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Sample records for conversions involving large

  1. Special involuntary conversion situations involving timberland

    Treesearch

    William C. Siegal

    2001-01-01

    If standing timber is destroyed or stolen, or if forest land is condemned for public use, the owner may be entitled to take a deduction on his or her income tax return. These types of losses are called involuntary conversions. In previous National Woodlands articles I've discussed in detail casualty losses, which represent the major type of timber involuntary...

  2. Lexical Cues of Interaction Involvement in Dyadic Instant Messaging Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Duyen T.; Fussell, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    We explore how people express and interpret lexical cues of interaction involvement in dyadic conversations via instant messaging (IM) in two studies. In Study 1, an experiment with 60 participants, we manipulated level of involvement in a conversation with a distraction task. We examined how participants' uses of verbal cues such as pronouns…

  3. Lexical Cues of Interaction Involvement in Dyadic Instant Messaging Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Duyen T.; Fussell, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    We explore how people express and interpret lexical cues of interaction involvement in dyadic conversations via instant messaging (IM) in two studies. In Study 1, an experiment with 60 participants, we manipulated level of involvement in a conversation with a distraction task. We examined how participants' uses of verbal cues such as pronouns…

  4. Excitatory and inhibitory conversive experiences: neurobiological features involving positive and negative conversion symptoms.

    PubMed

    Río-Casanova, Lucía Del; González, Anabel; Páramo, Mario; Brenlla, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Previous reviews have focused on neurobiological and physiological mechanisms underlying conversion disorder, but they do not usually distinguish between negative and positive conversion symptoms. Some authors have proposed that different phenomena should underlie both situations and that diverse emotion regulation strategies (under- vs. overregulation of affect) should be related to different internal experiences (excitatory experiences with hyperarousal manifestations vs. inhibitory experiences coexisting with hypoarousal states, respectively). After a careful review of the literature, we conclude that there is not a unique theory comprising all findings. Nevertheless, we have also collected some replicated findings that should be salient. Patients manifesting positive conversion symptoms tended to present with limbic hyperfunction, not sufficiently counteracted by prefrontal control. This leads to underregulation of affect mechanisms, increased emotional reactivity and autonomic hyperarousal. The opposite pattern (with a prefrontal overfunction working as a cognitive brake over the limbic system) has been described during negative conversion manifestations. We also highlight the influence of fronto-limbic circuits over cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits' regulation, whose horizontal and vertical synchronization has been at the spotlight of the genesis of conversion and dissociative disorders.

  5. Involvement of Manganese in Conversion of Phenylalanine to Benzaldehyde by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Nierop Groot, Masja N.; de Bont, Jan A. M.

    1999-01-01

    We examined the involvement of Mn(II) in the conversion of phenylalanine to benzaldehyde in cell extracts of lactic acid bacteria. Experiments performed with Lactobacillus plantarum demonstrated that Mn(II), present at high levels in this strain, is involved in benzaldehyde formation by catalyzing the conversion of phenylpyruvic acid. Experiments performed with various lactic acid bacterial strains belonging to different genera revealed that benzaldehyde formation in a strain was related to a high Mn(II) level. PMID:10584022

  6. Large-scale Analysis of Counseling Conversations: An Application of Natural Language Processing to Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Althoff, Tim; Clark, Kevin; Leskovec, Jure

    2016-01-01

    Mental illness is one of the most pressing public health issues of our time. While counseling and psychotherapy can be effective treatments, our knowledge about how to conduct successful counseling conversations has been limited due to lack of large-scale data with labeled outcomes of the conversations. In this paper, we present a large-scale, quantitative study on the discourse of text-message-based counseling conversations. We develop a set of novel computational discourse analysis methods to measure how various linguistic aspects of conversations are correlated with conversation outcomes. Applying techniques such as sequence-based conversation models, language model comparisons, message clustering, and psycholinguistics-inspired word frequency analyses, we discover actionable conversation strategies that are associated with better conversation outcomes.

  7. Interpersonal Involvement Strategies in Online Textual Conversations: A Case Study of a Learning Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simich-Dudgeon, Carmen

    A study investigated the involvement strategies present in the textual conversations of four graduate students enrolled in a fully online graduate course in language education. The students interacted through an asynchronous interactive computer conferencing system that allowed communication from two continents. Two 2-week ongoing discussions were…

  8. Bacterial species involved in the conversion of dietary flavonoids in the human gut

    PubMed Central

    Braune, Annett; Blaut, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the conversion of dietary flavonoids and thereby affects their health-promoting effects in the human host. The identification of the bacteria involved in intestinal flavonoid conversion has gained increasing interest. This review summarizes available information on the so far identified human intestinal flavonoid-converting bacterial species and strains as well as their enzymes catalyzing the underlying reactions. The majority of described species involved in flavonoid transformation are capable of carrying out the O-deglycosylation of flavonoids. Other bacteria cleave the less common flavonoid-C-glucosides and/or further degrade the aglycones of flavonols, flavanonols, flavones, flavanones, dihydrochalcones, isoflavones and monomeric flavan-3-ols. To increase the currently limited knowledge in this field, identification of flavonoid-converting bacteria should be continued using culture-dependent screening or isolation procedures and molecular approaches based on sequence information of the involved enzymes. PMID:26963713

  9. Factors involved in white-to-brown adipose tissue conversion and in thermogenesis: a review.

    PubMed

    Montanari, T; Pošćić, N; Colitti, M

    2017-02-10

    Obesity is the result of energy intake chronically exceeding energy expenditure. Classical treatments against obesity do not provide a satisfactory long-term outcome for the majority of patients. After the demonstration of functional brown adipose tissue in human adults, great effort is being devoted to develop therapies based on the adipose tissue itself, through the conversion of fat-accumulating white adipose tissue into energy-dissipating brown adipose tissue. Anti-obesity treatments that exploit endogenous, pharmacological and nutritional factors to drive such conversion are especially in demand. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge about the various molecules that can be applied in promoting white-to-brown adipose tissue conversion and energy expenditure and the cellular mechanisms involved.

  10. Large vessel involvement by IgG4-related disease

    PubMed Central

    Perugino, Cory A.; Wallace, Zachary S.; Meyersohn, Nandini; Oliveira, George; Stone, James R.; Stone, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an immune-mediated fibroinflammatory condition that can affect multiple organs and lead to tumefactive, tissue-destructive lesions. Reports have described inflammatory aortitis and periaortitis, the latter in the setting of retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF), but have not distinguished adequately between these 2 manifestations. The frequency, radiologic features, and response of vascular complications to B cell depletion remain poorly defined. We describe the clinical features, radiology findings, and treatment response in a cohort of 36 patients with IgG4-RD affecting large blood vessels. Methods: Clinical records of all patients diagnosed with IgG4-RD in our center were reviewed. All radiologic studies were reviewed. We distinguished between primary large blood vessel inflammation and secondary vascular involvement. Primary involvement was defined as inflammation in the blood vessel wall as a principal focus of disease. Secondary vascular involvement was defined as disease caused by the effects of adjacent inflammation on the blood vessel wall. Results: Of the 160 IgG4-RD patients in this cohort, 36 (22.5%) had large-vessel involvement. The mean age at disease onset of the patients with large-vessel IgG4-RD was 54.6 years. Twenty-eight patients (78%) were male and 8 (22%) were female. Thirteen patients (36%) had primary IgG4-related vasculitis and aortitis with aneurysm formation comprised the most common manifestation. This affected 5.6% of the entire IgG4-RD cohort and was observed in the thoracic aorta in 8 patients, the abdominal aorta in 4, and both the thoracic and abdominal aorta in 3. Three of these aneurysms were complicated by aortic dissection or contained perforation. Periaortitis secondary to RPF accounted for 27 of 29 patients (93%) of secondary vascular involvement by IgG4-RD. Only 5 patients demonstrated evidence of both primary and secondary blood vessel involvement. Of those treated with

  11. Thermophotovoltaic conversion using selective infrared line emitters and large band gap photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Brandhorst, Jr., Henry W.; Chen, Zheng

    2000-01-01

    Efficient thermophotovoltaic conversion can be performed using photovoltaic devices with a band gap in the 0.75-1.4 electron volt range, and selective infrared emitters chosen from among the rare earth oxides which are thermally stimulated to emit infrared radiation whose energy very largely corresponds to the aforementioned band gap. It is possible to use thermovoltaic devices operating at relatively high temperatures, up to about 300.degree. C., without seriously impairing the efficiency of energy conversion.

  12. Features of an interactive writing discourse: conversational involvement, conventional knowledge, and internalization in "Morning Message".

    PubMed

    Mariage, T V

    2001-01-01

    This study describes how meaning potentials were constructed in the literacy event known as Morning Message. Morning Message provided teachers and students with opportunities to construct a written text around the experiences of one student. This discourse of writing allowed for the examination of how meaning was orchestrated and scaffolded between the teacher and her students. Three findings are discussed, including the function of a series of conversational involvement moves utilized by the teacher, the specific writing conventions and metamessages afforded in the Morning Message dialogue, and an examination of how the social dialogues of Morning Message may have come to guide independent action as internalized processes on several transfer measures.

  13. The impact of laws on metric conversion: A survey of selected large US corporations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which a sample of the Fortune 1000 firms perceived that legal impediments to metric conversion exists. The Fortune 1000 firms included in the study were: (a) the 41 firms which identified legal impediments to metric conversion in an earlier study report commissioned by the Board, U.S. Metric Board 1979 Survey of Selected Large U.S. Firms and Industries; and (b) 10 additional firms from the industry groups indicating some problems with laws and regulations. This study attempted to make several determinations among which were: whether or not legal impediments or perceptions of legal impediments to metric conversion exist; the correlation between metric planning and the perception that impediments exist; the distribution of perceived impediments among Federal, State and local laws; the nature of corporate lobbying activities; and corporate experiences in addressing legal impediments to conversion.

  14. Primary Mediastinal Large B-cell Lymphoma Exhibiting Endobronchial Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Midori; Fukuda, Minoru; Horio, Kensuke; Suyama, Takayuki; Kitazaki, Takeshi; Hashiguchi, Kohji; Fukuda, Masaaki; Shigematsu, Kazuto; Nakamura, Yoichi; Honda, Takuya; Ashizawa, Kazuto; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMLBCL) is one of the subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We experienced a rare case of PMLBCL that exhibited endobronchial involvement. A 33-year-old Japanese female with the chief complaints of epigastralgia, back pain, and nausea visited a primary care hospital. Computed tomography of the chest and abdomen demonstrated a bulky mass in the left anterior mediastinum, multiple pulmonary nodules, axillary lymph node swelling, and a pancreatic tumor. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy showed a white-tinged irregularly shaped endobronchial tumor accompanied by capillary vessel dilation in the left upper lobar bronchus. Taken together, these findings resulted in a diagnosis of PMLBCL. PMID:27803409

  15. Creating Conversations: Finding Ways to Promote Humanities in Large Medical School Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleman, Warren

    2006-01-01

    Since the publication of Samuel Shem's "House of God," medical students and residents have been famous for their cynical conversations about patients and life on the wards. This image is largely a caricature, yet peer pressure, medical machismo, stressful working conditions, and house staff subculture do foster negative attitudes and…

  16. Preservation of Involved Teeth Associated with Large Dentigerous Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Guven, Yeliz; Kasimoglu, Yelda; Soluk Tekkesin, Merva; Ulug, Dicle; Cankaya, Abdulkadir Burak; Tuna, Elif Bahar; Gencay, Koray; Aktoren, Oya

    2014-01-01

    Dentigerous cysts (DCs) are benign odontogenic cysts that are associated with the crowns of permanent teeth. The purpose of this study is to describe the management of DCs in four children. Four boys aged between 7 and 9 years were referred to our clinics with the complaints of intraoral alveolar swelling or facial asymmetry on the affected area. The panoramic radiographies showed large, well-defined radiolucent lesions associated with the deciduous teeth and displaced tooth buds. The treatment consisted of the extraction of the involved deciduous tooth and marsupialization of the cyst to allow eruption of the permanent tooth. Permanent teeth displaced by the DCs in three cases erupted spontaneously within one-year period. The case with horizontally displaced permanent tooth was managed by replantation. This is the first time that underlying permanent tooth in a DC case was intentionally replanted. PMID:27355026

  17. Recipient participation in conversations involving participants with fluent or non-fluent aphasia.

    PubMed

    Laakso, Minna; Godt, Sisse

    2016-09-19

    The present study compares the ways in which conversational partners manage expressive linguistic problems produced by participants with fluent vs. non-fluent aphasia. Both everyday conversations with family members and institutional conversations with speech-language therapists were examined. The data consisted of 110 conversational sequences in which the conversational partners addressed expressive aphasic problems. Most problems of the speaker with fluent aphasia were locally restricted phonological and word-finding errors, which were immediately repaired. In contrast, the sparse expression of the speaker with non-fluent aphasia was co-constructed by conversational partners in long negotiation sequences to establish shared understanding. Some differences between recipient participation in everyday and institutional conversation were found. The results emphasise the relevance of the nature of the expressive linguistic problems on participation in interaction. They also add to the clinical knowledge of handling aphasic problems in conversation. This knowledge can be used for developing interaction-focused intervention.

  18. Interaction Involvement in Cross-Culture Computer-Mediated Communication: Examination of a Communication Process in Dyadic Instant Messaging Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Thi Thao Duyen

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores how participants express and interpret verbal cues of interaction involvement in dyadic conversations via text-based Instant Messaging (IM). Moreover, it seeks to discover differences in the way American participants and Chinese participants use verbal cues when they are highly, or lowly involved. Based on previous…

  19. Interaction Involvement in Cross-Culture Computer-Mediated Communication: Examination of a Communication Process in Dyadic Instant Messaging Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Thi Thao Duyen

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores how participants express and interpret verbal cues of interaction involvement in dyadic conversations via text-based Instant Messaging (IM). Moreover, it seeks to discover differences in the way American participants and Chinese participants use verbal cues when they are highly, or lowly involved. Based on previous…

  20. Functional involvement of human discs large tumor suppressor in cytokinesis

    SciTech Connect

    Unno, Kenji; Hanada, Toshihiko; Chishti, Athar H.

    2008-10-15

    Cytokinesis is the final step of cell division that completes the separation of two daughter cells. We found that the human discs large (hDlg) tumor suppressor homologue is functionally involved in cytokinesis. The guanylate kinase (GUK) domain of hDlg mediates the localization of hDlg to the midbody during cytokinesis, and over-expression of the GUK domain in U2OS and HeLa cells impaired cytokinesis. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from dlg mutant mice contained an increased number of multinucleated cells and showed reduced proliferation in culture. A kinesin-like motor protein, GAKIN, which binds directly to the GUK domain of hDlg, exhibited a similar intracellular distribution pattern with hDlg throughout mitosis and localized to the midbody during cytokinesis. However, the targeting of hDlg and GAKIN to the midbody appeared to be independent of each other. The midbody localization of GAKIN required its functional kinesin-motor domain. Treatment of cells with the siRNA specific for hDlg and GAKIN caused formation of multinucleated cells and delayed cytokinesis. Together, these results suggest that hDlg and GAKIN play functional roles in the maintenance of midbody architecture during cytokinesis.

  1. Genomic identification and biochemical characterization of the mammalian polyamine oxidase involved in polyamine back-conversion.

    PubMed Central

    Vujcic, Slavoljub; Liang, Ping; Diegelman, Paula; Kramer, Debora L; Porter, Carl W

    2003-01-01

    In the polyamine back-conversion pathway, spermine and spermidine are first acetylated by spermidine/spermine N1 -acetyltransferase (SSAT) and then oxidized by polyamine oxidase (PAO) to produce spermidine and putrescine respectively. Although PAO was first purified more than two decades ago, the protein has not yet been linked to genomic sequences. In the present study, we apply a BLAST search strategy to identify novel oxidase sequences located on human chromosome 10 and mouse chromosome 7. Homologous mammalian cDNAs derived from human brain and mouse mammary tumour were deduced to encode proteins of approx. 55 kDa having 82% sequence identity. When either cDNA was transiently transfected into HEK-293 cells, intracellular spermine pools decreased by approx. 30%, whereas spermidine increased 2-4-fold. Lysates of human PAO cDNA-transfected HEK-293 cells, but not vector-transfected cells, rapidly oxidized N1-acetylspermine to spermidine. Substrate specificity determinations with the lysate assay revealed a preference ranking of N1-acetylspermine= N1-acetylspermidine> N1,N12-diacetylspermine>>spermine; spermidine was not acted upon. This ranking is identical to that reported for purified PAO and distinctly different from the recently identified spermine oxidase (SMO), which prefers spermine over N1-acetylspermine. Monoethyl- and diethylspermine analogues also served as substrates for PAO, and were internally cleaved adjacent to a secondary amine. We deduce that the present oxidase sequences are those of the FAD-dependent PAO involved in the polyamine back-conversion pathway. In Northern blot analysis, PAO mRNA was much less abundant in HEK-293 cells than SMO or SSAT mRNA, and all three were differentially induced in a similar manner by selected polyamine analogues. The identification of PAO sequences, together with the recently identified SMO sequences, provides new opportunities for understanding the dynamics of polyamine homoeostasis and for interpreting metabolic

  2. Large-scale cauliflower-shaped hierarchical copper nanostructures for efficient photothermal conversion.

    PubMed

    Fan, Peixun; Wu, Hui; Zhong, Minlin; Zhang, Hongjun; Bai, Benfeng; Jin, Guofan

    2016-08-14

    Efficient solar energy harvesting and photothermal conversion have essential importance for many practical applications. Here, we present a laser-induced cauliflower-shaped hierarchical surface nanostructure on a copper surface, which exhibits extremely high omnidirectional absorption efficiency over a broad electromagnetic spectral range from the UV to the near-infrared region. The measured average hemispherical absorptance is as high as 98% within the wavelength range of 200-800 nm, and the angle dependent specular reflectance stays below 0.1% within the 0-60° incident angle. Such a structured copper surface can exhibit an apparent heating up effect under the sunlight illumination. In the experiment of evaporating water, the structured surface yields an overall photothermal conversion efficiency over 60% under an illuminating solar power density of ∼1 kW m(-2). The presented technology provides a cost-effective, reliable, and simple way for realizing broadband omnidirectional light absorptive metal surfaces for efficient solar energy harvesting and utilization, which is highly demanded in various light harvesting, anti-reflection, and photothermal conversion applications. Since the structure is directly formed by femtosecond laser writing, it is quite suitable for mass production and can be easily extended to a large surface area.

  3. Conversion of proinsulin to insulin: involvement of a 31,500 molecular weight thiol protease.

    PubMed Central

    Docherty, K; Carroll, R J; Steiner, D F

    1982-01-01

    A lysed crude secretory granule fraction from rat islets of Langerhans was shown to process endogenous proinsulin to insulin with a pH optimum of 5.0--6.0. The converting activity in the lysed fraction was not inhibited by serine protease inhibitors (diisopropyl fluorophosphate, soybean trypsin inhibitor, and aprotinin) or metalloprotease inhibitors (EDTA and o-phenanthroline) but was inhibited by some thiol protease reagents (p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid, antipain, and leupeptin) but not by others (N-ethylmaleimide and iodoacetamide). N alpha-p-Tosyl-L-lysyl chloromethyl ketone only mildly inhibited at higher concentrations, whereas L-alanyl-L-lysyl-L-arginyl chloromethyl ketone was a powerful inhibitor. L-Alanyl-L-lysyl-L-arginyl chloromethyl ketone was [125I]iodotyrosylated and used as an affinity labeling agent for the converting activity. Because the crude granule preparation contained contaminating lysosomes the affinity labeling of the granule preparation proteins was compared with that in liver lysosomes purified from rats injected with Triton WR1339. In the crude granule fraction the affinity label bound in a cysteine-enhanced manner to a single 31,500 molecular weight protein, but in purified liver lysosomes the major affinity-labeled protein had a molecular weight of 25,000 and minor 31,500 and 35,000 molecular weight proteins were also labeled. Evidence suggests that these proteins are thiol proteases and that in islets the 31,500 molecular weight thiol protease is involved in the conversion of proinsulin to insulin. Images PMID:6750605

  4. Large-scale cauliflower-shaped hierarchical copper nanostructures for efficient photothermal conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Peixun; Wu, Hui; Zhong, Minlin; Zhang, Hongjun; Bai, Benfeng; Jin, Guofan

    2016-07-01

    Efficient solar energy harvesting and photothermal conversion have essential importance for many practical applications. Here, we present a laser-induced cauliflower-shaped hierarchical surface nanostructure on a copper surface, which exhibits extremely high omnidirectional absorption efficiency over a broad electromagnetic spectral range from the UV to the near-infrared region. The measured average hemispherical absorptance is as high as 98% within the wavelength range of 200-800 nm, and the angle dependent specular reflectance stays below 0.1% within the 0-60° incident angle. Such a structured copper surface can exhibit an apparent heating up effect under the sunlight illumination. In the experiment of evaporating water, the structured surface yields an overall photothermal conversion efficiency over 60% under an illuminating solar power density of ~1 kW m-2. The presented technology provides a cost-effective, reliable, and simple way for realizing broadband omnidirectional light absorptive metal surfaces for efficient solar energy harvesting and utilization, which is highly demanded in various light harvesting, anti-reflection, and photothermal conversion applications. Since the structure is directly formed by femtosecond laser writing, it is quite suitable for mass production and can be easily extended to a large surface area.Efficient solar energy harvesting and photothermal conversion have essential importance for many practical applications. Here, we present a laser-induced cauliflower-shaped hierarchical surface nanostructure on a copper surface, which exhibits extremely high omnidirectional absorption efficiency over a broad electromagnetic spectral range from the UV to the near-infrared region. The measured average hemispherical absorptance is as high as 98% within the wavelength range of 200-800 nm, and the angle dependent specular reflectance stays below 0.1% within the 0-60° incident angle. Such a structured copper surface can exhibit an apparent

  5. Energy conversion of biomass with supercritical and subcritical water using large-scale plants.

    PubMed

    Okajima, Idzumi; Sako, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting unused or waste biomass as an alternative fuel is currently receiving much attention because of the potential reductions in CO2 emissions and the lower cost in comparison to expensive fossil fuels. If we are to use biomass domestically or industrially, we must be able to convert biomass to high-quality and easy-to-use liquid, gas, or solid fuels that have high-calorific values, low moisture and ash contents, uniform composition, and suitable for stored over long periods. In biomass treatment, hot and high-pressure water including supercritical and subcritical water is an excellent solvent, as it is clean and safe and its action on biomass can be optimized by varying the temperature and pressure. In this article, the conversion of waste biomass to fuel using hot and high-pressure water is reviewed, and the following examples are presented: the production of large amounts of hydrogen from waste biomass, the production of cheap bioethanol from non-food raw materials, and the production of composite powder fuel from refractory waste biomass in the rubble from the Great East Japan Earthquake. Several promising techniques for the conversion of biomass have been demonstrated in large-scale plants and commercial deployment is expected in the near future.

  6. Student projects involving novel interaction with large displays.

    PubMed

    Dias, Paulo; Sousa, Tiago; Parracho, Joao; Cardoso, Igor; Monteiro, Andre; Sousa Santos, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    DETI-Interact is an interactive system that offers information relevant to students in the lobby of the University of Aveiro's Department of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics (DETI). The project started in 2009 with a master's thesis addressing interaction with public displays through Android smartphones. Since then, it has evolved considerably; it currently allows gesture interaction based on a Kinect sensor. Meanwhile, it has involved third-year students, master's students, and undergraduate students participating in a research initiation program.

  7. Children with autism spectrum disorder: teaching conversation involving feelings about events.

    PubMed

    Conallen, K; Reed, P

    2017-03-01

    Two procedures were developed to teach individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders labels (tacts) for various private events (emotions): Study 1 attempted to distinguish them from pure tacts and mands (requests); and Study 2 attempted to train initiating a conversation with grammatically correct subject-verb-comment construction. A multiple treatment reversal design was used in both studies, followed by a probe to see if the tacts were used across novel settings. The children were prompted to initiate a series of language exchanges, which resulted in an increased ability to participate in conversations about private events. Together, the results of both studies suggest that, by providing an effective and reinforcing means of teaching both the function and the form of these tacts, conversations can be successfully initiated by children with ASD. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Conversion from clinically isolated syndrome to multiple sclerosis: A large multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Kuhle, J; Disanto, G; Dobson, R; Adiutori, R; Bianchi, L; Topping, J; Bestwick, J P; Meier, U-C; Marta, M; Dalla Costa, G; Runia, T; Evdoshenko, E; Lazareva, N; Thouvenot, E; Iaffaldano, P; Direnzo, V; Khademi, M; Piehl, F; Comabella, M; Sombekke, M; Killestein, J; Hegen, H; Rauch, S; D'Alfonso, S; Alvarez-Cermeño, J C; Kleinová, P; Horáková, D; Roesler, R; Lauda, F; Llufriu, S; Avsar, T; Uygunoglu, U; Altintas, A; Saip, S; Menge, T; Rajda, C; Bergamaschi, R; Moll, N; Khalil, M; Marignier, R; Dujmovic, I; Larsson, H; Malmestrom, C; Scarpini, E; Fenoglio, C; Wergeland, S; Laroni, A; Annibali, V; Romano, S; Martínez, A D; Carra, A; Salvetti, M; Uccelli, A; Torkildsen, Ø; Myhr, K M; Galimberti, D; Rejdak, K; Lycke, J; Frederiksen, J L; Drulovic, J; Confavreux, C; Brassat, D; Enzinger, C; Fuchs, S; Bosca, I; Pelletier, J; Picard, C; Colombo, E; Franciotta, D; Derfuss, T; Lindberg, Rlp; Yaldizli, Ö; Vécsei, L; Kieseier, B C; Hartung, H P; Villoslada, P; Siva, A; Saiz, A; Tumani, H; Havrdová, E; Villar, L M; Leone, M; Barizzone, N; Deisenhammer, F; Teunissen, C; Montalban, X; Tintoré, M; Olsson, T; Trojano, M; Lehmann, S; Castelnovo, G; Lapin, S; Hintzen, R; Kappos, L; Furlan, R; Martinelli, V; Comi, G; Ramagopalan, S V; Giovannoni, G

    2015-07-01

    We explored which clinical and biochemical variables predict conversion from clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) to clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) in a large international cohort. Thirty-three centres provided serum samples from 1047 CIS cases with at least two years' follow-up. Age, sex, clinical presentation, T2-hyperintense lesions, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal bands (OCBs), CSF IgG index, CSF cell count, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D), cotinine and IgG titres against Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) and cytomegalovirus were tested for association with risk of CDMS. At median follow-up of 4.31 years, 623 CIS cases converted to CDMS. Predictors of conversion in multivariable analyses were OCB (HR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.71-2.77, p < 0.001), number of T2 lesions (two to nine lesions vs 0/1 lesions: HR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.52-2.55, p < 0.001; >9 lesions vs 0/1 lesions: HR = 2.74, 95% CI = 2.04-3.68, p < 0.001) and age at CIS (HR per year inversely increase = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.98-0.99, p < 0.001). Lower 25-OH-D levels were associated with CDMS in univariable analysis, but this was attenuated in the multivariable model. OCB positivity was associated with higher EBNA-1 IgG titres. We validated MRI lesion load, OCB and age at CIS as the strongest independent predictors of conversion to CDMS in this multicentre setting. A role for vitamin D is suggested but requires further investigation. © The Author(s), 2015.

  9. Mediastinal Myxoid Liposarcoma with Intrapericardial Involvement and Large Pericardial Effusion.

    PubMed

    Endara, Santiago Adolfo; Davalos, Gerardo Augusto; Vinueza, Ana Lucia; Montalvo, Nelson; Duran, Patricia Graciela; Barzallo, David Esteban

    2015-10-28

    Liposarcoma is the name given to a group of soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) with adipocytic differentiation. As a group, liposarcomas are the second most common STSs in adults. In 1951 Kozonis et al published that in the English language only four cases of liposarcomas originating in the mediastinum had been described. Primary mediastinal liposarcoma is an uncommon neoplasm of intrathoracic origin. We present the case of a 47-year-old woman diagnosed with a large mediastinal mass with intrapericardial invasion and massive pericardial effusion; biopsies showed a mediastinal liposarcoma.

  10. Virus maturation involving large subunit rotations and local refolding.

    PubMed

    Conway, J F; Wikoff, W R; Cheng, N; Duda, R L; Hendrix, R W; Johnson, J E; Steven, A C

    2001-04-27

    Large-scale conformational changes transform viral precursors into infectious virions. The structure of bacteriophage HK97 capsid, Head-II, was recently solved by crystallography, revealing a catenated cross-linked topology. We have visualized its precursor, Prohead-II, by cryoelectron microscopy and modeled the conformational change by appropriately adapting Head-II. Rigid-body rotations ( approximately 40 degrees) cause switching to an entirely different set of interactions; in addition, two motifs undergo refolding. These changes stabilize the capsid by increasing the surface area buried at interfaces and bringing the cross-link-forming residues, initially approximately 40 angstroms apart, close together. The inner surface of Prohead-II is negatively charged, suggesting that the transition is triggered electrostatically by DNA packaging.

  11. Multifaceted Communication Problems in Everyday Conversations Involving People with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Saldert, Charlotta; Bauer, Malin

    2017-09-25

    It is known that Parkinson's disease is often accompanied by a motor speech disorder, which results in impaired communication. However, people with Parkinson's disease may also have impaired word retrieval (anomia) and other communicative problems, which have a negative impact on their ability to participate in conversations with family as well as healthcare staff. The aim of the present study was to explore effects of impaired speech and language on communication and how this is managed by people with Parkinson's disease and their spouses. Using a qualitative method based on Conversation Analysis, in-depth analyses were performed on natural conversational interaction in five dyads including elderly men who were at different stages of Parkinson's disease. The findings showed that the motor speech disorder in combination with word retrieval difficulties and adaptations, such as using communication strategies, may result in atypical utterances that are difficult for communication partners to understand. The coexistence of several communication problems compounds the difficulties faced in conversations and individuals with Parkinson's disease are often dependent on cooperation with their communication partner to make themselves understood.

  12. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Teaching Conversation Involving Feelings about Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conallen, K.; Reed, P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Two procedures were developed to teach individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders labels (tacts) for various private events (emotions): Study 1 attempted to distinguish them from pure tacts and mands (requests); and Study 2 attempted to train initiating a conversation with grammatically correct subject-verb-comment construction.…

  13. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Teaching Conversation Involving Feelings about Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conallen, K.; Reed, P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Two procedures were developed to teach individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders labels (tacts) for various private events (emotions): Study 1 attempted to distinguish them from pure tacts and mands (requests); and Study 2 attempted to train initiating a conversation with grammatically correct subject-verb-comment construction.…

  14. Design and Use of a Large-Scale Liquid Helium Conversion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudsen, P. N.

    1999-01-01

    A large-scale liquid helium (LHe) to high-pressure (HP) gas conversion system has been implemented at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Helium is used by the Space Shuttle, Titan, Atlas, and Delta programs for prelaunch processing, during launch count-down, and for postlaunch securing. The first phase of modifications to the Compressor Converter Facility (CCF), operational in April 1998, allowed the facility to accept bulk liquid helium from tanker containers and to off-load the helium at super-critical pressures. The second phase of modifications, planned to be operational by January 2001, will implement a 227-cubic-meter (m(sup 3)) on-site liquid helium storage system. This paper describes the design and operation of the current system and discusses the design and implementation for the second phase system.

  15. Large Seebeck coefficients of protonated titanate nanotubes for high-temperature thermoelectric conversion.

    PubMed

    Miao, L; Tanemura, S; Huang, R; Liu, C Y; Huang, C M; Xu, G

    2010-08-01

    Titanate nanotubes Na(2-x)H(x)Ti(3)O(7) produced by alkali hydrothermally treated ground TiO(2) aerogels are investigated as possible materials for high-temperature thermoelectric conversion by measuring their thermoelectric properties. Strikingly, the Seebeck coefficients increased sharply in the temperature range 745 to 1032 K, reaching a maximum of 302 muV/K. The electrical resistivity of the TNNTs ranged from 325 to 525 Omegam, which is lower than that of bulk TiO(2), and thermal conductivities at room temperature were also very low, ranging from 0.55 to 0.75 Wm(-1) K(-1). The hollow structure of the titanate nanotubes, with small, uniform diameters, is thought to be responsible for the ultralow thermal conductivity. The large thermoelectric power and ultralow thermal conductivity suggest that titanate nanotubes represent a new kind of p-type oxide thermoelectric material.

  16. Hierarchy of conversational rule violations involving utterance-based augmentative and alternative communication systems.

    PubMed

    Hoag, Linda A; Bedrosian, Jan L; McCoy, Kathleen F; Johnson, Dallas E

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of using messages with conversational rule violations on attitudes toward people who used utterance-based augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems in transactional interactions. Specifically, the ratings were compared across messages with relevance, informativeness, and brevity violations, when latency remained constant (i.e., short). The 96 participating sales clerks viewed scripted, videotaped bookstore conversations and completed an attitude questionnaire. Results indicated that the prestored message with repeated words/phrases was rated the highest, followed by the message with excessive information; next was the message with inadequate information, followed by the message with partly relevant information. The findings may be useful to those using utterance-based systems when making message choices during interactions with service providers. Technological implications point to the development of schema/script-based systems and intelligent editing.

  17. Father Involvement in Young Children's Care and Education: Exploring Boundaries and Starting Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chawla-Duggan, Rita; Milner, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of a UK local authority initiative--Fathers' Friday--aiming to involve fathers in their children's education, which took place in 20 early years' and primary school settings. Whilst the study involved a range of methods, in this paper interview data associated with practitioners' perspectives of the initiative are…

  18. Father Involvement in Young Children's Care and Education: Exploring Boundaries and Starting Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chawla-Duggan, Rita; Milner, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of a UK local authority initiative--Fathers' Friday--aiming to involve fathers in their children's education, which took place in 20 early years' and primary school settings. Whilst the study involved a range of methods, in this paper interview data associated with practitioners' perspectives of the initiative are…

  19. Organizations Involving Youth in Leadership Positions: A Conversation with Wendy Wheeler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Colette

    2005-01-01

    Based on her experiences working with various organizations to develop strategies to support young people and strengthen communities, Ms. Wheeler answers our questions on involving youth in leadership positions.

  20. Organizations Involving Youth in Leadership Positions: A Conversation with Wendy Wheeler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Colette

    2005-01-01

    Based on her experiences working with various organizations to develop strategies to support young people and strengthen communities, Ms. Wheeler answers our questions on involving youth in leadership positions.

  1. Solid-state NMR of nanomachines involved in photosynthetic energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Alia, A; Buda, Francesco; de Groot, Huub J M; Matysik, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Magic-angle spinning NMR, often in combination with photo-CIDNP, is applied to determine how photosynthetic antennae and reaction centers are activated in the ground state to perform their biological function upon excitation by light. Molecular modeling resolves molecular mechanisms by way of computational integration of NMR data with other structure-function analyses. By taking evolutionary historical contingency into account, a better biophysical understanding is achieved. Chlorophyll cofactors and proteins go through self-assembly trajectories that are engineered during evolution and lead to highly homogeneous protein complexes optimized for exciton or charge transfer. Histidine-cofactor interactions allow biological nanomachines to lower energy barriers for light harvesting and charge separation in photosynthetic energy conversion. In contrast, in primordial chlorophyll antenna aggregates, excessive heterogeneity is paired with much less specific characteristics, and both exciton and charge-transfer character are encoded in the ground state.

  2. Large-scale plantlet conversion and ex vitro transplantation efficiency of Siberian ginseng by bioreactor culture.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingli; Zhao, Shicheng; Yu, Changyeon; Li, Chenghao

    2013-01-01

    To achieve large-scale low-cost ex vitro acclimatization of Siberian ginseng plants, heart- and torpedo-shaped secondary somatic embryos (SEs) induced from germinated SEs on agar medium were collected and then inoculated to 10-l bubble column bioreactor, respectively. For plantlet conversion, inoculation of torpedo-shaped secondary SEs was more effective than heart-shaped SEs. TS2 (culture of torpedo-shaped SEs in a bioreactor with a 2-week subculture interval) plantlets had a higher root number and leaf number and larger leaf area than did HS3 (culture of heart-shaped SEs in a bioreactor with a 3-week subculture interval) and HS2 (culture of heart-shaped SEs in a bioreactor with a 2-week subculture interval) plantlets. Of these converted plants, TS2 plantlets had higher survival rate (83.7%) and growth characteristics after transplantation in a simple shed covered with a 50% sunshade net only for 6 months. TS2 plantlets also showed significantly lower H2O2 content and significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione transferase (GST) expression levels as compared to HS2 plants when exposure to ex vitro conditions.

  3. Platinum-acetylide polymer based solar cells: involvement of the triplet state for energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fengqi; Kim, Young-Gi; Reynolds, John R; Schanze, Kirk S

    2006-05-07

    Relatively efficient photovoltaic devices were fabricated using blends of a phosphorescent platinum-acetylide polymer and a fullerene (PCBM); involvement of the triplet excited state of the platinum-acetylide polymer in photoinduced charge transfer is believed to contribute to the device efficiency.

  4. Actomyosin contractility and Discs large contribute to junctional conversion in guiding cell alignment within the Drosophila embryonic epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Robert P.; DiNardo, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Proper control of epithelial morphogenesis is vital to development and is often disrupted in disease. After germ band extension, the cells of the Drosophila ventral embryonic epidermis are packed in a two-dimensional polygonal array. Although epithelial cell rearrangements are being studied productively in several tissues, the ventral epidermis is of particular interest as the final cell arrangement is, uniquely, far from equilibrium. We show that over the course of several hours, a subset of cells within each parasegment adopts a rectilinear configuration and aligns into parallel columns. Live imaging shows that this is accomplished by the shrinkage of select cell interfaces, as three-cell junctions are converted to four-cell junctions. Additionally, we show that non-muscle Myosin II and the polarity proteins Discs large (Dlg) and Bazooka are enriched along cell interfaces in a complex but reproducible pattern that suggests their involvement in junctional conversion and cell alignment. Indeed, depletion of Myosin II or dlg disrupts these processes. These results show that tight spatial regulation of actomyosin contractility is required to produce this high-energy arrangement of cells. PMID:20332153

  5. Conversion of low BMEP 4-cylinder to high BMEP 2-cylinder large bore natural gas engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, John

    There are more than 6,000 integral compressor engines in use on US natural gas pipelines, operating 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Many of these engines have operated continuously for more than 50 years, with little to no modifications. Due to recent emission regulations at the local, state and federal levels much of the aging infrastructure requires retrofit technology to remain within compliance. The Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory was founded to test these retrofit technologies on its large bore engine testbed (LBET). The LBET is a low brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) Cooper Bessemer GMVTF-4. Newer GMV models, constructed in 1980's, utilize turbocharging to increase the output power, achieving BMEP's nearly double that of the LBET. To expand the lab's testing capability and to reduce the LBET's running cost: material testing, in-depth modeling, and on engine testing was completed to evaluate the feasibility of uprating the LBET to a high BMEP two cylinder engine. Due to the LBET's age, the crankcase material properties were not known. Material samples were removed from engine to conduct an in-depth material analysis. It was found that the crankcase was cast out of a specific grade of gray iron, class 25 meehanite. A complete three dimensional model of the LBET's crankcase and power cylinders was created. Using historical engine data, the force inputs were created for a finite element analysis model of the LBET, to determine the regions of high stress. The areas of high stress were instrumented with strain gauges to iterate and validate the model's findings. Several test cases were run at the high and intermediate BMEP engine conditions. The model found, at high BMEP conditions the LBET would operate at the fatigue limit of the class 25 meehanite, operating with no factor of safety but the intermediate case were deemed acceptable.

  6. Large impact of reorganization energy on photovoltaic conversion due to interfacial charge-transfer transitions.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Jun-ichi

    2015-05-14

    Interfacial charge-transfer (ICT) transitions are expected to be a novel charge-separation mechanism for efficient photovoltaic conversion featuring one-step charge separation without energy loss. Photovoltaic conversion due to ICT transitions has been investigated using several TiO2-organic hybrid materials that show organic-to-inorganic ICT transitions in the visible region. In applications of ICT transitions to photovoltaic conversion, there is a significant problem that rapid carrier recombination is caused by organic-inorganic electronic coupling that is necessary for the ICT transitions. In order to solve this problem, in this work, I have theoretically studied light-to-current conversions due to the ICT transitions on the basis of the Marcus theory with density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations. An apparent correlation between the reported incident photon-to-current conversion efficiencies (IPCE) and calculated reorganization energies was clearly found, in which the IPCE increases with decreasing the reorganization energy consistent with the Marcus theory in the inverted region. This activation-energy dependence was systematically explained by the equation formulated by the Marcus theory based on a simple excited-state kinetic scheme. This result indicates that the reduction of the reorganization energy can suppress the carrier recombination and enhance the IPCE. The reorganization energy is predominantly governed by the structural change in the chemical-adsorption moiety between the ground and ICT excited states. This work provides crucial knowledge for efficient photovoltaic conversion due to ICT transitions.

  7. Implication of antigenic conversion of Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharides that involve interaction with surfactant protein D.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Shin-ichi; Amano, Ken-ichi; Nishitani, Chiaki; Ariki, Shigeru; Kuroki, Yoshio; Fujii, Nobuhiro

    2012-08-01

    We propose two antigenic types of Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharides (LPS): highly antigenic epitope-carrying LPS (HA-LPS) and weakly antigenic epitope-carrying LPS (WA-LPS) based on human serum reactivity. Strains carrying WA-LPS are highly prevalent in isolates from gastric cancer patients. WA-LPS exhibits more potent biological activities compared to HA-LPS, namely, upregulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and induction of enhanced epithelial cell proliferation. The results of competitive binding assays using monosaccharides and methylglycosides, as well as binding assays using glycosidase-treated LPS, suggested that β-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and β-linked D-galactose residues largely contributed to the highly antigenic epitope and the weakly antigenic epitope, respectively. WA-LPS exhibited greater binding activity to surfactant protein D (SP-D) in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, and this interaction was inhibited by methyl-β-D-galactoside. The biological activities of WA-LPS were markedly enhanced by the addition of SP-D. Lines of evidence suggested that removal of β-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residue, which comprises the highly antigenic epitope, results in exposure of the weakly antigenic epitope. The weakly antigenic epitope interacted preferentially with SP-D, and SP-D enhanced the biological activity of WA-LPS.

