and >21.1 Gy, respectively, but increased dose below these thresholds compared with the AP-PA plans. BMS-IMRT reduced the volume of lumbosacral spine bone marrow, rectum, small bowel, and bladder at all dose levels in all 7 patients. Conclusion: BMS-IMRT reduced irradiation of PBM compared with the four-field box technique. Compared with the AP-PA technique, BMS-IMRT reduced lumbosacral spine bone marrow irradiation and reduced the volume of PBM irradiated to high doses. Therefore BMS-IMRT might reduce acute hematologic toxicity compared with conventional techniques.« less

  15. Advancing US GHG Inventory by Incorporating Survey Data using Machine-Learning Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsaker, C.; Ogle, S. M.; Breidt, J.

    2017-12-01

    Crop management data are used in the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory that is compiled annually and reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Emissions for carbon stock change and N2O emissions for US agricultural soils are estimated using the USDA National Resources Inventory (NRI). NRI provides basic information on land use and cropping histories, but it does not provide much detail on other management practices. In contrast, the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) survey collects detailed crop management data that could be used in the GHG Inventory. The survey data were collected from NRI survey locations that are a subset of the NRI every 10 years. Therefore, imputation of the CEAP are needed to represent the management practices across all NRI survey locations both spatially and temporally. Predictive mean matching and an artificial neural network methods have been applied to develop imputation model under a multiple imputation framework. Temporal imputation involves adjusting the imputation model using state-level USDA Agricultural Resource Management Survey data. Distributional and predictive accuracy is assessed for the imputed data, providing not only management data needed for the inventory but also rigorous estimates of uncertainty.

  16. Objective measures, sensors and computational techniques for stress recognition and classification: a survey.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nandita; Gedeon, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Stress is a major growing concern in our day and age adversely impacting both individuals and society. Stress research has a wide range of benefits from improving personal operations, learning, and increasing work productivity to benefiting society - making it an interesting and socially beneficial area of research. This survey reviews sensors that have been used to measure stress and investigates techniques for modelling stress. It discusses non-invasive and unobtrusive sensors for measuring computed stress, a term we coin in the paper. Sensors that do not impede everyday activities that could be used by those who would like to monitor stress levels on a regular basis (e.g. vehicle drivers, patients with illnesses linked to stress) is the focus of the discussion. Computational techniques have the capacity to determine optimal sensor fusion and automate data analysis for stress recognition and classification. Several computational techniques have been developed to model stress based on techniques such as Bayesian networks, artificial neural networks, and support vector machines, which this survey investigates. The survey concludes with a summary and provides possible directions for further computational stress research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of the metal-to-ceramic bond strengths of four noble alloys with press-on-metal and conventional porcelain layering techniques.

    PubMed

    Khmaj, Mofida R; Khmaj, Abdulfatah B; Brantley, William A; Johnston, William M; Dasgupta, Tridib

    2014-11-01

    New noble alloys for metal ceramic restorations introduced by manufacturers are generally lower-cost alternatives to traditional higher-gold alloys. Information about the metal-to-ceramic bond strength for these alloys, which is needed for rational clinical selection, is often lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of 4 recently introduced noble alloys by using 2 techniques for porcelain application. Aquarius Hard (high-gold: 86.1 gold, 8.5 platinum, 2.6 palladium, 1.4 indium; values in wt. %), Evolution Lite (reduced-gold: 40.3 gold, 39.3 palladium, 9.3 indium, 9.2 silver, 1.8 gallium), Callisto 75 Pd (palladium-silver containing gold: 75.2 palladium, 7.1 silver, 2.5 gold, 9.3 tin, 1.0 indium), and Aries, (conventional palladium-silver: 63.7 palladium, 26.0 silver, 7.0 tin, 1.8 gallium, 1.5 indium) were selected for bonding to leucite-containing veneering porcelains. Ten metal ceramic specimens that met dimensional requirements for International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standard 9693 were prepared for each alloy by using conventional porcelain layering and press-on-metal methods. The 3-point bending test in ISO Standard 9693 was used to determine bond strength. Values were compared with 2-way ANOVA (maximum likelihood analysis, SAS Mixed Procedure) and the Tukey test (α=.05). Means (standard deviations) for bond strength with conventional porcelain layering were as follows: Aquarius Hard (50.7 ±5.5 MPa), Evolution Lite (40.2 ±3.3 MPa), Callisto 75 Pd (37.2 ±3.9 MPa), and Aries (34.0 ±4.9 MPa). For the press-on-metal technique, bond strength results were as follows: Aquarius Hard (33.7 ±11.5 MPa), Evolution Lite (34.9 ±4.5 MPa), Callisto 75 Pd (37.2 ±11.9 MPa), and Aries (30.7 ±10.8 MPa). From statistical analyses, the following 3 significant differences were found for metal-to-ceramic bond strength: the bond strength for Aquarius Hard was significantly higher for conventional porcelain layers compared with

  18. Digital Versus Conventional Impressions in Fixed Prosthodontics: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ahlholm, Pekka; Sipilä, Kirsi; Vallittu, Pekka; Jakonen, Minna; Kotiranta, Ulla

    2018-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review to evaluate the evidence of possible benefits and accuracy of digital impression techniques vs. conventional impression techniques. Reports of digital impression techniques versus conventional impression techniques were systematically searched for in the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and Web of Science. A combination of controlled vocabulary, free-text words, and well-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria guided the search. Digital impression accuracy is at the same level as conventional impression methods in fabrication of crowns and short fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). For fabrication of implant-supported crowns and FDPs, digital impression accuracy is clinically acceptable. In full-arch impressions, conventional impression methods resulted in better accuracy compared to digital impressions. Digital impression techniques are a clinically acceptable alternative to conventional impression methods in fabrication of crowns and short FDPs. For fabrication of implant-supported crowns and FDPs, digital impression systems also result in clinically acceptable fit. Digital impression techniques are faster and can shorten the operation time. Based on this study, the conventional impression technique is still recommended for full-arch impressions. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  19. Is the ‘blue’ colour convention for inhaled reliever medications important? A UK-based survey of healthcare professionals and patients with airways disease

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Monica; Scullion, Jane; White, John; Thompson, Bronwen; Capstick, Toby

    2016-01-01

    In many countries, short-acting β2-agonist inhalers have traditionally been coloured blue. This inhaled therapy has also conventionally been known as a ‘reliever’ by patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs), in comparison with ‘preventer’ medications (inhaled steroids). With the rapidly changing market in inhaled therapy for COPD and asthma and growing numbers of devices, there has been some concern that the erosion of traditional colour conventions is leading to patients (and HCPs) becoming confused about the role of different therapies. In order to assess whether there was concern over the perceived changing colour conventions, the UK Inhaler Group carried out a large online survey of patients and HCPs. The aim was to determine how patients and HCPS identify and describe inhaled drugs, and how this might impact on use of medicines and safety. The results of the survey highlighted the importance of the term ‘blue inhaler’ for patients with only 11.3% never referring to the colour when referring to their inhaler. For HCPs, 95% felt colour conventions were important when referring to reliever medication. In addition, HCPs appear to refer to inhalers mainly by colour when talking to patients. Our conclusions were that the concept of a ‘blue inhaler’ remains important to patients and healthcare professionals. These results add to the debate about the need to formalise the colour coding of inhaled therapies, in particular using the colour blue for inhalers for rapid relief of symptoms, as this convention may be an important measure and contributor to patient safety. Our survey should provide impetus for all interested parties to discuss and agree a formal industry-wide approach to colour coding of inhaled therapies for the benefit of patients and carers and HCPs. PMID:27808097

  20. Conventional fascial technique versus mesh repair for advanced pelvic organ prolapse: Analysis of recurrences in treated and untreated compartments.

    PubMed

    Damiani, G R; Riva, D; Pellegrino, A; Gaetani, M; Tafuri, S; Turoli, D; Croce, P; Loverro, G

    2016-01-01

    117 women with severe pelvic organ prolapse (POP; stage > 2) were enrolled to elucidate a 24-month outcome of POP surgery, using conventional or mesh repair with 3 techniques. 59 patients underwent conventional repair and 58 underwent mesh repair. Two types of mesh were used: a trocar-guided transobturator polypropylene (Avaulta, Bard Inc.) and a porcine dermis mesh (Pelvisoft, Bard Inc.). Women with recurrences, who underwent previous unsuccessful conventional repair, were randomised. Primary outcome was the evaluation of anatomic failures (prolapse stage > 1) in treated and untreated compartments. Anatomic failure was observed in 11 of 58 patients (19%; CI 8.9-29) in the mesh group and in 16 of 59 patients (27.1%; p value = 0.3) in the conventional group. 9 of 11 failures in the mesh group (15.5%; CI 6.2-24.8) were observed in the untreated compartment (de novo recurrences), 14.3% in Pelvisoft and 16.7% in Avaulta arm, while only 1 recurrence in the untreated compartment (1.7%) was observed in the conventional group (odds ratio 10.6, p = 0.03).

  1. Denoising time-domain induced polarisation data using wavelet techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deo, Ravin N.; Cull, James P.

    2016-05-01

    Time-domain induced polarisation (TDIP) methods are routinely used for near-surface evaluations in quasi-urban environments harbouring networks of buried civil infrastructure. A conventional technique for improving signal to noise ratio in such environments is by using analogue or digital low-pass filtering followed by stacking and rectification. However, this induces large distortions in the processed data. In this study, we have conducted the first application of wavelet based denoising techniques for processing raw TDIP data. Our investigation included laboratory and field measurements to better understand the advantages and limitations of this technique. It was found that distortions arising from conventional filtering can be significantly avoided with the use of wavelet based denoising techniques. With recent advances in full-waveform acquisition and analysis, incorporation of wavelet denoising techniques can further enhance surveying capabilities. In this work, we present the rationale for utilising wavelet denoising methods and discuss some important implications, which can positively influence TDIP methods.

  2. Emerging Technologies and Techniques for Wide Area Radiological Survey and Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, M.; Zhao, P.

    2016-03-24

    Technologies to survey and decontaminate wide-area contamination and process the subsequent radioactive waste have been developed and implemented following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant release and the breach of a radiological source resulting in contamination in Goiania, Brazil. These civilian examples of radioactive material releases provided some of the first examples of urban radiological remediation. Many emerging technologies have recently been developed and demonstrated in Japan following the release of radioactive cesium isotopes (Cs-134 and Cs-137) from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011. Information on technologies reported by several Japanese government agencies, such as the Japan Atomic Energymore » Agency (JAEA), the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and the National Institute for Environmental Science (NIES), together with academic institutions and industry are summarized and compared to recently developed, deployed and available technologies in the United States. The technologies and techniques presented in this report may be deployed in response to a wide area contamination event in the United States. In some cases, additional research and testing is needed to adequately validate the technology effectiveness over wide areas. Survey techniques can be deployed on the ground or from the air, allowing a range of coverage rates and sensitivities. Survey technologies also include those useful in measuring decontamination progress and mapping contamination. Decontamination technologies and techniques range from non-destructive (e.g., high pressure washing) and minimally destructive (plowing), to fully destructive (surface removal or demolition). Waste minimization techniques can greatly impact the long-term environmental consequences and cost following remediation efforts. Recommendations on technical improvements to address technology gaps are presented together with observations on remediation in Japan.« less

  3. A Survey of Architectural Techniques for Near-Threshold Computing

    DOE PAGES

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2015-12-28

    Energy efficiency has now become the primary obstacle in scaling the performance of all classes of computing systems. In low-voltage computing and specifically, near-threshold voltage computing (NTC), which involves operating the transistor very close to and yet above its threshold voltage, holds the promise of providing many-fold improvement in energy efficiency. However, use of NTC also presents several challenges such as increased parametric variation, failure rate and performance loss etc. Our paper surveys several re- cent techniques which aim to offset these challenges for fully leveraging the potential of NTC. By classifying these techniques along several dimensions, we also highlightmore » their similarities and differences. Ultimately, we hope that this paper will provide insights into state-of-art NTC techniques to researchers and system-designers and inspire further research in this field.« less

  4. A Survey of Architectural Techniques for Near-Threshold Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh

    Energy efficiency has now become the primary obstacle in scaling the performance of all classes of computing systems. In low-voltage computing and specifically, near-threshold voltage computing (NTC), which involves operating the transistor very close to and yet above its threshold voltage, holds the promise of providing many-fold improvement in energy efficiency. However, use of NTC also presents several challenges such as increased parametric variation, failure rate and performance loss etc. Our paper surveys several re- cent techniques which aim to offset these challenges for fully leveraging the potential of NTC. By classifying these techniques along several dimensions, we also highlightmore » their similarities and differences. Ultimately, we hope that this paper will provide insights into state-of-art NTC techniques to researchers and system-designers and inspire further research in this field.« less

  5. Survey of statistical techniques used in validation studies of air pollution prediction models

    SciTech Connect

    Bornstein, R D; Anderson, S F

    1979-03-01

    Statistical techniques used by meteorologists to validate predictions made by air pollution models are surveyed. Techniques are divided into the following three groups: graphical, tabular, and summary statistics. Some of the practical problems associated with verification are also discussed. Characteristics desired in any validation program are listed and a suggested combination of techniques that possesses many of these characteristics is presented.

  6. Complementary and conventional medicine: a concept map

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Carol M; Kroesen, Kendall; Trochim, William M; Bell, Iris R

    2004-01-01

    Background Despite the substantive literature from survey research that has accumulated on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the United States and elsewhere, very little research has been done to assess conceptual domains that CAM and conventional providers would emphasize in CAM survey studies. The objective of this study is to describe and interpret the results of concept mapping with conventional and CAM practitioners from a variety of backgrounds on the topic of CAM. Methods Concept mapping, including free sorts, ratings, and multidimensional scaling was used to organize conceptual domains relevant to CAM into a visual "cluster map." The panel consisted of CAM providers, conventional providers, and university faculty, and was convened to help formulate conceptual domains to guide the development of a CAM survey for use with United States military veterans. Results Eight conceptual clusters were identified: 1) Self-assessment, Self-care, and Quality of Life; 2) Health Status, Health Behaviors; 3) Self-assessment of Health; 4) Practical/Economic/ Environmental Concerns; 5) Needs Assessment; 6) CAM vs. Conventional Medicine; 7) Knowledge of CAM; and 8) Experience with CAM. The clusters suggest panelists saw interactions between CAM and conventional medicine as a critical component of the current medical landscape. Conclusions Concept mapping provided insight into how CAM and conventional providers view the domain of health care, and was shown to be a useful tool in the formulation of CAM-related conceptual domains. PMID:15018623

  7. Microleakage and penetration of a hydrophilic sealant and a conventional resin-based sealant as a function of preparation techniques: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Khogli, Ahmed Eltigani; Cauwels, Rita; Vercruysse, Chris; Verbeeck, Ronald; Martens, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Optimal pit and fissure sealing is determined by surface preparation techniques and choice of materials. This study aimed (i) to compare the microleakage and penetration depth of a hydrophilic sealant and a conventional resin-based sealant using one of the following preparation techniques: acid etching (AE) only, a diamond bur + AE, and Er:YAG laser combined with AE, and (ii) to evaluate the microleakage and penetration depth of the hydrophilic pit and fissure sealant on different surface conditions. Eighty recently extracted 3rd molars were randomly assigned to eight groups of ten teeth according to the material, preparation technique, and surface condition. For saliva contamination, 0.1 mL of fresh whole human saliva was used. All samples were submitted to 1000 thermal cycles and immersed in 2% methylene blue dye for 4 h. Sections were examined by a light microscope and analysed using image analysis software (Sigmascan(®)). The combination of Er:YAG + AE + conventional sealant showed the least microleakage. The sealing ability of the hydrophilic sealant was influenced by the surface condition. Er:YAG ablation significantly decreased the microleakage at the tooth-sealant interface compared to the non-invasive technique. The hydrophilic sealant applied on different surface conditions showed comparable result to the conventional resin-based sealant. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2012 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. D Survey Techniques for the Architectutal Restoration: the Case of ST. Agata in Pisa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, M. G.; Caroti, G.; Piemonte, A.; Ruschi, P.; Tenchini, L.

    2017-05-01

    The historical architectural heritage may be considered as the product of a complex system of interaction between several factors - cultural, socio-economic, technical, aesthetic etc. The restoration and conservation of this important heritage, therefore, requires necessarily a multidisciplinary approach, both in the preliminary phase of knowledge and in the operative one, strictly connected to the first, regarding the development of the restoration works in all their steps, from the project to the realization. The historical-critical analysis of bibliographic, archival and iconographic sources, together with the architectural survey, aims at interpreting all the events that, from the initial project to all the eventual phases of transformation, have lead the monument in its current state. This is therefore a multi-temporal and multi-spatial study in which geomatics gives an innovative contribution for its capability of gathering, storing, processing, and delivering different levels of spatially referenced information. The current techniques of architectural survey, supported by specific methodological skills, are therefore not limited to a mere mathematical-geometrical description of the historical building, but are useful also for many other purposes, such as formal-linguistic analysis, interpretation of the historical phases of transformation, description of the state of degradation/conservation etc. In this interdisciplinary perspective, photogrammetry and laser scanner represent the two main techniques, as they offer the greatest potential of performing integrated surveys. In the last decades, we have witnessed the growth and development of these 3D-survey techniques as alternative or complementary tools to the traditional ones. In particular, in the field of architectural restoration, these techniques have made significant improvements not only in terms of measure precision or reduction of time for survey operations, but also for the possibility to represent

  9. In silico comparison of the reproducibility of full-arch implant provisional restorations to final restoration between a 3D Scan/CAD/CAM technique and the conventional method.

    PubMed

    Mino, Takuya; Maekawa, Kenji; Ueda, Akihiro; Higuchi, Shizuo; Sejima, Junichi; Takeuchi, Tetsuo; Hara, Emilio Satoshi; Kimura-Ono, Aya; Sonoyama, Wataru; Kuboki, Takuo

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the accuracy in the reproducibility of full-arch implant provisional restorations to final restorations between a 3D Scan/CAD/CAM technique and the conventional method. We fabricated two final restorations for rehabilitation of maxillary and mandibular complete edentulous area and performed a computer-based comparative analysis of the accuracy in the reproducibility of the provisional restoration to final restoration between a 3D scanning and CAD/CAM (Scan/CAD/CAM) technique and the conventional silicone-mold transfer technique. Final restorations fabricated either by the conventional or Scan/CAD/CAM method were successfully installed in the patient. The total concave/convex volume discrepancy observed with the Scan/CAD/CAM technique was 503.50mm(3) and 338.15 mm(3) for maxillary and mandibular implant-supported prostheses (ISPs), respectively. On the other hand, total concave/convex volume discrepancy observed with the conventional method was markedly high (1106.84 mm(3) and 771.23 mm(3) for maxillary and mandibular ISPs, respectively). The results of the present report suggest that Scan/CAD/CAM method enables a more precise and accurate transfer of provisional restorations to final restorations compared to the conventional method. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Digital versus conventional techniques for pattern fabrication of implant-supported frameworks.

    PubMed

    Alikhasi, Marzieh; Rohanian, Ahmad; Ghodsi, Safoura; Kolde, Amin Mohammadpour

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to compare retention of frameworks cast from wax patterns fabricated by three different methods. Thirty-six implant analogs connected to one-piece abutments were divided randomly into three groups according to the wax pattern fabrication method ( n = 12). Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) milling machine, three-dimensional printer, and conventional technique were used for fabrication of waxing patterns. All laboratory procedures were performed by an expert-reliable technician to eliminate intra-operator bias. The wax patterns were cast, finished, and seated on related abutment analogs. The number of adjustment times was recorded and analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test. Frameworks were cemented on the corresponding analogs with zinc phosphate cement and tensile resistance test was used to measure retention value. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey tests were used for statistical analysis. Level of significance was set at P < 0.05. The mean retentive values of 680.36 ± 21.93 N, 440.48 ± 85.98 N, and 407.23 ± 67.48 N were recorded for CAD/CAM, rapid prototyping, and conventional group, respectively. One-way ANOVA test revealed significant differences among the three groups ( P < 0.001). The post hoc Tukey test showed significantly higher retention for CAD/CAM group ( P < 0.001), while there was no significant difference between the two other groups ( P = 0.54). CAD/CAM group required significantly more adjustments ( P < 0.001). CAD/CAM-fabricated wax patterns showed significantly higher retention for implant-supported cement-retained frameworks; this could be a valuable help when there are limitations in the retention of single-unit implant restorations.

  11. [Comparison of the image quality of conventional and digital radiography in lizards. Mammography technique versus digital detector system].

    PubMed

    Bochmann, Monika; Ludewig, E; Pees, M

    2011-01-01

    A conventional high-resolution screen-film system (Film Kodak MIN-R S, Kodak MIN-R 2000) was compared with an indirect digital detector system (Varian PaxScan 4030E) for use in radiography of lizards. A total of 20 bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps ) with body masses between 123 g and 487 g were investigated by using conventional and digital image acquisition techniques. The digital image was taken with the same dose as well as half the dose of the conventional radiograph. The study was conducted semi-blinded as the x-ray images were encoded and randomised. Five veterinarians with clinical experience in reptile medicine served as observers. Exactly defined structures in three anatomical regions were assessed using a three-step scale. Furthermore, the overall quality of the respective region was evaluated using a five-step scale. Evaluation of the data was done by visual grading analysis. None of the structures examined was assessed to be of significantly inferior quality on the digital images in comparison to the conventional radiographs. The majority of the results demonstrated an equal quality of both systems. For assessment of the lung tissue and the pulmonary vessels as well as the overall assessment of the lung, the digital radiographs with full dose were rated to be significantly superior in comparison to the film-screen system. Furthermore, the joint contours of the shoulder and cubital joints and the overall assessments of the humerus and the caudal coelomic cavity were rated significantly better on digital images with full dose compared to those with reduced dose. The digital flat panel detector technique examined in this study is equal or superior to the conventional high-resolution screen-film system used. Nevertheless, the practicability of a dose reduction is limited in bearded dragons. Digital imaging systems are progressively being used in veterinary practice. The results of the study demonstrate the useful application of the digital detector systems

  12. Intraosseous injection as an adjunct to conventional local anesthetic techniques: A clinical study.

    PubMed

    Idris, Mohamed; Sakkir, Nasil; Naik, Kishore Gopalakrishna; Jayaram, Nandakishore Kunijal

    2014-09-01

    The achievement of successful local anesthesia is a continual challenge in dentistry. Adjunctive local anesthetic techniques and their armamentaria, such as intraosseous injection (the Stabident system and the X-tip system) have been proposed to be advantageous in cases where the conventional local anesthetic techniques have failed. A clinical study was undertaken using intraosseous injection system by name X-tip to evaluate its effectiveness in cases where inferior alveolar nerve block has failed to provide pulpal anesthesia. Sixty adult patients selected were to undergo endodontic treatment for a mandibular molar tooth. Inferior alveolar nerve block was given using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Twenty-four patients (40%) had pain even after administration of IAN block; intraosseous injection was administered using 4% articaine containing 1:100,000 epinephrine, using the X-tip system. The success of X-tip intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain (Heft-Parker visual analog scale ratings ≤ 54 mm) on endodontic access or initial instrumentation. Intraosseous injection technique was successful in 21 out of 24 patients (87.5%), except three patients who had pain even after supplemental X-tip injection. Within the limits of this study, we can conclude that supplemental intraosseous injection using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine has a statistically significant influence in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

  13. Use of structured personality survey techniques to indicate operator response to stressful situations

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, M.A.

    Under given circumstances, a person will tend to operate in one of four dominant orientations: (1) to perform tasks; (2) to achieve consensus; (3) to achieve understanding, or (4) to maintain structure. Historically, personality survey techniques, such as the Myers-Briggs type indicator, have been used to determine these tendencies. While these techniques can accurately reflect a person's orientation under normal social situations, under different sets of conditions, the same person may exhibit other tendencies, displaying a similar or entirely different orientation. While most do not exhibit extreme tendencies or changes of orientation, the shift in personality from normal to stressfulmore » conditions can be rather dramatic, depending on the individual. Structured personality survey techniques have been used to indicate operator response to stressful situations. These techniques have been extended to indicate the balance between orientations that the control room team has through the various levels of cognizance.« less

  14. Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: is robotic technology more accurate than conventional technique?

    PubMed

    Citak, Mustafa; Suero, Eduardo M; Citak, Musa; Dunbar, Nicholas J; Branch, Sharon H; Conditt, Michael A; Banks, Scott A; Pearle, Andrew D

    2013-08-01

    Robotic-assisted unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) with rigid bone fixation "can significantly improve implant placement and leg alignment. The aim of this cadaveric study was to determine whether the use of robotic systems with dynamic bone tracking would provide more accurate UKA implant positioning compared to the conventional manual technique. Three-dimensional CT-based preoperative plans were created to determine the desired position and orientation for the tibial and femoral components. For each pair of cadaver knees, UKA was performed using traditional instrumentation on the left side and using a haptic robotic system on the right side. Postoperative CT scans were obtained and 3D-to-3D iterative closest point registration was performed. Implant position and orientation were compared to the preoperative plan. Surgical RMS errors for femoral component placement were within 1.9 mm and 3.7° in all directions of the planned implant position for the robotic group, while RMS errors for the manual group were within 5.4mm and 10.2°. Average RMS errors for tibial component placement were within 1.4mm and 5.0° in all directions for the robotic group; while, for the manual group, RMS errors were within 5.7 mm and 19.2°. UKA was more precise using a semiactive robotic system with dynamic bone tracking technology compared to the manual technique. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparing the onset of maxillary infiltration local anaesthesia and pain experience using the conventional technique vs. the Wand in children.

    PubMed

    Kandiah, P; Tahmassebi, J F

    2012-11-01

    This prospective, randomised, parallel, controlled study was conducted firstly to compare the onset of local anaesthesia (LA) when using the conventional technique versus the Wand computer-controlled LA and secondly to assess the pain experience in children. Thirty children were randomly allocated to the treatment group (Wand) or the control group (conventional). Lidocaine 2% with adrenaline (1:80,000) was given as a buccal infiltration. The onset of pulpal anaesthesia was tested using an analytic electric pulp tester (EPT). The pain experience during the LA was recorded using a modified visual analogue score (VAS). Median time for the onset of LA was 6.30 minutes for the control and 7.25 minutes for the Wand group. Mean pain experience score for the control group was 9.78% as opposed to 8.46% in the Wand group. Statistical analysis showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the onset of LA (p = 0.486) and the pain experience (p = 0.713) between the two groups. When placing a buccal infiltration on upper first permanent molars, the onset of LA and the pain experience was no different using the Wand and the conventional technique.

  16. Digital evaluation of absolute marginal discrepancy: A comparison of ceramic crowns fabricated with conventional and digital techniques.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shanshan; Yuan, Fusong; Luo, Xu; Yu, Zhuoren; Tang, Zhihui

    2018-04-05

    Marginal discrepancy is key to evaluating the accuracy of fixed dental prostheses. An improved method of evaluating marginal discrepancy is needed. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the absolute marginal discrepancy of ceramic crowns fabricated using conventional and digital methods with a digital method for the quantitative evaluation of absolute marginal discrepancy. The novel method was based on 3-dimensional scanning, iterative closest point registration techniques, and reverse engineering theory. Six standard tooth preparations for the right maxillary central incisor, right maxillary second premolar, right maxillary second molar, left mandibular lateral incisor, left mandibular first premolar, and left mandibular first molar were selected. Ten conventional ceramic crowns and 10 CEREC crowns were fabricated for each tooth preparation. A dental cast scanner was used to obtain 3-dimensional data of the preparations and ceramic crowns, and the data were compared with the "virtual seating" iterative closest point technique. Reverse engineering software used edge sharpening and other functional modules to extract the margins of the preparations and crowns. Finally, quantitative evaluation of the absolute marginal discrepancy of the ceramic crowns was obtained from the 2-dimensional cross-sectional straight-line distance between points on the margin of the ceramic crowns and the standard preparations based on the circumferential function module along the long axis. The absolute marginal discrepancy of the ceramic crowns fabricated using conventional methods was 115 ±15.2 μm, and 110 ±14.3 μm for those fabricated using the digital technique was. ANOVA showed no statistical difference between the 2 methods or among ceramic crowns for different teeth (P>.05). The digital quantitative evaluation method for the absolute marginal discrepancy of ceramic crowns was established. The evaluations determined that the absolute marginal discrepancies were

  17. Effectiveness of Hypnosis in Combination with Conventional Techniques of Behavior Management in Anxiety/Pain Reduction during Dental Anesthetic Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Carrasco, A; Butrón-Téllez Girón, C; Sanchez-Armass, O; Pierdant-Pérez, M

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective . Anxiety/pain are experiences that make dental treatment difficult for children, especially during the time of anesthesia. Hypnosis is used in pediatric clinical situations to modify thinking, behavior, and perception as well as, recently, in dentistry; therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of hypnosis combined with conventional behavior management techniques during infiltration anesthetic. Methods . Anxiety/pain were assessed with the FLACC scale during the anesthetic moment, as well as heart rate variability and skin conductance before and during the anesthetic moment, between the control and experimental group. Results . A marginal statistical difference ( p = 0.05) was found in the heart rate between baseline and anesthetic moment, being lower in the hypnosis group. No statistically significant differences were found with the FLACC scale or in the skin conductance ( p > 0.05). Conclusion . Hypnosis combined with conventional behavior management techniques decreases heart rate during anesthetic infiltration showing that there may be an improvement in anxiety/pain control through hypnotic therapy.

  18. A survey of techniques for refrigeration, reliquefaction, and production of slush for hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overcash, Dan R.

    1990-01-01

    Several techniques were surveyed for the refrigeration, reliquefaction and production of slush from hydrogen. The techniques included auger; bubbling helium gas; Simon desorption; the Petlier effect; Joule-Kelvin expansion using Stirling, Brayton, and Viulleumirer approaches; rotary reciprocating; a dilution refrigerator; adiabatic demagnetization of a paramagnetic salt; and adiabatic magnetization of a superconductor.

  19. Digital versus conventional techniques for pattern fabrication of implant-supported frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Alikhasi, Marzieh; Rohanian, Ahmad; Ghodsi, Safoura; Kolde, Amin Mohammadpour

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this experimental study was to compare retention of frameworks cast from wax patterns fabricated by three different methods. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six implant analogs connected to one-piece abutments were divided randomly into three groups according to the wax pattern fabrication method (n = 12). Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) milling machine, three-dimensional printer, and conventional technique were used for fabrication of waxing patterns. All laboratory procedures were performed by an expert-reliable technician to eliminate intra-operator bias. The wax patterns were cast, finished, and seated on related abutment analogs. The number of adjustment times was recorded and analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis test. Frameworks were cemented on the corresponding analogs with zinc phosphate cement and tensile resistance test was used to measure retention value. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey tests were used for statistical analysis. Level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The mean retentive values of 680.36 ± 21.93 N, 440.48 ± 85.98 N, and 407.23 ± 67.48 N were recorded for CAD/CAM, rapid prototyping, and conventional group, respectively. One-way ANOVA test revealed significant differences among the three groups (P < 0.001). The post hoc Tukey test showed significantly higher retention for CAD/CAM group (P < 0.001), while there was no significant difference between the two other groups (P = 0.54). CAD/CAM group required significantly more adjustments (P < 0.001). Conclusions: CAD/CAM-fabricated wax patterns showed significantly higher retention for implant-supported cement-retained frameworks; this could be a valuable help when there are limitations in the retention of single-unit implant restorations. PMID:29657528

  20. microRNA biosensors: Opportunities and challenges among conventional and commercially available techniques.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Tugba; Erdem, Arzum; Ozsoz, Mehmet; Carrara, Sandro

    2018-01-15

    As being the most extensively studied, non-coding, evolutionary conserved, post-transcriptional gene regulators of genome, microRNAs (miRNAs) have taken great attention among various disciplines due to their important roles in biological processes and link with cancer. Due to their diagnostic value, there have been many conventional methods used in detection of miRNAs including northern blotting, quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) and microarray technology besides novel techniques based on various nanotechnology approaches and molecular biology tools including miRNA biosensors. The aim of this review is to explain the importance of miRNAs in biomedical field with an emphasis on early cancer diagnosis by overviewing both research based and commercially available miRNA detection methods in the last decade considering their strengths and weakness with an emphasis on miRNA biosensors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dental students' preferences and performance in crown design: conventional wax-added versus CAD.

    PubMed

    Douglas, R Duane; Hopp, Christa D; Augustin, Marcus A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dental students' perceptions of traditional waxing vs. computer-aided crown design and to determine the effectiveness of either technique through comparative grading of the final products. On one of twoidentical tooth preparations, second-year students at one dental school fabricated a wax pattern for a full contour crown; on the second tooth preparation, the same students designed and fabricated an all-ceramic crown using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technology. Projects were graded for occlusion and anatomic form by three faculty members. On completion of the projects, 100 percent of the students (n=50) completed an eight-question, five-point Likert scalesurvey, designed to assess their perceptions of and learning associated with the two design techniques. The average grades for the crown design projects were 78.3 (CAD) and 79.1 (wax design). The mean numbers of occlusal contacts were 3.8 (CAD) and 2.9(wax design), which was significantly higher for CAD (p=0.02). The survey results indicated that students enjoyed designing afull contour crown using CAD as compared to using conventional wax techniques and spent less time designing the crown using CAD. From a learning perspective, students felt that they learned more about position and the size/strength of occlusal contacts using CAD. However, students recognized that CAD technology has limits in terms of representing anatomic contours and excursive occlusion compared to conventional wax techniques. The results suggest that crown design using CAD could be considered as an adjunct to conventional wax-added techniques in preclinical fixed prosthodontic curricula.

  2. Intraosseous injection as an adjunct to conventional local anesthetic techniques: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Idris, Mohamed; Sakkir, Nasil; Naik, Kishore Gopalakrishna; Jayaram, Nandakishore Kunijal

    2014-01-01

    Background: The achievement of successful local anesthesia is a continual challenge in dentistry. Adjunctive local anesthetic techniques and their armamentaria, such as intraosseous injection (the Stabident system and the X-tip system) have been proposed to be advantageous in cases where the conventional local anesthetic techniques have failed. Aim: A clinical study was undertaken using intraosseous injection system by name X-tip to evaluate its effectiveness in cases where inferior alveolar nerve block has failed to provide pulpal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult patients selected were to undergo endodontic treatment for a mandibular molar tooth. Inferior alveolar nerve block was given using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Twenty-four patients (40%) had pain even after administration of IAN block; intraosseous injection was administered using 4% articaine containing 1:100,000 epinephrine, using the X-tip system. The success of X-tip intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain (Heft-Parker visual analog scale ratings ≤ 54 mm) on endodontic access or initial instrumentation. Results: Intraosseous injection technique was successful in 21 out of 24 patients (87.5%), except three patients who had pain even after supplemental X-tip injection. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, we can conclude that supplemental intraosseous injection using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine has a statistically significant influence in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis. PMID:25298642

  3. Applications of Evolutionary Technology to Manufacturing and Logistics Systems : State-of-the Art Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gen, Mitsuo; Lin, Lin

    Many combinatorial optimization problems from industrial engineering and operations research in real-world are very complex in nature and quite hard to solve them by conventional techniques. Since the 1960s, there has been an increasing interest in imitating living beings to solve such kinds of hard combinatorial optimization problems. Simulating the natural evolutionary process of human beings results in stochastic optimization techniques called evolutionary algorithms (EAs), which can often outperform conventional optimization methods when applied to difficult real-world problems. In this survey paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the current state-of-the-art in the use of EA in manufacturing and logistics systems. In order to demonstrate the EAs which are powerful and broadly applicable stochastic search and optimization techniques, we deal with the following engineering design problems: transportation planning models, layout design models and two-stage logistics models in logistics systems; job-shop scheduling, resource constrained project scheduling in manufacturing system.

  4. Reef Fish Survey Techniques: Assessing the Potential for Standardizing Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Zachary R; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Williams, Gareth J; Sandin, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    Dramatic changes in populations of fishes living on coral reefs have been documented globally and, in response, the research community has initiated efforts to assess and monitor reef fish assemblages. A variety of visual census techniques are employed, however results are often incomparable due to differential methodological performance. Although comparability of data may promote improved assessment of fish populations, and thus management of often critically important nearshore fisheries, to date no standardized and agreed-upon survey method has emerged. This study describes the use of methods across the research community and identifies potential drivers of method selection. An online survey was distributed to researchers from academic, governmental, and non-governmental organizations internationally. Although many methods were identified, 89% of survey-based projects employed one of three methods-belt transect, stationary point count, and some variation of the timed swim method. The selection of survey method was independent of the research design (i.e., assessment goal) and region of study, but was related to the researcher's home institution. While some researchers expressed willingness to modify their current survey protocols to more standardized protocols (76%), their willingness decreased when methodologies were tied to long-term datasets spanning five or more years. Willingness to modify current methodologies was also less common among academic researchers than resource managers. By understanding both the current application of methods and the reported motivations for method selection, we hope to focus discussions towards increasing the comparability of quantitative reef fish survey data.

  5. Effectiveness of Hypnosis in Combination with Conventional Techniques of Behavior Management in Anxiety/Pain Reduction during Dental Anesthetic Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Carrasco, A.; Butrón-Téllez Girón, C.; Sanchez-Armass, O.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective. Anxiety/pain are experiences that make dental treatment difficult for children, especially during the time of anesthesia. Hypnosis is used in pediatric clinical situations to modify thinking, behavior, and perception as well as, recently, in dentistry; therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of hypnosis combined with conventional behavior management techniques during infiltration anesthetic. Methods. Anxiety/pain were assessed with the FLACC scale during the anesthetic moment, as well as heart rate variability and skin conductance before and during the anesthetic moment, between the control and experimental group. Results. A marginal statistical difference (p = 0.05) was found in the heart rate between baseline and anesthetic moment, being lower in the hypnosis group. No statistically significant differences were found with the FLACC scale or in the skin conductance (p > 0.05). Conclusion. Hypnosis combined with conventional behavior management techniques decreases heart rate during anesthetic infiltration showing that there may be an improvement in anxiety/pain control through hypnotic therapy. PMID:28490941

  6. A survey of techniques for architecting and managing GPU register file

    DOE PAGES

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2016-04-07

    To support their massively-multithreaded architecture, GPUs use very large register file (RF) which has a capacity higher than even L1 and L2 caches. In total contrast, traditional CPUs use tiny RF and much larger caches to optimize latency. Due to these differences, along with the crucial impact of RF in determining GPU performance, novel and intelligent techniques are required for managing GPU RF. In this paper, we survey the techniques for designing and managing GPU RF. We discuss techniques related to performance, energy and reliability aspects of RF. To emphasize the similarities and differences between the techniques, we classify themmore » along several parameters. Lastly, the aim of this paper is to synthesize the state-of-art developments in RF management and also stimulate further research in this area.« less

  7. A survey of techniques for architecting and managing GPU register file

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh

    To support their massively-multithreaded architecture, GPUs use very large register file (RF) which has a capacity higher than even L1 and L2 caches. In total contrast, traditional CPUs use tiny RF and much larger caches to optimize latency. Due to these differences, along with the crucial impact of RF in determining GPU performance, novel and intelligent techniques are required for managing GPU RF. In this paper, we survey the techniques for designing and managing GPU RF. We discuss techniques related to performance, energy and reliability aspects of RF. To emphasize the similarities and differences between the techniques, we classify themmore » along several parameters. Lastly, the aim of this paper is to synthesize the state-of-art developments in RF management and also stimulate further research in this area.« less

  8. A survey of commercially available broilers marketed as organic, free-range, and conventional broilers for cooked meat yields, meat composition, and relative value.

    PubMed

    Husak, R L; Sebranek, J G; Bregendahl, K

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this survey was to investigate qualitative and quantitative properties of meat from organic, free-range, and conventional broilers as currently provided to consumers. Fifteen broilers from 4 suppliers of each type were evaluated for raw meat yield, cooked meat yield, proximate composition, pH, color, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition, and sensory attributes. Organic broilers yielded more dark (thigh) meat (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional, when compared on a raw-meat basis, but conventional and free-range broilers yielded more (P < 0.05) cooked light (breast) meat than organic. Protein content of organic breast and thigh meat was greater (P < 0.05) than conventional in the raw and the cooked meat comparisons. The pH of breast meat from organic broilers was higher (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional. Organic breast and thigh meat was less yellow (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional. Fatty acid analysis showed that organic breasts and thighs were lower (P < 0.05) in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and higher (P < 0.05) in polyunsaturated fatty acids than free-range and conventional broilers. Shear force measurements were less (P < 0.05) for both breast and thigh meat from conventional broilers relative to free-range and organic broilers. Sensory panel results indicated that thighs from conventional broilers were more tender (P < 0.05) and less chewy (P < 0.05) than thighs from free-range and organic broilers, whereas other sensory properties did not differ. At the time of the study, March through May of 2006, the average retail prices for US broilers were USD 3.19, USD 2.78, and USD 1.29 per pound (USD 7.03, USD 6.13, and USD 2.84/kg) for organic, free-range, and conventional, respectively. Whereas a difference in the fatty acid composition was the largest difference observed between retail broilers in this survey, it is important to note that diets and production environments within the study were not controlled

  9. Characterization of Electronic Materials HgZnSe and HgZnTe Using Innovative and Conventional Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanton, George; Kesmodel, Roy; Burden, Judy; Su, Ching-Hua; Cobb, Sharon D.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    2000-01-01

    HgZnSe and HgZnTe are electronic materials of interest for potential IR detector and focal plane array applications due to their improved strength and compositional stability over HgCdTe, but they are difficult to grow on Earth and to fully characterize. Conventional contact methods of characterization, such as Hall and van der Paw, although adequate for many situations are typically labor intensive and not entirely suitable where only very small samples are available. To adequately characterize and compare properties of electronic materials grown in low earth orbit with those grown on Earth, innovative techniques are needed that complement existing methods. This paper describes the implementation and test results of a unique non-contact method of characterizing uniformity, mobility, and carrier concentration together with results from conventional methods applied to HgZnSe and HgZnTe. The innovative method has advantages over conventional contact methods since it circumvents problems of possible contamination from alloying electrical contacts to a sample and also has the capability to map a sample. Non- destructive mapping, the determination of the carrier concentration and mobility at each place on a sample, provides a means to quantitatively compare, at high spatial resolution, effects of microgravity on electronic properties and uniformity of electronic materials grown in low-Earth orbit with Earth grown materials. The mapping technique described here uses a 1mm diameter polarized beam of radiation to probe the sample. Activation of a magnetic field, in which the sample is placed, causes the plane of polarization of the probe beam to rotate. This Faraday rotation is a function of the free carrier concentration and the band parameters of the material. Maps of carrier concentration, mobility, and transmission generated from measurements of the Faraday rotation angles over the temperature range from 300K to 77K will be presented. New information on band parameters

  10. Sonar surveys used in gas-storage cavern analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Crossley, N.G.

    1998-05-04

    Natural-gas storage cavern internal configuration, inspection information, and cavern integrity data can be obtained during high-pressure operations with specialized gas-sonar survey logging techniques. TransGas Ltd., Regina, Sask., has successfully performed these operations on several of its deepest and highest pressurized caverns. The data can determine gas-in-place inventory and assess changes in spatial volumes. These changes can result from cavern creep, shrinkage, or closure or from various downhole abnormalities such as fluid infill or collapse of the sidewall or roof. The paper discusses conventional surveys with sonar, running surveys in pressurized caverns, accuracy of the sonar survey, initial development of Cavernmore » 5, a roof fall, Cavern 4 development, and a damaged string.« less

  11. A Survey Of Techniques for Managing and Leveraging Caches in GPUs

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2014-09-01

    Initially introduced as special-purpose accelerators for graphics applications, graphics processing units (GPUs) have now emerged as general purpose computing platforms for a wide range of applications. To address the requirements of these applications, modern GPUs include sizable hardware-managed caches. However, several factors, such as unique architecture of GPU, rise of CPU–GPU heterogeneous computing, etc., demand effective management of caches to achieve high performance and energy efficiency. Recently, several techniques have been proposed for this purpose. In this paper, we survey several architectural and system-level techniques proposed for managing and leveraging GPU caches. We also discuss the importance and challenges ofmore » cache management in GPUs. The aim of this paper is to provide the readers insights into cache management techniques for GPUs and motivate them to propose even better techniques for leveraging the full potential of caches in the GPUs of tomorrow.« less

  12. High-quality cell block preparation from scraping of conventional cytology slide: a technical report on a modified cytoscrape cell block technique.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y I; Jakhongir, M; Choi, S J; Kim, L; Park, I S; Han, J Y; Kim, J M; Chu, Y C

    2016-12-01

    Immunocytochemistry (ICC) on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded cell blocks is an ancillary tool commonly recruited for differential diagnoses of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) samples. However, the quality of conventional cell blocks in terms of adequate cellularity and evenness of distribution of cytologic material is not always satisfactory for ICC. We introduce a modified agarose-based cytoscrape cell block (CCB) technique that can be effectively used for the preparation of cell blocks from scrapings of conventional FNAC slides. A decoverslipped FNAC slide was mounted with a small amount of water. The cytological material was scraped off the slide into a tissue mold by scraping with a cell scraper. The cytoscrape material was pelleted by centrifugation and pre-embedded in ultra-low gelling temperature agarose and then re-embedded in conventional agarose. The final agarose gel disk was processed and embedded in paraffin. The quality of the ICC on the CCB sections was identical to that of the immunohistochemical stains on histological sections. By scrapping and harvesting the entirety of the cytological material off the cytology slide into a compact agarose cell button, we could avoid the risk of losing diagnostic material during the CCB preparation. This modified CCB technique enables concentration and focusing of minute material while maintaining the entire amount of the cytoscrape material on the viewing spot of the CCB sections. We believe this technique can be effectively used to improve the level of confidence in diagnosis of FNAC especially when the FNAC slides are the only sample available.

  13. A survey of CPU-GPU heterogeneous computing techniques

    DOE PAGES

    Mittal, Sparsh; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-07-04

    As both CPU and GPU become employed in a wide range of applications, it has been acknowledged that both of these processing units (PUs) have their unique features and strengths and hence, CPU-GPU collaboration is inevitable to achieve high-performance computing. This has motivated significant amount of research on heterogeneous computing techniques, along with the design of CPU-GPU fused chips and petascale heterogeneous supercomputers. In this paper, we survey heterogeneous computing techniques (HCTs) such as workload-partitioning which enable utilizing both CPU and GPU to improve performance and/or energy efficiency. We review heterogeneous computing approaches at runtime, algorithm, programming, compiler and applicationmore » level. Further, we review both discrete and fused CPU-GPU systems; and discuss benchmark suites designed for evaluating heterogeneous computing systems (HCSs). Furthermore, we believe that this paper will provide insights into working and scope of applications of HCTs to researchers and motivate them to further harness the computational powers of CPUs and GPUs to achieve the goal of exascale performance.« less

  14. A survey of CPU-GPU heterogeneous computing techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    As both CPU and GPU become employed in a wide range of applications, it has been acknowledged that both of these processing units (PUs) have their unique features and strengths and hence, CPU-GPU collaboration is inevitable to achieve high-performance computing. This has motivated significant amount of research on heterogeneous computing techniques, along with the design of CPU-GPU fused chips and petascale heterogeneous supercomputers. In this paper, we survey heterogeneous computing techniques (HCTs) such as workload-partitioning which enable utilizing both CPU and GPU to improve performance and/or energy efficiency. We review heterogeneous computing approaches at runtime, algorithm, programming, compiler and applicationmore » level. Further, we review both discrete and fused CPU-GPU systems; and discuss benchmark suites designed for evaluating heterogeneous computing systems (HCSs). Furthermore, we believe that this paper will provide insights into working and scope of applications of HCTs to researchers and motivate them to further harness the computational powers of CPUs and GPUs to achieve the goal of exascale performance.« less

  15. Conventional Landmark-Guided Midline Versus Preprocedure Ultrasound-Guided Paramedian Techniques in Spinal Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kallidaikurichi Srinivasan, Karthikeyan; Iohom, Gabriella; Loughnane, Frank; Lee, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    Multiple passes and attempts while administering spinal anesthesia are associated with a greater incidence of postdural puncture headache, paraesthesia, and spinal hematoma. We hypothesized that the routine use of a preprocedural ultrasound-guided paramedian technique for spinal anesthesia would reduce the number of passes required to achieve entry into the subarachnoid space when compared with the conventional landmark-guided midline approach. One hundred consenting patients scheduled for elective total joint replacements (hip and knee) were randomized into group C (conventional) and group P (preprocedural ultrasound-guided paramedian technique) with 50 in each group. The patients were blinded to the study group. All spinal anesthetics were administered by a consultant anesthesiologist. In group C, spinal anesthetic was done via the midline approach using clinically palpated landmarks. In group P, a preprocedural ultrasound scan was used to mark the paramedian insertion site, and spinal anesthetic was performed via the paramedian approach. The average number of passes (defined as the number of forward advancements of the spinal needle in a given interspinous space, i.e., withdrawal and redirection of spinal needle without exiting the skin) in group P was approximately 0.34 times that in group C, a difference that was statistically significant (P = 0.01). Similarly, the average number of attempts (defined as the number of times the spinal needle was withdrawn from the skin and reinserted) in group P was approximately 0.25 times that of group C (P = 0.0021). In group P, on an average, it took 81.5 (99% confidence interval, 68.4-97 seconds) seconds longer to identify the landmarks than in group C (P = 0.0002). All other parameters, including grading of palpated landmarks, time taken for spinal anesthetic injection, periprocedural pain scores, periprocedural patient discomfort visual analog scale score, conversion to general anesthetic, paresthesia, and radicular pain

  16. Comparison of the artifacts caused by metallic implants in breast MRI using dual-echo dixon versus conventional fat-suppression techniques.

    PubMed

    Le, Yuan; Kipfer, Hal D; Majidi, Shadie S; Holz, Stephanie; Lin, Chen

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate and compare the artifacts caused by metal implants in breast MR images acquired with dual-echo Dixon and two conventional fat-suppression techniques. Two types of biopsy markers were embedded into a uniform fat-water emulsion. T1-weighted gradient-echo images were acquired on a clinical 3-T MRI scanner with three different fat-suppression techniques-conventional or quick fat saturation, spectrally selective adiabatic inversion recovery (SPAIR), and dual-echo Dixon-and the 3D volumes of artifacts were measured. Among the subjects of a clinical breast MRI study using the same scanner, five patients were found to have one or more metal implants. The artifacts in Dixon and SPAIR fat-suppressed images were evaluated by three radiologists, and the results were compared with those of the phantom study. In the phantom study, the artifacts appeared as interleaved bright and dark rings on SPAIR and quick-fat-saturation images, whereas they appeared as dark regions with a thin bright rim on Dixon images. The artifacts imaged with the Dixon technique had the smallest total volume. However, the reviewers found larger artifact diameters on patient images using the Dixon sequence because only the central region was recognized as an artifact on the SPAIR images. Metal implants introduce artifacts of different types and sizes, according to the different fat-suppression techniques used. The dual-echo Dixon technique produces a larger central void, allowing the implant to be easily identified, but presents a smaller overall artifact volume by obscuring less area in the image, according to a quantitative phantom study.

  17. Associations between Internet-based patient ratings and conventional surveys of patient experience in the English NHS: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Felix; Pape, Utz J; King, Dominic; Darzi, Ara; Majeed, Azeem; Wachter, Robert M; Millett, Christopher

    2012-07-01

    Unsolicited web-based comments by patients regarding their healthcare are increasing, but controversial. The relationship between such online patient reports and conventional measures of patient experience (obtained via survey) is not known. The authors examined hospital level associations between web-based patient ratings on the National Health Service (NHS) Choices website, introduced in England during 2008, and paper-based survey measures of patient experience. The authors also aimed to compare these two methods of measuring patient experience. The authors performed a cross-sectional observational study of all (n=146) acute general NHS hospital trusts in England using data from 9997 patient web-based ratings posted on the NHS Choices website during 2009/2010. Hospital trust level indicators of patient experience from a paper-based survey (five measures) were compared with web-based patient ratings using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The authors compared the strength of associations among clinical outcomes, patient experience survey results and NHS Choices ratings. Web-based ratings of patient experience were associated with ratings derived from a national paper-based patient survey (Spearman ρ=0.31-0.49, p<0.001 for all). Associations with clinical outcomes were at least as strong for online ratings as for traditional survey measures of patient experience. Unsolicited web-based patient ratings of their care, though potentially prone to many biases, are correlated with survey measures of patient experience. They may be useful tools for patients when choosing healthcare providers and for clinicians to improve the quality of their services.