  8. Coffee Shops, Classrooms and Conversations: public engagement and outreach in a large interdisciplinary research Hub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Jennifer A.

    2014-05-01

    Public engagement and outreach activities are increasingly using specialist staff for co-ordination, training and support for researchers, they are also becoming expected for large investments. Here, the experience of public engagement and outreach a large, interdisciplinary Research Hub is described. dot.rural, based at the University of Aberdeen UK, is a £11.8 million Research Councils UK Rural Digital Economy Hub, funded as part of the RCUK Digital Economy Theme (2009-2015). Digital Economy research aims to realise the transformational impact of digital technologies on aspects of the environment, community life, cultural experiences, future society, and the economy. The dot.rural Hub involves 92 researchers from 12 different disciplines, including Geography, Hydrology and Ecology. Public Engagement and Outreach is embedded in the dot.rural Digital Economy Hub via an Outreach Officer. Alongside this position, public engagement and outreach activities are compulsory part of PhD student contracts. Public Engagement and Outreach activities at the dot.rural Hub involve individuals and groups in both formal and informal settings organised by dot.rural and other organisations. Activities in the realms of Education, Public Engagement, Traditional and Social Media are determined by a set of Underlying Principles designed for the Hub by the Outreach Officer. The underlying Engagement and Outreach principles match funding agency requirements and expectations alongside researcher demands and the user-led nature of Digital Economy Research. All activities include researchers alongside the Outreach Officer are research informed and embedded into specific projects that form the Hub. Successful public engagement activities have included participation in Café Scientifique series, workshops in primary and secondary schools, and online activities such as I'm a Scientist Get Me Out of Here. From how to engage 8 year olds with making hydrographs more understandable to members of

  9. Hexagonal mesoporous titanium tetrasulfonates with large conjugated hybrid framework for photoelectric conversion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tian-Yi; Wei, Yan-Shuang; Ren, Tie-Zhen; Liu, Lei; Guo, Qiang; Yuan, Zhong-Yong

    2010-12-01

    Ordered hexagonal mesoporous titanium tetrasulfonate materials (CuPcS4-Ti) were synthesized through a hydrothermal process with the assistance of surfactant F127, by using the copper(II) phthalocyanine-tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (CuPcS4) as coupling molecules. It was confirmed by TEM, IR, UV-vis, TGA-DSC, and XRD analysis that the CuPcS4 groups were homogenously incorporated into the hybrid framework, and the synthesized materials could be stable to around 328 °C with the hybrid framework and ordered mesopores well-preserved. A high dye content of Ti/CuPcS4 molar ratio at around 50 was achieved, which could be useful in the photoelectric conversion applications. A novel model of isolated dye centers surrounded by semiconductor oligomers was set, which could effectively suppress the aggregation of dye molecules that may decrease the conversion efficiency in some traditional dye-sensitized solar cells. It was proved that the synthesized CuPcS4-Ti exhibited a relatively high conversion efficiency of 0.53%. It was very valuable to access such a high conversion efficiency by using low-cost and commercially available dye molecules instead of using the expensive unsymmetrical phthalocyanines synthesized by the time-consuming methods in the literature.

  10. Is the Breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer Approximation Responsible for Internal Conversion in Large Molecules?*

    PubMed Central

    Burland, D. M.; Robinson, G. W.

    1970-01-01

    Vibronic radiationless transitions in large polyatomic molecules can be thought of as a process whereby the molecule, initially prepared in a discrete quasistationary state, makes a transition to an adjoining vibronic continuum belonging to a lower electronic state of the same multiplicity. In many instances the transition is analogous to penetration through a barrier between two „nested” potential sheets far away from an actual intersection of the sheets. Simultaneous distortions of vibrational and electronic parts of the wavefunction are required for such a tunneling process. The vibrational distortion manifests itself in the familiar Franck-Condon effect. The electronic distortion can be caused by nontotally symmetric vibrations of the molecule either because of the displaced nuclear configuration, to which the electrons instantly respond (Herzberg-Teller effect), or because of the protracted response of the electrons to the kinetic energy of nuclear motion (nonadiabatic effect or the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation). It is found here that Herzberg-Teller coupling is more effective in causing radiationless transitions than the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation when the potential surfaces involved are not close to an intersection. PMID:16591837

  11. The endoplasmic reticulum stress transducer OASIS is involved in the terminal differentiation of goblet cells in the large intestine.

    PubMed

    Asada, Rie; Saito, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Noritaka; Kanemoto, Soshi; Iwamoto, Hideo; Oki, Mami; Miyagi, Hidetaka; Izumi, Soutarou; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2012-03-09

    OASIS is a basic leucine zipper transmembrane transcription factor localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that is cleaved in its transmembrane region in response to ER stress. This novel ER stress transducer has been demonstrated to express in osteoblasts and astrocytes and promote terminal maturation of these cells. Additionally, OASIS is highly expressed in goblet cells of the large intestine. In this study, we investigated the roles of OASIS in goblet cell differentiation in the large intestine. To analyze the functions of OASIS in goblet cells, we examined morphological changes and the expression of goblet cell differentiation markers in the large intestine of Oasis(-/-) mice. By disrupting the Oasis gene, the number of goblet cells and production of mucus were decreased in the large intestine. Oasis(-/-) goblet cells showed abnormal morphology of mucous vesicles and rough ER. The expression levels of mature goblet cell markers were lower, and conversely those of early goblet cell markers were higher in Oasis(-/-) mice, indicating that differentiation from early to mature goblet cells is impaired in Oasis(-/-) mice. To determine the association of OASIS with other factors involved in goblet cell differentiation, in vitro experiments using a cell culture model were performed. We found that OASIS was activated in response to mild ER stress that is induced in differentiating goblet cells. Knockdown of the Oasis transcript perturbed goblet cell terminal differentiation. Together, our data indicate that OASIS plays crucial roles in promoting the differentiation of early goblet cells to mature goblet cells in the large intestine.

  12. Mining pinyin-to-character conversion rules from large-scale corpus: a rough set approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Qingcai; Yeung, Daniel S

    2004-04-01

    This paper introduces a rough set technique for solving the problem of mining Pinyin-to-character (PTC) conversion rules. It first presents a text-structuring method by constructing a language information table from a corpus for each pinyin, which it will then apply to a free-form textual corpus. Data generalization and rule extraction algorithms can then be used to eliminate redundant information and extract consistent PTC conversion rules. The design of our model also addresses a number of important issues such as the long-distance dependency problem, the storage requirements of the rule base, and the consistency of the extracted rules, while the performance of the extracted rules as well as the effects of different model parameters are evaluated experimentally. These results show that by the smoothing method, high precision conversion (0.947) and recall rates (0.84) can be achieved even for rules represented directly by pinyin rather than words. A comparison with the baseline tri-gram model also shows good complement between our method and the tri-gram language model.

  13. Effluent gas desulfurization with conversion to gypsum of large particle size

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.M.

    1986-05-06

    A method is described for removing sulfur dioxide from effluent gas which comprises contacting the gas with a slurry initially consisting essentially of water, at least one calcium compound selected from the group consisting of calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide and calcium carbonate and at least one oxidizing agent selected from the group consisting of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, in amounts to convert the sulfur dioxide to calcium sulfate, and analyzing the slurry for content of the oxidizing agent so as to promote conversion of the sulfur dioxide to calcium sulfate of maximum crystal size.

  14. Random alcohol testing reduced alcohol-involved fatal crashes of drivers of large trucks.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Cecelia B; Miller, Ted R; Waehrer, Geetha M; Spicer, Rebecca S

    2007-09-01

    This study examined the impact of random alcohol testing, implemented on August 1, 1994, on the likelihood that the driver of a large truck involved in a fatal motor vehicle crash was alcohol-involved. Among fatal crashes, the proportion of alcohol-positive large truck drivers (intervention group) was compared with the proportion of alcohol-positive light passenger vehicle drivers (control group). Annual Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data (1988-2003) were compiled for each of the 50 states and Washington, D.C., for the control and intervention groups. Using these pooled cross-sectional data, logistic regression modeled the likelihood that a driver was alcohol-positive (blood alcohol concentration > 0) before compared with after random alcohol testing. We attributed the difference-in-difference (the difference in likelihoods of being alcohol positive pretesting versus post-testing in large truck versus passenger vehicle drivers) to the impact of random testing. Drivers of large trucks were 18.6% less likely to be alcohol-involved after random testing was implemented than before random testing (odds ratio [OR] = 0.814, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.713-0.930). The control group of passenger car drivers was 4.7% less likely to be alcohol-involved after random testing was implemented (OR = 0.953, 95% CI: 0.924-0.983). The net reduction in the odds of alcohol involvement for drivers of large trucks was 14.5% (OR = 0.855, 95% CI: 0.748-0.976). Controlling for the general declining trend in alcohol-involved drivers in fatal crashes, random alcohol testing was correlated with a 14.5% reduction in alcohol involvement among large truck drivers.

  15. Origins of Large Voltage Hysteresis in High-Energy-Density Metal Fluoride Lithium-Ion Battery Conversion Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Linsen; Jacobs, Ryan; Gao, Peng; Gan, Liyang; Wang, Feng; Morgan, Dane; Jin, Song

    2016-03-02

    Metal fluorides and oxides can store multiple lithium ions through conversion chemistry to enable high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. However, their practical applications have been hindered by an unusually large voltage hysteresis between charge and discharge voltage profiles and the consequent low-energy efficiency (<80%). The physical origins of such hysteresis are rarely studied and poorly understood. Here we employ in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, density functional theory calculations, and galvanostatic intermittent titration technique to first correlate the voltage profile of iron fluoride (FeF3), a representative conversion electrode material, with evolution and spatial distribution of intermediate phases in the electrode. The results reveal that, contrary to conventional belief, the phase evolution in the electrode is symmetrical during discharge and charge. However, the spatial evolution of the electrochemically active phases, which is controlled by reaction kinetics, is different. We further propose that the voltage hysteresis in the FeF3 electrode is kinetic in nature. It is the result of ohmic voltage drop, reaction overpotential, and different spatial distributions of electrochemically active phases (i.e., compositional inhomogeneity). Therefore, the large hysteresis can be expected to be mitigated by rational design and optimization of material microstructure and electrode architecture to improve the energy efficiency of lithium-ion batteries based on conversion chemistry.

  16. A Proposal for Six Sigma Integration for Large-Scale Production of Penicillin G and Subsequent Conversion to 6-APA.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Anirban; Pan, Sharadwata; Potumarthi, Ravichandra; Danquah, Michael K; Sarethy, Indira P

    2014-01-01

    Six Sigma methodology has been successfully applied to daily operations by several leading global private firms including GE and Motorola, to leverage their net profits. Comparatively, limited studies have been conducted to find out whether this highly successful methodology can be applied to research and development (R&D). In the current study, we have reviewed and proposed a process for a probable integration of Six Sigma methodology to large-scale production of Penicillin G and its subsequent conversion to 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA). It is anticipated that the important aspects of quality control and quality assurance will highly benefit from the integration of Six Sigma methodology in mass production of Penicillin G and/or its conversion to 6-APA.

  17. A Proposal for Six Sigma Integration for Large-Scale Production of Penicillin G and Subsequent Conversion to 6-APA

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Anirban; Danquah, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Six Sigma methodology has been successfully applied to daily operations by several leading global private firms including GE and Motorola, to leverage their net profits. Comparatively, limited studies have been conducted to find out whether this highly successful methodology can be applied to research and development (R&D). In the current study, we have reviewed and proposed a process for a probable integration of Six Sigma methodology to large-scale production of Penicillin G and its subsequent conversion to 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA). It is anticipated that the important aspects of quality control and quality assurance will highly benefit from the integration of Six Sigma methodology in mass production of Penicillin G and/or its conversion to 6-APA. PMID:25057428

  18. Large conversion of energy in dielectric elastomers by electromechanical phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tong-Qing; Suo, Zhi-Gang

    2012-08-01

    When air is pumped in, a tubular balloon initially inflates slightly and homogeneously. A short section of the balloon then forms a bulge, which coexists with the unbulged section of the balloon. As more air is pumped in, the bulged section elongates at the expense of the unbulged section, until the entire balloon is bulged. The phenomenon is analogous to the liquid-to-vapor phase transition. Here we study the bulging transition in a dielectric elastomer tube as air is pumped into the balloon and a voltage is applied through the thickness of the membrane. We formulate the condition for coexistent budged and unbulged sections, and identify allowable states set by electrical breakdown and mechanical rupture. We find that the bulging transition dramatically amplifies electromechanical energy conversion. Energy converted in an electromechanical cycle consisting of unbulged and bulged states is thousands of times that in an electromechanical cycle consisting of only unbulged states.

  19. Meiotic recombination involving heterozygous large insertions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: formation and repair of large, unpaired DNA loops.

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, H M; Kirkpatrick, D T; Gerton, J L; Petes, T D

    2001-01-01

    Meiotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves the formation of heteroduplexes, duplexes containing DNA strands derived from two different homologues. If the two strands of DNA differ by an insertion or deletion, the heteroduplex will contain an unpaired DNA loop. We found that unpaired loops as large as 5.6 kb can be accommodated within a heteroduplex. Repair of these loops involved the nucleotide excision repair (NER) enzymes Rad1p and Rad10p and the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins Msh2p and Msh3p, but not several other NER (Rad2p and Rad14p) and MMR (Msh4p, Msh6p, Mlh1p, Pms1p, Mlh2p, Mlh3p) proteins. Heteroduplexes were also formed with DNA strands derived from alleles containing two different large insertions, creating a large "bubble"; repair of this substrate was dependent on Rad1p. Although meiotic recombination events in yeast are initiated by double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs), we showed that DSBs occurring within heterozygous insertions do not stimulate interhomologue recombination. PMID:11514439

  20. ALK Positive Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Presenting as Extensive Bone Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Gajendra, Smeeta; Lipi, Lipika; Goel, Shalini; Misra, Ruchira

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) represents approximately 2% of all Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas that commonly involves nodal as well as a wide variety of extra nodal sites, as skin, soft tissue, bones and lungs, although primary or secondary involvement of bone is rare. Herein, we report a case of 14-year-old female child presented as extensive bony involvement with a clinical diagnosis of bone tumour/ small round cell tumour, which was proved to be ALK positive ALCL on histopathological examination. PMID:25738071

  1. Alcohol dehydrogenases from Scheffersomyces stipitis involved in the detoxification of aldehyde inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass conversion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Menggen; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhao, Xianxian

    2013-09-01

    Aldehyde inhibitors such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are generated from biomass pretreatment. Scheffersomyces stipitis is able to reduce furfural and HMF to less toxic furanmethanol and furan-2,5-dimethanol; however, the enzymes involved in the reductive reaction still remain unknown. In this study, transcription responses of two known and five putative alcohol dehydrogenase genes from S. stipitis were analyzed under furfural and HMF stress conditions. All the seven alcohol dehydrogenase genes were also cloned and overexpressed for their activity analyses. Our results indicate that transcriptions of SsADH4 and SsADH6 were highly induced under furfural and HMF stress conditions, and the proteins encoded by them exhibited NADH- and/or NADPH-dependent activities for furfural and HMF reduction, respectively. For furfural reduction, NADH-dependent activity was also observed in SsAdh1p and NAD(P)H-dependent activities were also observed in SsAdh5p and SsAdh7p. For HMF reduction, NADPH-dependent activities were also observed in SsAdh5p and SsAdh7p. SsAdh4p displayed the highest NADPH-dependent specific activity and catalytic efficiency for reduction of both furfural and HMF among the seven alcohol dehydrogenases. Enzyme activities of all SsADH proteins were more stable under acidic condition. For most SsADH proteins, the optimum temperature for enzyme activities was 30 °C and more than 50 % enzyme activities remained at 60 °C. Reduction activities of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, isovaleraldehyde, benzaldehyde, and phenylacetaldehyde were also observed in some SsADH proteins. Our results indicate that multiple alcohol dehydrogenases in S. stipitis are involved in the detoxification of aldehyde inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass conversion.

  2. v-src transformation of rat embryo fibroblasts. Inefficient conversion to anchorage-independent growth involves heterogeneity of primary cultures

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    To clarify whether a single oncogene can transform primary cells in culture, we compared the transforming effect of a recombinant retrovirus (ZSV) containing the v-src gene in rat embryo fibroblasts (REFs) to that in the rat cell line 3Y1. In the focus assay, REFs exhibited resistance to transformation as only six foci were observed in the primary cultures as opposed to 98 in 3Y1 cells. After G418 selection, efficiency of transformation was again somewhat lower with REFs compared to that with 3Y1 cells, but the number of G418-resistant REF colonies was much greater than the number of foci in REF cultures. Furthermore, while 98% of G418-resistant colonies of ZSV-infected REFs were morphologically transformed, only 25% were converted to anchorage- independent growth, as opposed to 100% conversion seen in ZSV-infected 3Y1 cells. The poor susceptibility of REFs to anchorage-independent transformation did not involve differences in expression and subcellular distribution of p60v-src, or its kinase activity in vitro and in vivo. It rather reflected a property of the primary cultures, as cloning of REFs before ZSV infection demonstrated that only 2 out of 6 REF clones tested were permissive for anchorage-independent growth. The nonpermissive phenotype was dominant over the permissive one in somatic hybrid cells, and associated with organized actin filament bundles and a lower growth rate, both before and after ZSV infection. These results indicate that the poor susceptibility of REFs to anchorage-independent transformation by p60v-src reflects the heterogeneity of the primary cultures. REFs can be morphologically transformed by p60v-src with high efficiency but only a small fraction is convertible to anchorage- independent growth. REF resistance seems to involve the presence of a suppressor factor which may emerge from REF differentiation during embryonic development. PMID:8034746

  3. Apparent gene conversions involving the SMN gene in the region of the spinal muscular atrophy locus on chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Steege, G. van der; Grootscholten, P.M.; Cobben, J.M.; Scheffer, H.; Buys, C.H.C.M.

    1996-10-01

    The survival motor neuron (SMN) gene has been described as a determining gene for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). SMN has a closely flanking, nearly identical copy ({sup C}BCD541). Gene and copy gene can be discriminated by sequence differences in exons 7 and 8. The large majority of SMA patients show homozygous deletions of at least exons 7 and 8 of the SMN gene. A minority of patients show absence of SMN exon 7 but retention of exon 8. This is explained by results of our present analysis of 13 such patients providing evidence for apparent gene-conversion events between SMN and the centromeric copy gene. Instead of applying a separate analysis for absence or presence of SMN exons 7 and 8, we used a contiguous PCR from intron 6 to exon 8. In every case we found a chimeric gene with a fusion of exon 7 of the copy gene and exon 8 of SMN and absence of a normal SMN gene. Similar events, including the fusion counterpart, were observed in a group of controls, although in the presence of a normal SMN gene. Chimeric genes as the result of fusions of parts of SMN and {sup C}BCD541 apparently are far from rare and may partly explain the frequently observed SMN deletions in SMA patients. 23 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Large-alphabet time-frequency entangled quantum key distribution by means of time-to-frequency conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, J.; Wright, L. J.; Söller, C.; Zhang, L.; Walmsley, I. A.; Smith, B. J.

    2013-07-01

    We introduce a novel time-frequency quantum key distribution (TFQKD) scheme based on photon pairs entangled in these two conjugate degrees of freedom. The scheme uses spectral detection and phase modulation to enable measurements in the temporal basis by means of time-to-frequency conversion. This allows large-alphabet encoding to be implemented with realistic components. A general security analysis for TFQKD with binned measurements reveals a close connection with finite-dimensional QKD protocols and enables analysis of the effects of dark counts on the secure key size.

  5. Nucleotide sequences and regulational analysis of genes involved in conversion of aniline to catechol in Pseudomonas putida UCC22(pTDN1).

    PubMed Central

    Fukumori, F; Saint, C P

    1997-01-01

    A 9,233-bp HindIII fragment of the aromatic amine catabolic plasmid pTDN1, isolated from a derivative of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 (UCC22), confers the ability to degrade aniline on P. putida KT2442. The fragment encodes six open reading frames which are arranged in the same direction. Their 5' upstream region is part of the direct-repeat sequence of pTDN1. Nucleotide sequence of 1.8 kb of the repeat sequence revealed only a single base pair change compared to the known sequence of IS1071 which is involved in the transposition of the chlorobenzoate genes (C. Nakatsu, J. Ng, R. Singh, N. Straus, and C. Wyndham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:8312-8316, 1991). Four open reading frames encode proteins with considerable homology to proteins found in other aromatic-compound degradation pathways. On the basis of sequence similarity, these genes are proposed to encode the large and small subunits of aniline oxygenase (tdnA1 and tdnA2, respectively), a reductase (tdnB), and a LysR-type regulatory gene (tdnR). The putative large subunit has a conserved [2Fe-2S]R Rieske-type ligand center. Two genes, tdnQ and tdnT, which may be involved in amino group transfer, are localized upstream of the putative oxygenase genes. The tdnQ gene product shares about 30% similarity with glutamine synthetases; however, a pUC-based plasmid carrying tdnQ did not support the growth of an Escherichia coli glnA strain in the absence of glutamine. TdnT possesses domains that are conserved among amidotransferases. The tdnQ, tdnA1, tdnA2, tdnB, and tdnR genes are essential for the conversion of aniline to catechol. PMID:8990291

  6. Lithography-free large-area metamaterials for stable thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Coppens, Zachary J.; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Valentine, Jason G.

    2016-02-08

    A large-area metamaterial thermal emitter is fabricated using facile, lithography-free techniques. The device is composed of conductive oxides, refractory ceramics, and noble metals and shows stable, selective emission after exposure to 1173 K for 22 h in oxidizing and inert atmospheres. Lastly, the results indicate that the metamaterial can be used to achieve high-performance thermophotovoltaic devices for applications such as portable power generation.

  7. Lithography-free large-area metamaterials for stable thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    DOE PAGES

    Coppens, Zachary J.; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Valentine, Jason G.

    2016-02-08

    A large-area metamaterial thermal emitter is fabricated using facile, lithography-free techniques. The device is composed of conductive oxides, refractory ceramics, and noble metals and shows stable, selective emission after exposure to 1173 K for 22 h in oxidizing and inert atmospheres. Lastly, the results indicate that the metamaterial can be used to achieve high-performance thermophotovoltaic devices for applications such as portable power generation.

  8. An empirical analysis of run-off-road injury severity crashes involving large trucks.

    PubMed

    Al-Bdairi, Nabeel Saleem Saad; Hernandez, Salvador

    2017-03-04

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in understanding the contributory factors to run-off-road (ROR) crashes in the US, especially those where large trucks are involved. Although there have been several efforts to understand large-truck crashes, the relationship between crash factors, crash severity, and ROR crashes is not clearly understood. The intent of this research is to develop statistical models that provide additional insight into the effects that various contributory factors related to the person (driver), vehicle, crash, roadway, and environment have on ROR injury severity. An ordered random parameter probit was estimated to predict the likelihood of three injury severity categories using Oregon crash data: severe, minor, and no injury. The modeling approach accounts for unobserved heterogeneity (i.e., unobserved factors). The results showed that five parameter estimates were found to be random and normally distributed, and varied across ROR crash observations. These were factors related to crashes that occurred between January and April, raised median type, loss of control of a vehicle, the indicator variable of speed not involved, and the indicator variable of two vehicles or more involved in the crashes. In contrast, eight variables were found to be fixed across ROR observations. Looking more closely at the fixed parameter results, large-truck drivers who are not licensed in Oregon have a higher probability of experiencing no injury ROR crash outcomes, and human related factor, fatigue, increases the probability of minor injury. The modeling framework presented in this work offers a flexible methodology to analyze ROR crashes involving large trucks while accounting for unobserved heterogeneity. This information can aid safety planners and the trucking industry in identifying appropriate countermeasures to help mitigate the number and severity of large-truck ROR crashes.

  9. Nanostructure-based thermoelectric conversion: an insight into the feasibility and sustainability for large-scale deployment.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Gautam G; Susoreny, Joseph A; Zhang, Genqiang; Yang, Haoran; Wu, Yue

    2011-09-01

    Significant scientific progress has been achieved using nanostructured materials for thermoelectric energy harvesting and solid-state cooling through the conversion of waste heat into electricity and vice versa. However, the connection between the small-scale proof-of concept results achieved in research labs and real industrial scale manufacture is still missing. Herein we develop an analysis to determine the appropriate thermoelectric nanomaterials for the large-scale manufacture and deployment in the near future. We cover key parameters such as ZT value, cost, abundance, and toxicity. Maximum ZT values are considered at three temperature ranges. Material cost and abundance are visually demonstrated to improve ease of interpretation. Toxicity is also evaluated to minimize the environmental impact during manufacture and recycling. Lastly, a parameter termed "efficiency ratio" is calculated to give a better qualitative understanding of the feasibility and sustainability of these nanomaterials.

  10. Analysis of crossover breakpoints yields new insights into the nature of the gene conversion events associated with large NF1 deletions mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Bengesser, Kathrin; Vogt, Julia; Mussotter, Tanja; Mautner, Victor-Felix; Messiaen, Ludwine; Cooper, David N; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard

    2014-02-01

    Large NF1 deletions are mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR). An in-depth analysis of gene conversion operating in the breakpoint-flanking regions of large NF1 deletions was performed to investigate whether the rate of discontinuous gene conversion during NAHR with crossover is increased, as has been previously noted in NAHR-mediated rearrangements. All 20 germline type-1 NF1 deletions analyzed were mediated by NAHR associated with continuous gene conversion within the breakpoint-flanking regions. Continuous gene conversion was also observed in 31/32 type-2 NF1 deletions investigated. In contrast to the meiotic type-1 NF1 deletions, type-2 NF1 deletions are predominantly of post-zygotic origin. Our findings therefore imply that the mitotic as well as the meiotic NAHR intermediates of large NF1 deletions are processed by long-patch mismatch repair (MMR), thereby ensuring gene conversion tract continuity instead of the discontinuous gene conversion that is characteristic of short-patch repair. However, the single type-2 NF1 deletion not exhibiting continuous gene conversion was processed without MMR, yielding two different deletion-bearing chromosomes, which were distinguishable in terms of their breakpoint positions. Our findings indicate that MMR failure during NAHR, followed by post-meiotic/mitotic segregation, has the potential to give rise to somatic mosaicism in human genomic rearrangements by generating breakpoint heterogeneity.

  11. Crash involvement of large trucks by configuration: a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, H S; Jones, I S

    1988-01-01

    For a two-year period, large truck crashes on the interstate system in Washington State were investigated using a case-control method. For each large truck involved in a crash, three trucks were randomly selected for inspection from the traffic stream at the same time and place as the crash but one week later. The effects of truck and driver characteristics on crashes were assessed by comparing their relative frequency among the crash-involved and comparison sample trucks. Double trailer trucks were consistently overinvolved in crashes by a factor of two to three in both single and multiple vehicle crashes. Single unit trucks pulling trailers also were overinvolved. Doubles also had a higher frequency of jackknifing compared to tractor-trailers. The substantial overinvolvement of doubles in crashes was found regardless of driver age, hours of driving, cargo weight, or type of fleet. Younger drivers, long hours of driving, and operating empty trucks were also associated with higher crash involvement. PMID:3354729

  12. Family Ratings of Communication Largely Reflect Expressive Language and Conversation-Level Ability in People With Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Fucetola, Robert; Tabor Connor, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    Family ratings of communication and social interactions represent an important source of information about people with aphasia. Because of the reliance on family/partner ratings as an outcome measure in many aphasia treatment studies and in the clinic, there is a great need for the validation of commonly used family/partner rating measures, and a better understanding of predictors of family ratings of communication. The communication ability of 130 individuals with aphasia due to neurologic illness was rated by family members/partners on the Communicative Effectiveness Index (CETI; Lomas et al., 1989). Information on aphasia severity, mood, quality of life, nonverbal cognitive functioning, and various demographic factors was collected. Principal component analysis confirmed a 2-factor model best represents the relationships among CETI rating items, and this model largely consists of a conversation-level ability factor. Family ratings were largely predicted by the patient's expressive (not receptive) language but also patient self-perceived quality of communication life. Family/partners typically rate the effectiveness of communication based largely on expressive language, despite the fact that other aspects of the aphasia (e.g., listening comprehension) are as important for everyday communication.

  13. Latino Families and Parental Involvement: A Case Study of Home Literature Conversations in a Primary Bilingual Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinones, Anna M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation study describes and interprets the dialogue between Latino parents and their children during home literature conversations. The participating students were enrolled in my first and second grade classroom in East Los Angeles, California. I was guided by the following research questions in this qualitative teacher research study:…

  14. Latino Families and Parental Involvement: A Case Study of Home Literature Conversations in a Primary Bilingual Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinones, Anna M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation study describes and interprets the dialogue between Latino parents and their children during home literature conversations. The participating students were enrolled in my first and second grade classroom in East Los Angeles, California. I was guided by the following research questions in this qualitative teacher research study:…

  15. Libman-Sacks Endocarditis with Unusual Large Size Vegetation Involving the Mitral Valve.

    PubMed

    Bani Hani, Amjad; Abu-Abeeleh, Mahmoud; Al Kharabsheh, Murad M; Qabba'ah, Lubaba

    2016-12-21

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune hypercoagulable disorder characterized by thrombophilia, vascular thrombosis, and recurrent abortions associated with persistent antiphospholipid antibodies. APS may exist in its primary form, or more commonly is found to be associated with variety of rheumatic disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Cardiac involvement is not an uncommon complication in primary antiphospholipid patients. Libman-Sacks lesions are typically small, sessile, and wart-like, varying in size from 1-4 mm. Here we present an unusual case of a 37 year-old pregnant woman who suffered from heart failure associated with primary antiphospholipid syndrome and Libman-Sacks endocarditis, with large vegetations involving the mitral valve. The patient underwent mitral valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis.

  16. Gene conversions and unequal crossovers between CYP21 (steroid 21-hydroxylase gene) and CYP21P involve different mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Tusié-Luna, M T; White, P C

    1995-01-01

    Most cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, the inherited inability to synthesize cortisol, are caused by mutations in the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21). Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency is unusual among genetic diseases in that approximately 95% of the mutant alleles have apparently been generated by recombination between a normally active gene (CYP21) and a linked pseudogene (CYP21P). Approximately 20% of mutant alleles carry DNA deletions of 30 kb that have presumably been generated by unequal meiotic crossing-over, whereas 75% carry one or more mutations in CYP21 that are normally found in the CYP21P pseudogene. These latter mutations are termed "gene conversions," although the mechanism by which they are generated is not well understood. To assess the frequency at which these different recombination events occur, we have used PCR to detect de novo deletions and gene conversions in matched sperm and peripheral blood leukocyte DNA samples from normal individuals. Deletions with breakpoints in a 100-bp region in intron 2 and exon 3 were detected in sperm DNA samples with frequencies of approximately 1 in 10(5)-10(6) genomes but were never detected in the matching leukocyte DNA. Gene conversions in the same region occur in approximately 1 in 10(3)-10(5) genomes in both sperm and leukocyte DNA. These data suggest that whereas deletions occur exclusively in meiosis, gene conversions occur during both meiosis and mitosis, or perhaps only during mitosis. Thus, gene conversions must occur by a mechanism distinct from unequal crossing-over. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479886

  17. Support for the involvement of large copy number variants in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kirov, George; Grozeva, Detelina; Norton, Nadine; Ivanov, Dobril; Mantripragada, Kiran K; Holmans, Peter; Craddock, Nick; Owen, Michael J; O'Donovan, Michael C

    2009-04-15

    We investigated the involvement of rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in 471 cases of schizophrenia and 2792 controls that had been genotyped using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array. Large CNVs >1 Mb were 2.26 times more common in cases (P = 0.00027), with the effect coming mostly from deletions (odds ratio, OR = 4.53, P = 0.00013) although duplications were also more common (OR = 1.71, P = 0.04). Two large deletions were found in two cases each, but in no controls: a deletion at 22q11.2 known to be a susceptibility factor for schizophrenia and a deletion on 17p12, at 14.0-15.4 Mb. The latter is known to cause hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies. The same deletion was found in 6 of 4618 (0.13%) cases and 6 of 36 092 (0.017%) controls in the re-analysed data of two recent large CNV studies of schizophrenia (OR = 7.82, P = 0.001), with the combined significance level for all three studies achieving P = 5 x 10(-5). One large duplication on 16p13.1, which has been previously implicated as a susceptibility factor for autism, was found in three cases and six controls (0.6% versus 0.2%, OR = 2.98, P = 0.13). We also provide the first support for a recently reported association between deletions at 15q11.2 and schizophrenia (P = 0.026). This study confirms the involvement of rare CNVs in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and contributes to the growing list of specific CNVs that are implicated.

  18. Fluid–structure interaction involving large deformations: 3D simulations and applications to biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fang-Bao; Dai, Hu; Luo, Haoxiang; Doyle, James F.; Rousseau, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional fluid–structure interaction (FSI) involving large deformations of flexible bodies is common in biological systems, but accurate and efficient numerical approaches for modeling such systems are still scarce. In this work, we report a successful case of combining an existing immersed-boundary flow solver with a nonlinear finite-element solid-mechanics solver specifically for three-dimensional FSI simulations. This method represents a significant enhancement from the similar methods that are previously available. Based on the Cartesian grid, the viscous incompressible flow solver can handle boundaries of large displacements with simple mesh generation. The solid-mechanics solver has separate subroutines for analyzing general three-dimensional bodies and thin-walled structures composed of frames, membranes, and plates. Both geometric nonlinearity associated with large displacements and material nonlinearity associated with large strains are incorporated in the solver. The FSI is achieved through a strong coupling and partitioned approach. We perform several validation cases, and the results may be used to expand the currently limited database of FSI benchmark study. Finally, we demonstrate the versatility of the present method by applying it to the aerodynamics of elastic wings of insects and the flow-induced vocal fold vibration. PMID:24415796

  19. Fluid-structure interaction involving large deformations: 3D simulations and applications to biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fang-Bao; Dai, Hu; Luo, Haoxiang; Doyle, James F.; Rousseau, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    Three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction (FSI) involving large deformations of flexible bodies is common in biological systems, but accurate and efficient numerical approaches for modeling such systems are still scarce. In this work, we report a successful case of combining an existing immersed-boundary flow solver with a nonlinear finite-element solid-mechanics solver specifically for three-dimensional FSI simulations. This method represents a significant enhancement from the similar methods that are previously available. Based on the Cartesian grid, the viscous incompressible flow solver can handle boundaries of large displacements with simple mesh generation. The solid-mechanics solver has separate subroutines for analyzing general three-dimensional bodies and thin-walled structures composed of frames, membranes, and plates. Both geometric nonlinearity associated with large displacements and material nonlinearity associated with large strains are incorporated in the solver. The FSI is achieved through a strong coupling and partitioned approach. We perform several validation cases, and the results may be used to expand the currently limited database of FSI benchmark study. Finally, we demonstrate the versatility of the present method by applying it to the aerodynamics of elastic wings of insects and the flow-induced vocal fold vibration.

  20. High Frequency of Bone Marrow Involvement in Intravascular Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianchao; Ding, Wenshuang; Gao, Limin; Yao, Wenqing; Chen, Min; Zhao, Sha; Liu, Weiping; Zhang, Wenyan

    2017-04-01

    Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Thirteen cases of IVLBCL with a median age of 56 years were analyzed retrospectively. Nonspecific symptoms such as fever and hepatosplenomegaly were the most common manifestations, and the bone marrow was usually involved in 8/13 (61.5%) cases. All tumors expressed CD20, and 12/13 (92.3%) of the tumors exhibited a nongerminal center phenotype by Hans algorithm. CD5 was expressed in 3/12 (25%) of the tumors. MYC was negative in all cases, and BCL2 was positive in 10/12 (83.3%) cases. Cytogenetic analysis revealed 5 cases that did not have rearrangements in either the MYC or the BCL2 gene. No association with Epstein-Barr virus was found. Seven of 11 patients received chemotherapy. The median survival time was 6 months. Patients with hemophagocytic syndrome had poor prognoses. Our study demonstrates that IVLBCL has a poor clinical outcome with a high frequency of bone marrow involvement and that the MYC gene may not play an important role in the poor prognosis of IVLBCL.

  1. Electro-optic correlator for large-format microwave interferometry: Up-conversion and correlation stages performance analysis.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, D; Casas, Francisco J; Ruiz-Lombera, R; Mirapeix, J

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a microwave interferometer prototype with a near-infra-red optical correlator is proposed as a solution to get a large-format interferometer with hundreds of receivers for radio astronomy applications. A 10 Gbits/s Lithium Niobate modulator has been tested as part of an electro-optic correlator up-conversion stage that will be integrated in the interferometer prototype. Its internal circuitry consists of a single-drive modulator biased by a SubMiniature version A (SMA) connector allowing to up-convert microwave signals with bandwidths up to 12.5 GHz to the near infrared band. In order to characterize it, a 12 GHz tone and a bias voltage were applied to the SMA input using a polarization tee. Two different experimental techniques to stabilize the modulator operation point in its minimum optical carrier output power are described. The best achieved results showed a rather stable spectrum in amplitude and wavelength at the output of the modulator with an optical carrier level 23 dB lower than the signal of interest. On the other hand, preliminary measurements were made to analyze the correlation stage, using 4f and 6f optical configurations to characterize both the antenna/fiber array configuration and the corresponding point spread function.

  2. Large room temperature spin-to-charge conversion signals in a few-layer graphene/Pt lateral heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wenjing; Sagasta, Edurne; Ribeiro, Mário; Niimi, Yasuhiro; Hueso, Luis E; Casanova, Fèlix

    2017-09-22

    Electrical generation and detection of pure spin currents without the need of magnetic materials are key elements for the realization of full electrically controlled spintronic devices. In this framework, achieving a large spin-to-charge conversion signal is crucial, as considerable outputs are needed for plausible applications. Unfortunately, the values obtained so far have been rather low. Here we exploit the spin Hall effect by using Pt, a non-magnetic metal with strong spin-orbit coupling, to generate and detect pure spin currents in a few-layer graphene channel. Furthermore, the outstanding properties of graphene, with long-distance spin transport and higher electrical resistivity than metals, allow us to achieve in our graphene/Pt lateral heterostructures the largest spin-to-charge output voltage at room temperature reported so far in the literature. Our approach opens up exciting opportunities towards the implementation of spin-orbit-based logic circuits and all electrical control of spin information without magnetic field.Spintronic devices with full electrical control rely on electrical generation and detection of spin currents in the absence of magnetic materials. Here, the authors use Pt, a non-magnetic metal, to generate and detect pure spin currents in a few-layer graphene channel, achieving a remarkable spin-to-charge voltage signal at room temperature.

  3. Electro-optic correlator for large-format microwave interferometry: Up-conversion and correlation stages performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, D.; Casas, Francisco J.; Ruiz-Lombera, R.; Mirapeix, J.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a microwave interferometer prototype with a near-infra-red optical correlator is proposed as a solution to get a large-format interferometer with hundreds of receivers for radio astronomy applications. A 10 Gbits/s Lithium Niobate modulator has been tested as part of an electro-optic correlator up-conversion stage that will be integrated in the interferometer prototype. Its internal circuitry consists of a single-drive modulator biased by a SubMiniature version A (SMA) connector allowing to up-convert microwave signals with bandwidths up to 12.5 GHz to the near infrared band. In order to characterize it, a 12 GHz tone and a bias voltage were applied to the SMA input using a polarization tee. Two different experimental techniques to stabilize the modulator operation point in its minimum optical carrier output power are described. The best achieved results showed a rather stable spectrum in amplitude and wavelength at the output of the modulator with an optical carrier level 23 dB lower than the signal of interest. On the other hand, preliminary measurements were made to analyze the correlation stage, using 4f and 6f optical configurations to characterize both the antenna/fiber array configuration and the corresponding point spread function.

  4. The Impact of Laws on Metric Conversion. A Survey of Selected Large U.S. Corporations. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman & Hermanson Co., Washington, DC.

    This study was conducted to determine the extent to which a sample of 51 Fortune 1000 firms perceive that legal impediments to metric conversion exist. The seven major findings were: (1) laws and regulations are not meaningful impediments to metric conversion, but certain ones must be considered in the planning process; (2) the laws of concern are…

  5. The Impact of Laws on Metric Conversion. A Survey of Selected Large U.S. Corporations. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman & Hermanson Co., Washington, DC.

    This study was conducted to determine the extent to which a sample of 51 Fortune 1000 firms perceive that legal impediments to metric conversion exist. The seven major findings were: (1) laws and regulations are not meaningful impediments to metric conversion, but certain ones must be considered in the planning process; (2) the laws of concern are…

  6. Involvement of intracellular calcium stores during oxygen/glucose deprivation in striatal large aspiny interneurons.

    PubMed

    Pisani, A; Bonsi, P; Centonze, D; Giacomini, P; Calabresi, P

    2000-05-01

    Striatal large aspiny interneurons were recorded from a slice preparation using a combined electrophysiologic and microfluorometric approach. The role of intracellular Ca2+ stores was analyzed during combined oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD). Before addressing the role of the stores during energy deprivation, the authors investigated their function under physiologic conditions. Trains of depolarizing current pulses caused bursts of action potentials coupled to transient increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). In the presence of cyclopiazonic acid (30 micromol/L), a selective inhibitor of the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pumps, or when ryanodine receptors were directly blocked with ryanodine (20 [micromol/L), the [Ca2+]i transients were progressively smaller in amplitude, suggesting that [Ca2+]i released from intracellular stores helps to maintain a critical level of [Ca2+]i during physiologic firing activity. As the authors have recently reported, brief exposure to combined OGD induced a membrane hyperpolarization coupled to an increase in [Ca2+]i. In the presence of cyclopiazonic acid or ryanodine, the hyperpolarization and the rise in [Ca2+]i induced by OGD were consistently reduced. These data support the hypothesis that Ca2+ release from ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ pools is involved not only in the potentiation of the Ca2+ signals resulting from cell depolarization, but also in the amplification of the [Ca2+]i rise and of the concurrent membrane hyperpolarization observed in course of OGD in striatal large aspiny interneurons.

  7. Gene conversion involving the pilin structural gene correlates with pilus+ in equilibrium with pilus- changes in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Swanson, J; Bergström, S; Robbins, K; Barrera, O; Corwin, D; Koomey, J M

    1986-10-24

    Gonococci (Gc) exhibit pilus+----pilus- "phase transitions" at high frequency, but only some of the pilus- Gc can revert to pilus+ phenotype. We examined reversible phase transitions between pilus+ Gc and a particular pilus- variant (P-rp+ phenotype) whose pilin mRNA carries a unique block of nucleotides encoding an "assembly missense" pilin polypeptide. The results show that Gc pilus+ in equilibrium with P-rp+ transitions can result from intragenic recombination in which there is nonreciprocal exchange of partially homologous DNA sequences from a partial pilin gene (in silent, storage form) into the expression locus' complete pilin gene. Hence Gc pilus phase variation, like pilus antigenic variation, can occur by gene conversion of the pilin structural gene expression locus.

  8. The contribution of advisory committees and public involvement to large studies: case study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many large studies have complex advisory committee structures, yet there is no empirical evidence regarding their optimal composition, scope and contribution. The aim of this study was to inform the committee and advice infrastructure for future research studies. Methods In the context of a five-year study funded by the UK National Institute for Health Research, three advisory committees were formed. In addition, advice was obtained from individual experts. All recommendations received in the start-up phase (first seven months) of the study were recorded, along with the decision about implementation of the recommendation. A particular focus was on the impact of public involvement. Results A total of 172 recommendations were made, including 70 from 20 individual experts. The recommendations were grouped into five emergent themes: Scientific, Pragmatic, Resources, Committee and Collaboration. Most recommendations related to strengthening existing components or adding new components to the study protocol. Very few recommendations either proposed removing study components or contradicted other recommendations. Three 'implementation criteria' were identified: scientific value, pragmatic feasibility, and paradigmatic consistency. 103 (60%) of recommendations were implemented and 25 (15%) were not implemented. The benefits identified by the research team were improved quality and confidence, and the costs were increased cognitive demands, protocol revision time, and slower progress. Conclusions The findings are discussed in the context of the wider literature on public involvement in research. Six recommendations are identified. First, have a clear rationale for each advisory committee expressed as terms of reference, and consider the best balance between committees and individual consultation with experts. Second, an early concern of committees is inter-committee communication, so consider cross-representation and copying minutes between committees. Third

  9. Five years after the Metric Conversion Act, where do we stand? Survey of large US manufacturing and mining firms (the Fortune Magazine 1000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-12-01

    A mail survey of randomly chosen 202 of the 1000 largest manufacturing and mining firms, as listed by Fortune magazine, was conducted in late 1979 and early 1980. About 64 percent (112 firms) responded with useful data. This Executive Summary draws on the full report (U.S. Metric Board 1979 Survey of Selected Large U.S. Firms and Industries, Lisa King, King Research, Inc., May 1980; AD-A-091-618) and provides an overview of the study's findings. Some selected findings are: (1) about 30 percent of the large firms produce at least one hard metric product; (2) about 48 percent of foreign sales are of metric products; (3) little corporate coordination and planning seems to accompany conversion to the metric system; (4) about one-third of the firms see laws and regulations as impeding conversion; (5) over 50 percent see lack of customers demand as inhibiting conversion; (6) the most realistic time period for conversion is 10 years, the minimum time for conversion (under pressure) is three years, and the preferred time (at the firm's own pace) is eight years.

  10. Conversational Telugu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beinstein, Judith; And Others

    The purpose of this text is to develop elementary conversational skills in Telugu. The language materials consist of four types of language learning activities. The first, and most predominant, is the unit microwave cycle. These cycles divide the learning process into two basic phases, the first of which involves mimicry, memorization, and…

  11. The bluF gene of Rhodobacter capsulatus is involved in conversion of cobinamide to cobalamin (vitamin B12).

    PubMed Central

    Pollich, M; Wersig, C; Klug, G

    1996-01-01

    The bluF gene of Rhodobacter capsulatus is the first gene of the bluFEDCB operon which is involved in late steps of the cobalamin synthesis. To determine the function of the bluF gene product, a bluF::omega-Km mutant strain was constructed and characterized. This vitamin B12 auxotrophic mutant strain shows a 3.5-times higher vitamin B12 requirement under phototrophic growth conditions than under chemotrophic growth conditions. Surprisingly, the bluF promoter activity does not respond to alterations to the oxygen tension or vitamin B12 concentration. PMID:8955417

  12. Plasmid pCAR3 Contains Multiple Gene Sets Involved in the Conversion of Carbazole to Anthranilate†

    PubMed Central

    Urata, Masaaki; Uchimura, Hiromasa; Noguchi, Haruko; Sakaguchi, Tomoya; Takemura, Tetsuo; Eto, Kaori; Habe, Hiroshi; Omori, Toshio; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki

    2006-01-01

    The carbazole degradative car-I gene cluster (carAaIBaIBbICIAcI) of Sphingomonas sp. strain KA1 is located on the 254-kb circular plasmid pCAR3. Carbazole conversion to anthranilate is catalyzed by carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO; CarAaIAcI), meta-cleavage enzyme (CarBaIBbI), and hydrolase (CarCI). CARDO is a three-component dioxygenase, and CarAaI and CarAcI are its terminal oxygenase and ferredoxin components. The car-I gene cluster lacks the gene encoding the ferredoxin reductase component of CARDO. In the present study, based on the draft sequence of pCAR3, we found multiple carbazole degradation genes dispersed in four loci on pCAR3, including a second copy of the car gene cluster (carAaIIBaIIBbIICIIAcII) and the ferredoxin/reductase genes fdxI-fdrI and fdrII. Biotransformation experiments showed that FdrI (or FdrII) could drive the electron transfer chain from NAD(P)H to CarAaI (or CarAaII) with the aid of ferredoxin (CarAcI, CarAcII, or FdxI). Because this electron transfer chain showed phylogenetic relatedness to that consisting of putidaredoxin and putidaredoxin reductase of the P450cam monooxygenase system of Pseudomonas putida, CARDO systems of KA1 can be classified in the class IIA Rieske non-heme iron oxygenase system. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that two car gene clusters constituted operons, and their expression was induced when KA1 was exposed to carbazole, although the fdxI-fdrI and fdrII genes were expressed constitutively. Both terminal oxygenases of KA1 showed roughly the same substrate specificity as that from the well-characterized carbazole degrader Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10, although slight differences were observed. PMID:16672458

  13. Natural gas conversion process: Build a laboratory apparatus and operate it to provide data for a large-scale gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The main objective is to design and operate a laboratory apparatus for the catalytic reforming of natural gas in order to provide data for a large-scale process. This paper discusses a patent review process the authors undertook and several aspects of the project: closed-loop flow system; mass balance in the loop; adjustment of the cyclone reactor pressure; start-up procedure; and comparison of the laboratory loop with an industrial facility. The paper also gives several flow diagrams of the process being investigated and the industrial process with which it is being compared. 5 refs., 10 figs. (CK)

  14. Neural correlates of motor conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rebekah L; Anson, J Gregory

    2009-04-01

    Conversion Disorder affects voluntary motor and sensory function and involves unexplained neurological symptoms without an organic cause. Many researchers have attempted to explain how these symptoms arise but the neural correlates associated with Conversion Disorder remain largely unknown to clinicians and neuroscientists alike. This review focuses on investigations of Conversion Disorder (with motor symptoms) when deficits in voluntary movement occur. No single consistent hypothesis has emerged regarding the underlying cortical mechanisms associated with motor Conversion Disorder. However, findings from electrophysiology, neuroimaging, and behavioral research implicate the involvement of prefrontal networks. With further research using measurement techniques precise in spatial as well as temporal resolution, the conflict associated with two views of the neural correlates of motor Conversion Disorder may be resolved. This will provide a better understanding of the impairment associated with the preparation, generation, and execution of intentional movement in Conversion Disorder.

  15. Metagenomic analyses reveal the involvement of syntrophic consortia in methanol/electricity conversion in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Yamamuro, Ayaka; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Abe, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    Methanol is widely used in industrial processes, and as such, is discharged in large quantities in wastewater. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have the potential to recover electric energy from organic pollutants in wastewater; however, the use of MFCs to generate electricity from methanol has not been reported. In the present study, we developed single-chamber MFCs that generated electricity from methanol at the maximum power density of 220 mW m(-2) (based on the projected area of the anode). In order to reveal how microbes generate electricity from methanol, pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA-gene amplicons and Illumina shotgun sequencing of metagenome were conducted. The pyrosequencing detected in abundance Dysgonomonas, Sporomusa, and Desulfovibrio in the electrolyte and anode and cathode biofilms, while Geobacter was detected only in the anode biofilm. Based on known physiological properties of these bacteria, it is considered that Sporomusa converts methanol into acetate, which is then utilized by Geobacter to generate electricity. This speculation is supported by results of shotgun metagenomics of the anode-biofilm microbes, which reconstructed relevant catabolic pathways in these bacteria. These results suggest that methanol is anaerobically catabolized by syntrophic bacterial consortia with electrodes as electron acceptors.

  16. Metagenomic Analyses Reveal the Involvement of Syntrophic Consortia in Methanol/Electricity Conversion in Microbial Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamamuro, Ayaka; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Abe, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    Methanol is widely used in industrial processes, and as such, is discharged in large quantities in wastewater. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have the potential to recover electric energy from organic pollutants in wastewater; however, the use of MFCs to generate electricity from methanol has not been reported. In the present study, we developed single-chamber MFCs that generated electricity from methanol at the maximum power density of 220 mW m−2 (based on the projected area of the anode). In order to reveal how microbes generate electricity from methanol, pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA-gene amplicons and Illumina shotgun sequencing of metagenome were conducted. The pyrosequencing detected in abundance Dysgonomonas, Sporomusa, and Desulfovibrio in the electrolyte and anode and cathode biofilms, while Geobacter was detected only in the anode biofilm. Based on known physiological properties of these bacteria, it is considered that Sporomusa converts methanol into acetate, which is then utilized by Geobacter to generate electricity. This speculation is supported by results of shotgun metagenomics of the anode-biofilm microbes, which reconstructed relevant catabolic pathways in these bacteria. These results suggest that methanol is anaerobically catabolized by syntrophic bacterial consortia with electrodes as electron acceptors. PMID:24852573

  17. Iron Malabsorption in a Patient With Large Cell Lymphoma Involving the Duodenum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    to a gluten - free diet (2) after an initial jejunal iron deficiency and lymphomatous involvement of the mucosal biopsy consistent with celiac disease... free diet (8. 9). To our knowledge. malab- small intestine. Both upper gastrointestinal series with sorption of iron due to lymphomatous involvement of... free diet (8. 9) or The patient with iron deficiency from menses had a prednisone (21). Steatorrhea may be a manifestation of dramatic response to oral

  18. Ultra Wideband Polarization-Selective Conversions of Electromagnetic Waves by Metasurface under Large-Range Incident Angles

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jia Yuan; Wan, Xiang; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    We propose an ultra-wideband polarization-conversion metasurface with polarization selective and incident-angle insensitive characteristics using anchor-shaped units through multiple resonances. The broadband characteristic is optimized by the genetic optimization algorithm, from which the anchor-shaped unit cell generates five resonances, resulting in expansion of the operating frequency range. Owing to the structural feature of the proposed metasurface, only x- and y-polarized incident waves can reach high-efficiency polarization conversions, realizing the polarization-selective property. The proposed metasurface is also insensitive to the angle of incident waves, which indicates a promising future in modern communication systems. We fabricate and measure the proposed metasurface, and both the simulated and measured results show ultra-wide bandwidth for the x- and y-polarized incident waves. PMID:26202495

  19. Rapid Conversion from Carbohydrates to Large-Scale Carbon Quantum Dots for All-Weather Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qunwei; Zhu, Wanlu; He, Benlin; Yang, Peizhi

    2017-02-28

    A great challenge for state-of-the-art solar cells is to generate electricity in all weather. We present here the rapid conversion of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) from carbohydrates (including glucose, maltol, sucrose) for an all-weather solar cell, which comprises a CQD-sensitized mesoscopic titanium dioxide/long-persistence phosphor (m-TiO2/LPP) photoanode, a I(-)/I3(-) redox electrolyte, and a platinum counter electrode. In virtue of the light storing and luminescent behaviors of LPP phosphors, the generated all-weather solar cells can not only convert sunlight into electricity on sunny days but persistently realize electricity output in all dark-light conditions. The maximized photoelectric conversion efficiency is as high as 15.1% for so-called all-weather CQD solar cells in dark conditions.

  20. Ultra Wideband Polarization-Selective Conversions of Electromagnetic Waves by Metasurface under Large-Range Incident Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jia Yuan; Wan, Xiang; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-07-01

    We propose an ultra-wideband polarization-conversion metasurface with polarization selective and incident-angle insensitive characteristics using anchor-shaped units through multiple resonances. The broadband characteristic is optimized by the genetic optimization algorithm, from which the anchor-shaped unit cell generates five resonances, resulting in expansion of the operating frequency range. Owing to the structural feature of the proposed metasurface, only x- and y-polarized incident waves can reach high-efficiency polarization conversions, realizing the polarization-selective property. The proposed metasurface is also insensitive to the angle of incident waves, which indicates a promising future in modern communication systems. We fabricate and measure the proposed metasurface, and both the simulated and measured results show ultra-wide bandwidth for the x- and y-polarized incident waves.

  1. Life cycle assessment of conversion processes for the large-scale underground storage of electricity from renewables in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias Pérez, Alfonso; Vogt, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    This study estimates the total storage capacity for renewable energies in European salt caverns up to the year 2030 in order to deal with the fluctuation of renewable energies. The round-trip efficiencies and the CO2 equivalent direct emissions of the different storage process stages are taken into account. These are transmission, electricity to gas conversion, storage and re-electrification from gas to electricity, of three different energy carriers, namely compressed air, hydrogen and renewable methane.

  2. Using Quality Circles to Enhance Student Involvement and Course Quality in a Large Undergraduate Food Science and Human Nutrition Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, S. J.; Parmer, M. S.; Bohn, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    Large undergraduate classes are a challenge to manage, to engage, and to assess, yet such formidable classes can flourish when student participation is facilitated. One method of generating authentic student involvement is implementation of quality circles by means of a Student Feedback Committee (SFC), which is a volunteer problem-solving and…

  3. Using Quality Circles to Enhance Student Involvement and Course Quality in a Large Undergraduate Food Science and Human Nutrition Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, S. J.; Parmer, M. S.; Bohn, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    Large undergraduate classes are a challenge to manage, to engage, and to assess, yet such formidable classes can flourish when student participation is facilitated. One method of generating authentic student involvement is implementation of quality circles by means of a Student Feedback Committee (SFC), which is a volunteer problem-solving and…

  4. Extranodal involvement in young patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: distribution, prognostic value and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Shuna; Li, Junbo; Yao, Zhihua; Xu, Yuanlin; Chu, Junfeng; Zhang, Jiuyang; Jin, Shuiling; Huang, Yangyang; Zhang, Jianbo; Ma, Jie; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Shujun; Liu, Yanyan

    2017-01-01

    Objective Extranodal involvement represents a peculiar presentation of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Previous studies have suggested that older patients are more prone to extranodal involvement. This study retrospectively addressed the distribution, prognostic value and treatment options of extranodal involvement in young patients with DLBCL. Methods A total of 329 patients were enrolled according to the inclusion requirements. The effects of gender, extranodal involvement, age-adjusted international prognostic index (aaIPI), rituximab infusion and radiotherapy on patient outcomes were evaluated. Results Among these patients, 59% presented extranodal involvement in 16 anatomic sites. More than one instance was linked to many poorer clinical characteristics and poorer survival compared with either nodal disease or one instance. In patients with one extranodal lesion, multivariate analysis revealed that the site of extranodal involvement, but not the aaIPI or rituximab infusion, was independently related to the outcome, and radiotherapy had a negative influence on survival. Conclusions Extranodal involvement is common in younger patients and exhibits a ubiquitous distribution. The site of extranodal involvement is of strong prognostic significance. Radiotherapy for extranodal lesions does not improve patient outcomes. PMID:28373754

  5. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  6. Skin involvement as the first manifestation of breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Alcalá, Rebeca; Llombart, Beatriz; Lavernia, Javier; Traves, Víctor; Guillén, Carlos; Sanmartín, Onofre

    2016-07-01

    Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a newly described clinical and pathologic entity that typically presents as seroma in the fibrous scar around the implant. Less frequently, it presents as a solid peri-implant mass, and there have been no reports to date of cutaneous lesions as the presenting manifestation. We report the case of a 56-year-old woman with a history of bilateral breast reconstruction following breast cancer of the right breast who consulted with several papules on the right breast suggestive of metastasis. Histopathology showed a proliferation of large epithelioid lymphocytes with highly pleomorphic cells and nuclei. The neoplastic cells were CD15 and CD30 positive and ALK-1 negative. The epithelial markers were all negative except for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), which was weakly positive. Molecular analysis showed monoclonal T-cell receptor γ gene rearrangement, confirming a diagnosis of breast implant-associated ALCL. The non-specific morphology of the skin lesions, the epithelioid nature of the neoplastic cells and the expression of EMA can lead to an erroneous diagnosis of skin metastases from a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the breast. We recommend immunohistochemical staining for CD30 and ALK-1 for patients with breast implants who develop anaplastic lesions.

  7. A Reasoned Action Model of Male Client Involvement in Commercial Sex Work in Kibera, A Large Informal Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Roth, Eric Abella; Ngugi, Elizabeth; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael; Hallgrimsdottir, Helga

    2014-01-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are epidemiologically important because they can form bridge groups linking high- and low-risk subpopulations. However, because male clients are hard to locate, they are not frequently studied. Recent research emphasizes searching for high-risk behavior groups in locales where new sexual partnerships form and the threat of HIV transmission is high. Sub-Saharan Africa public drinking venues satisfy these criteria. Accordingly, this study developed and implemented a rapid assessment methodology to survey men in bars throughout the large informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya, with the goal of delineating cultural and economic rationales associated with male participation in commercial sex. The study sample consisted of 220 male patrons of 110 bars located throughout Kibera's 11 communities. Logistic regression analysis incorporating a modified Reasoned Action Model indicated that a social norm condoning commercial sex among male peers and the cultural belief that men should practice sex before marriage support commercial sex involvement. Conversely, lacking money to drink and/or pay for sexual services were barriers to male commercial sex involvement. Results are interpreted in light of possible harm reduction programs focusing on FSWs' male clients.

  8. Social Work Involvement in Advance Care Planning: Findings from a Large Survey of Social Workers in Hospice and Palliative Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Stein, Gary L; Cagle, John G; Christ, Grace H

    2017-03-01

    Few data are available describing the involvement and activities of social workers in advance care planning (ACP). We sought to provide data about (1) social worker involvement and leadership in ACP conversations with patients and families; and (2) the extent of functions and activities when these discussions occur. We conducted a large web-based survey of social workers employed in hospice, palliative care, and related settings to explore their role, participation, and self-rated competency in facilitating ACP discussions. Respondents were recruited through the Social Work Hospice and Palliative Care Network and the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization. Descriptive analyses were conducted on the full sample of respondents (N = 641) and a subsample of clinical social workers (N = 456). Responses were analyzed to explore differences in ACP involvement by practice setting. Most clinical social workers (96%) reported that social workers in their department are conducting ACP discussions with patients/families. Majorities also participate in, and lead, ACP discussions (69% and 60%, respectively). Most respondents report that social workers are responsible for educating patients/families about ACP options (80%) and are the team members responsible for documenting ACP (68%). Compared with other settings, oncology and inpatient palliative care social workers were less likely to be responsible for ensuring that patients/families are informed of ACP options and documenting ACP preferences. Social workers are prominently involved in facilitating, leading, and documenting ACP discussions. Policy-makers, administrators, and providers should incorporate the vital contributions of social work professionals in policies and programs supporting ACP.

  9. Multivariate statistical analysis software technologies for astrophysical research involving large data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djorgovski, George

    1993-01-01

    The existing and forthcoming data bases from NASA missions contain an abundance of information whose complexity cannot be efficiently tapped with simple statistical techniques. Powerful multivariate statistical methods already exist which can be used to harness much of the richness of these data. Automatic classification techniques have been developed to solve the problem of identifying known types of objects in multiparameter data sets, in addition to leading to the discovery of new physical phenomena and classes of objects. We propose an exploratory study and integration of promising techniques in the development of a general and modular classification/analysis system for very large data bases, which would enhance and optimize data management and the use of human research resource.

  10. Definition Study for Space Shuttle Experiments Involving Large, Steerable Millimeter-Wave Antenna Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levis, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    The potential uses and techniques for the shuttle spacelab Millimeter Wave Large Aperture Antenna Experiment (MWLAE) are documented. Potential uses are identified: applications to radio astronomy, the sensing of atmospheric turbulence by its effect on water vapor line emissions, and the monitoring of oil spills by multifrequency radiometry. IF combining is preferable to RF combining with respect to signal to noise ratio for communications receiving antennas of the size proposed for MWLAE. A design approach using arrays of subapertures is proposed to reduce the number of phase shifters and mixers for uses which require a filled aperture. Correlation radiometry and a scheme utilizing synchronous Dicke switches and IF combining are proposed as potential solutions.

  11. Multivariate statistical analysis software technologies for astrophysical research involving large data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djorgovski, Stanislav

    1992-01-01

    The existing and forthcoming data bases from NASA missions contain an abundance of information whose complexity cannot be efficiently tapped with simple statistical techniques. Powerful multivariate statistical methods already exist which can be used to harness much of the richness of these data. Automatic classification techniques have been developed to solve the problem of identifying known types of objects in multi parameter data sets, in addition to leading to the discovery of new physical phenomena and classes of objects. We propose an exploratory study and integration of promising techniques in the development of a general and modular classification/analysis system for very large data bases, which would enhance and optimize data management and the use of human research resources.

  12. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: A Model for Involving Undergraduates in Large Astronomy Collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, David W.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) has allowed faculty and students from a wide range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to learn how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a legacy radio astronomy survey. This effort has been made possible through the collaboration of the ALFALFA PIs and graduate students, Arecibo Observatory staff, and the faculty at 19 undergraduate-focussed institutions. In this talk, we will discuss how the UAT model works for the ALFALFA project and lessons learned from our efforts over the 8 years of grant funding. We will provide suggestions on how the model could be applied to other legacy projects, particularly in such areas as online collaboration and software usage by undergraduates. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  13. Multivariate statistical analysis software technologies for astrophysical research involving large data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djorgovski, George

    1993-01-01

    The existing and forthcoming data bases from NASA missions contain an abundance of information whose complexity cannot be efficiently tapped with simple statistical techniques. Powerful multivariate statistical methods already exist which can be used to harness much of the richness of these data. Automatic classification techniques have been developed to solve the problem of identifying known types of objects in multiparameter data sets, in addition to leading to the discovery of new physical phenomena and classes of objects. We propose an exploratory study and integration of promising techniques in the development of a general and modular classification/analysis system for very large data bases, which would enhance and optimize data management and the use of human research resource.

  14. Multiscale method for modeling binding phenomena involving large objects: application to kinesin motor domains motion along microtubules.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Alper, Joshua; Alexov, Emil

    2016-03-18

    Many biological phenomena involve the binding of proteins to a large object. Because the electrostatic forces that guide binding act over large distances, truncating the size of the system to facilitate computational modeling frequently yields inaccurate results. Our multiscale approach implements a computational focusing method that permits computation of large systems without truncating the electrostatic potential and achieves the high resolution required for modeling macromolecular interactions, all while keeping the computational time reasonable. We tested our approach on the motility of various kinesin motor domains. We found that electrostatics help guide kinesins as they walk: N-kinesins towards the plus-end, and C-kinesins towards the minus-end of microtubules. Our methodology enables computation in similar, large systems including protein binding to DNA, viruses, and membranes.

  15. Multiscale method for modeling binding phenomena involving large objects: application to kinesin motor domains motion along microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Alper, Joshua; Alexov, Emil

    2016-03-01

    Many biological phenomena involve the binding of proteins to a large object. Because the electrostatic forces that guide binding act over large distances, truncating the size of the system to facilitate computational modeling frequently yields inaccurate results. Our multiscale approach implements a computational focusing method that permits computation of large systems without truncating the electrostatic potential and achieves the high resolution required for modeling macromolecular interactions, all while keeping the computational time reasonable. We tested our approach on the motility of various kinesin motor domains. We found that electrostatics help guide kinesins as they walk: N-kinesins towards the plus-end, and C-kinesins towards the minus-end of microtubules. Our methodology enables computation in similar, large systems including protein binding to DNA, viruses, and membranes.

  16. Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Campos, Alline Cristina; Moreira, Fabricio Araújo; Gomes, Felipe Villela; Del Bel, Elaine Aparecida; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira

    2012-12-05

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major phytocannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant. It lacks the psychotomimetic and other psychotropic effects that the main plant compound Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) being able, on the contrary, to antagonize these effects. This property, together with its safety profile, was an initial stimulus for the investigation of CBD pharmacological properties. It is now clear that CBD has therapeutic potential over a wide range of non-psychiatric and psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and psychosis. Although the pharmacological effects of CBD in different biological systems have been extensively investigated by in vitro studies, the mechanisms responsible for its therapeutic potential are still not clear. Here, we review recent in vivo studies indicating that these mechanisms are not unitary but rather depend on the behavioural response being measured. Acute anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects seem to rely mainly on facilitation of 5-HT1A-mediated neurotransmission in key brain areas related to defensive responses, including the dorsal periaqueductal grey, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial prefrontal cortex. Other effects, such as anti-compulsive, increased extinction and impaired reconsolidation of aversive memories, and facilitation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis could depend on potentiation of anandamide-mediated neurotransmission. Finally, activation of TRPV1 channels may help us to explain the antipsychotic effect and the bell-shaped dose-response curves commonly observed with CBD. Considering its safety profile and wide range of therapeutic potential, however, further studies are needed to investigate the involvement of other possible mechanisms (e.g. inhibition of adenosine uptake, inverse agonism at CB2 receptor, CB1 receptor antagonism, GPR55 antagonism, PPARγ receptors agonism, intracellular (Ca(2+)) increase, etc.), on CBD behavioural effects.

  17. Project of a Large Superconductor Detector Involving Directed Diffusion of Hot Electrons and Microcalorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Shpinel, V.S.

    2005-12-01

    In recent years, radically new detectors for soft x rays and gamma rays were developed on the basis of superconducting tunnel junctions. These detectors made it possible to attain a very high resolution, but their largest area is overly small for employing them in nuclear spectroscopy. This study is devoted to the problem of designing a superconductor detector whose dimensions are sufficiently large for detecting gamma rays and which is suitable for applications in various fields of science. The detector consists of three units: an absorber, a hot-electron calorimeter, and a tunnel-junction (normal metal-insulator-superconductor) thermometer. The absorber has a multilayer structure consisting of thin superconductor layers arranged in the order of variation of the superconductor energy gap. This structure specifies the direction of hot-electron diffusion. Since quasiparticles diffuse in a specific direction, the diffusion time becomes shorter than that in the case of conventional diffusion. It is necessary that this time be shorter than the time of electron-phonon interaction. Calculations of the diffusion time for the particular structure in question and data from the literature on electron-phonon interaction show that the operating area of the detector can be about 3 to 4 mm{sup 2} and that its thickness can be about 1 mm. These dimensions can be considerably increased in the case of especially pure superconductors.

  18. A Deployable In Vivo EPR Tooth Dosimeter for Triage After a Radiation Event Involving Large Populations

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Benjamin B.; Dong, Ruhong; Flood, Ann Barry; Grinberg, Oleg; Kmiec, Maciej; Lesniewski, Piotr N.; Matthews, Thomas P.; Nicolalde, Roberto J.; Raynolds, Tim; Salikhov, Ildar K.; Swartz, Harold M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to meet the potential need for emergency large-scale retrospective radiation biodosimetry following an accident or attack, we have developed instrumentation and methodology for in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify concentrations of radiation-induced radicals within intact teeth. This technique has several very desirable characteristics for triage, including independence from confounding biologic factors, a non-invasive measurement procedure, the capability to make measurements at any time after the event, suitability for use by non-expert operators at the site of an event, and the ability to provide immediate estimates of individual doses. Throughout development there has been a particular focus on the need for a deployable system, including instrumental requirements for transport and field use, the need for high throughput, and use by minimally trained operators. Numerous measurements have been performed using this system in clinical and other non-laboratory settings, including in vivo measurements with unexposed populations as well as patients undergoing radiation therapies. The collection and analyses of sets of three serially-acquired spectra with independent placements of the resonator, in a data collection process lasting approximately five minutes, provides dose estimates with standard errors of prediction of approximately 1 Gy. As an example, measurements were performed on incisor teeth of subjects who had either received no irradiation or 2 Gy total body irradiation for prior bone marrow transplantation; this exercise provided a direct and challenging test of our capability to identify subjects who would be in need of acute medical care. PMID:21966241

  19. Copy number variations and genome-wide associations reveal putative genes and metabolic pathways involved with the feed conversion ratio in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Santana, Miguel Henrique; Junior, Gerson Antônio Oliveira; Cesar, Aline Silva Mello; Freua, Mateus Castelani; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Luz E Silva, Saulo; Leme, Paulo Roberto; Fukumasu, Heidge; Carvalho, Minos Esperândio; Ventura, Ricardo Vieira; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann; Kadarmideen, Haja N; Ferraz, José Bento Sterman

    2016-11-01

    The use of genome-wide association results combined with other genomic approaches may uncover genes and metabolic pathways related to complex traits. In this study, the phenotypic and genotypic data of 1475 Nellore (Bos indicus) cattle and 941,033 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used for genome-wide association study (GWAS) and copy number variations (CNVs) analysis in order to identify candidate genes and putative pathways involved with the feed conversion ratio (FCR). The GWAS was based on the Bayes B approach analyzing genomic windows with multiple regression models to estimate the proportion of genetic variance explained by each window. The CNVs were detected with PennCNV software using the log R ratio and B allele frequency data. CNV regions (CNVRs) were identified with CNVRuler and a linear regression was used to associate CNVRs and the FCR. Functional annotation of associated genomic regions was performed with the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and the metabolic pathways were obtained from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). We showed five genomic windows distributed over chromosomes 4, 6, 7, 8, and 24 that explain 12 % of the total genetic variance for FCR, and detected 12 CNVRs (chromosomes 1, 5, 7, 10, and 12) significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05] with the FCR. Significant genomic regions (GWAS and CNV) harbor candidate genes involved in pathways related to energetic, lipid, and protein metabolism. The metabolic pathways found in this study are related to processes directly connected to feed efficiency in beef cattle. It was observed that, even though different genomic regions and genes were found between the two approaches (GWAS and CNV), the metabolic processes covered were related to each other. Therefore, a combination of the approaches complement each other and lead to a better understanding of the FCR.

  20. Multivariate Statistical Analysis Software Technologies for Astrophysical Research Involving Large Data Bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djorgovski, S. G.

    1994-01-01

    We developed a package to process and analyze the data from the digital version of the Second Palomar Sky Survey. This system, called SKICAT, incorporates the latest in machine learning and expert systems software technology, in order to classify the detected objects objectively and uniformly, and facilitate handling of the enormous data sets from digital sky surveys and other sources. The system provides a powerful, integrated environment for the manipulation and scientific investigation of catalogs from virtually any source. It serves three principal functions: image catalog construction, catalog management, and catalog analysis. Through use of the GID3* Decision Tree artificial induction software, SKICAT automates the process of classifying objects within CCD and digitized plate images. To exploit these catalogs, the system also provides tools to merge them into a large, complex database which may be easily queried and modified when new data or better methods of calibrating or classifying become available. The most innovative feature of SKICAT is the facility it provides to experiment with and apply the latest in machine learning technology to the tasks of catalog construction and analysis. SKICAT provides a unique environment for implementing these tools for any number of future scientific purposes. Initial scientific verification and performance tests have been made using galaxy counts and measurements of galaxy clustering from small subsets of the survey data, and a search for very high redshift quasars. All of the tests were successful and produced new and interesting scientific results. Attachments to this report give detailed accounts of the technical aspects of the SKICAT system, and of some of the scientific results achieved to date. We also developed a user-friendly package for multivariate statistical analysis of small and moderate-size data sets, called STATPROG. The package was tested extensively on a number of real scientific applications and has

  1. Multivariate statistical analysis software technologies for astrophysical research involving large data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djorgovski, S. George

    1994-01-01

    We developed a package to process and analyze the data from the digital version of the Second Palomar Sky Survey. This system, called SKICAT, incorporates the latest in machine learning and expert systems software technology, in order to classify the detected objects objectively and uniformly, and facilitate handling of the enormous data sets from digital sky surveys and other sources. The system provides a powerful, integrated environment for the manipulation and scientific investigation of catalogs from virtually any source. It serves three principal functions: image catalog construction, catalog management, and catalog analysis. Through use of the GID3* Decision Tree artificial induction software, SKICAT automates the process of classifying objects within CCD and digitized plate images. To exploit these catalogs, the system also provides tools to merge them into a large, complete database which may be easily queried and modified when new data or better methods of calibrating or classifying become available. The most innovative feature of SKICAT is the facility it provides to experiment with and apply the latest in machine learning technology to the tasks of catalog construction and analysis. SKICAT provides a unique environment for implementing these tools for any number of future scientific purposes. Initial scientific verification and performance tests have been made using galaxy counts and measurements of galaxy clustering from small subsets of the survey data, and a search for very high redshift quasars. All of the tests were successful, and produced new and interesting scientific results. Attachments to this report give detailed accounts of the technical aspects for multivariate statistical analysis of small and moderate-size data sets, called STATPROG. The package was tested extensively on a number of real scientific applications, and has produced real, published results.

  2. Mild clinical involvement in two males with a large FMR1 premutation

    SciTech Connect

    Hagerman, R.; O`Connor, R.; Staley, L.

    1994-09-01

    Both male and female individuals who carry the FMR1 premutation are considered to be clinically unaffected and have been reported to have normal transcription of their FMR1 gene and normal FMR1 protein (FMRP) production. We have evaluated two males who are mildly affected clinically with features of fragile X syndrome and demonstrate a large premutation on DNA studies. The first patient is a 2 year 8 month old boy who demonstrated the fragile X chromosome in 3% of his lymphocytes on cytogenetic testing. His physical features include mildly prominent ears and hyperextensible finger joints. He has language delays along with behavioral problems including tantrums and attention deficit. Developmental testing revealed a mental scale of 116 on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, which is in the normal range. DNA testing demonstrated a premutation with 161 CGG repeats. This premutation was methylated in a small percent of his cells (<2%). These findings were observed in both blood leukocytes and buccal cells. Protein studies of transformed lymphocytes from this boy showed approximately 50 to 70% of the normal level of FMRP. The second patient is a 14 year old male who was cytogenetically negative for fragile X expression. His physical exam demonstrates a long face, a high palate and macroorchidism, (testicular volume of approximately 35 ml). His overall full scale IQ on the WISC-III is 73. He has language deficits and visual spatial perceptual deficits which have caused significant learning problems in school. Behaviorally he has problems with shyness and social anxiety, although he does not have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. DNA testing revealed an FMR1 mutation of approximately 210 CGG repeats that is methylated in 4.7% of his cells.

  3. Conversational sensemaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".

  4. A novel NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-12632 involved in the detoxification of aldehyde inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass conversion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Lewis; Moon, Jaewoong

    2009-10-01

    Aldehyde inhibitors such as furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, anisaldehyde, benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, and phenylaldehyde are commonly generated during lignocellulosic biomass conversion process for low-cost cellulosic ethanol production that interferes with subsequent microbial growth and fermentation. In situ detoxification of the aldehyde inhibitors is possible by the tolerant ethanologenic yeast that involves multiple genes including numerous functional reductases. In this study, we report a novel aldehyde reductase gene clone Y63 from ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y12632, representing the uncharacterized ORF YGL157W, which demonstrated NADPH-dependent reduction activities toward at least 14 aldehyde substrates. The identity of gene clone Y63 is the same with YGL157W of SGD since a variation of only 35 nucleotides in genomic sequence and three amino acid residues were observed between the two that share the same length of 347 residues in size. As one among the highly induced genes, YGL157W of Y-12632 showed significantly high levels of transcript abundance in response to furfural and HMF challenges. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence and the most conserved functional motif analyses including closely related reductases from five other yeast species to this date, YGL157W was identified as a member of the subclass 'intermediate' of the SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase) superfamily with the following typical characteristics: the most conserved catalytic site to lie at Tyr(169)-X-X-X-Lys(173); an indispensable reduction catalytic triad at Ser(131), Tyr(169), and Lys(173), and an approved cofactor-binding motif at Gly(11)-X-X-Gly(14)-X-X-Ala(17) near the N-terminus. YGL039W, YDR541C, and YOL151W (GRE2) appeared to be the similar type of enzymes falling into the same category of the intermediate subfamily.

  5. Clostridium saccharogumia sp. nov. and Lactonifactor longoviformis gen. nov., sp. nov., two novel human faecal bacteria involved in the conversion of the dietary phytoestrogen secoisolariciresinol diglucoside.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Thomas; Lippman, Ramona; Gavini, Françoise; Doré, Joël; Blaut, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Two anaerobic bacteria involved in the conversion of the plant lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside were isolated from faeces of a healthy male adult. The first isolate, strain SDG-Mt85-3Db, was a mesophilic strictly anaerobic Gram-positive helically coiled rod. Based on 16S r RNA gene sequence analysis, its nearest relatives were Clostridium cocleatum (96.7% similarity) and Clostridium ramosum (96.6%). In contrast to these species, the isolate was devoid of alpha-galactosidase and -glucosidase and did not grow on maltose, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose and trehalose. The hypothesis that strain SDG-Mt85-3Db represents a new bacterial species of the Clostridium cluster XVIII was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridisation experiments. The G+C content of DNA of strain SDG-Mt85-3Db (30.7+/-0.8 mol%) was comparable with that of Clostridium butyricum, the type species of the genus Clostridium. The name Clostridium saccharogumia is proposed for strain SDG-Mt85-3Db (=DSM 17460T=CCUG 51486T). The second isolate, strain ED-Mt61/PYG-s6, was a mesophilic strictly anaerobic Gram-positive regular rod. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, its nearest relatives were Clostridium amygdalinum (93.3%), Clostridium saccharolyticum (93.1%) and Ruminococcus productus (93.0%). The isolate differed from these species in its ability to dehydrogenate enterodiol. It also possessed alpha-arabinosidase and -galactosidase and had a higher G+C content of DNA (48.0 mol%). According to these findings, it is proposed to create a novel genus, Lactonifactor, and a novel species, Lactonifactor longoviformis, to accommodate strain ED-Mt61/PYG-s6. The type strain is DSM 17459T (=CCUG 51487T).

  6. [18F]Fluorothymidine PET imaging in the diagnosis of leptomeningeal involvement with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Thorp, Kristin; Leann Smith, M.; Kedzierska, Katarzyna; Fung, Kar-Ming A.; Chacko, George; Swisher, Karen; Epstein, Robert; Gumerlock, Mary K.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The diagnosis of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis remains difficult despite improvement in central nervous system (CNS) imaging and cytologic examination of the cerebral spinal fluid. False-negative results are common, providing obstacles in assessing both prophylactic and therapeutic efforts. As a result of increased survival of patients with a variety of systemic neoplasms it is likely that central nervous involvement will need to be addressed more often. This article presents a patient with a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with polymorphic features. Imaging using 18F-labeled fluorodeoxythymidine (FLT) proved useful in demonstrating both parenchymal and leptomeningeal CNS involvement. The potential for FLT to identify proliferative tissue may make it uniquely suitable for detection of CNS malignant disease. PMID:22004872

  7. A Novel NADPH-Dependent Aldehyde Reductase Gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-12632 Involved in the Detoxification of Aldehyde Inhibitors Derived from Lignocellulosic Biomass Conversion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aldehyde inhibitors such as furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), anisaldehyde, benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, and phenylaldehyde are commonly generated during lignocellulosic biomass conversion process for low-cost cellulosic ethanol production that interferes with subsequent microbial growth and...

  8. Increased x-ray conversion efficiency from ultra high contrast, relativistic laser pulse irradiation of large aspect ratio, vertically aligned nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollinger, R. C.; Bargsten, C.; Shlyaptsev, V. N.; Kaymak, V.; Pukhov, A.; Capeluto, M. G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, S.; Rockwood, A.; Curtis, A.; Rocca, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    Recent experiments at Colorado State University have shown that the effective trapping of clean, Joule-level fs laser pulses of relativistic intensity in arrays of high aspect ratio aligned nanowire creates multi-kev, near solid density, large scale (>4um deep) plasmas. The drastically decreased radiative life time and increased hydrodynamic cooling time from these plasmas increases the x-ray conversion efficiency. We measured a record conversion efficiency of 10% into hv>1KeV photons (2pi steradians), and of 0.3% for hv>6KeV. The experiments used Au and Ni nanowires of 55nm, 80nm and 100nm in diameter with 12% of solid density irradiated by high contrast (>1012) pulses of 60fs FWHM duration from a frequency doubled Ti:Sa laser at intensities of I =5x1019Wcm-2. We also present preliminary results on x-ray emission from Rhodium nanowires in the 19-22KeV range and demonstrate the potential of this picosecond X-ray source in flash radiography. This work was supported by the Fusion Energy Program, Office of Science of the U.S Department of Energy, and by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency Grant HDTRA-1-10-1-0079.

  9. Establishing a Biosphere Beyond the Earth: Concepts and Challenges Involved in Developing a Large-Scale Habitat on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankins, John C.

    2002-01-01

    The potential for future permanent human colonies beyond the Earth is one of fundamental justifications for space exploration and development. During the past several decades, there have been various studies addressing the topic large, Earth biosphere-equivalent habitats in space. The best known of these have been based on two--sometimes competing--concepts. The first is the idea of deploying large artificial habitats at one of the stable Earth-Moon Libration Points (typically "L-5"). These habitats would be established to support economically-driven activities such as the erection of numerous solar power satellites (SPS) in geostationary Earth orbit (GEO). The second approach involves terraforming the planet Mars in the very far term. The latter is conceptualized as a "mega-project" for the human species, with broad species- preservation related import, but essentially no economic benefit in the foreseeable future. Studies involving habitats on the Moon have tended toward discussions and concepts limited to a lunar "base" or "outpost". These have typically involved relatively small habitable volumes imported to--or constructed on and/or under--the lunar surface. Nevertheless, the Moon also represents an important candidate for possible future colonization (as illustrated in numerous treatments of the subject in the popular media). As such, the concept of a large, lunar-based colony presents both unique difficulties and opportunities in comparison to other options. This paper will take a fresh look at the concept of establishing a human colony on the Moon in light of current projections of technologies that should be available in the next 50 years. Following a summary of selected past space colony studies, the paper will address three major topics: the potential economic foundations for a large lunar colony, the principle engineering challenges associated with such an undertaking, and the capabilities required for success. The paper will sketch one concept and

  10. C7orf30 specifically associates with the large subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome and is involved in translation.