  18. Left atrium by echocardiography in clinical practice: from conventional methods to new echocardiographic techniques.

    PubMed

    Ancona, Roberta; Comenale Pinto, Salvatore; Caso, Pio; D'Andrea, Antonello; Di Salvo, Giovanni; Arenga, Fortunato; Coppola, Maria Gabriella; Sellitto, Vincenzo; Macrino, Maria; Calabrò, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Although often referred to as "the forgotten chamber", compared with left ventricle (LV), especially in the past years, the left atrium (LA) plays a critical role in the clinical expression and prognosis of patients with heart and cerebrovascular disease, as demonstrated by several studies. Echocardiographers initially focused on early detection of atrial geometrical abnormalities through monodimensional atrial diameter quantification and then bidimensional (2D) areas and volume estimation. Now, together with conventional echocardiographic parameters, new echocardiographic techniques, such as strain Doppler, 2D speckle tracking and three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography, allow assessing early LA dysfunction and they all play a fundamental role to detect early functional remodelling before anatomical alterations occur. LA dysfunction and its important prognostic implications may be detected sooner by LA strain than by volumetric measurements.

  19. A complete denture impression technique survey of postdoctoral prosthodontic programs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Mamta; Vahidi, Farhad; Berg, Robert W

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to survey program directors of postdoctoral prosthodontic programs in the United States regarding their programs' complete denture impression techniques. The key objectives of the survey were to identify the current trends in complete denture impression making and to determine which techniques and materials are taught in US postdoctoral prosthodontic programs. An online survey was sent to all program directors of US postdoctoral prosthodontic programs. The survey comprised two sections: preliminary impressions and final impressions. The survey contained 22 questions that would take approximately 5 minutes to complete. All responses remained anonymous throughout the survey. The response rate for the survey was 87%. A majority of the programs did not separately border mold the tray prior to making the preliminary impressions (82%). The impression material of choice for the preliminary impression was irreversible hydrocolloid (88%). Selective pressure was the predominantly used impression philosophy (80%). All programs border molded the custom tray, and 95% recorded the borders in sections. The material of choice for border molding the custom tray was modeling plastic impression compound (71%). The most commonly used impression material for the final impressions was polyvinylsiloxane (PVS) (42%), and the second most commonly used impression material was polysulphide (32%). The most common technique for locating the posterior palatal seal was marking intraorally and transferring onto the final impression (65%). Most programs routinely advised their patients not to wear their existing dentures for at least 24 hours before the final impressions were made (83%). Based on the results of this study, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) The most commonly used material for the preliminary impression was irreversible hydrocolloid and for the final impression was PVS. (2) Modeling plastic impression compound was used by most programs to

  20. 1994 ASPRS/ACSM annual convention exposition. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This report is Volume II of presented papers at the joint 1994 convention of the American Society for Photgrammetry and Remote Sensing and American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. Topic areas covered include the following: Data Base/GPS Issues; Survey Management Issues; Surveying computations; Surveying education; Digital mapping; global change, EOS and NALC issues; GPS issues; Battelle Research in Remote Sensing and in GIS; Advanced Image Processing;GIS Issues; Surveying and Geodesy Issues; water resource issues; Advanced applications of remote sensing; Landsat Pathfinder I.

  1. Comparison Between Conventional and Automated Techniques for Blood Grouping and Crossmatching: Experience from a Tertiary Care Centre.

    PubMed

    Bhagwat, Swarupa Nikhil; Sharma, Jayashree H; Jose, Julie; Modi, Charusmita J

    2015-01-01

    The routine immunohematological tests can be performed by automated as well as manual techniques. These techniques have advantages and disadvantages inherent to them. The present study aims to compare the results of manual and automated techniques for blood grouping and crossmatching so as to validate the automated system effectively. A total of 1000 samples were subjected to blood grouping by the conventional tube technique (CTT) and the automated microplate LYRA system on Techno TwinStation. A total of 269 samples (multitransfused patients and multigravida females) were compared for 927 crossmatches by the CTT in indirect antiglobulin phase against the column agglutination technique (CAT) performed on Techno TwinStation. For blood grouping, the study showed a concordance in results for 942/1000 samples (94.2%), discordance for 4/1000 (0.4%) samples and uninterpretable result for 54/1000 samples (5.4%). On resolution, the uninterpretable results reduced to 49/1000 samples (4.9%) with 951/1000 samples (95.1%) showing concordant results. For crossmatching, the automated CAT showed concordant results in 887/927 (95.6%) and discordant results in 3/927 (0.32%) crossmatches as compared to the CTT. Total 37/927 (3.9%) crossmatches were not interpretable by the automated technique. The automated system shows a high concordance of results with CTT and hence can be brought into routine use. However, the high proportion of uninterpretable results emphasizes on the fact that proper training and standardization are needed prior to its use.

  2. Constraint-Induced Therapy Combined with Conventional Neurorehabilitation Techniques in Chronic Stroke Patients with Plegic Hands: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Taub, Edward; Uswatte, Gitendra; Bowman, Mary H.; Mark, Victor W.; Delgado, Adriana; Bryson, Camille; Morris, David; Bishop-McKay, Staci

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine in this pilot study whether the combination of CI therapy and conventional rehabilitation techniques can produce meaningful motor improvement in chronic stroke patients with initially fisted hands. In the past, limited success has been achieved using CI therapy alone for stroke patients with plegic hands. Design Case series Setting University hospital outpatient laboratory Participants Consecutive sample of 6 patients > 1 yr post-stroke with plegic hands Interventions Treatment consisted of an initial period of 3 weeks (Phase A) when adaptive equipment in the home, orthotics and splints were employed to improve ability to engage in activities of daily living. This was continued in Phase B, when CI therapy along with selected neurodevelopmental treatment techniques were added. Main Outcome Measures Motor Activity Log (MAL), accelerometry, Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (F-M) Results Patients exhibited a large improvement in spontaneous real-world use of the more-affected arm (mean lower-functioning MAL change = 1.3±0.4 points, P <0.001, d′ = 3.0), and a similar pattern of increase in an objective measure of real-world more-affected arm movement (mean change in ratio of more- to less-affected arm accelerometer recordings = 0.12±0.1 points, P = 0.016 d′ = 1.2). A large improvement in motor status was also recorded (mean F-M change = 5.3±3.3 points, P = 0.005, d′ = 1.6). Conclusions The findings of this pilot study suggest that stroke patients with plegic hands can benefit from CI therapy combined with some conventional rehabilitation techniques, even long after brain injury. More research is warranted. PMID:22922823

  3. Comparison of computer assisted surgery with conventional technique for treatment of abaxial distal phalanx fractures in horses: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Rossol, Melanie; Gygax, Diego; Andritzky-Waas, Juliane; Zheng, Guoyan; Lischer, Christoph J; Zhang, Xuan; Auer, Joerg A

    2008-01-01

    To (1) evaluate and compare computer-assisted surgery (CAS) with conventional screw insertion (conventional osteosynthesis [COS]) for treatment of equine abaxial distal phalanx fractures; (2) compare planned screw position with actual postoperative position; and (3) determine preferred screw insertion direction. Experimental study. Cadaveric equine limbs (n=32). In 8 specimens each, a 4.5 mm cortex bone screw was inserted in lag fashion in dorsopalmar (plantar) direction using CAS or COS. In 2 other groups of 8, the screws were inserted in opposite direction. Precision of CAS was determined by comparison of planned and actual screw position. Preferred screw direction was also assessed for CAS and COS. In 4 of 6 direct comparisons, screw positioning was significantly better with CAS. Results of precision analysis for screw position were similar to studies published in human medicine. None of evaluated criteria identified a preferred direction for screw insertion. For abaxial fractures of the distal phalanx, superior precision in screw position is achieved with CAS technique compared with COS technique. Abaxial fractures of the distal phalanx lend themselves to computer-assisted implantation of 1 screw in a dorsopalmar (plantar) direction. Because of the complex anatomic relationships, and our results, we discourage use of COS technique for repair of this fracture type.

  4. Ambiguities and conventions in the perception of visual art.

    PubMed

    Mamassian, Pascal

    2008-09-01

    Vision perception is ambiguous and visual arts play with these ambiguities. While perceptual ambiguities are resolved with prior constraints, artistic ambiguities are resolved by conventions. Is there a relationship between priors and conventions? This review surveys recent work related to these ambiguities in composition, spatial scale, illumination and color, three-dimensional layout, shape, and movement. While most conventions seem to have their roots in perceptual constraints, those conventions that differ from priors may help us appreciate how visual arts differ from everyday perception.

  5. A Methodological Intercomparison of Topographic and Aerial Photographic Habitat Survey Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangen, S. G.; Wheaton, J. M.; Bouwes, N.

    2011-12-01

    A severe decline in Columbia River salmonid populations and subsequent Federal listing of subpopulations has mandated both the monitoring of populations and evaluation of the status of available habitat. Numerous field and analytical methods exist to assist in the quantification of the abundance and quality of in-stream habitat for salmonids. These methods range from field 'stick and tape' surveys to spatially explicit topographic and aerial photographic surveys from a mix of ground-based and remotely sensed airborne platforms. Although several previous studies have assessed the quality of specific individual survey methods, the intercomparison of competing techniques across a diverse range of habitat conditions (wadeable headwater channels to non-wadeable mainstem channels) has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we seek to enumerate relative quality (i.e. accuracy, precision, extent) of habitat metrics and inventories derived from an array of ground-based and remotely sensed surveys of varying degrees of sophistication, as well as quantify the effort and cost in conducting the surveys. Over the summer of 2010, seven sample reaches of varying habitat complexity were surveyed in the Lemhi River Basin, Idaho, USA. Complete topographic surveys were attempted at each site using rtkGPS, total station, ground-based LiDaR and traditional airborne LiDaR. Separate high spatial resolution aerial imagery surveys were acquired using a tethered blimp, a drone UAV, and a traditional fixed-wing aircraft. Here we also developed a relatively simplistic methodology for deriving bathymetry from aerial imagery that could be readily employed by instream habitat monitoring programs. The quality of bathymetric maps derived from aerial imagery was compared with rtkGPS topographic data. The results are helpful for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches in specific conditions, and how a hybrid of data acquisition methods can be used to build a more complete

  6. The History of Electromagnetic Induction Techniques in Soil Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Doolittle, Jim

    2014-05-01

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) has been used to characterize the spatial variability of soil properties since the late 1970s. Initially used to assess soil salinity, the use of EMI in soil studies has expanded to include: mapping soil types; characterizing soil water content and flow patterns; assessing variations in soil texture, compaction, organic matter content, and pH; and determining the depth to subsurface horizons, stratigraphic layers or bedrock, among other uses. In all cases the soil property being investigated must influence soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) either directly or indirectly for EMI techniques to be effective. An increasing number and diversity of EMI sensors have been developed in response to users' needs and the availability of allied technologies, which have greatly improved the functionality of these tools. EMI investigations provide several benefits for soil studies. The large amount of georeferenced data that can be rapidly and inexpensively collected with EMI provides more complete characterization of the spatial variations in soil properties than traditional sampling techniques. In addition, compared to traditional soil survey methods, EMI can more effectively characterize diffuse soil boundaries and identify included areas of dissimilar soils within mapped soil units, giving soil scientists greater confidence when collecting spatial soil information. EMI techniques do have limitations; results are site-specific and can vary depending on the complex interactions among multiple and variable soil properties. Despite this, EMI techniques are increasingly being used to investigate the spatial variability of soil properties at field and landscape scales.

  7. Comparison of detection limit in fiber-based conventional, amplified, and gain-clamped cavity ring-down techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, K.; Abdul Khudus, M. I. M.; Alam, S. U.; Bhattacharya, S.; Venkitesh, D.; Brambilla, G.

    2018-01-01

    Relative performance and detection limit of conventional, amplified, and gain-clamped cavity ring-down techniques (CRDT) in all-fiber configurations are compared experimentally for the first time. Refractive index measurement using evanescent field in tapered fibers is used as a benchmark for the comparison. The systematic optimization of a nested-loop configuration in gain-clamped CRDT is also discussed, which is crucial for achieving a constant gain in a CRDT experiment. It is found that even though conventional CRDT has the lowest standard error in ring-down time (Δτ), the value of ring-down time (τ) is very small, thus leading to poor detection limit. Amplified CRDT provides an improvement in τ, albeit with two orders of magnitude higher Δτ due to amplifier noise. The nested-loop configuration in gain-clamped CRDT helps in reducing Δτ by an order of magnitude as compared to amplified CRDT whilst retaining the improvement in τ. A detection limit of 1 . 03 × 10-4 RIU at refractive index of 1.322 with a 3 mm long and 4.5 μm diameter tapered fiber is demonstrated with the gain-clamped CRDT.

  8. Noble-TLBO MPPT Technique and its Comparative Analysis with Conventional methods implemented on Solar Photo Voltaic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsariya, Ajay; Rai, Shiwani; Kumar, Yogendra, Dr.; Kirar, Mukesh, Dr.

    2017-08-01

    The energy crisis particularly with developing GDPs, has bring up to a new panorama of sustainable power source like solar energy, which has encountered huge development. Progressively high infiltration level of photovoltaic (PV) era emerges in keen matrix. Sunlight based power is irregular and variable, as the sun based source at the ground level is exceedingly subject to overcast cover inconstancy, environmental vaporized levels, and other climate parameters. The inalienable inconstancy of substantial scale sun based era acquaints huge difficulties with keen lattice vitality administration. Exact determining of sun powered power/irradiance is basic to secure financial operation of the shrewd framework. In this paper a noble TLBO-MPPT technique has been proposed to address the vitality of solar energy. A comparative analysis has been presented between conventional PO, IC and the proposed MPPT technique. The research has been done on Matlab Simulink software version 2013.

  9. Swept Impact Seismic Technique (SIST)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, C.B.; Miller, R.D.; Steeples, D.W.; Black, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    A coded seismic technique is developed that can result in a higher signal-to-noise ratio than a conventional single-pulse method does. The technique is cost-effective and time-efficient and therefore well suited for shallow-reflection surveys where high resolution and cost-effectiveness are critical. A low-power impact source transmits a few to several hundred high-frequency broad-band seismic pulses during several seconds of recording time according to a deterministic coding scheme. The coding scheme consists of a time-encoded impact sequence in which the rate of impact (cycles/s) changes linearly with time providing a broad range of impact rates. Impact times used during the decoding process are recorded on one channel of the seismograph. The coding concept combines the vibroseis swept-frequency and the Mini-Sosie random impact concepts. The swept-frequency concept greatly improves the suppression of correlation noise with much fewer impacts than normally used in the Mini-Sosie technique. The impact concept makes the technique simple and efficient in generating high-resolution seismic data especially in the presence of noise. The transfer function of the impact sequence simulates a low-cut filter with the cutoff frequency the same as the lowest impact rate. This property can be used to attenuate low-frequency ground-roll noise without using an analog low-cut filter or a spatial source (or receiver) array as is necessary with a conventional single-pulse method. Because of the discontinuous coding scheme, the decoding process is accomplished by a "shift-and-stacking" method that is much simpler and quicker than cross-correlation. The simplicity of the coding allows the mechanical design of the source to remain simple. Several different types of mechanical systems could be adapted to generate a linear impact sweep. In addition, the simplicity of the coding also allows the technique to be used with conventional acquisition systems, with only minor modifications.

  10. Comparison Between Conventional and Automated Techniques for Blood Grouping and Crossmatching: Experience from a Tertiary Care Centre

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwat, Swarupa Nikhil; Sharma, Jayashree H; Jose, Julie; Modi, Charusmita J

    2015-01-01

    Context: The routine immunohematological tests can be performed by automated as well as manual techniques. These techniques have advantages and disadvantages inherent to them. Aims: The present study aims to compare the results of manual and automated techniques for blood grouping and crossmatching so as to validate the automated system effectively. Materials and Methods: A total of 1000 samples were subjected to blood grouping by the conventional tube technique (CTT) and the automated microplate LYRA system on Techno TwinStation. A total of 269 samples (multitransfused patients and multigravida females) were compared for 927 crossmatches by the CTT in indirect antiglobulin phase against the column agglutination technique (CAT) performed on Techno TwinStation. Results: For blood grouping, the study showed a concordance in results for 942/1000 samples (94.2%), discordance for 4/1000 (0.4%) samples and uninterpretable result for 54/1000 samples (5.4%). On resolution, the uninterpretable results reduced to 49/1000 samples (4.9%) with 951/1000 samples (95.1%) showing concordant results. For crossmatching, the automated CAT showed concordant results in 887/927 (95.6%) and discordant results in 3/927 (0.32%) crossmatches as compared to the CTT. Total 37/927 (3.9%) crossmatches were not interpretable by the automated technique. Conclusions: The automated system shows a high concordance of results with CTT and hence can be brought into routine use. However, the high proportion of uninterpretable results emphasizes on the fact that proper training and standardization are needed prior to its use. PMID:26417159

  11. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of Thailand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 1.6 billion barrels of undiscovered conventional oil and 17 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered conventional natural gas in three geologic provinces of Thailand using a geology-based methodology. Most of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resource is estimated to be in the area known as offshore Thai Basin province.

  12. Application Of Iterative Reconstruction Techniques To Conventional Circular Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh Roy, D. N.; Kruger, R. A.; Yih, B. C.; Del Rio, S. P.; Power, R. L.

    1985-06-01

    Two "point-by-point" iteration procedures, namely, Iterative Least Square Technique (ILST) and Simultaneous Iterative Reconstructive Technique (SIRT) were applied to classical circular tomographic reconstruction. The technique of tomosynthetic DSA was used in forming the tomographic images. Reconstructions of a dog's renal and neck anatomy are presented.

  13. Survey of equine castration techniques, preferences and outcomes among Australian veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Owens, C D; Hughes, K J; Hilbert, B J; Heller, J; Nielsen, S; Trope, G D

    2018-01-01

    (1) To collect the perceptions of veterinarians performing equine castrations in Australia on techniques, preferences and outcomes, (2) to investigate veterinarian use and experience with the Henderson castrating instrument and (3) to investigate potential associations between demographics, castration methods and techniques, and complications. Online survey of members of the Australian Veterinary Association's Special Interest Group, Equine Veterinarians Australia (EVA). A link to the survey was included in the EVA e-newsletter and practices on the EVA website were contacted by telephone and follow-up email. Fisher's exact test was used to determine associations between ligation and complications. A generalised linear model with a negative binomial family was used to determine associations between count response variables and categorical independent variables. Responses were obtained from 138 veterinarians (response rate, 13.1%) who performed 5330 castrations over 12 months. Castrations were most commonly performed in the field, on anaesthetised horses, using emasculators, via an open approach and without ligation of the spermatic cord. Estimated complications after use of emasculators were swelling (25%), haemorrhage (5%) and infection (5%). The Henderson instrument was used by approximately 10% of respondents and its use for castration was associated with fewer reports of postoperative swelling compared with emasculators (P = 0.002). Rates of evisceration with the Henderson and emasculator methods were comparable (0.43% and 0.9%, respectively). Castration preferences varied widely among survey participants. Reported complication types and rates were comparable to those reported previously in other countries. Perceptions that the Henderson instrument was associated with less swelling should be investigated further via a prospective controlled investigation. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  14. A Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of Double Casting Technique Using Functionally Generated Path and Conventional Single Casting with Respect to Functional Articulation, Patient Satisfaction and Chair Side Time, in Single Unit Molar Teeth: An In Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Memon, Sarfaraz

    2014-12-01

    A stable centric occlusal position that shows no evidence of occlusal disease should not be altered. Confirmative restorative dentistry deals with making restorations that are in harmony with existing jaw relations. Conventional techniques for construction have been unsuccessful in producing a prosthesis that can be inserted without minor intraoral occlusal adjustment. This study was conducted to evaluate the benefits of the double casting technique with FGP over the conventional casting technique. Ten patients with root canal treated maxillary molar were selected for the fabrication of metal crown. Two techniques, one involving the conventional fabrication and other using functionally generated path with double casting were used to fabricate the prosthesis. A comparison based on various parameters which was done between the two techniques. The change in the height of castings for the double casting group was less compared to the conventional group and was highly statistically significant (P < 0.001). The time taken for occlusal correction was significantly lower in double casting group than the conventional group (P < 0.001). The patient satisfaction (before occlusal correction) indicated better satisfaction for double casting group compared to conventional (P < 0.01). The functionally generated path with double casting technique resulted in castings which had better dimensional accuracy, less occlusal correction and better patient satisfaction compared to the conventional castings.

  15. Does the piezoelectric surgical technique produce fewer postoperative sequelae after lower third molar surgery than conventional rotary instruments? A systematic review and meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Al-Moraissi, E A; Elmansi, Y A; Al-Sharaee, Y A; Alrmali, A E; Alkhutari, A S

    2016-03-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to answer the clinical question "Does the piezoelectric surgical technique produce fewer postoperative sequelae after lower third molar surgery than conventional rotary instruments?" A systematic and electronic search of several databases with specific key words, a reference search, and a manual search were performed from respective dates of inception through November 2014. The inclusion criteria were clinical human studies, including randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), and retrospective studies, with the aim of comparing the piezoelectric surgical osteotomy technique to the standard rotary instrument technique in lower third molar surgery. Postoperative sequelae (oedema, trismus, and pain), the total number of analgesics taken, and the duration of surgery were analyzed. A total of nine articles were included, six RCTs, two CCTs, and one retrospective study. Six studies had a low risk of bias and three had a moderate risk of bias. A statistically significant difference was found between piezoelectric surgery and conventional rotary instrument surgery for lower third molar extraction with regard to postoperative sequelae (oedema, trismus, and pain) and the total number of analgesics taken (P=0.0001, P=0.0001, P<0.00001, and P<0.0001, respectively). However, a statistically significant increased surgery time was required in the piezoelectric osteotomy group (P<0.00001). The results of the meta-analysis showed that piezoelectric surgery significantly reduced the occurrence of postoperative sequelae (oedema, trismus, and pain) and the total number of analgesics taken compared to the conventional rotary instrument technique in lower third molar surgery, but required a longer surgery time. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A 2-year RSA study of the Vanguard CR total knee system: A randomized controlled trial comparing patient-specific positioning guides with conventional technique.

    PubMed

    Øhrn, Frank-David; Van Leeuwen, Justin; Tsukanaka, Masako; Röhrl, Stephan M

    2018-05-09

    Background and purpose - There is some concern regarding the revision rate of the Vanguard CR TKA in 1 registry, and the literature is ambiguous about the efficacy of patient-specific positioning guides (PSPGs). The objective of this study was to investigate the stability of the cemented Vanguard CR Total Knee using 2 different surgical techniques. Our hypothesis was that there is no difference in migration when implanting the Vanguard CR with either PSPGs or conventional technique. We hereby present a randomized controlled trial of 2-year follow-up with radiostereometric analysis (RSA). Patients and methods - 40 TKAs were performed between 2011 and 2013 with either PSPGs or the conventional technique and 22 of these were investigated with RSA. Results - The PSPG (8 knees) and the conventional (14 knees) groups had a mean maximum total point motion (MTPM) (95% CI) of 0.83 (0.48-1.18) vs. 0.70 (0.43-0.97) mm, 1.03 (0.60-1.43) vs. 0.86 (0.53-1.19), and 1.46 (1.07-1.85) vs. 0.80 (0.52-1.43) at 3, 12, and 24 months respectively (p = 0.1). 5 implants had either an MTPM >1.6 mm at 12 months and/or a migration of more than 0.2 mm between 1- and 2-year follow-ups. 2 of these also had a peripheral subsidence of more than 0.6 mm at 2 years. Interpretation - 5 implants (3 in the PSPG group) were found to be at risk of later aseptic loosening. The PSPG group continuously migrated between 12 and 24 months. The conventional group had an initial high migration between postoperative and 3 months, but seemed more stable after 1 year. Although the difference was not statistically significant, we think the migration in the PSPG group is of some concern.

  17. Comparative cost assessment of the Kato-Katz and FLOTAC techniques for soil-transmitted helminth diagnosis in epidemiological surveys

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Kato-Katz technique is widely used for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in epidemiological surveys and is believed to be an inexpensive method. The FLOTAC technique shows a higher sensitivity for the diagnosis of light-intensity soil-transmitted helminth infections but is reported to be more complex and expensive. We assessed the costs related to the collection, processing and microscopic examination of stool samples using the Kato-Katz and FLOTAC techniques in an epidemiological survey carried out in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Methods We measured the time for the collection of a single stool specimen in the field, transfer to a laboratory, preparation and microscopic examination using standard protocols for the Kato-Katz and FLOTAC techniques. Salaries of health workers, life expectancy and asset costs of materials, and infrastructure costs were determined. The average cost for a single or duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and the FLOTAC dual or double technique were calculated. Results The average time needed to collect a stool specimen and perform a single or duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears or the FLOTAC dual or double technique was 20 min and 34 sec (20:34 min), 27:21 min, 28:14 min and 36:44 min, respectively. The total costs for a single and duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears were US$ 1.73 and US$ 2.06, respectively, and for the FLOTAC double and dual technique US$ 2.35 and US$ 2.83, respectively. Salaries impacted most on the total costs of either method. Conclusions The time and cost for soil-transmitted helminth diagnosis using either the Kato-Katz or FLOTAC method in epidemiological surveys are considerable. Our results can help to guide healthcare decision makers and scientists in budget planning and funding for epidemiological surveys, anthelminthic drug efficacy trials and monitoring of control interventions. PMID:20707931

  18. Downscaling of conventional laser cladding technique to microengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Riveiro, A.; Quintero, F.; Pou, J.

    To get an adequate response to the high increase of micro-products demand, new techniques have been developed by different types of industries in the last years. One approach is to adapt the laser surface cladding technique to the scale of microengineering. A new experimental configuration has been developed based on a highly stable high power laser with a high beam quality and a micro-feeder adequate to supply submicron particles. This work collects our efforts to extend the operation range of the laser cladding to the laser micro-cladding in order to produce micro-coatings. The viability of this new technique has been demonstrated by depositing coatings with geometrical characteristics in the micrometer range (minimum values obtained: 32 μm of width and 12 μm of height).

  19. Knowledge based systems: A critical survey of major concepts, issues and techniques. Visuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kavi, Srinu

    1984-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents a collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled, Knowledge Based Systems: A Critical Survey of Major Concepts, Issues, and Techniques, USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series report number DBMS.NASA/RECON-9. The objectives of the report are to: examine various techniques used to build the KBS; to examine at least one KBS in detail, i.e., a case study; to list and identify limitations and problems with the KBS; to suggest future areas of research; and to provide extensive reference materials.

  20. A survey of mass analyzers. [characteristics and features of various instruments and techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, W. W., Jr.; Tashbar, P. W.

    1973-01-01

    With the increasing applications of mass spectrometry technology to diverse services areas, a need has developed for a consolidated survey of the essential characteristics and features of the various instruments and techniques. This report is one approach to satisfying this need. Information has been collected and consolidated into a format which includes for each approach: (1) a general technique description, (2) instrument features information, and (3) a summary of pertinent advantages and disadvantages. With this information, the potential mass spectrometer user should be able to more efficiently select the most appropriate instrument.

  1. Using machine learning techniques to automate sky survey catalog generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fayyad, Usama M.; Roden, J. C.; Doyle, R. J.; Weir, Nicholas; Djorgovski, S. G.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the application of machine classification techniques to the development of an automated tool for the reduction of a large scientific data set. The 2nd Palomar Observatory Sky Survey provides comprehensive photographic coverage of the northern celestial hemisphere. The photographic plates are being digitized into images containing on the order of 10(exp 7) galaxies and 10(exp 8) stars. Since the size of this data set precludes manual analysis and classification of objects, our approach is to develop a software system which integrates independently developed techniques for image processing and data classification. Image processing routines are applied to identify and measure features of sky objects. Selected features are used to determine the classification of each object. GID3* and O-BTree, two inductive learning techniques, are used to automatically learn classification decision trees from examples. We describe the techniques used, the details of our specific application, and the initial encouraging results which indicate that our approach is well-suited to the problem. The benefits of the approach are increased data reduction throughput, consistency of classification, and the automated derivation of classification rules that will form an objective, examinable basis for classifying sky objects. Furthermore, astronomers will be freed from the tedium of an intensely visual task to pursue more challenging analysis and interpretation problems given automatically cataloged data.

  2. Evaluation of the Amount of Debris extruded apically by using Conv-entional Syringe, Endovac and Ultrasonic Irrigation Technique: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Tambe, Varsha H; Nagmode, Pradnya S; Vishwas, Jayshree R; P, Saujanya K; Angadi, Prabakar; Ali, Fareedi Mukram

    2013-01-01

    Background: To compare the amount of debris extruded apically by using conventional syringe, Endovac & Ultrasonic irrigation. Materials & Methods: Thirty freshly extracted mandibular premolars were selected, working length was determined and mounted in a debris and collection apparatus. The canals were prepared. After each instrument change, 1 ml. of 3% sodium hypochlorite was used as irrigation. Debris extruded apically by using conventional syringe, endovac& ultrasonic irrigation tech, was measured using the electronic balance to determine its weight and statistical analysis was performed. The mean difference between the groups was determined using statistical analysis within the groups &between the groups for equal variances. Results: Among all the groups, significantly less debris were found apically in the Endovac group (0.96) compared to conventional and ultrasonic group (1.23) syringe. Conclusion: The present study showed that endovac system extrudes less amount of debris apically as compared to ultrasonic followed by conventional so incidence of flare up can be reduce by using endovac irrigation system. How to cite this article: Tambe V H, Nagmode P S, Vishwas J R, Saujanya K P, Angadi P, Ali F M. Evaluation of the Amount of Debris extruded apically by using Conventional Syringe, Endovac and Ultrasonic Irrigation Technique: An In Vitro Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):63-66. PMID:24155604

  3. Side effects and complications of intraosseous anesthesia and conventional oral anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Ata-Ali, Javier; Oltra-Moscardó, María-José; Peñarrocha-Diago, María; Peñarrocha, Miguel

    2012-05-01

    To analyze the side effects and complications following intraosseous anesthesia (IA), comparing them with those of the conventional oral anesthesia techniques. A simple-blind, prospective clinical study was carried out. Each patient underwent two anesthetic techniques: conventional (local infiltration and locoregional anesthetic block) and intraosseous, for respective dental operations. In order to allow comparison of IA versus conventional anesthesia, the two operations were similar and affected the same two teeth in opposite quadrants. Heart rate was recorded in all cases before injection of the anesthetic solution and again 30 seconds after injection. The complications observed after anesthetic administration were recorded. A total of 200 oral anesthetic procedures were carried out in 100 patients. Both IA and conventional anesthesia resulted in a significant increase in heart rate, though the increase was greater with the latter technique. Incidents were infrequent with either anesthetic technique, with no significant differences between them. Regarding the complications, there were significant differences in pain at the injection site, with more intense pain in the case of IA (x2=3.532, p=0.030, Φ2=0.02), while the limitation of oral aperture was more pronounced with conventional anesthesia (x2=5.128, p<0.05, Φ2=0.014). Post-anesthetic biting showed no significant differences (x2=4.082, p=0.121, Φ2=0.009). Both anesthetic techniques significantly increased heart rate, and IA caused comparatively more pain at the injection site, while limited oral aperture was more frequent with conventional anesthesia. Post-anesthetic biting showed no significant differences between the two techniques.

  4. Optimising the measurement of bruises in children across conventional and cross polarized images using segmentation analysis techniques in Image J, Photoshop and circle diameter measurements.

    PubMed

    Harris, C; Alcock, A; Trefan, L; Nuttall, D; Evans, S T; Maguire, S; Kemp, A M

    2018-02-01

    Bruising is a common abusive injury in children, and it is standard practice to image and measure them, yet there is no current standard for measuring bruise size consistently. We aim to identify the optimal method of measuring photographic images of bruises, including computerised measurement techniques. 24 children aged <11 years (mean age of 6.9, range 2.5-10 years) with a bruise were recruited from the community. Demographics and bruise details were recorded. Each bruise was measured in vivo using a paper measuring tape. Standardised conventional and cross polarized digital images were obtained. The diameter of bruise images were measured by three computer aided measurement techniques: Image J (segmentation with Simple Interactive Object Extraction (maximum Feret diameter), 'Circular Selection Tool' (Circle diameter), & the Photoshop 'ruler' software (Photoshop diameter)). Inter and intra-observer effects were determined by two individuals repeating 11 electronic measurements, and relevant Intraclass Correlation Coefficient's (ICC's) were used to establish reliability. Spearman's rank correlation was used to compare in vivo with computerised measurements; a comparison of measurement techniques across imaging modalities was conducted using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Significance was set at p < 0.05 for all tests. Images were available for 38 bruises in vivo, with 48 bruises visible on cross polarized imaging and 46 on conventional imaging (some bruises interpreted as being single in vivo appeared to be multiple in digital images). Correlation coefficients were >0.5 for all techniques, with maximum Feret diameter and maximum Photoshop diameter on conventional images having the strongest correlation with in vivo measurements. There were significant differences between in vivo and computer-aided measurements, but none between different computer-aided measurement techniques. Overall, computer aided measurements appeared larger than in vivo. Inter- and intra

  5. An evaluation of student and clinician perception of digital and conventional implant impressions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang J; Macarthur, Robert X; Gallucci, German O

    2013-11-01

    The accuracy and efficiency of digital implant impressions should match conventional impressions. Comparisons should be made with clinically relevant data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difficulty level and operator's perception between dental students and experienced clinicians when making digital and conventional implant impressions. Thirty experienced dental professionals and 30 second-year dental students made conventional and digital impressions of a single implant model. A visual analog scale (VAS) and multiple-choice questionnaires were used to assess the participant's perception of difficulty, preference, and effectiveness. Wilcoxon signed-rank test within the groups and Wilcoxon rank-sum test between the groups were used for statistical analysis (α=.05). On a 0 to 100 VAS, the student group scored a mean difficulty level of 43.1 (±18.5) for the conventional impression technique and 30.6 (±17.6) for the digital impression technique (P=.006). The clinician group scored a mean (standard deviation) difficulty level of 30.9 (±19.6) for conventional impressions and 36.5 (±20.6) for digital impressions (P=.280). Comparison between groups showed a mean difficulty level with the conventional impression technique significantly higher in the student group (P=.030). The digital impression was not significantly different between the groups (P=.228). Sixty percent of the students preferred the digital impression and 7% the conventional impression; 33% expressed no preference. In the clinician group, 33% preferred the digital impression and 37% the conventional impression; 30% had no preference. Seventy-seven percent of the student group felt most effective with digital impressions, 10% with conventional impressions, and 13% with either technique, whereas 40% of the clinician group chose the digital impression as the most effective technique, 53% the conventional impression, and 7% either technique. The conventional impression was more difficult to

  6. Axial-spin technique of endoscopic intracorporeal knot tying: comparison with the conventional technique and objective assessment of knot security, learning curves, and performance efficiency across training levels.

    PubMed

    Gopaldas, Raja R; Rohatgi, Chand

    2009-04-01

    A major limitation of conventional laparoscopic surgery is the placement of an intracorporeal (IC) knot, which requires a significant amount of training and practice. An easier technique of IC knot tying using 90-degree grasper is compared with the conventional technique (CLT). The new axial-spin technique (AST) uses the spin of the instrument shaft to tie IC knots. Fourteen participants stratified into 3 training levels were instructed to tie 50 reef IC knots using each technique on trainers in 3 sessions. The final 5 knots tied using each technique were deemed to be representative of maximal performance efficiency (PE) and randomly subject to tensile strength measurements using a tensiometer at 50 mm/s distraction. Mean knot execution time (mKET) measured in seconds (s), normalized KE time (nET=group mean/mKET), knot holding capacity, relative knot security (RKS), and PE (PE=RKS/nET) of the knots tied were computed and analyzed using paired t and analysis of variance. Variables included knot-tying session, technique and the training level. On completion of the study, junior residents (JR) averaged 51.72 seconds more, senior residents (SR) averaged 26.22 seconds more and attendings (ATT) averaged 19.17 seconds less to tie using CLT compared with the AST (F=40.52, P=0.0001). Across all levels, the CLT technique was taking 83.26 seconds on average to execute an IC knot compared with 59.08 seconds with AST method (t=2.784, P=0.015). Learning curves revealed that JR significantly improved mean KE times with the AST technique (first session vs. final session: 473.8 s vs. 55.9 s) compared with CLT (672.5 s vs. 107.6 s) across the sessions as compared with those in advanced levels of training. The RKS of knots executed by AST was significantly stronger (AST: 13.1 vs. 5.44 N, t=4.9, P=0.0001). The PE of knots executed using the CLT increased geometrically across training levels (JR: 1.35% SR: 5.58% ATT: 11.22%) whereas those of AST showed a linear trend (17.09%; 17

  7. Systems-oriented survey of noncontact temperature measurement techniques for rapid thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyton, David; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Lo, G. Q.; Kwong, Dim-Lee

    1991-04-01

    Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) is becoming a popular approach for future ULSI manufacturing due to its unique low thermal budget and process flexibility. Furthermore when RTP is combined with Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) the so-called RTP-CVD technology it can be used to deposit ultrathin films with extremely sharp interfaces and excellent material qualities. One major consequence of this type of processing however is the need for extremely tight control of wafer temperature both to obtain reproducible results for process control and to minimize slip and warpage arising from nonuniformities in temperature. Specifically temperature measurement systems suitable for RiP must have both high precision--within 1-2 degrees--and a short response time--to output an accurate reading on the order of milliseconds for closedloop control. Any such in-situ measurement technique must be non-contact since thermocouples cannot meet the response time requirements and have problems with conductive heat flow in the wafer. To date optical pyrometry has been the most widely used technique for RiP systems although a number of other techniques are being considered and researched. This article examines several such techniques from a systems perspective: optical pyrometry both conventional and a new approach using ellipsometric techniques for concurrent emissivity measurement Raman scattering infrared laser thermometry optical diffraction thermometry and photoacoustic thermometry. Each approach is evaluated in terms of its actual or estimated manufacturing cost remote sensing capability precision repeatability dependence on processing history range

  8. Non-conventional solvents in liquid phase microextraction and aqueous biphasic systems.

    PubMed

    An, Jiwoo; Trujillo-Rodríguez, María J; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L

    2017-06-02

    The development of rapid, convenient, and high throughput sample preparation approaches such as liquid phase microextraction techniques have been continuously developed over the last decade. More recently, significant attention has been given to the replacement of conventional organic solvents used in liquid phase microextraction techniques in order to reduce toxic waste and to improve selectivity and/or extraction efficiency. With these objectives, non-conventional solvents have been explored in liquid phase microextraction and aqueous biphasic systems. The utilized non-conventional solvents include ionic liquids, magnetic ionic liquids, and deep eutectic solvents. They have been widely used as extraction solvents or additives in various liquid phase microextraction modes including dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, single-drop microextraction, hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction, as well as in aqueous biphasic systems. This review provides an overview into the use of non-conventional solvents in these microextraction techniques in the past 5 years (2012-2016). Analytical applications of the techniques are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationships between autofocus methods for SAR and self-survey techniques for SONAR. [Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, D.E.; Jakowatz, C.V. Jr.; Ghiglia, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    Autofocus methods in SAR and self-survey techniques in SONAR have a common mathematical basis in that they both involve estimation and correction of phase errors introduced by sensor position uncertainties. Time delay estimation and correlation methods have been shown to be effective in solving the self-survey problem for towed SONAR arrays. Since it can be shown that platform motion errors introduce similar time-delay estimation problems in SAR imaging, the question arises as to whether such techniques could be effectively employed for autofocus of SAR imagery. With a simple mathematical model for motion errors in SAR, we will show why suchmore » correlation/time-delay techniques are not nearly as effective as established SAR autofocus algorithms such as phase gradient autofocus or sub-aperture based methods. This analysis forms an important bridge between signal processing methodologies for SAR and SONAR. 5 refs., 4 figs.« less

  10. A comparative evaluation of pain and anxiety levels in 2 different anesthesia techniques: locoregional anesthesia using conventional syringe versus intraosseous anesthesia using a computer-controlled system (Quicksleeper).

    PubMed

    Özer, Senem; Yaltirik, Mehmet; Kirli, Irem; Yargic, Ilhan

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare anxiety and pain levels during anesthesia and efficacy of Quicksleeper intraosseous (IO) injection system, which delivers computer-controlled IO anesthesia and conventional inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in impacted mandibular third molars. Forty subjects with bilateral impacted mandibular third molars randomly received IO injection or conventional IANB at 2 successive appointments. The subjects received 1.8 mL 2% articaine. IO injection has many advantages, such as enabling painless anesthesia with less soft tissue numbness and quick onset of anesthesia as well as lingual and palatal anesthesia with single needle penetration. Although IO injection is a useful technique commonly used during various treatments in dentistry, the duration of injection takes longer than conventional techniques, there is a possibility of obstruction at the needle tip, and, the duration of the anesthetic effect is inadequate for prolonged surgical procedures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of Communication Conventions in Instructional Electronic Chats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mauri P.; Murphy, Karen L.

    1997-01-01

    This study used content analysis to identify the communication conventions and protocols that real-time, interactive electronic chat users developed in instructional settings. Most frequently used conventions included sharing information/techniques for conveying meaning and indicating interest in a topic, using keywords and names of individuals,…

  12. A demonstration of a transportable radio interferometric surveying system with 3-cm accuracy on a 307-m base line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ong, K. M.; Macdoran, P. F.; Thomas, J. B.; Fliegel, H. F.; Skjerve, L. J.; Spitzmesser, D. J.; Batelaan, P. D.; Paine, S. R.; Newsted, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    A precision geodetic measurement system (Aries, for Astronomical Radio Interferometric Earth Surveying) based on the technique of very long base line interferometry has been designed and implemented through the use of a 9-m transportable antenna and the NASA 64-m antenna of the Deep Space Communications Complex at Goldstone, California. A series of experiments designed to demonstrate the inherent accuracy of a transportable interferometer was performed on a 307-m base line during the period from December 1973 to June 1974. This short base line was chosen in order to obtain a comparison with a conventional survey with a few-centimeter accuracy and to minimize Aries errors due to transmission media effects, source locations, and earth orientation parameters. The base-line vector derived from a weighted average of the measurements, representing approximately 24 h of data, possessed a formal uncertainty of about 3 cm in all components. This average interferometry base-line vector was in good agreement with the conventional survey vector within the statistical range allowed by the combined uncertainties (3-4 cm) of the two techniques.

  13. Survey of Radiographic Requirements and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farman, Allan G.; Shawkat, Abdul H.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of dental schools revealed little standardization of student requirements for dental radiography in the United States. There was a high degree of variability as to what constituted a full radiographic survey, which has implications concerning the maximum limits to patient exposure to radiation. (Author/MLW)

  14. Satellite-aided survey sampling and implementation in low- and middle-income contexts: a low-cost/low-tech alternative.

    PubMed

    Haenssgen, Marco J

    2015-01-01

    The increasing availability of online maps, satellite imagery, and digital technology can ease common constraints of survey sampling in low- and middle-income countries. However, existing approaches require specialised software and user skills, professional GPS equipment, and/or commercial data sources; they tend to neglect spatial sampling considerations when using satellite maps; and they continue to face implementation challenges analogous to conventional survey implementation methods. This paper presents an alternative way of utilising satellite maps and digital aides that aims to address these challenges. The case studies of two rural household surveys in Rajasthan (India) and Gansu (China) compare conventional survey sampling and implementation techniques with the use of online map services such as Google, Bing, and HERE maps. Modern yet basic digital technology can be integrated into the processes of preparing, implementing, and monitoring a rural household survey. Satellite-aided systematic random sampling enhanced the spatial representativeness of the village samples and entailed savings of approximately £4000 compared to conventional household listing, while reducing the duration of the main survey by at least 25 %. This low-cost/low-tech satellite-aided survey sampling approach can be useful for student researchers and resource-constrained research projects operating in low- and middle-income contexts with high survey implementation costs. While achieving transparent and efficient survey implementation at low costs, researchers aiming to adopt a similar process should be aware of the locational, technical, and logistical requirements as well as the methodological challenges of this strategy.

  15. Sci-Fri PM: Radiation Therapy, Planning, Imaging, and Special Techniques - 10: Results from Canada Wide Survey on Total Body Irradiation Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Studinski, Ryan; Fraser, Danielle; Samant, Rajiv

    Purpose: Total Body Irradiation (TBI) is delivered to a relatively small number of patients with a variety of techniques; it has been a challenge to develop consensus studies for best practice. This survey was created to assess the current state of TBI in Canada. Methods: The survey was created with questions focusing on the radiation prescription, delivery technique and resources involved. The survey was circulated electronically to the heads of every clinical medical physics department in Canada. Responses were gathered and collated, and centres that were known to deliver TBI were urged to respond. Results: Responses from 20 centres weremore » received, including 12 from centres that perform TBI. Although a variety of TBI dose prescriptions were reported, 12 Gy in 6 fractions was used in 11 centres while 5 centres use unique prescriptions. For dose rate, a range of 9 to 51 cGy/min was reported. Most centres use an extended SSD technique, with the patient standing or lying down against a wall. The rest use either a “sweeping” technique or a more complicated multi-field technique. All centres but one indicated that they shield the lungs, and only a minority shield other organs. The survey also showed that considerable resources are used for TBI including extra staffing, extended planning and treatment times and the use of locally developed hardware or software. Conclusions: This survey highlights that both similarities and important discrepancies exist between TBI techniques across the country, and is an opportunity to prompt more collaboration between centres.« less

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Conventional and Accelerated Castings on Marginal Fit and Surface Roughness.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Vivek Dattatray; Motwani, Bhagwan K; Shinde, Jitendra; Adhapure, Prasad

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal fit and surface roughness of complete cast crowns made by a conventional and an accelerated casting technique. This study was divided into three parts. In Part I, the marginal fit of full metal crowns made by both casting techniques in the vertical direction was checked, in Part II, the fit of sectional metal crowns in the horizontal direction made by both casting techniques was checked, and in Part III, the surface roughness of disc-shaped metal plate specimens made by both casting techniques was checked. A conventional technique was compared with an accelerated technique. In Part I of the study, the marginal fit of the full metal crowns as well as in Part II, the horizontal fit of sectional metal crowns made by both casting techniques was determined, and in Part III, the surface roughness of castings made with the same techniques was compared. The results of the t -test and independent sample test do not indicate statistically significant differences in the marginal discrepancy detected between the two casting techniques. For the marginal discrepancy and surface roughness, crowns fabricated with the accelerated technique were significantly different from those fabricated with the conventional technique. Accelerated casting technique showed quite satisfactory results, but the conventional technique was superior in terms of marginal fit and surface roughness.

  17. Side effects and complications of intraosseous anesthesia and conventional oral anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Ata-Ali, Javier; Oltra-Moscardó, María J.; Peñarrocha, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the side effects and complications following intraosseous anesthesia (IA), comparing them with those of the conventional oral anesthesia techniques. Material and method: A simple-blind, prospective clinical study was carried out. Each patient underwent two anesthetic techniques: conventional (local infiltration and locoregional anesthetic block) and intraosseous, for respective dental operations. In order to allow comparison of IA versus conventional anesthesia, the two operations were similar and affected the same two teeth in opposite quadrants. Heart rate was recorded in all cases before injection of the anesthetic solution and again 30 seconds after injection. The complications observed after anesthetic administration were recorded. Results: A total of 200 oral anesthetic procedures were carried out in 100 patients. Both IA and conventional anesthesia resulted in a significant increase in heart rate, though the increase was greater with the latter technique. Incidents were infrequent with either anesthetic technique, with no significant differences between them. Regarding the complications, there were significant differences in pain at the injection site, with more intense pain in the case of IA (x2=3.532, p=0.030, Φ2=0.02), while the limitation of oral aperture was more pronounced with conventional anesthesia (x2=5.128, p<0.05, Φ2=0.014). Post-anesthetic biting showed no significant differences (x2=4.082, p=0.121, Φ2=0.009). Conclusions: Both anesthetic techniques significantly increased heart rate, and IA caused comparatively more pain at the injection site, while limited oral aperture was more frequent with conventional anesthesia. Post-anesthetic biting showed no significant differences between the two techniques. Key words:Intraosseous anesthesia, oral anesthesia, mandibular block, heart rate, adrenalin, complications. PMID:22143716

  18. Knik Glacier, Alaska; summary of 1979, 1980, and 1981 data and introduction of new surveying techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayo, L.R.; Trabant, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    Knik Glacier in south-central Alaska has the potential to reform Lake George, Alaska 's largest glacier-dammed lake. Measurements of surface altitude, snow depth, terminus position, glacier speed, and ice depth are being made in an attempt to determine the mechanisms that could cause a significant re-advance of the glacier. New surveying and data reduction techniques were developed by the authors and employed successfully at Knik Glacier. These include precise geodetic surveying by the ' trisection ' technique, calculation of surface altitude at a specially-fixed ' index point ' from three point measurements on a rough, moving glacier surface, and calculation of ice thickness from low frequency radar measurements. In addition, this report summarizes the data collected from 1979 to 1981 in support of this goal. (USGS)

  19. [Abortion in Brazil: a household survey using the ballot box technique].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Medeiros, Marcelo

    2010-06-01

    This study presents the first results of the National Abortion Survey (PNA, Pesquisa Nacional de Aborto), a household random sample survey fielded in 2010 covering urban women in Brazil aged 18 to 39 years. The PNA combined two techniques, interviewer-administered questionnaires and self-administered ballot box questionnaires. The results of PNA show that at the end of their reproductive health one in five women has performed an abortion, with abortions being more frequent in the main reproductive ages, that is, from 18 to 29 years old. No relevant differentiation was observed in the practice of abortion among religious groups, but abortion was found to be more common among people with lower education. The use of medical drugs to induce abortion occurred in half of the abortions, and post-abortion hospitalization was observed among approximately half of the women who aborted. Such results lead to conclude that abortion is a priority in the Brazilian public health agenda.

  20. A Survey of the Practices, Procedures, and Techniques in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Teaching Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Christopher B.; Schmidt, Monica; Soniat, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted of four-year institutions that teach undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories in the United States. The data include results from over 130 schools, describes the current practices at these institutions, and discusses the statistical results such as the scale of the laboratories performed, the chemical techniques applied,…

  1. Experience in non-conventional wastewater treatment techniques used in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Felberova, L; Kucera, J; Mlejnska, E

    2007-01-01

    Among the most common non-conventional wastewater treatment techniques used in the Czech Republic are waste stabilisation ponds (WSP), subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetlands (CW) and vertical flow groundfilters (GF). These extensive systems can be advantageously used for treatment of waters coming from sewerages where the ballast weighting commonly makes more than half of dry-weather flow. The monitoring was focused at 14 different extensive systems. Organics removal efficiencies were favourable (CW-82%; GF-88%); in the case of WSP only 57% due to the algal bloom. Total nitrogen removal efficiencies were 43 and 47% for WSP and GF; in the case of CW only 32% due to often occurring anaerobic conditions in filter beds. Total phosphorus removal efficiencies were 37, 35 and 22% for WSP, GF and CW, respectively. Often occurring problems are the ice-blockage of surface aerators at WSP during wintertimes, the pond duckweed-cover or the algal bloom at WSP during summers; a gradual colmatage of filter systems; and the oxygen deficiency in beds of subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetlands. Czech legal regulations do not allow treated wastewater disposal into underground waters. There is only an exception for individual family houses. Up to now, knowledge gained by monitoring of a village (which uses the infiltration upon a permission issued according to earlier legal regulations) have not shown an unacceptable groundwater quality deterioration into the infiltration areas.