    PubMed

    Wanschers, Bas F J; Szklarczyk, Radek; Pajak, Aleksandra; van den Brand, Mariël A M; Gloerich, Jolein; Rodenburg, Richard J T; Lightowlers, Robert N; Nijtmans, Leo G; Huynen, Martijn A

    2012-05-01

    In a comparative genomics study for mitochondrial ribosome-associated proteins, we identified C7orf30, the human homolog of the plant protein iojap. Gene order conservation among bacteria and the observation that iojap orthologs cannot be transferred between bacterial species predict this protein to be associated with the mitochondrial ribosome. Here, we show colocalization of C7orf30 with the large subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome using isokinetic sucrose gradient and 2D Blue Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) analysis. We co-purified C7orf30 with proteins of the large subunit, and not with proteins of the small subunit, supporting interaction that is specific to the large mitoribosomal complex. Consistent with this physical association, a mitochondrial translation assay reveals negative effects of C7orf30 siRNA knock-down on mitochondrial gene expression. Based on our data we propose that C7orf30 is involved in ribosomal large subunit function. Sequencing the gene in 35 patients with impaired mitochondrial translation did not reveal disease-causing mutations in C7orf30.

  11. MRM2 and MRM3 are involved in biogenesis of the large subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Rorbach, Joanna; Boesch, Pierre; Gammage, Payam A.; Nicholls, Thomas J. J.; Pearce, Sarah F.; Patel, Dipali; Hauser, Andreas; Perocchi, Fabiana; Minczuk, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Defects of the translation apparatus in human mitochondria are known to cause disease, yet details of how protein synthesis is regulated in this organelle remain to be unveiled. Ribosome production in all organisms studied thus far entails a complex, multistep pathway involving a number of auxiliary factors. This includes several RNA processing and modification steps required for correct rRNA maturation. Little is known about the maturation of human mitochondrial 16S rRNA and its role in biogenesis of the mitoribosome. Here we investigate two methyltransferases, MRM2 (also known as RRMJ2, encoded by FTSJ2) and MRM3 (also known as RMTL1, encoded by RNMTL1), that are responsible for modification of nucleotides of the 16S rRNA A-loop, an essential component of the peptidyl transferase center. Our studies show that inactivation of MRM2 or MRM3 in human cells by RNA interference results in respiratory incompetence as a consequence of diminished mitochondrial translation. Ineffective translation in MRM2- and MRM3-depleted cells results from aberrant assembly of the large subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome (mt-LSU). Our findings show that MRM2 and MRM3 are human mitochondrial methyltransferases involved in the modification of 16S rRNA and are important factors for the biogenesis and function of the large subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome. PMID:25009282

  12. A little more conversation please? Qualitative study of researchers' and patients' interview accounts of training for patient and public involvement in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Louise; Gamble, Carrol; Allam, Alison; Bell, Philip; Buck, Deborah; Goodare, Heather; Hanley, Bec; Preston, Jennifer; Walker, Alison; Williamson, Paula; Young, Bridget

    2015-04-27

    Training in patient and public involvement (PPI) is recommended, yet little is known about what training is needed. We explored researchers' and PPI contributors' accounts of PPI activity and training to inform the design of PPI training for both parties. We used semi-structured qualitative interviews with researchers (chief investigators and trial managers) and PPI contributors, accessed through a cohort of clinical trials, which had been funded between 2006 and 2010. An analysis of transcripts of audio-recorded interviews drew on the constant comparative method. We interviewed 31 researchers and 17 PPI contributors from 28 trials. Most researchers could see some value in PPI training for researchers, although just under half had received such training themselves, and some had concerns about the purpose and evidence base for PPI training. PPI contributors were evenly split in their perceptions of whether researchers needed training in PPI. Few PPI contributors had themselves received training for their roles. Many informants across all groups felt that training PPI contributors was unnecessary because they already possessed the skills needed. Informants were also concerned that training would professionalise PPI contributors, limiting their ability to provide an authentic patient perspective. However, informants welcomed informal induction 'conversations' to help contributors understand their roles and support them in voicing their opinions. Informants believed that PPI contributors should be confident, motivated, intelligent, focussed on helping others and have relevant experience. Researchers looked for these qualities when selecting contributors, and spoke of how finding 'the right' contributor was more important than accessing 'the right' training. While informants were broadly receptive to PPI training for researchers, they expressed considerable reluctance to training PPI contributors. Providers of training will need to address these reservations. Our

  13. Conversational Dominance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esau, Helmut; Poth, Annette

    Details of conversational behavior can often not be interpreted until the social interaction, including the rights and obligations of the participants, their intent, the topic, etc., has been defined. This paper presents a model of conversation in which the conversational image a person presents in a given conversational situation is a function of…

  14. Recording Conversations in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluckman, Ivan B.; Koerner, Thomas J., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    In general, because of varying federal and state legislation and a paucity of court decisions, the law governing the recording of conversations is in considerable flux. School personnel desiring to record conversations in school without the consent or knowledge of all parties involved must proceed with considerable caution. (Author)

  15. Refined finite element modelling for the vibration analysis of large rotating machines: Application to the gas turbine modular helium reactor power conversion unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combescure, D.; Lazarus, A.

    2008-12-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting refined finite element modelling used for dynamic analysis of large rotating machines. The first part shows an equivalence between several levels of modelling: firstly, models made of beam elements and rigid disc with gyroscopic coupling representing the position of the rotating shaft in an inertial frame; secondly full three-dimensional (3D) or 3D shell models of the rotor and the blades represented in the rotating frame and finally two-dimensional (2D) Fourier model for both rotor and stator. Simple cases are studied to better understand the results given by analysis performed using a rotating frame and the equivalence with the standard calculations with beam elements. Complete analysis of rotating machines can be performed with models in the frames best adapted for each part of the structure. The effects of several defects are analysed and compared with this approach. In the last part of the paper, the modelling approach is applied to the analysis of the large rotating shaft part of the power conversion unit of the GT-MHR nuclear reactor.

  16. Involving parents from the start: Formative evaluation for a large RCT with Botswana Junior Secondary School students

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kim S.; Chirwa-Motswere, Catherine; Winskell, Kate; Stallcup, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    While HIV prevention research conducted among adolescent populations may encounter parental resistance, the active engagement of parents from inception to trial completion may alleviate opposition. In preparation for implementing a large randomized controlled trial (RCT) examining the efficacy of a behavioural intervention targeting adolescent sexual risk behaviours, a formative evaluation was undertaken to assess parental reactions to the proposed trial. Six focus groups were conducted with parents of adolescents (aged 13–17) from rural, peri-urban, and urban Botswana junior secondary schools. Focus groups explored comprehension and acceptability among parents of the forthcoming trial including HSV-2 testing, the return of results to the adolescent (not the parent), trial information materials and the parental consent process. Parents welcomed the study and understood and accepted its moral and ethical considerations. Their reactions regarding return of HSV-2 results only to adolescents (not the parent) were mixed. Parents understood the consent process and most agreed to consent, while indicating their desire to remain informed and involved throughout the RCT. The FGDs provided valuable information and insights that helped strengthen the study. As a result of parents’ feedback, counselling procedures were strengthened and direct linkages to local services and care were made. Informational materials were revised to increase clarity, and materials and procedures were developed to encourage and support parental involvement and parent-child dialogue. Ultimately, parental feedback led to a decision by the Government of Botswana to allow parents to access their child’s HSV-2 test results. PMID:27002354

  17. Acute strength exercise and the involvement of small or large muscle mass on plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels.

    PubMed

    Correia, Paulo Roberto; Pansani, Aline; Machado, Felipe; Andrade, Marilia; Silva, Antonio Carlos da; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2010-01-01

    Blood neurotrophins, such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor, are considered to be of great importance in mediating the benefits of physical exercise. In this study, the effect of acute strength exercise and the involvement of small versus large muscle mass on the levels of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor were evaluated in healthy individuals. The concentric strengths of knee (large) and elbow (small) flexor and extensor muscles were measured on two separate days. Venous blood samples were obtained from 16 healthy subjects before and after exercise. The levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the plasma did not significantly increase after both arm and leg exercise. There was no significant difference in the plasma levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the arms and legs. The present results demonstrate that acute strength exercise does not induce significant alterations in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor plasma concentrations in healthy individuals. Considering that its levels may be affected by various factors, such as exercise, these findings suggest that the type of exercise program may be a decisive factor in altering peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

  18. The Art of Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin-Tripp, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Criticizes Dorval and Eckerman (included in this issue) for their findings' lack of generality due to the artificial nature of the conversational groups studied. Also both age changes in the ability to plan large conversational units and the functions of particular kinds of turns within these larger units are left unexplored. (CB)

  19. Involved-Lesion Radiation Therapy After Chemotherapy in Limited-Stage Head-and-Neck Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Jeong Il; Nam, Heerim; Ahn, Yong Chan; Kim, Won Seog; Park, Keunchil; Kim, Seok Jin

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: To report treatment outcomes after combined-modality therapy in patients with Stage I/II head-and-neck (HN) diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBL). Methods and Materials: Eighty-six eligible patients received sequential chemotherapy and involved-lesion radiation therapy from 1995 to 2006. After a median of four cycles of CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) or rituximab-plus-CHOP chemotherapy, a median of 41.4 Gy was delivered to the known initial gross lesion with adequate margin (2 to 3 cm). Results: After a median follow-up of 57 months, eight treatment failures were observed: distant metastasis in 8 patients; and locoregional failure in 4 patients. Among the 4 patients with locoregional failure, 3 presented with in-field failures, and 1 both in-field and out-of-field failure (contralateral neck). Rates of overall survival (OS) and freedom from progression (FFP) at 10 years were 74.1% and 88.9%, respectively. There was no severe side effect except 1 patient with Grade 3 mucositis during and after completion of radiation therapy. Multivariate analyses showed that absence of B symptom (p = 0.022) and normal lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.017) were related to favorable OS, age >60 years (p = 0.033) was related to favorable FFP, and international prognostic index of 0 or 1 was related to favorable OS (p = 0.003) and FFP (p = 0.03). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that patients with Stage I/II HN DLBL did not need whole-neck irradiation. Involved-lesion radiation therapy might reduce radiation toxicity with favorable treatment results.

  20. Wave-Dominated Coastlines Responding to Climate Change: Large-Scale Morphodynamics, Human Involvement, and Possible Path Dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, A. B.; Ashton, A. D.; Barkwith, A.; Ellis, M. A.; Ells, K. D.; Hurst, M. D.; McNamara, D.; Thomas, C.; Wood, J.

    2016-02-01

    The flux toward shore of alongshore momentum, which drives alongshore sediment flux, varies with local coastline orientation, and with local degree of exposure to waves. Coastline shape therefore influences the alongshore patterns of alongshore sediment flux. Gradients in this flux, in turn, alter coastline shape—a morphodynamic feedback. Modeling studies show that such feedbacks lead ultimately to dynamic-equilibrium coastline shapes, including sandwaves, capes, and spits (e.g. Ashton and Murray, 2006; Ashton et al., 2015); spiral bays on rocky coastlines (e.g. Barkwith et al., 2014); and convex, spit-bounded coastlines (Ells et al., in prep.). One conclusion arises in each of these studies: Coastline shape depends sensitively on the wave climate, defined as the angular distribution of wave influences on alongshore sediment transport. Given this sensitive dependence, shifts in wave climate, as can be expected from shifts in storm statistics, will tend to change coastline shape—involving decadal-scale changes in the location and intensity of coastal erosion (or accretion) zones. Such changes, likely related to changing influence from hurricane-generated waves, have been detected along undeveloped large-scale cuspate capes (NC, USA; Moore et al., 2013). On a developed cape nearby, shoreline stabilization through beach nourishment has prevented an equivalent change in erosion rates. Combined observations and modelling indicate that the signal of wave climate change can be detected in the human component of the system, in the form of increased nourishment rates on one flank of the cape (Johnson et al., 2015). Finally, these recent works involved the implicit assumption that coastline response to changing forcing occurs in a quasi-equilibrium manner. However, new modeling shows that in some cases coastline responses can exhibit long-term memory and path dependence, complicating potential detection and forecasting of climate change signals in some human

  1. Involvement of herbal medicine as a cause of mesenteric phlebosclerosis: results from a large-scale nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Seiji; Kobayashi, Taku; Tomioka, Hideo; Ohtsu, Kensei; Matsui, Toshiyuki; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2017-03-01

    Mesenteric phlebosclerosis (MP) is a rare disease characterized by venous calcification extending from the colonic wall to the mesentery, with chronic ischemic changes from venous return impairment in the intestine. It is an idiopathic disease, but increasing attention has been paid to the potential involvement of herbal medicine, or Kampo, in its etiology. Until now, there were scattered case reports, but no large-scale studies have been conducted to unravel the clinical characteristics and etiology of the disease. A nationwide survey was conducted using questionnaires to assess possible etiology (particularly the involvement of herbal medicine), clinical manifestations, disease course, and treatment of MP. Data from 222 patients were collected. Among the 169 patients (76.1 %), whose history of herbal medicine was obtained, 147 (87.0 %) used herbal medicines. The use of herbal medicines containing sanshishi (gardenia fruit, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) was reported in 119 out of 147 patients (81.0 %). Therefore, the use of herbal medicine containing sanshishi was confirmed in 70.4 % of 169 patients whose history of herbal medicine was obtained. The duration of sanshishi use ranged from 3 to 51 years (mean 13.6 years). Patients who discontinued sanshishi showed a better outcome compared with those who continued it. The use of herbal medicine containing sanshishi is associated with the etiology of MP. Although it may not be the causative factor, it is necessary for gastroenterologists to be aware of the potential risk of herbal medicine containing sanshishi for the development of MP.

  2. Spectroscopic evidence of large aspherical β-NAT particles involved in denitrification in the December 2011 Arctic stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woiwode, Wolfgang; Höpfner, Michael; Bi, Lei; Pitts, Michael C.; Poole, Lamont R.; Oelhaf, Hermann; Molleker, Sergej; Borrmann, Stephan; Klingebiel, Marcus; Belyaev, Gennady; Ebersoldt, Andreas; Griessbach, Sabine; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Gulde, Thomas; Krämer, Martina; Maucher, Guido; Piesch, Christof; Rolf, Christian; Sartorius, Christian; Spang, Reinhold; Orphal, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    We analyze polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) signatures in airborne MIPAS-STR (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding - STRatospheric aircraft) observations in the spectral regions from 725 to 990 and 1150 to 1350 cm-1 under conditions suitable for the existence of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) above northern Scandinavia on 11 December 2011. The high-resolution infrared limb emission spectra of MIPAS-STR show a characteristic "shoulder-like" signature in the spectral region around 820 cm-1, which is attributed to the ν2 symmetric deformation mode of NO3- in β-NAT. Using radiative transfer calculations involving Mie and T-Matrix methods, the spectral signatures of spherical and aspherical particles are simulated. The simulations are constrained using collocated in situ particle measurements. Simulations assuming highly aspherical spheroids with aspect ratios (AR) of 0.1 or 10.0 and a lognormal particle mode with a mode radius of 4.8 µm reproduce the observed spectra to a high degree. A smaller lognormal mode with a mode radius of 2.0 µm, which is also taken into account, plays only a minor role. Within the scenarios analyzed, the best overall agreement is found for elongated spheroids with AR = 0.1. Simulations of spherical particles and spheroids with AR = 0.5 and 2.0 return results very similar to each other and do not allow us to reproduce the signature around 820 cm-1. The observed "shoulder-like" signature is explained by the combination of the absorption/emission and scattering characteristics of large highly aspherical β-NAT particles. The size distribution supported by our results corresponds to ˜ 9 ppbv of gas-phase equivalent HNO3 at the flight altitude of ˜ 18.5 km. The results are compared with the size distributions derived from the in situ observations, a corresponding Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) simulation, and excess gas-phase HNO3 observed in a nitrification layer directly below the observed PSC. The

  3. Metastable tetragonal Cu2Se hyperbranched structures: large-scale preparation and tunable electrical and optical response regulated by phase conversion.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinbao; Li, Qiuyang; Bai, Liangfei; Sun, Yongfu; Zhou, Min; Xie, Yi

    2012-10-08

    Despite the promising applications of copper selenide nanoparticles, an in-depth elucidation of the inherent properties of tetragonal Cu(2)Se (β-Cu(2)Se) has not been performed because of the lack of a facile synthesis on the nanoscale and an energy-intensive strategy is usually employed. In this work, a facile wet-chemical strategy, employing HCOOH as reducing agent, has been developed to access single-crystalline metastable β-Cu(2)Se hyperbranched architectures for the first time. The process avoids hazardous chemistry and high temperatures, and thus opens up a facile approach to the large-scale low-cost preparation of metastable β-Cu(2)Se hyperbranched architectures. A possible growth mechanism to explain the formation of the β-Cu(2)Se dendritic morphology has been proposed based on time-dependent shape evolution. Further investigations revealed that the metastable β-Cu(2)Se can convert into the thermodynamically more stable cubic α-Cu(2-x)Se maintaining the dendritic morphology. An increase in electrical conductivity and a tunable optical response were observed under ambient conditions. This behavior can be explained by the oxidation of the surface of the β-Cu(2)Se hyperbranched structures, ultimately leading to solid-state phase conversion from β-Cu(2)Se into superionic conductor α-Cu(1.8)Se, which has potential applications in energy-related devices and sensors.

  4. Crime scene investigation involving a large turbidite - a 1h-teaching unit in Limnogeology/Sedimentology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilli, Adrian; Kremer, Katrina

    2017-04-01

    In 1996, a dead corpse (named „Brienzi") was found at the banks of the picturesque Lake Brienz in the Bernese Alps/Switzerland. What is the origin of this corpse and which chain of events lead to this crime scene? This is the starting position for a 1h exercise/game for undergraduate students in Earth Sciences/Geosciences.The students are provided with a wealth of evidences like statements from people potentially involved in the case, age data on the human corpse and monitoring data from the lake and its surroundings. The students are guided through the game step by step. After solving a task, the students get a feedback and can check if they were correct with their interpretation. Interestingly for earth science students, a lacustrine mass moment plays an important role in these investigations, but more should not be given at this point. In this exercise, we can also check if the teached content of the previous lessons have been acquired correctly by the students, as it deals with diverse limnogeological and sedimentological aspects. The game is strongly based on a study of Girardclos et al. (2007) and uses their argumentation for the occurrence of a large mass movement in Lake Brienz in 1996. A copy of the game is available by the author upon request. Reference: Girardclos, S., Schmidt, O.T., Sturm, M., Ariztegui, D., Pugin, A. and Anselmetti, F.S., 2007, The 1996 AD delta collapse and large turbidite in Lake Brienz. Marine Geology, 241, pp.137-154. doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2007.03.011

  5. Potential methods and perspectives of solar energy conversion via photocatalytic processes. [345 references

    SciTech Connect

    Zamaraev, K.I.; Parmon, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    Existing methods of solar energy conversion are classified into 4 types: (1) thermal; (2) photophysical; (3) photochemical (including photoelectrolysis); and (4) photobiological (based on natural photosynthesis). Thermal conversion under direct conditions is an attractive method of conversion, but further conversion of heat into mechanical or electrical energy make thermal conversion seem unsuitable for large-scale use. Methods based on direct conversion into electrical or chemical energy of fossil fuels make them much more attractive for large scale use. For high efficiency of solar energy conversion, the development of moleuclar photocatalytic systems for solar energy conversion - a kind of simplified analog to natural photosynthesizing systems seem very attractive. For obtaining the highest possible efficiency, systems which do not involve free radicals and free atom intermediates appear to be the most advantageous. 345 references. (BLM)

  6. The Quality of Teachers' Interactive Conversations with Preschool Children from Low-Income Families during Small-Group and Large-Group Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jennifer J.; de Groot Kim, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the quality of preschool teachers' interactive conversations with three- and four-year-olds in two Head Start classrooms serving children from low-income families in the United States. Over a period of 20?weeks, 10 bi-weekly observations of conversations (totaling 15?h per classroom) were conducted in one small-group (Play…

  7. Gating of the MlotiK1 potassium channel involves large rearrangements of the cyclic nucleotide-binding domains

    PubMed Central

    Mari, Stefania A.; Pessoa, João; Altieri, Stephen; Hensen, Ulf; Thomas, Lise; Morais-Cabral, João H.; Müller, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-regulated ion channels are present in bacteria, plants, vertebrates, and humans. In higher organisms, they are closely involved in signaling networks of vision and olfaction. Binding of cAMP or cGMP favors the activation of these ion channels. Despite a wealth of structural and studies, there is a lack of structural data describing the gating process in a full-length cyclic nucleotide-regulated channel. We used high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) to directly observe the conformational change of the membrane embedded bacterial cyclic nucleotide-regulated channel MlotiK1. In the nucleotide-bound conformation, the cytoplasmic cyclic nucleotide-binding (CNB) domains of MlotiK1 are disposed in a fourfold symmetric arrangement forming a pore-like vestibule. Upon nucleotide-unbinding, the four CNB domains undergo a large rearrangement, stand up by ∼1.7 nm, and adopt a structurally variable grouped conformation that closes the cytoplasmic vestibule. This fully reversible conformational change provides insight into how CNB domains rearrange when regulating the potassium channel. PMID:22135457

  8. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling involves in the human intestinal ILC3/ILC1 conversion in the inflamed terminal ileum of Crohn’s disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Doty, Andria; Glover, Sarah C.

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are emerging as important components of our immune system that have critical effector and regulatory functions in both innate and adaptive immune responses. They are enriched at mucosal surfaces, such as lung and intestine. Our previous work has shown that Lineage−CRTH2−CD45+NKp44−CD117−CD127+ILC1s accumulated in the inflamed terminal ileum of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) at the expense of NKp44+ILC3s. This phenotype conversion impairs the intestinal barrier integrity and contributes to the dysregulated immune responses of CD patients. Our next step was to search for pathways to modulate this phenotype switch. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor. Initial studies of AHR concentrated on its role in the detoxification of xenobiotics. However, recent research has focused on the immune system. Especially, AHR pathway is proven to be essential for the maintenance of intestinal ILC3s in mouse models. We examined whether AHR pathway participated in the human intestinal ILC phenotype change in the inflamed terminal ileum of CD patients. As anticipated, NKp44+ILC3s, NKp44−ILC3s and ILC1s had differential AHR expression. This AHR signaling mediated CD117 expression on the surface of ILC3s. The conversion from ILC3 to ILC1 was accompanied by the downregulation of AHR expression. We further observed that there was a disparity between AHR protein expression and mRNA expression in the inflamed terminal ileum tissues of CD patients compared to unaffected areas. These findings suggest that AHR pathway is also important for human intestinal ILC phenotype regulation and impaired AHR signaling in the inflamed gut of CD patients possibly contributes to the ILC3/ILC1 conversion.

  9. Assisted reproduction involving gestational surrogacy: an analysis of the medical, psychosocial and legal issues: experience from a large surrogacy program.

    PubMed

    Dar, Shir; Lazer, Tal; Swanson, Sonja; Silverman, Jan; Wasser, Cindy; Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Sojecki, Agata; Librach, Clifford L

    2015-02-01

    What are the medical, psychosocial and legal aspects of gestational surrogacy (GS), including pregnancy outcomes and complications, in a large series? Meticulous multidisciplinary teamwork, involving medical, legal and psychosocial input for both the intended parent(s) (IP) and the gestational carrier (GC), is critical to achieve a successful GS program. Small case series have described pregnancy rates of 17-50% for GS. There are no large case series and the medical, legal and psychological aspects of GS have not been addressed in most of these studies. To our knowledge, this is the largest reported GS case series. A retrospective cohort study was performed. Data were collected from 333 consecutive GC cycles between 1998 and 2012. There were 178 pregnancies achieved out of 333 stimulation cycles, including fresh and frozen transfers. The indications for a GC were divided into two groups. Those who have 'failed to carry', included women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF), recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and previous poor pregnancy outcome (n = 96; 132 cycles, pregnancy rate 50.0%). The second group consisted of those who 'cannot carry' including those with severe Asherman's syndrome, uterine malformations/uterine agenesis and maternal medical diseases (n = 108, 139 cycles, pregnancy rate 54.0%). A third group, of same-sex male couples and single men, were analyzed separately (n = 52, 62 cycles, pregnancy rate 59.7%). In 49.2% of cycles, autologous oocytes were used and 50.8% of cycles involved donor oocytes. The 'failed to carry' group consisted of 96 patients who underwent 132 cycles at a mean age of 40.3 years. There were 66 pregnancies (50.0%) with 17 miscarriages (25.8%) and 46 confirmed births (34.8%). The 'cannot carry pregnancy' group consisted of 108 patients who underwent 139 cycles at a mean age of 35.9 years. There were 75 pregnancies (54.0%) with 15 miscarriages (20.0%) and 56 confirmed births (40.3%). The pregnancy, miscarriage and live birth

  10. Unusual multisystemic involvement and a novel BAG3 mutation revealed by NGS screening in a large cohort of myofibrillar myopathies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Myofibrillar myopathies (MFM) are a group of phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous neuromuscular disorders, which are characterized by protein aggregations in muscle fibres and can be associated with multisystemic involvement. Methods We screened a large cohort of 38 index patients with MFM for mutations in the nine thus far known causative genes using Sanger and next generation sequencing (NGS). We studied the clinical and histopathological characteristics in 38 index patients and five additional relatives (n = 43) and particularly focused on the associated multisystemic symptoms. Results We identified 14 heterozygous mutations (diagnostic yield of 37%), among them the novel p.Pro209Gln mutation in the BAG3 gene, which was associated with onset in adulthood, a mild phenotype and an axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy, in the absence of giant axons at the nerve biopsy. We revealed several novel clinical phenotypes and unusual multisystemic presentations with previously described mutations: hearing impairment with a FLNC mutation, dysphonia with a mutation in DES and the first patient with a FLNC mutation presenting respiratory insufficiency as the initial symptom. Moreover, we described for the first time respiratory insufficiency occurring in a patient with the p.Gly154Ser mutation in CRYAB. Interestingly, we detected a polyneuropathy in 28% of the MFM patients, including a BAG3 and a MYOT case, and hearing impairment in 13%, including one patient with a FLNC mutation and two with mutations in the DES gene. In four index patients with a mutation in one of the MFM genes, typical histological findings were only identified at the ultrastructural level (29%). Conclusions We conclude that extraskeletal symptoms frequently occur in MFM, particularly cardiac and respiratory involvement, polyneuropathy and/or deafness. BAG3 mutations should be considered even in cases with a mild phenotype or an adult onset. We identified a genetic defect in one of

  11. Unusual multisystemic involvement and a novel BAG3 mutation revealed by NGS screening in a large cohort of myofibrillar myopathies.

    PubMed

    Semmler, Anna-Lena; Sacconi, Sabrina; Bach, J Elisa; Liebe, Claus; Bürmann, Jan; Kley, Rudolf A; Ferbert, Andreas; Anderheiden, Roland; Van den Bergh, Peter; Martin, Jean-Jacques; De Jonghe, Peter; Neuen-Jacob, Eva; Müller, Oliver; Deschauer, Marcus; Bergmann, Markus; Schröder, J Michael; Vorgerd, Matthias; Schulz, Jörg B; Weis, Joachim; Kress, Wolfram; Claeys, Kristl G

    2014-08-01

    Myofibrillar myopathies (MFM) are a group of phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous neuromuscular disorders, which are characterized by protein aggregations in muscle fibres and can be associated with multisystemic involvement. We screened a large cohort of 38 index patients with MFM for mutations in the nine thus far known causative genes using Sanger and next generation sequencing (NGS). We studied the clinical and histopathological characteristics in 38 index patients and five additional relatives (n = 43) and particularly focused on the associated multisystemic symptoms. We identified 14 heterozygous mutations (diagnostic yield of 37%), among them the novel p.Pro209Gln mutation in the BAG3 gene, which was associated with onset in adulthood, a mild phenotype and an axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy, in the absence of giant axons at the nerve biopsy. We revealed several novel clinical phenotypes and unusual multisystemic presentations with previously described mutations: hearing impairment with a FLNC mutation, dysphonia with a mutation in DES and the first patient with a FLNC mutation presenting respiratory insufficiency as the initial symptom. Moreover, we described for the first time respiratory insufficiency occurring in a patient with the p.Gly154Ser mutation in CRYAB. Interestingly, we detected a polyneuropathy in 28% of the MFM patients, including a BAG3 and a MYOT case, and hearing impairment in 13%, including one patient with a FLNC mutation and two with mutations in the DES gene. In four index patients with a mutation in one of the MFM genes, typical histological findings were only identified at the ultrastructural level (29%). We conclude that extraskeletal symptoms frequently occur in MFM, particularly cardiac and respiratory involvement, polyneuropathy and/or deafness. BAG3 mutations should be considered even in cases with a mild phenotype or an adult onset. We identified a genetic defect in one of the known genes in less than half of the

  12. Involved Field Radiation After Autologous Stem Cell Transplant for Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in the Rituximab Era

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Tithi; Dhakal, Sughosh; Chen Rui; Hyrien, Ollivier; Bernstein, Steven; Friedberg, Jonathan W.; Fisher, Richard I.; Liesveld, Jane; Phillips, Gordon; Constine, Louis S.

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: For patients with recurrent or refractory large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) is the treatment of choice. We evaluated the role of involved field radiation therapy (IFRT) post-ASCT for patients initially induced with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) or, more recently, rituximab-CHOP (R-CHOP). Materials and Methods: Between May 1992 and April 2005, 176 patients underwent ASCT for recurrent or refractory large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; 164 patients were evaluable for endpoint analysis. Fifty percent of the CHOP group (n = 131), and 39% of the R-CHOP group (n = 33), received IFRT. Follow-up from the time of transplant was a median/mean of 1.7/3 years (range, 0.03-13 years). Results: The 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) improved with IFRT in both the R-CHOP (p = 0.006 and 0.02, respectively) and CHOP (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively) groups. IFRT was associated with a 10% (p = 0.17) reduction in local failure, alone or with a distant site. On univariate analysis, IFRT was associated with superior OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.50 [95% CI 0.32, 0.78]; p = 0.002) and DSS (HR = 0.53 [95% CI 0.33, 0.86]; p = 0.009). Presence of B symptoms was adverse (p = 0.03). On multivariate analysis, only IFRT was associated with significant improvement in OS (HR = 0.35 [0.18, 0.68]; p = 0.002) and DSS (HR = 0.39 [95% CI 0.18, 0.84]; p = 0.01). Conclusions: Recognizing that positive and negative patient selection bias exists for the use of IFRT post-ASCT, patients initially treated with CHOP or R-CHOP and who undergo ASCT for recurrent or refractory disease may benefit from subsequent IFRT presumably due to enhanced local control that can translate into a survival advantage.

  13. Reconciling the discrepancies on the involvement of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K channels in glioblastoma cell migration.

    PubMed

    Catacuzzeno, Luigi; Caramia, Martino; Sforna, Luigi; Belia, Silvia; Guglielmi, Luca; D'Adamo, Maria Cristina; Pessia, Mauro; Franciolini, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor, and is notable for spreading so effectively through the brain parenchyma to make complete surgical resection virtually impossible, and prospect of life dismal. Several ion channels have been involved in GBM migration and invasion, due to their critical role in supporting volume changes and Ca(2+) influx occuring during the process. The large-conductance, Ca(2+)-activated K (BK) channels, markedly overexpressed in biopsies of patients with GBMs and in GBM cell lines, have attracted much interest and have been suggested to play a central role in cell migration and invasion as candidate channels for providing the ion efflux and consequent water extrusion that allow cell shrinkage during migration. Available experimental data on the role of BK channel in migration and invasion are not consistent though. While BK channels block typically resulted in inhibition of cell migration or in no effect, their activation would either enhance or inhibit the process. This short review reexamines the relevant available data on the topic, and presents a unifying paradigm capable of reconciling present discrepancies. According to this paradigm, BK channels would not contribute to migration under conditions where the [Ca(2+)] i is too low for their activation. They will instead positively contribute to migration for intermediate [Ca(2+)] i , insufficient as such to activate BK channels, but capable of predisposing them to cyclic activation following oscillatory [Ca(2+)] i increases. Finally, steadily active BK channels because of prolonged high [Ca(2+)] i would inhibit migration as their steady activity would be unsuitable to match the cyclic cell volume changes needed for proper cell migration.

  14. AtMic60 Is Involved in Plant Mitochondria Lipid Trafficking and Is Part of a Large Complex.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Morgane; Gros, Valérie; Tardif, Marianne; Brugière, Sabine; Ferro, Myriam; Prinz, William A; Toulmay, Alexandre; Mathur, Jaideep; Wozny, Michael; Falconet, Denis; Maréchal, Eric; Block, Maryse A; Jouhet, Juliette

    2016-03-07

    The mitochondrion is an organelle originating from an endosymbiotic event and playing a role in several fundamental processes such as energy production, metabolite syntheses, and programmed cell death. This organelle is delineated by two membranes whose synthesis requires an extensive exchange of phospholipids with other cellular organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and vacuolar membranes in yeast. These transfers of phospholipids are thought to occur by a non-vesicular pathway at contact sites between two closely apposed membranes. In plants, little is known about the biogenesis of mitochondrial membranes. Contact sites between ER and mitochondria are suspected to play a similar role in phospholipid trafficking as in yeast, but this has never been demonstrated. In contrast, it has been shown that plastids are able to transfer lipids to mitochondria during phosphate starvation. However, the proteins involved in such transfer are still unknown. Here, we identified in Arabidopsis thaliana a large lipid-enriched complex called the mitochondrial transmembrane lipoprotein (MTL) complex. The MTL complex contains proteins located in the two mitochondrial membranes and conserved in all eukaryotic cells, such as the TOM complex and AtMic60, a component of the MICOS complex. We demonstrate that AtMic60 contributes to the export of phosphatidylethanolamine from mitochondria and the import of galactoglycerolipids from plastids during phosphate starvation. Furthermore, AtMic60 promotes lipid desorption from membranes, likely as an initial step for lipid transfer, and binds to Tom40, suggesting that AtMic60 could regulate the tethering between the inner and outer membranes of mitochondria.

  15. CD10 down expression in follicular lymphoma correlates with gastrointestinal lesion involving the stomach and large intestine.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Nobuhiko; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Miyata-Takata, Tomoko; Sato, Yasuharu; Tari, Akira; Gion, Yuka; Noujima-Harada, Mai; Taniguchi, Kohei; Tabata, Tetsuya; Nagakita, Keina; Omote, Shizuma; Takahata, Hiroyuki; Iwamuro, Masaya; Okada, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2016-11-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) shows co-expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) and CD10, whereas downexpression of CD10 is occasionally experienced in gastrointestinal (GI) FL with unknown significance. Gastrointestinal FL is a rare variant of FL, and its similarity with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma was reported. We investigated the clinicopathological and genetic features of CD10 downexpressed (CD10(down) ) GI-FL. The diagnosis of CD10(down) FL was carried out with a combination of pathological and molecular analyses. The incidence of CD10(down) GI-FL was shown in 35/172 (20.3%) cases, which was more frequent than nodal FL (3.5%, P < 0.001). The difference was additionally significant between GI-FL and nodal FL when the analysis was confined to primary GI-FL (55.2% vs 3.5%, P < 0.001). Compared to CD10(+) GI-FL, CD10(down) GI-FL significantly involved the stomach or large intestine (P = 0.015), and additionally showed the downexpression of BCL6 (P < 0.001). The follicular dendritic cell meshwork often showed a duodenal pattern in the CD10(down) group (P = 0.12). Furthermore, a lymphoepithelial lesion was observed in 5/12 (40%) gastric FL cases, which indicated caution in the differentiation of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Molecular analyses were undertaken in seven cases of CD10(down) GI-FL, and an identical clone was found between CD10(down) follicles and CD10(+) BCL2(+) neoplastic follicles. In the diagnosis of cases with CD10(down) BCL2(+) follicles, careful examination with molecular studies should be carried out. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  16. Endoscopic management of patients with post-surgical leaks involving the gastrointestinal tract: A large case series

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Angelo; Cellini, Carlo; Sica, Mariano; Zullo, Angelo; Mirante, Vincenzo Giorgio; Bertani, Helga; Frazzoni, Marzio; Mutignani, Massimiliano; Galloro, Giuseppe; Conigliaro, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Background Post-surgical anastomotic leaks often require a re-intervention, are associated with a definite morbidity and mortality, and with relevant costs. We described a large series of patients with different post-surgical leaks involving the gastrointestinal tract managed with endoscopy as initial approach. Methods This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected cases with anastomotic leaks managed with different endoscopic approaches (with surgical or radiological drainage when needed) in two endoscopic centres during 5 years. Interventions included: (1) over-the-scope clip (OTSC) positioning; (2) placement of a covered self-expanding metal stent (SEMS); (3) fibrin glue injection (Tissucol); and (4) endo-sponge application, according to both the endoscopic feature and patient’s status. Results A total of 76 patients underwent endoscopic treatment for a leak either in the upper (47 cases) or lower (29 cases) gastrointestinal tract, and the approach was successful in 39 (83%) and 22 (75.9%) patients, respectively, accounting for an overall 80.3% success rate. Leak closure was achieved in 84.9% and 78.3% of patients managed by using a single or a combination of endoscopic devices. Overall, leak closure failed in 15 (19.7%) patients, and the surgical approach was successful in all 14 patients who underwent re-intervention, whilst one patient died due to sepsis at 7 days. Conclusions Our data suggest that an endoscopic approach, with surgical or radiological drainage when needed, is successful and safe in the majority of patients with anastomotic gastrointestinal leaks. Therefore, an endoscopic treatment could be attempted before resorting to more invasive, costly and risky re-intervention. PMID:28408994

  17. Large-scale study of the interactions between proteins involved in type IV pilus biology in Neisseria meningitidis: characterization of a subcomplex involved in pilus assembly.

    PubMed

    Georgiadou, Michaella; Castagnini, Marta; Karimova, Gouzel; Ladant, Daniel; Pelicic, Vladimir

    2012-06-01

    The functionally versatile type IV pili (Tfp) are one of the most widespread virulence factors in bacteria. However, despite generating much research interest for decades, the molecular mechanisms underpinning the various aspects of Tfp biology remain poorly understood, mainly because of the complexity of the system. In the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis for example, 23 proteins are dedicated to Tfp biology, 15 of which are essential for pilus biogenesis. One of the important gaps in our knowledge concerns the topology of this multiprotein machinery. Here we have used a bacterial two-hybrid system to identify and quantify the interactions between 11 Pil proteins from N. meningitidis. We identified 20 different binary interactions, many of which are novel. This represents the most complex interaction network between Pil proteins reported to date and indicates, among other things, that PilE, PilM, PilN and PilO, which are involved in pilus assembly, indeed interact. We focused our efforts on this subset of proteins and used a battery of assays to determine the membrane topology of PilN and PilO, map the interaction domains between PilE, PilM, PilN and PilO, and show that a widely conserved N-terminal motif in PilN is essential for both PilM-PilN interactions and pilus assembly. Finally, we show that PilP (another protein involved in pilus assembly) forms a complex with PilM, PilN and PilO. Taken together, these findings have numerous implications for understanding Tfp biology and provide a useful blueprint for future studies.

  18. Contentious Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuidema, Leah A.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of joining a conversation through reading and writing is not new; in his 1941 book "The Philosophy of Literary Form: Studies in Symbolic Action," Kenneth Burke suggests that the acts of reading and writing are like entering a parlor where others are already conversing. The author explores the place of professional debate within NCTE and…

  19. Contentious Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuidema, Leah A.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of joining a conversation through reading and writing is not new; in his 1941 book "The Philosophy of Literary Form: Studies in Symbolic Action," Kenneth Burke suggests that the acts of reading and writing are like entering a parlor where others are already conversing. The author explores the place of professional debate within NCTE and…

  20. Dissociation of MIF-rpS3 complex and sequential NF-κB activation is involved in IR-induced metastatic conversion of NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Youn, HyeSook; Son, Beomseok; Kim, Wanyeon; Jun, Se Young; Lee, Jung Sub; Lee, Jae-Myung; Kang, ChulHee; Kim, Joon; Youn, BuHyun

    2015-11-01

    Frequent relapse and spreading of tumors during radiotherapy are principal obstacles to treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we aimed to investigate how macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) which is expressed at high levels in metastatic and primary lung cancer cells could regulate NSCLC metastasis in response to ionizing radiation (IR). The results indicated that MIF and ribosomal protein S3 (rpS3) were shown to be connected to inflammation, proliferation, and metastasis of NSCLC via IR-induced activation of the NF-κB pathway. Under unirradiated conditions, MIF physically established a complex with rpS3. MIF-rpS3 dissociation induced by IR activated NF-κB and made the expression of target genes of this factor transactivated in two NSCLC cell lines, A549, and NCI-H358. We also found that IR-induced dissociation of this complex led to increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and modulated the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker proteins. Finally, the effects of IR-induced dissociation of the MIF-rpS3 complex on tumor metastasis were confirmed by in vivo xenograft studies. Taken together, the present study revealed that dissociation of the MIF-rpS3 complex and subsequent activation of NF-κB is a critical post-IR exposure event that accounts for IR-induced metastatic conversion of NSCLC.

  1. A catalytic biofuel production strategy involving separate conversion of hemicellulose and cellulose using 2-sec-butylphenol (SBP) and lignin-derived (LD) alkylphenol solvents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghoon; Han, Jeehoon

    2016-03-01

    A strategy in which the hemicellulose and cellulose fractions of lignocellulosic biomass are converted separately to jet fuel-range liquid hydrocarbon fuels (butene oligomers) through catalytic processes is developed. Dilute sulfuric acid (SA)-catalyzed pretreatment fractionates the first biomass into cellulose and hemicellulose-derived xylose, and these are then converted separately to levulinic acid (LA) using 2-sec-butylphenol (SBP) and lignin-derived (LD) alkylphenol solvents, respectively. LA is upgraded catalytically to butene oligomers via γ-valerolactone (GVL) and butene intermediates. Separation subsystems are designed to recover the alkylphenol solvents and biomass-derived intermediates (LA and GVL) for combination with the catalytic conversion subsystems of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. In addition, a heat exchanger network (HEN) design is presented to satisfy the energy requirements of the integrated process from combustion of biomass residues (degradation products). Finally, a technoeconomic analysis shows that the proposed process ($3.37/gallon of gasoline) is an economically competitive alternative to current biofuel production approaches.