  2. Neck Dissection Technique Commonality and Variance: A Survey on Neck Dissection Technique Preferences among Head and Neck Oncologic Surgeons in the American Head and Neck Society

    PubMed Central

    Hemmat, Shirin M.; Wang, Steven J.; Ryan, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Neck dissection (ND) technique preferences are not well reported. Objective The objective of this study is to educate practitioners and trainees about surgical technique commonality and variance used by head and neck oncologic surgeons when performing a ND. Methods Online survey of surgeon members of the American Head and Neck Society (AHNS). Survey investigated respondents' demographic information, degree of surgical experience, ND technique preferences. Results In our study, 283 out of 1,010 (28%) AHNS surgeon members with a mean age of 50.3 years (range 32–77 years) completed surveys from 41 states and 24 countries. We found that 205 (72.4%) had completed a fellowship in head and neck surgical oncology. Also, 225 (79.5%) respondents reported completing more than 25 NDs per year. ND technique commonalities (>66% respondents) included: preserving level 5 (unless with suspicious lymph nodes (LN)), only excising the portion of sternocleidomastoid muscle involved with tumor, resecting lymphatic tissue en bloc, preservation of cervical sensory rootlets, not performing submandibular gland (SMG) transfer, placing one drain for unilateral selective NDs, and performing a ND after parotidectomy and thyroidectomy and before transcervical approaches to upper aerodigestive tract primary site. Variability existed in the sequence of LN levels excised, instrument preferences, criteria for drain removal, the timing of a ND with transoral upper aerodigestive tract primary site resections, and submandibular gland preservation. Results showed that 122 (43.1%) surgeons reported that they preserve the submandibular gland during the level 1b portion of a ND. Conclusions The commonalities and variances reported for the ND technique may help put individual preferences into context. PMID:28050201

  3. Percutaneous nephroscopic management of an isolated giant renal hydatid cyst guided by single-incision laparoscopy using conventional instruments: the Santosh-PGI technique.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Choudhary, Gautam R; Pushkarna, Arawat; Najjapa, Bhuvnesh; Ht, Vatasla

    2013-11-01

    Isolated renal hydatid rarely presents, but when it does occur, it requires surgical treatment. We report our experience with a novel technique involving percutaneous management of a giant renal hydatid cyst with single-incision laparoscopic assistance. First we performed retrograde ureteropyelogram, which did not show any communication between the cyst and the calyceal. A Veress needle was used for pneumoperitoneum. Three conventional laparoscopic trocars used. Under laparoscopic guidance, we punctured the cyst. The scolicidal solution used was 10% povidone-iodine. The endocyst was removed under vision with grasping forceps through the nephroscope. A Portex drain was placed into the cyst cavity. Percutaneous aspiration and instillation of scolicidal agents followed by re-aspiration have been previously reported. This is an attractive procedure because of its acceptable success rates and reduced morbidity. In our case, simple aspiration of the cyst would not have been successful because the cyst was full of daughter cysts. Also, a blind percutaneous puncture of the cyst and dilatation could have perforated the colon or the mesocolon, which is often wrapped over the surface of such giant cysts thereby making laparoscopic guidance and mobilization of the colon imperative. We devised this unique treatment method for this patient involving three conventional ports at a single umbilical site. We believe this is the first reported case of its kind in the world. Not only this technique is minimally invasive, it is also cost-effective, as only conventional laparoscopic ports and instruments are used during the procedure. © 2013 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. The effects of the Er:YAG laser on trabecular bone micro-architecture: Comparison with conventional dental drilling by micro-computed tomographic and histological techniques

    PubMed Central

    Zeitouni, Jihad; Clough, Bret; Zeitouni, Suzanne; Saleem, Mohammed; Al Aisami, Kenan; Gregory, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Background: The use of lasers has become increasingly common in the field of medicine and dentistry, and there is a growing need for a deeper understanding of the procedure and its effects on tissue. The aim of this study was to compare the erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser and conventional drilling techniques, by observing the effects on trabecular bone microarchitecture and the extent of thermal and mechanical damage. Methods: Ovine femoral heads were employed to mimic maxillofacial trabecular bone, and cylindrical osteotomies were generated to mimic implant bed preparation. Various laser parameters were tested, as well as a conventional dental drilling technique. The specimens were then subjected to micro-computed tomographic (μCT) histomorphometic analysis and histology. Results: Herein, we demonstrate that mCT measurements of trabecular porosity provide quantitative evidence that laser-mediated cutting preserves the trabecular architecture and reduces thermal and mechanical damage at the margins of the cut. We confirmed these observations with histological studies. In contrast with laser-mediated cutting, conventional drilling resulted in trabecular collapse, reduction of porosity at the margin of the cut and histological signs of thermal damage. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated, for the first time, that mCT and quantification of porosity at the margin of the cut provides a quantitative insight into damage caused by bone cutting techniques. We further show that with laser-mediated cutting, the marrow remains exposed to the margins of the cut, facilitating cellular infiltration and likely accelerating healing. However, with drilling, trabecular collapse and thermal damage is likely to delay healing by restricting the passage of cells to the site of injury and causing localized cell death. PMID:29416849

  5. Embryo transfer techniques: an American Society for Reproductive Medicine survey of current Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology practices.

    PubMed

    Toth, Thomas L; Lee, Malinda S; Bendikson, Kristin A; Reindollar, Richard H

    2017-04-01

    To better understand practice patterns and opportunities for standardization of ET. Cross-sectional survey. Not applicable. Not applicable. An anonymous 82-question survey was emailed to the medical directors of 286 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology member IVF practices. A follow-up survey composed of three questions specific to ET technique was emailed to the same medical directors. Descriptive statistics of the results were compiled. The survey assessed policies, protocols, restrictions, and specifics pertinent to the technique of ET. There were 117 (41%) responses; 32% practice in academic settings and 68% in private practice. Responders were experienced clinicians, half of whom had performed <10 procedures during training. Ninety-eight percent of practices allowed all practitioners to perform ET; half did not follow a standardized ET technique. Multiple steps in the ET process were identified as "highly conserved;" others demonstrated discordance. ET technique is divided among [1] trial transfer followed immediately with ET (40%); [2] afterload transfer (30%); and [3] direct transfer without prior trial or afterload (27%). Embryos are discharged in the upper (66%) and middle thirds (29%) of the endometrial cavity and not closer than 1-1.5 cm from fundus (87%). Details of each step were reported and allowed the development of a "common" practice ET procedure. ET training and practices vary widely. Improved training and standardization based on outcomes data and best practices are warranted. A common practice procedure is suggested for validation by a systematic literature review. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of North Africa, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Whidden, Katherine J.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 19 billion barrels of technically recoverable undiscovered conventional oil and 370 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered conventional natural gas resources in 8 geologic provinces of North Africa.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Conventional and Accelerated Castings on Marginal Fit and Surface Roughness

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Vivek Dattatray; Motwani, Bhagwan K.; Shinde, Jitendra; Adhapure, Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal fit and surface roughness of complete cast crowns made by a conventional and an accelerated casting technique. Settings and Design: This study was divided into three parts. In Part I, the marginal fit of full metal crowns made by both casting techniques in the vertical direction was checked, in Part II, the fit of sectional metal crowns in the horizontal direction made by both casting techniques was checked, and in Part III, the surface roughness of disc-shaped metal plate specimens made by both casting techniques was checked. Materials and Methods: A conventional technique was compared with an accelerated technique. In Part I of the study, the marginal fit of the full metal crowns as well as in Part II, the horizontal fit of sectional metal crowns made by both casting techniques was determined, and in Part III, the surface roughness of castings made with the same techniques was compared. Statistical Analysis Used: The results of the t-test and independent sample test do not indicate statistically significant differences in the marginal discrepancy detected between the two casting techniques. Results: For the marginal discrepancy and surface roughness, crowns fabricated with the accelerated technique were significantly different from those fabricated with the conventional technique. Conclusions: Accelerated casting technique showed quite satisfactory results, but the conventional technique was superior in terms of marginal fit and surface roughness. PMID:29042726

  8. Cough Augmentation Techniques in the Critically Ill: A Canadian National Survey.

    PubMed

    Rose, Louise; Adhikari, Neill K; Poon, Joseph; Leasa, David; McKim, Douglas A

    2016-10-01

    Critically ill mechanically ventilated patients experience impaired airway clearance due to ineffective cough and impaired secretion mobilization. Cough augmentation techniques, including mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E), manually assisted cough, and lung volume recruitment, improve cough efficiency. Our objective was to describe use, indications, contraindications, interfaces, settings, complications, and barriers to use across Canada. An e-mail survey was sent to nominated local survey champions in eligible Canadian units (ICUs, weaning centers, and intermediate care units) with 4 telephone/e-mail reminders. The survey response rate was 157 of 238 (66%); 78 of 157 units (50%) used cough augmentation, with 50 (64%) using MI-E, 53 (68%) using manually assisted cough, and 62 (79%) using lung volume recruitment. Secretion clearance was the most common indication (MI-E, 92%; manually assisted cough, 88%; lung volume recruitment, 76%), although the most common units (44%) used it <50% of the time. Use during weaning from invasive (MI-E, 21%; manually assisted cough, 39%; lung volume recruitment, 3%) and noninvasive ventilation (MI-E, 21%; manually assisted cough, 33%; lung volume recruitment, 21%) was infrequent. The most common diagnoses were neuromuscular disease (97%) and spinal cord injury (83%). Pneumothorax was the most frequently identified absolute contraindication for MI-E (93%) and lung volume recruitment (83%); rib fracture was most frequently identified for manually assisted cough (69%). MI-E mean inspiratory pressure was 31 cm H2O, and expiratory pressure was -32 cm H2O. Mucus plugging requiring tracheostomy inner change was the most frequent complication for MI-E (23%), chest pain for manually assisted cough (36%), and hypotension for lung volume recruitment (17%). The most commonly cited barriers were lack of expertise (70%), knowledge (65%), and resources (52%). We found moderate adoption of cough augmentation techniques, particularly for

  9. Comparison of surgical techniques for stoma closure: A retrospective study of purse-string skin closure versus conventional skin closure following ileostomy and colostomy reversal

    PubMed Central

    WADA, YUMA; MIYOSHI, NORIKATSU; OHUE, MASAYUKI; NOURA, SHINGO; FUJINO, SHIKI; SUGIMURA, KEIJIROU; AKITA, HIROFUMI; MOTOORI, MASAAKI; GOTOH, KUNIHITO; TAKAHASHI, HIDENORI; KOBAYASHI, SHOGO; OHMORI, TAKESHI; FUJIWARA, YOSHIYUKI; YANO, MASAHIKO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of postoperative complications, including superficial incisional surgical site infection (SSI) following purse-string skin closure (PS) and conventional skin closure with a drainage tube (CD) following stoma closure. A total of 55 consecutive patients who underwent loop colostomy and loop ileostomy closures in our hospital between October, 2011 and September, 2014 were retrospectively assessed. The patients were divided into two groups, namely the PS group (26 patients) and the CD group (29 patients). There were no significant differences in the characteristics of the patients between the two groups. The baseline and operative characteristics also did not differ significantly between the two groups. However the incidence of superficial incisional SSI was lower in the PS group compared to that in the CD group (0 vs. 13.8%, respectively; P=0.049). The overall incidence of complications did not differ significantly between the two groups (P=0.313). The duration of postoperative hospital stay in the PS group was shorter compared to that in the CD group. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that PS may an effective technique to reduce the incidence of superficial incisional SSI. This technique appears to be superior to the conventional technique, allowing for better cosmesis. PMID:26137277

  10. Diagnosis of Familial Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome due to a Paternal Cryptic Chromosomal Rearrangement by Conventional and Molecular Cytogenetic Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Venegas-Vega, Carlos A.; Zepeda, Luis M.; Garduño-Zarazúa, Luz M.; Berumen, Jaime; Kofman, Susana; Cervantes, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    The use of conventional cytogenetic techniques in combination with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays is necessary for the identification of cryptic rearrangements in the diagnosis of chromosomal syndromes. We report two siblings, a boy of 9 years and 9 months of age and his 7-years- and 5-month-old sister, with the classic Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) phenotype. Using high-resolution GTG- and NOR-banding karyotypes, as well as FISH analysis, we characterized a pure 4p deletion in both sibs and a balanced rearrangement in their father, consisting in an insertion of 4p material within a nucleolar organizing region of chromosome 15. Copy number variant (CNV) analysis using SNP arrays showed that both siblings have a similar size of 4p deletion (~6.5 Mb). Our results strongly support the need for conventional cytogenetic and FISH analysis, as well as high-density microarray mapping for the optimal characterization of the genetic imbalance in patients with WHS; parents must always be studied for recognizing cryptic balanced chromosomal rearrangements for an adequate genetic counseling. PMID:23484094

  11. Conventional and Non-Conventional Nuclear Material Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, Tsahi

    2009-03-01

    The detection and interdiction of concealed special nuclear material (SNM) in all modes of transport is one of the most critical security issues facing the United States and the rest of the world. In principle, detection of nuclear materials is relatively easy because of their unique properties: all of them are radioactive and all emit some characteristic gamma rays. A few emit neutrons as well. These signatures are the basis for passive non-intrusive detection of nuclear materials. The low energy of the radiations necessitates additional means of detection and validation. These are provided by high-energy x-ray radiography and by active inspection based on inducing nuclear reactions in the nuclear materials. Positive confirmation that a nuclear material is present or absent can be provided by interrogation of the inspected object with penetrating probing radiation, such as neutrons and photons. The radiation induces specific reactions in the nuclear material yielding, in turn, penetrating signatures which can be detected outside the inspected object. The "conventional" signatures are first and foremost fission signatures: prompt and delayed neutrons and gamma rays. Their intensity (number per fission) and the fact that they have broad energy (non-discrete, though unique) distributions and certain temporal behaviors are key to their use. The "non- conventional" signatures are not related to the fission process but to the unique nuclear structure of each element or isotope in nature. This can be accessed through the excitation of isotopic nuclear levels (discrete and continuum) by neutron inelastic scattering or gamma resonance fluorescence. Finally there is an atomic signature, namely the high atomic number (Z>74), which obviously includes all the nuclear materials and their possible shielding. The presence of such high-Z elements can be inferred by techniques using high-energy x rays. The conventional signatures have been addressed in another article. Non-conventional

  12. Microbial analysis of meatballs cooled with vacuum and conventional cooling.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Hande Mutlu; Ozturk, Harun Kemal; Koçar, Gunnur

    2017-08-01

    Vacuum cooling is a rapid evaporative cooling technique and can be used for pre-cooling of leafy vegetables, mushroom, bakery, fishery, sauces, cooked food, meat and particulate foods. The aim of this study was to apply the vacuum cooling and the conventional cooling techniques for the cooling of the meatball and to show the vacuum pressure effect on the cooling time, the temperature decrease and microbial growth rate. The results of the vacuum cooling and the conventional cooling (cooling in the refrigerator) were compared with each other for different temperatures. The study shows that the conventional cooling was much slower than the vacuum cooling. Moreover, the microbial growth rate of the vacuum cooling was extremely low compared with the conventional cooling. Thus, the lowest microbial growth occurred at 0.7 kPa and the highest microbial growth was observed at 1.5 kPa for the vacuum cooling. The mass loss ratio for the conventional cooling and vacuum cooling was about 5 and 9% respectively.

  13. A survey of light-scattering techniques used in the remote monitoring of atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deirmendjian, D.

    1980-01-01

    A critical survey of the literature on the use of light-scattering mechanisms in the remote monitoring of atmospheric aerosols, their geographical and spatial distribution, and temporal variations was undertaken to aid in the choice of future operational systems, both ground based and air or space borne. An evaluation, mainly qualitative and subjective, of various techniques and systems is carried out. No single system is found to be adequate for operational purposes. A combination of earth surface and space-borne systems based mainly on passive techniques involving solar radiation with active (lidar) systems to provide auxiliary or backup information is tentatively recommended.

  14. Comparative study between laser and conventional techniques for class V cavity preparation in gamma-irradiated teeth (in vitro study).

    PubMed

    Rasmy, Amr H M; Harhash, Tarek A; Ghali, Rami M S; El Maghraby, Eman M F; El Rouby, Dalia H

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare laser with conventional techniques in class V cavity preparation in gamma-irradiated teeth. Forty extracted human teeth with no carious lesions were used for this study and were divided into two main groups: Group I (n = 20) was not subjected to gamma radiation (control) and Group II (n=20) was subjected to gamma radiation of 60 Gray. Standard class V preparation was performed in buccal and lingual sides of each tooth in both groups. Buccal surfaces were prepared by the Er,Cr:YSGG laser (Waterlase iPlus) 2780 nm, using the gold handpiece with MZ10 Tip in non-contact and the "H" mode, following parameters of cavity preparation - power 6 W, frequency 50 Hz, 90% water and 70% air, then shifting to surface treatment laser parameters - power 4.5 W, frequency 50 Hz, 80% water and 50% air. Lingual surfaces were prepared by the conventional high-speed turbine using round diamond bur. Teeth were then sectioned mesio-distally, resulting in 80 specimens: 40 of which were buccal laser-treated (20 control and 20 gamma-irradiated specimens) and 40 were lingual conventional high-speed bur specimens (20 control and 20 gamma-irradiated specimens). Microleakage analysis revealed higher scores in both gamma groups compared with control groups. Chi-square test revealed no significant difference between both control groups and gamma groups (p=1, 0.819, respectively). A significant difference was revealed between all 4 groups (p=0.00018). Both laser and conventional high-speed turbine bur show good bond strength in control (non-gamma) group, while microleakage is evident in gamma group, indicating that gamma radiation had a dramatic negative effect on the bond strength in both laser and bur-treated teeth.

  15. A biomechanical and histological comparison of the suture bridge and conventional double-row techniques of the repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tears in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Fei, Wenyong; Guo, Weichun

    2015-06-16

    The suture bridge (SB) technique and conventional double-row (DR) are both effective in repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tears . However, increasing numbers of scholars believe that the SB technique produces better results than conventional DR because of the higher bone-tendon contact area and pressure. However, The clinical outcomes have been mixed and little direct evidence has been supplied in vivo. This study was designed using the SB and DR techniques to determine which is the better technique. Sixty-four New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups, the SB group and DR group. SB and DR were then used to repair their rotator cuff tears. Rabbits were then sacrificed at the 2(nd), 4(th), or 8(th) week after surgery and a histological comparison was made. The biomechanical comparison was made at the 8(th) week. The load to failure of the SB group was 134.59 ± 17.69 N at the 8(th) postoperative week, and that was significantly higher than in the DR group (103.83 ± 6.62, P = 0.001), but both repair groups remained lower than in the control group (199.25 ± 14.81). Histological evaluation showed that both the SB and DR groups healed at the bone-tendon interface. But there were subtle differences between the two groups in the structure and morphology of collagen fibers and cartilage cells at bone-tendon interface. In general, the collagen fibers of the SB group were more compact than those of the DR group at all times tested. At the 4(th) and 8(th) weeks, the collagen fibers and cartilage cells in the SB group were arranged in a column modality, but those in the DR group were distributed horizontally. The SB technique facilitated healing more effectively than the conventional DR technique. The difference in morphology of collagen fibers and cartilage cells may be related to the difference in bone-tendon contact pressure.

  16. Comparative study between manual injection intraosseous anesthesia and conventional oral anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, D; Ata-Ali, J; Oltra-Moscardó, M-J; Peñarrocha-Diago, M-A; Peñarrocha, M

    2012-03-01

    To compare intraosseous anesthesia (IA) with the conventional oral anesthesia techniques. A simple-blind, prospective clinical study was carried out. Each patient underwent two anesthetic techniques: conventional (local infiltration and locoregional anesthetic block) and intraosseous, for respective dental operations. In order to allow comparison of IA versus conventional anesthesia, the two operations were similar and affected the same two teeth in opposite quadrants. A total of 200 oral anesthetic procedures were carried out in 100 patients. The mean patient age was 28.6±9.92 years. Fifty-five vestibular infiltrations and 45 mandibular blocks were performed. All patients were also subjected to IA. The type of intervention (conservative or endodontic) exerted no significant influence (p=0.58 and p=0.62, respectively). The latency period was 8.52±2.44 minutes for the conventional techniques and 0.89±0.73 minutes for IA - the difference being statistically significant (p<0.05). Regarding patient anesthesia sensation, the infiltrative techniques lasted a maximum of one hour, the inferior alveolar nerve blocks lasted between 1-3 hours, and IA lasted only 2.5 minutes - the differences being statistically significant (p≤0.0000, Φ=0.29). Anesthetic success was recorded in 89% of the conventional procedures and in 78% of the IA. Most patients preferred IA (61%)(p=0.0032). The two anesthetic procedures have been compared for latency, duration of anesthetic effect, anesthetic success rate and patient preference. Intraosseous anesthesia has been shown to be a technique to be taken into account when planning conservative and endodontic treatments.

  17. A Comparison Between the Conventional and the Laryngoscope-Assisted Lightwand Intubation Techniques in Patients With Cervical Immobilization: A Prospective Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eugene; Kim, Byung-Gun; Lim, Young-Jin; Jeon, Young-Tae; Hwang, Jung-Won; Lee, Seo-Yun; Park, Hee-Pyoung

    2017-09-01

    Positioning of a lightwand in the midline of the oral cavity can be challenging in patients with cervical immobilization. Direct laryngoscopy may permit the lightwand tip to more easily access the glottic opening. We tested our hypothesis that a laryngoscope-assisted lightwand technique allows more successful endotracheal intubation than does a conventional lightwand approach. A total of 162 patients requiring cervical immobilization during intubation for cervical spine surgery were allocated randomly to 2 groups. The conventional lightwand technique (group C, n = 80) or the laryngoscope-assisted lightwand technique (group L, n = 82) was used for endotracheal intubation. In the group L, a Macintosh laryngoscope was inserted into the oral cavity, advanced until the epiglottis tip was visible, but not used to lift the epiglottis tip. The lightwand tip was placed below the epiglottis under direct view of the epiglottis tip. The primary outcome (the initial intubation success rate) and secondary outcomes (intubation time, hemodynamic changes, and postoperative airway complications) were evaluated. The initial intubation success rate was significantly lower (75% vs 89%; relative risk [95% confidence interval]: 1.2 [1.0-1.4]; P = .034) in group C than group L. The intubation time (22 ± 13 vs 24 ± 12 seconds; mean difference [98.33% confidence interval]: 2.4 [-2.3 to 7.2]; P = .217) did not differ between groups. Postoperative sore throat score, incidences of hypertension and tachycardia, postoperative oral mucosal bleeding, and hoarseness also did not differ between groups. Laryngoscope-assisted lightwand intubation did not increase intubation time, and it increased first attempt intubation rates compared with traditional lightwand intubation in patients requiring cervical immobilization for cervical spine surgery.

  18. Trends in Orbital Decompression Techniques of Surveyed American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Members.

    PubMed

    Reich, Shani S; Null, Robert C; Timoney, Peter J; Sokol, Jason A

    To assess current members of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ASOPRS) regarding preference in surgical techniques for orbital decompression in Graves' disease. A 10-question web-based, anonymous survey was distributed to oculoplastic surgeons utilizing the ASOPRS listserv. The questions addressed the number of years of experience performing orbital decompression surgery, preferred surgical techniques, and whether orbital decompression was performed in collaboration with an ENT surgeon. Ninety ASOPRS members participated in the study. Most that completed the survey have performed orbital decompression surgery for >15 years. The majority of responders preferred a combined approach of floor and medial wall decompression or balanced lateral and medial wall decompression; only a minority selected a technique limited to 1 wall. Those surgeons who perform fat decompression were more likely to operate in collaboration with ENT. Most surgeons rarely remove the orbital strut, citing risk of worsening diplopia or orbital dystopia except in cases of optic nerve compression or severe proptosis. The most common reason given for performing orbital decompression was exposure keratopathy. The majority of surgeons perform the surgery without ENT involvement, and number of years of experience did not correlate significantly with collaboration with ENT. The majority of surveyed ASOPRS surgeons prefer a combined wall approach over single wall approach to initial orbital decompression. Despite the technological advances made in the field of modern endoscopic surgery, no single approach has been adopted by the ASOPRS community as the gold standard.

  19. Comparison of Accuracy Between a Conventional and Two Digital Intraoral Impression Techniques.

    PubMed

    Malik, Junaid; Rodriguez, Jose; Weisbloom, Michael; Petridis, Haralampos

    To compare the accuracy (ie, precision and trueness) of full-arch impressions fabricated using either a conventional polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) material or one of two intraoral optical scanners. Full-arch impressions of a reference model were obtained using addition silicone impression material (Aquasil Ultra; Dentsply Caulk) and two optical scanners (Trios, 3Shape, and CEREC Omnicam, Sirona). Surface matching software (Geomagic Control, 3D Systems) was used to superimpose the scans within groups to determine the mean deviations in precision and trueness (μm) between the scans, which were calculated for each group and compared statistically using one-way analysis of variance with post hoc Bonferroni (trueness) and Games-Howell (precision) tests (IBM SPSS ver 24, IBM UK). Qualitative analysis was also carried out from three-dimensional maps of differences between scans. Means and standard deviations (SD) of deviations in precision for conventional, Trios, and Omnicam groups were 21.7 (± 5.4), 49.9 (± 18.3), and 36.5 (± 11.12) μm, respectively. Means and SDs for deviations in trueness were 24.3 (± 5.7), 87.1 (± 7.9), and 80.3 (± 12.1) μm, respectively. The conventional impression showed statistically significantly improved mean precision (P < .006) and mean trueness (P < .001) compared to both digital impression procedures. There were no statistically significant differences in precision (P = .153) or trueness (P = .757) between the digital impressions. The qualitative analysis revealed local deviations along the palatal surfaces of the molars and incisal edges of the anterior teeth of < 100 μm. Conventional full-arch PVS impressions exhibited improved mean accuracy compared to two direct optical scanners. No significant differences were found between the two digital impression methods.

  20. Radiosurgical fistulotomy; an alternative to conventional procedure in fistula in ano.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pravin J

    2003-01-01

    Most surgeons continue to prefer the classic lay open technique [fistulotomy] as the gold standard of treatment in anal fistula. In this randomized study, a comparison is made between conventional fistulotomy and fistulotomy performed by a radio frequency device. One hundred patients of low anal fistula posted for fistulotomy were randomized prospectively to either a conventional or radio frequency technique. Parameters measured included time taken for the procedure, amount of blood loss, postoperative pain, return to work, and recurrence rate. The patient demographic was comparable in 2 groups. The radio frequency fistulotomy was quicker as compared to a conventional one [22 versus 37 minutes, p = 0.001], amount of bleeding was significantly less [47 ml versus 134 ml, p = 0.002], and hospital stay was less when patient was operated by radio frequency method [37 hours versus 56 hours in conventional method, p = 0.001]. The postoperative pain in the first 24 hours was more in conventional group [2 to 5 versus 0 to 3 on visual analogue scale]. The patients from radio frequency group resumed their duties early with a reduced healing period of the wounds [47 versus 64 days, p = 0.01]. The recurrence or failure rates were comparable in the radio frequency and conventional groups [2% versus 6%]. Fistulotomy procedure using a radio frequency technique has significant advantages over a conventional procedure with regard to operation time, blood loss, return to normal activity, and healing time of the wound.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy and functional parameters of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy using accelerated cardiac acquisition with IQ SPECT technique in comparison to conventional imaging.

    PubMed

    Pirich, Christian; Keinrath, Peter; Barth, Gabriele; Rendl, Gundula; Rettenbacher, Lukas; Rodrigues, Margarida

    2017-03-01

    IQ SPECT consists of a new pinhole-like collimator, cardio-centric acquisition, and advanced 3D iterative SPECT reconstruction. The aim of this paper was to compare diagnostic accuracy and functional parameters obtained with IQ SPECT versus conventional SPECT in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with adenosine stress and at rest. Eight patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease underwent [99mTc] tetrofosmin gated SPECT. Acquisition was performed on a Symbia T6 equipped with IQ SPECT and on a conventional gamma camera system. Gated SPECT data were used to calculate functional parameters. Scores analysis was performed on a 17-segment model. Coronary angiography and clinical follow-up were considered as diagnostic reference standard. Mean acquisition time was 4 minutes with IQ SPECT and 21 minutes with conventional SPECT. Agreement degree on the diagnostic accuracy between both systems was 0.97 for stress studies, 0.91 for rest studies and 0.96 for both studies. Perfusion abnormalities scores obtained by using IQ SPECT and conventional SPECT were not significant different: SSS, 9.7±8.8 and 10.1±6.4; SRS, 7.1±6.1 and 7.5±7.3; SDS, 4.0±6.1 and 3.9±4.3, respectively. However, a significant difference was found in functional parameters derived from IQ SPECT and conventional SPECT both after stress and at rest. Mean LVEF was 8% lower using IQ SPECT. Differences in LVEF were found in patients with normal LVEF and patients with reduced LVEF. Functional parameters using accelerated cardiac acquisition with IQ SPECT are significantly different to those obtained with conventional SPECT, while agreement for clinical interpretation of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with both techniques is high.

  2. [Teaching pediatrics to residents via conventional lectures in France: A national survey from students].

    PubMed

    Girard, B; Bendavid, M; Faivre, J-C; Salleron, J; Debillon, T; Claris, O; Chabrol, B; Schweitzer, C; Gajdos, V

    2017-08-01

    To assess the point of view of young physicians training in pediatrics in France on their theoretical courses during residency. A free-access electronic anonymous survey was sent three times by e-mail to the 1215 residents in pediatrics, from July to October 2015. Fifty-seven percent of French residents in pediatrics responded to the survey. It was established that they took part in six (range, 3-10) half-days of specific theoretical teaching in pediatrics from November 2014 to mid-April 2015. Only 54% participated in more than 75% of regional theoretical training. The main self-declared reason for their absence was that they could not leave their clinical activities. Fifty-three per cent of the residents took part in additional training, 45% of them because they found the primary theoretical training insufficient. The overall quality of the theoretical teaching was rated 5 (range, 3-7) out of 10. Eighty-five percent of residents expected to be evaluated on their knowledge during their residency. In pediatrics, additional training is individually undertaken because they deemed their initial training insufficient during their residency. An evaluation of knowledge is requested by residents. The reform of the national residency program must take into account these results in redesigning the theoretical training in pediatrics, integrating innovative teaching techniques to daily practice, for example. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Survey of intravitreal injection techniques and treatment protocols among retina specialists in Canada.

    PubMed

    Xing, Lin; Dorrepaal, Stephen J; Gale, Jeffrey

    2014-06-01

    To describe intravitreal injection (IVI) techniques and treatment protocols by retina specialists in Canada from August 1, 2012, to October 1, 2012. Cross-sectional survey. All fellowship-trained retina specialists across Canada, as identified from the Canadian Ophthalmological Society directory and the Canadian Retina and Vitreous Society directory. An anonymous 28-question survey was sent to 125 retina specialists across Canada by email. Reminder letters were sent by email, mail, and fax as necessary. A total of 75 (63%) retina specialists responded to the survey. Most IVIs were performed in the office. Most surgeons did not use gloves (61%), sterile draping (91%), or surgical mask (71%). Antisepsis was used on conjunctiva by 100% and on periocular skin by 48%. Nearly all specialists used a sterile lid speculum (91%). Common anaesthetics included topical proparacaine or lidocaine drops (90%), topical lidocaine gel (25%), topical pledget (23%), and subconjunctival lidocaine injections (23%). Most (83%) dilate the pupil before IVI. Prophylactic topical antibiotics were used by 43%; 50% of these were started immediately after IVI. Injection location was estimated by visualization by 45%. A majority (63%) inject inferotemporally. Anterior chamber paracentesis was performed routinely by 5%. Optic nerve perfusion was formally assessed by 48%. The most common treatment protocol for age-related macular degeneration was treat and extend. For both diabetic and retinal vein occlusion-related macular edema, the most common protocol was 3 initial monthly injections with PRN follow-up. A wide variety of IVI practice patterns exist in terms of aseptic technique, anaesthetics, prophylactic antibiotics, postinjection monitoring, and treatment protocol. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparative analysis of conventional cytopreparatory and liquid based cytological techniques (Sure Path) in evaluation of serous effusion fluids.

    PubMed

    Dadhich, Hrishikesh; Toi, Pampa Ch; Siddaraju, Neelaiah; Sevvanthi, Kalidas

    2016-11-01

    Clinically, detection of malignant cells in serous body fluids is critical, as their presence implies the upstaging of the disease. Cytology of body cavity fluids serves as an important tool when other diagnostic tests cannot be performed. In most laboratories, currently, the effusion fluid samples are analysed chiefly by the conventional cytopreparatory (CCP) technique. Although, there are several studies comparing the liquid-based cytology (LBC), with CCP technique in the field of cervicovaginal cytology; the literature on such comparison with respect to serous body fluid examination is sparse. One hundred samples of serous body fluids were processed by both CCP and LBC techniques. Slides prepared by these techniques were studied using six parameters. A comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques in detection of malignant cells was carried out with appropriate statistical tests. The samples comprised 52 pleural, 44 peritoneal and four pericardial fluids. No statistically significant difference was noted with respect to cellularity (P values = 0.22), cell distribution (P values = 0.39) and diagnosis of malignancy (P values = 0.20). As for the remaining parameters, LBC provided statistically significant clearer smear background (P values < 0.0001) and shorter screening time (P values < 0.0001), while CPP technique provided a significantly better staining quality (P values 0.01) and sharper cytomorphologic features (P values 0.05). Although, a reduced screening time and clearer smear background are the two major advantages of LBC; the CCP technique provides the better staining quality with sharper cytomorphologic features which is more critical from the cytologic interpretation point of view. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:874-879. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Airway clearance techniques in acute exacerbations of COPD: a survey of Australian physiotherapy practice.

    PubMed

    Osadnik, Christian R; McDonald, Christine F; Holland, Anne E

    2013-06-01

    To identify airway clearance techniques (ACTs) used to treat patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) and identify factors underpinning their utilisation, including therapists' knowledge of the literature. Cross-sectional postal survey using Likert scales and multiple-choice responses. 112 'large' or 'principal referral' Australian public hospitals. 189 physiotherapists from 89 hospitals (response rate 81%). Purpose designed survey measuring self-reported rate of ACT prescription; perception of ACT indications, aims, importance and effectiveness; factors influencing ACT choice; and knowledge of the evidence. Most physiotherapists (123/189, 65%) prescribed ACTs for 60-100% of patients with AECOPDs. The most frequently prescribed ACTs were physical exercise (169/189, 89%), the forced expiratory technique (153/189, 81%) and the active cycle of breathing technique (149/189, 79%). Most were rated highly effective. Physiotherapists who perceived the role of ACTs to be important to patients' overall management (137/189, 73%) and those with less than 5 years cardiorespiratory experience (113/189, 60%) prescribed ACTs significantly more frequently than others. The main factors influencing ACT choice were precautions/contraindications to individual techniques (148/189, 78%) and degree of dyspnoea (136/189, 72%). The primary aim of ACT prescription was to clear sputum (178/189, 94%). Understanding of the evidence for ACTs in AECOPDs was mixed, with 43% citing it as supportive, 30% inconclusive and 19% unsure. Australian physiotherapists frequently prescribe ACTs for patients with AECOPDs and perceive their role to be important. Physical exercise is frequently prescribed for airway clearance and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2012 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A survey of nested grid techniques and their potential for use within the MASS weather prediction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Steven E.; Mcqueen, Jeffery T.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of various one- and two-way interactive nested grid techniques used in hydrostatic numerical weather prediction models is presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. The techniques for specifying the lateral boundary conditions for each nested grid scheme are described in detail. Averaging and interpolation techniques used when applying the coarse mesh grid (CMG) and fine mesh grid (FMG) interface conditions during two-way nesting are discussed separately. The survey shows that errors are commonly generated at the boundary between the CMG and FMG due to boundary formulation or specification discrepancies. Methods used to control this noise include application of smoothers, enhanced diffusion, or damping-type time integration schemes to model variables. The results from this survey provide the information needed to decide which one-way and two-way nested grid schemes merit future testing with the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) model. An analytically specified baroclinic wave will be used to conduct systematic tests of the chosen schemes since this will allow for objective determination of the interfacial noise in the kind of meteorological setting for which MASS is designed. Sample diagnostic plots from initial tests using the analytic wave are presented to illustrate how the model-generated noise is ascertained. These plots will be used to compare the accuracy of the various nesting schemes when incorporated into the MASS model.

  7. Experience with the conventional and frozen elephant trunk techniques: a single-centre study.

    PubMed

    Leontyev, Sergey; Borger, Michael A; Etz, Christian D; Moz, Monica; Seeburger, Joerg; Bakhtiary, Farhard; Misfeld, Martin; Mohr, Friedrich W

    2013-12-01

    The treatment of patients with extensive thoracic aortic disease involving the arch and descending/thoracoabdominal aorta is often performed using an elephant trunk procedure. We retrospectively analysed our results comparing two different techniques: the conventional elephant trunk (cET) and the frozen elephant trunk (FET) operation. Between January 2003 and December 2011, 171 consecutive patients underwent total aortic arch replacement with either a cET (n = 125) or FET (n = 46) technique. The mean age was 64 ± 13 years and was significantly higher in the FET group (P < 0.01). Acute Type A aortic dissection was the indication for surgery in 53.6% of cET and 17.4% of FET patients, and degenerative or atherosclerotic aneurysm accounted for 33.6% of cET and 58.7% of FET patients. The remaining patients were operated on for chronic Type A or acute or chronic Type B dissections with arch involvement. In-hospital mortality was 21.6 vs 8.7% for cET and FET patients, respectively (P = 0.1). Logistic regression analysis revealed Type A aortic dissection (odds ratio (OR) 3.1, P = 0.01) as the only independent predictor of hospital mortality. Stroke occurred in 16 vs 13% of cET vs FET patients (P = 0.4). Type A aortic dissection was an independent predictor of stroke by multivariable analysis (OR 2.6, P = 0.03), and axillary arterial cannulation was protective against stroke (OR 0.4, P = 0.04). The occurrence of new-onset paraplegia was significantly higher in the FET group (21.7 vs 4.0%, P < 0.001), and aortic repair with the FET technique was an independent predictor for paraplegia (OR 6.6, P = 0.001). Among patients receiving FET, a body core temperature during circulatory arrest of ≥ 28 °C in combination with a prolonged circulatory arrest time of >40 min was an independent predictor for permanent spinal cord injury (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.1-20, P = 0.038). The estimated 1-, 3- and 5-year survival were 70 ± 4, 70 ± 4 and 68 ± 4% (cET) and 4 ± 7 and 60 ± 9, 40 ± 1

  8. An ex vivo comparison of pressures within dental pulp space using conventional anesthetic technique versus needle-mounted obturator.

    PubMed

    Grubbs, S Lee; Alley, Larry W; Eleazer, Paul D

    2014-07-01

    The intrapulpal (IP) injection technique is 1 of several ways of obtaining profound anesthesia. There is evidence to suggest that pressure is the primary factor in obtaining anesthesia using IP injection. This is an ex vivo comparison of pressures within dental pulp space using the conventional anesthetic technique versus a needle-mounted obturator technique. Twenty extracted anterior and premolar teeth were accessed with a high-speed 169L bur. A saline-filled tube connected to a digital pressure gauge was attached to the apical 10 mm of each tooth in a fixed mount. One operator performed all the injections under moderate pressure. Each tooth was injected twice; first, the tooth was given an IP injection with a normal setup, and then the same tooth was given an IP injection with the modified obturator syringe. The pressure at the apex was recorded for each tooth. A paired sample t test was completed to determine statistical significance. The pressure generated was considerably higher for the obturator group in every tooth when compared with the normal group (P < .001). IP injection with the obturator resulted in increased pressure at the apex of each tooth. This pressure increase may allow for increased anesthesia when IP injections are indicated. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Brachytherapy for Buccal Cancer: From Conventional Low Dose Rate (LDR) or Mold Technique to High Dose Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT).

    PubMed

    Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Yamazaki, Hideya; Masui, Koji; Yoshida, Ken; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Akiyama, Hironori; Murakami, Shumei; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Tanaka, Eiichi

    2017-12-01

    To examine the effectiveness of newly-installed high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) for buccal cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 36 patients (25 men and 11 women) with buccal cancer treated with curative brachytherapy with or without external radiotherapy with a median follow-up of 99 months. A total of 15 HDR-ISBT (median 48 Gy/ 8 fractions, range=24-60 Gy) patients were compared to conventional 15 cases LDR-ISBT (70 Gy, range=42.8-110 Gy) and 7 molds techniques (15 Gy, range=9-74 Gy). A total of 31 patients also underwent external radiotherapy (30 Gy, range=24-48 Gy). They comprised of 3T1, 23 T2, 8 T3, 3 T4 including 11 node positive cases. HDR-ISBT provided 82% of local control rate at 5 years, whereas conventional brachytherapy showed 72% [p=0.44; LDR-ISBT (65%), mold therapy (85.7%)]. Patients with early lesions (T1-2 or stage I-II) showed better local control rates than those with advanced lesions (T3-4 or stage III-IV). Severe late grade 3 complications developed in two patients treated with LDR-ISBT and EBRT. There is no significant difference in toxicity grade ≤2 between conventional brachytherapy (5/15=33%) and HDR-ISBT (7/32=32%, p=0.92). HDR-ISBT achieved good and comparable local control rates to conventional brachytherapy without elevating the toxicity. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  10. SU-F-T-380: Comparing the Effect of Respiration On Dose Distribution Between Conventional Tangent Pair and IMRT Techniques for Adjuvant Radiotherapy in Early Stage Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M; Ramaseshan, R

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In this project, we compared the conventional tangent pair technique to IMRT technique by analyzing the dose distribution. We also investigated the effect of respiration on planning target volume (PTV) dose coverage in both techniques. Methods: In order to implement IMRT technique a template based planning protocol, dose constrains and treatment process was developed. Two open fields with optimized field weights were combined with two beamlet optimization fields in IMRT plans. We compared the dose distribution between standard tangential pair and IMRT. The improvement in dose distribution was measured by parameters such as conformity index, homogeneity index and coveragemore » index. Another end point was the IMRT technique will reduce the planning time for staff. The effect of patient’s respiration on dose distribution was also estimated. The four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) for different phase of breathing cycle was used to evaluate the effect of respiration on IMRT planned dose distribution. Results: We have accumulated 10 patients that acquired 4DCT and planned by both techniques. Based on the preliminary analysis, the dose distribution in IMRT technique was better than conventional tangent pair technique. Furthermore, the effect of respiration in IMRT plan was not significant as evident from the 95% isodose line coverage of PTV drawn on all phases of 4DCT. Conclusion: Based on the 4DCT images, the breathing effect on dose distribution was smaller than what we expected. We suspect that there are two reasons. First, the PTV movement due to respiration was not significant. It might be because we used a tilted breast board to setup patients. Second, the open fields with optimized field weights in IMRT technique might reduce the breathing effect on dose distribution. A further investigation is necessary.« less

  11. Background and survey of bioreplication techniques.

    PubMed

    Pulsifer, Drew Patrick; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2011-09-01

    Bioreplication is the direct reproduction of a biological structure in order to realize at least one specific functionality. Current bioreplication techniques include the sol-gel technique, atomic layer deposition, physical vapor deposition, and imprint lithography and casting. The combined use of a focused ion beam and a scanning electron microscope could develop into a bioreplication technique as well. Some of these techniques are more suitable for reproducing surface features, others for bulk three-dimensional structures. Industrial upscaling appears possible only for imprint lithography and casting (which can be replaced by stamping).

  12. Utility of Intravascular US-Guided Portal Vein Access during Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Creation: Retrospective Comparison with Conventional Technique in 109 Patients.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Anil K; Andring, Brice; Faulconer, Nicholas; Reis, Stephen P; Xi, Yin; Iyamu, Ikponmwosa; Suthpin, Patrick D; Kalva, Sanjeeva P

    2016-08-01

    To compare safety and effectiveness of intravascular ultrasound (US)-guided portal vein access during transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation with conventional TIPS technique. In this retrospective study, TIPS creation using intravascular US guidance in 55 patients was compared with conventional TIPS creation in 54 patients by 10 operators over a 3-year period. Operators were classified as experienced if they had performed ≥ 20 TIPS procedures at the beginning of the study period. Time to portal vein access, total radiation dose, and needle pass-related capsular perforation were recorded. Baseline demographic characteristics of patients were similar (P > .05). Mean time to portal venous access was 46 minutes ± 37 for conventional TIPS and 31 minutes ± 19 for intravascular US-guided TIPS (P = .007). Intravascular US guidance allowed significantly shorter times (48 min ± 30 vs 28 min ± 16; P = .01) to portal vein access among operators (n = 5) with limited experience but failed to achieve any significant time savings (44 min ± 43 vs 34 min ± 22; P = .89) among experienced operators (n = 5). Needle pass-related capsular perforation occurred in 17/54 (34%) patients with conventional TIPS and 5/55 (9%) patients with intravascular US-guided TIPS (P = .004). Radiation dose was 2,376 mGy ± 1,816 for conventional TIPS and 1,592 mGy ± 1,263 for intravascular US-guided TIPS (P = .004). Intravascular US-guided portal vein access during TIPS creation is associated with shorter portal vein access times, decreased needle pass-related capsular perforations, and reduced radiation dose. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An estimate of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the world, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 565 billion barrels of conventional oil and 5,606 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered conventional natural gas in 171 priority geologic provinces of the world, exclusive of the United States.

  14. Piezoelectric versus conventional techniques for orthognathic surgery: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pagotto, Luis Eduardo Charles; de Santana Santos, Thiago; de Vasconcellos, Sara Juliana de Abreu; Santos, Joanes Silva; Martins-Filho, Paulo Ricardo Saquete

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of complications after orthognathic surgery comparing piezo-surgery with conventional osteotomy. We conducted this study according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Lilacs, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Google Scholar, and OpenThesis to identify randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials (RCTs and nRCTs, respectively) comparing patient outcomes (operative time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative swelling, pain, neurosensitivity) after orthognathic surgery by piezoelectric or conventional osteotomy. We pooled individual results of continuous and dichotomous outcome data using the mean difference (MD) and risk difference (RD) with the 95% confidence interval, respectively. Three RCTs and five nRCTs were selected. No difference in operative time was observed between piezo-surgery and conventional osteotomies. We found a decrease of intraoperative blood loss with piezo-surgery (MD -128 mL; P < 0.001) and a pooled difference in severe blood loss of 35% (P = 0.008) favouring piezo-surgery. Based on pooled individual results of studies evaluating neurosensitivity by clinical neurosensory testing, our meta-analysis showed a pooled difference in severe nerve disturbance of 25% (P < 0.0001) favouring piezo-surgery. Test for subgroup differences (I2 = 26.6%) indicated that follow-up time may have an effect on neurosensory disturbance. We found differences between piezo-surgery and conventional osteotomy at 3 months (RD 28%; P < 0.001) and 6 months (RD 15%; P = 0.001) after surgery. Meta-analyses for pain and swelling were not performed because of a lack of sufficient studies. Currently available evidence suggests that piezo-surgery has favorable effects on complications associated with orthognathic surgery, including reductions in

  15. Slow pathway radiofrequency ablation in patients with AVNRT: junctional rhythm is less frequent during magnetic navigation ablation than with the conventional technique.

    PubMed

    Ricard, Philippe; Latcu, Decebal Gabriel; Yaïci, Khelil; Zarqane, Naima; Saoudi, Nadir

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of accelerated junctional rhythm (JR) during radiofrequency ablation of the slow pathway in patients with atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is frequent. The aim of the present study was to compare the occurrence of JR during magnetic remote catheter ablation to the conventional manual ablation. Twenty six patients (males: seven; age: 51 + or - 15 years) underwent slow pathway ablation with magnetic navigation (MN) system (Niobe, Stereotaxis Inc., St. Louis, MO, USA) and were compared to a control group of 11 patients (males: three; age: 53 + or - 16 years) treated with conventional manual ablation. A 4-mm nonirrigated tip catheter was used in both groups with a maximum of 30 W and 60 degrees C. Acute success was obtained in all patients. In the MN group, three patients out of 24 had no junctional beat (JB) at all and seven patients had 10 or less JB. In contrast, in the conventional group no patient had less than 10 JB. The mean number of JB in the MN group was 66 + or - 94.9 (0-410) and 200 + or - 243.1 (43-914) in the control group (P = 0.019). In the MN group one patient had a first-degree atrioventricular block. No other complication occurred. Magnetic remote catheter ablation of AVNRT is effective and is associated with less JB than the manual conventional technique. Therefore, JB may not be considered as a mandatory indicator for successful AVNRT ablation with MN system.

  16. Liquisolid technique: a promising alternative to conventional coating for improvement of drug photostability in solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Khames, Ahmed

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the photoprotective effect of liquisolid technique on amlodipine, a calcium channel blocker antihypertensive drug, representing a photosensitive drug model. Several liquisolid formulations were prepared using propylene glycol as a water-miscible nonvolatile vehicle at drug/solvent ratio (1:1), Avicel PH 102 as a carrier, nanometer-sized amorphous silicon and titanium dioxide either alone or in combination as coating materials. The carrier/coat ratio (R) was varied from 5 to 50. The prepared liquisolids, coated, noncoated tablets and drug substance were irradiated with a light dose of 0.5 W/m(2)/h visible light, 55.1 W/m(2)/h UVA, and 0.247 W/m(2)/h UVB for 8 h. The effect of coating material type and (R) value on the drug dissolution rate and photostability was studied. Results were statistically analyzed by post hoc two-way ANOVA at a probability level (α = 0.05). The results indicated that liquisolid technique not only improved the dissolution rate, but also significantly inhibited the photodegradative effect of different light energies in all prepared liquisolid formulations. The residual drug percentage reached 97.37% in comparison to 73.8% for the drug substance after 8 h of irradiation. The residual drug percentage was affected by the (R) value. Statistically; the detected difference was significant at the selected probability level (α = 0.05). It can thus be concluded that this liquisolid technique is a promising alternative to conventional coating procedures in formulations containing photosensitive drugs.

  17. Void detection beneath reinforced concrete sections: The practical application of ground-penetrating radar and ultrasonic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, Nigel J.; Eddies, Rod; Dods, Sam

    2011-08-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and ultrasonic 'pulse echo' techniques are well-established methods for the imaging, investigation and analysis of steel reinforced concrete structures and are important civil engineering survey tools. GPR is, arguably, the more widely-used technique as it is suitable for a greater range of problem scenarios (i.e., from rebar mapping to moisture content determination). Ultrasonic techniques are traditionally associated with the engineering-based, non-destructive testing of concrete structures and their integrity analyses (e.g., flaw detection, shear/longitudinal velocity determination, etc). However, when used in an appropriate manner, both techniques can be considered complementary and provide a unique way of imaging the sub-surface that is suited to a range of geotechnical problems. In this paper, we present a comparative study between mid-to-high frequency GPR (450 MHz and 900 MHz) and array-based, shear wave, pulse-echo ultrasonic surveys using proprietary instruments and conventional GPR data processing and visualisation techniques. Our focus is the practical detection of sub-metre scale voids located under steel reinforced concrete sections in realistic survey conditions (e.g., a capped, relict mine shaft or vent). Representative two-dimensional (2D) sections are presented for both methods illustrating the similarities/differences in signal response and the temporal-spatial target resolutions achieved with each technique. The use of three-dimensional data volumes and time slices (or 'C-scans') for advanced interpretation is also demonstrated, which although common in GPR applications is under-utilised as a technique in general ultrasonic surveys. The results show that ultrasonic methods can perform as well as GPR for this specific investigation scenario and that they have the potential of overcoming some of the inherent limitations of GPR investigations (i.e., the need for careful antenna frequency selection and survey design in

  18. Comparative study between manual injection intraosseous anesthesia and conventional oral anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Ata-Ali, Javier; Oltra-Moscardó, María J.; Peñarrocha-Diago, María; Peñarrocha, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare intraosseous anesthesia (IA) with the conventional oral anesthesia techniques. Materials and methods: A simple-blind, prospective clinical study was carried out. Each patient underwent two anesthetic techniques: conventional (local infiltration and locoregional anesthetic block) and intraosseous, for res-pective dental operations. In order to allow comparison of IA versus conventional anesthesia, the two operations were similar and affected the same two teeth in opposite quadrants. Results: A total of 200 oral anesthetic procedures were carried out in 100 patients. The mean patient age was 28.6±9.92 years. Fifty-five vestibular infiltrations and 45 mandibular blocks were performed. All patients were also subjected to IA. The type of intervention (conservative or endodontic) exerted no significant influence (p=0.58 and p=0.62, respectively). The latency period was 8.52±2.44 minutes for the conventional techniques and 0.89±0.73 minutes for IA – the difference being statistically significant (p<0.05). Regarding patient anesthesia sensation, the infiltrative techniques lasted a maximum of one hour, the inferior alveolar nerve blocks lasted between 1-3 hours, and IA lasted only 2.5 minutes – the differences being statistically significant (p≤0.0000, Φ=0.29). Anesthetic success was recorded in 89% of the conventional procedures and in 78% of the IA. Most patients preferred IA (61%) (p=0.0032). Conclusions: The two anesthetic procedures have been compared for latency, duration of anesthetic effect, anesthetic success rate and patient preference. Intraosseous anesthesia has been shown to be a technique to be taken into account when planning conservative and endodontic treatments. Key words: Anesthesia, intraosseous, oral anesthesia, Stabident®, infiltrative, mandibular block. PMID:22143700

  19. Use of remote-sensing techniques to survey the physical habitat of large rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Behrendt, Thomas E.; Cholwek, Gary; Frey, Jeffery W.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Smith, Stephen B.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Behrendt, Thomas E.; Cholwek, Gary; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Smith, Stephen B.