  2. Energy conversion and magnetic reconnection in space plasmas: Role of nonlinear kinetic processes and structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropotkin, A. P.

    2014-07-01

    Dynamics of plasma systems in space involves processes of large-scale energy conversion. Like in conventional gas dynamics, the conversion can occur on shocks. However, in collisionless magnetized plasma systems, quite different nonlinear structures may be responsible for energy conversion. Those are anisotropic kinetic current sheets. It is demonstrated that observations at the Earth's magnetopause provide evidence of long-term existence of such structures.

  3. Uterine, but not ovarian, female reproductive organ involvement at presentation by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is associated with poor outcomes and a high frequency of secondary CNS involvement.

    PubMed

    El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Cheah, Chan Y; Hutchings, Martin; Mikhaeel, Nabegh George; Savage, Kerry J; Sehn, Laurie H; Barrington, Sally; Hansen, Jakob W; Poulsen, Mette Ø; Smith, Daniel; Rady, Kirsty; Mylam, Karen J; Larsen, Thomas S; Holmberg, Staffan; Juul, Maja B; Cordua, Sabrina; Clausen, Michael R; Jensen, Kristina B; Bøgsted, Martin; Johnsen, Hans E; Seymour, John F; Connors, Joseph M; Brown, Peter D N; Villa, Diego

    2016-12-01

    Involvement of the internal female reproductive organs by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is uncommon, and there are sparse data describing the outcomes of such cases. In total, 678 female patients with DLBCL staged with positron emission tomography/computed tomography and treated with rituximab-containing chemotherapy were identified from databases in Denmark, Great Britain, Australia, and Canada. Overall, 27/678 (4%) had internal reproductive organ involvement: uterus (n = 14), ovaries (n = 10) or both (n = 3). In multivariate analysis, women with uterine DLBCL experienced inferior progression-free survival and overall survival compared to those without reproductive organ involvement, whereas ovarian DLBCL was not predictive of outcome. Secondary central nervous system (CNS) involvement (SCNS) occurred in 7/17 (41%) women with uterine DLBCL (two patients with concomitant ovarian DLBCL) and 0/10 women with ovarian DLBCL without concomitant uterine involvement. In multivariate analysis adjusted for other risk factors for SCNS, uterine involvement by DLBCL remained strongly associated with SCNS (Hazard ratio 14·13, 95% confidence interval 5·09-39·25, P < 0·001). Because involvement of the uterus by DLBCL appears to be associated with a high risk of SCNS, those patients should be considered for CNS staging and prophylaxis. However, more studies are needed to determine whether the increased risk of secondary CNS involvement also applies to women with localized reproductive organ DLBCL.

  4. Metric Conversion

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-12

    ... 1,000,000 1,000,000 micrometers nano- 1,000,000,000 1,000,000,000 nanometers ... conversions, see the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publications: NIST Guide to SI Units: ...

  5. Conversation Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  6. Establishing User Needs--A Large-Scale Study into the Requirements of Those Involved in the Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimshaw, Shirley; Wilson, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the project was to develop a set of online tools, systems and processes that would facilitate research at the University of Nottingham. The tools would be delivered via a portal, a one-stop place providing a Virtual Research Environment for all those involved in the research process. A predominantly bottom-up approach was used with…

  7. Clinical Significance of Bone Marrow Involvement as Confirmed by Bone Marrow Aspiration vs. Bone Marrow Biopsy in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hantaweepant, Chattree; Chinthammitr, Yingyong; Khuhapinant, Archrob; Sukpanichnant, Sanya

    2016-03-01

    In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), bone marrow (BM) involvement confirmed by BM biopsy confers a poor prognosis. However, in clinical practice, there may be disagreement in results between BM biopsy and BM aspiration in determination of BM involvement. It is unknown which of BM biopsy or BM aspiration better correlates with clinical outcome. To evaluate clinical outcome of BM involvement as confirmed by BM aspiration vs. confirmation by BM biopsy in patients with DLBCL. Clinical data, treatment, and outcome of 126 DLBCL patients with available BM aspirate slides who attended the Hematology Clinic at Siriraj Hospital between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2009 were reviewed. BM aspirate slides were revised and interpreted by hematologists. BM involvement was found in 12.7% (16/126) by BM biopsy and 24.6% (31/126) by BM aspiration. Regarding BM biopsy results, rates of complete remission (CR) among patients with unequivocal involvement, equivocal involvement, and without involvement were 75.0%, 57.1%, and 77.7%, respectively (p = 0.464). Two-year overall survival (OS) rates among the three groups were not significantly different (p = 0.663). Regarding BM aspiration results, CR rates among patients with unequivocal involvement, equivocal involvement, and without involvement were 80.6%, 75.8%, and 72.7% (p = 0.755). Two-year OS rates among the three groups were not significantly different (p = 0.118). In multivariate analysis, BM involvement as determined by either BM biopsy or BM aspiration was not associated with CR rate or 2-year OS rates. However, the International Prognostic Index (PI) and use of rituximab were found to be signifcantly associated with CR rate and OS. In patients with DLBCL, BM involvement confirmed by either BM biopsy or BM aspiration appears not to influence the rate of complete remission or 2-year overall survival.

  8. The Management Challenge: Handling Exams Involving Large Quantities of Students, on and off Campus--A Design Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Ken

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at the process of managing large numbers of exams efficiently and secure with the use of a dedicated IT support. The system integrates regulations on different levels, from national to local, (even down to departments) and ensures that the rules are employed in all stages of handling the exams. The system has a proven record of…

  9. The Management Challenge: Handling Exams Involving Large Quantities of Students, on and off Campus--A Design Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Ken

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at the process of managing large numbers of exams efficiently and secure with the use of a dedicated IT support. The system integrates regulations on different levels, from national to local, (even down to departments) and ensures that the rules are employed in all stages of handling the exams. The system has a proven record of…

  10. Rearrangements of transient neutral molecules in the gas phase. Does the conversion of CCCHO to HCCCO involve oxygen or hydrogen migration?

    PubMed

    Tran, Khoa M; McAnoy, Andrew M; Bowie, John H

    2004-01-01

    Stable (CC13CHO)- may be formed in the chemical ionisation ion source of a VG ZAB 2HF mass spectrometer by the SN2(Si) reaction between Me3SiC[triple bond]C13CHO and F-. Vertical (Franck-Condon) one-electron oxidation of (CC13CHO)- in the first of the tandem collision cells of a VG ZAB 2HF mass spectrometer gives CC13CHO. Some of these neutrals have sufficient excess energy to effect rearrangement to HCC13CO, some of which are energised and to decompose to HCC. and 13CO. Thus the neutral rearrangement exclusively involves H migration: no products from O migration are detected. The corresponding two-electron oxidation of (CC13CHO)- gives mainly unrearranged (CC13CHO)+. A minority of these cations are energised and rearrange by H and O migration to yield (HCC13CHO)+ and (OCC13CHO)+ respectively. All experimental observations are backed up by molecular modelling at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory.

  11. Bone marrow involvement in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: correlation between FDG-PET uptake and type of cellular infiltrate.

    PubMed

    Paone, Gaetano; Itti, Emmanuel; Haioun, Corinne; Gaulard, Philippe; Dupuis, Jehan; Lin, Chieh; Meignan, Michel

    2009-05-01

    To assess, in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), whether the low sensitivity of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for bone marrow assessment may be explained by histological characteristics of the cellular infiltrate. From a prospective cohort of 110 patients with newly diagnosed aggressive lymphoma, 21 patients with DLBCL had bone marrow involvement. Pretherapeutic FDG-PET images were interpreted visually and semiquantitatively, then correlated with the type of cellular infiltrate and known prognostic factors. Of these 21 patients, 7 (33%) had lymphoid infiltrates with a prominent component of large transformed lymphoid cells (concordant bone marrow involvement, CBMI) and 14 (67%) had lymphoid infiltrates composed of small cells (discordant bone marrow involvement, DBMI). Only 10 patients (48%) had abnormal bone marrow FDG uptake, 6 of the 7 with CBMI and 4 of the 14 with DBMI. Therefore, FDG-PET positivity in the bone marrow was significantly associated with CBMI, while FDG-PET negativity was associated with DBMI (Fisher's exact test, p=0.024). There were no significant differences in gender, age and overall survival between patients with CBMI and DBMI, while the international prognostic index was significantly higher in patients with CBMI. Our study suggests that in patients with DLBCL with bone marrow involvement bone marrow FDG uptake depends on two types of infiltrate, comprising small (DBMI) or large (CBMI) cells. This may explain the apparent low sensitivity of FDG-PET previously reported for detecting bone marrow involvement.

  12. The Effects of Group Relaxation Training/Large Muscle Exercise, and Parental Involvement on Attention to Task, Impulsivity, and Locus of Control among Hyperactive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Sally S.; Omizo, Michael M.

    1984-01-01

    The study examined the effects of group relaxation training/large muscle exercise and parental involvement on attention to task, impulsivity, and locus of control among 34 hyperactive boys. Following treatment both experimental groups recorded significantly higher attention to task, lower impulsivity, and lower locus of control scores. (Author/CL)

  13. The Effects of Group Relaxation Training/Large Muscle Exercise, and Parental Involvement on Attention to Task, Impulsivity, and Locus of Control among Hyperactive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Sally S.; Omizo, Michael M.

    1984-01-01

    The study examined the effects of group relaxation training/large muscle exercise and parental involvement on attention to task, impulsivity, and locus of control among 34 hyperactive boys. Following treatment both experimental groups recorded significantly higher attention to task, lower impulsivity, and lower locus of control scores. (Author/CL)

  14. Stenosis rates after endoscopic submucosal dissection of large rectal tumors involving greater than three quarters of the luminal circumference.

    PubMed

    Abe, Seiichiro; Sakamoto, Taku; Takamaru, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masayoshi; Nakajima, Takeshi; Matsuda, Takahisa; Saito, Yutaka

    2016-12-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a minimally invasive treatment option for large rectal tumors. There are limited data available on stenosis rates following ESD of large rectal lesions. We aimed to evaluate the stenosis rate following ESD of large rectal tumors with rectal mucosal defects greater than three quarters of the circumference. We retrospectively identified patients who underwent rectal ESD between January 1998 and July 2014. Patients with rectal mucosal defects greater than three quarters the luminal circumference were included for analysis. Clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment outcomes and adverse events were assessed. Stenosis was defined as an inability to pass a pediatric colonoscope into the sigmoid colon. None of the patients underwent prophylactic balloon dilation. A total of 363 patients with 370 rectal lesions were treated by ESD. Among these, 26 patients had 26 lesions with rectal mucosal defects greater than three quarters of the luminal circumference. Median tumor size (range) was 80 (47-150) mm. Four lesions (15 %) required between 90 and <100 % circumferential dissection, while complete circumferential ESD was performed in two lesions (8 %). Dissection extended to the anal canal in six patients. The median procedure time was 220 min. En bloc resection and curative resection were achieved in 88.5 and 65.4 %, respectively. Delayed bleeding rates and perforation rates were 7.7 and 0 %, respectively. During a median follow-up period of 9.8 (0-59) months, there were no patients with complaints of constipation or fecal incontinence. One patient (4.2 %) was noted to have rectal stenosis, but was clinically asymptomatic. Endoscopic balloon dilation was not required in any patients. Stenosis may rarely occur after ESD of large rectal lesions with rectal mucosal defects greater than three quarters of the circumference, even without prophylactic endoscopic balloon dilation.

  15. Hepatic Resection as a Safe and Effective Treatment for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Involving a Single Large Tumor, Multiple Tumors, or Macrovascular Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jian-Hong; Rodríguez, A. Chapin; Ke, Yang; Wang, Yan-Yan; Wang, Lin; Li, Le-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This systematic review examined whether the available evidence justifies using hepatic resection (HR) during later stages of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which contravenes treatment guidelines but is current practice at many medical centers. Official guidelines and retrospective studies recommend different roles for HR for patients with large/multinodular HCC or with HCC involving macrovascular invasion (MVI). Several databases were systematically searched for studies examining the safety and efficacy of HR for treating HCC involving a single large tumor (>5 cm) or multiple tumors, or for treating HCC involving MVI. We identified 50 studies involving 14 808 patients that investigated the use of HR to treat large/multinodular HCC, and 24 studies with 4389 patients that investigated HR to treat HCC with MVI. Median in-hospital mortality for patients with either type of HCC was significantly lower in Asian studies (2.7%) than in non-Asian studies (7.3%, P < 0.001). Median overall survival (OS) was significantly higher for all Asian patients with large/multinodular HCC than for all non-Asian patients at both 1 year (81% vs 65%, P < 0.001) and 5 years (42% vs 32%, P < 0.001). Similar results were obtained for median disease-free survival at 1 year (61% vs 50%, P < 0.001) and 5 years (26% vs 24%, P < 0.001). However, median OS was similar for Asian and non-Asian patients with HCC involving MVI at 1 year (50% vs 52%, P = 0.45) and 5 years (18% vs 14%, P = 0.94). There was an upward trend in 5-year OS in patients with either type of HCC. HR is reasonably safe and effective at treating large/multinodular HCC and HCC with MVI. The available evidence argues for expanding the indications for HR in official treatment guidelines. PMID:25621684

  16. An unusually large aggressive adenomatoid odontogenic tumor of maxilla involving the third molar: A clinical case report

    PubMed Central

    Dhupar, Vikas; Akkara, Francis; Khandelwal, Pulkit

    2016-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare tumor comprising only 3% of all odontogenic tumors. It is a benign, encapsulated, noninvasive, nonaggressive, slowly growing odontogenic lesion associated with an impacted tooth. These lesions may go unnoticed for years. The usual treatment is enucleation and curettage, and the lesion does not recur. Here, we present a rare case of an unusually large aggressive AOT of maxilla associated with impacted third molar. The authors also discuss clinical, radiographic, histopathologic, and therapeutic features of the case. Subtotal maxillectomy with simultaneous reconstruction of the surgical defect with temporalis myofascial flap was planned and carried out. PMID:27095910

  17. Knockout of deuterons and tritons with large transverse momenta in pA collisions involving 50-GeV protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, N. N.; Baldin, A. A.; Viktorov, V. A.; Gapienko, V. A.; Gapienko, G. S.; Gres', V. N.; Ilyushin, M. A.; Korotkov, V. A.; Mysnik, A. I.; Prudkoglyad, A. F.; Semak, A. A.; Terekhov, V. I.; Uglekov, V. Ya.; Ukhanov, M. N.; Chuiko, B. V.; Shimanskii, S. S.

    2016-11-01

    Formation of the d and t cumulative light nuclear fragments emitted from the nucleus with large transverse momenta at an angle of 35° in the laboratory frame is investigated. The data on collisions of 50-GeV protons with the C, Al, Cu, and W nuclei are collected using the extracted proton beam of the IHEP accelerator and the SPIN detector. The results indicate that the dominant contribution to formation of nuclear fragments comes from the local process of direct knockout from the nucleus.

  18. Large-scale analysis of conserved rare codon clusters suggests an involvement in co-translational molecular recognition events.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Matthieu; Gaudreault, Francis; Najmanovich, Rafael

    2012-06-01

    An increasing amount of evidence from experimental and computational analysis suggests that rare codon clusters are functionally important for protein activity. Most of the studies on rare codon clusters were performed on a limited number of proteins or protein families. In the present study, we present the Sherlocc program and how it can be used for large scale protein family analysis of evolutionarily conserved rare codon clusters and their relation to protein function and structure. This large-scale analysis was performed using the whole Pfam database covering over 70% of the known protein sequence universe. Our program Sherlocc, detects statistically relevant conserved rare codon clusters and produces a user-friendly HTML output. Statistically significant rare codon clusters were detected in a multitude of Pfam protein families. The most statistically significant rare codon clusters were predominantly identified in N-terminal Pfam families. Many of the longest rare codon clusters are found in membrane-related proteins which are required to interact with other proteins as part of their function, for example in targeting or insertion. We identified some cases where rare codon clusters can play a regulating role in the folding of catalytically important domains. Our results support the existence of a widespread functional role for rare codon clusters across species. Finally, we developed an online filter-based search interface that provides access to Sherlocc results for all Pfam families. The Sherlocc program and search interface are open access and are available at http://bcb.med.usherbrooke.ca

  19. Integration of pT181-like tetracycline resistance plasmids into large staphylococcal plasmids involves IS257.

    PubMed Central

    Werckenthin, C; Schwarz, S; Roberts, M C

    1996-01-01

    Four large staphylococcal plasmids ranging in size from 31 to 82 kbp have been shown to mediate tetracycline resistance via an integrated copy of the tet(K)-encoding plasmid pT181 which was flanked by copies of the insertion element IS257. In two cases, IS257 elements interrupted the repC reading frame of pT181 and an 8-bp sequence from within the repC gene was duplicated at the interrupted site. In the third plasmid, the IS257 elements interrupted the pT181 DNA immediately upstream of the repC coding sequence with an 8-bp duplication. In the fourth case, the IS257 elements flanked a pT181-like plasmid with one IS257 in the repC coding sequence and the other within the recombinase (pre) coding sequence, so that a section of the pT181 sequence was deleted. All four integration sites detected in this study differ from those previously described for the IS257-mediated integration of pT181-like plasmids into large plasmids or into the chromosomal DNA. PMID:8913460

  20. An approach to industrial water conservation--a case study involving two large manufacturing companies based in Australia.

    PubMed

    Agana, Bernard A; Reeve, Darrell; Orbell, John D

    2013-01-15

    This study presents the application of an integrated water management strategy at two large Australian manufacturing companies that are contrasting in terms of their respective products. The integrated strategy, consisting of water audit, pinch analysis and membrane process application, was deployed in series to systematically identify water conservation opportunities. Initially, a water audit was deployed to completely characterize all water streams found at each production site. This led to the development of a water balance diagram which, together with water test results, served as a basis for subsequent enquiry. After the water audit, commercially available water pinch software was utilized to identify possible water reuse opportunities, some of which were subsequently implemented on site. Finally, utilizing a laboratory-scale test rig, membrane processes such as UF, NF and RO were evaluated for their suitability to treat the various wastewater streams. The membranes tested generally showed good contaminant rejection rates, slow flux decline rates, low energy usage and were well suited for treatment of specific wastewater streams. The synergy between the various components of this strategy has the potential to reduce substantial amounts of Citywater consumption and wastewater discharge across a diverse range of large manufacturing companies. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differences in passenger car and large truck involved crash frequencies at urban signalized intersections: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chunjiao; Clarke, David B; Richards, Stephen H; Huang, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    The influence of intersection features on safety has been examined extensively because intersections experience a relatively large proportion of motor vehicle conflicts and crashes. Although there are distinct differences between passenger cars and large trucks-size, operating characteristics, dimensions, and weight-modeling crash counts across vehicle types is rarely addressed. This paper develops and presents a multivariate regression model of crash frequencies by collision vehicle type using crash data for urban signalized intersections in Tennessee. In addition, the performance of univariate Poisson-lognormal (UVPLN), multivariate Poisson (MVP), and multivariate Poisson-lognormal (MVPLN) regression models in establishing the relationship between crashes, traffic factors, and geometric design of roadway intersections is investigated. Bayesian methods are used to estimate the unknown parameters of these models. The evaluation results suggest that the MVPLN model possesses most of the desirable statistical properties in developing the relationships. Compared to the UVPLN and MVP models, the MVPLN model better identifies significant factors and predicts crash frequencies. The findings suggest that traffic volume, truck percentage, lighting condition, and intersection angle significantly affect intersection safety. Important differences in car, car-truck, and truck crash frequencies with respect to various risk factors were found to exist between models. The paper provides some new or more comprehensive observations that have not been covered in previous studies.

  2. Giant-cell arteritis: concordance study between aortic CT angiography and FDG-PET/CT in detection of large-vessel involvement.

    PubMed

    de Boysson, Hubert; Dumont, Anael; Liozon, Eric; Lambert, Marc; Boutemy, Jonathan; Maigné, Gwénola; Martin Silva, Nicolas; Sultan, Audrey; Ly, Kim Heang; Aide, Nicolas; Manrique, Alain; Bienvenu, Boris; Aouba, Achille

    2017-07-24

    The purpose of our study was to assess the concordance of aortic CT angiography (CTA) and FDG-PET/CT in the detection of large-vessel involvement at diagnosis in patients with giant-cell arteritis (GCA). We created a multicenter cohort of patients with GCA diagnosed between 2010 and 2015, and who underwent both FDG-PET/CT and aortic CTA before or in the first ten days following treatment introduction. Eight vascular segments were studied on each procedure. We calculated concordance between both imaging techniques in a per-patient and a per-segment analysis, using Cohen's kappa concordance index. We included 28 patients (21/7 women/men, median age 67 [56-82]). Nineteen patients had large-vessel involvement on PET/CT and 18 of these patients also presented positive findings on CTA. In a per-segment analysis, a median of 5 [1-7] and 3 [1-6] vascular territories were involved on positive PET/CT and CTA, respectively (p = 0.03). In qualitative analysis, i.e., positivity of the procedure suggesting a large-vessel involvement, the concordance rate between both procedures was 0.85 [0.64-1]. In quantitative analysis, i.e., per-segment analysis in both procedures, the global concordance rate was 0.64 [0.54-0.75]. Using FDG-PET/CT as a reference, CTA showed excellent sensitivity (95%) and specificity (100%) in a per-patient analysis. In a per-segment analysis, sensitivity and specificity were 61% and 97.9%, respectively. CTA and FDG-PET/CT were both able to detect large-vessel involvement in GCA with comparable results in a per-patient analysis. However, PET/CT showed higher performance in a per-segment analysis, especially in the detection of inflammation of the aorta's branches.

  3. Conversational Tamil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beinstein, Judith; And Others

    The purpose of this text is to develop conversational skills in Tamil. It is to be used as a review of what has been learned in class and not as a teaching device. The language materials consist of four types of language learning activities. The unit microwave cycle divides the learning process into two basic phases. The first phase involves…

  4. Central nervous system involvement in adult patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Influence of rituximab

    PubMed Central

    CAO, BING; ZHOU, XIAOYAN; JI, DONGMEI; CAO, JUNNING; GUO, YE; ZHANG, QUNLING; WU, XIANGHUA; LI, JUNMIN; WANG, JIANMIN; CHEN, FANGYUAN; WANG, CHUN; ZOU, SHANHUA; HONG, XIAONAN

    2012-01-01

    CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone)-like chemotherapy, in combination with rituximab (R-CHOP-like), improves outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We aimed to investigate the impact of rituximab on central nervous system (CNS) disease in adult patients. We studied 315 patients (aged 18–60 years old) from six hospitals between July 2003 and May 2008. All patients received CHOP-like (n=165) or R-CHOP-like (n=150) regimen every 3 weeks. With a median follow-up of 3.69 years, 10 patients (3.17%) developed CNS disease. The cumulative risk of CNS occurrence was not significantly different between the two treatment groups (P=0.871). We conclude that the addition of rituximab did not reduce the risk of CNS disease in adult patients with DLBCL. PMID:22970053

  5. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    PubMed

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  6. Large-scale analysis of conserved rare codon clusters suggests an involvement in co-translational molecular recognition events

    PubMed Central

    Chartier, Matthieu; Gaudreault, Francis; Najmanovich, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: An increasing amount of evidence from experimental and computational analysis suggests that rare codon clusters are functionally important for protein activity. Most of the studies on rare codon clusters were performed on a limited number of proteins or protein families. In the present study, we present the Sherlocc program and how it can be used for large scale protein family analysis of evolutionarily conserved rare codon clusters and their relation to protein function and structure. This large-scale analysis was performed using the whole Pfam database covering over 70% of the known protein sequence universe. Our program Sherlocc, detects statistically relevant conserved rare codon clusters and produces a user-friendly HTML output. Results: Statistically significant rare codon clusters were detected in a multitude of Pfam protein families. The most statistically significant rare codon clusters were predominantly identified in N-terminal Pfam families. Many of the longest rare codon clusters are found in membrane-related proteins which are required to interact with other proteins as part of their function, for example in targeting or insertion. We identified some cases where rare codon clusters can play a regulating role in the folding of catalytically important domains. Our results support the existence of a widespread functional role for rare codon clusters across species. Finally, we developed an online filter-based search interface that provides access to Sherlocc results for all Pfam families. Availability: The Sherlocc program and search interface are open access and are available at http://bcb.med.usherbrooke.ca Contact: rafael.najmanovich@usherbrooke.ca Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22467916

  7. Transcriptomic and proteomic responses of Serratia marcescens to spaceflight conditions involve large-scale changes in metabolic pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yajuan; Yuan, Yanting; Liu, Jinwen; Su, Longxiang; Chang, De; Guo, Yinghua; Chen, Zhenhong; Fang, Xiangqun; Wang, Junfeng; Li, Tianzhi; Zhou, Lisha; Fang, Chengxiang; Yang, Ruifu; Liu, Changting

    2014-04-01

    The microgravity environment of spaceflight expeditions has been associated with altered microbial responses. This study explores the characterization of Serratia marcescensis grown in a spaceflight environment at the phenotypic, transcriptomic and proteomic levels. From November 1, 2011 to November 17, 2011, a strain of S. marcescensis was sent into space for 398 h on the Shenzhou VIII spacecraft, and ground simulation was performed as a control (LCT-SM213). After the flight, two mutant strains (LCT-SM166 and LCT-SM262) were selected for further analysis. Although no changes in the morphology, post-culture growth kinetics, hemolysis or antibiotic sensitivity were observed, the two mutant strains exhibited significant changes in their metabolic profiles after exposure to spaceflight. Enrichment analysis of the transcriptome showed that the differentially expressed genes of the two spaceflight strains and the ground control strain mainly included those involved in metabolism and degradation. The proteome revealed that changes at the protein level were also associated with metabolic functions, such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pyruvate metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism and the degradation of valine, leucine and isoleucine. In summary S. marcescens showed alterations primarily in genes and proteins that were associated with metabolism under spaceflight conditions, which gave us valuable clues for future research.

  8. Identification, structural, and biochemical characterization of a group of large Csn2 proteins involved in CRISPR-mediated bacterial immunity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Gyu; Eun Lee, Kyung; Jeon, Hyesung; Robinson, Howard; Oh, Byung-Ha

    2012-11-01

    Many prokaryotic organisms acquire immunity against foreign genetic material by incorporating a short segment of foreign DNA called spacer into chromosomal loci, termed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). The encoded RNAs are processed into small fragments that guide the silencing of the invading genetic elements. The CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins are the main executioners of these processes. Herein, we report the crystal structure of Stu0660 of Streptococcus thermophilus, a Cas protein involved in the acquisition of new spacers. By homotetramerization, Stu0660 forms a central channel which is decorated with basic amino acids and binds linear double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), but not circular dsDNA. Despite undetectably low sequence similarity, two N-terminal domains of Stu0660 are similar to the entire structure of an Enterococcus faecalis Csn2 protein, which also forms a homotetramer and binds dsDNA. Thus, this work identifies a previously unknown group of Stu0660-like Csn2 proteins (∼350 residues), which are larger than the known canonical Csn2 proteins (∼220 residues) by containing an extra C-terminal domain. The commonly present central channel in the two subgroups appears as a design to selectively interact with linear dsDNA.

  9. Bone involvement and abcess formation by neutrophil-rich CD30+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma mimicking skeletal infection in an AIDS patient.

    PubMed

    Mira, José A; Fernández-Alonso, Jorge; Macías, Juan; Sáez, Carmen; Japón, Miguel A; Pereda, Teresa; Pineda, Juan A

    2003-07-01

    Neutrophil-rich CD30+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare pathological entity without distinct clinical behavior. Twelve cases of neutrophil-rich CD30+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) have been reported, three of them were HIV-infected patients. All these reports stressed the presence of neutrophil infiltration as a new morphologic feature of CD30+ ALCL. Only one case of cutaneous involvement presented with microabscess formation. We describe a case of neutrophil-rich CD30+ ALCL in an AIDS patient with a clinical picture determined by the massive neutrophil infiltration of the tumor without necrosis nor local infection, but with the formation of abscesses.

  10. Evaluating HapMap SNP data transferability in a large-scale genotyping project involving 175 cancer-associated genes.

    PubMed

    Ribas, Gloria; González-Neira, Anna; Salas, Antonio; Milne, Roger L; Vega, Ana; Carracedo, Begoña; González, Emilio; Barroso, Eva; Fernández, Lara P; Yankilevich, Patricio; Robledo, Mercedes; Carracedo, Angel; Benítez, Javier

    2006-02-01

    One of the many potential uses of the HapMap project is its application to the investigation of complex disease aetiology among a wide range of populations. This study aims to assess the transferability of HapMap SNP data to the Spanish population in the context of cancer research. We have carried out a genotyping study in Spanish subjects involving 175 candidate cancer genes using an indirect gene-based approach and compared results with those for HapMap CEU subjects. Allele frequencies were very consistent between the two samples, with a high positive correlation (R) of 0.91 (P<1x10(-6)). Linkage disequilibrium patterns and block structures across each gene were also very similar, with disequilibrium coefficient (r (2)) highly correlated (R=0.95, P<1x10(-6)). We found that of the 21 genes that contained at least one block larger than 60 kb, nine (ATM, ATR, BRCA1, ERCC6, FANCC, RAD17, RAD50, RAD54B and XRCC4) belonged to the GO category "DNA repair". Haplotype frequencies per gene were also highly correlated (mean R=0.93), as was haplotype diversity (R=0.91, P<1x10(-6)). "Yin yang" haplotypes were observed for 43% of the genes analysed and 18% of those were identical to the ancestral haplotype (identified in Chimpazee). Finally, the portability of tagSNPs identified in the HapMap CEU data using pairwise r (2) thresholds of 0.8 and 0.5 was assessed by applying these to the Spanish and current HapMap data for 66 genes. In general, the HapMap tagSNPs performed very well. Our results show generally high concordance with HapMap data in allele frequencies and haplotype distributions and confirm the applicability of HapMap SNP data to the study of complex diseases among the Spanish population.

  11. T-cell defect in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas involves expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    PubMed

    Azzaoui, Imane; Uhel, Fabrice; Rossille, Delphine; Pangault, Celine; Dulong, Joelle; Le Priol, Jerome; Lamy, Thierry; Houot, Roch; Le Gouill, Steven; Cartron, Guillaume; Godmer, Pascal; Bouabdallah, Krimo; Milpied, Noel; Damaj, Gandhi; Tarte, Karin; Fest, Thierry; Roussel, Mikael

    2016-08-25

    In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the number of circulating monocytes and neutrophils represents an independent prognostic factor. These cell subsets include monocytic and granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M- and G-MDSCs) defined by their ability to suppress T-cell responses. MDSCs are a heterogeneous population described in inflammatory and infectious diseases and in numerous tumors including multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and DLBCL. However, their mechanisms of action remain unclear. We broadly assessed the presence and mechanisms of suppression of MDSC subsets in DLBCL. First, a myeloid suppressive signature was identified by gene expression profiling in DLBCL peripheral blood. Accordingly, we identified, in a cohort of 66 DLBCL patients, an increase in circulating G-MDSC (Lin(neg)HLA-DR(neg)CD33(pos)CD11b(pos)) and M-MDSC (CD14(pos)HLA-DR(low)) counts. Interestingly, only M-MDSC number was correlated with the International Prognostic Index, event-free survival, and number of circulating Tregs. Furthermore, T-cell proliferation was restored after monocyte depletion. Myeloid-dependent T-cell suppression was attributed to a release of interleukin-10 and S100A12 and increased PD-L1 expression. In summary, we identified expanded MDSC subsets in DLBCL, as well as new mechanisms of immunosuppression in DLBCL.

  12. Retrospective review of adverse incidents involving passengers seated in wheeled mobility devices while traveling in large accessible transit vehicles.

    PubMed

    Frost, Karen L; Bertocci, Gina

    2010-04-01

    Characterize wheeled mobility device (WhMD) adverse incidents on large accessible transit vehicles (LATVs) based on vehicle motion, WhMD activity during incident, incident scenario and injury. Retrospective records review. WhMD passengers traveling on LATVs while remaining seated in their. Adverse incidents characterized based on vehicle motion, WhMD activity during incident, and incident scenario. Injury characterized based on outcome, medical attention sought, vehicle activity, WhMD activity and incident scenario. 115 WhMD-related incident reports for years 2000-2005 were analyzed. Most incidents occurred when the LATV was stopped (73.9%), during ingress/egress (42.6%), and at the securement station (33.9%) when the LATV was moving. The combination of WhMD tipping and passenger falling (43.4%) occurred most frequently, and was 1.8 times more likely to occur during ingress/egress than at the securement station. One-third (33.6%) of all incidents resulted in injury, and injuries were equally distributed between ingress/egress (43.6%) and at the securement station (43.6%). WhMD users have a greater chance of incurring injury during ingress/egress than during transit. Research is needed to objectively assess real world transportation experiences of WhMD passengers, and to assess the adequacy of existing federal legislation/guidelines for accessible ramps used in public transportation. Copyright 2009 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. MASK, a large ankyrin repeat and KH domain-containing protein involved in Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel K; Carroll, Pamela M; Allard, John D; Simon, Michael A

    2002-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinases Sevenless (SEV) and the Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are required for the proper development of the Drosophila eye. The protein tyrosine phosphatase Corkscrew (CSW) is a common component of many RTK signaling pathways, and is required for signaling downstream of SEV and EGFR. In order to identify additional components of these signaling pathways, mutations that enhanced the phenotype of a dominant negative form of Corkscrew were isolated. This genetic screen identified the novel signaling molecule MASK, a large protein that contains two blocks of ankyrin repeats as well as a KH domain. MASK genetically interacts with known components of these RTK signaling pathways. In the developing eye imaginal disc, loss of MASK function generates phenotypes similar to those generated by loss of other components of the SEV and EGFR pathways. These phenotypes include compromised photoreceptor differentiation, cell survival and proliferation. Although MASK is localized predominantly in the cellular cytoplasm, it is not absolutely required for MAPK activation or nuclear translocation. Based on our results, we propose that MASK is a novel mediator of RTK signaling, and may act either downstream of MAPK or transduce signaling through a parallel branch of the RTK pathway.

  14. An assessment of the Irish population for large-scale genetic mapping studies involving epilepsy and other complex diseases.

    PubMed

    O'Dushlaine, Colm T; Dolan, Ciara; Weale, Michael E; Stanton, Alice; Croke, David T; Kalviainen, Reetta; Eriksson, Kai; Kantanen, Anne-Mari; Gibson, Rachel A; Hosford, David; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Gill, Michael; Corvin, Aiden P; Morris, Derek W; Delanty, Norman; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L

    2008-02-01

    The recent completion of the International HapMap Project has rapidly advanced our understanding of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the human genome. Today, tagging SNPs (tSNPs) can be quickly and easily selected and consequently HapMap data are regularly applied to both small- and large-scale genetic mapping studies. However, to correctly interpret the application of HapMap-derived tSNPs in a genetic mapping study, an understanding of how well HapMap data represents LD in the study population is critical. The Irish population had not previously been characterised in this way. Here, we do so using a set of 4424 SNPs selected from 279 candidate genes for epilepsy genotyped across 1118 healthy individuals from the Irish, British, Finnish and Australian populations. By considering the Irish population alongside surrounding European populations, our results confirm that the HapMap European-derived population accurately estimates patterning of LD in European descent populations. The Irish population appears notably well matched to the European HapMap population, and is markedly similar to the neighbouring British population. Although we were unable to detect significant substructure within the Irish population (a favourable result for genetic mapping), methods for controlling stratification should always be incorporated. This analysis therefore confirms that the genetic architecture of the Irish population is well suited to the study of complex traits and that tSNPs selected using the HapMap data can be confidently applied to the Irish population.

  15. A novel orally available inhibitor of focal adhesion signaling increases survival in a xenograft model of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with central nervous system involvement.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Rosa; Moreno, María José; Dieguez-Gonzalez, Rebeca; Céspedes, María Virtudes; Gallardo, Alberto; Trias, Manuel; Grañena, Albert; Sierra, Jorge; Casanova, Isolda; Mangues, Ramon

    2013-08-01

    Central nervous system dissemination is a relatively uncommon but almost always fatal complication in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients. Optimal therapy for central nervous involvement in this malignancy has not been established. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of E7123, a celecoxib derivative that inhibits focal adhesion signaling, in a novel xenograft model of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with central nervous system involvement. Cells obtained after disaggregation of HT subcutaneous tumors (HT-SC cells) were intravenously injected in NOD/SCID mice. These mice received oral vehicle or 75 mg/kg of E7123 daily until they were euthanized for weight loss or signs of sickness. The antitumor effect of E7123 was validated in an independent experiment using a bioluminescent mouse model. Intravenously injected HT-SC cells showed higher take rate and higher central nervous system tropism (associated with increased expression of β1-integrin and p130Cas proteins) than HT cells. The oral administration of E7123 significantly increased survival time in 2 independent experiments using mice injected with unmodified or bioluminescent HT-SC cells. We have developed a new xenograft model of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with central nervous system involvement that can be used in the pre-clinical evaluation of new drugs for this malignancy. E7123 is a new, well-tolerated and orally available therapeutic agent that merits further investigation since it may improve current management of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients with central nervous system involvement.

  16. Applying the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) approach to a large pragmatic study involving safety net clinics.

    PubMed

    Coury, Jennifer; Schneider, Jennifer L; Rivelli, Jennifer S; Petrik, Amanda F; Seibel, Evelyn; D'Agostini, Brieshon; Taplin, Stephen H; Green, Beverly B; Coronado, Gloria D

    2017-06-19

    The Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle is a commonly used improvement process in health care settings, although its documented use in pragmatic clinical research is rare. A recent pragmatic clinical research study, called the Strategies and Opportunities to STOP Colon Cancer in Priority Populations (STOP CRC), used this process to optimize the research implementation of an automated colon cancer screening outreach program in intervention clinics. We describe the process of using this PDSA approach, the selection of PDSA topics by clinic leaders, and project leaders' reactions to using PDSA in pragmatic research. STOP CRC is a cluster-randomized pragmatic study that aims to test the effectiveness of a direct-mail fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) program involving eight Federally Qualified Health Centers in Oregon and California. We and a practice improvement specialist trained in the PDSA process delivered structured presentations to leaders of these centers; the presentations addressed how to apply the PDSA process to improve implementation of a mailed outreach program offering colorectal cancer screening through FIT tests. Center leaders submitted PDSA plans and delivered reports via webinar at quarterly meetings of the project's advisory board. Project staff conducted one-on-one, 45-min interviews with project leads from each health center to assess the reaction to and value of the PDSA process in supporting the implementation of STOP CRC. Clinic-selected PDSA activities included refining the intervention staffing model, improving outreach materials, and changing workflow steps. Common benefits of using PDSA cycles in pragmatic research were that it provided a structure for staff to focus on improving the program and it allowed staff to test the change they wanted to see. A commonly reported challenge was measuring the success of the PDSA process with the available electronic medical record tools. Understanding how the PDSA process can be applied to pragmatic

  17. Overview of coal conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, B.R.

    1981-03-27

    The structure of coal and the processes of coal gasification and coal liquefaction are reviewed. While coal conversion technology is not likely to provide a significant amount of synthetic fuel within the next several years, there is a clear interest both in government and private sectors in the development of this technology to hedge against ever-diminishing petroleum supplies, especially from foreign sources. It is evident from this rather cursory survey that there is some old technology that is highly reliable; new technology is being developed but is not ready for commercialization at the present state of development. The area of coal conversion is ripe for exploration both on the applied and basic research levels. A great deal more must be understood about the reactions of coal, the reactions of coal products, and the physics and chemistry involved in the various stages of coal conversion processes in order to make this technology economically viable.

  18. ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma with urinary bladder involvement diagnosed in urine cytology: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lobo, João; Henrique, Rui; Monteiro, Paula; Lobo, Cláudia

    2017-04-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is an aggressive T-cell neoplasm. It rarely involves the urinary bladder, with just twelve cases reported thus far and only one being ALK-negative. Immunophenotyping (particularly for ALK) is mandatory, both for prognostic and therapeutic reasons. Herein, we report the case of a patient with an ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma involving the bladder which was diagnosed and fully characterized by immunocytochemistry in urine cytology. The patient underwent a cystoscopy and the urine sample disclosed tumor diathesis background and aggregates of atypical cells, with evidence of multinucleation and mitotic figures. Immunocytochemistry revealed strong membrane/Golgi positivity for CD30 and negativity for ALK. The patient was submitted to transurethral resection for therapeutic purposes, which confirmed the diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, this represents only the third case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma with bladder involvement diagnosed in urine cytology and the very first with diagnostic findings allowing for immunophenotyping of the disease in a bladder wash. The present report reinforces the role of urine cytology as a suitable method for establishing an earlier diagnosis and characterization of the disease, avoiding submitting patients to invasive procedures like transurethral resections. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:354-358. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Conversational sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  20. Clients as conversational agents.

    PubMed

    Massfeller, Helen F; Strong, Tom

    2012-08-01

    Conversational agency is our invented term that orients us to ways in which clients participate in therapeutic dialogues. In this study we examined how clients' conversational correctives and initiatives influenced collaborative therapeutic consultations. Thirty-five single-session lifestyle consultations were videotaped in which adult clients volunteered to discuss concerns of non-clinical severity with a counselor. We discursively microanalyzed excerpts where clients initiated topic shifts or corrected counselor misunderstandings and how counselors responded to them. Clients were actively involved in co-managing conversational developments during the consultations. They influenced the content and course of the conversations with the counselors by correcting, interrupting, or speaking from positions contrary or unrelated to those of the counselors. Clients observably influenced the conversational agenda through their correctives and initiatives if counselors were responsive during face-to-face consultations. Clinicians should demonstrate increased sensitivity and relational responsivity by intentionally engaging with clients' agentive contributions to consultative dialogues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Isomolybdate conversion coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minevski, Zoran (Inventor); Maxey, Jason (Inventor); Nelson, Carl (Inventor); Eylem, Cahit (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A conversion coating solution and process forms a stable and corrosion-resistant layer on metal substrates or layers or, more preferably, on a boehmite layer or other base conversion coating. The conversion coating process involves contacting the substrate, layer or coating with an aqueous alkali metal isomolybdate solution in order to convert the surface of the substrate, layer or coating to a stable conversion coating. The aqueous alkali metal molybdates are selected from sodium molybdate (Na.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), lithium molybdate (Li.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), potassium molybdate (K.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), or combinations thereof, with the most preferred alkali metal molybdate being sodium molybdate. The concentration of alkali metal molybdates in the solution is preferably less than 5% by weight. In addition to the alkali metal molybdates, the conversion coating solution may include alkaline metal passivators selected from lithium nitrate (LiNO.sub.3), sodium nitrate (NaNO.sub.3), ammonia nitrate (NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3), and combinations thereof; lithium chloride, potassium hexafluorozirconate (K.sub.2 ZrF.sub.6) or potassium hexafluorotitanate (K.sub.2 TiF.sub.6).

  2. Ownership conversion and closure in the nursing home industry.

    PubMed

    Bowblis, John R

    2011-06-01

    Ownership conversions and closures in the nursing home literature have largely been treated as separate issues. This paper studies the predictors of nursing home ownership conversions and closure in a common framework after the implementation of the Prospective Payment System in Medicare skilled nursing facilities. The switch in reimbursement regimes impacted facilities with greater exposure to Medicare and lower efficiency. Facilities that faced greater financial difficulty were more likely to be involved in an ownership conversion or closure, but after controlling for other factors the effect of exposure to Medicare is small. Further, factors that predict conversion were found to vary between not-for-profit and for-profit facilities, while factors that predict closure were the same for each ownership type. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Differences in the morphine-induced inhibition of small and large intestinal transit: Involvement of central and peripheral μ-opioid receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Umemoto, Hiroyuki; Mori, Tomohisa; Akatsu, Ryuya; Saito, Shinichiro; Tashima, Kimihito; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Kato, Shinichi; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Horie, Syunji

    2016-01-15

    Constipation is the most common side effect of morphine. Morphine acts centrally and on peripheral sites within the enteric nervous system. There are a few comprehensive studies on morphine-induced constipation in the small and large intestine by the activation of central and peripheral μ-opioid receptors. We investigated the differences in the inhibition of the small and large intestinal transit in normal and morphine-tolerant mice. Morphine reduced the geometric center in the fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran assay and prolonged the bead expulsion time in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of morphine were blocked by μ-opioid antagonist β-funaltrexamine, but not by δ- and κ-opioid antagonists. The peripheral opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone methiodide, partially blocked morphine's effect in the small intestine and completely blocked its effect in the large intestine. The intracerebroventricular administration of naloxone significantly reversed the delay of small intestinal transit but did not affect morphine-induced inhibition of large intestinal transit. Naloxone methiodide completely reversed the inhibition of large intestinal transit in normal and morphine-tolerant mice. Naloxone methiodide partially reversed the morphine-induced inhibition of small intestinal transit in normal mice but completely reversed the effects of morphine in tolerant mice. Chronic treatment with morphine results in tolerance to its inhibitory effect on field-stimulated contraction in the isolated small intestine but not in the large intestine. These results suggest that peripheral and central opioid receptors are involved in morphine-induced constipation in the small and large intestine during the early stage of treatment, but the peripheral receptors mainly regulate constipation during long-term morphine treatment.

  4. CT-assessed large airway involvement and lung function decline in eosinophilic asthma: The association between induced sputum eosinophil differential counts and airway remodeling.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hideki; Ito, Isao; Niimi, Akio; Matsumoto, Hisako; Matsuoka, Hirofumi; Jinnai, Makiko; Takeda, Tomoshi; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Otsuka, Kojiro; Nakaji, Hitoshi; Tajiri, Tomoko; Iwata, Toshiyuki; Nagasaki, Tadao; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Mishima, Michiaki

    2016-11-01

    Eosinophilic asthma (EA) is a distinct clinical phenotype characterized by eosinophilic airway inflammation and airway remodeling. Few studies have used computed tomography (CT) scanning to assess the association between sputum eosinophil differential counts and airway involvement. We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and airway involvement of EA, and to examine the correlation between induced sputum eosinophil differential counts and CT-assessed airway remodeling. We retrospectively divided 63 patients with stable asthma receiving inhaled corticosteroids into 2 groups: 26 patients with EA (sputum eosinophil >3%) and 37 patients with non-eosinophilic asthma (NEA). Clinical measurements such as spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO), and CT-assessed indices of airway involvement were compared between the groups. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify determinants of the percentage of wall area (WA%). The EA group had significantly longer asthma duration, lower pulmonary function, and higher FeNO than the NEA group. Also, the EA group had higher WA% and smaller airway luminal area than the NEA group. Sputum eosinophil differential counts and WA% were positively correlated. The multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the factors associated with WA% included sputum eosinophil differential counts, age, and body mass index. However, asthma duration was not associated with WA%. Our CT-assessed findings demonstrated large airway involvement in EA, and we observed a positive association between induced sputum eosinophil differential counts and WA%. The findings indicate that induced sputum eosinophil differential counts may be associated with airway remodeling in patients with stable asthma.

  5. Parathyroid gland involvement by thyroid cancer: results from a large series of thyroidectomies performed in two italian university hospitals and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Papi, Giampaolo; Corrado, Stefania; Fadda, Guido; Maiorana, Antonino; Maccio, Livia; Corsello, Salvatore Maria; Pontecorvi, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives.Parathyroid involvement by thyroid cancer (TC) has not been frequently investigated in thyroidectomy-based studies. We aimed to detect cases of parathyroid invasion by TC in a large series of thyroidectomies and to review the literature on this topic. Study Design. A 10-yr period database research was made from the files of the Section of Pathology of two Italian University Hospitals. Out of 22,310 thyroidectomies, 10 patients with parathyroid involvement by TC were found. Results. The 10 patients, 7 females and 3 males, aged 55 ± 14 years (range 34-76, median 56) had papillary thyroid carcinoma and accounted for 0.4% of subjects affected by all TCs and submitted to thyroidectomy. The tumor invaded perithyroid soft tissues in 6 patients and central neck (level VI) lymph nodes in 3. Parathyroid involvement by TC occurred by infiltration in 6 cases, extension through an intervening pseudocapsule in 1, and both patterns in 3. All patients are alive and disease free at 5.6 ± 3-yr follow-up. Conclusion. Limited to thyroidectomy series, our results and literature data suggest that parathyroid involvement by TC has a 0.4-3.9% incidence rate; mainly affects women in their sixth-seventh decade of life; is associated to a good prognosis, unless massive extrathyroid extension of TC occurs.

  6. Problems involved in the large scale production of biological products, such as beta-interferon, using diploid fibroblast cells as substrate.

    PubMed

    Morandi, M; Stanghellini, L; Valeri, A

    1985-01-01

    The large-scale and continuous cycle production of Hu beta-IFN serves to indicate that with expansion of cell cultures, aspects such as the reliability of the growth media and the possibility of contamination of cultures may become critical and limiting factors for the production itself. Methods of growth media preparation are described, with particular stress on the problems related to bacterial contamination and water quality. Our production method involves the expansion of cellular cultures using roller bottles, and a final step using the microcarrier technique. The necessity of collecting the cultures in only two fermentors increases the possibilities of contamination. Methods employed in order to minimize these problems are discussed.

  7. Adaptive Feedback Improving Learningful Conversations at Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaeta, Matteo; Mangione, Giuseppina Rita; Miranda, Sergio; Orciuoli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes the definition of an Adaptive Conversation-based Learning System (ACLS) able to foster computer-mediated tutorial dialogues at the workplace in order to increase the probability to generate meaningful learning during conversations. ACLS provides a virtual assistant selecting the best partner to involve in the conversation and…

  8. Peripheral nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: Prevalence, clinical and immunological characteristics, treatment and outcome of a large cohort from a single centre.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Pilar; Orueta, Ramón; Rodríguez-Pintó, Ignasi; Valls-Solé, Josep; Cervera, Ricard; Espinosa, Gerard

    2017-07-01

    Disorders of peripheral nervous system in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (PNS-SLE) are a major cause of morbidity. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of PNS-SLE involvement in a large cohort of SLE patients from a single centre, to characterize such involvement, treatment modalities and outcome, and to identify the possible variables that may be associated with its presence. We performed an observational cross-sectional study that included all SLE patients being followed in our department between March and December 2015 who met at least one of the PNS-SLE case definitions proposed in 1999 by the American College of Rheumatology. Overall, 93 out of 524 (17,7%) patients presented with PNS-SLE syndrome; 90 (96.8%) of them were women with a mean age at PNS-SLE syndrome diagnosis was 44.8±14.1years and the average time from diagnosis of SLE to PNS-SLE diagnosis was 88 (range, 541-400) months. The most frequent manifestation was polyneuropathy (36.6%), followed by non-compression mononeuropathy (23.7%), cranial neuropathy and myasthenia gravis (7.5%, each), and Guillain-Barré syndrome (1.1%). The most frequent electrodiagnostic tests (EDX) pattern was axonal degeneration, present in 49 patients that corresponded to 80.3% of the overall EDX patterns. Mixed sensory-motor neuropathy was the most common type of involvement accounted for 56% of cases. Thirty-six out of 90 (40%) received glucocorticoids and/or immunosuppressant agents. Overall, global response (complete and/or partial) to treatments was achieved in 77.4% of patients without differences between the types of PNS-SLE involvement. Older age at SLE diagnosis (37.3±14.8 versus 30.8±12; p=0.001) and absence of hematologic involvement as cumulative SLE manifestation (11.8% versus 21.5%; p=0.034) had independent statistical significant associations with PNS-SLE development. The PNS-SLE involvement is not uncommon. Its most frequent manifestation is sensory-motor axonal

  9. PET/CT Scanner and Bone Marrow Biopsy in Detection of Bone Marrow Involvement in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    El Karak, Fadi; Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R.; Ghosn, Marwan; Kattan, Joseph; Farhat, Fadi; Ibrahim, Toni; Jreige, Mario; El Cheikh, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of bone marrow involvement (BMI) is paramount in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) for prognostic and therapeutic reasons. PET/CT scanner (PET) is now a routine examination for the staging of DLBCL with prognostic and therapeutic implications. This study evaluates the role of PET for detecting marrow involvement compared to bone marrow biopsy (BMB). This monocentric study included 54 patients diagnosed with DLBCL between 2009 and 2013 and who had FDG PET/CT in a pre-treatment setting. A correlation analysis of the detection of BMI by PET and BMB was performed. A prognostic evaluation of BMI by BMB and/or PET/CT and correlation with an overall 2-year survival were analyzed. PET was more sensitive for the detection of BMI than BMB (92.3% vs. 38.5%). It can be considered a discriminatory Pre-BMB test with a negative predictive value of 97.6%. In addition, BMI by PET had a prognostic value with strong correlation with progression-free survival (PFS) (HR = 3.81; p = 0.013) and overall survival (OS) (HR = 4.12; p = 0.03) while the BMB had not. PET shows superior performance to the BMB for the detection of marrow involvement in DLBCL. It may be considered as the first line examination of bone marrow instead of the biopsy. PMID:28099514

  10. PET/CT Scanner and Bone Marrow Biopsy in Detection of Bone Marrow Involvement in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    El Karak, Fadi; Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R; Ghosn, Marwan; Kattan, Joseph; Farhat, Fadi; Ibrahim, Toni; Jreige, Mario; El Cheikh, Jean; Haidar, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of bone marrow involvement (BMI) is paramount in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) for prognostic and therapeutic reasons. PET/CT scanner (PET) is now a routine examination for the staging of DLBCL with prognostic and therapeutic implications. This study evaluates the role of PET for detecting marrow involvement compared to bone marrow biopsy (BMB). This monocentric study included 54 patients diagnosed with DLBCL between 2009 and 2013 and who had FDG PET/CT in a pre-treatment setting. A correlation analysis of the detection of BMI by PET and BMB was performed. A prognostic evaluation of BMI by BMB and/or PET/CT and correlation with an overall 2-year survival were analyzed. PET was more sensitive for the detection of BMI than BMB (92.3% vs. 38.5%). It can be considered a discriminatory Pre-BMB test with a negative predictive value of 97.6%. In addition, BMI by PET had a prognostic value with strong correlation with progression-free survival (PFS) (HR = 3.81; p = 0.013) and overall survival (OS) (HR = 4.12; p = 0.03) while the BMB had not. PET shows superior performance to the BMB for the detection of marrow involvement in DLBCL. It may be considered as the first line examination of bone marrow instead of the biopsy.

  11. Analysis of clinical and immunophenotypic features along with treatment outcomes of diffuse large B cell lymphoma patients, based on the involvement of nodal or extranodal primary sites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Li, Wei; Liu, Chunshui; He, Hua; Bai, Ou

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the clinical features, immunophenotype and treatment outcomes of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients based on the involvement of the primary site i.e. lymph node or specific extranodal sites. We analyzed the clinical characteristics, immunophenotype and treatment outcomes of 207 DLBCL patients diagnosed in China between 2007 and 2014 based on the primary site of location. Based on the involvement of primary site of occurrence, DLBCL cases, were classified into different groups like, lymph node (60 cases, 28.98%), gastrointestinal tract (GI) (53 cases, 25.60%), Waldeyer's ring (WR) (31 cases, 14.97%), gland (25 cases, 12.08%), and other extranodal sites (38 cases, 18.36%). Patients with WR involvement were more frequently associated with early stage disease, favorable performance status, absence of bulky disease, normal LDH and ESR levels, and low- or low/intermediate-risk IPI than the other groups. The proportion of DLBCL patients with germinal center B cell (GCB) phenotype was 56.0% for WR, 46.5% for GI, 34.5% for lymph node, 27.8% for other extranodal sites, and 18.2% for gland (P=0.035). The 5-year overall survival (OS) of the entire patient population was 71.1%, and WR group showed a better outcome than nodal group (84.9% vs. 55.9%, P=0.015). In multivariate analysis, bulky disease, bone marrow infiltration, non-GCB phenotype, intermediate/high- or high-risk IPI and SD/PD/Death after first therapy were identified as independent factors for poor OS, while regular application of rituximab and remission after first therapy were identified as favorable prognostic factors for PFS. In this study, WR involvement was associated with more favorable clinical & pathological features along with better outcome than nodal lymphoma. The OS and PFS were largely dependent on other prognostic variables such as IPI or immunophenotype instead of the sites of involvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cloning and analysis of structural genes from Streptomyces pristinaespiralis encoding enzymes involved in the conversion of pristinamycin IIB to pristinamycin IIA (PIIA): PIIA synthase and NADH:riboflavin 5'-phosphate oxidoreductase.

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, V; Lagneaux, D; Didier, P; Gil, P; Lacroix, P; Crouzet, J

    1995-01-01

    In Streptomyces pristinaespiralis, two enzymes are necessary for conversion of pristinamycin IIB (PIIB) to pristinamycin IIA (PIIA), the major component of pristinamycin (D. Thibaut, N. Ratet, D. Bisch, D. Faucher, L. Debussche, and F. Blanche, J. Bacteriol. 177:5199-5205, 1995); these enzymes are PIIA synthase, a heterodimer composed of the SnaA and SnaB proteins, which catalyzes the oxidation of PIIB to PIIA, and the NADH:riboflavin 5'-phosphate oxidoreductase (hereafter called FMN reductase), the SnaC protein, which provides the reduced form of flavin mononucleotide for the reaction. By using oligonucleotide probes designed from limited peptide sequence information of the purified proteins, the corresponding genes were cloned from a genomic library of S. pristinaespiralis. SnaA and SnaB showed no significant similarity with proteins from databases, but SnaA and SnaB had similar protein domains. Disruption of the snaA gene in S. pristinaespiralis led to accumulation of PIIB. Complementation of a S. pristinaespiralis PIIA-PIIB+ mutant with the snaA and snaB genes, cloned in a low-copy-number plasmid, partially restored production of PIIA. The deduced amino acid sequence of the snaC gene showed no similarity to the sequences of other FMN reductases but was 39% identical with the product of the actVB gene of the actinorhodin cluster of Streptomyces coelicolor A(3)2, likely to be involved in the dimerization step of actinorhodin biosynthesis. Furthermore, an S. coelicolor A(3)2 mutant blocked in this step was successfully complemented by the snaC gene, restoring the production of actinorhodin. PMID:7665509

  13. Conversion of Androgen Receptor Signaling From a Growth Suppressor in Normal Prostate Epithelial Cells to an Oncogene in Prostate Cancer Cells Involves a Gain of Function in c-Myc Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Vander Griend, Donald J.; Litvinov, Ivan V.; Isaacs, John T.

    2014-01-01

    In normal prostate, androgen-dependent androgen receptor (AR) signaling within prostate stromal cells induces their secretion of paracrine factors, termed “andromedins” which stimulate growth of the epithelial cells. The present studies demonstrate that androgen-dependent andromedin-driven growth stimulation is counter-balanced by androgen-induced AR signaling within normal adult prostate epithelial cells resulting in terminal G0 growth arrest coupled with terminal differentiation into ΔNp63-negative, PSA-expressing secretory luminal cells. This cell autonomous AR-driven terminal differentiation requires DNA-binding of the AR protein, is associated with decreases in c-Myc m-RNA and protein, are coupled with increases in p21, p27, and SKP-2 protein expression, and does not require functional p53. These changes result in down-regulation of Cyclin D1 protein and RB phosphoryation. shRNA knockdown documents that neither RB, p21, p27 alone or in combination are required for such AR-induced G0 growth arrest. Transgenic expression of a constitutive vector to prevent c-Myc down-regulation overrides AR-mediated growth arrest in normal prostate epithelial cells, which documents that AR-induced c-Myc down-regulation is critical in terminal growth arrest of normal prostate epithelial cells. In contrast, in prostate cancer cells, androgen-induced AR signaling paradoxically up-regulates c-Myc expression and stimulates growth as documented by inhibition of both of these responses following exposure to the AR antagonist, bicalutamide. These data document that AR signaling is converted from a growth suppressor in normal prostate epithelial cells to an oncogene in prostate cancer cells during prostatic carcinogenesis and that this conversion involves a gain of function for regulation of c-Myc expression. PMID:24948876

  14. Studies on BVD involving establishment of sentinel calves and assessment of herd immunity in a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abu Elzein, Eltayb; Alkhalyifa, Mofeed

    2012-03-01

    Little information is published, so far, regarding bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. This study is the first of its kind in the country. Its aim was to explore the BVD situation in a large dairy farm, which has been experiencing reproduction problems suggestive of BVD virus infection, albeit the practice of routine vaccination. The study took two pathways; the first involved establishment of a cohort of sentinel calves so as: (a) to note the BVD virus activity in the farm by following the time lapse and pattern for waning of the maternally derived antibodies and detection of any subsequent seroconversion and (b) to look for any clinical signs suggestive of BVD virus infection in these calves. The second pathway was to assess the level of herd immunity in the different age groups of lactating cows and maiden heifers. The obtained results were discussed, and control strategies were outlined.

  15. Confronting solutions to the atmospheric neutrino anomaly involving large angle νμ-->νe oscillations with SuperKamiokande and CHOOZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foot, R.; Volkas, R. R.; Yasuda, O.

    1998-08-01

    Neutrino oscillation scenarios involving large angle νμ-->νe oscillations are disfavoured in the parameter range Δm2/eV2>~10-3 by recent results from the CHOOZ reactor-based νoverlinee disappearance experiment. For this reason we extend our previous work on up-down asymmetries for various oscillation scenarios by computing up-down asymmetries and the R ratio for the entire range of interest of Δm2. Matter effects in the Earth play a crucial role. We perform a χ2 fit to the data. We find that, because of the matter effect, the three-flavour maximal mixing model provides a reasonable fit to SuperKamiokande and CHOOZ data provided that the relevant Δm2 is in the range 4x10- 4<~Δm2/eV2<~1.5x10-3.

  16. Large-scale phosphotyrosine proteomic profiling of rat renal collecting duct epithelium reveals predominance of proteins involved in cell polarity determination.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Boyang; Knepper, Mark A; Chou, Chung-Lin; Pisitkun, Trairak

    2012-01-01

    Although extensive phosphoproteomic information is available for renal epithelial cells, previous emphasis has been on phosphorylation of serines and threonines with little focus on tyrosine phosphorylation. Here we have carried out large-scale identification of phosphotyrosine sites in pervanadate-treated native inner medullary collecting ducts of rat, with a view towards identification of physiological processes in epithelial cells that are potentially regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. The method combined antibody-based affinity purification of tyrosine phosphorylated peptides coupled with immobilized metal ion chromatography to enrich tyrosine phosphopeptides, which were identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of 418 unique tyrosine phosphorylation sites in 273 proteins were identified. A large fraction of these sites have not been previously reported on standard phosphoproteomic databases. All results are accessible via an online database: http://helixweb.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/iPY/. Analysis of surrounding sequences revealed four overrepresented motifs: [D/E]xxY*, Y*xxP, DY*, and Y*E, where the asterisk symbol indicates the site of phosphorylation. These motifs plus contextual information, integrated using the NetworKIN tool, suggest that the protein tyrosine kinases involved include members of the insulin- and ephrin-receptor kinase families. Analysis of the gene ontology (GO) terms and KEGG pathways whose protein elements are overrepresented in our data set point to structures involved in epithelial cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions ("adherens junction," "tight junction," and "focal adhesion") and to components of the actin cytoskeleton as major sites of tyrosine phosphorylation in these cells. In general, these findings mesh well with evidence that tyrosine phosphorylation plays a key role in epithelial polarity determination.

  17. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma solely involving bilateral adrenal glands and stomach: report of an extremely rare case with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Mutsumi; Sekiguchi, Yasunobu; Shimada, Asami; Ichikawa, Kunimoto; Sugimoto, Keiji; Tomita, Shigeki; Izumi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Noriko; Sawada, Tomohiro; Ohta, Yasunori; Komatsu, Norio; Noguchi, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    A 60-year-old man complained of nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite, and a feeling of abdominal fullness in August 2013. Based on biopsy findings from an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy examination, a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), non-GC type, was made. F18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) revealed abnormal accumulations solely in the gastric wall (SUVmax = 14.5), the left adrenal gland (SUVmax = 14.3), and the right adrenal gland (SUVmax = 8.5). The clinical stage (Ann Arbor) was IVA, the serum LDH level was within the reference range, and the International Prognostic Index (IPI) was low-intermediate. The serum soluble IL-2 receptor level was within the reference range, and there was no evidence of HIV, EB virus, or autoimmune disease. After the completion of 4 cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) and 2 parallel cycles of prophylactic intrathecal (I.T.), an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and a FDG-PET/CT examination showed complete remission (CR). The patient received 8 cycles of ritsuximab therapy, 6 cycles of CHOP, and 3 cycles of I.T. The patient has maintained a CR for about 14 months. A literature search revealed that malignant lymphoma with involvement confined to the adrenal gland and gastrointestinal tract is exceedingly rare, and only 3 cases of malignant lymphoma have been reported, with involvement of the stomach in 2 cases and the duodenum in 1 case. All of the cases were diagnosed as DLBCL. The case described herein represents the third case with involvement of the stomach.

  18. Power Conversion and Energy Storage System for a Fusion Reactor 3. Performance of Large Electric Power Equipment and Future View 3.2 Large Capacity Battery System -Vanadium Redox Battery-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi

    The various applications of Vanadium Redox Battery (VRB) are described as large capacity energy storage system. Vanadium Redox Battery has been originally developed for load-levelling by storing electricity during periods of low demand and releasing electricity into the load at periods of high demand. Recently, it has been applied for uninterruptible power supply systems because of its high speed of response, ranging from complete blackouts to momentary voltage sags. It can be utilized for stabilizing the output of renewable energy sources. It has been verified to smooth fluctuations in the wind power output.

  19. De novo characterization of the spleen transcriptome of the large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) and analysis of the immune relevant genes and pathways involved in the antiviral response.

    PubMed

    Mu, Yinnan; Li, Mingyu; Ding, Feng; Ding, Yang; Ao, Jingqun; Hu, Songnian; Chen, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    The large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) is an economically important marine fish in China. To understand the molecular basis for antiviral defense in this species, we used Illumia paired-end sequencing to characterize the spleen transcriptome of polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]-induced large yellow croakers. The library produced 56,355,728 reads and assembled into 108,237 contigs. As a result, 15,192 unigenes were found from this transcriptome. Gene ontology analysis showed that 4,759 genes were involved in three major functional categories: biological process, cellular component, and molecular function. We further ascertained that numerous consensus sequences were homologous to known immune-relevant genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthology mapping annotated 5,389 unigenes and identified numerous immune-relevant pathways. These immune-relevant genes and pathways revealed major antiviral immunity effectors, including but not limited to: pattern recognition receptors, adaptors and signal transducers, the interferons and interferon-stimulated genes, inflammatory cytokines and receptors, complement components, and B-cell and T-cell antigen activation molecules. Moreover, the partial genes of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, RIG-I-like receptors signaling pathway, Janus kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway, and T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathway were found to be changed after poly(I:C) induction by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, suggesting that these signaling pathways may be regulated by poly(I:C), a viral mimic. Overall, the antivirus-related genes and signaling pathways that were identified in response to poly(I:C) challenge provide valuable leads for further investigation of the antiviral defense mechanism in the large yellow croaker.

  20. Prevention and Management of Complications During Robotic-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy Following Comprehensive Planning: A Large Series Involving a Single Surgeon.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yen-Chuan; Yang, Chun-Kuang; Chang, Kuangh-Si; Wang, John; Hung, Siu-Wan; Tung, Min-Che; Tewari, Ashutosh K; Patel, Vipul R

    2016-04-01

    To report a series of 1,000 patients treated by a single surgeon using robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) and to show how to prevent and manage complications of the procedure. Complication rates were prospectively assessed in a series of 1,000 consecutive patients who underwent RALP (group I, cases 1-200; IIa, 201-400; IIb, 401-600; IIIa, 601-800; and IIIb, 801-1000). Preoperative evaluation focused on patients' history of gout, use of drugs that can influence clotting time, and cardiopulmonary problems. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was routinely performed. Operative difficulty was assessed based on the following variables: neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT), obesity [body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m(2)], prostate volume >70 g, presence of a large median lobe with intravesical protrusion >1 cm, previous transurethral resection of the prostate, previous pelvic surgery, previous extended pelvic lymph node dissection (EPLND), and salvage robotic radical prostatectomy (SRP). Operative difficulty tended to increase significantly with greater age, higher American Society of Anesthesiologists' anesthetic/surgical risk class scores, increased BMI, and more advanced clinical stage. The number of cases with NHT, obesity, previous pelvic surgery, EPLND, and SRP significantly increased from early to later groups of patients. Conversely, significantly less blood loss occurred in later groups of patients (group I, 179 ml to 97 ml in group IIIb; p<0.001). The need for blood transfusions gradually reduced from 3.5% to 0.5% in groups I and IIIb, respectively (p=0.022). The total complication rate was 6.4% (64/1,000; surgical/medical=5%/1.4%). Complication rates decreased significantly: 12%, 6%, 6%, 4%, and 4% in groups I, IIa, IIb, IIIa, and IIIb, respectively (p=0.003). The most common complications were blood transfusion and bowel problems (11/1,000=1.1%). Assessed in terms of groups of 200 cases, the surgeon's learning curve for RALP showed

  1. Pyroelectric conversion in space: A conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Pyroelectric conversion is potentially a very lightweight means of providing electrical power generation in space. Two conceptualized systems approaches for the direct conversion of heat (from sunlight) into electrical energy using the pyroelectric effect of a new class of polar polymers were evaluated. Both of the approaches involved large area thin sheets of plastic which are thermally cycled by radiative input and output of thermal energy. The systems studied are expected to eventually achieve efficiencies of the order of 8% and may deliver as much as one half kilowatt per kilogram. In addition to potentially very high specific power, the pyroelectric conversion approaches outlined appear to offer low cost per watt in the form of an easily deployed, flexible, strong, electrically ""self-healing'', and high voltage sheet. This study assessed several potential problems such as plasma interactions and radiation degradation and suggests approaches to overcome them. The fundamental technological issues for space pyroelectric conversion are: (1) demonstration of the conversion cycle with the proposed class of polymers, (2) achievement of improved dielectric strength of the material, (3) demonstration of acceptable plasma power losses for low altitude, and (4) establishment of reasonable lifetime for the pyroelectric material in the space environment. Recommendations include an experimental demonstration of the pyroelectric conversion cycle followed by studies to improve the dielectric strength of the polymer and basic studies to discover additional pyroelectric materials.

  2. Involvement of {alpha}ENaC and Nedd4-2 in the conversion from lung fluid secretion to fluid absorption at birth in the rat as assayed by RNA interference analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianbo; Koshy, Shyny; Folkesson, Hans G

    2007-10-01

    To explore interactions between the epithelial Na channel (ENaC) and neural precursor expressed, developmentally downregulated protein 4-2 (Nedd4-2) at the conversion of the rat lung from fluid secretion to absorption at birth, we used small-interfering RNA (siRNA) against alphaENaC and Nedd4-2. siRNA-generating plasmid DNA (pDNA) was administered via trans-thoracic intrapulmonary (ttip) injection 24 h before ENaC and Nedd4-2 expression, extravascular lung water, and mortality were measured. alphaENaC mRNA and protein were specifically reduced by approximately 65% after pSi-4 injection. Nedd4-2 mRNA and protein were reduced by approximately 60% after pSi-N1 injection. Interestingly, alphaENaC and betaENaC mRNA and protein expression were increased after Nedd4-2 silencing. Extravascular lung water was significantly increased after alphaENaC silencing and reduced after Nedd4-2 silencing. alphaENaC silencing resulted in a fourfold increase in newborn mortality, whereas silencing Nedd4-2 did not affect mortality. We also isolated distal lung epithelial (DLE) cells after in vivo alphaENaC or Nedd4-2 silencing and measured alphaENaC or Nedd4-2 expression in freshly isolated DLE cells. In these DLE cells, there were attenuated alphaENaC or Nedd4-2 mRNA and protein, thus demonstrating that alphaENaC and Nedd4-2 silencing occurred in alveolar epithelial cells after ttip injection. We also looked for pDNA by PCR to determine pDNA presence in the lungs and found strong evidence for pDNA presence in both lungs. Thus we provide evidence that ENaC and Nedd4-2 are involved in the transition from lung fluid secretion to fluid absorption near term and at birth.

  3. Involvement of large-conductance Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels in both nitric oxide and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization-type relaxation in human penile small arteries.

    PubMed

    Király, István; Pataricza, János; Bajory, Zoltán; Simonsen, Ulf; Varro, András; Papp, Julius Gy; Pajor, Lászlo; Kun, Attila

    2013-07-01

    Large-conductance Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels (BKC a ), located on the vascular smooth muscle, play an important role in regulation of vascular tone. In penile corpus cavernosum tissue, opening of BKC a channels leads to relaxation of corporal smooth muscle, which is essential during erection; however, there is little information on the role of BKC a channels located in penile vascular smooth muscle. This study was designed to investigate the involvement of BKC a channels in endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent relaxation of human intracavernous penile arteries. In human intracavernous arteries obtained in connection with transsexual operations, change in isometric force was recorded in microvascular myographs, and endothelium-dependent [nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH)-type] and endothelium-independent (NO-donor) relaxations were measured in contracted arteries. In penile small arteries contracted with phenylephrine, acetylcholine evoked NO- and EDH-type relaxations, which were sensitive to iberiotoxin (IbTX), a selective blocker of BKC a channels. Iberiotoxin also inhibited relaxations induced by a NO-donor, sodium nitroprusside. NS11021, a selective opener of BKC a channels, evoked pronounced relaxations that were inhibited in the presence of IbTX. NS13558, a BKC a -inactive analogue of NS11021, failed to relax human penile small arteries. Our results show that BKC a channels are involved in both NO- and EDH-type relaxation of intracavernous penile arteries obtained from healthy men. The effect of a selective opener of BKC a channels also suggests that direct activation of the channel may be an advantageous approach for treatment of impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation often associated with erectile dysfunction.

  4. Molecular Characterization of a Brucella Species Large DNA Fragment Deleted in Brucella abortus Strains: Evidence for a Locus Involved in the Synthesis of a Polysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Vizcaíno, Nieves; Cloeckaert, Axel; Zygmunt, Michel S.; Fernández-Lago, Luis

    1999-01-01

    A Brucella melitensis 16M DNA fragment of 17,119 bp, which contains a large region deleted in B. abortus strains and DNA flanking one side of the deletion, has been characterized. In addition to the previously identified omp31 gene, 14 hypothetical genes have been identified in the B. melitensis fragment, most of them showing homology to genes involved in the synthesis of a polysaccharide. Considering that 10 of the 15 genes are missing in B. abortus and that all the polysaccharides described in the Brucella genus (lipopolysaccharide, native hapten, and polysaccharide B) have been detected in all the species, it seems likely that the genes described here might be part of a cluster for the synthesis of a novel Brucella polysaccharide. Several polysaccharides have been identified as important virulence factors, and the discovery of a novel polysaccharide in the brucellae which is probably not synthesized in B. abortus might be interesting for a better understanding of the pathogenicity and host preference differences observed between the Brucella species. However, the possibility that the genes described in this paper no longer encode the synthesis of a polysaccharide cannot be excluded. Brucellae belong to the alpha-2 subdivision of the class Proteobacteria, which includes other microorganisms living in association with eucaryotic cells, some of them synthesizing extracellular polysaccharides involved in the interaction with the host cell. The genes described in this paper might be a remnant of the common ancestor of the alpha-2 subdivision of the class Proteobacteria, and the brucellae might have lost such extracellular polysaccharide during evolution if it was not necessary for survival or for establishment of the infectious process. Nevertheless, further studies are necessary to identify the entire DNA fragment missing in B. abortus strains and to elucidate the mechanism responsible for such deletion, since only 9,948 bp of the deletion was present in the

  5. Presence of a Large β(1-3)Glucan Linked to Chitin at the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mother-Bud Neck Suggests Involvement in Localized Growth Control

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Noelia; Arroyo, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Previous results suggested that the chitin ring present at the yeast mother-bud neck, which is linked specifically to the nonreducing ends of β(1-3)glucan, may help to suppress cell wall growth at the neck by competing with β(1-6)glucan and thereby with mannoproteins for their attachment to the same sites. Here we explored whether the linkage of chitin to β(1-3)glucan may also prevent the remodeling of this polysaccharide that would be necessary for cell wall growth. By a novel mild procedure, β(1-3)glucan was isolated from cell walls, solubilized by carboxymethylation, and fractionated by size exclusion chromatography, giving rise to a very high-molecular-weight peak and to highly polydisperse material. The latter material, soluble in alkali, may correspond to glucan being remodeled, whereas the large-size fraction would be the final cross-linked structural product. In fact, the β(1-3)glucan of buds, where growth occurs, is solubilized by alkali. A gas1 mutant with an expected defect in glucan elongation showed a large increase in the polydisperse fraction. By a procedure involving sodium hydroxide treatment, carboxymethylation, fractionation by affinity chromatography on wheat germ agglutinin-agarose, and fractionation by size chromatography on Sephacryl columns, it was shown that the β(1-3)glucan attached to chitin consists mostly of high-molecular-weight material. Therefore, it appears that linkage to chitin results in a polysaccharide that cannot be further remodeled and does not contribute to growth at the neck. In the course of these experiments, the new finding was made that part of the chitin forms a noncovalent complex with β(1-3)glucan. PMID:22366124

  6. Presence of a large β(1-3)glucan linked to chitin at the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mother-bud neck suggests involvement in localized growth control.

    PubMed

    Cabib, Enrico; Blanco, Noelia; Arroyo, Javier

    2012-04-01

    Previous results suggested that the chitin ring present at the yeast mother-bud neck, which is linked specifically to the nonreducing ends of β(1-3)glucan, may help to suppress cell wall growth at the neck by competing with β(1-6)glucan and thereby with mannoproteins for their attachment to the same sites. Here we explored whether the linkage of chitin to β(1-3)glucan may also prevent the remodeling of this polysaccharide that would be necessary for cell wall growth. By a novel mild procedure, β(1-3)glucan was isolated from cell walls, solubilized by carboxymethylation, and fractionated by size exclusion chromatography, giving rise to a very high-molecular-weight peak and to highly polydisperse material. The latter material, soluble in alkali, may correspond to glucan being remodeled, whereas the large-size fraction would be the final cross-linked structural product. In fact, the β(1-3)glucan of buds, where growth occurs, is solubilized by alkali. A gas1 mutant with an expected defect in glucan elongation showed a large increase in the polydisperse fraction. By a procedure involving sodium hydroxide treatment, carboxymethylation, fractionation by affinity chromatography on wheat germ agglutinin-agarose, and fractionation by size chromatography on Sephacryl columns, it was shown that the β(1-3)glucan attached to chitin consists mostly of high-molecular-weight material. Therefore, it appears that linkage to chitin results in a polysaccharide that cannot be further remodeled and does not contribute to growth at the neck. In the course of these experiments, the new finding was made that part of the chitin forms a noncovalent complex with β(1-3)glucan.

  7. Involvement of large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K (+) channel in laminar shear stress-induced inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaoling; Yang, Jingyun; Song, Wei; Li, Ping; Wang, Xia; Guan, Changdong; Yang, Liu; Huang, Yan; Gong, Xianghui; Liu, Meili; Zheng, Lisha; Fan, Yubo

    2013-02-01

    The large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channel in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is an important potassium channel that can regulate vascular tone. Recent work has demonstrated that abnormalities in BK(Ca) channel function are associated with changes in cell proliferation and the onset of vascular disease. However, until today there are rare reports to show whether this channel is involved in VSMC proliferation in response to fluid shear stress (SS). Here we investigated a possible role of BK(Ca) channel in VSMC proliferation under laminar SS. Rat aortic VSMCs were plated in parallel-plate flow chambers and exposed to laminar SS with varied durations and magnitudes. VSMC proliferation was assessed by measuring proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and DNA synthesis. BK(Ca) protein and gene expression was determined by flow cytometery and RT-PCR. The involvement of BK(Ca) in SS-induced inhibition of proliferation was examined by BK(Ca) inhibition using a BK(Ca) specific blocker, iberiotoxin (IBTX), and by BK(Ca) transfection in BK(Ca) non-expressing CHO cells. The changes in [Ca(2+)](i) were determined using a calcium-sensitive dye, fluo 3-AM. Membrane potential changes were detected with a potential-sensitive dye, DiBAC(4)(3). We found that laminar SS inhibited VSMC proliferation and stimulated BK(Ca) channel expression. Furthermore, laminar SS induced an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) and membrane hyperpolarization. Besides in VSMC, the inhibitory effect of BK(Ca) channel activity on cell proliferation in response to SS was also confirmed in BK(Ca)-transfected CHO cells showing a decline in proliferation. Blocking BK(Ca) channel reversed its inhibitory effect, providing additional support for the involvement of BK(Ca) in SS-induced proliferation reduction. Our results suggest, for the first time, that BK(Ca) channel mediates laminar SS-induced inhibition of VSMC proliferation. This finding is important for understanding the mechanism by

  8. Solute Probes of Conformational Changes in Open Complex Formation by E. coli RNA Polymerase at the λPR Promoter: Evidence for Unmasking of the Active Site in the Isomerization Step and for Large-Scale Coupled Folding in the Subsequent Conversion to RPo†

    PubMed Central

    Kontur, Wayne S.; Saecker, Ruth M.; Davis, Caroline A.; Capp, Michael W.; Record, M. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Transcription initiation is a multi-step process involving a series of requisite conformational changes in RNA polymerase (R) and promoter DNA (P) that create the open complex (RPo). Here we use the small solutes urea and glycine betaine (GB) to probe the extent and type of surface area changes in the formation of RPo between Eσ70 RNA polymerase and λPR promoter DNA. Effects of urea quantitatively reflect changes in amide surface and are particularly well suited to detect coupled protein folding events. GB provides a qualitative probe for the exposure or burial of anionic surface. Kinetics of formation and dissociation of RPo reveal strikingly large effects of the solutes on the final steps of RPo formation: urea dramatically increases the dissociation rate constant kd, whereas GB decreases the rate of dissociation. Formation of the first kinetically significant intermediate I1 is disfavored in urea, and moderately favored by GB. GB slows the rate-determining step that converts I1 to the second kinetically significant intermediate I2; urea has no effect on this step. The most direct interpretation of these data is that recognition of promoter DNA in I1 involves only limited conformational changes. Notably the data support the following hypotheses: 1) the negatively charged N-terminal domain of σ70 remains bound in the “jaws” of polymerase in I1; 2) the subsequent rate-determining isomerization step involves ejecting this domain from the jaws, thereby unmasking the active site; and 3) final conversion to RPo involves coupled folding of the mobile downstream clamp of polymerase. PMID:16475805

  9. The gene encoding p44, a subunit of the transcription factor TFIIH, is involved in large-scale deletions associated with Werdnig-Hoffmann disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bürglen, L; Seroz, T; Miniou, P; Lefebvre, S; Burlet, P; Munnich, A; Pequignot, E V; Egly, J M; Melki, J

    1997-01-01

    Mutations of the survival motor neurone gene (SMN) are associated with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a frequent lethal autosomal recessive disorder. In spite of this, no phenotype-genotype correlation was observed, since the SMN gene is lacking in the majority of patients affected with either the severe form (type I) or the milder forms (types II and III). Here, we show that the gene encoding p44, a subunit of the basal transcription factor TFIIH, is duplicated in the SMA region and that the p44 gene products (p44t and p44c) differ by three amino acid changes. Gene analysis of a total of 94 unrelated SMA patients revealed that the p44t gene is involved in large-scale deletions associated with Werdnig-Hoffmann disease (type I). The TFIIH polypeptide composition as well as transcription and DNA repair activities are normal in patients lacking the p44t gene on both mutant chromosomes, suggesting that the p44t gene is not critical for the development of SMA. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8981949

  10. Central nervous system involvement in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: an analysis of risks and prevention strategies in the post-rituximab era.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Christopher D; Kahl, Brad S

    2014-10-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) relapse in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) occurs infrequently (approximately 5%), but is almost universally fatal. Controversy exists regarding which factors most reliably identify high risk patients in the post-rituximab era. Clarification is also needed regarding the value of prophylaxis strategies when contemporary rituximab-based chemotherapy regimens (chemoimmunotherapy) are used. A systematic review with focus on the era of chemoimmunotherapy has been performed. Involvement of > 1 extranodal site plus an elevated lactate dehydrogenase level identifies individuals at highest risk (> 20%) for CNS recurrence who merit additional evaluation. Only certain solitary extranodal sites (testis, kidney and breast, but not bones, orbit or epidural space) appear to confer higher risk in patients receiving chemoimmunotherapy. Data from studies employing modern regimens suggest that intrathecal prophylaxis is ineffective even for high risk populations. Systemic prophylaxis (e.g. high dose methotrexate) may be useful, but does not have strong support in the literature. A significant portion of patients with high risk features (˜25%) may already have subclinical CNS disease, which requires alternative detection and treatment strategies. Flow cytometry is a promising approach with increased sensitivity. Widespread use of this approach could redefine what risk and prophylaxis mean. An algorithm for incorporating risk factors, evaluation and treatment is presented.