    1997-01-01

    Remote-sensing techniques that can be used to quantitatively characterize the physical habitat in large rivers in the United States where traditional survey approaches typically used in small- and medium-sized streams and rivers would be ineffective or impossible to apply. The state-of-the-art remote-sensing technologies that we discuss here include side-scan sonar, RoxAnn, acoustic Doppler current profiler, remotely operated vehicles and camera systems, global positioning systems, and laser level survey systems. The use of these technologies will permit the collection of information needed to create computer visualizations and hard copy maps and generate quantitative databases that can be used in real-time mode in the field to characterize the physical habitat at a study location of interest and to guide the distribution of sampling effort needed to address other habitat-related study objectives. This report augments habitat sampling and characterization guidance provided by Meador et al. (1993) and is intended for use primarily by U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment program managers and scientists who are documenting water quality in streams and rivers of the United States.

  20. Lot quality assurance sampling techniques in health surveys in developing countries: advantages and current constraints.

    PubMed

    Lanata, C F; Black, R E

    1991-01-01

    Traditional survey methods, which are generally costly and time-consuming, usually provide information at the regional or national level only. The utilization of lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) methodology, developed in industry for quality control, makes it possible to use small sample sizes when conducting surveys in small geographical or population-based areas (lots). This article describes the practical use of LQAS for conducting health surveys to monitor health programmes in developing countries. Following a brief description of the method, the article explains how to build a sample frame and conduct the sampling to apply LQAS under field conditions. A detailed description of the procedure for selecting a sampling unit to monitor the health programme and a sample size is given. The sampling schemes utilizing LQAS applicable to health surveys, such as simple- and double-sampling schemes, are discussed. The interpretation of the survey results and the planning of subsequent rounds of LQAS surveys are also discussed. When describing the applicability of LQAS in health surveys in developing countries, the article considers current limitations for its use by health planners in charge of health programmes, and suggests ways to overcome these limitations through future research. It is hoped that with increasing attention being given to industrial sampling plans in general, and LQAS in particular, their utilization to monitor health programmes will provide health planners in developing countries with powerful techniques to help them achieve their health programme targets.

  1. Marginal fit of all-ceramic crowns fabricated using two extraoral CAD/CAM systems in comparison with the conventional technique

    PubMed Central

    Alqahtani, Fawaz

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two extraoral computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems, in comparison with conventional techniques, on the marginal fit of monolithic CAD/CAM lithium disilicate ceramic crowns. Study design This is an in vitro interventional study. Place and duration of study The study was carried out at the Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Prince Sattam Bin Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia, from December 2015 to April 2016. Methodology A marginal gap of 60 lithium disilicate crowns was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. In total, 20 pressable lithium disilicate (IPS e.max Press [Ivoclar Vivadent]) ceramic crowns were fabricated using the conventional lost-wax technique as a control group. The experimental all-ceramic crowns were produced based on a scan stone model and milled using two extraoral CAD/CAM systems: the Cerec group was fabricated using the Cerec CAD/CAM system, and the Trios group was fabricated using Trios CAD and milled using Wieland Zenotec CAM. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Scheffe post hoc test were used for statistical comparison of the groups (α=0.05). Results The mean (±standard deviation) of the marginal gap of each group was as follows: the Control group was 91.15 (±15.35) µm, the Cerec group was 111.07 (±6.33) µm, and the Trios group was 60.17 (±11.09) µm. One-way ANOVA and the Scheffe post hoc test showed a statistically significant difference in the marginal gap between all groups. Conclusion It can be concluded from the current study that all-ceramic crowns, fabricated using the CAD/CAM system, show a marginal accuracy that is acceptable in clinical environments. The Trios CAD group displayed the smallest marginal gap. PMID:28352204

  2. Marginal fit of all-ceramic crowns fabricated using two extraoral CAD/CAM systems in comparison with the conventional technique.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Fawaz

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two extraoral computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems, in comparison with conventional techniques, on the marginal fit of monolithic CAD/CAM lithium disilicate ceramic crowns. This is an in vitro interventional study. The study was carried out at the Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Prince Sattam Bin Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia, from December 2015 to April 2016. A marginal gap of 60 lithium disilicate crowns was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. In total, 20 pressable lithium disilicate (IPS e.max Press [Ivoclar Vivadent]) ceramic crowns were fabricated using the conventional lost-wax technique as a control group. The experimental all-ceramic crowns were produced based on a scan stone model and milled using two extraoral CAD/CAM systems: the Cerec group was fabricated using the Cerec CAD/CAM system, and the Trios group was fabricated using Trios CAD and milled using Wieland Zenotec CAM. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Scheffe post hoc test were used for statistical comparison of the groups (α=0.05). The mean (±standard deviation) of the marginal gap of each group was as follows: the Control group was 91.15 (±15.35) µm, the Cerec group was 111.07 (±6.33) µm, and the Trios group was 60.17 (±11.09) µm. One-way ANOVA and the Scheffe post hoc test showed a statistically significant difference in the marginal gap between all groups. It can be concluded from the current study that all-ceramic crowns, fabricated using the CAD/CAM system, show a marginal accuracy that is acceptable in clinical environments. The Trios CAD group displayed the smallest marginal gap.

  3. Different types of maximum power point tracking techniques for renewable energy systems: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mohammad Junaid; Shukla, Praveen; Mustafa, Rashid; Chatterji, S.; Mathew, Lini

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for electricity is increasing while production of energy from fossil fuels is declining and therefore the obvious choice of the clean energy source that is abundant and could provide security for development future is energy from the sun. In this paper, the characteristic of the supply voltage of the photovoltaic generator is nonlinear and exhibits multiple peaks, including many local peaks and a global peak in non-uniform irradiance. To keep global peak, MPPT is the important component of photovoltaic systems. Although many review articles discussed conventional techniques such as P & O, incremental conductance, the correlation ripple control and very few attempts have been made with intelligent MPPT techniques. This document also discusses different algorithms based on fuzzy logic, Ant Colony Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, artificial neural networks, Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Firefly, Extremum seeking control method and hybrid methods applied to the monitoring of maximum value of power at point in systems of photovoltaic under changing conditions of irradiance.

  4. Conventional Warfare and United States Military Involvement in Latin America: Early Adolescents' Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Bruce; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assessed adolescents' views concerning conventional war and compared views to those of adolescents 15 years ago. Surveyed 362 seventh graders regarding conventional warfare and United States military involvement in Latin America. Compared to adolescents in 1971, adolescents in 1986 were somewhat more accepting of war. Many were skeptical of…

  5. Survey of egg farmers regarding the ban on conventional cages in the EU and their opinion of alternative layer housing systems in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Stadig, L M; Ampe, B A; Van Gansbeke, S; Van den Bogaert, T; D'Haenens, E; Heerkens, J L T; Tuyttens, F A M

    2016-03-01

    On 1 January 2012, conventional cages for laying hens were banned in the European Union (EU); all egg farmers must now use alternative hen housing systems. In total, 218 Flemish egg farmers were surveyed in 2013 to 2014 regarding which housing systems they currently use, their degree of satisfaction with the system, and how they experienced the transition from conventional cages to an alternative system. The response rate was 58.3% (127 respondents). Of these, 43 (33.9%) were no longer active as an egg farmer, mainly due to the ban on conventional cages. The respondents who were active as egg farmers both before and after the transition (84, 66.1%) mainly judged the ban as negative for their own finances and for the competitive position of the Belgian egg industry, but were neutral or positive regarding the general consequences for their own business. Most respondents' hens were housed in either aviary systems (47.7%) or in alternative cage systems (38.2%). When choosing a new system, the fit into the farm and consumer demand were the most important factors. Consumer demand was the main reason for choosing a system with free-range access. In general, egg farmers were satisfied with the system they chose, although this differs between systems. When asked to compare the alternative systems to conventional cages, alternatives were judged to be better for hen welfare and consumer demand, but similar or worse for all other aspects, especially labor. Egg farmers previously using conventional cages judged alternative systems more negatively than those who had no prior experience with conventional cages. Farmers who had experience with free-range systems judged these more positively than those without this experience, e.g., for egg consumer demand, profitability, and hen welfare. These results can possibly be extrapolated to other EU countries in which conventional cages were the most common housing system until 2012, and lessons can be drawn from the farmers' experiences

  6. Comparison of Neck Screw and Conventional Fixation Techniques in Mandibular Condyle Fractures Using 3-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis.

    PubMed

    Conci, Ricardo Augusto; Tomazi, Flavio Henrique Silveira; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito; da Silva, Jorge Vicente Lopes; Fritscher, Guilherme Genehr; Heitz, Claiton

    2015-07-01

    To compare the mechanical stress on the mandibular condyle after the reduction and fixation of mandibular condylar fractures using the neck screw and 2 other conventional techniques according to 3-dimensional finite element analysis. A 3-dimensional finite element model of a mandible was created and graphically simulated on a computer screen. The model was fixed with 3 different techniques: a 2.0-mm plate with 4 screws, 2 plates (1 1.5-mm plate and 1 2.0-mm plate) with 4 screws, and a neck screw. Loads were applied that simulated muscular action, with restrictions of the upper movements of the mandible, differentiation of the cortical and medullary bone, and the virtual "folds" of the plates and screws so that they could adjust to the condylar surface. Afterward, the data were exported for graphic visualization of the results and quantitative analysis was performed. The 2-plate technique exhibited better stability in regard to displacement of fractures, deformity of the synthesis materials, and minimum and maximum tension values. The results with the neck screw were satisfactory and were similar to those found when a miniplate was used. Although the study shows that 2 isolated plates yielded better results compared with the other groups using other fixation systems and methods, the neck screw could be an option for condylar fracture reduction. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Surveying the interest of individuals with upper limb loss in novel prosthetic control techniques.

    PubMed

    Engdahl, Susannah M; Christie, Breanne P; Kelly, Brian; Davis, Alicia; Chestek, Cynthia A; Gates, Deanna H

    2015-06-13

    Novel techniques for the control of upper limb prostheses may allow users to operate more complex prostheses than those that are currently available. Because many of these techniques are surgically invasive, it is important to understand whether individuals with upper limb loss would accept the associated risks in order to use a prosthesis. An online survey of individuals with upper limb loss was conducted. Participants read descriptions of four prosthetic control techniques. One technique was noninvasive (myoelectric) and three were invasive (targeted muscle reinnervation, peripheral nerve interfaces, cortical interfaces). Participants rated how likely they were to try each technique if it offered each of six different functional features. They also rated their general interest in each of the six features. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance with Greenhouse-Geisser corrections was used to examine the effect of the technique type and feature on participants' interest in each technique. Responses from 104 individuals were analyzed. Many participants were interested in trying the techniques - 83 % responded positively toward myoelectric control, 63 % toward targeted muscle reinnervation, 68 % toward peripheral nerve interfaces, and 39 % toward cortical interfaces. Common concerns about myoelectric control were weight, cost, durability, and difficulty of use, while the most common concern about the invasive techniques was surgical risk. Participants expressed greatest interest in basic prosthesis features (e.g., opening and closing the hand slowly), as opposed to advanced features like fine motor control and touch sensation. The results of these investigations may be used to inform the development of future prosthetic technologies that are appealing to individuals with upper limb loss.

  8. Conventional Vs Digital Impressions: Acceptability, Treatment Comfort and Stress Among Young Orthodontic Patients.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Alessandro; Beretta, Matteo; Luongo, Giuseppe; Mangano, Carlo; Mangano, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare patients' acceptability, comfort and stress with conventional and digital impressions. Thirty young orthodontic patients (15 males and 15 females) who had no previous experience of impressions were enrolled in this study. Conventional impressions for orthodontic study models of the dental arches were taken using an alginate impression material (Hydrogum ® , Zhermack Spa, Badia Polesine, Rovigo, Italy). Fifteen days later, digital impressions of both arches were acquired using an intraoral scanner (CS3600 ® , Carestream Dental, Rochester, NY, USA). Immediately after impression taking, patients' acceptability, comfort and stress were measured using two questionnaires and the State anxiety scale. Data showed no difference in terms of anxiety and stress; however, patients preferred the use of digital impressions systems instead of conventional impression techniques. Alginate impressions resulted as fast as digital impressions. Digital impressions resulted the most accepted and comfortable impression technique in young orthodontic patients, when compared to conventional techniques.

  9. Online surveys for BGLT research: issues and techniques.

    PubMed

    Riggle, Ellen D B; Rostosky, Sharon S; Reedy, C Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Online surveys are becoming increasingly popular for accessing less visible and decentralized populations, including bisexual, gay, lesbian and transgender (BGLT) populations. Advances in technology and convenience for the both the researcher and the participant have facilitated this trend. In this paper, we explore issues related to conducting BGLT survey research online, such as making decisions about survey formats, target populations and recruitment, compensation, access.

  10. Solid-state 27Al MRI and NMR thermometry for catalytic applications with conventional (liquids) MRI instrumentation and techniques.

    PubMed

    Koptyug, Igor V; Sagdeev, Dmitry R; Gerkema, Edo; Van As, Henk; Sagdeev, Renad Z

    2005-07-01

    Multidimensional images of Al2O3 pellets, cordierite monolith, glass tube, polycrystalline V2O5 and other materials have been detected by 27Al, 51V, and 23Na NMR imaging using techniques and instrumentation conventionally employed for imaging of liquids. These results demonstrate that, contrary to the widely accepted opinion, imaging of "rigid" solids does not necessarily require utilization of solid state NMR imaging approaches, pulse sequences and hardware even for quadrupolar nuclei which exhibit line widths in excess of 100 kHz, such as 51V in polycrystalline V2O5. It is further demonstrated that both 27Al NMR signal intensity and spin-lattice relaxation time decrease with increasing temperature and thus can potentially serve as temperature sensitive parameters for spatially resolved NMR thermometry.

  11. Test description and preliminary pitot-pressure surveys for Langley Test Technique Demonstrator at Mach 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, Joel L.; Ashby, George C., Jr.; Monta, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A propulsion/airframe integration experiment conducted in the NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel using a 16.8-in.-long version of the Langley Test Technique Demonstrator configuration with simulated scramjet propulsion is described. Schlieren and vapor screen visualization of the nozzle flow field is presented and correlated with pitot-pressure flow-field surveys. The data were obtained at nominal free-stream conditions of Re = 2.8 x 10 exp 6 and a nominal engine total pressure of 100 psia. It is concluded that pitot-pressure surveys coupled to schlieren and vapor-screen photographs, and oil flows have revealed flow features including vortices, free shear layers, and shock waves occurring in the model flow field.

  12. Thermal environment in eight low-energy and twelve conventional Finnish houses.

    PubMed

    Kähkönen, Erkki; Salmi, Kari; Holopainen, Rauno; Pasanen, Pertti; Reijula, Kari

    2015-11-01

    We assessed the thermal environment of eight recently built low-energy houses and twelve conventional Finnish houses. We monitored living room, bedroom and outdoor air temperatures and room air relative humidity from June 2012 to September 2013. Perceived thermal environment was evaluated using a questionnaire survey during the heating, cooling and interim seasons. We compared the measured and perceived thermal environments of the low-energy and conventional houses. The mean air temperature was 22.8 °C (21.9-23.8 °C) in the low-energy houses, and 23.3 °C (21.4-26.5 °C) in the conventional houses during the summer (1. June 2013-31. August 2013). In the winter (1. December 2012-28. February 2013), the mean air temperature was 21.3 °C (19.8-22.5 °C) in the low-energy houses, and 21.6 °C (18.1-26.4 °C) in the conventional houses. The variation of the air temperature was less in the low-energy houses than that in the conventional houses. In addition, the occupants were on average slightly more satisfied with the indoor environment in the low-energy houses. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the mean air temperature and relative humidity of the low-energy and conventional houses. Our measurements and surveys showed that a good thermal environment can be achieved in both types of houses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Physical assessment techniques performed by Italian registered nurses: a quantitative survey.

    PubMed

    Cicolini, Giancarlo; Tomietto, Marco; Simonetti, Valentina; Comparcini, Dania; Flacco, Maria Elena; Carvello, Maicol; Manzoli, Lamberto

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the study were to describe which of the core techniques of the physical assessment are regularly performed by a sample of Italian nurses, and to investigate the potential predictors of a more complete examination. Physical examination is among the essential tasks of nursing professionals, who are requested to perform a correct and complete physical assessment. Cross-sectional survey. The study was performed between August 2013 and January 2014 in 17 Italian regions. A total of 1182 questionnaires were collected. Most participants were females (age range 41-50 years), and worked in Internal Medicine, Intensive Care and Surgical hospital units. Of the 30 core techniques that are currently taught and performed according to the Italian Baccalaureate degree requirements, 20 were routinely performed, 6 were seldom used and 4 were learnt but almost never performed (auscultation of lung, heart and bowel sounds and spine inspection). Graduate and postgraduate nurses, working in Intensive Care Units and Nursing Homes, were more prone than the others to carry out a more complete physical assessment. The skills to perform a physical assessment are suboptimal among this sample of Italian nurses. Health and educational providers should pose more attention and efforts to provide nurses with an acceptable training in physical examination practice. This study describes the specific physical techniques performed by nurses in real practice and provides information on which skills require more attention in nursing educational programmes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Comparison of Different Recruitment Methods for Sexual and Reproductive Health Research: Social Media-Based Versus Conventional Methods.

    PubMed

    Motoki, Yoko; Miyagi, Etsuko; Taguri, Masataka; Asai-Sato, Mikiko; Enomoto, Takayuki; Wark, John Dennis; Garland, Suzanne Marie

    2017-03-10

    Prior research about the sexual and reproductive health of young women has relied mostly on self-reported survey studies. Thus, participant recruitment using Web-based methods can improve sexual and reproductive health research about cervical cancer prevention. In our prior study, we reported that Facebook is a promising way to reach young women for sexual and reproductive health research. However, it remains unknown whether Web-based or other conventional recruitment methods (ie, face-to-face or flyer distribution) yield comparable survey responses from similar participants. We conducted a survey to determine whether there was a difference in the sexual and reproductive health survey responses of young Japanese women based on recruitment methods: social media-based and conventional methods. From July 2012 to March 2013 (9 months), we invited women of ages 16-35 years in Kanagawa, Japan, to complete a Web-based questionnaire. They were recruited through either a social media-based (social networking site, SNS, group) or by conventional methods (conventional group). All participants enrolled were required to fill out and submit their responses through a Web-based questionnaire about their sexual and reproductive health for cervical cancer prevention. Of the 243 participants, 52.3% (127/243) were recruited by SNS, whereas 47.7% (116/243) were recruited by conventional methods. We found no differences between recruitment methods in responses to behaviors and attitudes to sexual and reproductive health survey, although more participants from the conventional group (15%, 14/95) chose not to answer the age of first intercourse compared with those from the SNS group (5.2%, 6/116; P=.03). No differences were found between recruitment methods in the responses of young Japanese women to a Web-based sexual and reproductive health survey. ©Yoko Motoki, Etsuko Miyagi, Masataka Taguri, Mikiko Asai-Sato, Takayuki Enomoto, John Dennis Wark, Suzanne Marie Garland. Originally

  15. Digital versus conventional implant impressions for edentulous patients: accuracy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Papaspyridakos, Panos; Gallucci, German O; Chen, Chun-Jung; Hanssen, Stijn; Naert, Ignace; Vandenberghe, Bart

    2016-04-01

    To compare the accuracy of digital and conventional impression techniques for completely edentulous patients and to determine the effect of different variables on the accuracy outcomes. A stone cast of an edentulous mandible with five implants was fabricated to serve as master cast (control) for both implant- and abutment-level impressions. Digital impressions (n = 10) were taken with an intraoral optical scanner (TRIOS, 3shape, Denmark) after connecting polymer scan bodies. For the conventional polyether impressions of the master cast, a splinted and a non-splinted technique were used for implant-level and abutment-level impressions (4 cast groups, n = 10 each). Master casts and conventional impression casts were digitized with an extraoral high-resolution scanner (IScan D103i, Imetric, Courgenay, Switzerland) to obtain digital volumes. Standard tessellation language (STL) datasets from the five groups of digital and conventional impressions were superimposed with the STL dataset from the master cast to assess the 3D (global) deviations. To compare the master cast with digital and conventional impressions at the implant level, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe's post hoc test was used, while Wilcoxon's rank-sum test was used for testing the difference between abutment-level conventional impressions. Significant 3D deviations (P < 0.001) were found between Group II (non-splinted, implant level) and control. No significant differences were found between Groups I (splinted, implant level), III (digital, implant level), IV (splinted, abutment level), and V (non-splinted, abutment level) compared with the control. Implant angulation up to 15° did not affect the 3D accuracy of implant impressions (P > 0.001). Digital implant impressions are as accurate as conventional implant impressions. The splinted, implant-level impression technique is more accurate than the non-splinted one for completely edentulous patients, whereas there was no difference in the accuracy

  16. Knowledge based systems: A preliminary survey of selected issues and techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kavi, Srinu

    1984-01-01

    It is only recently that research in Artificial Intelligence (AI) is accomplishing practical results. Most of these results can be attributed to the design and use of expert systems (or Knowledge-Based Systems, KBS) - problem-solving computer programs that can reach a level of performance comparable to that of a human expert in some specialized problem domain. But many computer systems designed to see images, hear sounds, and recognize speech are still in a fairly early stage of development. In this report, a preliminary survey of recent work in the KBS is reported, explaining KBS concepts and issues and techniques used to construct them. Application considerations to construct the KBS and potential KBS research areas are identified. A case study (MYCIN) of a KBS is also provided.

  17. Mercury Distribution in the Deûle River (Northern France) Measured by the Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films Technique and Conventional Methods.

    PubMed

    Diviš, Pavel; Kadlecová, Milada; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2016-05-01

    The distribution of mercury in surface water and in sediment from Deûle River in Northern France was studied by application of conventional sampling methods and by diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT). Concentration of total dissolved mercury in surface water was 20.8 ± 0.8 ng l(-1). The particulate mercury concentration was 6.2 ± 0.6 µg g(-1). The particulate mercury was accumulated in sediment (9.9 ± 2.3 mg kg(-1)), and it was transformed by methylating bacteria to methylmercury, mainly in the first 2-cm layer of the sediment. Total dissolved concentration of mercury in sediment pore water obtained by application of centrifugation extraction was 17.6 ± 4.1 ng l(-1), and it was comparable with total dissolved pore water mercury concentration measured by DGT probe containing Duolite GT-73 resin gel (18.2 ± 4.3 ng l(-1)), taking the sediment heterogeneity and different principles of the applied methods into account. By application of two DGT probes with different resin gels specific for mercury, it was found that approximately 30% of total dissolved mercury in sediment pore water was present in labile forms easy available for biota. The resolution of mercury DGT depth profiles was 0.5 cm, which allows, unlike conventional techniques, to study the connection of the geochemical cycle of mercury with geochemical cycles of iron and manganese.

  18. Survey of Analysis of Crime Detection Techniques Using Data Mining and Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabakaran, S.; Mitra, Shilpa

    2018-04-01

    Data mining is the field containing procedures for finding designs or patterns in a huge dataset, it includes strategies at the convergence of machine learning and database framework. It can be applied to various fields like future healthcare, market basket analysis, education, manufacturing engineering, crime investigation etc. Among these, crime investigation is an interesting application to process crime characteristics to help the society for a better living. This paper survey various data mining techniques used in this domain. This study may be helpful in designing new strategies for crime prediction and analysis.

  19. Stereo sequence transmission via conventional transmission channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ho-Keun; Kim, Chul-Hwan; Han, Kyu-Phil; Ha, Yeong-Ho

    2003-05-01

    This paper proposes a new stereo sequence transmission technique using digital watermarking for compatibility with conventional 2D digital TV. We, generally, compress and transmit image sequence using temporal-spatial redundancy between stereo images. It is difficult for users with conventional digital TV to watch the transmitted 3D image sequence because many 3D image compression methods are different. To solve such a problem, in this paper, we perceive the concealment of new information of digital watermarking and conceal information of the other stereo image into three channels of the reference image. The main target of the technique presented is to let the people who have conventional DTV watch stereo movies at the same time. This goal is reached by considering the response of human eyes to color information and by using digital watermarking. To hide right images into left images effectively, bit-change in 3 color channels and disparity estimation according to the value of estimated disparity are performed. The proposed method assigns the displacement information of right image to each channel of YCbCr on DCT domain. Each LSB bit on YCbCr channels is changed according to the bits of disparity information. The performance of the presented methods is confirmed by several computer experiments.

  20. Development of predictive mapping techniques for soil survey and salinity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elnaggar, Abdelhamid A.

    Conventional soil maps represent a valuable source of information about soil characteristics, however they are subjective, very expensive, and time-consuming to prepare. Also, they do not include explicit information about the conceptual mental model used in developing them nor information about their accuracy, in addition to the error associated with them. Decision tree analysis (DTA) was successfully used in retrieving the expert knowledge embedded in old soil survey data. This knowledge was efficiently used in developing predictive soil maps for the study areas in Benton and Malheur Counties, Oregon and accessing their consistency. A retrieved soil-landscape model from a reference area in Harney County was extrapolated to develop a preliminary soil map for the neighboring unmapped part of Malheur County. The developed map had a low prediction accuracy and only a few soil map units (SMUs) were predicted with significant accuracy, mostly those shallow SMUs that have either a lithic contact with the bedrock or developed on a duripan. On the other hand, the developed soil map based on field data was predicted with very high accuracy (overall was about 97%). Salt-affected areas of the Malheur County study area are indicated by their high spectral reflectance and they are easily discriminated from the remote sensing data. However, remote sensing data fails to distinguish between the different classes of soil salinity. Using the DTA method, five classes of soil salinity were successfully predicted with an overall accuracy of about 99%. Moreover, the calculated area of salt-affected soil was overestimated when mapped using remote sensing data compared to that predicted by using DTA. Hence, DTA could be a very helpful approach in developing soil survey and soil salinity maps in more objective, effective, less-expensive and quicker ways based on field data.

  1. Survey on Robot-Assisted Surgical Techniques Utilization in US Pediatric Surgery Fellowships.

    PubMed

    Maizlin, Ilan I; Shroyer, Michelle C; Yu, David C; Martin, Colin A; Chen, Mike K; Russell, Robert T

    2017-02-01

    Robotic technology has transformed both practice and education in many adult surgical specialties; no standardized training guidelines in pediatric surgery currently exist. The purpose of our study was to assess the prevalence of robotic procedures and extent of robotic surgery education in US pediatric surgery fellowships. A deidentified survey measured utilization of the robot, perception on the utility of the robot, and its incorporation in training among the program directors of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) pediatric surgery fellowships in the United States. Forty-one of the 47 fellowship programs (87%) responded to the survey. While 67% of respondents indicated the presence of a robot in their facility, only 26% reported its utilizing in their surgical practice. Among programs not utilizing the robot, most common reasons provided were lack of clear supportive evidence, increased intraoperative time, and incompatibility of instrument size to pediatric patients. While 58% of program directors believe that there is a future role for robotic surgery in children, only 18% indicated that robotic training should play a part in pediatric surgery education. Consequently, while over 66% of survey respondents received training in robot-assisted surgical technique, only 29% of fellows receive robot-assisted training during their fellowship. A majority of fellowships have access to a robot, but few utilize the technology in their current practice or as part of training. Further investigation is required into both the technology's potential benefits in the pediatric population and its role in pediatric surgery training.

  2. Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater in the Blue Nile Basin, eastern Sudan, using conventional and multivariate techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Mohammed Tahir

    Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater systems can be carried out using conventional and multivariate techniques, namely cluster, factor analyses and others such as correspondence analysis. The main objective of this study is to investigate the groundwater quality in the Blue Nile basin of eastern Sudan, and to workout a hydrochemical evaluation for the aquifer system. Conventional methods and multivariate techniques were applied to achieve these goals. Two water-bearing layers exist in the study area: the Nubian Sandstone Formation and the Al-Atshan Formation. The Nubian aquifer is recharged mainly from the Blue Nile and Dinder Rivers through lateral subsurface flow and through direct rainfall in outcrop areas. The Al-Atshan aquifer receives water through underground flow from River Rahad and from rainfall infiltration. The prevailing hydrochemical processes are simple dissolution, mixing, partial ion exchange and ion exchange. Limited reverse ion exchange has been witnessed in the Nubian aquifer. Three factors control the overall mineralization and water quality of the Blue Nile Basin. The first factor includes high values of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, sulphate and magnesium. The second factor includes calcium and pH. The third factor is due to fluoride concentration in the groundwater. The study highlights the descriptive capabilities of conventional and multivariate techniques as effective tools in groundwater quality evaluation. Une étude hydrochimique de systèmes aquifères a pu être réalisée au moyen des techniques conventionnelles et multidimensionnelles, telles que les analyses de cluster et factorielles, ainsi que d'autres comme l'analyse des correspondances. Le principal objectif de ce travail est d'étudier la qualité des eaux souterraines du bassin du Nil bleu au Soudan oriental, et de réaliser une évaluation hydrochimique du système aquifère. Des méthodes conventionnelles et

  3. 18F-FDG PET/CT as a staging procedure in primary stage II and III breast cancer: comparison with conventional imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Koolen, Bas B; Vrancken Peeters, Marie-Jeanne T F D; Aukema, Tjeerd S; Vogel, Wouter V; Oldenburg, Hester S A; van der Hage, Jos A; Hoefnagel, Cornelis A; Stokkel, Marcel P M; Loo, Claudette E; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; Rutgers, Emiel J Th; Valdés Olmos, Renato A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) outperforms conventional imaging techniques for excluding distant metastases prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) treatment in patients with stage II and III breast cancer. Second, we assessed the clinical importance of false positive findings. One hundred and fifty four patients with stage II or III breast cancer, scheduled to receive NAC, underwent an 18F-FDG PET/CT scan and conventional imaging, consisting of bone scintigraphy, ultrasound of the liver, and chest radiography. Suspect additional lesions at staging examination were confirmed by biopsy and histopathology and/or additional imaging. Metastases that were detected within 6 months after the PET/CT scan were considered evidence of occult metastasis, missed by staging examination. Forty-two additional distant lesions were seen in 25 patients with PET/CT and could be confirmed in 20 (13%) of 154 patients. PET/CT was false positive for 8 additional lesions (19%) and misclassified the presence of metastatic disease in 5 (3%) of 154 patients. In 16 (80%) of 20 patients, additional lesions were exclusively seen with PET/CT, leading to a change in treatment in 13 (8%) of 154 patients. In 129 patients with a negative staging PET/CT, no metastases developed during the follow-up of 9.0 months. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of PET/CT in the detection of additional distant lesions in patients with stage II or III breast cancer are 100, 96, 80, 100, and 97%, respectively. FDG PET/CT is superior to conventional imaging techniques in the detection of distant metastases in patients with untreated stage II or III breast cancer and is associated with a low false positive rate. PET/CT may be of additional value in the staging of breast cancer prior to NAC.

  4. Attitudes and Practices of Massage Therapists as Related to Conventional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Footracer, Katherine G.; Monaghan, Melissa; Wisniewski, Nicole P.; Mandel, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Research into opinions about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has focused on conventional medical practitioners with little exploration of CAM practitioners’ views. Purpose To survey attitudes and practices of massage therapists toward conventional medicine. Research Design An anonymous online survey consisting of Likert-type scales, fill-in answers, and multiple-choice questions was used. Participants Members of the Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals (ABMP), the largest massage therapy association in the US with over 77,000 members. Main Outcome Measures Participants were asked about their years of practice and training, choice of health care practitioners, sources for information about CAM and Western/allopathic medicine, client referral patterns, optimal treatment approaches for various medical conditions, and overall impressions of CAM and Western/ allopathic medicine. Results Analysis of n = 3,148 responses indicated that while 66.9% of respondents had a neutral or worse impression of Western/allopathic medicine, 64.3% use a conventional medicine practitioner as their primary health care provider, 61.9% have referred clients to a conventional medicine practitioner in the past six months, and 90.5% seek out information on Western/allopathic medicine. The mode response of the best treatment approach to various medical problems was a mix of Western/allopathic medicine and CAM. Conclusions This study suggests that despite the ambivalence of many massage therapists towards conventional medicine, many use it, encourage clients to do so, and see involvement of both as crucial to health. PMID:22553480

  5. Piezoelectric Versus Conventional Rotary Techniques for Impacted Third Molar Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qian; Qiu, Yating; Yang, Chi; Yang, Jingyun; Chen, Minjie; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Impacted third molars are frequently encountered in clinical work. Surgical removal of impacted third molars is often required to prevent clinical symptoms. Traditional rotary cutting instruments are potentially injurious, and piezosurgery, as a new osteotomy technique, has been introduced in oral and maxillofacial surgery. No consistent conclusion has been reached regarding whether this new technique is associated with fewer or less severe postoperative sequelae after third molar extraction. The aim of this study was to compare piezosurgery with rotary osteotomy techniques, with regard to surgery time and the severity of postoperative sequelae, including pain, swelling, and trismus. We conducted a systematic literature search in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar. The eligibility criteria of this study included the following: the patients were clearly diagnosed as having impacted mandibular third molars; the patients underwent piezosurgery osteotomy, and in the control group rotary osteotomy techniques, for removing impacted third molars; the outcomes of interest include surgery time, trismus, swelling or pain; the studies are randomized controlled trials. We used random-effects models to calculate the difference in the outcomes, and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. We calculated the weighted mean difference if the trials used the same measurement, and a standardized mean difference if otherwise. A total of seven studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in our analysis. Compared with rotary osteotomy, patients undergoing piezosurgery experienced longer surgery time (mean difference 4.13 minutes, 95% confidence interval 2.75–5.52, P < 0.0001). Patients receiving the piezoelectric technique had less swelling at postoperative days 1, 3, 5, and 7 (all Ps ≤0.023). Additionally, there was a trend of less postoperative pain and trismus in the piezosurgery groups. The number of included randomized controlled

  6. T2-Weighted Liver MRI Using the MultiVane Technique at 3T: Comparison with Conventional T2-Weighted MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyung A; Kim, EunJu; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Choi, Dongil; Lee, Won Jae; Jung, Sin-Ho; Baek, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the value of applying MultiVane to liver T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) compared with conventional T2WIs with emphasis on detection of focal liver lesions. Materials and Methods Seventy-eight patients (43 men and 35 women) with 86 hepatic lesions and 20 pancreatico-biliary diseases underwent MRI including T2WIs acquired using breath-hold (BH), respiratory-triggered (RT), and MultiVane technique at 3T. Two reviewers evaluated each T2WI with respect to artefacts, organ sharpness, and conspicuity of intrahepatic vessels, hilar duct, and main lesion using five-point scales, and made pairwise comparisons between T2WI sequences for these categories. Diagnostic accuracy (Az) and sensitivity for hepatic lesion detection were evaluated using alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results MultiVane T2WI was significantly better than BH-T2WI or RT-T2WI for organ sharpness and conspicuity of intrahepatic vessels and main lesion in both separate reviews and pairwise comparisons (p < 0.001). With regard to motion artefacts, MultiVane T2WI or BH-T2WI was better than RT-T2WI (p < 0.001). Conspicuity of hilar duct was better with BH-T2WI than with MultiVane T2WI (p = 0.030) or RT-T2WI (p < 0.001). For detection of 86 hepatic lesions, sensitivity (mean, 97.7%) of MultiVane T2WI was significantly higher than that of BH-T2WI (mean, 89.5%) (p = 0.008) or RT-T2WI (mean, 84.9%) (p = 0.001). Conclusion Applying the MultiVane technique to T2WI of the liver is a promising approach to improving image quality that results in increased detection of focal liver lesions compared with conventional T2WI. PMID:26357498

  7. Intraosseous anesthesia with solution injection controlled by a computerized system versus conventional oral anesthesia: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Beneito-Brotons, Rut; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Ata-Ali, Javier; Peñarrocha, María

    2012-05-01

    To compare a computerized intraosseous anesthesia system with the conventional oral anesthesia techniques, and analyze the latency and duration of the anesthetic effect and patient preference. A simple-blind prospective study was made between March 2007 and May 2008. Each patient was subjected to two anesthetic techniques: conventional and intraosseous using the Quicksleeper® system (DHT, Cholet, France). A split-mouth design was adopted in which each patient underwent treatment of a tooth with one of the techniques, and treatment of the homologous contralateral tooth with the other technique. The treatments consisted of restorations, endodontic procedures and simple extractions. The study series comprised 12 females and 18 males with a mean age of 36.8 years. The 30 subjects underwent a total of 60 anesthetic procedures. Intraosseous and conventional oral anesthesia caused discomfort during administration in 46.3% and 32.1% of the patients, respectively. The latency was 7.1±2.23 minutes for the conventional technique and 0.48±0.32 for intraosseous anesthesia--the difference being statistically significant. The depth of the anesthetic effect was sufficient to allow the patients to tolerate the dental treatments. The duration of the anesthetic effect in soft tissues was 199.3 minutes with the conventional technique versus only 1.6 minutes with intraosseous anesthesia--the difference between the two techniques being statistically significant. Most of the patients (69.7%) preferred intraosseous anesthesia. The described intraosseous anesthetic system is effective, with a much shorter latency than the conventional technique, sufficient duration of anesthesia to perform the required dental treatments, and with a much lesser soft tissue anesthetic effect. Most of the patients preferred intraosseous anesthesia.

  8. Fugitive Emissions from Conventional and Hydraulically Fractured Natural Gas Developments in Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, E. E.; Risk, D. A.; Lavoie, M.; Marshall, A. D.; Baillie, J.; Williams, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Presently, fugitive emissions released into the atmosphere during the completion and production of oil and gas wells are poorly regulated within Canada. Some possible upstream sources of these emissions include flowback during well completions, liquid unloading, chemical injection pumps, and equipment leaks. The environmental benefits of combusting natural gas compared to oil or coal are negated if methane leakages surpass 3.2% of total production, so it is important to have a thorough understanding of these fugitive emissions. This study compares atmospheric leakage pathways of methane and other fugitive gases in both conventional and unconventional oil and gas developments in Western Canada to help fill this knowledge gap. Over 5000 kilometers of mobile survey campaigns were completed in carefully selected developments in the Montney shale play in British Columbia, and in conventional oil fields in Alberta. These sites are developed by more than 25 different operators. High precision laser and UV fluorescence gas analyzers were used to gather geolocated trace gas concentrations at a frequency of 1 Hz while driving. These data were processed with an adaptive technique to compensate for fluctuations in background concentrations for each gas. The residual excess concentrations were compositionally fingerprinted on the basis of the expected gas ratios for potential emission sites in order to definitively attribute anomalies to infrastructural leak sources. Preliminary results from the mobile surveys of both conventional and unconventional oil and gas sites are presented here. Pathways of methane and other fugitive gases are mapped to their respective sources, identifying common causes of emissions leaks across the oil and gas industry. This is the first bottom-up study of fugitive emissions from Canadian energy developments to produce publicly available data. These findings are significant to operators interested in lowering emissions for economic benefit, as well as

  9. A rigorous assessment of tree height measurements obtained using airborne LIDAR and conventional field methods.

    Treesearch

    Hans-Erik Andersen; Stephen E. Reutebuch; Robert J. McGaughey

    2006-01-01

    Tree height is an important variable in forest inventory programs but is typically time-consuming and costly to measure in the field using conventional techniques. Airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) provides individual tree height measurements that are highly correlated with field-derived measurements, but the imprecision of conventional field techniques does...

  10. Use of cognitive interview techniques in the development of nutrition surveys and interactive nutrition messages for low-income populations.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Elena T; Campbell, Marci K; Honess-Morreale, Lauren

    2002-05-01

    The effectiveness of dietary surveys and educational messages is dependent in part on how well the target audience's information processing needs and abilities are addressed. Use of pilot testing is helpful; however, problems with wording and language are often not revealed. Cognitive interview techniques offer 1 approach to assist dietitians in understanding how audiences process information. With this method, respondents are led through a survey or message and asked to paraphrase items; discuss thoughts, feelings, and ideas that come to mind; and suggest alternative wording. As part of a US Department of Agriculture-funded nutrition education project, 23 cognitive interviews were conducted among technical community college students in North Carolina. Interview findings informed the development of tailored computer messages and survey questions. Better understanding of respondents' cognitive processes significantly improved the language and approach used in this intervention. Interview data indicated 4 problem areas: vague or ineffective instructions, confusing questions and response options, variable interpretation of terms, and misinterpretation of dietary recommendations. Interviews also provided insight into the meaning of diet-related stages of change. These findings concur with previous research suggesting that cognitive interview techniques are a valuable tool in the formative evaluation and development of nutrition surveys and materials.

  11. Anaesthesia Techniques for Maxillary Molars – A Questionnaire-Based Retrospective Field Survey of Dentist in Western India

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Priya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Clinicians use various anaesthesia techniques like Posterior Superior Alveolar (PSA) nerve block, buccal infiltration with or without supplemental anaesthesia like palatal and intraligamentary infiltrations for root canal treatment in maxillary molars. However there is no general consensus regarding which technique is enough for performing endodontic treatment in maxillary molars. Aim The aim of this questionnaire-based survey is to compare and evaluate the various techniques used to anaesthetize the maxillary molars and its effect on postoperative pain. Materials and Methods The data were obtained from 290 dental practitioners using a specially prepared questionnaire survey conducted anonymously. The questionnaire contained questions covering data such as years in dentistry, acquired specialty, techniques used for anaesthetizing maxillary molars, success of anaesthesia, and postoperative pain, etc. Results Buccal infilteration with supplemental anaesthesia in the form of palatal (82%) and intra-ligamentary infilteration (88%) show higher success rate compared to only buccal infilteration (69%). However, intra-ligamentary infilteration group showed highest rate (75%) of postoperative pain. General practitioners (62% of clinicians) prefer to give both buccal and palatal infilterations and specialists opt for only buccal infilteration (66-74% of specialists). Conclusion Only buccal infilteration is sufficient during root canal treatment of maxillary molars. Routine use of supplemental anaesthesia in the form of palatal and intra-ligamentary infilteration is not necessary unless patient experiences discomfort during endodontic treatment. However, intra-ligamentary infilteration may lead to postoperative discomfort in the form of pain. PMID:27134993

  12. Nurse Practitioners' Use of Communication Techniques: Results of a Maryland Oral Health Literacy Survey

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Laura W.; Horowitz, Alice M.; Radice, Sarah D.; Wang, Min Q.; Kleinman, Dushanka V.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We examined nurse practitioners’ use and opinions of recommended communication techniques for the promotion of oral health as part of a Maryland state-wide oral health literacy assessment. Use of recommended health-literate and patient-centered communication techniques have demonstrated improved health outcomes. Methods A 27-item self-report survey, containing 17 communication technique items, across 5 domains, was mailed to 1,410 licensed nurse practitioners (NPs) in Maryland in 2010. Use of communication techniques and opinions about their effectiveness were analyzed using descriptive statistics. General linear models explored provider and practice characteristics to predict differences in the total number and the mean number of communication techniques routinely used in a week. Results More than 80% of NPs (N = 194) routinely used 3 of the 7 basic communication techniques: simple language, limiting teaching to 2–3 concepts, and speaking slowly. More than 75% of respondents believed that 6 of the 7 basic communication techniques are effective. Sociodemographic provider characteristics and practice characteristics were not significant predictors of the mean number or the total number of communication techniques routinely used by NPs in a week. Potential predictors for using more of the 7 basic communication techniques, demonstrating significance in one general linear model each, were: assessing the office for user-friendliness and ever taking a communication course in addition to nursing school. Conclusions NPs in Maryland self-reported routinely using some recommended health-literate communication techniques, with belief in their effectiveness. Our findings suggest that NPs who had assessed the office for patient-friendliness or who had taken a communication course beyond their initial education may be predictors for using more of the 7 basic communication techniques. These self-reported findings should be validated with observational studies

  13. Nurse Practitioners' Use of Communication Techniques: Results of a Maryland Oral Health Literacy Survey.

    PubMed

    Koo, Laura W; Horowitz, Alice M; Radice, Sarah D; Wang, Min Q; Kleinman, Dushanka V

    2016-01-01

    We examined nurse practitioners' use and opinions of recommended communication techniques for the promotion of oral health as part of a Maryland state-wide oral health literacy assessment. Use of recommended health-literate and patient-centered communication techniques have demonstrated improved health outcomes. A 27-item self-report survey, containing 17 communication technique items, across 5 domains, was mailed to 1,410 licensed nurse practitioners (NPs) in Maryland in 2010. Use of communication techniques and opinions about their effectiveness were analyzed using descriptive statistics. General linear models explored provider and practice characteristics to predict differences in the total number and the mean number of communication techniques routinely used in a week. More than 80% of NPs (N = 194) routinely used 3 of the 7 basic communication techniques: simple language, limiting teaching to 2-3 concepts, and speaking slowly. More than 75% of respondents believed that 6 of the 7 basic communication techniques are effective. Sociodemographic provider characteristics and practice characteristics were not significant predictors of the mean number or the total number of communication techniques routinely used by NPs in a week. Potential predictors for using more of the 7 basic communication techniques, demonstrating significance in one general linear model each, were: assessing the office for user-friendliness and ever taking a communication course in addition to nursing school. NPs in Maryland self-reported routinely using some recommended health-literate communication techniques, with belief in their effectiveness. Our findings suggest that NPs who had assessed the office for patient-friendliness or who had taken a communication course beyond their initial education may be predictors for using more of the 7 basic communication techniques. These self-reported findings should be validated with observational studies. Graduate and continuing education for NPs

  14. Complementary and Conventional Medicine Use Among Youth With Recurrent Headaches

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Kathi J.; Gombojav, Narangerel; Koch, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify prevalence and patterns of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among youth with recurrent headaches (HA) and evaluate associations with co-occurring health problems and limitations as well as with the use and expenditures for conventional medical care. METHODS: Variables were constructed for youth aged 10 to 17 by using linked data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey and the 2008 Medical Expenditures Panel Survey. Bivariate, logistic, and 2-part regression analyses were used. RESULTS: Of the 10.6% of youth experiencing HA, 29.6% used CAM, rising to 41% for the many HA sufferers who also experienced difficulties with emotions, concentration, behavior, school attendance, or daily activities. Biologically based products (16.2%) and mind-body therapies (13.3%) were most commonly used, especially by the 86.4% of youth with HA experiencing at least 1 other chronic condition. Compared with non-CAM users, youth with HA who used CAM also had higher expenditures for and use of most types of conventional care. CONCLUSIONS: CAM use is most common among youth with HA experiencing multiple chronic conditions and difficulties in daily functioning. Associations among CAM use, multiple chronic conditions, and higher use of conventional care highlight the need for medical providers to routinely ask about CAM use to meet the complex health needs of their patients and facilitate the optimal integration of care. Research is needed to identify models for coordinating complementary and conventional care within a medical home and to understand the health benefits or risks associated with CAM use in conjunction with conventional treatments for patients with HA. PMID:24127466

  15. Comparison of marginal fit of cemented zirconia copings manufactured after digital impression with lava™ C.O.S and conventional impression technique.

    PubMed

    Dauti, Rinet; Cvikl, Barbara; Franz, Alexander; Schwarze, Uwe Yacine; Lilaj, Bledar; Rybaczek, Tina; Moritz, Andreas

    2016-12-08

    Evaluation of the marginal fit of cemented zirconia copings manufactured after digital impression with Lava™ Chairside Oral Scanner in comparison to that of zirconia copings manufactured after conventional impressions with polyvinyl siloxane. A prepared typodont tooth #36, was replicated 40 times with a vinyl silicone and precise model resin. The dies were randomly divided into two groups according to the impression taking technique. Digital impressions with Lava™ C.O.S. and conventional impressions were taken according to the group. Subsequently zirconia copings were manufactured and cemented on their respective dies with zinc oxide phosphate cement. After embedding in resin, mesio-distal section of each coping was performed with a diamond saw in order to obtain two slices. One half of the specimen was used for evaluation with an optical microscope (OM) and the other half for evaluation with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Marginal gap (MG) and absolute marginal discrepancy (AMD) were measured mesial and distal on each slice. No significant difference of the marginal parameters between the digital and the conventional group was found. The mean values for MG in the digital group were 96.28 μm (+/-43.21 μm) measured with the OM and 99.26 μm (+/-48.73 μm) measured with the SEM, respectively. AMD mean values were 191.54 μm (+/-85.42 μm) measured with the optical microscope and 211.6 μm (+/-96.55 μm) with the SEM. For the conventional group the mean MG values were 94.84 μm (+/-50.77 μm) measured with the OM and 83.37 μm (+/-44.38 μm) measured with the SEM, respectively. AMD mean values were 158.60 μm (+/-69.14 μm) for the OM and 152.72 μm (+/-72.36) for the SEM. Copings manufactured after digital impression with Lava™ C.O.S. show comparable marginal parameters with the copings manufactured after conventional impression with polyvinyl syloxane. The mean MG values of both groups fit in the clinically acceptable range.

  16. Surveying System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Sunrise Geodetic Surveys are setting up their equipment for a town survey. Their equipment differs from conventional surveying systems that employ transit rod and chain to measure angles and distances. They are using ISTAC Inc.'s Model 2002 positioning system, which offers fast accurate surveying with exceptional signals from orbiting satellites. The special utility of the ISTAC Model 2002 is that it can provide positioning of the highest accuracy from Navstar PPS signals because it requires no knowledge of secret codes. It operates by comparing the frequency and time phase of a Navstar signal arriving at one ISTAC receiver with the reception of the same set of signals by another receiver. Data is computer processed and translated into three dimensional position data - latitude, longitude and elevation.

  17. Survey of Header Compression Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishac, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report provides a summary of several different header compression techniques. The different techniques included are: (1) Van Jacobson's header compression (RFC 1144); (2) SCPS (Space Communications Protocol Standards) header compression (SCPS-TP, SCPS-NP); (3) Robust header compression (ROHC); and (4) The header compression techniques in RFC2507 and RFC2508. The methodology for compression and error correction for these schemes are described in the remainder of this document. All of the header compression schemes support compression over simplex links, provided that the end receiver has some means of sending data back to the sender. However, if that return path does not exist, then neither Van Jacobson's nor SCPS can be used, since both rely on TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). In addition, under link conditions of low delay and low error, all of the schemes perform as expected. However, based on the methodology of the schemes, each scheme is likely to behave differently as conditions degrade. Van Jacobson's header compression relies heavily on the TCP retransmission timer and would suffer an increase in loss propagation should the link possess a high delay and/or bit error rate (BER). The SCPS header compression scheme protects against high delay environments by avoiding delta encoding between packets. Thus, loss propagation is avoided. However, SCPS is still affected by an increased BER (bit-error-rate) since the lack of delta encoding results in larger header sizes. Next, the schemes found in RFC2507 and RFC2508 perform well for non-TCP connections in poor conditions. RFC2507 performance with TCP connections is improved by various techniques over Van Jacobson's, but still suffers a performance hit with poor link properties. Also, RFC2507 offers the ability to send TCP data without delta encoding, similar to what SCPS offers. ROHC is similar to the previous two schemes, but adds additional CRCs (cyclic redundancy check) into headers and improves

  18. Intraosseous anesthesia with solution injection controlled by a computerized system versus conventional oral anesthesia: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Beneito-Brotons, Rut; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Ata-Ali, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare a computerized intraosseous anesthesia system with the conventional oral anesthesia techniques, and analyze the latency and duration of the anesthetic effect and patient preference. Design: A simple-blind prospective study was made between March 2007 and May 2008. Each patient was subjected to two anesthetic techniques: conventional and intraosseous using the Quicksleeper® system (DHT, Cholet, France). A split-mouth design was adopted in which each patient underwent treatment of a tooth with one of the techniques, and treatment of the homologous contralateral tooth with the other technique. The treatments consisted of restorations, endodontic procedures and simple extractions. Results: The study series comprised 12 females and 18 males with a mean age of 36.8 years. The 30 subjects underwent a total of 60 anesthetic procedures. Intraosseous and conventional oral anesthesia caused discomfort during administration in 46.3% and 32.1% of the patients, respectively. The latency was 7.1±2.23 minutes for the conventional technique and 0.48±0.32 for intraosseous anesthesia – the difference being statistically significant. The depth of the anesthetic effect was sufficient to allow the patients to tolerate the dental treatments. The duration of the anesthetic effect in soft tissues was 199.3 minutes with the conventional technique versus only 1.6 minutes with intraosseous anesthesia – the difference between the two techniques being statistically significant. Most of the patients (69.7%) preferred intraosseous anesthesia. Conclusions: The described intraosseous anesthetic system is effective, with a much shorter latency than the conventional technique, sufficient duration of anesthesia to perform the required dental treatments, and with a much lesser soft tissue anesthetic effect. Most of the patients preferred intraosseous anesthesia. Key words:Anesthesia, intraosseous, oral anesthesia, infiltrating, mandibular block, Quicksleeper®. PMID

  19. Randomized controlled within-subject evaluation of digital and conventional workflows for the fabrication of lithium disilicate single crowns. Part I: digital versus conventional unilateral impressions.