  11. Gene Conversion in Human Genetic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian-Min; Férec, Claude; Cooper, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Gene conversion is a specific type of homologous recombination that involves the unidirectional transfer of genetic material from a ‘donor’ sequence to a highly homologous ‘acceptor’. We have recently reviewed the molecular mechanisms underlying gene conversion, explored the key part that this process has played in fashioning extant human genes, and performed a meta-analysis of gene-conversion events known to have caused human genetic disease. Here we shall briefly summarize some of the latest developments in the study of pathogenic gene conversion events, including (i) the emerging idea of minimal efficient sequence homology (MESH) for homologous recombination, (ii) the local DNA sequence features that appear to predispose to gene conversion, (iii) a mechanistic comparison of gene conversion and transient hypermutability, and (iv) recently reported examples of pathogenic gene conversion events. PMID:24710102

  12. MACOP-B and Involved-Field Radiotherapy Is an Effective and Safe Therapy for Primary Mediastinal Large B Cell Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    De Sanctis, Vitaliana; Finolezzi, Erica; Osti, Mattia Falchetto; Grapulin, Lavinia; Alfo, Marco; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Berardi, Francesca; Natalino, Fiammetta; Moleti, Maria Luisa; Di Rocco, Alice; Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi; Foa, Robin; Martelli, Maurizio

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To report the clinical findings and long-term results of front-line, third-generation MACOP-B (methotrexate, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, and bleomycin) chemotherapy and mediastinal involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) in 85 consecutive, previously untreated patients with primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma (PMLBCL) diagnosed and managed at a single institution. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and April 2004, 92 consecutive, untreated patients with PMLBCL were treated at our institution. The median age was 33 years (range, 15-61 years), 46 patients (50%) showed a mediastinal syndrome at onset; 52 patients (57%) showed a low/low-intermediate (0 to 1) and 40 patients (43%) an intermediate-high/high (2 to 3) International Prognostic Index (IPI) score. Eighty-five patients were treated with standard chemotherapy (MACOP-B), and 80 underwent mediastinal IFRT at a dose of 30-36 Gy. Results: After a MACOP-B regimen, the overall response rate was 87% and the partial response rate 9%. After chemotherapy, {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy/positron emission tomography results were positive in 43 of 52 patients (83%), whereas after IFRT 11 of 52 patients (21%) remained positive (p < 0.0001). After a median follow-up of 81 months (range, 2-196 months), progression or relapse was observed in 15 of 84 patients (18%). The projected 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 87% and 81%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were better for patients with an IPI of 0 to 1 than for those with an IPI of 2 to 3 (96% vs. 73% [p = 0.002] and 90% vs. 67% [p = 0.007], respectively). Conclusions: Combined-modality treatment with intensive chemotherapy plus mediastinal IFRT induces high response and lymphoma-free survival rates. Involved-field RT plays an important role in inducing negative results on {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy/positron emission tomography in patients responsive to chemotherapy.

  13. Primary Mediastinal Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Results of Intensive Chemotherapy Regimens (MACOP-B/VACOP-B) Plus Involved Field Radiotherapy on 53 Patients. A Single Institution Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzarotto, Renzo . E-mail: renzo.mazzarotto@unipd.it; Boso, Caterina; Vianello, Federica; Aversa, Maria Savina; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Trentin, Livio; Zambello, Renato; Muzzio, Pier Carlo; Fiore, Davide; Sotti, Guido

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: The optimal therapy for primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMLBCL) remains undefined. The superiority of intensive chemotherapy regimens (Methotrexate, Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, Prednisone, Bleomycin [MACOP-B]/Etoposide, Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, Prednisone, Bleomycin [VACOP-B]) over Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, Prednisone (CHOP)-like chemotherapy is upheld by some authors. The role of radiotherapy is still debated. In the absence of randomized trials, we report clinical findings and treatment response in 53 consecutive patients treated with intensive chemotherapy and mediastinal involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT). Methods and Material: Fifty-three consecutive patients with PMLBCL were retrospectively analyzed. Planned treatment consisted of induction chemotherapy (I-CT; Prednisone, Methotrexate, Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide, Etoposide-Mechloroethamine, Vincristine, Procarbazine, Prednisone [ProMACE-MOPP] in the first 2 patients, MACOP-B in the next 11, and VACOP-B in the last 40) followed by IFRT. Planned treatment was concluded in 43 of 53 patients; in 10 patients, I-CT was not immediately followed by IFRT. Among these 10 patients, 6 received high-dose chemotherapy (HD-CT) followed by IFRT, 2 received HD-CT, and 2 received no further treatment. Results: After a median follow-up of 93.9 months (range, 6-195 months), 45 of 53 patients (84.9%) were alive without disease. Eight patients died: 7 of PMLBCL and 1 of toxicity during HD-CT. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival rates were 93.42% and 86.6%, respectively. The response rates after I-CT were complete response (CR) in 20 (37.73%) and partial response (PR) in 30 (56.60%); 3 patients (5.66%) were considered nonresponders. Among patients in PR after chemotherapy, 92% obtained a CR after IFRT. Conclusions: Our report confirms the efficacy of intensive chemotherapy plus mediastinal IFRT. IFRT plays a pivotal role in

  14. Colon ischemia: Right-sided colon involvement has a different presentation, etiology and worse outcome. A large retrospective cohort study in histology proven patients.

    PubMed

    Ten Heggeler, Lotte B; van Dam, Lisette J H; Bijlsma, Alderina; Visschedijk, Marijn C; Geelkerken, Robert H; Meijssen, Maarten A C; Kolkman, Jeroen J

    2017-02-01

    Colon ischemia (CI), is generally considered a non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia disorder that usually runs a benign course, but right-sided involvement (RCI) has been associated with worse outcome. The poor outcome of RCI has been associated with comorbidity, but more recently also with occlusions of the mesenteric arteries. We performed a retrospective analysis of a large cohort of CI-patients to assess differences in presentation, etiology, and comorbidity between right-sided colon ischemia (RCI) and non-right-sided colon ischemia (NRCI), and their relation to outcome. We performed a retrospective cohort study in two centers from 2000 to 2011 for CI and analyzed clinical presentation, etiology, treatment and outcome. Diagnosis was based on full colonoscopy and/or surgical findings and confirmed by histopathology. 239 patients were included (mean age 69, 52% female). RCI was found in 48% and NRCI in 52%. Patients with NRCI presented more often with rectal bleeding (87% vs. 45%; p<0.001). In RCI more nausea (58% vs. 39%; p=0.013), weight loss (56% vs. 19%; p<0.001), paralytic ileus (32% vs. 18%; p=0.018) and peritoneal signs (27% vs. 7%; p<0.001) was observed compared to NRCI. The cause of CI was more often idiopathic in NRCI (46% vs. 26%; p=0.002); an occlusive cause was seen more often in RCI (26.3 vs 2.4%, p<0.0001). RCI patients had longer hospital stay (15 vs. 8 days, p<0.001), need for surgery (61% vs. 34%, p<0.001), and trend toward higher 30-day in-hospital mortality (20% vs. 12%, p=0.084). RCI ischemia has different etiology, presentation, and outcome. The series shows a high proportion of - treatable - vessel occlusion. It reinforces the advice to perform CT angiography in RCI as means to improve its poor outcome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Additional Survival Benefit of Involved-Lesion Radiation Therapy After R-CHOP Chemotherapy in Limited Stage Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Jeanny; Kim, Il Han; Kim, Byoung Hyuck; Kim, Tae Min; Heo, Dae Seog

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of involved-lesion radiation therapy (ILRT) after rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy in limited stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by comparing outcomes of R-CHOP therapy alone with R-CHOP followed by ILRT. Methods and Materials: We identified 198 patients treated with R-CHOP (median, 6 cycles) for pathologically confirmed DLBCL of limited stage from July 2004 to December 2012. Clinical characteristics of these patients were 33% with stage I and 66.7% with stage II; 79.8% were in the low or low-intermediate risk group; 13.6% had B symptoms; 29.8% had bulky tumors (≥7 cm); and 75.3% underwent ≥6 cycles of R-CHOP therapy. RT was given to 43 patients (21.7%) using ILRT technique, which included the prechemotherapy tumor volume with a median margin of 2 cm (median RT dose: 36 Gy). Results: After a median follow-up of 40 months, 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 85.8% and 88.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed ≥6 cycles of R-CHOP (PFS, P=.004; OS, P=.004) and ILRT (PFS, P=.021; OS, P=.014) were favorable prognosticators of PFS and OS. A bulky tumor (P=.027) and response to R-CHOP (P=.012) were also found to be independent factors of OS. In subgroup analysis, the effect of ILRT was prominent in patients with a bulky tumor (PFS, P=.014; OS, P=.030) or an elevated level of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; PFS, P=.004; OS, P=.012). Conclusions: Our results suggest that ILRT after R-CHOP therapy improves PFS and OS in patients with limited stage DLBCL, especially in those with bulky disease or an elevated serum LDH level.

  16. Large fractions of CO2-fixing microorganisms in pristine limestone aquifers appear to be involved in the oxidation of reduced sulfur and nitrogen compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrmann, Martina; Rusznyák, Anna; Akob, Denise M.; Schulze, Isabel; Opitz, Sebastian; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The traditional view of the dependency of subsurface environments on surface-derived allochthonous carbon inputs is challenged by increasing evidence for the role of lithoautotrophy in aquifer carbon flow. We linked information on autotrophy (Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle) with that from total microbial community analysis in groundwater at two superimposed—upper and lower—limestone groundwater reservoirs (aquifers). Quantitative PCR revealed that up to 17% of the microbial population had the genetic potential to fix CO2 via the Calvin cycle, with abundances of cbbM and cbbL genes, encoding RubisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) forms I and II, ranging from 1.14 × 103 to 6 × 106 genes liter−1 over a 2-year period. The structure of the active microbial communities based on 16S rRNA transcripts differed between the two aquifers, with a larger fraction of heterotrophic, facultative anaerobic, soil-related groups in the oxygen-deficient upper aquifer. Most identified CO2-assimilating phylogenetic groups appeared to be involved in the oxidation of sulfur or nitrogen compounds and harbored both RubisCO forms I and II, allowing efficient CO2 fixation in environments with strong oxygen and CO2 fluctuations. The genera Sulfuricellaand Nitrosomonas were represented by read fractions of up to 78 and 33%, respectively, within the cbbM and cbbL transcript pool and accounted for 5.6 and 3.8% of 16S rRNA sequence reads, respectively, in the lower aquifer. Our results indicate that a large fraction of bacteria in pristine limestone aquifers has the genetic potential for autotrophic CO2 fixation, with energy most likely provided by the oxidation of reduced sulfur and nitrogen compounds.

  17. Endogenous Neurotrophins and Trk Signaling in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Cell Lines Are Involved in Sensitivity to Rituximab-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Bellanger, Cynthia; Dubanet, Lydie; Lise, Marie-Claude; Fauchais, Anne-Laure; Bordessoule, Dominique; Jauberteau, Marie-Odile; Troutaud, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Background Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a common and often fatal malignancy. Immunochemotherapy, a combination of rituximab to standard chemotherapy, has resulted in improved survival. However a substantial proportion of patients still fail to reach sustained remission. We have previously demonstrated that autocrine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) production plays a function in human B cell survival, at least partly via sortilin expression. As neurotrophin receptor (Trks) signaling involved activation of survival pathways that are inhibited by rituximab, we speculated that neurotrophins may provide additional support for tumour cell survival and therapeutic resistance in DLBCL. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we used two DLBCL cell lines, SUDHL4 and SUDHL6, known to be respectively less and more sensitive to rituximab. We found by RT-PCR, western blotting, cytometry and confocal microscopy that both cell lines expressed, in normal culture conditions, BDNF and to a lesser extent NGF, as well as truncated TrkB and p75NTR/sortilin death neurotrophin receptors. Furthermore, BDNF secretion was detected in cell supernatants. NGF and BDNF production and Trk receptor expression, including TrkA, are regulated by apoptotic conditions (serum deprivation or rituximab exposure). Indeed, we show for the first time that rituximab exposure of DLBCL cell lines induces NGF secretion and that differences in rituximab sensitivity are associated with differential expression patterns of neurotrophins and their receptors (TrkA). Finally, these cells are sensitive to the Trk-inhibitor, K252a, as shown by the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, K252a exhibits additive cytotoxic effects with rituximab. Conclusions/Significance Collectively, these data strongly suggest that a neurotrophin axis, such NGF/TrkA pathway, may contribute to malignant cell survival and rituximab resistance in DLBCL. PMID:22076137

  18. Large Fractions of CO2-Fixing Microorganisms in Pristine Limestone Aquifers Appear To Be Involved in the Oxidation of Reduced Sulfur and Nitrogen Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Martina; Rusznyák, Anna; Akob, Denise M.; Schulze, Isabel; Opitz, Sebastian; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2015-01-01

    The traditional view of the dependency of subsurface environments on surface-derived allochthonous carbon inputs is challenged by increasing evidence for the role of lithoautotrophy in aquifer carbon flow. We linked information on autotrophy (Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle) with that from total microbial community analysis in groundwater at two superimposed—upper and lower—limestone groundwater reservoirs (aquifers). Quantitative PCR revealed that up to 17% of the microbial population had the genetic potential to fix CO2 via the Calvin cycle, with abundances of cbbM and cbbL genes, encoding RubisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) forms I and II, ranging from 1.14 × 103 to 6 × 106 genes liter−1 over a 2-year period. The structure of the active microbial communities based on 16S rRNA transcripts differed between the two aquifers, with a larger fraction of heterotrophic, facultative anaerobic, soil-related groups in the oxygen-deficient upper aquifer. Most identified CO2-assimilating phylogenetic groups appeared to be involved in the oxidation of sulfur or nitrogen compounds and harbored both RubisCO forms I and II, allowing efficient CO2 fixation in environments with strong oxygen and CO2 fluctuations. The genera Sulfuricella and Nitrosomonas were represented by read fractions of up to 78 and 33%, respectively, within the cbbM and cbbL transcript pool and accounted for 5.6 and 3.8% of 16S rRNA sequence reads, respectively, in the lower aquifer. Our results indicate that a large fraction of bacteria in pristine limestone aquifers has the genetic potential for autotrophic CO2 fixation, with energy most likely provided by the oxidation of reduced sulfur and nitrogen compounds. PMID:25616797

  19. High total metabolic tumor volume in PET/CT predicts worse prognosis in diffuse large B cell lymphoma patients with bone marrow involvement in rituximab era.

    PubMed

    Song, Moo-Kon; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Lim, Sung-Nam; Shin, Seunghyeon; Pak, Kyoung June; Kwon, Seong Young; Shim, Hye Kyung; Choi, Bong-Hoi; Kim, In-Suk; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Seong-Geun; Oh, So-Yeon

    2016-03-01

    Bone marrow involvement (BMI) in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was naively regarded as an adverse clinical factor. However, it has been unknown which factor would separate clinical outcomes in DLBCL patients with BMI. Recently, metabolic tumor volume (MTV) on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) was suggested to predict prognosis in several lymphoma types. Therefore, we investigated whether MTV would separate the outcomes in DLBCL patients with BMI. MTV on PET/CT was defined as an initial tumor burden as target lesion ≥ standard uptake value, 2.5 in 107 patients with BMI. Intramedullary (IM) MTV was defined as extent of BMI and total MTV was as whole tumor burden. 260.5 cm(3) and 601.2 cm(3) were ideal cut-off values for dividing high and low MTV status in the IM and total lymphoma lesions in Receiver Operating Curve analysis. High risk NCCN-IPI (p<0.001, p<0.001), bulky disease (p=0.011, p=0.005), concordant subtype (p=0.025, p=0.029), high IM MTV status (p<0.001, p<0.001), high total MTV status (p<0.001, p<0.001), and ≥ 2CAs in BM (p=0.037, p=0.033) were significantly associated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) than other groups. In multivariate analysis, high risk NCCN-IPI (PFS, p=0.006; OS, p=0.013), concordant subtype (PFS, p=0.005; OS, p=0.007), and high total MTV status (PFS, p<0.001; OS, p<0.001) had independent clinical impacts. MTV had prognostic significances for survivals in DLBCL with BMI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biomass thermal conversion research at SERI

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, T. A.; Desrosiers, R. E.; Reed, T. B.

    1980-09-01

    SERI's involvement in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals is reviewed. The scope and activities of the Biomass Thermal Conversion and Exploratory Branch are reviewed. The current status and future plans for three tasks are presented: (1) Pyrolysis Mechanisms; (2) High Pressure O/sub 2/ Gasifier; and (3) Gasification Test Facility.

  1. Guide to Software Conversion Management. [Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skall, M., Ed.

    Based mainly on interviews conducted at 14 federal agencies that had completed or were involved in software conversion projects, this publication provides guidelines for the entire process of software conversion. This is defined as the transformation, without functional change, of computer programs or data elements to permit their use on a…

  2. Pronunciation models for conversational speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Keith

    2005-09-01

    Using a pronunciation dictionary of clear speech citation forms a segment deletion rate of nearly 12% is found in a corpus of conversational speech. The number of apparent segment deletions can be reduced by constructing a pronunciation dictionary that records one or more of the actual pronunciations found in conversational speech; however, the resulting empirical pronunciation dictionary often fails to include the citation pronunciation form. Issues involved in selecting pronunciations for a dictionary for linguistic, psycholinguistic, and ASR research will be discussed. One conclusion is that Ladefoged may have been the wiser for avoiding the business of producing pronunciation dictionaries. [Supported by NIDCD Grant No. R01 DC04330-03.

  3. Spatial language and converseness.

    PubMed

    Burigo, Michele; Coventry, Kenny R; Cangelosi, Angelo; Lynott, Dermot

    2016-12-01

    Typical spatial language sentences consist of describing the location of an object (the located object) in relation to another object (the reference object) as in "The book is above the vase". While it has been suggested that the properties of the located object (the book) are not translated into language because they are irrelevant when exchanging location information, it has been shown that the orientation of the located object affects the production and comprehension of spatial descriptions. In line with the claim that spatial language apprehension involves inferences about relations that hold between objects it has been suggested that during spatial language apprehension people use the orientation of the located object to evaluate whether the logical property of converseness (e.g., if "the book is above the vase" is true, then also "the vase is below the book" must be true) holds across the objects' spatial relation. In three experiments using sentence acceptability rating tasks we tested this hypothesis and demonstrated that when converseness is violated people's acceptability ratings of a scene's description are reduced indicating that people do take into account geometric properties of the located object and use it to infer logical spatial relations.

  4. Heterogeneous catalytic conversion of CO2: a comprehensive theoretical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yawei; Chan, Siew Hwa; Sun, Qiang

    2015-05-01

    The conversion of CO2 into fuels and useful chemicals has been intensively pursued for renewable, sustainable and green energy. However, due to the negative adiabatic electron affinity (EA) and large ionization potential (IP), the CO2 molecule is chemically inert, thus making the conversion difficult under normal conditions. Novel catalysts, which have high stability, superior efficiency and low cost, are urgently needed to facilitate the conversion. As the first step to design such catalysts, understanding the mechanisms involved in CO2 conversion is absolutely indispensable. In this review, we have summarized the recent theoretical progress in mechanistic studies based on density functional theory, kinetic Monte Carlo simulation, and microkinetics modeling. We focus on reaction channels, intermediate products, the key factors determining the conversion of CO2 in solid-gas interface thermocatalytic reduction and solid-liquid interface electrocatalytic reduction. Furthermore, we have proposed some possible strategies for improving CO2 electrocatalysis and also discussed the challenges in theory, model construction, and future research directions.

  5. Pashto Conversation Manual and Pashto Conversation Tapescript.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara

    This conversation manual and tapescript are part of a set of materials that have been developed to teach oral and written Afghan Pashto to English speakers. In addition to the conversation manual and tapescript, the set consists of a beginning textbook, an intermediate textbook, a reader, and a set of taped lessons that correlate with the…

  6. Involvement of OS-2 MAP kinase in regulation of the large-subunit catalases CAT-1 and CAT-3 in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kazuhiro; Shiozawa, Azusa; Banno, Shinpei; Fukumori, Fumiyasu; Ichiishi, Akihiko; Kimura, Makoto; Fujimura, Makoto

    2007-08-01

    Neurospora crassa has four catalase genes--cat-1, cat-2, cat-3, and ctt-1/cat-4. cat-1 and cat-3 encode two fungal-specific large-subunit catalases CAT-1 and CAT-3 normally produced in conidia and growing hyphae, respectively. cat-2 encodes CAT-2 catalase-peroxidase normally produced in conidia. ctt-1 (or cat-4), of which expression was controlled by OS-2 MAP kinase (Noguchi et al., Fungal Genet. Biol. 44, 208-218), encodes a small-subunit catalase with unknown function. To clarify the contribution of OS-2 on the regulation of CAT-1, CAT-2, and CAT-3, we performed quantitative RT-PCR and in-gel catalase activity analyses. When the hyphae were treated with a fungicide (1 mug/ml fludioxonil) or subjected to an osmotic stress (1 M sorbitol), cat-1 was strongly upregulated and CAT-1 was reasonably induced in the wild-type strain. Interestingly, fludioxonil caused not only the CAT-1 induction but also a remarkable CAT-3 decrease in the wild-type hyphae, implying of an abnormal stimulation of asexual differentiation. These responses were not observed in an os-2 mutant hyphae, indicating an involvement of OS-2 in the cat-1 expression; however, os-2 was dispensable for the production of CAT-1 in conidia. In contrast, the expression of cat-2 was significantly induced by heat shock (45 degrees C) and that of cat-3 was moderately stimulated by an oxidative stress (50 microg/ml methyl viologen) in both the wild-type strain and the os-2 mutant, and corresponding enzyme activities were detected after the treatments. Although basal levels of transcription of cat-1 and cat-3 in an os-2 mutant hyphae were a few-fold lower than in the wild-type hyphae, the os-2 mutant exhibited a considerably lower levels of CAT-3 activity than the wild-type strain. These findings suggest that OS-2 MAP kinase regulated the expression of cat-1 and cat-3 transcriptionally, and probably that of cat-3 posttranscriptionally, even though the presence of another regulatory system for each of these two

  7. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to design and operate a laboratory apparatus for the catalytic reforming of natural gas in order to provide data for a large-scale process. To accelerate the assembly and calibration of this equipment, a request has been made to the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for assistance, under the DOE's Industrial Visitor Exchange Program. Pr. Heinz Heinemann (Catalysis), Dr. John Apps (Geochemistry) and Dr. Robert Fulton (Mechanical Engineering) have expressed interest in supporting our request. Pr. Heinemann's recent results on the conversion of Petroleum Coke residues into CO2 and H2 mixtures using highly basic metal oxides catalysts, similar to ours, are very encouraging regarding the possibility of converting the Coke residue on our catalyst into Syngas in the Regenerator/riser, as proposed. To minimize Coke formation in the vapor phase, by the Plasmapyrolytic Methane Conversion reactions, the experimental data of H. Drost et al. (Ref. 12) have been reviewed. Work is underway to design equipment for the safe and non-polluting disposal of the two gaseous product streams of the flow loop. 2 refs.

  8. Something To Talk About: Six Collaborative Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Gail

    2002-01-01

    Presents six conversations between school library media specialists and teachers that are based on true stories involving collaboration. Discusses pressures to relinquish individuality in lesson plans; planning; curriculum development; and child development classes and preschool programs. (LRW)

  9. Laser plasmadynamic energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1976-01-01

    The generation of electrons ions by interacting an intense laser beam with cesium vapor is considered. Theoretical calculation shows that the conversion efficiency is as high as 40 percent if the entire photon energy is utilized in ionizing the cesium vapor that is generated initially by the incoming laser beam. An output voltage is expected to be generated across two electrodes, one of which is the liquid cesium, by keeping the other electrode at a different work function. Evaluation of the laser plasmadynamic (LPD) converter was performed using pulsed ruby and Nd-glass lasers. Although the results obtained to date indicate an efficiency smaller than that of theoretical predictions, an unoptimized LPD converter did demonstrate the capability of converting laser energy at large power levels. The limitations in the performance may by due to converter geometry, the types of lasers used, and other limitations inherent to the cesium plasma.

  10. Thin-thick quadrature frequency conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Eimerl, D.

    1985-02-07

    The quadrature conversion scheme is a method of generating the second harmonic. The scheme, which uses two crystals in series, has several advantages over single-crystal or other two crystal schemes. The most important is that it is capable of high conversion efficiency over a large dynamic range of drive intensity and detuning angle.

  11. Asymptotic cost in document conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blostein, Dorothea; Nagy, George

    2012-01-01

    In spite of a hundredfold decrease in the cost of relevant technologies, the role of document image processing systems is gradually declining due to the transition to an on-line world. Nevertheless, in some high-volume applications, document image processing software still saves millions of dollars by accelerating workflow, and similarly large savings could be realized by more effective automation of the multitude of low-volume personal document conversions. While potential cost savings, based on estimates of costs and values, are a driving force for new developments, quantifying such savings is difficult. The most important trend is that the cost of computing resources for DIA is becoming insignificant compared to the associated labor costs. An econometric treatment of document processing complements traditional performance evaluation, which focuses on assessing the correctness of the results produced by document conversion software. Researchers should look beyond the error rate for advancing both production and personal document conversion.

  12. Learning through Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patricia R.; Klein, Adria F.; Pinnell, Gay Su

    1996-01-01

    Through teacher-child conversation, experts use oral language to help novices take on more complex tasks; and Reading Recovery children, who are obviously having difficulty with school-based learning, are especially in need of significant conversations with adults. Reading and writing processes are supported through conversation with Reading…

  13. Ratios of internal conversion coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, S.; Ertugrul, M.; Nestor, C.W. . E-mail: CNestorjr@aol.com; Trzhaskovskaya, M.B.

    2006-03-15

    We present here a database of available experimental ratios of internal conversion coefficients for different atomic subshells measured with an accuracy of 10% or better for a number of elements in the range 26 {<=} Z {<=} 100. The experimental set involves 414 ratios for pure and 1096 ratios for mixed-multipolarity nuclear transitions in the transition energy range from 2 to 2300 keV. We give relevant theoretical ratios calculated in the framework of the Dirac-Fock method with and without regard for the hole in the atomic subshell after conversion. For comparison, the ratios obtained within the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater approximation are also presented. In cases where several ratios were measured for the same transition in a given isotope in which two multipolarities were involved, we present the mixing ratio {delta} {sup 2} obtained by a least squares fit.

  14. The developmental origins of conversion disorders.

    PubMed

    Kozlowska, Kasia

    2007-10-01

    Attachment theory offers a novel developmental framework for understanding conversion reactions as having phylogenetic roots in two different innate animal defense behaviours: The 'freeze response' and 'appeasement defense behaviours'. From this perspective, conversion symptoms reflect two distinct, threat-elicited emotional responses, which are primed in context-dependent developmental experiences (pathways) and underpinned by different neurobiological mechanisms. The first of these two developmental pathways to conversion disorder involves the organization of self-protective strategies that incorporate components of the freeze response and involve inhibition of negative affective states in the context of punishment by caregivers. The second of these pathways involves the organization of self-protective strategies that incorporate innate appeasement defense behaviours in the context of unpredictable parental behaviours that threaten children's physical safety or emotional health. Seen from this developmental perspective, children with conversion disorders are not a homogenous group but fall into two distinct functional groups requiring different types of treatment.

  15. Iterated multidimensional wave conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Brizard, A. J.; Tracy, E. R.; Johnston, D.; Kaufman, A. N.; Richardson, A. S.; Zobin, N.

    2011-12-23

    Mode conversion can occur repeatedly in a two-dimensional cavity (e.g., the poloidal cross section of an axisymmetric tokamak). We report on two novel concepts that allow for a complete and global visualization of the ray evolution under iterated conversions. First, iterated conversion is discussed in terms of ray-induced maps from the two-dimensional conversion surface to itself (which can be visualized in terms of three-dimensional rooms). Second, the two-dimensional conversion surface is shown to possess a symplectic structure derived from Dirac constraints associated with the two dispersion surfaces of the interacting waves.

  16. NGL data conversion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Masahiro; Horiuchi, Nobuyasu

    2005-06-01

    We are developing a NGL data conversion system for EPL, for LEEPL, and for EBDW, which is based on our established photomask data conversion system, PATACON PC-cluster. For EPL data conversion, it has SF division, Complementary division, Stitching, Proximity effect correction, Alignment mark insertion, EB stepper control data creation, and Mask inspection data creation. For LEEPL data conversion, it has Pattern checking, Complementary division, Stitching, Stress distortion correction, Alignment mark insertion, and Mask inspection data creation. For EB direct-writing data conversion, it has Proximity effect correction and Extraction of aperture pattern for cell projection exposure.

  17. A Kinetics Demonstration Involving a Green-Red-Green Color Change Resulting from a Large-Amplitude pH Oscillation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfennig, Brian W.; Roberts, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide chemistry teachers with a chemical demonstration of a clock reaction for the winter holiday season that changes in color from green to red to green again which is used as didactic tool to introduce students to many of the basic principles of kinetics. The reaction involves the oxidation of iodide ion with persulfate…

  18. A Kinetics Demonstration Involving a Green-Red-Green Color Change Resulting from a Large-Amplitude pH Oscillation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfennig, Brian W.; Roberts, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide chemistry teachers with a chemical demonstration of a clock reaction for the winter holiday season that changes in color from green to red to green again which is used as didactic tool to introduce students to many of the basic principles of kinetics. The reaction involves the oxidation of iodide ion with persulfate…

  19. Faculty Roles, Responsibilities, and Involvement in Campus Safety Initiatives as Perceived by Faculty and Administrators: A Case Study at a Large State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollings, Meda Janeen

    2010-01-01

    The study addressed the problem of campus safety and the extent to which faculty and administrators are aware of institutional security policies. Further, the research compared perceptions of administrators and faculty regarding faculty awareness of and involvement in campus safety policy initiatives. The research sought to determine if the…

  20. Faculty Roles, Responsibilities, and Involvement in Campus Safety Initiatives as Perceived by Faculty and Administrators: A Case Study at a Large State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollings, Meda Janeen

    2010-01-01

    The study addressed the problem of campus safety and the extent to which faculty and administrators are aware of institutional security policies. Further, the research compared perceptions of administrators and faculty regarding faculty awareness of and involvement in campus safety policy initiatives. The research sought to determine if the…

  1. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  2. Educators' Perspectives on Instructional Conversations in Preschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Siang Sin; Yamauchi, Lois A.; Ratliffe, Katherine T.

    2012-01-01

    Although conversations have been identified as an important means to promote young learners' language development, preschool children often have limited opportunities to be involved in complex conversations. This study examined preschool adaptations of Instructional Conversation, a small group discussion between teachers and children in which…

  3. Educators' Perspectives on Instructional Conversations in Preschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Siang Sin; Yamauchi, Lois A.; Ratliffe, Katherine T.

    2012-01-01

    Although conversations have been identified as an important means to promote young learners' language development, preschool children often have limited opportunities to be involved in complex conversations. This study examined preschool adaptations of Instructional Conversation, a small group discussion between teachers and children in which…

  4. Conversation after Right Hemisphere Brain Damage: Motivations for Applying Conversation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Scott; Armstrong, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Despite the well documented pragmatic deficits that can arise subsequent to Right Hemisphere Brain Damage (RHBD), few researchers have directly studied everyday conversations involving people with RHBD. In recent years, researchers have begun applying Conversation Analysis (CA) to the everyday talk of people with aphasia. This research programme…

  5. Conversation after Right Hemisphere Brain Damage: Motivations for Applying Conversation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Scott; Armstrong, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Despite the well documented pragmatic deficits that can arise subsequent to Right Hemisphere Brain Damage (RHBD), few researchers have directly studied everyday conversations involving people with RHBD. In recent years, researchers have begun applying Conversation Analysis (CA) to the everyday talk of people with aphasia. This research programme…

  6. Large national series of patients with Xq28 duplication involving MECP2: Delineation of brain MRI abnormalities in 30 affected patients.

    PubMed

    El Chehadeh, Salima; Faivre, Laurence; Mosca-Boidron, Anne-Laure; Malan, Valérie; Amiel, Jeanne; Nizon, Mathilde; Touraine, Renaud; Prieur, Fabienne; Pasquier, Laurent; Callier, Patrick; Lefebvre, Mathilde; Marle, Nathalie; Dubourg, Christèle; Julia, Sophie; Sarret, Catherine; Francannet, Christine; Laffargue, Fanny; Boespflug-Tanguy, Odile; David, Albert; Isidor, Bertrand; Le Caignec, Cédric; Vigneron, Jacqueline; Leheup, Bruno; Lambert, Laetitia; Philippe, Christophe; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Andrieux, Joris; Plessis, Ghislaine; Toutain, Annick; Goldenberg, Alice; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Rio, Marlène; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul; Thevenon, Julien; Echenne, Bernard; Journel, Hubert; Afenjar, Alexandra; Burglen, Lydie; Bienvenu, Thierry; Addor, Marie-Claude; Lebon, Sébastien; Martinet, Danièle; Baumann, Clarisse; Perrin, Laurence; Drunat, Séverine; Jouk, Pierre-Simon; Devillard, Françoise; Coutton, Charles; Lacombe, Didier; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Philip, Nicole; Moncla, Anne; Badens, Catherine; Perreton, Nathalie; Masurel, Alice; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Des Portes, Vincent; Guibaud, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Xq28 duplications encompassing MECP2 have been described in male patients with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder associated with hypotonia and spasticity, severe learning disability, stereotyped movements, and recurrent pulmonary infections. We report on standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 30 affected patients carrying an Xq28 duplication involving MECP2 of various sizes (228 kb to 11.7 Mb). The aim of this study was to seek recurrent malformations and attempt to determine whether variations in imaging features could be explained by differences in the size of the duplications. We showed that 93% of patients had brain MRI abnormalities such as corpus callosum abnormalities (n = 20), reduced volume of the white matter (WM) (n = 12), ventricular dilatation (n = 9), abnormal increased hyperintensities on T2-weighted images involving posterior periventricular WM (n = 6), and vermis hypoplasia (n = 5). The occipitofrontal circumference varied considerably between >+2SD in five patients and <-2SD in four patients. Among the nine patients with dilatation of the lateral ventricles, six had a duplication involving L1CAM. The only patient harboring bilateral posterior subependymal nodular heterotopia also carried an FLNA gene duplication. We could not demonstrate a correlation between periventricular WM hyperintensities/delayed myelination and duplication of the IKBKG gene. We thus conclude that patients with an Xq28 duplication involving MECP2 share some similar but non-specific brain abnormalities. These imaging features, therefore, could not constitute a diagnostic clue. The genotype-phenotype correlation failed to demonstrate a relationship between the presence of nodular heterotopia, ventricular dilatation, WM abnormalities, and the presence of FLNA, L1CAM, or IKBKG, respectively, in the duplicated segment.

  7. Any Questions? An Application of Weick's Model of Organizing to Increase Student Involvement in the Large-Lecture Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Christy J. W.; Saperstein, Adam K.; Cafferty, Lauren A.; McClintick, Stacey H.; Bernstein, Ethan M.

    2015-01-01

    Microblogs, with their interactive nature, can engage students in community building and sensemaking. Using Weick's model of organizing as a framework, we integrated the use of micromessaging to increase student engagement in the large-lecture classroom. Students asked significantly more questions and asked a greater diversity of questions…

  8. Any Questions? An Application of Weick's Model of Organizing to Increase Student Involvement in the Large-Lecture Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Christy J. W.; Saperstein, Adam K.; Cafferty, Lauren A.; McClintick, Stacey H.; Bernstein, Ethan M.

    2015-01-01

    Microblogs, with their interactive nature, can engage students in community building and sensemaking. Using Weick's model of organizing as a framework, we integrated the use of micromessaging to increase student engagement in the large-lecture classroom. Students asked significantly more questions and asked a greater diversity of questions…

  9. Large plunging schwannoma of the floor of the mouth involving the mylohyoid nerve: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nilesh, Kumar; Naniwadekar, Ramchandra G; Malik, Neelima A

    2016-01-01

    Extracranial schwannomas are rare in the oral cavity, accounting for only 1% of all tumors of this type. This article presents a case study of a schwannoma arising from the mylohyoid nerve that presented as a large nodular swelling in the floor of the mouth extending into the submandibular space.

  10. Polarized gene conversion at the bz locus of maize.

    PubMed

    Dooner, Hugo K; He, Limei

    2014-09-23

    Nucleotide diversity is greater in maize than in most organisms studied to date, so allelic pairs in a hybrid tend to be highly polymorphic. Most recombination events between such pairs of maize polymorphic alleles are crossovers. However, intragenic recombination events not associated with flanking marker exchange, corresponding to noncrossover gene conversions, predominate between alleles derived from the same progenitor. In these dimorphic heterozygotes, the two alleles differ only at the two mutant sites between which recombination is being measured. To investigate whether gene conversion at the bz locus is polarized, two large diallel crossing matrices involving mutant sites spread across the bz gene were performed and more than 2,500 intragenic recombinants were scored. In both diallels, around 90% of recombinants could be accounted for by gene conversion. Furthermore, conversion exhibited a striking polarity, with sites located within 150 bp of the start and stop codons converting more frequently than sites located in the middle of the gene. The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to recent data from genome-wide studies in other plants.

  11. Guidelines for diagnosis, prevention and management of central nervous system involvement in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients by the Spanish Lymphoma Group (GELTAMO).

    PubMed

    Peñalver, Francisco-Javier; Sancho, Juan-Manuel; de la Fuente, Adolfo; Olave, María-Teresa; Martín, Alejandro; Panizo, Carlos; Pérez, Elena; Salar, Antonio; Orfao, Alberto

    2017-02-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients have a 5% overall risk of central nervous system events (relapse or progression), which account for high morbidity and frequently fatal outcomes,(1) and shortened overall survival of <6 months.(2) Early diagnosis of central nervous system events is critical for successful treatment and improved prognosis. Identification of patients at risk of central nervous system disease is critical to accurately identify candidates for central nervous system prophylaxis vs.

  12. Neurologists' understanding and management of conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Kanaan, Richard A; Armstrong, David; Wessely, Simon Charles

    2011-09-01

    Conversion disorder is largely managed by neurologists, for whom it presents great challenges to understanding and management. This study aimed to quantify these challenges, examining how neurologists understand conversion disorder, and what they tell their patients. A postal survey of all consultant neurologists in the UK registered with the Association of British Neurologists. 349 of 591 practising consultant neurologists completed the survey. They saw conversion disorder commonly. While they endorsed psychological models for conversion, they diagnosed it according to features of the clinical presentation, most importantly inconsistency and abnormal illness behaviour. Most of the respondents saw feigning as entangled with conversion disorder, with a minority seeing one as a variant of the other. They were quite willing to discuss psychological factors as long as the patient was receptive but were generally unwilling to discuss feigning even though they saw it as their responsibility. Those who favoured models in terms of feigning were older, while younger, female neurologists preferred psychological models, believed conversion would one day be understood neurologically and found communicating with their conversion patients easier than it had been in the past. Neurologists accept psychological models for conversion disorder but do not employ them in their diagnosis; they do not see conversion as clearly different from feigning. This may be changing as younger, female neurologists endorse psychological views more clearly and find it easier to discuss with their patients.

  13. Neurologists' understanding and management of conversion disorder

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, David; Wessely, Simon Charles

    2011-01-01

    Background Conversion disorder is largely managed by neurologists, for whom it presents great challenges to understanding and management. This study aimed to quantify these challenges, examining how neurologists understand conversion disorder, and what they tell their patients. Methods A postal survey of all consultant neurologists in the UK registered with the Association of British Neurologists. Results 349 of 591 practising consultant neurologists completed the survey. They saw conversion disorder commonly. While they endorsed psychological models for conversion, they diagnosed it according to features of the clinical presentation, most importantly inconsistency and abnormal illness behaviour. Most of the respondents saw feigning as entangled with conversion disorder, with a minority seeing one as a variant of the other. They were quite willing to discuss psychological factors as long as the patient was receptive but were generally unwilling to discuss feigning even though they saw it as their responsibility. Those who favoured models in terms of feigning were older, while younger, female neurologists preferred psychological models, believed conversion would one day be understood neurologically and found communicating with their conversion patients easier than it had been in the past. Discussion Neurologists accept psychological models for conversion disorder but do not employ them in their diagnosis; they do not see conversion as clearly different from feigning. This may be changing as younger, female neurologists endorse psychological views more clearly and find it easier to discuss with their patients. PMID:21325661

  14. Atomic-orbital close-coupling calculations for collisions involving fusion relevant highly charged impurity ions using very large basis sets

    SciTech Connect

    Igenbergs, Katharina; Wallerberger, Markus; Schweinzer, Josef; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2012-05-25

    The atomic-orbital close-coupling formalism is a well-known method for the semiclassical treatment of ion-atom collisions. Cross sections for these kinds of collisions are mainly needed in the analysis of certain spectroscopic data from nuclear fusion experiments as well as astrophysical data. We shall outline how the computational implementation can be improved in such a way that collisions involving heavy, highly charged impurity ions, such as Ar{sup 18+} can be treated. Furthermore we show and discuss exemplary results.

  15. Teaching Very Large Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRogatis, Amy; Honerkamp, Kenneth; McDaniel, Justin; Medine, Carolyn; Nyitray, Vivian-Lee; Pearson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The editor of "Teaching Theology and Religion" facilitated this reflective conversation with five teachers who have extensive experience and success teaching extremely large classes (150 students or more). In the course of the conversation these professors exchange and analyze the effectiveness of several active learning strategies they…

  16. Teaching Very Large Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRogatis, Amy; Honerkamp, Kenneth; McDaniel, Justin; Medine, Carolyn; Nyitray, Vivian-Lee; Pearson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The editor of "Teaching Theology and Religion" facilitated this reflective conversation with five teachers who have extensive experience and success teaching extremely large classes (150 students or more). In the course of the conversation these professors exchange and analyze the effectiveness of several active learning strategies they…

  17. [Management of patients with conversion disorder].