    PubMed

    Benic, Goran I; Mühlemann, Sven; Fehmer, Vincent; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Sailer, Irena

    2016-11-01

    Trials comparing the overall performance of fully digital and conventional workflows in reconstructive dentistry are needed. The purpose of the first part of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to determine whether optical impressions produce different results from conventional impressions with respect to time efficiency and patient and operator perceptions of the clinical workflow. Three digital impressions and 1 conventional impression were made in each of 10 participants according to a randomly generated sequence. The digital systems were Lava COS, iTero, and Cerec Bluecam. The conventional impression was made with the closed-mouth technique and polyvinyl siloxane material. The time needed for powdering, impressions, and interocclusal record was recorded. Patient and clinician perceptions of the procedures were rated by means of visual analog scales. The paired t test with Bonferroni correction was applied to detect differences (α=.05/6=.0083). The mean total working time ±standard deviation amounted to 260 ±66 seconds for the conventional impression, 493 ±193 seconds for Lava, 372 ±126 seconds for iTero, and 357 ±55 seconds for Cerec. The total working time for the conventional impression was significantly lower than that for Lava and Cerec. With regard to the working time without powdering, the differences between the methods were not statistically significant. The patient rating (very uncomfortable=0; comfortable=100) measured 61 ±34 for conventional impression, 71 ±18 for Lava, 66 ±20 for iTero, and 48 ±18 for Cerec. The differences were not statistically significant. The clinician rating (simple=0; very difficult=100) was 13 ±13 for the conventional impression, 54 ±27 for Lava, 22 ±11 for iTero, and 36 ±23 for Cerec. The differences between the conventional impression and Lava and between iTero and Lava were statistically significant. The conventional impression was more time-effective than the digital impressions. In terms of

  20. Comparing Students' Attitudes in Problem-Based and Conventional Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, David M.; Mann, Karen V.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 2 medical school classes at Dalhousie University (Canada) compared student attitudes toward the conventional (n=57 students) and problem-based (n=73) curricula. Students in the problem-based group had more positive attitudes toward the learning environment and curriculum, but were less positive on a student-interaction scale. No…

  1. Comparison between mechanical freezer and conventional freezing using liquid nitrogen in normozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Rahana, A R; Ng, S P; Leong, C F; Rahimah, M D

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluated the effect of human semen cryopreservation using an ultra-low temperature technique with a mechanical freezer at -85°C as an alternative method to the conventional liquid nitrogen technique at -196°C. This was a prospective experimental study conducted in the Medically Assisted Conception unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, National University Hospital, Malaysia from January 1, 2006 to April 30, 2007. All normozoospermic semen samples were included in the study. The concentration, motility and percentage of intact DNA of each semen sample were assessed before and after freezing and thawing on Days 7 and 30 post freezing. Sperm cryopreservation at -85°C was comparable to the conventional liquid nitrogen technique for a period of up to 30 days in a normozoospermic sample. There was no statistical difference in concentration (Day 7 p-value is 0.1, Day 30 p-value is 0.2), motility (Day 7 p-value is 0.9, Day 30 p-value is 0.5) and proportion of intact DNA (Day 7 p-value is 0.1, Day 30 p-value is 0.2) between the ultra-low temperature technique and conventional liquid nitrogen cryopreservation at Days 7 and 30 post thawing. This study clearly demonstrates that short-term storage of sperm at -85°C could be a viable alternative to conventional liquid nitrogen cryopreservation at -196°C due to their comparable post-thaw results.

  2. Optimal systems of geoscience surveying A preliminary discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Tetsuya

    2006-10-01

    In any geoscience survey, each survey technique must be effectively applied, and many techniques are often combined optimally. An important task is to get necessary and sufficient information to meet the requirement of the survey. A prize-penalty function quantifies effectiveness of the survey, and hence can be used to determine the best survey technique. On the other hand, an information-cost function can be used to determine the optimal combination of survey techniques on the basis of the geoinformation obtained. Entropy is available to evaluate geoinformation. A simple model suggests the possibility that low-resolvability techniques are generally applied at early stages of survey, and that higher-resolvability techniques should alternate with lower-resolvability ones with the progress of the survey.

  3. Are conventional statistical techniques exhaustive for defining metal background concentrations in harbour sediments? A case study: The Coastal Area of Bari (Southeast Italy).

    PubMed

    Mali, Matilda; Dell'Anna, Maria Michela; Mastrorilli, Piero; Damiani, Leonardo; Ungaro, Nicola; Belviso, Claudia; Fiore, Saverio

    2015-11-01

    Sediment contamination by metals poses significant risks to coastal ecosystems and is considered to be problematic for dredging operations. The determination of the background values of metal and metalloid distribution based on site-specific variability is fundamental in assessing pollution levels in harbour sediments. The novelty of the present work consists of addressing the scope and limitation of analysing port sediments through the use of conventional statistical techniques (such as: linear regression analysis, construction of cumulative frequency curves and the iterative 2σ technique), that are commonly employed for assessing Regional Geochemical Background (RGB) values in coastal sediments. This study ascertained that although the tout court use of such techniques in determining the RGB values in harbour sediments seems appropriate (the chemical-physical parameters of port sediments fit well with statistical equations), it should nevertheless be avoided because it may be misleading and can mask key aspects of the study area that can only be revealed by further investigations, such as mineralogical and multivariate statistical analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Survey Of Lossless Image Coding Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnychuck, Paul W.; Rabbani, Majid

    1989-04-01

    Many image transmission/storage applications requiring some form of data compression additionally require that the decoded image be an exact replica of the original. Lossless image coding algorithms meet this requirement by generating a decoded image that is numerically identical to the original. Several lossless coding techniques are modifications of well-known lossy schemes, whereas others are new. Traditional Markov-based models and newer arithmetic coding techniques are applied to predictive coding, bit plane processing, and lossy plus residual coding. Generally speaking, the compression ratio offered by these techniques are in the area of 1.6:1 to 3:1 for 8-bit pictorial images. Compression ratios for 12-bit radiological images approach 3:1, as these images have less detailed structure, and hence, their higher pel correlation leads to a greater removal of image redundancy.

  5. Reinforcing the role of the conventional C-arm - a novel method for simplified distal interlocking

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The common practice for insertion of distal locking screws of intramedullary nails is a freehand technique under fluoroscopic control. The process is technically demanding, time-consuming and afflicted to considerable radiation exposure of the patient and the surgical personnel. A new concept is introduced utilizing information from within conventional radiographic images to help accurately guide the surgeon to place the interlocking bolt into the interlocking hole. The newly developed technique was compared to conventional freehand in an operating room (OR) like setting on human cadaveric lower legs in terms of operating time and radiation exposure. Methods The proposed concept (guided freehand), generally based on the freehand gold standard, additionally guides the surgeon by means of visible landmarks projected into the C-arm image. A computer program plans the correct drilling trajectory by processing the lens-shaped hole projections of the interlocking holes from a single image. Holes can be drilled by visually aligning the drill to the planned trajectory. Besides a conventional C-arm, no additional tracking or navigation equipment is required. Ten fresh frozen human below-knee specimens were instrumented with an Expert Tibial Nail (Synthes GmbH, Switzerland). The implants were distally locked by performing the newly proposed technique as well as the conventional freehand technique on each specimen. An orthopedic resident surgeon inserted four distal screws per procedure. Operating time, number of images and radiation time were recorded and statistically compared between interlocking techniques using non-parametric tests. Results A 58% reduction in number of taken images per screw was found for the guided freehand technique (7.4 ± 3.4) (mean ± SD) compared to the freehand technique (17.6 ± 10.3) (p < 0.001). Total radiation time (all 4 screws) was 55% lower for the guided freehand technique compared to conventional freehand (p = 0.001). Operating

  6. Reinforcing the role of the conventional C-arm--a novel method for simplified distal interlocking.

    PubMed

    Windolf, Markus; Schroeder, Josh; Fliri, Ladina; Dicht, Benno; Liebergall, Meir; Richards, R Geoff

    2012-01-25

    The common practice for insertion of distal locking screws of intramedullary nails is a freehand technique under fluoroscopic control. The process is technically demanding, time-consuming and afflicted to considerable radiation exposure of the patient and the surgical personnel. A new concept is introduced utilizing information from within conventional radiographic images to help accurately guide the surgeon to place the interlocking bolt into the interlocking hole. The newly developed technique was compared to conventional freehand in an operating room (OR) like setting on human cadaveric lower legs in terms of operating time and radiation exposure. The proposed concept (guided freehand), generally based on the freehand gold standard, additionally guides the surgeon by means of visible landmarks projected into the C-arm image. A computer program plans the correct drilling trajectory by processing the lens-shaped hole projections of the interlocking holes from a single image. Holes can be drilled by visually aligning the drill to the planned trajectory. Besides a conventional C-arm, no additional tracking or navigation equipment is required.Ten fresh frozen human below-knee specimens were instrumented with an Expert Tibial Nail (Synthes GmbH, Switzerland). The implants were distally locked by performing the newly proposed technique as well as the conventional freehand technique on each specimen. An orthopedic resident surgeon inserted four distal screws per procedure. Operating time, number of images and radiation time were recorded and statistically compared between interlocking techniques using non-parametric tests. A 58% reduction in number of taken images per screw was found for the guided freehand technique (7.4 ± 3.4) (mean ± SD) compared to the freehand technique (17.6 ± 10.3) (p < 0.001). Total radiation time (all 4 screws) was 55% lower for the guided freehand technique compared to conventional freehand (p = 0.001). Operating time per screw (from first

  7. Comparison of Nitinol Stapes Pistons with Conventional Stapes Pistons: A Cadaver Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Comparison of Nitinol Stapes Pistons with Conventional Stapes Pistons: A Cadaver Study Samuel A. Spear1 and James V. Crawford2 1 48th Medical Group, ENT...cited. Objective. To visually compare the Nitinol “smart” stapes prosthesis to conventional manual crimping stapes pistons in temporal bone cadaver...answer questions about each stapes piston. The answers to the survey were then recorded for analysis. Results. 8 of 9 Nitinol pistons were described as

  8. Web-based surveys as an alternative to traditional mail methods.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Christopher M; Bowden, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Environmental economists have long used surveys to gather information about people's preferences. A recent innovation in survey methodology has been the advent of web-based surveys. While the Internet appears to offer a promising alternative to conventional survey administration modes, concerns exist over potential sampling biases associated with web-based surveys and the effect these may have on valuation estimates. This paper compares results obtained from a travel cost questionnaire of visitors to Fraser Island, Australia, that was conducted using two alternate survey administration modes; conventional mail and web-based. It is found that response rates and the socio-demographic make-up of respondents to the two survey modes are not statistically different. Moreover, both modes yield similar consumer surplus estimates.

  9. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniel J.; LaFaive, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    From April 25 through June 30, 2007, the Mackinac Center for Public Policy conducted its fifth survey of the privatization of bus, food and janitorial services among Michigan's 552 conventional public school districts. All Michigan school districts responded. In 2007, the Mackinac Center also conducted a nationwide survey of state education…

  10. Environmental monitoring using autonomous vehicles: a survey of recent searching techniques.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Behzad; Crasta, Naveena; Crespi, Alessandro; Pascoal, António M; Ijspeert, Auke

    2017-06-01

    Autonomous vehicles are becoming an essential tool in a wide range of environmental applications that include ambient data acquisition, remote sensing, and mapping of the spatial extent of pollutant spills. Among these applications, pollution source localization has drawn increasing interest due to its scientific and commercial interest and the emergence of a new breed of robotic vehicles capable of operating in harsh environments without human supervision. The aim is to find the location of a region that is the source of a given substance of interest (e.g. a chemical pollutant at sea or a gas leakage in air) using a group of cooperative autonomous vehicles. Motivated by fast paced advances in this challenging area, this paper surveys recent advances in searching techniques that are at the core of environmental monitoring strategies using autonomous vehicles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Shape Sensing Techniques for Continuum Robots in Minimally Invasive Surgery: A Survey.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chaoyang; Luo, Xiongbiao; Qi, Peng; Li, Tianliang; Song, Shuang; Najdovski, Zoran; Fukuda, Toshio; Ren, Hongliang

    2017-08-01

    Continuum robots provide inherent structural compliance with high dexterity to access the surgical target sites along tortuous anatomical paths under constrained environments and enable to perform complex and delicate operations through small incisions in minimally invasive surgery. These advantages enable their broad applications with minimal trauma and make challenging clinical procedures possible with miniaturized instrumentation and high curvilinear access capabilities. However, their inherent deformable designs make it difficult to realize 3-D intraoperative real-time shape sensing to accurately model their shape. Solutions to this limitation can lead themselves to further develop closely associated techniques of closed-loop control, path planning, human-robot interaction, and surgical manipulation safety concerns in minimally invasive surgery. Although extensive model-based research that relies on kinematics and mechanics has been performed, accurate shape sensing of continuum robots remains challenging, particularly in cases of unknown and dynamic payloads. This survey investigates the recent advances in alternative emerging techniques for 3-D shape sensing in this field and focuses on the following categories: fiber-optic-sensor-based, electromagnetic-tracking-based, and intraoperative imaging modality-based shape-reconstruction methods. The limitations of existing technologies and prospects of new technologies are also discussed.

  12. Intraseptal anesthesia: a review of a relevant injection technique.

    PubMed

    Woodmansey, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Although overshadowed by intraosseous anesthesia and the periodontal ligament injection, intraseptal anesthesia remains a useful local anesthesia technique for general dentists. Intraseptal anesthesia can be employed with safety and efficacy as an alternative to conventional local infiltration or regional nerve block injections. It also can serve as an adjunctive technique when conventional techniques fail to achieve adequate local anesthesia. This article reviews the intraseptal anesthesia technique, including its indications and limitations.

  13. 12 CFR 906.5 - Monthly interest rate survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Monthly interest rate survey. 906.5 Section 906... OPERATIONS OPERATIONS Monthly Interest Rate Survey (MIRS) § 906.5 Monthly interest rate survey. The Finance Board conducts its Monthly Survey of Rates and Terms on Conventional One-Family Non-farm Mortgage Loans...

  14. Integrating Geological and Geodetic Surveying Techniques for Landslide Deformation Monitoring: Istanbul Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menteşe, E. Y.; Kilic, O.; BAS, M.; Tarih, A.; Duran, K.; Gumus, S.; Yapar, E. R.; Karasu, M. E.; Mehmetoğlu, H.; Karaman, A.; Edi˙ger, V.; Kosma, R. C.; Ozalaybey, S.; Zor, E.; Arpat, E.; Polat, F.; Dogan, U.; Cakir, Z.; Erkan, B.

    2017-12-01

    There are several methods that can be utilized for describing the landslide mechanisms. While some of them are commonly used, there are relatively new methods that have been proven to be useful. Obviously, each method has its own limitations and thus integrated use of these methods contributes to obtaining a realistic landslide model. The slopes of Küçükçekmece and Büyükçekmece Lagoons located at the Marmara Sea coast of İstanbul, Turkey, are among most specific examples of complex type landslides. The landslides in the area started developing at low sea level, and appears to ceased or at least slowed down to be at minimum after the sea level rise, as oppose to the still-active landslides that continue to cause damage especially in the valley slopes above the recent sea level between the two lagoons. To clarify the characteristics of these slope movements and classify them in most accurate way, Directorate of Earthquake and Ground Research of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality launched a project in cooperation with Marmara Research Center of The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK). The project benefits the utility of the techniques of different disciplines such as geology, geophysics, geomorphology, hydrogeology, geotechnics, geodesy, remote sensing and meteorology. Specifically, this study focuses on two main axes of these techniques, namely: geological and geodetic. The reason for selecting these disciplines is because of their efficiency and power to understand the landslide mechanism in the area. Main approaches used in these studies are comprised of geological drills, inclinometer measurements, GPS surveys and SAR (both satellite and ground based) techniques. Integration of the results gathered from these techniques led the project team to comprehend critical aspects of landslide phenomenon in the area and produce precise landslide hazard maps that are basic instruments for a resilient urban development.

  15. Liposomal Bupivacaine Injection Technique in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Meneghini, R Michael; Bagsby, Deren; Ireland, Philip H; Ziemba-Davis, Mary; Lovro, Luke R

    2017-01-01

    Liposomal bupivacaine has gained popularity for pain control after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), yet its true efficacy remains unproven. We compared the efficacy of two different periarticular injection (PAI) techniques for liposomal bupivacaine with a conventional PAI control group. This retrospective cohort study compared consecutive patients undergoing TKA with a manufacturer-recommended, optimized injection technique for liposomal bupivacaine, a traditional injection technique for liposomal bupivacaine, and a conventional PAI of ropivacaine, morphine, and epinephrine. The optimized technique utilized a smaller gauge needle and more injection sites. Self-reported pain scores, rescue opioids, and side effects were compared. There were 41 patients in the liposomal bupivacaine optimized injection group, 60 in the liposomal bupivacaine traditional injection group, and 184 in the conventional PAI control group. PAI liposomal bupivacaine delivered via manufacturer-recommended technique offered no benefit over PAI ropivacaine, morphine, and epinephrine. Mean pain scores and the proportions reporting no or mild pain, time to first opioid, and amount of opioids consumed were not better with PAI liposomal bupivacaine compared with PAI ropivacaine, morphine, and epinephrine. The use of the manufacturer-recommended technique for PAI of liposomal bupivacaine does not offer benefit over a conventional, less expensive PAI during TKA. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. On estimating gravity anomalies - A comparison of least squares collocation with conventional least squares techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argentiero, P.; Lowrey, B.

    1977-01-01

    The least squares collocation algorithm for estimating gravity anomalies from geodetic data is shown to be an application of the well known regression equations which provide the mean and covariance of a random vector (gravity anomalies) given a realization of a correlated random vector (geodetic data). It is also shown that the collocation solution for gravity anomalies is equivalent to the conventional least-squares-Stokes' function solution when the conventional solution utilizes properly weighted zero a priori estimates. The mathematical and physical assumptions underlying the least squares collocation estimator are described.

  17. Conventional and dense gas techniques for the production of liposomes: a review.

    PubMed

    Meure, Louise A; Foster, Neil R; Dehghani, Fariba

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this review paper is to compare the potential of various techniques developed for production of homogenous, stable liposomes. Traditional techniques, such as Bangham, detergent depletion, ether/ethanol injection, reverse-phase evaporation and emulsion methods, were compared with the recent advanced techniques developed for liposome formation. The major hurdles for scaling up the traditional methods are the consumption of large quantities of volatile organic solvent, the stability and homogeneity of the liposomal product, as well as the lengthy multiple steps involved. The new methods have been designed to alleviate the current issues for liposome formulation. Dense gas liposome techniques are still in their infancy, however they have remarkable advantages in reducing the use of organic solvents, providing fast, single-stage production and producing stable, uniform liposomes. Techniques such as the membrane contactor and heating methods are also promising as they eliminate the use of organic solvent, however high temperature is still required for processing.

  18. Awareness and use of non-conventional tobacco products among U.S. students, 2012.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baoguang; King, Brian A; Corey, Catherine G; Arrazola, René A; Johnson, Sarah E

    2014-08-01

    Increasing diversity of the tobacco product landscape, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), hookah, snus, and dissolvable tobacco products (dissolvables), raises concerns about the public health impact of these non-conventional tobacco products among youth. This study assessed awareness, ever use, and current use of non-conventional tobacco products among U.S. students in 2012, overall and by demographic and tobacco use characteristics. Data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative survey of U.S. middle and high school students, were analyzed in 2013. Prevalence of awareness, ever use, and current use of e-cigarettes, hookah, snus, and dissolvables were calculated overall and by sex, school level, race/ethnicity, and conventional tobacco product use, including cigarettes, cigars, or smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip). Overall, 50.3% of students were aware of e-cigarettes; prevalence of ever and current use of e-cigarettes was 6.8% and 2.1%, respectively. Awareness of hookah was 41.2% among all students, and that of ever and current use were 8.9% and 3.6%, respectively. Overall awareness; ever; and current use of snus (32%, 5.3%, 1.7%, respectively) and dissolvables (19.3%, 2.0%, 0.7%, respectively) were generally lower than those of e-cigarettes or hookah. Conventional tobacco product users were more likely to be aware of and to use non-conventional tobacco products. Many U.S. students are aware of and use non-conventional tobacco products. Evidence-based interventions should be implemented to prevent and reduce all tobacco use among youth. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Awareness and Use of Non-conventional Tobacco Products Among U.S. Students, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baoguang; King, Brian A.; Corey, Catherine G.; Arrazola, René A.; Johnson, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing diversity of the tobacco product landscape, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), hookah, snus, and dissolvable tobacco products (dissolvables), raises concerns about the public health impact of these non-conventional tobacco products among youth. Purpose This study assessed awareness, ever use, and current use of non-conventional tobacco products among U.S. students in 2012, overall and by demographic and tobacco use characteristics. Methods Data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative survey of U.S. middle and high school students, were analyzed in 2013. Prevalence of awareness, ever use, and current use of e-cigarettes, hookah, snus, and dissolvables were calculated overall and by sex, school level, race/ethnicity, and conventional tobacco product use, including cigarettes, cigars, or smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip). Results Overall, 50.3% of students were aware of e-cigarettes; prevalence of ever and current use of e-cigarettes was 6.8% and 2.1%, respectively. Awareness of hookah was 41.2% among all students, and that of ever and current use were 8.9% and 3.6%, respectively. Overall awareness; ever; and current use of snus (32%, 5.3%, 1.7%, respectively) and dissolvables (19.3%, 2.0%, 0.7%, respectively) were generally lower than those of e-cigarettes or hookah. Conventional tobacco product users were more likely to be aware of and to use non-conventional tobacco products. Conclusions Many U.S. students are aware of and use non-conventional tobacco products. Evidence-based interventions should be implemented to prevent and reduce all tobacco use among youth. PMID:25044194

  20. Basin Visual Estimation Technique (BVET) and Representative Reach Approaches to Wadeable Stream Surveys: Methodological Limitations and Future Directions

    Treesearch

    Lance R. Williams; Melvin L. Warren; Susan B. Adams; Joseph L. Arvai; Christopher M. Taylor

    2004-01-01

    Basin Visual Estimation Techniques (BVET) are used to estimate abundance for fish populations in small streams. With BVET, independent samples are drawn from natural habitat units in the stream rather than sampling "representative reaches." This sampling protocol provides an alternative to traditional reach-level surveys, which are criticized for their lack...

  1. Comparison of piezosurgery and conventional rotative instruments in direct sinus lifting.

    PubMed

    Delilbasi, Cagri; Gurler, Gokhan

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the intraoperative and postoperative effects of Piezosurgery and conventional rotative instruments in direct sinus lifting procedure. Twenty-three patients requiring direct sinus lifting were enrolled. The osteotomy and sinus membrane elevation were performed either with Piezosurgery tips or rotative diamond burs and manual membrane elevators. Time elapsed between bony window opening and completion of membrane elevation (duration), incidence of membrane perforation, visibility of the operation site, postoperative pain, swelling, sleeping, eating, phonetics, daily routine, and missed work as well as patient's expectation before and experience after the operation were evaluated. There was no significant difference between Piezosurgery and conventional groups regarding incidence of membrane perforation, duration, and operation site visibility as well as patient's expectation before and experience after the operation (P > 0.05). However, there were significantly more pain and swelling in the conventional group compared with the Piezosurgery group (P ≤ 0.05). Sinus lifting procedure performed with Piezosurgery causes less pain and swelling postoperatively compared with conventional technique. Patients' daily life activities and experience about the operation are not affected from the surgical technique.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources of the Baltic Depression Province, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 282 million barrels of conventional oil, 576 billion cubic feet of conventional gas, 1.3 billion barrels of continuous oil, and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Baltic Depression Province.

  3. Discrepancies between upper GI symptoms described by those who have them and their identification by conventional medical terminology: a survey of sufferers in four countries.

    PubMed

    Heading, Robert C; Thomas, Edward C M; Sandy, Phil; Smith, Gary; Fass, Ronnie; Hungin, Pali S

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a self-administered questionnaire for upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms using lay vocabulary uninfluenced by established medical terminology or concepts and to conduct a survey of symptom occurrence among sufferers in four countries. The questionnaire was designed by integrating information gained from the vocabulary used by 38 upper GI symptom sufferers. There was no medical input to its development. The questionnaire was then used, after appropriate translation, in Brazil, Russia, the UK and the USA. Details of 10 659 symptom episodes were obtained from 2665 individuals. Nine symptoms described in lay vocabulary were identified during questionnaire development. Of these, one corresponded to regurgitation, whereas two that were distinguished by survey participants might both be interpreted as heartburn. One chest symptom for which a corresponding medical term was uncertain occurred in ∼30% of the respondents. Five different 'stomach' or abdominal symptoms were identified. The predominant symptom and the pattern of concurrent symptoms often varied from one symptom episode to another. Use of the terms 'heartburn', 'reflux', 'indigestion' and 'burning stomach' to describe symptoms varied between countries. Some common upper GI symptoms described by those who suffer them have no clear counterpart in conventional medical terminology. Inadequacy of the conventional terminology in this respect deserves attention, first, to characterize it fully, and thereafter to construct enquiry that delivers more precise symptom identification. Our results suggest that improvement may require the use of vocabulary of individuals suffering the symptoms without imposing conformity with established symptom concepts.

  4. Discrepancies between upper GI symptoms described by those who have them and their identification by conventional medical terminology: a survey of sufferers in four countries

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Edward C.M.; Sandy, Phil; Smith, Gary; Fass, Ronnie; Hungin, Pali S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to develop a self-administered questionnaire for upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms using lay vocabulary uninfluenced by established medical terminology or concepts and to conduct a survey of symptom occurrence among sufferers in four countries. Methods The questionnaire was designed by integrating information gained from the vocabulary used by 38 upper GI symptom sufferers. There was no medical input to its development. The questionnaire was then used, after appropriate translation, in Brazil, Russia, the UK and the USA. Details of 10 659 symptom episodes were obtained from 2665 individuals. Results Nine symptoms described in lay vocabulary were identified during questionnaire development. Of these, one corresponded to regurgitation, whereas two that were distinguished by survey participants might both be interpreted as heartburn. One chest symptom for which a corresponding medical term was uncertain occurred in ∼30% of the respondents. Five different ‘stomach’ or abdominal symptoms were identified. The predominant symptom and the pattern of concurrent symptoms often varied from one symptom episode to another. Use of the terms ‘heartburn’, ‘reflux’, ‘indigestion’ and ‘burning stomach’ to describe symptoms varied between countries. Conclusion Some common upper GI symptoms described by those who suffer them have no clear counterpart in conventional medical terminology. Inadequacy of the conventional terminology in this respect deserves attention, first, to characterize it fully, and thereafter to construct enquiry that delivers more precise symptom identification. Our results suggest that improvement may require the use of vocabulary of individuals suffering the symptoms without imposing conformity with established symptom concepts. PMID:26735161

  5. Survey of Biochemical Separation Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Melanie R.

    2007-01-01

    A simple laboratory exercise is illustrated that exposes students to wide range of separation techniques in one laboratory program and provides a nice complement to a project-oriented program. Students have learned the basic principles of syringe filtration, centricon, dialysis, gel filtration and solid-phase extraction methodologies and have got…

  6. Digital versus conventional implant impressions for partially edentulous arches: An evaluation of accuracy.

    PubMed

    Marghalani, Amin; Weber, Hans-Peter; Finkelman, Matthew; Kudara, Yukio; El Rafie, Khaled; Papaspyridakos, Panos

    2018-04-01

    To the authors' knowledge, while accuracy outcomes of the TRIOS scanner have been compared with conventional impressions, no available data are available regarding the accuracy of digital scans with the Omnicam and True Definition scanners versus conventional impressions for partially edentulous arches. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the accuracy of digital implant scans using 2 different intraoral scanners (IOSs) with that of conventional impressions for partially edentulous arches. Two partially edentulous mandibular casts with 2 implant analogs with a 30-degree angulation from 2 different implant systems (Replace Select RP; Nobel Biocare and Tissue level RN; Straumann) were used as controls. Sixty digital models were made from these 2 definitive casts in 6 different groups (n=10). Splinted implant-level impression procedures followed by digitization were used to produce the first 2 groups. The next 2 groups were produced by digital scanning with Omnicam. The last 2 groups were produced by digital scanning with the True Definition scanner. Accuracy was evaluated by superimposing the digital files of each test group onto the digital file of the controls with inspection software. The difference in 3-dimensional (3D) deviations (median ±interquartile range) among the 3 impression groups for Nobel Biocare was statistically significant among all groups (P<.001), except for the Omnicam (20 ±4 μm) and True Definition (15 ±6 μm) groups; the median ±interquartile range for the conventional group was 39 ±18 μm. The difference in 3D deviations among the 3 impression groups for Straumann was statistically significant among all groups (P=.003), except for the conventional impression (22 ±5 μm) and True Definition (17 ±5 μm) groups; the median ±interquartile range for the Omnicam group was 26 ±15 μm. The difference in 3D deviations between the 2 implant systems was significant for the Omnicam (P=.011) and conventional (P<.001) impression

  7. Differentiating organic from conventional peppermints using chromatographic and flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting techniques were tested for their potential in differentiating organic and conventional peppermint samples. Ten organic and ten conventional peppermint samples were examined using HPLC-UV and FI...

  8. [Pharmaceutical counseling of non-conventional dosage forms concerning the health-literacy and the patient adherence in public medication dispensing -Questionnaire surveys in Hungarian community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, O; Zelko, R

    Although the non-conventional dosage forms (e.g. modified release per oral systems or transdermal patches) have more significant advantages than other conventional dosage forms, the pa- tients have to apply them correctly in their home medicine using to reach the effective and safe therapy. A guideline of relevant application instructions contribute to development of an effective pharmaceutical counseling in community pharmacies. The counseling and advices can improve the patients' knowledge concerning application rules of different new dosage forms (health- literacy) with patient adherence. Finally it will result more effective and safer therapies. The aim of our Hungarian questionnaire surveys was to explore the patients' drug application habits or application errors and improve special verbal counseling of mentioned non-conventional dosage forms in community pharmacies. Understandable patient information leaflets were developed about application rules and besides the levels of patients' reading comprehension was evaluated in case of the leaflet of medicinal patches. The results show that a properly developed text is useful for the majority of patients but they need the verbal explanation as well, moreover there is a demand for the verbal counseling in community pharmacies. The most common application errors were explored and the most effective instructions or application rules were collected for the pharmacists and patients concerning the modified release tablets or capsules and transdermal patches.

  9. The Sine Method: An Alternative Height Measurement Technique

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg; Lee E. Frelich; Robert T. Leverett; Will Blozan; Dale J. Luthringer

    2011-01-01

    Height is one of the most important dimensions of trees, but few observers are fully aware of the consequences of the misapplication of conventional height measurement techniques. A new approach, the sine method, can improve height measurement by being less sensitive to the requirements of conventional techniques (similar triangles and the tangent method). We studied...

  10. Survey Of High Speed Test Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheewala, Tushar

    1988-02-01

    The emerging technologies for the characterization and production testing of high-speed devices and integrated circuits are reviewed. The continuing progress in the field of semiconductor technologies will, in the near future, demand test techniques to test 10ps to lOOps gate delays, 10 GHz to 100 GHz analog functions and 10,000 to 100,000 gates on a single chip. Clearly, no single test technique would provide a cost-effective answer to all the above demands. A divide-and-conquer approach based on a judicial selection of parametric, functional and high-speed tests will be required. In addition, design-for-test methods need to be pursued which will include on-chip test electronics as well as circuit techniques that minimize the circuit performance sensitivity to allowable process variations. The electron and laser beam based test technologies look very promising and may provide the much needed solutions to not only the high-speed test problem but also to the need for high levels of fault coverage during functional testing.

  11. Marginal discrepancy dimensions of single unit metal crowns fabricated by using CAD-CAM-milled acrylate resin polymer blocks or a conventional waxing technique.

    PubMed

    Lalande, David; Hodd, Jeffrey A; Brousseau, John S; Ramos, Van; Dunham, Daniel; Rueggeberg, Frederick

    2017-10-14

    Because crowns with open margins are a well-known problem and can lead to complications, it is important to assess the accuracy of margins resulting from the use of a new technique. Currently, data regarding the marginal fit of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology to fabricate a complete gold crown (CGC) from a castable acrylate resin polymer block are lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare marginal discrepancy widths of CGCs fabricated by using either conventional hand waxing or acrylate resin polymer blocks generated by using CAD-CAM technology. A plastic model of a first mandibular molar was prepared by using a 1-mm, rounded chamfer margin on the entire circumference of the tooth. The master die was duplicated 30 times, and 15 wax patterns were fabricated by using a manual waxing technique, and 15 were fabricated by using CAD-CAM technology. All patterns were invested and cast, and resulting CGCs were cemented on their respective die by using resin-modified glass ionomer cement. The specimens were then embedded in acrylic resin and sectioned buccolingually. The buccal and lingual marginal discrepancies of each sectioned portion were measured by using microscopy at ×50 magnification. Data were subjected to repeated measures 2-way ANOVA, by using the Tukey post hoc pairwise comparison test (α=.05). The factor of "technique" had no significant influence on marginal discrepancy measurement (P=.431), but a significant effect of "margin location" (P=.019) was noted. The confounding combination of factors was found to be significantly lower marginal discrepancy dimensions of the lingual margin discrepancy than on the buccal side by using CAD-CAM technology. The marginal discrepancy of CAD-CAM acrylate resin crowns was not significantly different from those made with a conventional manual method; however, lingual margin discrepancies present from CAD-CAM-prepared crowns were significantly less than those

  12. 10 CFR 429.23 - Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave... Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for... and microwave ovens; and (2) For each basic model of conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens and...

  13. 10 CFR 429.23 - Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave... Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for... and microwave ovens; and (2) For each basic model of conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens and...

  14. 10 CFR 429.23 - Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave... Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for... and microwave ovens; and (2) For each basic model of conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens and...

  15. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC): the case for the Seychelles.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Bharathi; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira; Bovet, Pascal

    2008-09-01

    Tobacco control has been recognized as a main public health concern in Seychelles for the past two decades. Tobacco advertising, sponsoring and promotion has been banned for years, tobacco products are submitted to high taxes, high-profile awareness programs are organized regularly, and several other control measures have been implemented. The Republic of Seychelles was the first country to ratify the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in the African region. Three population-based surveys have been conducted in adults in Seychelles and results showed a substantial decrease in the prevalence of smoking among adults between 1989 and 2004. A first survey in adolescents was conducted in Seychelles in 2002 (the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, GYTS) in a representative sample of 1321 girls and boys aged 13-15 years. The results show that approximately half of students had tried smoking and a quarter of both boys and girls had smoked at least one cigarette during the past 30 days. Although "current smoking" is defined differently in adolescents (>or=1 cigarette during the past 30 days) and in adults (>or=1 cigarette per day), which precludes direct comparison, the high smoking prevalence in youth in Seychelles likely predicts an increasing prevalence of tobacco use in the next adult generation, particularly in women. GYTS 2002 also provides important data on a wide range of specific individual and societal factors influencing tobacco use. Hence, GYTS can be a powerful tool for monitoring the situation of tobacco use in adolescents, for highlighting the need for new policy and programs, and for evaluating the impact of current and future programs.

  16. Wallerian Degeneration Beyond the Corticospinal Tracts: Conventional and Advanced MRI Findings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yin Jie; Nabavizadeh, Seyed Ali; Vossough, Arastoo; Kumar, Sunil; Loevner, Laurie A; Mohan, Suyash

    2017-05-01

    Wallerian degeneration (WD) is defined as progressive anterograde disintegration of axons and accompanying demyelination after an injury to the proximal axon or cell body. Since the 1980s and 1990s, conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences have been shown to be sensitive to changes of WD in the subacute to chronic phases. More recently, advanced MRI techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), have demonstrated some of earliest changes attributed to acute WD, typically on the order of days. In addition, there is increasing evidence on the value of advanced MRI techniques in providing important prognostic information related to WD. This article reviews the utility of conventional and advanced MRI techniques for assessing WD, by focusing not only on the corticospinal tract but also other neural tracts less commonly thought of, including corticopontocerebellar tract, dentate-rubro-olivary pathway, posterior column of the spinal cord, corpus callosum, limbic circuit, and optic pathway. The basic anatomy of these neural pathways will be discussed, followed by a comprehensive review of existing literature supported by instructive clinical examples. The goal of this review is for readers to become more familiar with both conventional and advanced MRI findings of WD involving important neural pathways, as well as to illustrate increasing utility of advanced MRI techniques in providing important prognostic information for various pathologies. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  17. Microbiological monitoring of guinea pigs reared conventionally at two breeding facilities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baek, Min-Won; Lee, Hui-Young; Kim, Dong-Jae; Cho, Jung-Sik; Kim, Chuel-Kyu; Hwang, Dae-Youn; Park, Jae-Hak

    2006-10-01

    In this study, microbiological monitoring of guinea pigs reared conventionally in two facilities was performed twice in 2004, with a three-month-interval between surveys. This study was based on the recommendations of the FELASA Working Group, with some modifications. In serological tests in the first survey, some animals from facility A showed positive results for Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Sendai virus, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), and Reovirus-3 (Reo-3); facility B showed a positive result only for E. cuniculi. The results of the second survey were similar to the first, except for the presence of Sendai virus; all animals from the two facilities were Sendai virus-negative in the second experiment. No pathogenic bacteria were cultured in the organs of any of the animals in the first survey. However, in the second survey, Bordetella bronchiseptica was cultured from the lung tissue of two 10-week-old animals from facility A. Chlamydial infection was examined by the Macchiavello method, but no animal showed positive results. Tests using fecal flotation or the KOH wet mount method showed no infection of endoparasites, protozoa, ectoparasites, or dermatophytes in any animal in both surveys. However, in the histopathological examination, an infection of protozoa-like organisms was observed in the cecum of some animals from facility A. The present study revealed that microbiological contamination was present in guinea pigs reared conventionally in two facilities in Korea, suggesting that there is a need to improve environmental conditions in order to eradicate microbial contamination.

  18. Telephone survey to investigate relationships between onychectomy or onychectomy technique and house soiling in cats.

    PubMed

    Gerard, Amanda F; Larson, Mandy; Baldwin, Claudia J; Petersen, Christine

    2016-09-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether associations existed between onychectomy or onychectomy technique and house soiling in cats. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE 281 owners of 455 cats in Polk County, Iowa, identified via a list of randomly selected residential phone numbers of cat owners in that region. PROCEDURES A telephone survey was conducted to collect information from cat owners on factors hypothesized a priori to be associated with house soiling, including cat sex, reproductive status, medical history, and onychectomy history. When cats that had undergone onychectomy were identified, data were collected regarding the cat's age at the time of the procedure and whether a carbon dioxide laser (CDL) had been used. Information on history of house soiling behavior (urinating or defecating outside the litter box) was also collected. RESULTS Onychectomy technique was identified as a risk factor for house soiling. Cats for which a non-CDL technique was used had a higher risk of house soiling than cats for which the CDL technique was used. Cats that had undergone onychectomy and that lived in a multicat (3 to 5 cats) household were more than 3 times as likely to have house soiled as were single-housed cats with intact claws. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this cross-sectional study suggested that use of the CDL technique for onychectomy could decrease the risk of house soiling by cats relative to the risk associated with other techniques. This and other findings can be used to inform the decisions of owners and veterinarians when considering elective onychectomy for cats.

  19. Is integrative use of techniques in psychotherapy the exception or the rule? Results of a national survey of doctoral-level practitioners.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Nathan C; Cecero, John J

    2009-12-01

    This study sought to investigate the extent to which therapists endorse techniques outside of their self-identified orientation and which techniques are endorsed across orientations. A survey consisting of 127 techniques from 8 major theories of psychotherapy was administered via U.S. mail to a national random sample of doctoral-level psychotherapy practitioners. The 201 participants endorsed substantial numbers of techniques from outside their respective orientations. Many of these techniques were quite different from those of the core theories of the respective orientations. Further examining when and why experienced practitioners switch to techniques outside their primary orientation may help reveal where certain techniques fall short and where others excel, indicating a need for further research that taps the collective experience of practitioners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Accuracy of pedicle screw insertion in the thoracic and lumbar spine: a comparative study between percutaneous screw insertion and conventional open technique.

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi, Hiroko; Ikuta, Ko

    2016-09-01

    In the last decade, posterior instrumented fusion using percutaneous pedicle screws (PPSs) had been growing in popularity, and its safety and good clinical results have been reported. However, there have been few previous reports of the accuracy of PPS placement compared with that of conventional open screw insertion in an institution. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of PPS placement compared with that of conventional open technique. One hundred patients were treated with posterior instrumented fusion of the thoracic and lumbar spine from April 2008 to July 2013. Four cases of revised instrumentation surgery were excluded. In this study, the pedicle screws inserted below Th7 were investigated, therefore, a total of 455 screws were enrolled. Two hundred and ninety-three pedicle screws were conventional open-inserted screws (O-group) and 162 screws were PPSs (P-group). We conducted a comparative study about the accuracy of placement between the two groups. Postoperative computed tomography scans were carried out to all patients, and the pedicle screw position was assessed according to a scoring system described by Zdichavsky et al. (Eur J Trauma 30:241-247, 2004; Eur J Trauma 30:234-240, 2004) and a classification described by Wiesner et al. (Spine 24:1599-1603, 1999). Based on Zdichavsky's scoring system, the number of grade Ia screws was 283 (96.6 %) in the O-group and 153 (94.4 %) in the P-group, whereas 5 screws (1.7 %) in the O-group and one screw (0.6 %) in the P-group were grade IIIa/IIIb. Meanwhile, the pedicle wall penetrations based on Wiesner classification were demonstrated in 20 screws (6.8 %) in the O-group, and 12 screws (7.4 %) in the P-group. No neurologic complications were observed and no screws had to be replaced in both groups. The PPSs could be ideally inserted without complications. There were no statistically significant differences about the accuracy between the conventional open insertion and PPS placement.

  1. Search Techniques for the Web of Things: A Taxonomy and Survey.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuchao; De, Suparna; Wang, Wei; Moessner, Klaus

    2016-04-27

    The Web of Things aims to make physical world objects and their data accessible through standard Web technologies to enable intelligent applications and sophisticated data analytics. Due to the amount and heterogeneity of the data, it is challenging to perform data analysis directly; especially when the data is captured from a large number of distributed sources. However, the size and scope of the data can be reduced and narrowed down with search techniques, so that only the most relevant and useful data items are selected according to the application requirements. Search is fundamental to the Web of Things while challenging by nature in this context, e.g., mobility of the objects, opportunistic presence and sensing, continuous data streams with changing spatial and temporal properties, efficient indexing for historical and real time data. The research community has developed numerous techniques and methods to tackle these problems as reported by a large body of literature in the last few years. A comprehensive investigation of the current and past studies is necessary to gain a clear view of the research landscape and to identify promising future directions. This survey reviews the state-of-the-art search methods for the Web of Things, which are classified according to three different viewpoints: basic principles, data/knowledge representation, and contents being searched. Experiences and lessons learned from the existing work and some EU research projects related to Web of Things are discussed, and an outlook to the future research is presented.

  2. Search Techniques for the Web of Things: A Taxonomy and Survey

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuchao; De, Suparna; Wang, Wei; Moessner, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The Web of Things aims to make physical world objects and their data accessible through standard Web technologies to enable intelligent applications and sophisticated data analytics. Due to the amount and heterogeneity of the data, it is challenging to perform data analysis directly; especially when the data is captured from a large number of distributed sources. However, the size and scope of the data can be reduced and narrowed down with search techniques, so that only the most relevant and useful data items are selected according to the application requirements. Search is fundamental to the Web of Things while challenging by nature in this context, e.g., mobility of the objects, opportunistic presence and sensing, continuous data streams with changing spatial and temporal properties, efficient indexing for historical and real time data. The research community has developed numerous techniques and methods to tackle these problems as reported by a large body of literature in the last few years. A comprehensive investigation of the current and past studies is necessary to gain a clear view of the research landscape and to identify promising future directions. This survey reviews the state-of-the-art search methods for the Web of Things, which are classified according to three different viewpoints: basic principles, data/knowledge representation, and contents being searched. Experiences and lessons learned from the existing work and some EU research projects related to Web of Things are discussed, and an outlook to the future research is presented. PMID:27128918

  3. In vivo precision of conventional and digital methods of obtaining complete-arch dental impressions.

    PubMed

    Ender, Andreas; Attin, Thomas; Mehl, Albert

    2016-03-01

    Digital impression systems have undergone significant development in recent years, but few studies have investigated the accuracy of the technique in vivo, particularly compared with conventional impression techniques. The purpose of this in vivo study was to investigate the precision of conventional and digital methods for complete-arch impressions. Complete-arch impressions were obtained using 5 conventional (polyether, POE; vinylsiloxanether, VSE; direct scannable vinylsiloxanether, VSES; digitized scannable vinylsiloxanether, VSES-D; and irreversible hydrocolloid, ALG) and 7 digital (CEREC Bluecam, CER; CEREC Omnicam, OC; Cadent iTero, ITE; Lava COS, LAV; Lava True Definition Scanner, T-Def; 3Shape Trios, TRI; and 3Shape Trios Color, TRC) techniques. Impressions were made 3 times each in 5 participants (N=15). The impressions were then compared within and between the test groups. The cast surfaces were measured point-to-point using the signed nearest neighbor method. Precision was calculated from the (90%-10%)/2 percentile value. The precision ranged from 12.3 μm (VSE) to 167.2 μm (ALG), with the highest precision in the VSE and VSES groups. The deviation pattern varied distinctly according to the impression method. Conventional impressions showed the highest accuracy across the complete dental arch in all groups, except for the ALG group. Conventional and digital impression methods differ significantly in the complete-arch accuracy. Digital impression systems had higher local deviations within the complete arch cast; however, they achieve equal and higher precision than some conventional impression materials. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Instantaneous Conventions

    PubMed Central

    Misyak, Jennifer; Noguchi, Takao; Chater, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Humans can communicate even with few existing conventions in common (e.g., when they lack a shared language). We explored what makes this phenomenon possible with a nonlinguistic experimental task requiring participants to coordinate toward a common goal. We observed participants creating new communicative conventions using the most minimal possible signals. These conventions, furthermore, changed on a trial-by-trial basis in response to shared environmental and task constraints. Strikingly, as a result, signals of the same form successfully conveyed contradictory messages from trial to trial. Such behavior is evidence for the involvement of what we term joint inference, in which social interactants spontaneously infer the most sensible communicative convention in light of the common ground between them. Joint inference may help to elucidate how communicative conventions emerge instantaneously and how they are modified and reshaped into the elaborate systems of conventions involved in human communication, including natural languages. PMID:27793986

  5. Results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey and implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) countries.

    PubMed

    Usmanova, Gulnoza; Mokdad, Ali H

    2013-12-01

    We used Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data collected over time to monitor articles of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) in WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). The GYTS is a school-based survey, conducted in 23 countries in WHO EMR countries from 1999-2008. The prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use was high compared to cigarette use in all countries. In general, the following changes were observed between baseline and repeated surveys: in five countries fewer youth supported a ban on smoking in public places. In four countries more youth saw actors smoking on TV and were exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS) outside of home. Fewer youth were offered free cigarettes in ten countries; in eight countries youth saw less advertisement on TV; in seven countries youth had fewer items with a tobacco logo, discussed more reasons for smoking and dangers of smoking, and were less exposed to SHS at home; in six countries youth saw less advertisement at sports events. The GYTS data can be used for monitoring, evaluation of national tobacco control plans and defining future directions for tobacco control. Copyright © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of Implant Stability Using Resonance Frequency Analysis: Osteotome Versus Conventional Drilling

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Rokhsareh; Miremadi, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Implant primary stability is one of the important factors in achieving implant success. The osteotome technique may improve primary stability in patients with poor bone quality. The aim of this study was to compare implant stability using two different techniques namely osteotome versus conventional drilling in the posterior maxilla. Materials and Methods: In this controlled randomized clinical trial, 54 dental implants were placed in 32 patients; 29 implants were placed in the osteotome group and 25 in the conventional drilling group. Implant stability was assessed at four time intervals namely at baseline, one, two and three months after implant placement using resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Results: Primary stability based on implant stability quotient (ISQ) units was 71.4±7 for the osteotome group and 67.4±10 for the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in implant stability at any of the measurement times. In each group, changes in implant stability from baseline to one month and also from two months to three months post-operatively were not significant but from one month to two months after implant placement, implant stability showed a significant increase in both groups. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that in both techniques, good implant stability was achieved and osteotome technique did not have any advantage compared to conventional drilling in this regard. PMID:27148375

  7. Non-conventional technologies for data collection in Brazilian dissertations and theses.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Pétala Tuani Candido de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Cláudia Cristiane Filgueira Martins; de Lima, Kálya Yasmine Nunes; Alves, Kisna Yasmin Andrade; Santos, Viviane Euzébia Pereira

    2015-01-01

    to characterize non-conventional technologies used for data collection of dissertations and theses available in the Catalog of Theses and Dissertations (CEPEn) of the Brazilian Nursing Association (ABEn). this is a documentary research, whose data were collected in the catalogs of theses and dissertations available at the ABEn website, from Volumes XIX to XXI. The indicators collected were: academic level; educational institution; year; qualification of the author; setting; non-conventional technology used; type of technology; association with conventional techniques; methodological design; benefits and methodological limitations. from a total of 6346 studies, only 121 (1.91%) used non-conventional technologies for data collection, representing the fi nal sample of the study. it is concluded that Brazilian Nursing researches still need methodological innovations for data collection.

  8. Directly coupled vs conventional time domain reflectometry in soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR), a technique for estimation of soil water, measures the travel time of an electromagnetic pulse on electrodes embedded in the soil, but has limited application in commercial agriculture due to costs, labor, and sensing depth. Conventional TDR systems have employed ana...

  9. [Nuclear techniques in nutrition: assessment of body fat and intake of human milk in breast-fed infants].

    PubMed

    Pallaro, Anabel; Tarducci, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    The application of nuclear techniques in the area of nutrition is safe because they use stable isotopes. The deuterium dilution method is used in body composition and human milk intake analysis. It is a reference method for body fat and validates inexpensive tools because of its accuracy, simplicity of application in individuals and population and the background of its usefulness in adults and children as an evaluation tool in clinical and health programs. It is a non-invasive technique as it uses saliva, which facilitates the assessment in pediatric populations. Changes in body fat are associated with non-communicable diseases; moreover, normal weight individuals with high fat deposition were reported. Furthermore, this technique is the only accurate way to determine whether infants are exclusively breast-fed and validate conventional methods based on surveys to mothers.

  10. A comparison of survey techniques on sensitive sexual behavior in Italy.

    PubMed

    Caltabiano, Marcantonio; Dalla-Zuanna, Gianpiero

    2013-01-01

    This article compares two national surveys carried out through the most commonly used procedures in Italy: CATI (computer-assisted telephone interviews) and SAQ-FI (self-answered questionnaires following interviews). Both surveys ask two identical questions concerning sensitive sexual behavior: early age at first intercourse and same-sex attraction. The SAQ-FI survey had both unit non-response and item non-response rates much lower than the CATI survey. Moreover, in the CATI survey, the groups with highest item non-response rates were also the groups with the lowest proportions of early intercourse and homosexual attraction. In addition, a differential analysis of the respondents produced diverse results for the two surveys. This is especially true of results by gender for same-sex attraction: Such behavior is more common among men (3.1%) than women (2.9%), according to the CATI survey, whereas the opposite is true of the SAQ-FI survey (6.1% of men vs. 7.7% women). In Italy at the beginning of the 21st century, CATI surveys reveal a lower level of early intercourse and same-sex attraction than SAQ-FI surveys. This article argues that the CATI survey underestimates the true level of these sensitive sexual behaviors in the Italian population.

  11. Parasites and parasite management practices of organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Sorge, U S; Moon, R D; Stromberg, B E; Schroth, S L; Michels, L; Wolff, L J; Kelton, D F; Heins, B J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence and practices used to manage internal helminth parasites and external arthropod parasites on organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota. All organic (ORG) dairy herds in Minnesota (n=114) and a convenience sample of conventional herds were invited to participate in the study. Thirty-five ORG herds and 28 conventional herds were visited once in summer and fall of 2012. Conventional dairy herds were split into small conventional (SC,<200 cows) and medium-sized conventional herds (MC, ≥200 cows) so that SC herds were comparable in size to the ORG herds. Dairy managers were surveyed to assess their farm management practices and perceptions about parasites, hygiene scores were recorded for adult stock, and fecal samples were collected from a nominal 20 breeding-age heifers to characterize abundance of internal parasites. Nonparametric tests were used to compare fecal egg counts per gram (FEC) among farms grouped by management systems and practices. Organic farms had more designated pasture and were more likely to use rotational grazing compared with conventional farms, but the stocking densities of animals on pasture were similar among farm types. The overall FEC were very low, and only a few individual ORG heifers had FEC >500 eggs/gram. Samples from heifers on ORG farms had significantly more strongyle-type eggs than those on SC and MC farms (ORG: 6.6±2.1; SC: 0.5±0.3; MC: 0.8±0.7), but egg counts of other types of gastrointestinal parasites did not differ significantly among the 3 herd groups. Fly control measures were applied mainly to milking cows and preweaned calves and were used on 88.6% of ORG herds, 60.0% of SC herds, and 91.7% of MC herds. Approximately half of the producers reported having seen skin conditions suggestive of lice or tail mange in their cattle during the previous winter (ORG: 48.6%, SC: 57.1%, MC: 53.9%). Although most conventional producers reported treating these skin

  12. Prospects for discovering pulsars in future continuum surveys using variance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, S.; Johnston, S.; Hobbs, G.

    2017-12-01

    In our previous paper, we developed a formalism for computing variance images from standard, interferometric radio images containing time and frequency information. Variance imaging with future radio continuum surveys allows us to identify radio pulsars and serves as a complement to conventional pulsar searches that are most sensitive to strictly periodic signals. Here, we carry out simulations to predict the number of pulsars that we can uncover with variance imaging in future continuum surveys. We show that the Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU) survey can find ∼30 normal pulsars and ∼40 millisecond pulsars (MSPs) over and above the number known today, and similarly an all-sky continuum survey with SKA-MID can discover ∼140 normal pulsars and ∼110 MSPs with this technique. Variance imaging with EMU and SKA-MID will detect pulsars with large duty cycles and is therefore a potential tool for finding MSPs and pulsars in relativistic binary systems. Compared with current pulsar surveys at high Galactic latitudes in the Southern hemisphere, variance imaging with EMU and SKA-MID will be more sensitive, and will enable detection of pulsars with dispersion measures between ∼10 and 100 cm-3 pc.

  13. Crossed versus conventional pseudophakic monovision: Patient satisfaction, visual function, and spectacle independence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuxiang; Sugar, Alan; Arbisser, Lisa; Jacobsen, Gordon; Artico, Jessica

    2015-09-01

    To compare patient satisfaction, visual function, and spectacle independence in patients with crossed or conventional pseudophakic monovision. Department of Ophthalmology, Henry Ford Health System, Taylor, Michigan, USA. Retrospective comparative cohort study. Cataract surgery patient records from June 1999 to December 2013 were reviewed. Crossed monovision patients were identified. Control conventional monovision cases were matched for age, sex, general health, personal lifestyle/main hobbies, preoperative refractive status, postoperative refractive status, uncorrected distance visual acuity, uncorrected near visual acuity, astigmatism level, and anisometropia level. A survey was mailed to participants, and results were independently analyzed. The review comprised 7311 patient records. Forty-four crossed monovision patients were identified, and 30 of them were enrolled. Thirty matched pairs were surveyed. The mean anisometropia was 1.19 diopters (D) in the conventional and 1.12 D in the crossed monovision groups. No significant difference was identified for eye-hand coordination, eye-foot coordination, or sport-related depth perception, but satisfaction was slightly better in the crossed monovision group (P = .028). No significant difference was identified for 6 of 8 spectacle independence measures, but nighttime driving was a little easier for the crossed monovision group (P = .025). Seventy-seven percent of crossed and 50% of conventional monovision patients did not use glasses for intermediate distance activities (P = .037). Crossed pseudophakic monovision appears to work as well as conventional pseudophakic monovision in terms of patient satisfaction and spectacle independence in patients with a mild degree of anisometropic pseudophakia. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Interpretation of architecture changes by combined use of historical sources, IR Termography and GPR: the study case of San Francesco convent near Montella (AV), Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldi, Edoardo; Loperte, Antonio; Dolce, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    In order to reconstruct architectural changes during the centuries often we are forced to trust merely on the evidences of documentary and iconographical sources which could sometimes supply the description of the monument or of a specifically building phase. Such approach does not solve all the questions related to the interpretation of historical data (graphics, descriptions) useful for finding previous configurations of the building. The historical building structure and shape, as they appear at the present are often the final result of a stratification of different phases deeply connected with artistic and technological features of the age during which the building has been designed and realized. Stylistic features, building techniques and functional aspects change in time leaving often written traces in archive sources such as on the building masonry texture (sometimes hidden by plaster) or under the floor. In such situation the Non Destructive Testing investigations by means of infrared thermography and GPR could be useful to characterize masonry, to survey inhomogeneities in the masonry as well as to detect buried walls belongings to ancient building phases. This paper deals with the emblematic study case of San Francisco convent near Montella in Southern Italy. Its complex vicissitudes experienced in last centuries have been the reason of radical transformations of the church and its surrounding buildings. Historical research provided important information on structural interventions and planimetric transformations carried out between the 17th and 18th century. Such data have been correlated with the results obtained by infrared thermography surveys on plastered facades of the convent and GPR profiles carried out under the stone paved floor of the church and cloister, thus improving the knowledge of historical building phases of the monument. The integrated use of building analysis techniques based on NDT techniques together with historical and

  15. Implications of Minimizing Trauma During Conventional Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Matthew L.; Driscoll, Colin L. W.; Gifford, René H.; Service, Geoffrey J.; Tombers, Nicole M.; Hughes-Borst, Becky J.; Neff, Brian A.; Beatty, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the relationship between implantation-associated trauma and postoperative speech perception scores among adult and pediatric patients undergoing cochlear implantation using conventional length electrodes and minimally traumatic surgical techniques. Study Design Retrospective chart review (2002–2010). Setting Tertiary academic referral center. Patients All subjects with significant preoperative low-frequency hearing (≤70 dB HL at 250 Hz) who underwent cochlear implantation with a newer generation implant electrode (Nucleus Contour Advance, Advanced Bionics HR90K [1J and Helix], and Med El Sonata standard H array) were reviewed. Intervention(s) Preimplant and postimplant audiometric thresholds and speech recognition scores were recorded using the electronic medical record. Main Outcome Measure(s) Postimplantation pure tone threshold shifts were used as a surrogate measure for extent of intracochlear injury and correlated with postoperative speech perception scores. Results Between 2002 and 2010, 703 cochlear implant (CI) operations were performed. Data from 126 implants were included in the analysis. The mean preoperative low-frequency pure-tone average was 55.4 dB HL. Hearing preservation was observed in 55% of patients. Patients with hearing preservation were found to have significantly higher postoperative speech perception performance in the cochlear implantation-only condition than those who lost all residual hearing. Conclusion Conservation of acoustic hearing after conventional length cochlear implantation is unpredictable but remains a realistic goal. The combination of improved technology and refined surgical technique may allow for conservation of some residual hearing in more than 50% of patients. Germane to the conventional length CI recipient with substantial hearing loss, minimizing trauma allows for improved speech perception in the electric condition. These findings support the use of minimally traumatic techniques in all CI

  16. 15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.18 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). States... Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, also known as the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC...

  17. 15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.18 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). States... Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, also known as the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC...

  18. Including internal mammary lymph nodes in radiation therapy for synchronous bilateral breast cancer: an international survey of treatment technique and clinical priorities.

    PubMed

    Roumeliotis, M; Long, K; Phan, T; Graham, D; Quirk, S

    2018-06-05

    The aim of this study was to understand the international standard practice for radiation therapy treatment techniques and clinical priorities for institutions including the internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLNs) in the target volume for patients with synchronous bilateral breast cancer. An international survey was developed to include questions that would provide awareness of favored treatment techniques, treatment planning and delivery resource requirements, and the clinical priorities that may lead to the utilization of preferred treatment techniques. Of the 135 respondents, 82 indicated that IMLNs are regularly included in the target volume for radiation therapy (IMLN-inclusion) when the patient is otherwise generally indicated for regional nodal irradiation. Of the 82 respondents that regularly include IMLNs, five were removed as those respondents do not treat this population synchronously. Of the 77 respondents, institutional standard of care varied significantly, though VMAT (34%) and combined static photon and electron fields (21%) were the most commonly utilized techniques. Respondents did preferentially select target volume coverage (70%) as the most important clinical priority, followed by normal tissue sparing (25%). The results of the survey indicate that the IMLN-inclusion for radiation therapy has not yet been comprehensively adopted. As well, no consensus on best practice for radiation therapy treatment techniques has been reached.

  19. On the comprehensibility and perceived privacy protection of indirect questioning techniques.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Adrian; Waubert de Puiseau, Berenike; Schmidt, Alexander F; Musch, Jochen

    2017-08-01

    On surveys that assess sensitive personal attributes, indirect questioning aims at increasing respondents' willingness to answer truthfully by protecting confidentiality. However, the assumption that subjects understand questioning procedures fully and trust them to protect their privacy is rarely tested. In a scenario-based design, we compared four indirect questioning procedures in terms of their comprehensibility and perceived privacy protection. All indirect questioning techniques were found to be less comprehensible by respondents than a conventional direct question used for comparison. Less-educated respondents experienced more difficulties when confronted with any indirect questioning technique. Regardless of education, the crosswise model was found to be the most comprehensible among the four indirect methods. Indirect questioning in general was perceived to increase privacy protection in comparison to a direct question. Unexpectedly, comprehension and perceived privacy protection did not correlate. We recommend assessing these factors separately in future evaluations of indirect questioning.

  20. Cross-sectional survey on lobectomy approach (X-SOLA).

    PubMed

    Cao, Christopher; Tian, David H; Wolak, Kevin; Oparka, Jonathan; He, Jianxing; Dunning, Joel; Walker, William S; Yan, Tristan D

    2014-08-01

    Lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be performed either through open thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). To improve the understanding of current attitudes of the thoracic community toward VATS lobectomy, the Collaborative Research Group conducted the Cross-sectional Survey on Lobectomy Approach (X-SOLA) study. We surveyed a large cohort of lobectomy-performing thoracic surgeons to examine their adoption of VATS lobectomy and their opinions of this technique vs conventional open thoracotomy. Participants included thoracic surgeons identified through an international index search from the Web of Science and the cardiothoracic surgery network. A confidential questionnaire was e-mailed in June 2012. Nonresponders were given two reminder e-mails at monthly intervals. The questionnaire, completed by 838 thoracic surgeons within a 3-month period, identified 416 surgeons who only performed lobectomy through open thoracotomy and 422 surgeons who performed VATS or robotic VATS. Of those who performed VATS, 95% agreed with the definition of "true" VATS lobectomy according to the Cancer and Leukemia Group B trial. Ninety-two percent of surgeons who did not perform VATS lobectomy responded that they were willing to learn this technique, but were hindered by limited resources, exposure, and mentoring. Both groups agreed there was a need for VATS lobectomy training in thoracic residency programs and in standardized workshops. X-SOLA represents the largest cross-sectional report within the thoracic community to date, demonstrating the penetration of VATS lobectomy for NSCLC internationally. From our study, we were able to identify a number of obstacles to broaden the adoption of this minimally invasive technique.

  1. Percutaneous dilatational versus conventional surgical tracheostomy in intensive care patients

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Tarek F.; Ahmed, Mohamed Rifaat; Saber, Aly

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tracheostomy is usually performed in patients with difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation or some catastrophic neurologic insult. Conventional tracheostomy involves dissection of the pretracheal tissues and insertion of the tracheostomy tube into the trachea under direct vision. Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy is increasingly popular and has gained widespread acceptance in many intensive care unit and trauma centers. Aim: Aim of the study was to compare percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy versus conventional tracheostomy in intensive care patients. Patients and Methods: 64 critically ill patients admitted to intensive care unit subjected to tracheostomy and randomly divided into two groups; percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy and conventional tracheostomy. Results: Mean duration of the procedure was similar between the two procedures while the mean size of tracheostomy tube was smaller in percutaneous technique. In addition, the Lowest SpO2 during procedure, PaCO2 after operation and intra-operative bleeding for both groups were nearly similar without any statistically difference. Postoperative infection after 7 days seen to be statistically lowered and the length of scar tend to be smaller among PDT patients. Conclusion: PDT technique is effective and safe as CST with low incidence of post operative complication. PMID:22361497

  2. Comparison of conventional and synchrotron-radiation-based microtomography of bone around dental implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaneo, Paolo M.; Dalstra, Michel; Beckmann, Felix; Donath, Tilman; Melsen, Birte

    2004-10-01

    This study explores the application of conventional micro tomography (μCT) and synchrotron radiation (SR) based μCT to evaluate the bone around titanium dental implants. The SR experiment was performed at beamline W2 of HASYLAB at DESY using a monochromatic X-ray beam of 50 keV. The testing material consisted of undecalcified bone segments harvested from the upper jaw of a macaca fascicularis monkey each containing a titanium dental implant. The results from the two different techniques were qualitatively compared with conventional histological sections examined under light microscopy. The SR-based μCT produced images that, especially at the bone-implant interface, are less noisy and sharper than the ones obtained with conventional μCT. For the proper evaluation of the implant-bone interface, only the SR-based μCT technique is able to display the areas of bony contact and visualize the true 3D structure of bone around dental implants correctly. This investigation shows that both conventional and SR-based μCT scanning techniques are non-destructive methods, which provide detailed images of bone. However with SR-based μCT it is possible to obtain an improved image quality of the bone surrounding dental implants, which display a level of detail comparable to histological sections. Therefore, SR-based μCT scanning could represent a valid, unbiased three-dimensional alternative to evaluate osseointegration of dental implants

  3. Optical infrared sky survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craine, E. R.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of a photographic survey of the northern sky currently underway at Steward Observatory. The survey is being conducted at a principal bandpass of 8000-9000 A supplemented by a V bandpass. The survey is the first of its type conducted using a small (20-in. aperture) wide-field telescope, a very large-format (146 mm) image intensifier with a red-extended, multialkali photocathode. The output phosphor of the intensifier is photographed with IIaD emulsion on film. One of the goals of the survey is to catalog red stellar objects on the photographs and to examine in detail regions of the sky which are obscured by hydrogen emission on conventional photographs.

  4. The association between students taking elective courses in chiropractic technique and their anticipated chiropractic technique choices in future practice.

    PubMed

    Wanlass, Paul W; Sikorski, David M; Kizhakkeveettil, Anupama; Tobias, Gene S

    2018-03-12

    To assess students' opinions of the potential influence of taking elective courses in chiropractic techniques and their future practice preferences. An anonymous, voluntary survey was conducted among graduating students from a doctor of chiropractic program. The survey included questions regarding the chiropractic technique elective courses they had completed and the potential influence of these courses on their chiropractic technique choices in future practice. Surveys were pretested for face validity, and data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Of the 56 surveys distributed, 46 were completed, for a response rate of 82%. More than half of the students reported having taken at least 1 elective course in diversified technique (80%), Cox technique (76%), Activator Methods (70%), or sacro-occipital technique (63%). Less than half of the respondents reported taking technique elective courses in Gonstead or Thompson techniques. More than half of the students stated they were more likely to use Activator (72%), Thompson (68%), diversified (57%), or Cox (54%) techniques in their future practice after taking an elective course in that technique. Females stated that they were more likely to use Activator Methods ( p = .006) in future practice. Chiropractic technique elective courses in the doctor of chiropractic curriculum may influence students' choices of future practice chiropractic technique.

  5. A Survey on Optimal Signal Processing Techniques Applied to Improve the Performance of Mechanical Sensors in Automotive Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Wilmar

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a survey on recent applications of optimal signal processing techniques to improve the performance of mechanical sensors is made. Here, a comparison between classical filters and optimal filters for automotive sensors is made, and the current state of the art of the application of robust and optimal control and signal processing techniques to the design of the intelligent (or smart) sensors that today's cars need is presented through several experimental results that show that the fusion of intelligent sensors and optimal signal processing techniques is the clear way to go. However, the switch between the traditional methods of designing automotive sensors and the new ones cannot be done overnight because there are some open research issues that have to be solved. This paper draws attention to one of the open research issues and tries to arouse researcher's interest in the fusion of intelligent sensors and optimal signal processing techniques.

  6. Reconstructive techniques in transoral robotic surgery for head and neck cancer: a North American survey.

    PubMed

    Konofaos, Petros; Hammond, Sarah; Ver Halen, Jon P; Samant, Sandeep

    2013-02-01

    Although the use of transoral robotic surgery for tumor extirpation is expanding, little is known about national trends in the reconstruction of resultant defects. An 18-question electronic survey was created by an expert panel of surgeons from the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the University of Tennessee. Eligible participants were identified by the American Head and Neck Society Web site and from the Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Web site after review of surgeons trained in transoral robotic surgery techniques. Twenty-three of 27 preselected head and neck surgeons (85.18 percent) completed the survey. All respondents use transoral robotic surgery for head and neck tumor extirpation. The majority of the respondents [n = 17 (77.3 percent)] did not use any means of reconstruction. With respect to methods of reconstruction following transoral robotic surgery defects, the majority [n = 4 (80.0 percent)] used a free flap, a pedicled local flap [n = 3 (60.0 percent)], or a distant flap [n = 3 (60.0 percent)]. The radial forearm flap was the most commonly used free flap by all respondents. In general, the majority of survey respondents allow defects to heal secondarily or close primarily. Based on this survey, consensus indications for pedicled or free tissue transfer following transoral robotic surgery defects were primary head and neck tumors (stage T3 and T4a), pharyngeal defects with exposure of vital structures, and prior irradiation or chemoradiation to the operative site and neck.

  7. Manufacturing implant supported auricular prostheses by rapid prototyping techniques.

    PubMed

    Karatas, Meltem Ozdemir; Cifter, Ebru Demet; Ozenen, Didem Ozdemir; Balik, Ali; Tuncer, Erman Bulent

    2011-08-01

    Maxillofacial prostheses are usually fabricated on the models obtained following the impression procedures. Disadvantages of conventional impression techniques used in production of facial prosthesis are deformation of soft tissues caused by impression material and disturbance of the patient due to. Additionally production of prosthesis by conventional methods takes longer time. Recently, rapid prototyping techniques have been developed for extraoral prosthesis in order to reduce these disadvantages of conventional methods. Rapid prototyping technique has the potential to simplify the procedure and decrease the laboratory work required. It eliminates the need for measurement impression procedures and preparation of wax model to be performed by prosthodontists themselves In the near future this technology will become a standard for fabricating maxillofacial prostheses.

  8. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data to the WHO framework convention on tobacco control: the case for India.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Reddy, K Srinath; Rahman, Khalilur; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira

    2006-01-01

    India ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) on February 27, 2005. The WHO FCTC is the world's first public health treaty that aims to promote and protect public health and reduce the devastating health and economic impacts of tobacco. Post ratification, each member state as part of general obligation has agreed to develop, implement, periodically update and review comprehensive multisectoral national tobacco control strategies, plans and programmes in accordance with this Convention and the protocols to which it is a Party. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) was developed to track tobacco use among young people across countries and the GYTS surveillance system intends to enhance the capacity of countries to design, implement, and evaluate tobacco control and prevention programs. The South-East Asia Region of WHO has developed the "Regional Strategy for Utilization of the GYTS" to meet this need for countries in the Region. In 2003, India has passed its national tobacco control legislation (India Tobacco Control Act [ITCA]), which includes provisions designed to reduce tobacco consumption and protect citizens from exposure to second hand smoke. Data in the GYTS (India) report can be used as a baseline measure for future evaluation of the tobacco control programs implemented by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. India has to upscale some provisions of its National Law to accommodate all of the requirements of FCTC. Using determinants measured by GYTS in India, the government can monitor the impact of enforcing various provisions of the ITCA and the progress made in achieving the goals of the WHO FCTC and the Regional Strategies. Effective enforcement of the provisions of ITCA will show in the receding numbers of tobacco use prevalence figures and reduction in the expenditures associated with tobacco use in India.

  9. Comparison of apical debris extrusion using a conventional and two rotary techniques.

    PubMed

    Adl, Alireza; Sahebi, Safoora; Moazami, Fariborz; Niknam, Mahnaz

    2009-01-01

    Preparation techniques and instruments produce and push debris out of canals. This can induce inflammation within the periapical area. Therefore, instrumentation that causes less extrusion of debris is more desirable. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the quantity of debris extruded from the apical foramen during root canal preparation by using one hand, and two rotary instrumentation techniques. Three different groups each with 12 mesiobuccal roots of human maxillary first molar were instrumented using either step-back technique with hand instruments, FlexMaster or Mtwo rotary system. Debris extruded from the apical foramen during canal preparation was collected. The mean dry weights of debris were compared using one-way ANOVA. Step-back group had a significantly greater mean weight of debris compared to the other two groups (P<0.05). Mtwo group had the lowest mean weight of debris, though it was not significantly different from FlexMaster group. According to this study, the engine driven techniques were associated with less apical debris extrusion. [Iranian Endodontic Journal 2009;4(4):135-8].

  10. Conventional Complete Denture in Patients with Ectodermal Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Vilanova, Larissa Soares Reis; Sánchez-Ayala, Alfonso; Ribeiro, Giselle Rodrigues; Campos, Camila Heitor; Farias-Neto, Arcelino

    2015-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia is described as heritable conditions that involve anomalies of structures derived from the ectoderm, including hypodontia. In the cases of edentulous young patients, who did not finish their craniofacial growth, treatment with conventional complete denture is a suitable alternative. The aim of this study was to report a case of mandibular edentulism treated with conventional complete denture in a thirteen-year-old patient diagnosed with hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Typical features, such as frontal bossing, depressed nasal bridge, protuberant lips, scarce hair, and brittle nails, were visualized during the extraoral examination. The intraoral inspection and radiographic analysis revealed oligodontia, dental malformation, and prolonged retention of deciduous teeth at maxilla and total edentulism at mandible. A conventional complete denture was planned and constructed following the same steps of technique as recommended in adults. Although this option is not a definitive treatment, the patient and his parents were satisfied with his improvement in chewing and speech, as well as with the aesthetic benefits. PMID:26425372

  11. Selections from the ABC 2009 Annual Convention, Portsmouth, Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, D. Joel

    2010-01-01

    The "My Favorite Assignment" Session at the 2009 Association for Business Communication (ABC) annual convention in Portsmouth, Virginia, featured over a dozen teachers sharing pedagogical innovations in a fast-paced, 4-minute format designed by Dan Dietrich. The wide variety of ideas and techniques presented makes these sessions popular…

  12. An analysis of I/O efficient order-statistic-based techniques for noise power estimation in the HRMS sky survey's operational system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, G. A.; Olsen, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    Noise power estimation in the High-Resolution Microwave Survey (HRMS) sky survey element is considered as an example of a constant false alarm rate (CFAR) signal detection problem. Order-statistic-based noise power estimators for CFAR detection are considered in terms of required estimator accuracy and estimator dynamic range. By limiting the dynamic range of the value to be estimated, the performance of an order-statistic estimator can be achieved by simpler techniques requiring only a single pass of the data. Simple threshold-and-count techniques are examined, and it is shown how several parallel threshold-and-count estimation devices can be used to expand the dynamic range to meet HRMS system requirements with minimal hardware complexity. An input/output (I/O) efficient limited-precision order-statistic estimator with wide but limited dynamic range is also examined.

  13. Imaging Techniques in Endodontics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Deepak, B. S.; Subash, T. S.; Narmatha, V. J.; Anamika, T.; Snehil, T. K.; Nandini, D. B.

    2012-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the relevance of imaging techniques such as, computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography, and ultrasound, to endodontic practice. Many limitations of the conventional radiographic techniques have been overcome by the newer methods. Advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques in endodontic practice are also discussed. PMID:22530184

  14. Mid-term survival analysis of closed wedge high tibial osteotomy: A comparative study of computer-assisted and conventional techniques.

    PubMed

    Bae, Dae Kyung; Song, Sang Jun; Kim, Kang Il; Hur, Dong; Jeong, Ho Yeon

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the clinical and radiographic results and survival rates between computer-assisted and conventional closing wedge high tibial osteotomies (HTOs). Data from a consecutive cohort comprised of 75 computer-assisted HTOs and 75 conventional HTOs were retrospectively reviewed. The Knee Society knee and function scores, Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score and femorotibial angle (FTA) were compared between the two groups. Survival rates were also compared with procedure failure. The knee and function scores at one year postoperatively were slightly better in the computer-assisted group than those in conventional group (90.1 vs. 86.1) (82.0 vs. 76.0). The HSS scores at one year postoperatively were slightly better for the computer-assisted HTOs than those of conventional HTOs (89.5 vs. 81.8). The inlier of the postoperative FTA was wider in the computer-assisted group than that in the conventional HTO group (88.0% vs. 58.7%), and mean postoperative FTA was greater in the computer-assisted group that in the conventional HTO group (valgus 9.0° vs. valgus 7.6°, p<0.001). The five- and 10-year survival rates were 97.1% and 89.6%, respectively. No difference was detected in nine-year survival rates (p=0.369) between the two groups, although the clinical and radiographic results were better in the computer-assisted group that those in the conventional HTO group. Mid-term survival rates did not differ between computer-assisted and conventional HTOs. A comparative analysis of longer-term survival rate is required to demonstrate the long-term benefit of computer-assisted HTO. III. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Survey of techniques used to preserve biological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinler, E. J.; Hubbard, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The techniques used to preserve biological materials are documented and summarized. The report is presented in a handbook format that categorizes the most important preservation techniques available, and includes a representative sampling of the thousands of applications of these techniques to biological materials and organisms. Details of the information coverage and method of approach are outlined. Data are given in tabular form, and an index and extensive bibliography are included.

  16. Comparison of apical debris extrusion using a conventional and two rotary techniques

    PubMed Central

    Adl, Alireza; Sahebi, Safoora; Moazami, Fariborz; Niknam, Mahnaz

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Preparation techniques and instruments produce and push debris out of canals. This can induce inflammation within the periapical area. Therefore, instrumentation that causes less extrusion of debris is more desirable. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the quantity of debris extruded from the apical foramen during root canal preparation by using one hand, and two rotary instrumentation techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three different groups each with 12 mesiobuccal roots of human maxillary first molar were instrumented using either step-back technique with hand instruments, FlexMaster or Mtwo rotary system. Debris extruded from the apical foramen during canal preparation was collected. The mean dry weights of debris were compared using one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: Step-back group had a significantly greater mean weight of debris compared to the other two groups (P<0.05). Mtwo group had the lowest mean weight of debris, though it was not significantly different from FlexMaster group. CONCLUSION: According to this study, the engine driven techniques were associated with less apical debris extrusion. [Iranian Endodontic Journal 2009;4(4):135-8] PMID:24019834

  17. Is laser conditioning a valid alternative to conventional etching for aesthetic brackets?

    PubMed

    Sfondrini, M F; Calderoni, G; Vitale, M C; Gandini, P; Scribante, A

    2018-03-01

    ER:Yag lasers have been described as a more conservative alternative to conventional acid-etching enamel conditioning technique, when bonding conventional metallic orthodontic brackets. Since the use of aesthetic orthodontic brackets is constantly increasing, the purpose of the present report has been to test laser conditioning with different aesthetic brackets. Study Design: Five different aesthetic brackets (microfilled copolymer, glass fiber, sapphire, polyoxymethylene and sintered ceramic) were tested for shear bond strength and Adhesive Remnant Index scores using two different enamel conditioning techniques (acid etching and ER:Yag laser application). Two hundred bovine incisors were extracted, cleaned and embedded in resin. Specimens were then divided into 10 groups with random tables. Half of the specimens were conditioned with conventional orthophosphoric acid gel, the other half with ER:Yag laser. Different aesthetic brackets (microfilled copolymer, glass fiber, sapphire, polyoxymethylene and sintered ceramic) were then bonded to the teeth. Subsequently all groups were tested in shear mode with a Universal Testing Machine. Shear bond strength values and adhesive remnant index scores were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed. When considering conventional acid etching technique, sapphire, polyoxymethylene and sintered ceramic brackets exhibited the highest SBS values. Lowest values were reported for microfilled copolymer and glass fiber appliances. A significant decrease in SBS values after laser conditioning was reported for sapphire, polyoxymethylene and sintered ceramic brackets, whereas no significant difference was reported for microfilled copolymer and glass fiber brackets. Significant differences in ARI scores were also reported. Laser etching can significantly reduce bonding efficacy of sapphire, polyoxymethylene and sintered ceramic brackets.

  18. Beyond the Core: The Hot Topic(al) Alternative to the Survey-Based Introduction to Sociology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Michael; Smith, R. Tyson

    2010-01-01

    In the following paper we argue that the conventional "Introduction to Sociology" survey course should be restructured because such courses try to survey an unsurveyable body of knowledge and they do not teach the application of sociological research. The conventional intro course should be replaced with an intro course that surveys the types of…

  19. A Simplified Technique for Implant-Abutment Level Impression after Soft Tissue Adaptation around Provisional Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Kutkut, Ahmad; Abu-Hammad, Osama; Frazer, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Impression techniques for implant restorations can be implant level or abutment level impressions with open tray or closed tray techniques. Conventional implant-abutment level impression techniques are predictable for maximizing esthetic outcomes. Restoration of the implant traditionally requires the use of the metal or plastic impression copings, analogs, and laboratory components. Simplifying the dental implant restoration by reducing armamentarium through incorporating conventional techniques used daily for crowns and bridges will allow more general dentists to restore implants in their practices. The demonstrated technique is useful when modifications to implant abutments are required to correct the angulation of malpositioned implants. This technique utilizes conventional crown and bridge impression techniques. As an added benefit, it reduces costs by utilizing techniques used daily for crowns and bridges. The aim of this report is to describe a simplified conventional impression technique for custom abutments and modified prefabricated solid abutments for definitive restorations. PMID:29563457

  20. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in onion roots from organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Galván, Guillermo A; Parádi, István; Burger, Karin; Baar, Jacqueline; Kuyper, Thomas W; Scholten, Olga E; Kik, Chris

    2009-06-01

    Diversity and colonization levels of naturally occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in onion roots were studied to compare organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands. In 2004, 20 onion fields were sampled in a balanced survey between farming systems and between two regions, namely, Zeeland and Flevoland. In 2005, nine conventional and ten organic fields were additionally surveyed in Flevoland. AMF phylotypes were identified by rDNA sequencing. All plants were colonized, with 60% for arbuscular colonization and 84% for hyphal colonization as grand means. In Zeeland, onion roots from organic fields had higher fractional colonization levels than those from conventional fields. Onion yields in conventional farming were positively correlated with colonization level. Overall, 14 AMF phylotypes were identified. The number of phylotypes per field ranged from one to six. Two phylotypes associated with the Glomus mosseae-coronatum and the G. caledonium-geosporum species complexes were the most abundant, whereas other phylotypes were infrequently found. Organic and conventional farming systems had similar number of phylotypes per field and Shannon diversity indices. A few organic and conventional fields had larger number of phylotypes, including phylotypes associated with the genera Glomus-B, Archaeospora, and Paraglomus. This suggests that farming systems as such did not influence AMF diversity, but rather specific environmental conditions or agricultural practices.

  1. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery and conventional laparoscopic treatment of varicocele in adolescents: Comparison between two techniques.

    PubMed

    Marte, Antonio; Pintozzi, Lucia; Cavaiuolo, Silvia; Parmeggiani, Pio

    2014-01-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) has gained great popularity in paediatric surgery due to its minimally invasive approach and improved cosmetic results. Notwithstanding, reports describing its adoption in children are still fragmentary and some perplexities have been raised by some surgeons. We reviewed our experience with the SILS Palomo varicocelectomy procedure (SIL-V) in children and adolescents, comparing this group with a similar series operated using conventional laparoscopic varicocelectomy (CL-V). A total of 69 Palomo laparoscopic varicocelectomies were performed in patients aged 11-17 years from January 2011 to January 2013. Indications for surgery included grades II-III varicocele or ipsilateral testicular hypotrophy. The SIL-V procedure was performed in 44 patients with roticulating and conventional 5 mm instruments. Testicular vessels were isolated "en bloc," clipped and cut. Operating time, visual analogue scale and post-operative results were compared to a similar group of 25 patients operated with CL-V. No patient of the SIL-V group required conversion to conventional laparoscopy, none to open surgery. Mean operative time was 22 min (range: 19-28) in the SIL-V group, not significantly different compared with CL-V (mean 21 min, range: 18-25). All patients experienced a smooth recovery from surgery without any complications, and were discharged on day 1. No difficulties were found in the SIL-V group. The post-operative pain score was significantly better in SIL-V. The SIL-V procedure is safe and effective and allows a fast and efficient isolation of the vascular bundle. The use of conventional instruments is technically feasible in SIL-V.

  2. Simulation verification techniques study: Simulation self test hardware design and techniques report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The final results are presented of the hardware verification task. The basic objectives of the various subtasks are reviewed along with the ground rules under which the overall task was conducted and which impacted the approach taken in deriving techniques for hardware self test. The results of the first subtask and the definition of simulation hardware are presented. The hardware definition is based primarily on a brief review of the simulator configurations anticipated for the shuttle training program. The results of the survey of current self test techniques are presented. The data sources that were considered in the search for current techniques are reviewed, and results of the survey are presented in terms of the specific types of tests that are of interest for training simulator applications. Specifically, these types of tests are readiness tests, fault isolation tests and incipient fault detection techniques. The most applicable techniques were structured into software flows that are then referenced in discussions of techniques for specific subsystems.

  3. The Technique of Special-Effects Cinematography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Raymond

    The author describes the many techniques used to produce cinematic effects that would be too costly, too difficult, too time-consuming, too dangerous, or simply impossible to achieve with conventional photographic techniques. He points out that these techniques are available not only for 35 millimeter work but also to the 16 mm. photographer who…

  4. Manufacturing Implant Supported Auricular Prostheses by Rapid Prototyping Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Karatas, Meltem Ozdemir; Cifter, Ebru Demet; Ozenen, Didem Ozdemir; Balik, Ali; Tuncer, Erman Bulent

    2011-01-01

    Maxillofacial prostheses are usually fabricated on the models obtained following the impression procedures. Disadvantages of conventional impression techniques used in production of facial prosthesis are deformation of soft tissues caused by impression material and disturbance of the patient due to. Additionally production of prosthesis by conventional methods takes longer time. Recently, rapid prototyping techniques have been developed for extraoral prosthesis in order to reduce these disadvantages of conventional methods. Rapid prototyping technique has the potential to simplify the procedure and decrease the laboratory work required. It eliminates the need for measurement impression procedures and preparation of wax model to be performed by prosthodontists themselves In the near future this technology will become a standard for fabricating maxillofacial prostheses. PMID:21912504

  5. Generation of Protein Crystals Using a Solution-Stirring Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Hiroaki; Niino, Ai; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Takano, Kazufumi; Kinoshita, Takayoshi; Warizaya, Masaichi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Sasaki, Takatomo

    2004-06-01

    Crystals of bovine adenosine deaminase (ADA) were grown over a two week period in the presence of an inhibitor, whereas ADA crystals did not form using conventional crystallization methods when the inhibitor was excluded. To obtain ADA crystals in the absence of the inhibitor, a solution-stirring technique was used. The crystals obtained using this technique were found to be of high quality and were shown to have high structural resolution for X-ray diffraction analysis. The results of this study indicate that the stirring technique is a useful method for obtaining crystals of proteins that do not crystallize using conventional techniques.

  6. Intracorporeal hybrid single port vs conventional laparoscopic appendectomy in children.

    PubMed

    Karam, Paul Anthony; Hiuser, Amy; Magnuson, David; Seifarth, Federico Gian Filippo

    2016-12-20

    Transumbilical laparoscopic assisted appendectomy combines laparoscopic single port dissection with open appendectomy after exteriorization of the appendix through the port site. Compared to the conventional three-port approach, this technique provides an alternative with excellent cosmetic outcome. We developed a safe and effective technique to perform an intracorporeal single port appendectomy, using the same laparoscope employed in the extracorporeal procedure. Retrospective review of 71 consecutively performed intracorporeal single port appendectomies and 30 conventional three-port appendectomies in children 6 to 17 years of age. A straight 10-mm Storz telescope with inbuilt 6 mm working channel is used to dissect the appendix, combined with one port-less 2.3 mm percutaneous grasper. Polymer WECK® hem-o-lock® clips are applied to seal the base of the appendix and the appendiceal vessels. No intraoperative complications were reported with the hybrid intracorporeal single port appendectomy or three-port appendectomy. There were two post-operative complications in the group treated with the single port hybrid technique: one intra-abdominal abscess and one surgical site infection. Groups did not differ in age, weight, and types of appendicitis. Operative times were shorter for the hybrid technique (70 vs 79 minutes) but did not differ significantly (P=0.19). This modified technique to a previously described single port extracorporeal appendectomy is easy to master and implement. It provides exposure similar to a three-port laparoscopic appendectomy, while maintaining virtually scarless results and potentially reduces the risk for surgical site infections compared to the extracorporeal technique.

  7. U.S. Geological Survey assessment concepts for conventional petroleum accumulations: Chapter 24 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoker, James W.; Klett, T.R.

    2007-01-01

    Conventional petroleum accumulations are discrete fields or pools localized in structural or stratigraphic traps by the buoyancy of oil or gas in water; they float, bubble-like, in water. This report describes the fundamental concepts supporting the U.S. Geological Survey “Seventh Approximation” model for resource assessments of conventional accumulations. The Seventh Approximation provides a strategy for estimating volumes of undiscovered petroleum (oil, gas, and coproducts) having the potential to be added to reserves in a 30-year forecast span. The assessment of an area requires (1) choice of a minimum accumulation size, (2) assignment of geologic and access risk, and (3) estimation of the number and sizes of undiscovered accumulations in the assessment area. The combination of these variables yields probability distributions for potential additions to reserves. Assessment results are controlled by geology-based input parameters supplied by knowledgeable geologists, as opposed to projections of historical trends.

  8. Occlusal contact of fixed implant prostheses using functional bite impression technique.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasunori; Shimpo, Hidemasa; Ohkubo, Chikahiro

    2015-02-01

    Functional bite impression (FBI) has been described as a definitive impression made under occlusal force after functional generated path (FGP) recording. This study compared the accuracy of occlusal contact of implant-fixed prostheses using the FBI technique and the conventional impression technique. Twelve subjects, each missing a single premolar or molar, were selected for this study. The conditions of the occlusal contacts were identified by the modified transillumination method. The occlusal contact condition was determined by comparing the rate of change in the occlusal contact area of the implant-fixed prostheses and both adjacent teeth before and after occlusal adjustment. The rate of change in the occlusal contact area using the FBI technique was 96%, and the rate using the conventional technique was 54%. The occlusal contact of implant prostheses using the FBI technique revealed better accuracy than that of the conventional technique. Regarding the FBI technique, a precise and functional prosthesis could be produced by completing the maxillomandibular registration, impression, and FGP at the same time.

  9. Investigation of background acoustical effect on online surveys: A case study of a farmers' market customer survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xingdi

    Since the middle of 1990s, internet has become a new platform for surveys. Previous studies have discussed the visual design features of internet surveys. However, the application of acoustics as a design characteristic of online surveys has been rarely investigated. The present study aimed to fill that research gap. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of background sound on respondents' engagement and satisfaction with online surveys. Two forms of background sound were evaluated; audio recorded in studios and audio edited with convolution reverb technique. The author recruited 80 undergraduate students for the experiment. These students were assigned to one of three groups. Each of the three groups was asked to evaluate their engagement and satisfaction with a specific online survey. The content of the online survey was the same. However, the three groups was exposed to the online survey with no background sound, with background sound recorded in studios; and with background sound edited with convolution reverb technique. The results showed no significant difference in engagement and satisfaction in the three groups of online surveys; without background sound, background sound recorded in studios, and background sound edited with convolution reverb technique. The author suggests that background sound does not contribute to online surveys in all the contexts. The industry practitioners should be careful to evaluate the survey context to decide whether the background sound should be added. Particularly, ear-piercing noise or acoustics which may link to respondents' unpleasant experience should be avoided. Moreover, although the results did not support the advantage of the revolution reverb technique in improving respondents' engagement and satisfaction, the author suggests that the potential of the revolution reverb technique in the applications of online surveys can't be totally denied, since it may be useful for some contexts which need further

  10. Conventional versus ultrasound-assisted liposuction in gynaecomastia surgery: a 13-year review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kai Yuen; Malata, Charles M

    2014-07-01

    Numerous surgical techniques exist for gynaecomastia treatment. Although ultrasound-assisted liposuction (UAL) is thought to be more effective than conventional liposuction, to date there remains no objective and direct comparison of the two modalities. Hence, a comparative study was performed of a single surgeon's experience over 13 years using two definitive parameters, namely intraoperative conversion to open excision and postoperative revisional surgery rates. All gynaecomastia patients treated with UAL or conventional liposuction (1999-2012) were retrospectively studied. UAL was only available in the private sector and was used for all such patients with no other selection or exclusion criteria. A total of 219 patients (384 breasts) with a mean age of 29 years (range 12-74) were evaluated. UAL was utilised in 24% of breasts (47 patients, 91 breasts). Compared with conventional liposuction, UAL had significantly lower rates of intraoperative conversion to open excision (25% vs. 39%; p<0.05) and postoperative revision (2% vs. 19%; p<0.001) using Fisher's exact test. The haematoma rate for each technique was 1%. UAL is a more effective treatment modality for gynaecomastia than conventional liposuction as determined by intraoperative conversion to open surgery and subsequent need for revision. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Opportunities for utilization of non-conventional energy sources for biomass pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rawel; Krishna, Bhavya B; Kumar, Jitendra; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2016-01-01

    The increasing concerns over the depletion of fossil resources and its associated geo-political issues have driven the entire world to move toward sustainable forms of energy. Pretreatment is the first step in any biochemical conversion process for the production of valuable fuels/chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass to eliminate the lignin and produce fermentable sugars by hydrolysis. Conventional techniques have several limitations which can be addressed by using them in tandem with non-conventional methods for biomass pretreatment. Electron beam and γ (gamma)-irradiation, microwave and ultrasound energies have certain advantages over conventional source of energy and there is an opportunity that these energies can be exploited for biomass pretreatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bone Healing Around Dental Implants: Simplified vs Conventional Drilling Protocols at Speed of 400 rpm.

    PubMed

    Gil, Luiz Fernando; Sarendranath, Alvin; Neiva, Rodrigo; Marão, Heloisa F; Tovar, Nick; Bonfante, Estevam A; Janal, Malvin N; Castellano, Arthur; Coelho, Paulo G

    This study evaluated whether simplified drilling protocols would provide comparable histologic and histomorphometric results to conventional drilling protocols at a low rotational speed. A total of 48 alumina-blasted and acid-etched Ti-6Al-4V implants with two diameters (3.75 and 4.2 mm, n = 24 per group) were bilaterally placed in the tibiae of 12 dogs, under a low-speed protocol (400 rpm). Within the same diameter group, half of the implants were inserted after a simplified drilling procedure (pilot drill + final diameter drill), and the other half were placed using the conventional drilling procedure. After 3 and 5 weeks, the animals were euthanized, and the retrieved bone-implant samples were subjected to nondecalcified histologic sectioning. Histomorphology, bone-to-implant contact (BIC), and bone area fraction occupancy (BAFO) analysis were performed. Histology showed that new bone was formed around implants, and inflammation or bone resorption was not evident for both groups. Histomorphometrically, when all independent variables were collapsed over drilling technique, no differences were detected for BIC and BAFO; when drilling technique was analyzed as a function of time, the conventional groups reached statistically higher BIC and BAFO at 3 weeks, but comparable values between techniques were observed at 5 weeks; 4.2-mm implants obtained statistically higher BAFO relative to 3.75-mm implants. Based on the present methodology, the conventional technique improved bone formation at 3 weeks, and narrower implants were associated with less bone formation.

  13. Dairy calf management-A comparison of practices and producer attitudes among conventional and organic herds.

    PubMed

    Pempek, J A; Schuenemann, G M; Holder, E; Habing, G G

    2017-10-01

    Dairy calves are at high risk for morbidity and mortality early in life. Understanding producer attitudes is important for implementation of best management practices to improve calf health. The objectives of this study were to evaluate usage frequency and producer attitudes on key calf management practices between conventional and organic dairy operations. A cross-sectional survey was mailed to conventional and organic dairy producers in Ohio and Michigan that included questions on cow-calf separation, colostrum management, and vaccination use. The overall survey response rate was 49% (727/1,488); 449 and 172 conventional and organic producer respondents, respectively, were included in the final analysis. Binary, cumulative, and multinomial logistic regression models were used to test differences within and between herd types for management practices and producer attitudes. The majority of conventional (64%, 279/439) producers reported separating the calf from the dam 30 min to 6 h after birth. More organic (34%, 56/166) than conventional (18%, 80/439) producers reported separation 6 to 12 h after birth, and organic producers were more likely to agree time before separation is beneficial. Few conventional (10%, 44/448) and organic (3%, 5/171) producers reported measuring colostrum quality. Most conventional producers (68%, 304/448) hand-fed the first feeding of colostrum, whereas the majority of organic producers (38%, 69/171) allowed calves to nurse colostrum. Last, 44% (188/430) of conventional producers reported vaccinating their calves for respiratory disease, compared with 14% (22/162) of organic producers; organic producers were more likely to perceive vaccines as ineffective and harmful to calf health. Thus, the usage frequency and perceived risks and benefits of calf management practices vary considerably between conventional and organic dairy producers. These findings provide helpful information to understand decision making at the herd level regarding

  14. Utilization of Marketing Techniques in California Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Judi A.

    A survey of the 107 California community colleges was conducted during Spring 1980 to assess the extent to which college administrators had adopted marketing techniques. The survey instrument listed 31 such techniques under six general categories: marketing surveys, direct advertising, public information, high school recruiting, community…

  15. Flight Test Validation of Optimal Input Design and Comparison to Conventional Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1997-01-01

    A technique for designing optimal inputs for aerodynamic parameter estimation was flight tested on the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV). Model parameter accuracies calculated from flight test data were compared on an equal basis for optimal input designs and conventional inputs at the same flight condition. In spite of errors in the a priori input design models and distortions of the input form by the feedback control system, the optimal inputs increased estimated parameter accuracies compared to conventional 3-2-1-1 and doublet inputs. In addition, the tests using optimal input designs demonstrated enhanced design flexibility, allowing the optimal input design technique to use a larger input amplitude to achieve further increases in estimated parameter accuracy without departing from the desired flight test condition. This work validated the analysis used to develop the optimal input designs, and demonstrated the feasibility and practical utility of the optimal input design technique.

  16. Design and fabrication of conventional and unconventional superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collings, E. W.

    1983-01-01

    The design and fabrication of conventional and unconventionally processed Ti-Nb base and Al5-compound-base, respectively, composite superconductors is discussed in a nine section review. The first two sections introduce the general properties of alloy and compound superconductors, and the design and processing requirements for the production of long lengths of stable low loss conductor. All aspects of flux jump stability, and the general requirements of cryogenic stabilization are addressed. Conductor design from an a.c.-loss standpoint; some basic formulae describing hysteretic and eddy current losses and the influences on a.c. loss of filament diameter, strand (conductor) diameter, twist pitch, and matrix resistivity are discussed. The basic techniques used in the fabrication of conventional multifilamentary conductors are described.

  17. A prospective randomised trial of PIN versus conventional stripping in varicose vein surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Durkin, M. T.; Turton, E. P.; Scott, D. J.; Berridge, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    A prospective, randomised trial was carried out to examine the efficacy of perforate invagination (PIN, Credenhill Ltd, Derbyshire, UK) stripping of the long saphenous vein (LSV) in comparison to conventional stripping (Astratech AB, Sweden) in the surgical management of primary varicose veins. Eighty patients with primary varicosities secondary to sapheno-femoral junction (SFJ) incompetence and LSV reflux were recruited. Patients were randomised to PIN or conventional stripping with all other operative techniques remaining constant. Follow-up was performed at 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two techniques in terms of time taken to strip the vein, percentage of vein stripped or the area of bruising at 1 week. The size of the exit site was significantly smaller with the PIN device (P < or = 0.01). Optimal use of the conventional stripper provides results comparable to the PIN device. Choice of stripping device remains the surgeon's, bearing in mind that the PIN stripper achieves slightly better cosmesis. PMID:10364948

  18. Survey on Ranging Sensors and Cooperative Techniques for Relative Positioning of Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    de Ponte Müller, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    Future driver assistance systems will rely on accurate, reliable and continuous knowledge on the position of other road participants, including pedestrians, bicycles and other vehicles. The usual approach to tackle this requirement is to use on-board ranging sensors inside the vehicle. Radar, laser scanners or vision-based systems are able to detect objects in their line-of-sight. In contrast to these non-cooperative ranging sensors, cooperative approaches follow a strategy in which other road participants actively support the estimation of the relative position. The limitations of on-board ranging sensors regarding their detection range and angle of view and the facility of blockage can be approached by using a cooperative approach based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication. The fusion of both, cooperative and non-cooperative strategies, seems to offer the largest benefits regarding accuracy, availability and robustness. This survey offers the reader a comprehensive review on different techniques for vehicle relative positioning. The reader will learn the important performance indicators when it comes to relative positioning of vehicles, the different technologies that are both commercially available and currently under research, their expected performance and their intrinsic limitations. Moreover, the latest research in the area of vision-based systems for vehicle detection, as well as the latest work on GNSS-based vehicle localization and vehicular communication for relative positioning of vehicles, are reviewed. The survey also includes the research work on the fusion of cooperative and non-cooperative approaches to increase the reliability and the availability. PMID:28146129

  19. I Environmental DNA sampling is more sensitive than a traditional survey technique for detecting an aquatic invader.

    PubMed

    Smart, Adam S; Tingley, Reid; Weeks, Andrew R; van Rooyen, Anthony R; McCarthy, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    Effective management of alien species requires detecting populations in the early stages of invasion. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling can detect aquatic species at relatively low densities, but few studies have directly compared detection probabilities of eDNA sampling with those of traditional sampling methods. We compare the ability of a traditional sampling technique (bottle trapping) and eDNA to detect a recently established invader, the smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris vulgaris, at seven field sites in Melbourne, Australia. Over a four-month period, per-trap detection probabilities ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 among sites where L. v. vulgaris was detected, whereas per-sample eDNA estimates were much higher (0.29-1.0). Detection probabilities of both methods varied temporally (across days and months), but temporal variation appeared to be uncorrelated between methods. Only estimates of spatial variation were strongly correlated across the two sampling techniques. Environmental variables (water depth, rainfall, ambient temperature) were not clearly correlated with detection probabilities estimated via trapping, whereas eDNA detection probabilities were negatively correlated with water depth, possibly reflecting higher eDNA concentrations at lower water levels. Our findings demonstrate that eDNA sampling can be an order of magnitude more sensitive than traditional methods, and illustrate that traditional- and eDNA-based surveys can provide independent information on species distributions when occupancy surveys are conducted over short timescales.

  20. Comparison of specimen adequacy and smear quality in oral smears prepared by manual liquid-based cytology and conventional methods

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Surabhi; Einstein, A; Shukla, Abhilasha; Mishra, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Background: Liquid-based cytology (LBC), recommended in the mass screening of potentially malignant cervical and oral lesions, suffers from high cost owing to the use of expensive automated devices and materials. Considering the need for cost-effective LBC techniques, we evaluated the efficacy of an inexpensive manual LBC (MLBC) technique against conventional cytological technique in terms of specimen adequacy and smear quality of oral smears. Materials and Methods: Cytological samples were collected from 21 patients using a cytobrush device. After preparation of a conventional smear, the brush containing the remaining sample was immersed in the preservative vial. The preserved material was processed by an MLBC technique and subsequently, direct smears were made from the prepared cell button. Both conventional and MLBC smears were stained by routine Papanicolaou technique and evaluated by an independent observer for the thickness of the smear, cellular distribution, resolution/clarity of cells, cellular staining characteristics and the presence of unsatisfactory background/artifacts. Each parameter was graded as satisfactory; or satisfactory, but limited; or unsatisfactory. Chi-square test was used to compare the values obtained (significance set at P ≤ 0.05). Results: MLBC technique produced a significant number of satisfactory smears with regard to cell distribution, clarity/resolution, staining characteristics and background/artifacts compared to conventional methods. Conclusions: MLBC is a cost-effective cytological technique that may produce oral smears with excellent cytomorphology and longer storage life. PMID:26980958

  1. Louisiana's sixth forest survey

    Treesearch

    James F. Rosson

    1993-01-01

    The sixth Louisiana forest survey was completed in November 1991.Previous surveys were done in 1935, 1954, 1964, 1974, and 1984. Information derived from the forest survey has become more and more detailed and comprehensive since the first survey in 1935 as a direct result of enhanced sampling techniques, expanded administrative budgets, and development of computer...

  2. Comparative study of the results from conventional cervico-vaginal oncotic cytology and liquid-based cytology.

    PubMed

    Stabile, Sueli Aparecida Batista; Evangelista, Dilson Henrique Ramos; Talamonte, Valdely Helena; Lippi, Umberto Gazi; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2012-01-01

    To compare two oncotic cervical cytology techniques, the conventional and the liquid-based cytology, in low risk patients for uterine cervical cancer. Comparative prospective study with 100 patients who came to their annual gynecological exam, and were submitted simultaneously to both techniques. We used the McNemar test, with a significance level of p < 0.05 to compare the results obtained related to adequacy of the smear quality, descriptive diagnosis prevalence, guided biopsy confirmation and histology. Adequacy of the smear was similar for both methods. The quality with squamocolumnar junction in 93% of conventional cytology and in 84% of the liquid-based cytology had statistical significance. As for the diagnosis of atypical cells they were detected in 3% of conventional cytology and in 10% of liquid-based cytology (p = 0.06). Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance were the most prevalent abnormality. The liquid-based cytology performance was better when compared with colposcopy (guided biopsy), presenting sensitivity of 66.7% and specificity of 100%. There was no cytological and histological concordance for the conventional cytology. Liquid-based cytology had a better performance to diagnose atypical cells and the cytohistological concordance was higher than in the conventional cytology.

  3. Aeroservoelastic stabilization technique refinement for hypersonic flight vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Peter Y.; Chan, Samuel Y.; Myers, Thomas T.; Klyde, David H.; Mcruer, Duane T.

    1992-01-01

    Conventional gain-stabilization techniques introduce low frequency effective time delays which can be troublesome from the viewpoint of SSTOV vehicles' flying qualities. These time delays can be alleviated through a blending of gain-stabilization and phase-stabilization techniques; the resulting hybrid phase stabilization (HPS) for the low-frequency structural modes has been noted to have greater residual response than a conventional gain-stabilizer design. HPS design procedures are presently refined, and residual response metrics are developed.

  4. A comparative study of conventionally sintered and microwave sintered nickel zinc ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Rekha; Juneja, J. K.; Raina, K. K.; Kotnala, R. K.; Prakash, Chandra

    2014-04-01

    For the present work, nickel zinc ferrite having compositional formula Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 was synthesized by conventional solid state method and sintered in conventional and microwave furnaces. Pellets were sintered with very short soaking time of 10 min at 1150 °C in microwave furnace whereas 4 hrs of soaking time was selected for conventional sintering at 1200 °C. Phase formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis technique. Scanning electron micrographs were taken for microstructural study. Dielectric properties were studied as a function of temperature. To study magnetic behavior, M-H hysteresis loops were recorded for both samples. It is observed that microwave sintered sample could obtain comparable properties to the conventionally sintered one in lesser soaking time at lower sintering temperature.

  5. Indoleamine Hallucinogens in Cluster Headache: Results of the Clusterbusters Medication Use Survey.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Emmanuelle A D; Gottschalk, Christopher H; Weil, Marsha J; Shapiro, Robert E; Wright, Douglas A; Sewell, Richard Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Cluster headache is one of the most debilitating pain syndromes. A significant number of patients are refractory to conventional therapies. The Clusterbusters.org medication use survey sought to characterize the effects of both conventional and alternative medications used in cluster headache. Participants were recruited from cluster headache websites and headache clinics. The final analysis included responses from 496 participants. The survey was modeled after previously published surveys and was available online. Most responses were chosen from a list, though others were free-texted. Conventional abortive and preventative medications were identified and their efficacies agreed with those previously published. The indoleamine hallucinogens, psilocybin, lysergic acid diethylamide, and lysergic acid amide, were comparable to or more efficacious than most conventional medications. These agents were also perceived to shorten/abort a cluster period and bring chronic cluster headache into remission more so than conventional medications. Furthermore, infrequent and non-hallucinogenic doses were reported to be efficacious. Findings provide additional evidence that several indoleamine hallucinogens are rated as effective in treating cluster headache. These data reinforce the need for further investigation of the effects of these and related compounds in cluster headache under experimentally controlled settings.

  6. Remote sensing techniques for prediction of watershed runoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    Hydrologic parameters of watersheds for use in mathematical models and as design criteria for flood detention structures are sometimes difficult to quantify using conventional measuring systems. The advent of remote sensing devices developed in the past decade offers the possibility that watershed characteristics such as vegetative cover, soils, soil moisture, etc., may be quantified rapidly and economically. Experiments with visible and near infrared data from the LANDSAT-1 multispectral scanner indicate a simple technique for calibration of runoff equation coefficients is feasible. The technique was tested on 10 watersheds in the Chickasha area and test results show more accurate runoff coefficients were obtained than with conventional methods. The technique worked equally as well using a dry fall scene. The runoff equation coefficients were then predicted for 22 subwatersheds with flood detention structures. Predicted values were again more accurate than coefficients produced by conventional methods.

  7. Fungal Diversity in Tomato Rhizosphere Soil under Conventional and Desert Farming Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kazerooni, Elham A.; Maharachchikumbura, Sajeewa S. N.; Rethinasamy, Velazhahan; Al-Mahrouqi, Hamed; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined fungal diversity and composition in conventional (CM) and desert farming (DE) systems in Oman. Fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of tomato was assessed using 454-pyrosequencing and culture-based techniques. Both techniques produced variable results in terms of fungal diversity, with 25% of the fungal classes shared between the two techniques. In addition, pyrosequencing recovered more taxa compared to direct plating. These findings could be attributed to the ability of pyrosequencing to recover taxa that cannot grow or are slow growing on culture media. Both techniques showed that fungal diversity in the conventional farm was comparable to that in the desert farm. However, the composition of fungal classes and taxa in the two farming systems were different. Pyrosequencing revealed that Microsporidetes and Dothideomycetes are the two most common fungal classes in CM and DE, respectively. However, the culture-based technique revealed that Eurotiomycetes was the most abundant class in both farming systems and some classes, such as Microsporidetes, were not detected by the culture-based technique. Although some plant pathogens (e.g., Pythium or Fusarium) were detected in the rhizosphere of tomato, the majority of fungal species in the rhizosphere of tomato were saprophytes. Our study shows that the cultivation system may have an impact on fungal diversity. The factors which affected fungal diversity in both farms are discussed. PMID:28824590

  8. Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional instruments

    PubMed Central

    Dalvi, A. N.; Thapar, P. M.; Deshpande, A. A.; Rege, S. A.; Prabhu, R. Y.; Supe, A. N.; Kamble, R. S.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) is an accepted procedure for elective splenectomy. Advancement in technology has extended the possibility of LS in massive splenomegaly [Choy et al., J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 14(4), 197–200 (2004)], trauma [Ren et al., Surg Endosc 15(3), 324 (2001); Mostafa et al., Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 12(4), 283–286 (2002)], and cirrhosis with portal hypertension [Hashizume et al., Hepatogastroenterology 49(45), 847–852 (2002)]. In a developing country, these advanced gadgets may not be always available. We performed LS using conventional and reusable instruments in a public teaching the hospital without the use of the advanced technology. The technique of LS and the outcome in these patients is reported. Materials and Methods: Patients undergoing LS for various hematological disorders from 1998 to 2004 were included. Electrocoagulation, clips, and intracorporeal knotting were the techniques used for tackling short-gastric vessels and splenic pedicle. Specimen was delivered through a Pfannensteil incision. Results: A total of 26 patients underwent LS. Twenty-two (85%) of patients had spleen size more than 500 g (average weight being 942.55 g). Mean operative time was 214 min (45–390 min). The conversion rate was 11.5% (n = 3). Average duration of stay was 5.65 days (3–30 days). Accessory spleen was detected and successfully removed in two patients. One patient developed subphrenic abscess. There was no mortality. There was no recurrence of hematological disease. Conclusion: Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional equipment and instruments is safe and effective. Advanced technology has a definite advantage but is not a deterrent to the practice of LS. PMID:21206648

  9. Avian nesting success and diversity in conventionally and organically managed apple orchards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fluetsch, K.M.; Sparling, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the effects of operational use of pesticides on avian species inhabiting apple orchards in Pennsylvania. Mourning dove (Zenaida rnacroura) and American robin (Turdus migratorius) nests were monitored in three organic and three conventional apple orchards during 1990 and 1991. In 1991 we surveyed the avian communities of these orchards by using line transects. Organophosphorus (OP) (e.g., azinphos-methyl, phosphamidon, parathion, dimethoate), carbamate (CA) (e.g., methomyl, formetanate, oxamyl), and organochlorine (endosulfan) pesticides, known to be highly toxic to birds, were sprayed individually or in mixtures as part of routine pest management as many as 19 times during peaks in breeding activity. Spray card tests revealed that OP pesticides were deposited on 86% of the nests in conventional orchards. Daily survival rates (DSRs) for nests of both species were higher in the organic orchards than in the conventional orchards for 1991 and for years combined (p < 0.05). Species diversity was greater in the organic orchards (H= 2.43) than in the conventional orchards (H=1.79). Repeated applications of pesticides within the conventional orchards reduced the reproductive success of doves and robins and may have lowered avian species diversity compared with organic orchards.

  10. Review of conventional and novel food processing methods on food allergens.

    PubMed

    Vanga, Sai Kranthi; Singh, Ashutosh; Raghavan, Vijaya

    2017-07-03

    With the turn of this century, novel food processing techniques have become commercially very important because of their profound advantages over the traditional methods. These novel processing methods tend to preserve the characteristic properties of food including their organoleptic and nutritional qualities better when compared with the conventional food processing methods. During the same period of time, there is a clear rise in the populations suffering from food allergies, especially infants and children. Though, this fact is widely attributed to the changing livelihood of population in both developed and developing nations and to the introduction of new food habits with advent of novel foods and new processing techniques, their complete role is still uncertain. Under the circumstance, it is very important to understand the structural changes in the protein as food is processed to comprehend whether the specific processing technique (conventional and novel) is increasing or mitigating the allergenicity. Various modern means are now being employed to understand the conformational changes in the protein which can affect the allergenicity. In this review, the processing effects on protein structure and allergenicity are discussed along with the insinuations of recent studies and techniques for establishing a platform to investigate future pathway to reduce or eliminate allergenicity in the population.

  11. Prospective randomized comparison of cold snare polypectomy and conventional polypectomy for small colorectal polyps.

    PubMed

    Ichise, Yasuyuki; Horiuchi, Akira; Nakayama, Yoshiko; Tanaka, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    The ideal method to remove small colorectal polyps is unknown. We compared removal by colon snare transection without electrocautery (cold snare polypectomy) with conventional electrocautery snare polypectomy (hot polypectomy) in terms of procedure duration, difficulty in retrieving polyps, bleeding, and post-polypectomy symptoms. Patients with colorectal polyps up to 8 mm in diameter were randomized to polypectomy by cold snare technique (cold group) or conventional polypectomy (conventional group). The principal outcome measures were abdominal symptoms within 2 weeks after polypectomy. Secondary outcome measures were the rates of retrieval of colorectal polyps and bleeding. Eighty patients were randomized: cold group, n = 40 (101 polyps) and conventional group, n = 40 (104 polyps). The patients' demographic characteristics and the number and size of polyps removed were similar between the two techniques. Procedure time was significantly shorter with cold polypectomy vs. conventional polypectomy (18 vs. 25 min, p < 0.0001). Complete polyp retrieval rates were identical [96% (97/101) vs. 96% (100/104)]. No bleeding requiring hemostasis occurred in either group. Abdominal symptoms shortly after polypectomy were more common with conventional polypectomy (i.e. 20%; 8/40) than with cold polypectomy (i.e. 2.5%; 1/40; p = 0.029). Cold polypectomy was superior to conventional polypectomy in terms of procedure time and post-polypectomy abdominal symptoms. The two methods were otherwise essentially identical in terms of bleeding risk and complete polyp retrieval. Cold polypectomy is therefore the preferred method for removal of small colorectal polyps. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. A Brief History of the use of Electromagnetic Induction Techniques in Soil Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Doolittle, James

    2017-04-01

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) has been used to characterize the spatial variability of soil properties since the late 1970s. Initially used to assess soil salinity, the use of EMI in soil studies has expanded to include: mapping soil types; characterizing soil water content and flow patterns; assessing variations in soil texture, compaction, organic matter content, and pH; and determining the depth to subsurface horizons, stratigraphic layers or bedrock, among other uses. In all cases the soil property being investigated must influence soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) either directly or indirectly for EMI techniques to be effective. An increasing number and diversity of EMI sensors have been developed in response to users' needs and the availability of allied technologies, which have greatly improved the functionality of these tools and increased the amount and types of data that can be gathered with a single pass. EMI investigations provide several benefits for soil studies. The large amount of georeferenced data that can be rapidly and inexpensively collected with EMI provides more complete characterization of the spatial variations in soil properties than traditional sampling techniques. In addition, compared to traditional soil survey methods, EMI can more effectively characterize diffuse soil boundaries and identify included areas of dissimilar soils within mapped soil units, giving soil scientists greater confidence when collecting spatial soil information. EMI techniques do have limitations; results are site-specific and can vary depending on the complex interactions among multiple and variable soil properties. Despite this, EMI techniques are increasingly being used to investigate the spatial variability of soil properties at field and landscape scales. The future should witness a greater use of multiple-frequency and multiple-coil EMI sensors and integration with other sensors to assess the spatial variability of soil properties. Data analysis

  13. Conventional or interpersonal communication: which works best in disseminating malaria information in an endemic rural Bangladeshi community?

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Hossain, Mohammad Shamim; Kabir, Moktadir

    2014-01-01

    Since 2007, BRAC has been implementing malaria prevention and control programme in 13 endemic districts of Bangladesh under the National Malaria Control Programme. This study was done to examine the role of different communication media in bringing about changes in knowledge and awareness which facilitate informed decision-making for managing malaria-like illnesses. A baseline survey in 2007 before inception of the programme, and a follow-up survey in 2012 were done to study changes in different aspects of programme interventions including the communication component. Both the surveys used the same sampling technique to select 25 households at random from each of the 30 mauza/villages in a district. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information from respondents in face-to-face interview. Analysis was done comparing the study areas at two different times. Statistical tests were done as necessary to examine the differences. The intervention succeeded in improving knowledge in some trivial areas (e.g., most frequent symptom suggestive of malaria, importance of using insecticidal bed nets) but not in critical domains necessary for taking informed action (e.g., mode of malaria transmission, awareness about facilities providing free malaria treatment). Inequity in knowledge and practice was quite common depending upon household affluence, location of households in high or low endemic districts, and sex. Of the different media used in Information, Education and communication (IEC) campaigns during the study period, interpersonal communication with community health workers/relatives/neighbours/friends was found to be more effective in improving knowledge and practice than conventional print and audio-visual media. This study reiterates the fact that conventional media may not be user-friendly or culture-sensitive for this semi-literate/illiterate community where dissemination through 'words of mouth' is more common, and as such

  14. A survey of GPU-based medical image computing techniques

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lin; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Heye; Xie, Yongming

    2012-01-01

    Medical imaging currently plays a crucial role throughout the entire clinical applications from medical scientific research to diagnostics and treatment planning. However, medical imaging procedures are often computationally demanding due to the large three-dimensional (3D) medical datasets to process in practical clinical applications. With the rapidly enhancing performances of graphics processors, improved programming support, and excellent price-to-performance ratio, the graphics processing unit (GPU) has emerged as a competitive parallel computing platform for computationally expensive and demanding tasks in a wide range of medical image applications. The major purpose of this survey is to provide a comprehensive reference source for the starters or researchers involved in GPU-based medical image processing. Within this survey, the continuous advancement of GPU computing is reviewed and the existing traditional applications in three areas of medical image processing, namely, segmentation, registration and visualization, are surveyed. The potential advantages and associated challenges of current GPU-based medical imaging are also discussed to inspire future applications in medicine. PMID:23256080

  15. [Gingival displacement techniques in daily practice. Survey among dental surgeons in Abidjan, Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Pesson, D M; Bakou, O D; Didia, E L E; Kouame, A; Blohoua, M R J J; Djeredou, K B

    2015-12-01

    Access to cervical margins allows the practitioner to record the entire cervical margin in order to provide a true copy to the technician. This requires a gingival displacement obtainable by different techniques. This study aimed to assess the implementation of gingival displacement methods prior to impression taking in fixed prosthodontics. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional survey of sample of 71 dentists practising in Abidjan, Ivory Coast; which ran from October 2nd, 2010 to November 14th, 2010. A survey form was administered to dentists. The questionnaire was organised around the following headings: identification of dentists and practice of gingival displacement methods. The data processing done using software Epi Info 6 and Excel XP on Window XP, allowed calculation of frequencies, means and proportions and the establishment of connection between variables with the chi2 test. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. The results of the survey indicate that non-surgical methods of gingival displacement, including retraction cords and temporary crowns are those they use most frequently (76.4%) because the vast majority of practitioners (87.22%) believe the most traumatic to the periodontium are surgical methods. Our study showed that the gingival displacement methods are frequently carried out in daily practice, regardless of the topography of the abutment teeth and their number, but with a preference for non-surgical methods, particularly those using retraction cords and temporary crowns. The use of injectable gingival displacement paste is not harmful to the periodontal tissues, easy to use and have a very efficient haemostatic action. It should also be known and practiced.

  16. Accuracy analysis of pedicle screw placement in posterior scoliosis surgery: comparison between conventional fluoroscopic and computer-assisted technique.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Yoshihisa; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Ito, Manabu; Takahata, Masahiko; Sudo, Hideki; Ohshima, Shigeki; Minami, Akio

    2007-06-15

    The accuracy of pedicle screw placement was evaluated in posterior scoliosis surgeries with or without the use of computer-assisted surgical techniques. In this retrospective cohort study, the pedicle screw placement accuracy in posterior scoliosis surgery was compared between conventional fluoroscopic and computer-assisted surgical techniques. There has been no study systemically analyzing the perforation pattern and comparative accuracy of pedicle screw placement in posterior scoliosis surgery. The 45 patients who received posterior correction surgeries were divided into 2 groups: Group C, manual control (25 patients); and Group N, navigation surgery (20 patients). The average Cobb angles were 73.7 degrees and 73.1 degrees before surgery in Group C and Group N, respectively. Using CT images, vertebral rotation, pedicle axes as measured to anteroposterior sacral axis and vertebral axis, and insertion angle error were measured. In perforation cases, the angular tendency, insertion point, and length abnormality were evaluated. The perforation was observed in 11% of Group C and 1.8% in Group N. In Group C, medial perforations of left screws were demonstrated in 8 of 9 perforated screws and 55% were distributed either in L1 or T12. The perforation consistently occurred in pedicles in which those axes approached anteroposterior sacral axis within 5 degrees . The average insertion errors were 8.4 degrees and 5.0 degrees in Group C and Group N, respectively, which were significantly different (P < 0.02). The medial perforation in Group C occurred around L1, especially when pedicle axis approached anteroposterior sacral axis. This consistent tendency was considered as the limitation of fluoroscopic screw insertion in which horizontal vertebral image was not visible. The use of surgical navigation system successfully reduced the perforation rate and insertion angle errors, demonstrating the clear advantage in safe and accurate pedicle screw placement of scoliosis surgery.

  17. Assessment of conventional oil resources of the East African Rift Province, East Africa, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-03-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean conventional resources of 13.4 billion barrels of oil and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of gas in the East African Rift Province of east Africa.

  18. Laser Surveying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA technology has produced a laser-aided system for surveying land boundaries in difficult terrain. It does the job more accurately than conventional methods, takes only one-third the time normally required, and is considerably less expensive. In surveying to mark property boundaries, the objective is to establish an accurate heading between two "corner" points. This is conventionally accomplished by erecting a "range pole" at one point and sighting it from the other point through an instrument called a theodolite. But how do you take a heading between two points which are not visible to each other, for instance, when tall trees, hills or other obstacles obstruct the line of sight? That was the problem confronting the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service. The Forest Service manages 187 million acres of land in 44 states and Puerto Rico. Unfortunately, National Forest System lands are not contiguous but intermingled in complex patterns with privately-owned land. In recent years much of the private land has been undergoing development for purposes ranging from timber harvesting to vacation resorts. There is a need for precise boundary definition so that both private owners and the Forest Service can manage their properties with confidence that they are not trespassing on the other's land.

  19. Accuracy of ringless casting and accelerated wax-elimination technique: a comparative in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rahul; Al-Keraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Kathuria, Nidhi; Gandhi, P V; Bhide, S V

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ringless casting and accelerated wax-elimination techniques can be combined to offer a cost-effective, clinically acceptable, and time-saving alternative for fabricating single unit castings in fixed prosthodontics. Sixty standardized wax copings were fabricated on a type IV stone replica of a stainless steel die. The wax patterns were divided into four groups. The first group was cast using the ringless investment technique and conventional wax-elimination method; the second group was cast using the ringless investment technique and accelerated wax-elimination method; the third group was cast using the conventional metal ring investment technique and conventional wax-elimination method; the fourth group was cast using the metal ring investment technique and accelerated wax-elimination method. The vertical marginal gap was measured at four sites per specimen, using a digital optical microscope at 100× magnification. The results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA to determine statistical significance. The vertical marginal gaps of castings fabricated using the ringless technique (76.98 ± 7.59 μm) were significantly less (p < 0.05) than those castings fabricated using the conventional metal ring technique (138.44 ± 28.59 μm); however, the vertical marginal gaps of the conventional (102.63 ± 36.12 μm) and accelerated wax-elimination (112.79 ± 38.34 μm) castings were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The ringless investment technique can produce castings with higher accuracy and can be favorably combined with the accelerated wax-elimination method as a vital alternative to the time-consuming conventional technique of casting restorations in fixed prosthodontics. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  20. Myocardial blood flow: Roentgen videodensitometry techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. C.; Robb, R. A.; Wood, E. H.

    1975-01-01

    The current status of roentgen videodensitometric techniques that provide an objective assessment of blood flow at selected sites within the coronary circulation were described. Roentgen videodensitometry employs conventional radiopaque indicators, radiological equipment and coronary angiographic techniques. Roentgen videodensitometry techniques developed in the laboratory during the past nine years, and for the past three years were applied to analysis of angiograms in the clinical cardiac catheterization laboratory.

  1. An Improved Fungal Mounting Technique for Nomarski Microscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairclough, Andrew; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Conventional sellotape techniques for fungal mounting produce interference patterns when using Normarsky microscopy. A technique is described which overcomes this problem and produces a permanent mount with a completely clear background. (Author/JN)

  2. Current Use of E-Cigarettes and Conventional Cigarettes Among US High School Students in Urban and Rural Locations: 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey.

    PubMed

    Noland, Melody; Rayens, Mary Kay; Wiggins, Amanda T; Huntington-Moskos, Luz; Rayens, Emily A; Howard, Tiffany; Hahn, Ellen J

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent tobacco use is higher in rural than in urban areas. While e-cigarette use is increasing rapidly among this age group, differences in prevalence between rural versus urban populations for this relatively novel product have not been explored. The purpose is to investigate whether location of school (rural-urban) is associated with e-cigarette use and dual use (defined as the use of both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes) among high school students. Cross-sectional survey obtained using a stratified, 3-stage cluster sample design. United States. A nationally representative sample of US high school students (N = 11 053) who completed the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS); slightly more than half were urban (54%). The NYTS measures tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and use behavior and demographics of students in the United States. Weighted logistic regression assessed the relationships of urban-rural location with current e-cigarette use and dual use, adjusting for demographic factors, perceived risk, and social norms. There were clear differences in patterns of adolescent e-cigarette and cigarette use in rural versus urban areas. Social norms and perceptions may play a role in understanding these differences. Urban youth current cigarette smokers were nearly twice as likely as rural cigarette smokers to also use e-cigarettes. Reasons for urban-rural differences need to be taken into account when designing prevention programs and policy changes.

  3. Accuracy of Digital vs Conventional Implant Impression Approach: A Three-Dimensional Comparative In Vitro Analysis.

    PubMed

    Basaki, Kinga; Alkumru, Hasan; De Souza, Grace; Finer, Yoav

    To assess the three-dimensional (3D) accuracy and clinical acceptability of implant definitive casts fabricated using a digital impression approach and to compare the results with those of a conventional impression method in a partially edentulous condition. A mandibular reference model was fabricated with implants in the first premolar and molar positions to simulate a patient with bilateral posterior edentulism. Ten implant-level impressions per method were made using either an intraoral scanner with scanning abutments for the digital approach or an open-tray technique and polyvinylsiloxane material for the conventional approach. 3D analysis and comparison of implant location on resultant definitive casts were performed using laser scanner and quality control software. The inter-implant distances and interimplant angulations for each implant pair were measured for the reference model and for each definitive cast (n = 20 per group); these measurements were compared to calculate the magnitude of error in 3D for each definitive cast. The influence of implant angulation on definitive cast accuracy was evaluated for both digital and conventional approaches. Statistical analysis was performed using t test (α = .05) for implant position and angulation. Clinical qualitative assessment of accuracy was done via the assessment of the passivity of a master verification stent for each implant pair, and significance was analyzed using chi-square test (α = .05). A 3D error of implant positioning was observed for the two impression techniques vs the reference model, with mean ± standard deviation (SD) error of 116 ± 94 μm and 56 ± 29 μm for the digital and conventional approaches, respectively (P = .01). In contrast, the inter-implant angulation errors were not significantly different between the two techniques (P = .83). Implant angulation did not have a significant influence on definitive cast accuracy within either technique (P = .64). The verification stent

  4. A Rapid Survey of the Compatibility of Selected Seal Materials with Conventional and Semi-Synthetic JP-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, John L.; Striebich, Richard C.; Minus, Donald K.; Harrison, William E., III

    2007-01-01

    Since the synthesis of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel from coal by Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch in 1923, there has been cyclic interest in developing this fuel for military and commercial applications. In recent years the U.S. Department of Defense has taken interest in producing a unified battlespace fuel using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process for a variety of reasons including cost, quality, and logistics. In the past year there has been a particular emphasis on moving quickly to demonstrate that an FT fuel can be used in the form of a blend with conventional petroleum-derived jet fuel. The initial objective is to employ this semi-synthetic fuel with blend ratios as high as 50 percent FT with longer range goals to use even high blend ratios and ultimately a fully synthetic jet fuel. A significant concern associated with the use of a semi-synthetic jet fuel with high FT blend ratios is the effect these low aromatic fuels will have on fuel-wetted polymeric materials, most notably seals and sealants. These materials typically swell and soften to some degree when exposed to jet fuel and the aromatic content of these fuels contribute to this effect. Semi-synthetic jet fuels with very low aromatic contents may cause seals and sealants to shrink and harden leading to acute or chronic failure. Unfortunately, most of the material qualification tests are more concerned with excessive swelling than shrinkage and there is little guidance offered as to an acceptable level of shrinkage or other changes in physical properties related to low aromatic content. Given the pressing need for guidance data, a program was developed to rapidly survey the volume swell of selected fuel-wetted materials in a range of conventional and semi-synthetic jet fuels and through a statistical analysis to make a determination as to whether there was a basis to be concerned about using fuels with FT blend ratios as high as 50 percent. Concurrent with this analysis data was obtained as to the composition

  5. A comparison of 3D poly(ε-caprolactone) tissue engineering scaffolds produced with conventional and additive manufacturing techniques by means of quantitative analysis of SR μ-CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, F.; Intranuovo, F.; Mohammadi, S.; Domingos, M.; Favia, P.; Tromba, G.

    2013-07-01

    The technique used to produce a 3D tissue engineering (TE) scaffold is of fundamental importance in order to guarantee its proper morphological characteristics. An accurate assessment of the resulting structural properties is therefore crucial in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the produced scaffold. Synchrotron radiation (SR) computed microtomography (μ-CT) combined with further image analysis seems to be one of the most effective techniques to this aim. However, a quantitative assessment of the morphological parameters directly from the reconstructed images is a non trivial task. This study considers two different poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds fabricated with a conventional technique (Solvent Casting Particulate Leaching, SCPL) and an additive manufacturing (AM) technique (BioCell Printing), respectively. With the first technique it is possible to produce scaffolds with random, non-regular, rounded pore geometry. The AM technique instead is able to produce scaffolds with square-shaped interconnected pores of regular dimension. Therefore, the final morphology of the AM scaffolds can be predicted and the resulting model can be used for the validation of the applied imaging and image analysis protocols. It is here reported a SR μ-CT image analysis approach that is able to effectively and accurately reveal the differences in the pore- and throat-size distributions as well as connectivity of both AM and SCPL scaffolds.

  6. Comparative Study of the Diagnostic Value of Panoramic and Conventional Radiography of the Wrist in Scaphoid Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Ezoddini Ardakani, Fatemeh; Zangoie Booshehri, Maryam; Banadaki, Seyed Hossein Saeed; Nafisi-Moghadam, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background Scaphoid fractures are the most common type of carpal fractures. Objectives The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic value of panoramic and conventional radiographs of the wrist in scaphoid fractures. Patients and Methods The panoramic and conventional radiographs of 122 patients with acute and chronic wrist trauma were studied. The radiographs were analyzed and examined by two independent radiologist observers; one physician radiologist and one maxillofacial radiologist. The final diagnosis was made by an orthopedic specialist. Kappa test was used for statistical calculations, inter- and intra-observer agreement and correlation between the two techniques. Results Wrist panoramic radiography was more accurate than conventional radiography for ruling out scaphoid fractures. There was an agreement in 85% or more of the cases. Agreement values were higher with better inter and intra observer agreement for panoramic examinations than conventional radiographic examinations. Conclusion The panoramic examination of the wrist is a useful technique for the diagnosis and follow-up of scaphoid fractures. Its use is recommended as a complement to conventional radiography in cases with inconclusive findings. PMID:23599708

  7. Organic dairy farmers put more emphasis on production traits than conventional farmers.

    PubMed

    Slagboom, M; Kargo, M; Edwards, D; Sørensen, A C; Thomasen, J R; Hjortø, L

    2016-12-01

    The overall aim of this research was to characterize the preferences of Danish dairy farmers for improvements in breeding goal traits. The specific aims were (1) to investigate the presence of heterogeneity in farmers' preferences by means of cluster analysis, and (2) to associate these clusters with herd characteristics and production systems (organic or conventional). We established a web-based survey to characterize the preferences of farmers for improvements in 10 traits, by means of pairwise rankings. We also collected a considerable number of herd characteristics. Overall, 106 organic farmers and 290 conventional farmers answered the survey, all with Holstein cows. The most preferred trait improvement was cow fertility, and the least preferred was calving difficulty. By means of cluster analysis, we identified 4 distinct clusters of farmers and named them according to the trait improvements that were most preferred: Health and Fertility, Production and Udder Health, Survival, and Fertility and Production. Some herd characteristics differed between clusters; for example, farmers in the Survival cluster had twice the percentage of dead cows in their herds compared with the other clusters, and farmers that gave the highest ranking to cow and heifer fertility had the lowest conception rate in their herds. This finding suggests that farmers prefer to improve traits that are more problematic in their herd. The proportion of organic and conventional farmers also differed between clusters; we found a higher proportion of organic farmers in the production-based clusters. When we analyzed organic and conventional data separately, we found that organic farmers ranked production traits higher than conventional farmers. The herds of organic farmers had lower milk yields and lower disease incidences, which might explain the high ranking of milk production and the low ranking of disease traits. This study shows that heterogeneity exists in farmers' preferences for

  8. Survey Summary of AGATE Concepts Demonstration at Annual NATA Convention, March 24-26, 1997. Volume 1; Basic Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An AGATE Concepts Demonstration was conducted at the annual National Air Transportation Association (NATA) Convention in 1997. Following a 5-minute introductory briefing, an interactive simulation of a single-pilot, single-engine aircraft was conducted. The participant was able to take off, fly a brief enroute segment, fly a Global Positioning System (GPS) approach and landing, and repeat the approach and landing segment. The participant was provided an advanced "highway-in-the-sky" presentation on both a simulated head-up display and on a large LCD head-down display to follow throughout the flight. A single-lever power control and display concept was also provided for control of the engine throughout the flight. A second head-down, multifunction display in the instrument panel provided a moving map display for navigation purposes and monitoring of the status of the aircraft's systems. An estimated 100 people observed or participated in the demonstration, and 68 surveys were collected. The pilot ratings of the participants ranged from student to Air Transport Rating with an average of 6089 hours total flight time. The overwhelming response was that technologies that simplify piloting tasks are enthusiastically welcomed by pilots of all experience levels. The increase in situation awareness and use of the head-up display were universally accepted and lauded as steps in the right direction.

  9. Organic and conventional farmers differ in their perspective on cover crop use and breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cover crops play an important role in agricultural sustainability. Unlike commodity cash crops, however, there has been relatively little cover crop germplasm research and development. We conducted an online survey to evaluate a) the perspectives of organic and conventional farmers in the United Sta...

  10. TiO2-coated mesoporous carbon: conventional vs. microwave-annealing process.

    PubMed

    Coromelci-Pastravanu, Cristina; Ignat, Maria; Popovici, Evelini; Harabagiu, Valeria

    2014-08-15

    The study of coating mesoporous carbon materials with titanium oxide nanoparticles is now becoming a promising and challenging area of research. To optimize the use of carbon materials in various applications, it is necessary to attach functional groups or other nanostructures to their surface. The combination of the distinctive properties of mesoporous carbon materials and titanium oxide is expected to be applied in field emission displays, nanoelectronic devices, novel catalysts, and polymer or ceramic reinforcement. But, their synthesis is still largely based on conventional techniques, such as wet impregnation followed by chemical reduction of the metal nanoparticle precursors, which takes time and money. The thermal heating based techniques are time consuming and often lack control of particle size and morphology. Hence, since there is a growing interest in microwave technology, an alternative way of power input into chemical reactions through dielectric heating is the use of microwaves. This work is focused on the advantages of microwave-assisted synthesis of TiO2-coated mesoporous carbon over conventional thermal heating method. The reviewed studies showed that the microwave-assisted synthesis of such composites allows processes to be completed within a shorter reaction time allowing the nanoparticles formation with superior properties than that obtained by conventional method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurological and mental health outcomes among conventional and organic farmers in Indiana, USA.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khalid M; Baidya, Retushi; Aryal, Ashamsa; Farmer, James R; Valliant, Julia

    2018-06-20

    Every farming method, whether conventional or organic, has been associated with some sort of risky behaviors leading to health issues among farmers. Substantial evidence is not available in the literature to determine whether the magnitudes of health outcomes vary between conventional and organic farmers. The study investigated whether self-reported neurological and mental health symptoms differ between conventional and organic farmers living in Indiana, USA. A self-reported questionnaire survey collected information from 200 conventional and 157 organic farmers of Indiana on demographic characteristics, depression and neurological symptoms. Statistical analyses were conducted to observe the differences in self-reported symptoms by groups of farmers. It was observed that the conventional farmers had significantly higher age-adjusted mean neurological symptom score (p<0.01) than the organic farmers. Regression models revealed positive and significant associations of conventional farming with total (β =1.34; p=0.02), sensory (β =0.83; p=0.001) and behavioural (β =0.09; p=0.03) symptoms after accounting for age, income, education and years in farming. Positive but non-significant associations were also observed in conventional farmers with cognitive and motor symptoms, and with all subscales of depression symptoms in the adjusted models. The findings obtained suggest the importance of a larger study to further explain the difference in mental and neurological health effects in these two categories of farmers.

  12. Evaluation of gravimetric techniques to estimate the microvascular filtration coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Dongaonkar, R. M.; Laine, G. A.; Stewart, R. H.

    2011-01-01

    Microvascular permeability to water is characterized by the microvascular filtration coefficient (Kf). Conventional gravimetric techniques to estimate Kf rely on data obtained from either transient or steady-state increases in organ weight in response to increases in microvascular pressure. Both techniques result in considerably different estimates and neither account for interstitial fluid storage and lymphatic return. We therefore developed a theoretical framework to evaluate Kf estimation techniques by 1) comparing conventional techniques to a novel technique that includes effects of interstitial fluid storage and lymphatic return, 2) evaluating the ability of conventional techniques to reproduce Kf from simulated gravimetric data generated by a realistic interstitial fluid balance model, 3) analyzing new data collected from rat intestine, and 4) analyzing previously reported data. These approaches revealed that the steady-state gravimetric technique yields estimates that are not directly related to Kf and are in some cases directly proportional to interstitial compliance. However, the transient gravimetric technique yields accurate estimates in some organs, because the typical experimental duration minimizes the effects of interstitial fluid storage and lymphatic return. Furthermore, our analytical framework reveals that the supposed requirement of tying off all draining lymphatic vessels for the transient technique is unnecessary. Finally, our numerical simulations indicate that our comprehensive technique accurately reproduces the value of Kf in all organs, is not confounded by interstitial storage and lymphatic return, and provides corroboration of the estimate from the transient technique. PMID:21346245

  13. Post-fatigue fracture resistance of metal core crowns: press-on metal ceramic versus a conventional veneering system

    PubMed Central

    Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Campos-Estellés, Carlos; Labaig-Rueda, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the mechanical failure behavior and to analyze fracture characteristics of metal ceramic crowns with two veneering systems – press-on metal (PoM) ceramic versus a conventional veneering system – subjected to static compressive loading. Material and Methods Forty-six crowns were constructed and divided into two groups according to porcelain veneer manufacture. Group A: 23 metal copings with porcelain IPS-InLine veneering (conventional metal ceramic). Group B: 23 metal copings with IPS-InLine PoM veneering porcelain. After 120,000 fatigue cycles, the crowns were axially loaded to the moment of fracture with a universal testing machine. The fractured specimens were examined under optical stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscope. Results Fracture resistance values showed statistically significant differences (Student’s t-test) regarding the type of ceramic veneering technique (p=0.001): Group A (conventional metal ceramics) obtained a mean fracture resistance of 1933.17 N, and Group B 1325.74N (Press-on metal ceramics). The most common type of fracture was adhesive failure (with metal exposure) (p=0.000). Veneer porcelain fractured on the occlusal surface following a radial pattern. Conclusions Metal ceramic crowns made of IPS InLine or IPS InLine PoM ceramics with different laboratory techniques all achieved above-average values for clinical survival in the oral environment according to ISO 6872. Crowns made with IPS InLine by conventional technique resisted fracture an average of 45% more than IPS InLine PoM fabricated with the press-on technique. Key words:Mechanical failure, conventional feldspathic, pressable ceramic, chewing simulator, thermocycling, compressive testing, fracture types, scanning electron microscope. PMID:26155346

  14. Survey of Aerothermodynamics Facilities Useful for the Design of Hypersonic Vehicles Using Air-Breathing Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, James O.; Deiwert, George S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper surveys the use of aerothermodynamic facilities which have been useful in the study of external flows and propulsion aspects of hypersonic, air-breathing vehicles. While the paper is not a survey of all facilities, it covers the utility of shock tunnels and conventional hypersonic blow-down facilities which have been used for hypersonic air-breather studies. The problems confronting researchers in the field of aerothermodynamics are outlined. Results from the T5 GALCIT tunnel for the shock-on lip problem are outlined. Experiments on combustors and short expansion nozzles using the semi-free jet method have been conducted in large shock tunnels. An example which employed the NASA Ames 16-Inch shock tunnel is outlined, and the philosophy of the test technique is described. Conventional blow-down hypersonic wind tunnels are quite useful in hypersonic air-breathing studies. Results from an expansion ramp experiment, simulating the nozzle on a hypersonic air-breather from the NASA Ames 3.5 Foot Hypersonic wind tunnel are summarized. Similar work on expansion nozzles conducted in the NASA Langley hypersonic wind tunnel complex is cited. Free-jet air-frame propulsion integration and configuration stability experiments conducted at Langley in the hypersonic wind tunnel complex on a small generic model are also summarized.

  15. A Multi-object Exoplanet Detecting Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.

    2011-05-01

    Exoplanet exploration is not only a meaningful astronomical action, but also has a close relation with the extra-terrestrial life. High resolution echelle spectrograph is the key instrument for measuring stellar radial velocity (RV). But with higher precision, better environmental stability and higher cost are required. An improved technique of RV means invented by David J. Erskine in 1997, External Dispersed Interferometry (EDI), can increase the RV measuring precision by combining the moderate resolution spectrograph with a fixed-delay Michelson interferometer. LAMOST with large aperture and large field of view is equipped with 16 multi-object low resolution fiber spectrographs. And these spectrographs are capable to work in medium resolution mode (R=5{K}˜10{K}). LAMOST will be one of the most powerful exoplanet detecting systems over the world by introducing EDI technique. The EDI technique is a new technique for developing astronomical instrumentation in China. The operating theory of EDI was generally verified by a feasibility experiment done in 2009. And then a multi-object exoplanet survey system based on LAMOST spectrograph was proposed. According to this project, three important tasks have been done as follows: Firstly, a simulation of EDI operating theory contains the stellar spectrum model, interferometer transmission model, spectrograph mediation model and RV solution model. In order to meet the practical situation, two detecting modes, temporal and spatial phase-stepping methods, are separately simulated. The interference spectrum is analyzed with Fourier transform algorithm and a higher resolution conventional spectrum is resolved. Secondly, an EDI prototype is composed of a multi-object interferometer prototype and the LAMOST spectrograph. Some ideas are used in the design to reduce the effect of central obscuration, for example, modular structure and external/internal adjusting frames. Another feasibility experiment was done at Xinglong Station in

  16. OCT evaluation of single ceramic crowns: comparison between conventional and chair-side CAD/CAM technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabor, A.; Jivanescu, A.; Zaharia, C.; Hategan, S.; Topala, F. I.; Levai, C. M.; Negrutiu, M. L.; Sinescu, C.; Duma, V.-F.; Bradu, A.; Podoleanu, A. Gh.

    2016-03-01

    Digital impressions were introduced to overcome some of the obstacles due to traditional impression materials and techniques. The aim of this in vitro study is to compare the accuracy of all ceramic crowns obtained with digital impression and CAD-CAM technology with the accuracy of those obtained with conventional impression techniques. Two groups of 10 crowns each have been considered. The digital data obtained from Group 1 have been processed and the all-ceramic crowns were milled with a CAD/CAM technology (CEREC MCX, Sirona). The all ceramic crowns in Group 2 were obtained with the classical technique of pressing (emax, Ivoclar, Vivadent). The evaluation of the marginal adaptation was performed with Time Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (TD OCT), working at a wavelength of 1300 nm. Tri-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the selected areas were obtained. Based on the findings in this study, one may conclude that the marginal accuracy of all ceramic crowns fabricated with digital impression and the CAD/CAM technique is superior to the conventional impression technique.

  17. Pork detection in binary meat mixtures and some commercial food products using conventional and real-time PCR techniques.

    PubMed

    Al-Kahtani, Hassan A; Ismail, Elsayed A; Asif Ahmed, Mohammed

    2017-03-15

    Pork DNA was detected in meat mixtures using both conventional PCR and real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Thirty meat mixtures containing beef, chicken, camel, rabbit, goat and sheep with varying percentage of pork (0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20%) and 75 commercial food products, were analyzed using conventional and RT-PCR to determine the presence of pork DNA. Pork DNA standard curves and cycle threshold (Ct) values were used for quantification. The detection limits for pork DNA in the mixtures were 0.22, 0.047, 0.048, 0.0000037, 0.015ng/μl respectively. Unlike conventional PCR, RT-PCR detected pork DNA in nine processed food samples [chicken sausages (2), chicken luncheon (2), turkey meat loaf, milk chocolate with soft nougat, jelly, cake, and candies] at pork DNA concentrations of 0.0001ng/μl or less. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative study for surface topography of bone drilling using conventional drilling and loose abrasive machining.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurmeet; Jain, Vivek; Gupta, Dheeraj

    2015-03-01

    Drilling through the bone is a complicated process in orthopaedic surgery. It involves human as a part of the work so it needs better perfection and quality which leads to the sustainability. Different studies were carried out on this curious topic and some interesting results were obtained, which help the orthopaedic surgeon on the operation table. Major problems faced during bone drilling were crack initiation, thermal necrosis and burr formation. The surface topography of the bone is an indirect indication for the sustainability of bone joint. In this study, a comparison is made between conventional and a loose abrasive unconventional drilling technique for the surface characterization of the bone. The attempt has been made to show the feasibility of bone drilling with non-conventional technique and its aftereffect on the bone structure. The burr formation during conventional bone drilling was found to be more which leads to problems such as crack initiation and thermal necrosis. Scanning electrode microscope and surface roughness tester were used to characterize the surface of the fine drilled bone specimen and the results testified quite better surface finish and least crack formation while drilling with loose abrasive unconventional technique. © IMechE 2015.

  19. Robotic influence in the conceptual design of mechanical systems in space and vice versa - A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanger, George F.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of methods using robotic devices to construct structural elements in space is presented. Two approaches to robotic construction are considered: one in which the structural elements are designed using conventional aerospace techniques which tend to constrain the function aspects of robotics and one in which the structural elements are designed from the conceptual stage with built-in robotic features. Examples are presented of structural building concepts using robotics, including the construction of the SP-100 nuclear reactor power system, a multimirror large aperture IR space telescope concept, retrieval and repair in space, and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer.

  20. The Conventional and Unconventional about Disability Conventions: A Reflective Analysis of United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umeasiegbu, Veronica I.; Bishop, Malachy; Mpofu, Elias

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in relation to prior United Nations conventions on disability and U.S. disability policy law with a view to identifying the conventional and also the incremental advances of the CRPD. Previous United Nations conventions related to…

  1. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Cooper and Eromanga Basins, Australia, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2016-05-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean conventional resources of 68 million barrels of oil and 964 billion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper and Eromanga Basins of Australia.

  2. Conventional vs Biomimetic Approaches to the Exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellery, A.

    It is not usual to refer to convention in planetary exploration missions by virtue of the innovation required for such projects. The term conventional refers to the methodologies, tools and approaches typically adopted in engineering that are applied to such missions. Presented is a "conventional" Mars rover mission in which the author was involved - ExoMars - into which is interspersed references to examples where biomimetic approaches may yield superior capabilities. Biomimetics is a relatively recently active area of research which seeks to examine how biological systems solve the problem of survival in the natural environment. Biological organisms are autonomous entities that must survive in a hostile world adapting both adaptivity and robustness. It is not then surprising that biomimetics is particularly useful when applied to robotic elements of a Mars exploration mission. I present a number of areas in which biomimetics may yield new solutions to the problem of Mars exploration - optic flow navigation, potential field navigation, genetically-evolved neuro-controllers, legged locomotion, electric motors implementing muscular behaviour, and a biomimetic drill based on the wood wasp ovipositor. Each of these techniques offers an alternative approach to conventional ones. However, the perceptive hurdles are likely to dwarf the technical hurdles in implementing many of these methods in the near future.

  3. Four-corner fusion: comparison of patient satisfaction and functional outcome of conventional K-wire technique vs. a new locking plate.

    PubMed

    Hernekamp, J F; Reinecke, A; Neubrech, F; Bickert, B; Kneser, U; Kremer, T

    2016-04-01

    Four-corner fusion is a standard procedure for advanced carpal collapse. Several operative techniques and numerous implants for osseous fixation have been described. Recently, a specially designed locking plate (Aptus©, Medartis, Basel, Switzerland) was introduced. The purpose of this study was to compare functional results after osseous fixation using K-wires (standard of care, SOC) with four-corner fusion and locking plate fixation. 21 patients who underwent four-corner fusion in our institution between 2008 and 2013 were included in a retrospective analysis. In 11 patients, osseous fixation was performed using locking plates whereas ten patients underwent bone fixation with conventional K-wires. Outcome parameters were functional outcome, osseous consolidation, patient satisfaction (DASH- and Krimmer Score), pain and perioperative morbidity and the time until patients returned to daily work. Patients were divided in two groups and paired t-tests were performed for statistical analysis. No implant related complications were observed. Osseous consolidation was achieved in all cases. Differences between groups were not significant regarding active range of motion (AROM), pain and function. Overall patient satisfaction was acceptable in all cases; differences in the DASH questionnaire and the Krimmer questionnaire were not significant. One patient of the plate group required conversion to total wrist arthrodesis without implant-related complications. Both techniques for four-corner fusion have similar healing rates. Using the more expensive locking implant avoids a second operation for K-wire removal, but no statistical differences were detected in functional outcome as well as in patient satisfaction when compared to SOC.

  4. Evaluating autonomous acoustic surveying techniques for rails in tidal marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stiffler, Lydia L.; Anderson, James T.; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    There is a growing interest toward the use of autonomous recording units (ARUs) for acoustic surveying of secretive marsh bird populations. However, there is little information on how ARUs compare to human surveyors or how best to use ARU data that can be collected continuously throughout the day. We used ARUs to conduct 2 acoustic surveys for king (Rallus elegans) and clapper rails (R. crepitans) within a tidal marsh complex along the Pamunkey River, Virginia, USA, during May–July 2015. To determine the effectiveness of an ARU in replacing human personnel, we compared results of callback point‐count surveys with concurrent acoustic recordings and calculated estimates of detection probability for both rail species combined. The success of ARUs at detecting rails that human observers recorded decreased with distance (P ≤ 0.001), such that at <25 m, 90.3% of human‐recorded rails also were detected by the ARU, but at >75 m, only 34.0% of human‐detected rails were detected by the ARU. To determine a subsampling scheme for continuous ARU data that allows for effective surveying of presence and call rates of rails, we used ARUs to conduct 15 continuous 48‐hr passive surveys, generating 720 hr of recordings. We established 5 subsampling periods of 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45 min to evaluate ARU‐based presence and vocalization detections of rails compared with each of the full 60‐min sampling of ARU‐based detection of rails. All subsampling periods resulted in different (P ≤ 0.001) detection rates and unstandardized vocalization rates compared with the hourly sampling period. However, standardized vocalization counts from the 30‐min subsampling period were not different from vocalization counts of the full hourly sampling period. When surveying rail species in estuarine environments, species‐, habitat‐, and ARU‐specific limitations to ARU sampling should be considered when making inferences about abundances and distributions from ARU

  5. Disclosure of Complementary and Alternative Medicine to Conventional Medical Providers: Variation by Race/Ethnicity and Type of CAM

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Maria T.; Wade, Christine; Kronenberg, Fredi

    2009-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is often used alongside conventional medical care, yet fewer than half of patients disclose CAM use to medical doctors. CAM disclosure is particularly low among racial/ethnic minorities, but reasons for differences, such as type of CAM used or quality of conventional healthcare, have not been explored. Objective We tested the hypotheses that disclosure of CAM use to medical doctors is higher for provider-based CAM and among non-Hispanic whites, and that access to and quality of conventional medical care account for racial/ethnic differences in CAM disclosure. Methods Bivariate and multiple variable analyses of the 2002 National Health Interview Survey and 2001 Health Care Quality Survey were performed. Results Disclosure of CAM use to medical providers was higher for provider-based than self-care CAM. Disclosure of any CAM was associated with access to and quality of conventional care and higher among non-Latino whites relative to minorities. Having a regular doctor and quality patient–provider relationship mitigated racial/ethnic differences in CAM disclosure. Conclusion Insufficient disclosure of CAM use to conventional providers, particularly for self-care practices and among minority populations, represents a serious challenge in medical encounter communications. Efforts to improve disclosure of CAM use should be aimed at improving consistency of care and patient–physician communication across racial/ethnic groups. PMID:19024232

  6. A survey of physical assessment techniques performed by RNs: lessons for nursing education.

    PubMed

    Giddens, Jean F

    2007-02-01

    There is ongoing concern about the adequacy of the educational preparation of nursing graduates; at the same time, there is concern regarding excessive content within nursing curricula. The purpose of this study was to identify physical examination skills performed by practicing nurses to better understand the competencies needed by graduates of nursing programs. A sample of 193 nurses completed a survey indicating the frequency they performed various physical assessment techniques. Thirty skills routinely performed by nurses were identified; the remaining skills were reportedly performed occasionally or were not performed. The fact that only 30 skills were reportedly performed regularly by the sample raises questions about the depth at which examinations should be conducted in the clinical setting and the depth at which physical examination skills should be taught in nursing programs. Nurse educators should assess the skills currently taught in nursing programs and consider what skills graduates actually need to enter nursing practice.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of six geologic provinces of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered conventional petroleum resources in six geologic provinces of China at 14.9 billion barrels of oil, 87.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  8. The mobile image quality survey game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, D. René

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss human assessment of the quality of photographic still images, that are degraded in various manners relative to an original, for example due to compression or noise. In particular, we examine and present results from a technique where observers view images on a mobile device, perform pairwise comparisons, identify defects in the images, and interact with the display to indicate the location of the defects. The technique measures the response time and accuracy of the responses. By posing the survey in a form similar to a game, providing performance feedback to the observer, the technique attempts to increase the engagement of the observers, and to avoid exhausting observers, a factor that is often a problem for subjective surveys. The results are compared with the known physical magnitudes of the defects and with results from similar web-based surveys. The strengths and weaknesses of the technique are discussed. Possible extensions of the technique to video quality assessment are also discussed.

  9. Measurements for the BETC in-situ combustion experiment. [Post test surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Wayland, J.R.; Bartel, L.C.

    The Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) in situ combustion pilot project near Bartlette, Kansas, was studied using controlled source audio-magnetotelluric (CSAMT) mapping, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), conventional geophysical logging and modeling of the fireflood. Measurements of formation resistivity changes induced by in situ combustion indicate that CSAMT resistivity maps should show an increase in apparent resistivity. The substantial decrease of apparent resistivity measured within the five spot pattern indicated a complex sequence of events. Using the results from the CSAMT surveys the fire front was located and posttest core samples were obtained. The posttest core samples were examined using TGAmore » techniques, and using information from combustion tube runs as standards, the location of the fire front in the core samples from the posttest holes was inferred. Models of the reservoir in situ combustion process were developed to help analyze the field results. The combustion kinematics, when used in conjunction with CSAMT and TGA techniques, indicated that considerable bypass of injected air occurred with an influx of brine into previously burned zones. This experiment offered an opportunity to integrate several new techniques into a systematic study of a difficult problem.« less

  10. A single-gradient junction technique to replace multiple-junction shifts for craniospinal irradiation treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Austin; Ding, George X., E-mail: george.ding@vanderbilt.edu

    2014-01-01

    Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) requires abutting fields at the cervical spine. Junction shifts are conventionally used to prevent setup error–induced overdosage/underdosage from occurring at the same location. This study compared the dosimetric differences at the cranial-spinal junction between a single-gradient junction technique and conventional multiple-junction shifts and evaluated the effect of setup errors on the dose distributions between both techniques for a treatment course and single fraction. Conventionally, 2 lateral brain fields and a posterior spine field(s) are used for CSI with weekly 1-cm junction shifts. We retrospectively replanned 4 CSI patients using a single-gradient junction between the lateral brain fieldsmore » and the posterior spine field. The fields were extended to allow a minimum 3-cm field overlap. The dose gradient at the junction was achieved using dose painting and intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning. The effect of positioning setup errors on the dose distributions for both techniques was simulated by applying shifts of ± 3 and 5 mm. The resulting cervical spine doses across the field junction for both techniques were calculated and compared. Dose profiles were obtained for both a single fraction and entire treatment course to include the effects of the conventional weekly junction shifts. Compared with the conventional technique, the gradient-dose technique resulted in higher dose uniformity and conformity to the target volumes, lower organ at risk (OAR) mean and maximum doses, and diminished hot spots from systematic positioning errors over the course of treatment. Single-fraction hot and cold spots were improved for the gradient-dose technique. The single-gradient junction technique provides improved conformity, dose uniformity, diminished hot spots, lower OAR mean and maximum dose, and one plan for the entire treatment course, which reduces the potential human error associated with conventional 4-shifted plans.« less

  11. The influence of curricular and extracurricular learning activities on students' choice of chiropractic technique

    PubMed Central

    Sikorski, David M.; KizhakkeVeettil, Anupama; Tobias, Gene S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Surveys for the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners indicate that diversified chiropractic technique is the most commonly used chiropractic manipulation method. The study objective was to investigate the influences of our diversified core technique curriculum, a technique survey course, and extracurricular technique activities on students' future practice technique preferences. Methods: We conducted an anonymous, voluntary survey of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd year chiropractic students at our institution. Surveys were pretested for face validity, and data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: We had 164 students (78% response rate) participate in the survey. Diversified was the most preferred technique for future practice by students, and more than half who completed the chiropractic technique survey course reported changing their future practice technique choice as a result. The students surveyed agreed that the chiropractic technique curriculum and their experiences with chiropractic practitioners were the two greatest bases for their current practice technique preference, and that their participation in extracurricular technique clubs and seminars was less influential. Conclusions: Students appear to have the same practice technique preferences as practicing chiropractors. The chiropractic technique curriculum and the students' experience with chiropractic practitioners seem to have the greatest influence on their choice of chiropractic technique for future practice. Extracurricular activities, including technique clubs and seminars, although well attended, showed a lesser influence on students' practice technique preferences. PMID:26655282

  12. The influence of curricular and extracurricular learning activities on students' choice of chiropractic technique.

    PubMed

    Sikorski, David M; KizhakkeVeettil, Anupama; Tobias, Gene S

    2016-03-01

    Surveys for the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners indicate that diversified chiropractic technique is the most commonly used chiropractic manipulation method. The study objective was to investigate the influences of our diversified core technique curriculum, a technique survey course, and extracurricular technique activities on students' future practice technique preferences. We conducted an anonymous, voluntary survey of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd year chiropractic students at our institution. Surveys were pretested for face validity, and data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. We had 164 students (78% response rate) participate in the survey. Diversified was the most preferred technique for future practice by students, and more than half who completed the chiropractic technique survey course reported changing their future practice technique choice as a result. The students surveyed agreed that the chiropractic technique curriculum and their experiences with chiropractic practitioners were the two greatest bases for their current practice technique preference, and that their participation in extracurricular technique clubs and seminars was less influential. Students appear to have the same practice technique preferences as practicing chiropractors. The chiropractic technique curriculum and the students' experience with chiropractic practitioners seem to have the greatest influence on their choice of chiropractic technique for future practice. Extracurricular activities, including technique clubs and seminars, although well attended, showed a lesser influence on students' practice technique preferences.

  13. Human-computer dialogue: Interaction tasks and techniques. Survey and categorization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Interaction techniques are described. Six basic interaction tasks, requirements for each task, requirements related to interaction techniques, and a technique's hardware prerequisites affective device selection are discussed.

  14. A Randomized Crossover Study Comparing Cervical Spine Motion During Intubation Between Two Lightwand Intubation Techniques in Patients With Simulated Cervical Immobilization: Laryngoscope-Assisted Versus Conventional Lightwand Intubation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Kyong; Son, Je-Do; Seo, Hyungseok; Lee, Yun-Seok; Bae, Jinyoung; Park, Hee-Pyoung

    2017-08-01

    In patients with cervical immobilization, jaw thrust can cause cervical spine movement. Concurrent use of a laryngoscope may facilitate lightwand intubation, allowing midline placement and free movement of the lightwand in the oral cavity without jaw thrust. We compared the effects of laryngoscope-assisted lightwand intubation (LALI) versus conventional lightwand intubation (CLI) on cervical spine motion during intubation in patients with simulated cervical immobilization. In this randomized crossover study, the cervical spine angle was measured before and during intubation at the occiput-C1, C1-C2, and C2-C5 segments in 20 patients with simulated cervical immobilization who underwent intubation using both the LALI and CLI techniques. Cervical spine motion was defined as the change from baseline in angle measured at each cervical segment during intubation. Cervical spine motion at the occiput-C1 segment was 5.6° (4.3) and 9.3° (4.5) when we used the LALI and CLI techniques, respectively (mean difference [98.33% CI]; -3.8° [-7.2 to -0.3]; P = .007). At other cervical segments, it was not significantly different between the 2 techniques (-0.1° [-2.6 to 2.5]; P = .911 in the C1-C2 segment and -0.2° [-2.8 to 2.5]; P = .795 in the C2-C5 segment). The LALI technique produces less upper cervical spine motion during intubation than the CLI technique in patients with simulated cervical immobilization.

  15. Book review: Bird census techniques, Second edition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, John R.

    2002-01-01

    Conservation concerns, federal mandates to monitor birds, and citizen science programs have spawned a variety of surveys that collect information on bird populations. Unfortunately, all too frequently these surveys are poorly designed and use inappropriate counting methods. Some of the flawed approaches reflect a lack of understanding of statistical design; many ornithologists simply are not aware that many of our most entrenched counting methods (such as point counts) cannot appropriately be used in studies that compare densities of birds over space and time. It is likely that most of the readers of The Condor have participated in a bird population survey that has been criticized for poor sampling methods. For example, North American readers may be surprised to read in Bird Census Techniques that the North American Breeding Bird Survey 'is seriously flawed in its design,' and that 'Analysis of trends is impossible from points that are positioned along roads' (p. 109). Our conservation efforts are at risk if we do not acknowledge these concerns and improve our survey designs. Other surveys suffer from a lack of focus. In Bird Census Techniques, the authors emphasize that all surveys require clear statements of objectives and an understanding of appropriate survey designs to meet their objectives. Too often, we view survey design as the realm of ornithologists who know the life histories and logistical issues relevant to counting birds. This view reflects pure hubris: survey design is a collaboration between ornithologists, statisticians, and managers, in which goals based on management needs are met by applying statistical principles for design to the biological context of the species of interest. Poor survey design is often due to exclusion of some of these partners from survey development. Because ornithologists are too frequently unaware of these issues, books such as Bird Census Techniques take on added importance as manuals for educating ornithologists about

  16. Comparison of conventional PCR, quantitative PCR, bacteriological culture and the Warthin Starry technique to detect Leptospira spp. in kidney and liver samples from naturally infected sheep from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fornazari, Felipe; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Richini-Pereira, Virginia Bodelão; Beserra, Hugo Enrique Orsini; Luvizotto, Maria Cecília Rui; Langoni, Helio

    2012-09-01

    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease of worldwide importance. The development of diagnostic techniques allows sick animals to be identified, reservoirs to be eliminated and the disease prevented and controlled. The present study aimed to compare different techniques for diagnosing leptospirosis in sheep. Samples of kidney, liver and blood were collected from 465 animals that originated from a slaughterhouse. The sera were analyzed by the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), and kidney and liver samples of seropositive animals were analyzed using four techniques: bacteriological culture, the Warthin Starry (WS) technique, conventional PCR (cPCR), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). With the MAT, 21 animals were positive (4.5%) to serovars Hardjo (n=12), Hebdomadis (n=5), Sentot (n=2), Wolfii (n=1) and Shermani (n=1). Titers were 100 (n=10), 200 (n=2), 400 (n=6) and 1600 (n=3). No animal was positive by bacteriological culture; four animals were positive by the WS technique in kidney samples; six animals were positive by cPCR in kidney samples; and 11 animals were positive by qPCR, eight of which in kidney samples and three in liver. The bacterial quantification revealed a median of 4.3 bacteria/μL in liver samples and 36.6 bacteria/μL in kidney samples. qPCR presented the highest sensitivity among the techniques, followed by cPCR, the WS technique and bacteriological culture. These results indicate that sheep can carry leptospires of the Sejroe serogroup, and demonstrate the efficiency of quantitative PCR to detect Leptospira spp. in tissue samples. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Perioperative Acupuncture and Related Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Chernyak, Grigory V.; Sessler, Daniel I.

    2005-01-01

    Acupuncture and related techniques are increasingly practiced in conventional medical settings, and the number of patients willing to use these techniques is increasing. Despite more than 30 years of research, the exact mechanism of action and efficacy of acupuncture have not been established. Furthermore, most aspects of acupuncture have yet to be adequately tested. There thus remains considerable controversy about the role of acupuncture in clinical medicine. Acupuncture apparently does not reduce volatile anesthetic requirement by a clinically important amount. However, preoperative sedation seems to be a promising application of acupuncture in perioperative settings. Acupuncture may be effective for postoperative pain relief but requires a high level of expertise by the acupuncture practitioner. Acupuncture and related techniques can be used for treatment and prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting in routine clinical practice in combination with, or as an alternative to, conventional antiemetics when administered before induction of general anesthesia. Summary Statement: The use of acupuncture for perioperative analgesia, nausea and vomiting, sedation, anesthesia, and complications is reviewed. PMID:15851892

  18. Retention of denture bases fabricated by three different processing techniques – An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Chalapathi Kumar, V. H.; Surapaneni, Hemchand; Ravikiran, V.; Chandra, B. Sarat; Balusu, Srilatha; Reddy, V. Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Distortion due to Polymerization shrinkage compromises the retention. To evaluate the amount of retention of denture bases fabricated by conventional, anchorized, and injection molding polymerization techniques. Materials and Methods: Ten completely edentulous patients were selected, impressions were made, and master cast obtained was duplicated to fabricate denture bases by three polymerization techniques. Loop was attached to the finished denture bases to estimate the force required to dislodge them by retention apparatus. Readings were subjected to nonparametric Friedman two-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni correction methods and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test. Results: Denture bases fabricated by injection molding (3740 g), anchorized techniques (2913 g) recorded greater retention values than conventional technique (2468 g). Significant difference was seen between these techniques. Conclusions: Denture bases obtained by injection molding polymerization technique exhibited maximum retention, followed by anchorized technique, and least retention was seen in conventional molding technique. PMID:27382542

  19. Web-based dynamic Delphi: a new survey instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, JingTao; Liu, Wei-Ning

    2006-04-01

    We present a mathematical model for a dynamic Delphi survey method which takes advantages of Web technology. A comparative study on the performance of the conventional Delphi method and the dynamic Delphi instrument is conducted. It is suggested that a dynamic Delphi survey may form a consensus quickly. However, the result may not be robust due to the judgement leaking issues.

  20. Genomic landscapes of endogenous retroviruses unveil intricate genetics of conventional and genetically-engineered laboratory mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-Hoon; Lim, Debora; Chiu, Sophia; Greenhalgh, David; Cho, Kiho

    2016-04-01

    Laboratory strains of mice, both conventional and genetically engineered, have been introduced as critical components of a broad range of studies investigating normal and disease biology. Currently, the genetic identity of laboratory mice is primarily confirmed by surveying polymorphisms in selected sets of "conventional" genes and/or microsatellites in the absence of a single completely sequenced mouse genome. First, we examined variations in the genomic landscapes of transposable repetitive elements, named the TREome, in conventional and genetically engineered mouse strains using murine leukemia virus-type endogenous retroviruses (MLV-ERVs) as a probe. A survey of the genomes from 56 conventional strains revealed strain-specific TREome landscapes, and certain families (e.g., C57BL) of strains were discernible with defined patterns. Interestingly, the TREome landscapes of C3H/HeJ (toll-like receptor-4 [TLR4] mutant) inbred mice were different from its control C3H/HeOuJ (TLR4 wild-type) strain. In addition, a CD14 knock-out strain had a distinct TREome landscape compared to its control/backcross C57BL/6J strain. Second, an examination of superantigen (SAg, a "TREome gene") coding sequences of mouse mammary tumor virus-type ERVs in the genomes of the 46 conventional strains revealed a high diversity, suggesting a potential role of SAgs in strain-specific immune phenotypes. The findings from this study indicate that unexplored and intricate genomic variations exist in laboratory mouse strains, both conventional and genetically engineered. The TREome-based high-resolution genetics surveillance system for laboratory mice would contribute to efficient study design with quality control and accurate data interpretation. This genetics system can be easily adapted to other species ranging from plants to humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Methods for Joining of Rails : Survey Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-07-01

    The performance of track structures depends greatly on the integrity of the connections between rail sections. Because the majority of service and detected rail failures occur at joints, particularly conventional bolted joints, this survey was conduc...

  2. Assessing Caribbean Shallow and Mesophotic Reef Fish Communities Using Baited-Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) and Diver-Operated Video (DOV) Survey Techniques.

    PubMed

    Andradi-Brown, Dominic A; Macaya-Solis, Consuelo; Exton, Dan A; Gress, Erika; Wright, Georgina; Rogers, Alex D

    2016-01-01

    Fish surveys form the backbone of reef monitoring and management initiatives throughout the tropics, and understanding patterns in biases between techniques is crucial if outputs are to address key objectives optimally. Often biases are not consistent across natural environmental gradients such as depth, leading to uncertainty in interpretation of results. Recently there has been much interest in mesophotic reefs (reefs from 30-150 m depth) as refuge habitats from fishing pressure, leading to many comparisons of reef fish communities over depth gradients. Here we compare fish communities using stereo-video footage recorded via baited remote underwater video (BRUV) and diver-operated video (DOV) systems on shallow and mesophotic reefs in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef, Caribbean. We show inconsistent responses across families, species and trophic groups between methods across the depth gradient. Fish species and family richness were higher using BRUV at both depth ranges, suggesting that BRUV is more appropriate for recording all components of the fish community. Fish length distributions were not different between methods on shallow reefs, yet BRUV recorded more small fish on mesophotic reefs. However, DOV consistently recorded greater relative fish community biomass of herbivores, suggesting that studies focusing on herbivores should consider using DOV. Our results highlight the importance of considering what component of reef fish community researchers and managers are most interested in surveying when deciding which survey technique to use across natural gradients such as depth.

  3. Assessing Caribbean Shallow and Mesophotic Reef Fish Communities Using Baited-Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) and Diver-Operated Video (DOV) Survey Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Macaya-Solis, Consuelo; Exton, Dan A.; Gress, Erika; Wright, Georgina; Rogers, Alex D.

    2016-01-01

    Fish surveys form the backbone of reef monitoring and management initiatives throughout the tropics, and understanding patterns in biases between techniques is crucial if outputs are to address key objectives optimally. Often biases are not consistent across natural environmental gradients such as depth, leading to uncertainty in interpretation of results. Recently there has been much interest in mesophotic reefs (reefs from 30–150 m depth) as refuge habitats from fishing pressure, leading to many comparisons of reef fish communities over depth gradients. Here we compare fish communities using stereo-video footage recorded via baited remote underwater video (BRUV) and diver-operated video (DOV) systems on shallow and mesophotic reefs in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef, Caribbean. We show inconsistent responses across families, species and trophic groups between methods across the depth gradient. Fish species and family richness were higher using BRUV at both depth ranges, suggesting that BRUV is more appropriate for recording all components of the fish community. Fish length distributions were not different between methods on shallow reefs, yet BRUV recorded more small fish on mesophotic reefs. However, DOV consistently recorded greater relative fish community biomass of herbivores, suggesting that studies focusing on herbivores should consider using DOV. Our results highlight the importance of considering what component of reef fish community researchers and managers are most interested in surveying when deciding which survey technique to use across natural gradients such as depth. PMID:27959907

  4. Survey of air cargo forecasting techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthan, A. R.; Vermuri, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    Forecasting techniques currently in use in estimating or predicting the demand for air cargo in various markets are discussed with emphasis on the fundamentals of the different forecasting approaches. References to specific studies are cited when appropriate. The effectiveness of current methods is evaluated and several prospects for future activities or approaches are suggested. Appendices contain summary type analyses of about 50 specific publications on forecasting, and selected bibliographies on air cargo forecasting, air passenger demand forecasting, and general demand and modalsplit modeling.

  5. Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy compared with conventional thyroidectomy in a general surgery department.

    PubMed

    Dobrinja, Chiara; Trevisan, Giuliano; Makovac, Petra; Liguori, Gennaro

    2009-10-01

    We retrospectively evaluated a series of patients who underwent minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT) to define its advantages or disadvantages. Between May 2005 and March 2008, 68 patients underwent MIVAT. Sixty-nine patients who underwent conventional thyroidectomy (CT) during the period before the introduction of the MIVAT technique in our department-chosen with the same inclusion criteria used for MIVAT-served as matched controls. The eligibility criteria for both groups was thyroid nodules < or = 35 mm, thyroid volume < 25 ml, no thyroiditis, and no previous surgery. Forty-five MIVAT and 43 CT patients underwent hemithyroidectomy. Twenty-three MIVAT and 26 CT patients underwent total thyroidectomy. No differences were found in terms of complications, operative time, and radicality of the procedure. Patients who underwent MIVAT experienced significantly less pain, better cosmetic results, and shorter hospital stay than patients who underwent conventional surgery The MIVAT technique, in selected patients, seems to be a valid option for thyroidectomy and even preferable to conventional surgery because of its significant advantages, especially in terms of cosmetic results, postoperative pain, and postoperative recovery.

  6. Bone tissue engineering scaffolding: computer-aided scaffolding techniques.

    PubMed

    Thavornyutikarn, Boonlom; Chantarapanich, Nattapon; Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai; Thouas, George A; Chen, Qizhi

    Tissue engineering is essentially a technique for imitating nature. Natural tissues consist of three components: cells, signalling systems (e.g. growth factors) and extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM forms a scaffold for its cells. Hence, the engineered tissue construct is an artificial scaffold populated with living cells and signalling molecules. A huge effort has been invested in bone tissue engineering, in which a highly porous scaffold plays a critical role in guiding bone and vascular tissue growth and regeneration in three dimensions. In the last two decades, numerous scaffolding techniques have been developed to fabricate highly interconnective, porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. This review provides an update on the progress of foaming technology of biomaterials, with a special attention being focused on computer-aided manufacturing (Andrade et al. 2002) techniques. This article starts with a brief introduction of tissue engineering (Bone tissue engineering and scaffolds) and scaffolding materials (Biomaterials used in bone tissue engineering). After a brief reviews on conventional scaffolding techniques (Conventional scaffolding techniques), a number of CAM techniques are reviewed in great detail. For each technique, the structure and mechanical integrity of fabricated scaffolds are discussed in detail. Finally, the advantaged and disadvantage of these techniques are compared (Comparison of scaffolding techniques) and summarised (Summary).

  7. Non-Conventional Techniques for the Study of Phase Transitions in NiTi-Based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nespoli, Adelaide; Villa, Elena; Passaretti, Francesca; Albertini, Franca; Cabassi, Riccardo; Pasquale, Massimo; Sasso, Carlo Paolo; Coïsson, Marco

    2014-07-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry and electrical resistance measurements are the two most common techniques for the study of the phase transition path and temperatures of shape memory alloys (SMA) in stress-free condition. Besides, it is well known that internal friction measurements are also useful for this purpose. There are indeed some further techniques which are seldom used for the basic characterization of SMA transition: dilatometric analysis, magnetic measurements, and Seebeck coefficient study. In this work, we discuss the attitude of these techniques for the study of NiTi-based phase transition. Measurements were conducted on several fully annealed Ni50- x Ti50Cu x samples ranging from 3 to 10 at.% in Cu content, fully annealed at 850 °C for 1 h in vacuum and quenched in water at room temperature. Results show that all these techniques are sensitive to phase transition, and they provide significant information about the existence of intermediate phases.

  8. Digital vs. conventional full-arch implant impressions: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Amin, Sarah; Weber, Hans Peter; Finkelman, Matthew; El Rafie, Khaled; Kudara, Yukio; Papaspyridakos, Panos

    2017-11-01

    To test whether or not digital full-arch implant impressions with two different intra-oral scanners (CEREC Omnicam and True Definition) have the same accuracy as conventional ones. The hypothesis was that the splinted open-tray impressions would be more accurate than digital full-arch impressions. A stone master cast representing an edentulous mandible using five internal connection implant analogs (Straumann Bone Level RC, Basel, Switzerland) was fabricated. The three median implants were parallel to each other, the far left implant had 10°, and the far right had 15° distal angulation. A splinted open-tray technique was used for the conventional polyether impressions (n = 10) for Group 1. Digital impressions (n = 10) were taken with two intra-oral optical scanners (CEREC Omnicam and 3M True Definition) after connecting polymer scan bodies to the master cast for groups 2 and 3. Master cast and conventional impression test casts were digitized with a high-resolution reference scanner (Activity 880 scanner; Smart Optics, Bochum, Germany) to obtain digital files. Standard tessellation language (STL) datasets from the three test groups of digital and conventional impressions were superimposed with the STL dataset from the master cast to assess the 3D deviations. Deviations were recorded as root-mean-square error. To compare the master cast with conventional and digital impressions at the implant level, Welch's F-test was used together with Games-Howell post hoc test. Group I had a mean value of 167.93 μm (SD 50.37); Group II (Omnicam) had a mean value of 46.41 μm (SD 7.34); Group III (True Definition) had a mean value of 19.32 μm (SD 2.77). Welch's F-test was used together with the Games-Howell test for post hoc comparisons. Welch's F-test showed a significant difference between the groups (P < 0.001). The Games-Howell test showed statistically significant 3D deviations for all three groups (P < 0.001). Full-arch digital implant impressions using True

  9. Mapping Diffuse Seismicity Using Empirical Matched Field Processing Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J; Templeton, D C; Harris, D B

    The objective of this project is to detect and locate more microearthquakes using the empirical matched field processing (MFP) method than can be detected using only conventional earthquake detection techniques. We propose that empirical MFP can complement existing catalogs and techniques. We test our method on continuous seismic data collected at the Salton Sea Geothermal Field during November 2009 and January 2010. In the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) earthquake catalog, 619 events were identified in our study area during this time frame and our MFP technique identified 1094 events. Therefore, we believe that the empirical MFP method combinedmore » with conventional methods significantly improves the network detection ability in an efficient matter.« less

  10. Teachers of the Alexander Technique in the UK and the people who take their lessons: A national cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Eldred, J; Hopton, A; Donnison, E; Woodman, J; MacPherson, H

    2015-06-01

    Given the rising profile of the Alexander Technique in the UK, there is a need for a comprehensive description of its teachers and of those who currently take lessons. In a national survey of Alexander teachers, we set out to address this information gap. A cross-sectional survey of 871 UK members of three main Alexander Technique teachers' professional associations was conducted. A questionnaire requested information about their professional background, teaching practice and methods, and about the people who attend lessons and their reasons for seeking help. With an overall response rate of 61%, 534 teachers responded; 74% were female with median age of 58 years, 60% had a higher education qualification, and 95% were self-employed, many with additional non-Alexander paid employment. The majority (87%) offered lessons on their own premises or in a privately rented room, and 19% provided home visits; both individual and group lessons were provided. People who took lessons were predominantly female (66%) with a median age of 48 years, and 91% paid for their lessons privately. Nearly two-thirds (62%) began lessons for reasons related to musculoskeletal conditions, including back symptoms, posture, neck pain, and shoulder pain. Other reasons were general (18%, including well-being), performance-related (10%, including voice-, music-, and sport-related), psychological (5%) and neurological (3%). We estimate that Alexander teachers in the UK provide approximately 400,000 lessons per year. This study provides an overview of Alexander Technique teaching in the UK today and data that may be useful when planning future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of acrylamide in Thai-conventional snacks from Nong Mon market, Chonburi using GC-MS technique.

    PubMed

    Komthong, P; Suriyaphan, O; Charoenpanich, J

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide in Thai-conventional snacks was analysed by GC/MS with a linear response ranged of 5-50 µg and r² > 0.99. The limit of detection (s/n = 3) and limit of quantification (s/n = 10) were 4 and 15 µg kg⁻¹, respectively, and RSD < 2%. Acrylamide in 19 food samples ranged from <15 µg kg⁻¹ to 1.26 mg kg⁻¹ with highest concentrations in Kanom Jak. Moderate levels (150-500 µg kg⁻¹) were detected mostly in deep-fried products, especially sweet potato and taro crisps, Kanom Kai Hong, banana fritters, durian chips and spring rolls. Thai-conventional snacks possessed low concentrations (<150 µg kg⁻¹) including Khao Larm, Pa Tong Koo, sweet banana crisps and deep-fried Chinese wonton. Acrylamide was lowest (<15 µg kg⁻¹) in fish strips, rice crackers, Hoi Jor and fried fish balls. Dietary habits by 400 tourists indicate a daily intake of acrylamide <150 ng, well below a toxic dose.

  12. Effectiveness of Video Demonstration over Conventional Methods in Teaching Osteology in Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Viswasom, Angela A; Jobby, Abraham

    2017-02-01

    Technology and its applications are the most happening things in the world. So, is it in the field of medical education. This study was an evaluation of whether the conventional methods can compete with the test of technology. A comparative study of traditional method of teaching osteology in human anatomy with an innovative visual aided method. The study was conducted on 94 students admitted to MBBS 2014 to 2015 batch of Travancore Medical College. The students were divided into two academically validated groups. They were taught using conventional and video demonstrational techniques in a systematic manner. Post evaluation tests were conducted. Analysis of the mark pattern revealed that the group taught using traditional method scored better when compared to the visual aided method. Feedback analysis showed that, the students were able to identify bony features better with clear visualisation and three dimensional view when taught using the video demonstration method. The students identified visual aided method as the more interesting one for learning which helped them in applying the knowledge gained. In most of the questions asked, the two methods of teaching were found to be comparable on the same scale. As the study ends, we discover that, no new technique can be substituted for time tested techniques of teaching and learning. The ideal method would be incorporating newer multimedia techniques into traditional classes.

  13. Comparison of the cable pin system with conventional open surgery for transverse patella fractures.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ningfang; Liu, Deding; Ni, Haijian; Tang, Hao; Zhang, Qiulin

    2013-07-01

    The cable pin system is an effective device for fixation of transverse patella fractures. However, whether this device provides superior results using a minimally invasive technique instead of conventional open surgery using the K wire tension band method is unclear. We asked whether a minimally invasive technique would be associated with (1) increased operative time; (2) reduced postoperative pain; (3) faster recovery of ROM; (4) higher knee scores; and (5) reduced complications. Forty patients with displaced transverse fractures of the patella participated in this prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Twenty of these patients underwent a minimally invasive technique and the others had conventional open surgery using K wires. Some data for six of the 20 patients who underwent the minimally invasive technique were published in an earlier prospective, observational trial. At postoperative intervals of 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months, pain was measured by VAS scores, active flexion and extension of the knee were measured in degrees by goniometry, and knee function was evaluated using the Böstman clinical grading scale. Operative time was longer in the minimally invasive surgery group (54.3 ± 9.8 minutes versus 48.5 ± 6.1 minutes). Pain scores were better (lower) in the minimally invasive surgery group at 1 and 3 months but not at 6 months. Early flexion, ultimate flexion, and knee scores from 3 to 24 months, likewise, were better in the minimally invasive surgery group. Complications mostly related to symptomatic hardware were less common in the minimally invasive surgery group. The minimally invasive technique is superior to conventional open surgery using K wires in terms of less early postoperative pain, better mobility angles of the injured knee, higher functional score of the injured knee, and decreased incidence of complications. Level I, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  14. A technology roadmap of smart biosensors from conventional glucose monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Shende, Pravin; Sahu, Pratiksha; Gaud, Ram

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this review article is to focus on technology roadmap of smart biosensors from a conventional glucose monitoring system. The estimation of glucose with commercially available devices involves analysis of blood samples that are obtained by pricking finger or extracting blood from the forearm. Since pain and discomfort are associated with invasive methods, the non-invasive measurement techniques have been investigated. The non-invasive methods show advantages like non-exposure to sharp objects such as needles and syringes, due to which there is an increase in testing frequency, improved control of glucose concentration and absence of pain and biohazard materials. This review study is aimed to describe recent invasive techniques and major noninvasive techniques, viz. biosensors, optical techniques and sensor-embedded contact lenses for glucose estimation.

  15. Scatter Reduction In Conventional Radiographic Tomography Using Rotating Apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.

    1981-08-01

    Since images in conventional radiographic tomography are in-herently low in subject contrast, it is essential that scattered radiation be prevented from reaching the image receptor. Scanning beam or slit radiographic techniques are known to be the most efficient scatter elimination methods, yet have been inapplicable to this area of radiography. In this work it is shown that the scanning beam method using rotating aperture wheel (RAW) devices can be used in conventional tomography. One coder wheel between the x-ray tube and patient and two scatter discriminator wheels between the patient and image recep-tor form sections of the RAW "projection cone" with the lines of radia-tion from the x-ray source forming the "flux pyramid." As long as the projection cone follows the motion of the x-ray flux pyramid (with the ratios of the distances between the x-ray source, RAWs, patient, and image receptor kept constant throughout the motion) any RAW pattern may be used. Simple relations are given which describe the geometric constraints for various tomographic motions. As in any application of scanning slit techniques, it is possible to use the excellent scatter elimination capabilities of a RAW device either to improve image contrast or to reduce patient dose.

  16. Geometry Processing of Conventionally Produced Mouse Brain Slice Images.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Nitin; Xu, Xiangmin; Gopi, M

    2018-04-21

    Brain mapping research in most neuroanatomical laboratories relies on conventional processing techniques, which often introduce histological artifacts such as tissue tears and tissue loss. In this paper we present techniques and algorithms for automatic registration and 3D reconstruction of conventionally produced mouse brain slices in a standardized atlas space. This is achieved first by constructing a virtual 3D mouse brain model from annotated slices of Allen Reference Atlas (ARA). Virtual re-slicing of the reconstructed model generates ARA-based slice images corresponding to the microscopic images of histological brain sections. These image pairs are aligned using a geometric approach through contour images. Histological artifacts in the microscopic images are detected and removed using Constrained Delaunay Triangulation before performing global alignment. Finally, non-linear registration is performed by solving Laplace's equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. Our methods provide significant improvements over previously reported registration techniques for the tested slices in 3D space, especially on slices with significant histological artifacts. Further, as one of the application we count the number of neurons in various anatomical regions using a dataset of 51 microscopic slices from a single mouse brain. To the best of our knowledge the presented work is the first that automatically registers both clean as well as highly damaged high-resolutions histological slices of mouse brain to a 3D annotated reference atlas space. This work represents a significant contribution to this subfield of neuroscience as it provides tools to neuroanatomist for analyzing and processing histological data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of conventional culture method and fluorescent in situ hybridization technique for detection of Listeria spp. in ground beef, turkey, and chicken breast fillets in İzmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baysal, Ayse Handan

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of Listeria species in refrigerated fresh chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, and ground beef was evaluated, comparing the conventional culture method and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH uses hybridization of a nucleic acid sequence target of a microorganism with a specific DNA probe labeled with a fluorochrome and imaging by a fluorescence microscope. First, Listeria was inoculated in chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, or ground beef, and the applicability of the FISH method was evaluated. Second, Listeria was detected in fresh chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, and ground beef by culture and FISH methods. Listeria was isolated from 27 (37.4%) of 216 samples by the standard culture method, whereas FISH detected 25 (24.7%) preenriched samples. Of these isolates, 17 (63%) were L. innocua, 6 (22%) L. welshimeri, and 4 (14.8%) L. seeligeri. Overall, the prevalences of Listeria spp. found with the conventional culture method in chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, and ground beef were 9.7, 6.9, and 20.8%, whereas with the FISH technique these values were 11.1, 6.9, and 16.7%, respectively. The molecular FISH technique appears to be a cheap, sensitive, and time-efficient procedure that could be used for routine detection of Listeria spp. in meat. This study showed that retail raw meats are potentially contaminated with Listeria spp. and are, thus, vehicles for transmitting diseases caused by foodborne pathogens, underlining the need for increased precautions, such as implementation of hazard analysis and critical control points and consumer food safety education.

  18. Radiation techniques used in patients with breast cancer: Results of a survey in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Algara, Manuel; Arenas, Meritxell; De las Peñas Eloisa Bayo, Dolores; Muñoz, Julia; Carceller, José Antonio; Salinas, Juan; Moreno, Ferran; Martínez, Francisco; González, Ezequiel; Montero, Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the resources and techniques used in the irradiation of patients with breast cancer after lumpectomy or mastectomy and the status of implementation of new techniques and therapeutic schedules in our country. Background The demand for cancer care has increased among the Spanish population, as long as cancer treatment innovations have proliferated. Radiation therapy in breast cancer has evolved exponentially in recent years with the implementation of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, intensity modulated radiotherapy, image guided radiotherapy and hypofractionation. Material and Methods An original survey questionnaire was sent to institutions participating in the SEOR-Mama group (GEORM). In total, the standards of practice in 969 patients with breast cancer after surgery were evaluated. Results The response rate was 70% (28/40 centers). In 98.5% of cases 3D conformal treatment was used. All the institutions employed CT-based planning treatment. Boost was performed in 56.4% of patients: electrons in 59.8%, photons in 23.7% and HDR brachytherapy in 8.8%. Fractionation was standard in 93.1% of patients. Supine position was the most frequent. Only 3 centers used prone position. The common organs of risk delimited were: homolateral lung (80.8%) and heart (80.8%). In 84% histograms were used. An 80.8% of the centers used isocentric technique. In 62.5% asymmetric fields were employed. CTV was delimited in 46.2%, PTV in 65% and both in 38.5%. A 65% of the centers checked with portal films. IMRT and hypofractionation were used in 1% and in 5.5% respectively. Conclusion In most of centers, 3D conformal treatment and CT-based planning treatment were used. IMRT and hypofractionation are currently poorly implemented in Spain. PMID:24377012

  19. Recent Advance in Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Techniques for Environmental Analysis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    The techniques and measurement methods developed in the Environmental Survey and Monitoring of Chemicals by Japan’s Ministry of the Environment, as well as a large amount of knowledge archived in the survey, have led to the advancement of environmental analysis. Recently, technologies such as non-target liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with micro bore column have further developed the field. Here, the general strategy of a method developed for the liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of environmental chemicals with a brief description is presented. Also, a non-target analysis for the identification of environmental pollutants using a provisional fragment database and “MsMsFilter,” an elemental composition elucidation tool, is presented. This analytical method is shown to be highly effective in the identification of a model chemical, the pesticide Bendiocarb. Our improved micro-liquid chromatography injection system showed substantially enhanced sensitivity to perfluoroalkyl substances, with peak areas 32–71 times larger than those observed in conventional LC/MS. PMID:26819891

  20. Chapter 6. Dwarf mistletoe surveys

    Treesearch

    J.A. Muir; B. Moody

    2002-01-01

    Dwarf mistletoe surveys are conducted for a variety of vegetation management objectives. Various survey and sampling techniques are used either at a broad, landscape scale in forest planning or program review, or at an individual, stand, site level for specific project implementation. Standard and special surveys provide data to map mistletoe distributions and quantify...

  1. Chromatic changes to artificial irises produced using different techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannwart, Lisiane Cristina; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Moreno, Amália; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Andreotti, Agda Marobo; de Medeiros, Rodrigo Antonio

    2013-05-01

    Ocular prostheses are important determinants of their users' aesthetic recovery and self-esteem. Because of use, ocular prostheses longevity is strongly affected by instability of the iris color due to polymerization. The goal of this study is to examine how the color of the artificial iris button is affected by different techniques of artificial wear and by the application of varnish following polymerization of the colorless acrylic resin that covers the colored paint. We produce 60 samples (n=10) according to the wear technique applied: conventional technique without varnish (PE); conventional technique with varnish (PEV); technique involving a prefabricated cap without varnish (CA); technique involving a prefabricated cap with varnish (CAV); technique involving inverted painting without varnish (PI); and technique involving inverted painting with varnish (PIV). Color readings using a spectrophotometer are taken before and after polymerization. We submitted the data obtained to analyses of variance and Tukey's test (P<0.05). The color test shows significant changes after polymerization in all groups. The PE and PI techniques have clinically acceptable values of ΔE, independent of whether we apply varnish to protect the paint. The PI technique produces the least color change, whereas the PE and CA techniques significantly improve color stability.

  2. Self-Assembled Rov and Photogrammetric Surveys with Low Cost Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, E.; Guerra, F.; Vernier, P.

    2018-05-01

    In last years, ROVs, have been employed to explore underwater environments and have played an important role for documentation and surveys in different fields of scientific application. In 2017, the Laboratorio di Fotogrammetria of Iuav University of Venice has decided to buy an OpenRov, a low cost ROV that could be assembled by ourselves to add some external components for our necessities, to document archaeological sites. The paper is related to the photogrammetric survey for the documentation of underwater environments and to the comparison between different solutions applied on a case studio, five marble columns on a sandy bottom at 5 meters deep. On the lateral sides of the ROV, we have applied two GoPro Hero4 Session, which have documented the items both with a series of images and with a video. The geometric accuracy of the obtained 3D model has been evaluated through comparison with a photogrammetric model realized with a professional reflex camera, Nikon D610. Some targets have been topographically surveyed with a trilateration and have been used to connected in the same reference system the different models, allowing the comparisons of the point clouds. Remote Operating Vehicles offer not only safety for their operators, but are also a relatively low cost alternative. The employment of a low-cost vehicle adapted to the necessities of surveys support a request for safer, cheaper and efficient methods for exploring underwater environments.

  3. Robotic air vehicle. Blending artificial intelligence with conventional software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnulty, Christa; Graham, Joyce; Roewer, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The Robotic Air Vehicle (RAV) system is described. The program's objectives were to design, implement, and demonstrate cooperating expert systems for piloting robotic air vehicles. The development of this system merges conventional programming used in passive navigation with Artificial Intelligence techniques such as voice recognition, spatial reasoning, and expert systems. The individual components of the RAV system are discussed as well as their interactions with each other and how they operate as a system.

  4. Piezosurgery or conventional rotatory instruments for inferior third molar extractions?

    PubMed

    Piersanti, Luigi; Dilorenzo, Matteo; Monaco, Giuseppe; Marchetti, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the discomfort and surgical outcomes of a piezosurgery device with those of rotatory instruments in lower third molar extraction. A split-mouth, randomized, unblinded clinical study was designed; the 2 molars had to have the same extraction difficulty score. The test side was extracted using a piezosurgery technique and the control side was extracted using a conventional handpiece. The primary endpoint was patient discomfort evaluated with the Postoperative Symptom Severity (PoSSe) scale, which was administered to each patient; secondary endpoints were pain, trismus, swelling, and surgical time evaluation. Paired-samples t test and repeated-measures analysis of variance were used to compare outcomes within patients. Ten consecutive patients (6 female, 4 male; mean age, 22.4 ± 2.3 yr) were recruited. The total score on the PoSSe scale was significantly lower for piezosurgery compared with the conventional rotating handpiece (24.7 ± 10.3 vs 36.0 ± 7.6; t = -4.27; P = .002). Moreover, postoperative swelling 1 week after surgery was significantly lower for piezosurgery than for the conventional rotating handpiece (2.75 ± 0.23 vs 3.1 ± 0.39 cm; t = -2.63; P = .027). Piezosurgery was associated with less postoperative discomfort and yielded better results for swelling. Piezosurgery seems to be a good technique in daily surgical practice, especially if applied in the critical steps in which safety and respect for soft tissue, bone, and nerves are necessary. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Advanced millimeter-wave security portal imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, David M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2012-03-01

    Millimeter-wave (mm-wave) imaging is rapidly gaining acceptance as a security tool to augment conventional metal detectors and baggage x-ray systems for passenger screening at airports and other secured facilities. This acceptance indicates that the technology has matured; however, many potential improvements can yet be realized. The authors have developed a number of techniques over the last several years including novel image reconstruction and display techniques, polarimetric imaging techniques, array switching schemes, and high-frequency high-bandwidth techniques. All of these may improve the performance of new systems; however, some of these techniques will increase the cost and complexity of the mm-wave security portal imaging systems. Reducing this cost may require the development of novel array designs. In particular, RF photonic methods may provide new solutions to the design and development of the sequentially switched linear mm-wave arrays that are the key element in the mm-wave portal imaging systems. Highfrequency, high-bandwidth designs are difficult to achieve with conventional mm-wave electronic devices, and RF photonic devices may be a practical alternative. In this paper, the mm-wave imaging techniques developed at PNNL are reviewed and the potential for implementing RF photonic mm-wave array designs is explored.

  6. Lenticuloschisis: A "No Dissection" Technique for Lenticule Extraction in Small Incision Lenticule Extraction.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Sri; Brar, Sheetal

    2017-08-01

    To describe a "no dissection" technique of lenticule removal in small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). After docking and laser delivery, a microforceps is used to grasp and gently peel off the lenticule from the underlying stromal bed, without performing any dissection of the upper and lower planes of the lenticule. Prerequisites are a surgeon experienced in the conventional SMILE technique, optimized laser energy settings, and a minimum peripheral lenticule thickness of 25 to 30 µm. The interface as assessed in postoperative dilated clinical photographs was seen to be clearer with less roughness compared to the conventional dissection technique. This may potentially result in better first postoperative visual acuity and quality of vision due to less corneal tissue trauma and minimal tissue handling, thus potentially resulting in faster visual recovery. No dissection lenticule removal is a feasible and reproducible technique that may result in better immediate visual quality compared to the conventional SMILE technique. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(8):563-566.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Treatment of localized gingival recession using the free rotated papilla autograft combined with coronally advanced flap by conventional (macrosurgery) and surgery under magnification (microsurgical) technique: A comparative clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Suraj; Mehta, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the conventional (macro-surgical) and microsurgical approach in performing the free rotated papilla autograft combined with coronally advanced flap surgery in treatment of localized gingival recession. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 sites from 10 systemically healthy patients were selected for the study. The selected sites were randomly divided into experimental site A and experimental site B by using the spilt mouth design. Conventional (macro-surgical) approach for site A and micro-surgery for site B was applied in performing the free rotated papilla autograft combined with coronally advanced flap. Recession depth (RD), recession width (RW) clinical attachment level (CAL.) and width of keratinized tissue (WKT.) were recorded at baseline, 3 months and 6 months post-operatively. Results: Both (macro- and microsurgery) groups showed significant clinical improvement in all the parameters (RD, RW, CAL and WKT). However, on comparing both the groups, these parameters did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: Both the surgical procedures were equally effective in treatment of localized gingival recession by the free rotated papilla autograft technique combined with coronally advanced flap. However, surgery under magnification (microsurgery) may be clinically better than conventional surgery in terms of less post-operative pain and discomfort experienced by patients at the microsurgical site. PMID:24554888

  8. Digital radiography with computerized conventional monitors compared to medical monitors in vertical root fracture diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tofangchiha, Maryam; Adel, Mamak; Bakhshi, Mahin; Esfehani, Mahsa; Nazeman, Pantea; Ghorbani Elizeyi, Mojgan; Javadi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Vertical root fracture (VRF) is a complication which is chiefly diagnosed radiographically. Recently, film-based radiography has been substituted with digital radiography. At the moment, there is a wide range of monitors available in the market for viewing digital images. The present study aims to compare the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of medical and conventional monitors in detection of vertical root fractures. In this in vitro study 228 extracted single-rooted human teeth were endodontically treated. Vertical root fractures were induced in 114 samples. The teeth were imaged by a digital charge-coupled device radiography using parallel technique. The images were evaluated by a radiologist and an endodontist on two medical and conventional liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors twice. Z-test was used to analyze the sensitivity, accuracy and specificity of each monitor. Significance level was set at 0.05. Inter and intra observer agreements were calculated by Cohen's kappa. Accuracy, specificity and sensitivity for conventional monitor were calculated as 67.5%, 72%, 62.5% respectively; and data for medical grade monitor were 67.5%, 66.5% and 68% respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences in detecting VRF between the two techniques. Inter-observer agreement for conventional and medical monitor was 0.47 and 0.55 respectively (moderate). Intra-observer agreement was 0.78 for medical monitor and 0.87 for conventional one (substantial). The type of monitor does not influence diagnosis of vertical root fractures.

  9. Conventional versus robot-assisted laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication: a comparison of postoperative acid reflux parameters.

    PubMed

    Frazzoni, Marzio; Conigliaro, Rita; Colli, Giovanni; Melotti, Gianluigi

    2012-06-01

    Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) is a technically demanding surgical procedure designed to cure gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It represents an alternative to life-long medical therapy and the only recommended treatment modality to overcome refractoriness to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. The recent development of robotic systems prompted evaluation of their use in antireflux surgery. Between 1997 and 2000, in a PPI-responsive series we found postoperative normalization of esophageal acid exposure time (EAET) in most but not all cases. Between 2007 and 2009, in a PPI-refractory series we found postoperative normalization of EAET in all cases. We decided to analyze retrospectively our prospectively collected data to evaluate whether differences other than the conventional or robot-assisted technique could justify postoperative differences in acid reflux parameters. Baseline demographic, endoscopic, and manometric parameters were compared between the two series of patients, as well as postoperative manometric and acid reflux parameters. There were no significant differences in the baseline demographic, endoscopic, and manometric characteristics between the two groups of patients. The median lower esophageal sphincter tone increased significantly, and the median EAET decreased significantly after conventional as well as after robot-assisted LNF. The median postoperative EAET was significantly lower in the robot-assisted (0.2%) than in the conventional LNF group (1%; P = 0.001). Abnormal EAET values were found in 6 of 44 (14%) and in 0 of 44 cases after conventional and robot-assisted LNF, respectively (P = 0.026). Robot-assisted LNF provided a significant gain in postoperative acid reflux parameters compared with the conventional technique. In a challenging clinical setting, such as PPI-refractoriness, in which the efficacy of endoscopic or pharmacological treatment modalities is only moderate, even a small therapeutic gain can be clinically

  10. Indoor air quality in green vs conventional multifamily low-income housing.

    PubMed

    Colton, Meryl D; MacNaughton, Piers; Vallarino, Jose; Kane, John; Bennett-Fripp, Mae; Spengler, John D; Adamkiewicz, Gary

    2014-07-15

    Indoor air quality is an important predictor of health, especially in low-income populations. It is unclear how recent trends in "green" building affect the indoor exposure profile. In two successive years, we conducted environmental sampling, home inspections, and health questionnaires with families in green and conventional (control) apartments in two public housing developments. A subset of participants was followed as they moved from conventional to green or conventional to conventional housing. We measured particulate matter less than 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nicotine, carbon dioxide (CO2), and air exchange rate (AER) over a seven-day sampling period coincident with survey administration. In multivariate models, we observed 57%, 65%, and 93% lower concentrations of PM2.5, NO2, and nicotine (respectively) in green vs control homes (p=0.032, p<0.001, p=0.003, respectively), as well as fewer reports of mold, pests, inadequate ventilation, and stuffiness. Differences in formaldehyde and CO2 were not statistically significant. AER was marginally lower in green buildings (p=0.109). Participants in green homes experienced 47% fewer sick building syndrome symptoms (p<0.010). We observed significant decreases in multiple indoor exposures and improved health outcomes among participants who moved into green housing, suggesting multilevel housing interventions have the potential to improve long-term resident health.

  11. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) particles prepared by microfluidics and conventional methods. Modulated particle size and rheology.

    PubMed

    Perez, Aurora; Hernández, Rebeca; Velasco, Diego; Voicu, Dan; Mijangos, Carmen

    2015-03-01

    Microfluidic techniques are expected to provide narrower particle size distribution than conventional methods for the preparation of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles. Besides, it is hypothesized that the particle size distribution of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles influences the settling behavior and rheological properties of its aqueous dispersions. For the preparation of PLGA particles, two different methods, microfluidic and conventional oil-in-water emulsification methods were employed. The particle size and particle size distribution of PLGA particles prepared by microfluidics were studied as a function of the flow rate of the organic phase while particles prepared by conventional methods were studied as a function of stirring rate. In order to study the stability and structural organization of colloidal dispersions, settling experiments and oscillatory rheological measurements were carried out on aqueous dispersions of PLGA particles with different particle size distributions. Microfluidics technique allowed the control of size and size distribution of the droplets formed in the process of emulsification. This resulted in a narrower particle size distribution for samples prepared by MF with respect to samples prepared by conventional methods. Polydisperse samples showed a larger tendency to aggregate, thus confirming the advantages of microfluidics over conventional methods, especially if biomedic