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Marinus; Hoekstra, Jan; Kuipers-van Kooten, Mariëtte J; van der Linden, Els A M

    2014-01-01

    The symptoms of conversion disorder are not due to conscious simulation. There should be no doubt that the symptoms of conversion disorder are genuine, even if scans do not reveal any abnormalities. The management of patients with conversion disorder starts with an explanation of the diagnosis. The essence of this explanation is that patients first hear about what the diagnosis actually means and only after this about what they do not have. When explaining the diagnosis it is a good idea to use metaphors. The treatment of patients with conversion disorder is carried out together with a physical therapist. The collaboration of healthcare professionals who are involved in the treatment of a patient with conversion disorder should preferably be coordinated by the patient's general practitioner.

  18. Conversing with Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    I/NET, Inc., is making the dream of natural human-computer conversation a practical reality. Through a combination of advanced artificial intelligence research and practical software design, I/NET has taken the complexity out of developing advanced, natural language interfaces. Conversational capabilities like pronoun resolution, anaphora and ellipsis processing, and dialog management that were once available only in the laboratory can now be brought to any application with any speech recognition system using I/NET s conversational engine middleware.

  19. Microbial conversion of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R.M. )

    1989-10-01

    The objectives of this project were to describe in detail the degradation of coals by fungi and microbes, to expand the range of applicability of the process to include new microbes and other coal types, to identify the means by which biosolubilization of coal is accomplished, and to explore means to enhance the rates and extent of coal bioconversion. The project was initiated in a response to the discovery by Dr. Martin Cohen at the University of Hartford, of a fungal strain of Coriolus versicolor that would render a solid coal substance, leonardite, into a liquid product. The project has identified the principal agent of leonardite solubilization as a powerful metal chelator, most likely a fungal-produced siderophore. Another nonlaccase enzyme has also been identified as a unique biosolubilizing agent produced by C. versicolor. Assays were developed for the quantitative determination of biological coal conversion, and for the determination of potency of biosolubilizing agent. Screening studies uncovered several microbial organisms capable of coal biodegradation, and led to the discovery that prolonged heating in air at the moderate temperature of 150{degree}C allowed the biodegradation of Illinois {number sign}6 coal to material soluble in dilute base. Chemical studies showed that leonardite biosolubilization was accompanied by relatively small change in composition, while solubilization of Illinois {number sign}6 coal involves considerable oxidation of the coal. 24 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs.

  20. Reaction pathways involved in CH4 conversion on Pd/Al2O3 catalysts : TAP as a powerful tool for the elucidation of the effective role of the metal/support interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP) reactor offers an alternative to draw direct structure/activity relationships checked on Natural Gas-fuelled Vehicle (NGV) catalysts Determination of accurate kinetic constants for methane adsorption from single pulse experiments and subsequent investigation of sequential surface reactions from alternative CH4/O2 pulse experiments provides a straightforward visualization of the involvement of the metal/support interface on freshly-prepared catalysts and the loss of this effect on aged single palladium based catalysts.

  1. Conversion events in gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gene clusters containing multiple similar genomic regions in close proximity are of great interest for biomedical studies because of their associations with inherited diseases. However, such regions are difficult to analyze due to their structural complexity and their complicated evolutionary histories, reflecting a variety of large-scale mutational events. In particular, conversion events can mislead inferences about the relationships among these regions, as traced by traditional methods such as construction of phylogenetic trees or multi-species alignments. Results To correct the distorted information generated by such methods, we have developed an automated pipeline called CHAP (Cluster History Analysis Package) for detecting conversion events. We used this pipeline to analyze the conversion events that affected two well-studied gene clusters (α-globin and β-globin) and three gene clusters for which comparative sequence data were generated from seven primate species: CCL (chemokine ligand), IFN (interferon), and CYP2abf (part of cytochrome P450 family 2). CHAP is freely available at http://www.bx.psu.edu/miller_lab. Conclusions These studies reveal the value of characterizing conversion events in the context of studying gene clusters in complex genomes. PMID:21798034

  2. [Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with concomitant c-MYC and BCL6 gene rearrangements with primary skin involvement: A case report and a review of literature].

    PubMed

    Gabeeva, N G; Koroleva, D A; Belyaeva, A V; Chernova, N G; Kuzmina, L A; Sudarikov, A B; Obukhova, T N; Kovrigina, A M; Zvonkov, E E; Savchenko, V G

    2017-01-01

    Double-hit lymphoma (DHL) is a rare aggressive B-cell lymphoma with concomitant c-MYC, BCL2 or BCL6 gene rearrangements, which is characterized by the high frequency of extranodal lesions and by resistance to chemotherapy. The median survival does not exceed 18 months in patients with this disease. The majority of DHL is represented by с-MYC/BCL2 cases. The combination of c-MYC/BCL6 occurs rarely (5-8%). The paper describes a case of DHL with concomitant c-MYC and BCL6 gene rearrangements, which mimics diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type.

  3. A Retrospective Review of Reconstructive Options and Outcomes of 202 Cases Large Facial Mohs Micrographic Surgical Defects, Based on the Aesthetic Unit Involved.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Anne C; The, Ayleen; Moolenburgh, Sanne E; de Haas, Ellen R M; Mureau, Marc A M

    2015-01-01

    For optimal treatment of facial defects following Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS), the aesthetic unit principles should be applied. Often multiple staged procedures and revisions are necessary. To analyze the reconstructive options and outcomes for complex facial defects per aesthetic unit. Data of 202 patients, who underwent a facial reconstruction at the department of plastic and reconstructive surgery following MMS, were collected. The central facial units were affected in more than 70%, with over 20% of the defects involving more than 1 unit. Nasal defects required the longest reconstruction time (3-staged forehead flap) and periocular defects the most revisional procedures. In more than 50%, additional operations (range, 1-5) were needed. In 12%, postoperative complications occurred. An overview for the reconstructive options of extensive facial skin cancer is presented. Proper treatment requires a structured multidisciplinary approach in order to achieve excellent tumour control and a satisfactory aesthetic and functional end result. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Conversation et Television (Conversation and Television)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadde, Jean-Pierre

    1977-01-01

    Czechosovakian television has just presented a series of French Conversation Classes using audiovisual techniques and starring Czech actors and actresses. The setting of each dialog is in Czechoslovakia, and the situations are those in which a Czech would use French in his or her native land. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  5. Guidelines for diagnosis, prevention and management of central nervous system involvement in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients by the Spanish Lymphoma Group (GELTAMO)

    PubMed Central

    Peñalver, Francisco-Javier; Sancho, Juan-Manuel; de la Fuente, Adolfo; Olave, María-Teresa; Martín, Alejandro; Panizo, Carlos; Pérez, Elena; Salar, Antonio; Orfao, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients have a 5% overall risk of central nervous system events (relapse or progression), which account for high morbidity and frequently fatal outcomes,1 and shortened overall survival of <6 months.2 Early diagnosis of central nervous system events is critical for successful treatment and improved prognosis. Identification of patients at risk of central nervous system disease is critical to accurately identify candidates for central nervous system prophylaxis vs. therapy.3–5 This report by the Spanish Lymphoma Group (GELTAMO) aims to provide useful guidelines and recommendations for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients with, or at risk of, leptomeningeal and/or brain parenchyma lymphoma relapse. A panel of lymphoma experts working on behalf of GELTAMO reviewed all data published on these topics available in PubMed up to May 2016. Recommendations were classified according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach.6 A practical algorithm based on the proposed recommendations was then developed (Figure 1). Initial discussions among experts were held in May 2014, and final consensus was reached in June 2016. The final manuscript was reviewed by all authors and the Scientific Committee of GELTAMO. PMID:27846613

  6. Genes involved in nonpermissive temperature-induced cell differentiation in Sertoli TTE3 cells bearing temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 large T-antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Tabuchi, Yoshiaki . E-mail: ytabu@ms.toyama-mpu.ac.jp; Kondo, Takashi; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Obinata, Masuo

    2005-04-15

    Sertoli TTE3 cells, derived from transgenic mice bearing temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 large T (tsSV40LT)-antigen, proliferated continuously at a permissive temperature (33 deg C) whereas inactivation of the large T-antigen by a nonpermissive temperature (39 deg C) led to differentiation as judged by elevation of transferrin. To clarify the detailed mechanisms of differentiation, we investigated the time course of changes in gene expression using cDNA microarrays. Of the 865 genes analyzed, 14 genes showed increased levels of expression. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that the mRNA levels of p21{sup waf1}, milk fat globule membrane protein E8, heat-responsive protein 12, and selenoprotein P were markedly elevated. Moreover, the differentiated condition induced by the nonpermissive temperature significantly increased mRNA levels of these four genes in several cell lines from the transgenic mice bearing the oncogene. The present results regarding changes in gene expression will provide a basis for a further understanding of molecular mechanisms of differentiation in both Sertoli cells and cell lines transformed by tsSV40LT-antigen.

  7. SPS Energy Conversion Power Management Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Energy technology concerning photovoltaic conversion, solar thermal conversion systems, and electrical power distribution processing is discussed. The manufacturing processes involving solar cells and solar array production are summarized. Resource issues concerning gallium arsenides and silicon alternatives are reported. Collector structures for solar construction are described and estimates in their service life, failure rates, and capabilities are presented. Theories of advanced thermal power cycles are summarized. Power distribution system configurations and processing components are presented.

  8. A Discovery-Based Experiment Involving Rearrangement in the Conversion of Alcohols to Alkyl Halides: Permanent Magnet [to the thirteenth power]C NMR in the First-Semester Organic Chemistry Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjonaas, Richard A.; Tucker, Ryand J. F.

    2008-01-01

    The use of permanent magnet [to the thirteenth power]C NMR in large-section first-semester organic chemistry lab courses is limited by the availability of experiments that not only hinge on first-semester lecture topics, but which also produce at least 0.5 mL of neat liquid sample. This article reports a discovery-based experiment that meets both…

  9. Reaction Pathways Involved in CH4 Conversion on Pd/Al2O3 Catalysts: TAP as a Powerful Tool for the Elucidation of the Effective Role of the Metal/Support Interface

    PubMed Central

    Renème, Y.; Pietrzyk, S.; Dhainaut, F.; Chaar, M.; van Veen, A. C.; Granger, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP) investigation on Natural Gas-fueled Vehicle (NGV) catalysts provides information related to the nature of reaction steps involved over noble metals and at the metal-support interface. The determination of accurate kinetic parameters for methane adsorption from single pulse experiments and subsequent investigation of sequential surface reactions from alternative CH4/O2 pulse experiments is the first step toward the establishment of relevant structure/activity relationships which can highlight the importance of the metal/support interface on freshly-prepared and aged single palladium based catalysts. PMID:26909345

  10. Diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving the unilateral carotid space in an elderly man: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Zou, Chunying; Wu, Jianqing

    2017-01-01

    An 84-year-old man presented with a history of repeated syncope and decreased heart rate and blood pressure over the last month. On physical examination, a mass sized ~3×3 cm was palpable in the left submandibular area; the mass was hard, poorly mobile, without tenderness or local skin irritation. The computed tomography angiography examination revealed a soft tissue mass in the neck, at the level of the left carotid bifurcation and above. The left common carotid artery bifurcation and internal and external carotid artery segment were embedded in the mass, and there were multiple enlarged lymph nodes in the left neck. The diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma was confirmed by a percutaneous biopsy of the left submandibular mass. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of non-Hodgkin lymphoma involvign the carotid space. PMID:28123742

  11. The comprehensive analysis of DEG/ENaC subunits in Hydra reveals a large variety of peptide-gated channels, potentially involved in neuromuscular transmission.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Marc; Kuhn, Anne; Dürrnagel, Stefan; Holstein, Thomas W; Gründer, Stefan

    2014-10-14

    It is generally the case that fast transmission at neural synapses is mediated by small molecule neurotransmitters. The simple nervous system of the cnidarian Hydra, however, contains a large repertoire of neuropeptides and it has been suggested that neuropeptides are the principal transmitters of Hydra. An ion channel directly gated by Hydra-RFamide neuropeptides has indeed been identified in Hydra - the Hydra Na+ channel (HyNaC) 2/3/5, which is expressed at the oral side of the tentacle base. Hydra-RFamides are more widely expressed, however, being found in neurons of the head and peduncle region. Here, we explore whether further peptide-gated HyNaCs exist, where in the animal they are expressed, and whether they are all gated by Hydra-RFamides. We report molecular cloning of seven new HyNaC subunits - HyNaC6 to HyNaC12, all of which are members of the DEG/ENaC gene family. In Xenopus oocytes, these subunits assemble together with the four already known subunits into thirteen different ion channels that are directly gated by Hydra-RFamide neuropeptides with high affinity (up to 40 nM). In situ hybridization suggests that HyNaCs are expressed in epitheliomuscular cells at the oral and the aboral side of the tentacle base and at the peduncle. Moreover, diminazene, an inhibitor of HyNaCs, delayed tentacle movement in live Hydra. Our results show that Hydra has a large variety of peptide-gated ion channels that are activated by a restricted number of related neuropeptides. The existence and expression pattern of these channels, and behavioral effects induced by channel blockers, suggests that Hydra co-opted neuropeptides for fast neuromuscular transmission.

  12. An Efficient Large-Scale Retroviral Transduction Method Involving Preloading the Vector into a RetroNectin-Coated Bag with Low-Temperature Shaking

    PubMed Central

    Dodo, Katsuyuki; Chono, Hideto; Saito, Naoki; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Tahara, Kenichi; Nukaya, Ikuei; Mineno, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    In retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer, transduction efficiency can be hampered by inhibitory molecules derived from the culture fluid of virus producer cell lines. To remove these inhibitory molecules to enable better gene transduction, we had previously developed a transduction method using a fibronectin fragment-coated vessel (i.e., the RetroNectin-bound virus transduction method). In the present study, we developed a method that combined RetroNectin-bound virus transduction with low-temperature shaking and applied this method in manufacturing autologous retroviral-engineered T cells for adoptive transfer gene therapy in a large-scale closed system. Retroviral vector was preloaded into a RetroNectin-coated bag and incubated at 4°C for 16 h on a reciprocating shaker at 50 rounds per minute. After the supernatant was removed, activated T cells were added to the bag. The bag transduction method has the advantage of increasing transduction efficiency, as simply flipping over the bag during gene transduction facilitates more efficient utilization of the retroviral vector adsorbed on the top and bottom surfaces of the bag. Finally, we performed validation runs of endoribonuclease MazF-modified CD4+ T cell manufacturing for HIV-1 gene therapy and T cell receptor-modified T cell manufacturing for MAGE-A4 antigen-expressing cancer gene therapy and achieved over 200-fold (≥1010) and 100-fold (≥5×109) expansion, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the large-scale closed transduction system is highly efficient for retroviral vector-based T cell manufacturing for adoptive transfer gene therapy, and this technology is expected to be amenable to automation and improve current clinical gene therapy protocols. PMID:24454964

  13. Large magnetic cooling power involving frustrated antiferromagnetic spin-glass state in R2NiSi3(R =Gd ,Er )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhira, Santanu; Mazumdar, Chandan; Ranganathan, R.; Giri, S.; Avdeev, Maxim

    2016-09-01

    The ternary intermetallic compounds Gd2NiSi3 and Er2NiSi3 are synthesized in chemically single phase, which are characterized using dc magnetization, ac magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, and neutron diffraction studies. Neutron diffraction and heat capacity studies confirm that long-range magnetic ordering coexists with the frustrated glassy magnetic components for both compounds. The static and dynamical features of dc magnetization and frequency-dependent ac susceptibility data reveal that Gd2NiSi3 is a canonical spin-glass system, while Er2NiSi3 is a reentrant spin cluster-glass system. The spin freezing temperature merges with the long-range antiferromagnetic ordering temperature at 16.4 K for Gd2NiSi3 . Er2NiSi3 undergoes antiferromagnetic ordering at 5.4 K, which is slightly above the spin freezing temperature at 3 K. The detailed studies of nonequilibrium dynamical behavior, viz., the memory effect and relaxation behavior using different protocols, suggest that both compounds favor the hierarchical model over the droplet model. A large magnetocaloric effect is observed for both compounds. Maximum values of isothermal entropy change (-Δ SM ) and relative cooling power (RCP) are found to be 18.4 J/kg K and 525 J/kg for Gd2NiSi3 and 22.6 J/kg K and 540 J/kg for Er2NiSi3 , respectively, for a change in field from 0 to 70 kOe. The values of RCP are comparable to those of the promising refrigerant materials. A correlation between large RCP and magnetic frustration is discussed for developing new magnetic refrigerant materials.

  14. Conversations in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardige, Betty; Segal, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    In this article, Bardige and Segal discuss how teachers can help a toddler's language and literacy development through conversation. They suggest an array of tactics, from asking young children open-ended, intellectually challenging questions to going beyond the here and now when carrying on a conversation. Research has shown that the practice of…

  15. Energy conversion alternatives study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  16. Content for Conversation Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that a good strategy for helping English language learners to develop communicative competence in English is by pairing them with native English speakers. In such conversation programs, conversation partners should be provided with topics and activities that incorporate the goals, interests, and experiences of the learners. Recommends…

  17. The Conversation Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Acy L.

    2012-01-01

    The conversation class occupies a unique place in the process of learning English as a second or foreign language. From the author's own experience in conducting special conversation classes with Persian-speaking adults, he has drawn up a number of simple but important guidelines, some of which he hopes may provide helpful suggestions for the…

  18. NUCLEAR CONVERSION APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-09-13

    A nuclear conversion apparatus is described which comprises a body of neutron moderator, tubes extending therethrough, uranium in the tubes, a fluid- circulating system associated with the tubes, a thorium-containing fluid coolant in the system and tubes, and means for withdrawing the fluid from the system and replacing it in the system whereby thorium conversion products may be recovered.

  19. A distinct X-linked syndrome involving joint contractures, keloids, large optic cup-to-disc ratio, and renal stones results from a filamin A (FLNA) mutation.

    PubMed

    Lah, Melissa; Niranjan, Tejasvi; Srikanth, Sujata; Holloway, Lynda; Schwartz, Charles E; Wang, Tao; Weaver, David D

    2016-04-01

    We further evaluated a previously reported family with an apparently undescribed X-linked syndrome involving joint contractures, keloids, an increased optic cup-to-disc ratio, and renal stones to elucidate the genetic cause. To do this, we obtained medical histories and performed physical examination on 14 individuals in the family, five of whom are affected males and three are obligate carrier females. Linkage analysis was performed on all but one individual and chromosome X-exome sequencing was done on two affected males. The analysis localized the putative gene to Xq27-qter and chromosome X-exome sequencing revealed a mutation in exon 28 (c.4726G>A) of the filamin A (FLNA) gene, predicting that a conserved glycine had been replaced by arginine at amino acid 1576 (p.G1576R). Segregation analysis demonstrated that all known carrier females tested were heterozygous (G/A), all affected males were hemizygous for the mutation (A allele) and all normal males were hemizygous for the normal G allele. The data and the bioinformatic analysis indicate that the G1576R mutation in the FLNA gene is very likely pathogenic in this family. The syndrome affecting the family shares phenotypic overlap with other syndromes caused by FLNA mutations, but appears to be a distinct phenotype, likely representing a unique genetic syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A large-scale in vivo RNAi screen to identify genes involved in Notch-mediated follicle cell differentiation and cell cycle switches

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Dongyu; Soylemez, Muhammed; Calvin, Gabriel; Bornmann, Randy; Bryant, Jamal; Hanna, Cameron; Huang, Yi-Chun; Deng, Wu-Min

    2015-01-01

    During Drosophila oogenesis, follicle cells sequentially undergo three distinct cell-cycle programs: the mitotic cycle, endocycle, and gene amplification. Notch signaling plays a central role in regulating follicle-cell differentiation and cell-cycle switches; its activation is essential for the mitotic cycle/endocycle (M/E) switch. Cut, a linker between Notch signaling and cell-cycle regulators, is specifically downregulated by Notch during the endocycle stage. To determine how signaling pathways coordinate during the M/E switch and to identify novel genes involved in follicle cell differentiation, we performed an in vivo RNAi screen through induced knockdown of gene expression and examination of Cut expression in follicle cells. We screened 2205 RNAi lines and found 33 genes regulating Cut expression during the M/E switch. These genes were confirmed with the staining of two other Notch signaling downstream factors, Hindsight and Broad, and validated with multiple independent RNAi lines. We applied gene ontology software to find enriched biological meaning and compared our results with other publications to find conserved genes across tissues. Specifically, we found earlier endocycle entry in anterior follicle cells than those in the posterior, identified that the insulin-PI3K pathway participates in the precise M/E switch, and suggested Nejire as a cofactor of Notch signaling during oogenesis. PMID:26205122

  1. A large-scale in vivo RNAi screen to identify genes involved in Notch-mediated follicle cell differentiation and cell cycle switches.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dongyu; Soylemez, Muhammed; Calvin, Gabriel; Bornmann, Randy; Bryant, Jamal; Hanna, Cameron; Huang, Yi-Chun; Deng, Wu-Min

    2015-07-24

    During Drosophila oogenesis, follicle cells sequentially undergo three distinct cell-cycle programs: the mitotic cycle, endocycle, and gene amplification. Notch signaling plays a central role in regulating follicle-cell differentiation and cell-cycle switches; its activation is essential for the mitotic cycle/endocycle (M/E) switch. Cut, a linker between Notch signaling and cell-cycle regulators, is specifically downregulated by Notch during the endocycle stage. To determine how signaling pathways coordinate during the M/E switch and to identify novel genes involved in follicle cell differentiation, we performed an in vivo RNAi screen through induced knockdown of gene expression and examination of Cut expression in follicle cells. We screened 2205 RNAi lines and found 33 genes regulating Cut expression during the M/E switch. These genes were confirmed with the staining of two other Notch signaling downstream factors, Hindsight and Broad, and validated with multiple independent RNAi lines. We applied gene ontology software to find enriched biological meaning and compared our results with other publications to find conserved genes across tissues. Specifically, we found earlier endocycle entry in anterior follicle cells than those in the posterior, identified that the insulin-PI3K pathway participates in the precise M/E switch, and suggested Nejire as a cofactor of Notch signaling during oogenesis.

  2. Reported Speech in Conversational Storytelling during Nursing Shift Handover Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangerter, Adrian; Mayor, Eric; Pekarek Doehler, Simona

    2011-01-01

    Shift handovers in nursing units involve formal transmission of information and informal conversation about non-routine events. Informal conversation often involves telling stories. Direct reported speech (DRS) was studied in handover storytelling in two nursing care units. The study goal is to contribute to a better understanding of conversation…

  3. Reported Speech in Conversational Storytelling during Nursing Shift Handover Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangerter, Adrian; Mayor, Eric; Pekarek Doehler, Simona

    2011-01-01

    Shift handovers in nursing units involve formal transmission of information and informal conversation about non-routine events. Informal conversation often involves telling stories. Direct reported speech (DRS) was studied in handover storytelling in two nursing care units. The study goal is to contribute to a better understanding of conversation…

  4. The Genome Sequence of the Tomato-Pathogenic Actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382 Reveals a Large Island Involved in Pathogenicity▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gartemann, Karl-Heinz; Abt, Birte; Bekel, Thomas; Burger, Annette; Engemann, Jutta; Flügel, Monika; Gaigalat, Lars; Goesmann, Alexander; Gräfen, Ines; Kalinowski, Jörn; Kaup, Olaf; Kirchner, Oliver; Krause, Lutz; Linke, Burkhard; McHardy, Alice; Meyer, Folker; Pohle, Sandra; Rückert, Christian; Schneiker, Susanne; Zellermann, Eva-Maria; Pühler, Alfred; Eichenlaub, Rudolf; Kaiser, Olaf; Bartels, Daniela

    2008-01-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a plant-pathogenic actinomycete that causes bacterial wilt and canker of tomato. The nucleotide sequence of the genome of strain NCPPB382 was determined. The chromosome is circular, consists of 3.298 Mb, and has a high G+C content (72.6%). Annotation revealed 3,080 putative protein-encoding sequences; only 26 pseudogenes were detected. Two rrn operons, 45 tRNAs, and three small stable RNA genes were found. The two circular plasmids, pCM1 (27.4 kbp) and pCM2 (70.0 kbp), which carry pathogenicity genes and thus are essential for virulence, have lower G+C contents (66.5 and 67.6%, respectively). In contrast to the genome of the closely related organism Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, the genome of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis lacks complete insertion elements and transposons. The 129-kb chp/tomA region with a low G+C content near the chromosomal origin of replication was shown to be necessary for pathogenicity. This region contains numerous genes encoding proteins involved in uptake and metabolism of sugars and several serine proteases. There is evidence that single genes located in this region, especially genes encoding serine proteases, are required for efficient colonization of the host. Although C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis grows mainly in the xylem of tomato plants, no evidence for pronounced genome reduction was found. C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis seems to have as many transporters and regulators as typical soil-inhabiting bacteria. However, the apparent lack of a sulfate reduction pathway, which makes C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis dependent on reduced sulfur compounds for growth, is probably the reason for the poor survival of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in soil. PMID:18192381

  5. The genome sequence of the tomato-pathogenic actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382 reveals a large island involved in pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Gartemann, Karl-Heinz; Abt, Birte; Bekel, Thomas; Burger, Annette; Engemann, Jutta; Flügel, Monika; Gaigalat, Lars; Goesmann, Alexander; Gräfen, Ines; Kalinowski, Jörn; Kaup, Olaf; Kirchner, Oliver; Krause, Lutz; Linke, Burkhard; McHardy, Alice; Meyer, Folker; Pohle, Sandra; Rückert, Christian; Schneiker, Susanne; Zellermann, Eva-Maria; Pühler, Alfred; Eichenlaub, Rudolf; Kaiser, Olaf; Bartels, Daniela

    2008-03-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a plant-pathogenic actinomycete that causes bacterial wilt and canker of tomato. The nucleotide sequence of the genome of strain NCPPB382 was determined. The chromosome is circular, consists of 3.298 Mb, and has a high G+C content (72.6%). Annotation revealed 3,080 putative protein-encoding sequences; only 26 pseudogenes were detected. Two rrn operons, 45 tRNAs, and three small stable RNA genes were found. The two circular plasmids, pCM1 (27.4 kbp) and pCM2 (70.0 kbp), which carry pathogenicity genes and thus are essential for virulence, have lower G+C contents (66.5 and 67.6%, respectively). In contrast to the genome of the closely related organism Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, the genome of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis lacks complete insertion elements and transposons. The 129-kb chp/tomA region with a low G+C content near the chromosomal origin of replication was shown to be necessary for pathogenicity. This region contains numerous genes encoding proteins involved in uptake and metabolism of sugars and several serine proteases. There is evidence that single genes located in this region, especially genes encoding serine proteases, are required for efficient colonization of the host. Although C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis grows mainly in the xylem of tomato plants, no evidence for pronounced genome reduction was found. C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis seems to have as many transporters and regulators as typical soil-inhabiting bacteria. However, the apparent lack of a sulfate reduction pathway, which makes C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis dependent on reduced sulfur compounds for growth, is probably the reason for the poor survival of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in soil.

  6. Attitudes towards people with mental illness among psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses, involved family members and the general population in a large city in Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Stigma towards people with mental illness is believed to be widespread in low and middle income countries. Methods This study assessed the attitudes towards people with mental illness among psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses, involved family members of patients in a psychiatric facility and the general public using a standard 43-item survey (N = 535). Exploratory factor analysis identified four distinctive attitudes which were then compared using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) among the four groups, all with ties to the largest psychiatric facility in Guangzhou, China, adjusting for sociodemographic differences. Results Four uncorrelated factors expressed preferences for 1) community-based treatment, social integration and a biopsychosocial model of causation, 2) direct personal relationships with people with mental illness, 3) a lack of fear and positive views of personal interactions with people with mental illness, 4) disbelief in superstitious explanations of mental illness. Statistically significant differences favored community-based treatment and biopsychosocial causation (factor 1) among professional groups (psychiatrists and nurses) as compared with family members and the general public (p < 0.001); while family members, unexpectedly, showed far weaker personal preferences for direct personal relationships with people with mental illness than all three other groups (p < 0.001). Conclusion Both psychiatrists and nurses showed greater support for social integration and biopsychosocial understandings of mental illness than the lay public, most likely because of their training and experience, while family members showed the least positive attitudes towards direct personal relationships with people with mental illness. These findings suggest support for a more extensive, formal system of care that gives family members some distance from the problems of their relatives and support in their care. PMID:25053975

  7. Chromosome breakage in the Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes involves recombination between large, transcribed repeats at proximal and distal breakpoints.

    PubMed Central

    Amos-Landgraf, J M; Ji, Y; Gottlieb, W; Depinet, T; Wandstrat, A E; Cassidy, S B; Driscoll, D J; Rogan, P K; Schwartz, S; Nicholls, R D

    1999-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are distinct neurobehavioral disorders that most often arise from a 4-Mb deletion of chromosome 15q11-q13 during paternal or maternal gametogenesis, respectively. At a de novo frequency of approximately.67-1/10,000 births, these deletions represent a common structural chromosome change in the human genome. To elucidate the mechanism underlying these events, we characterized the regions that contain two proximal breakpoint clusters and a distal cluster. Novel DNA sequences potentially associated with the breakpoints were positionally cloned from YACs within or near these regions. Analyses of rodent-human somatic-cell hybrids, YAC contigs, and FISH of normal or rearranged chromosomes 15 identified duplicated sequences (the END repeats) at or near the breakpoints. The END-repeat units are derived from large genomic duplications of a novel gene (HERC2), many copies of which are transcriptionally active in germline tissues. One of five PWS/AS patients analyzed to date has an identifiable, rearranged HERC2 transcript derived from the deletion event. We postulate that the END repeats flanking 15q11-q13 mediate homologous recombination resulting in deletion. Furthermore, we propose that active transcription of these repeats in male and female germ cells may facilitate the homologous recombination process. PMID:10417280

  8. Large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel involvement in suppression of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury after electroacupuncture at Shuigou (GV26) acupoint in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Shen, Yan; Lin, Hai-Ping; Li, Zhuo; Chen, Ying-Ying; Wang, Shu

    2016-06-01

    Excess activation and expression of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BKCa channels) may be an important mechanism for delayed neuronal death after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Electroacupuncture can regulate BKCa channels after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, but the precise mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we established a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Model rats received electroacupuncture of 1 mA and 2 Hz at Shuigou (GV26) for 10 minutes, once every 12 hours for a total of six times in 72 hours. We found that in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury rats, ischemic changes in the cerebral cortex were mitigated after electroacupuncture. Moreover, BKCa channel protein and mRNA expression were reduced in the cerebral cortex and neurological function noticeably improved. These changes did not occur after electroacupuncture at a non-acupoint (5 mm lateral to the left side of Shuigou). Thus, our findings indicate that electroacupuncture at Shuigou improves neurological function in rats following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and may be associated with down-regulation of BKCa channel protein and mRNA expression. Additionally, our results suggest that the Shuigou acupoint has functional specificity.

  9. Genome-wide association analysis for heat tolerance at flowering detected a large set of genes involved in adaptation to thermal and other stresses

    PubMed Central

    Lafarge, Tanguy; Bueno, Crisanta; Frouin, Julien; Jacquin, Laval; Courtois, Brigitte; Ahmadi, Nourollah

    2017-01-01

    Fertilization sensitivity to heat in rice is a major issue within climate change scenarios in the tropics. A panel of 167 indica landraces and improved varieties was phenotyped for spikelet sterility (SPKST) under 38°C during anthesis and for several secondary traits potentially affecting panicle micro-climate and thus the fertilization process. The panel was genotyped with an average density of one marker per 29 kb using genotyping by sequencing. Genome-wide association analyses (GWAS) were conducted using three methods based on single marker regression, haplotype regression and simultaneous fitting of all markers, respectively. Fourteen loci significantly associated with SPKST under at least two GWAS methods were detected. A large number of associations was also detected for the secondary traits. Analysis of co-localization of SPKST associated loci with QTLs detected in progenies of bi-parental crosses reported in the literature allowed to narrow -down the position of eight of those QTLs, including the most documented one, qHTSF4.1. Gene families underlying loci associated with SPKST corresponded to functions ranging from sensing abiotic stresses and regulating plant response, such as wall-associated kinases and heat shock proteins, to cell division and gametophyte development. Analysis of diversity at the vicinity of loci associated with SPKST within the rice three thousand genomes, revealed widespread distribution of the favourable alleles across O. sativa genetic groups. However, few accessions assembled the favourable alleles at all loci. Effective donors included the heat tolerant variety N22 and some Indian and Taiwanese varieties. These results provide a basis for breeding for heat tolerance during anthesis and for functional validation of major loci governing this trait. PMID:28152098

  10. Genome-wide association analysis for heat tolerance at flowering detected a large set of genes involved in adaptation to thermal and other stresses.

    PubMed

    Lafarge, Tanguy; Bueno, Crisanta; Frouin, Julien; Jacquin, Laval; Courtois, Brigitte; Ahmadi, Nourollah

    2017-01-01

    Fertilization sensitivity to heat in rice is a major issue within climate change scenarios in the tropics. A panel of 167 indica landraces and improved varieties was phenotyped for spikelet sterility (SPKST) under 38°C during anthesis and for several secondary traits potentially affecting panicle micro-climate and thus the fertilization process. The panel was genotyped with an average density of one marker per 29 kb using genotyping by sequencing. Genome-wide association analyses (GWAS) were conducted using three methods based on single marker regression, haplotype regression and simultaneous fitting of all markers, respectively. Fourteen loci significantly associated with SPKST under at least two GWAS methods were detected. A large number of associations was also detected for the secondary traits. Analysis of co-localization of SPKST associated loci with QTLs detected in progenies of bi-parental crosses reported in the literature allowed to narrow -down the position of eight of those QTLs, including the most documented one, qHTSF4.1. Gene families underlying loci associated with SPKST corresponded to functions ranging from sensing abiotic stresses and regulating plant response, such as wall-associated kinases and heat shock proteins, to cell division and gametophyte development. Analysis of diversity at the vicinity of loci associated with SPKST within the rice three thousand genomes, revealed widespread distribution of the favourable alleles across O. sativa genetic groups. However, few accessions assembled the favourable alleles at all loci. Effective donors included the heat tolerant variety N22 and some Indian and Taiwanese varieties. These results provide a basis for breeding for heat tolerance during anthesis and for functional validation of major loci governing this trait.

  11. A Large Inversion Involving GNAS Exon A/B and All Exons Encoding Gsα Is Associated With Autosomal Dominant Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type Ib (PHP1B).

    PubMed

    Grigelioniene, Giedre; Nevalainen, Pasi I; Reyes, Monica; Thiele, Susanne; Tafaj, Olta; Molinaro, Angelo; Takatani, Rieko; Ala-Houhala, Marja; Nilsson, Daniel; Eisfeldt, Jesper; Lindstrand, Anna; Kottler, Marie-Laure; Mäkitie, Outi; Jüppner, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP1B) is characterized primarily by resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH) and thus hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, in most cases without evidence for Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). PHP1B is associated with epigenetic changes at one or several differentially-methylated regions (DMRs) within GNAS, which encodes the α-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsα) and splice variants thereof. Heterozygous, maternally inherited STX16 or GNAS deletions leading to isolated loss-of-methylation (LOM) at exon A/B alone or at all maternal DMRs are the cause of autosomal dominant PHP1B (AD-PHP1B). In this study, we analyzed three affected individuals, the female proband and her two sons. All three revealed isolated LOM at GNAS exon A/B, whereas the proband's healthy maternal grandmother and uncle showed normal methylation at this locus. Haplotype analysis was consistent with linkage to the STX16/GNAS region, yet no deletion could be identified. Whole-genome sequencing of one of the patients revealed a large heterozygous inversion (1,882,433 bp). The centromeric breakpoint of the inversion is located 7,225 bp downstream of GNAS exon XL, but its DMR showed no methylation abnormality, raising the possibility that the inversion disrupts a regulatory element required only for establishing or maintaining exon A/B methylation. Because our three patients presented phenotypes consistent with PHP1B, and not with PHP1A, the Gsα promoter is probably unaffected by the inversion. Our findings expand the spectrum of genetic mutations that lead to LOM at exon A/B alone and thus biallelic expression of the transcript derived from this alternative first GNAS exon. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  12. Outcome prediction by extranodal involvement, IPI, R-IPI, and NCCN-IPI in the PET/CT and rituximab era: A Danish-Canadian study of 443 patients with diffuse-large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Villa, Diego; Alzahrani, Musa; Hansen, Jakob Werner; Sehn, Laurie H; Wilson, Don; de Nully Brown, Peter; Loft, Annika; Iyer, Victor; Johnsen, Hans Erik; Savage, Kerry J; Connors, Joseph M; Hutchings, Martin

    2015-11-01

    18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT (PET/CT) is the current state-of-the-art in the staging of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and has a high sensitivity for extranodal involvement. Therefore, reassessment of extranodal involvement and the current prognostic indices in the PET/CT era is warranted. We screened patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL seen at the academic centers of Aalborg, Copenhagen, and British Columbia for eligibility. Patients that had been staged with PET/CT and treated with R-CHOP(-like) 1(st) line treatment were retrospectively included. In total 443 patients met the inclusion criteria. With a median follow-up of 2.4 years, the 3-year overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 73% and 69%, respectively. The Ann Arbor classification had no prognostic impact in itself with the exception of stage IV disease (HR 2.14 for PFS, P<0.01). Extranodal involvement was associated with a worse outcome in general, and in particular for patients with involvement of >2 extranodal sites, including HR 7.81 (P < 0.001) for PFS for >3 sites. Bone/bone marrow involvement was the most commonly involved extranodal site identified by PET/CT (29%) and was associated with an inferior PFS and OS. The IPI, R-IPI, and NCCN-IPI were predictive of PFS and OS, and the two latter could identify a very good prognostic subgroup with 3-year PFS and OS of 100%. PET/CT-ascertained extranodal involvement in DLBCL is common and involvement of >2 extranodal sites is associated with a dismal outcome. The IPI, R-IPI, and NCCN-IPI predict outcome with high accuracy.

  13. Formation of alcohol conversion catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2001-01-01

    The method of the present invention involves a composition containing an intimate mixture of (a) metal oxide support particles and (b) a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, its method of manufacture, and its method of use for converting alcohols to aldehydes. During the conversion process, catalytically active metal oxide from the discrete catalytic metal oxide particles migrates to the oxide support particles and forms a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on the oxide support particle to form a catalyst composition having a higher specific activity than the admixed particle composition.

  14. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Solar Thermal Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

    1982-11-01

    The thermal conversion process of solar energy is based on well-known phenomena of heat transfer (Kreith 1976). In all thermal conversion processes, solar radiation is absorbed at the surface of a receiver, which contains or is in contact with flow passages through which a working fluid passes. As the receiver heats up, heat is transferred to the working fluid which may be air, water, oil, or a molten salt. The upper temperature that can be achieved in solar thermal conversion depends on the insolation, the degree to which the sunlight is concentrated, and the measures taken to reduce heat losses from the working fluid.

  16. Methanol conversion to higher hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Tabak, S.A.

    1994-12-31

    Several indirect options exist for producing chemicals and transportation fuels from coal, natural gas, or biomass. All involve an initial conversion step to synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}). Presently, there are two commercial technologies for converting syngas to liquids: Fischer-Tropsch, which yields a range of aliphatic hydrocarbons with molecular weights determined by Schulz-Flory kinetics, and methanol synthesis. Mobil`s diversity of technology for methanol conversion gives the methanol synthesis route flexibility for production of either gasoline, distillate or chemicals. Mobil`s ZSM-5 catalyst is the key in several processes for producing chemicals and transportation fuels from methanol: MTO for light olefins, MTG for gasoline, MOGD for distillates. The MTG process has been commercialized in New Zealand since 1985, producing one-third of the country`s gasoline supply, while MTO and MOGD have been developed and demonstrated at greater than 100 BPD scale. This paper will discuss recent work in understanding methanol conversion chemistry and the various options for its use.

  17. Responsive Teaching through Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Cheryl; Garnett, Susan; Tabatabai, Simeen

    2011-01-01

    Conversations are the heart of responsive teaching. By talking with struggling learners, teachers can find out about their interests in order to design effective, personalized instruction; build relationships; work through complexities in teaching and learning; and celebrate successes.

  18. Photochemical Energy Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batschelet, William H.; George, Arnold

    1986-01-01

    Describes procedures for two demonstrations: (1) photochemical energy conversion using ferric oxalate actinometry and (2) liquification of gases using Freon 114. Safety precautions are given for both demonstrations, as are procedures and material specifications. (JM)

  19. Responsive Teaching through Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Cheryl; Garnett, Susan; Tabatabai, Simeen

    2011-01-01

    Conversations are the heart of responsive teaching. By talking with struggling learners, teachers can find out about their interests in order to design effective, personalized instruction; build relationships; work through complexities in teaching and learning; and celebrate successes.

  20. Up-conversion luminescence in Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+}-codoped PbTiO{sub 3} perovskite obtained via Pechini method

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, F.C.D.; Melo, D.M.A.; Silva, J.E.C. da . E-mail: jecs@uft.edu.br

    2005-01-04

    Efficient infrared-to-visible conversion by Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+}-codoped PbTiO{sub 3} perovskite will be reported. The process is observed under 980 nm laser diode (GAs:Si) excitation and results in the generation of green ({approx}555 nm) and red ({approx}655 nm) emission. The main mechanism that allows for up-conversion is attributed the energy transfer among Yb and Er ions in excited states. The power up-conversion efficiency for red emission is predominant in this material. The results illustrate the large potential of this new class of material for photonic applications involving optoelectronics devices.

  1. Structured luminescence conversion layer

    DOEpatents

    Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

    2012-12-11

    An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

  2. Supercritical catalysts of light hydrocarbon conversion. DOE PETC eighth quartery report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, B.C.

    1996-06-01

    The solid superacid catalysts investigated in this project catalyze hydrocarbon conversions by routes involving carbocation intermediates. This report is a summary of mechanisms of hydrocarbon conversion catalyzed by these and related solid acids. This mechanistic information summarized here is important to the present project because it provides guidance for the modeling of the kinetics of the catalytic butane conversion and propane conversion. Because of the difficulty of determining surface reaction intermediates, understanding of surface reaction mechanisms lags far behind that of solution reaction mechanisms, and what is known about the former is fragmentary and often largely based on presumed analogies with the latter, combined with results such as those from tracer experiments, kinetics experiments, and theoretical chemistry.

  3. Reading Comprehension in Boys with ADHD: The Mediating Roles of Working Memory and Orthographic Conversion.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Lauren M; Rapport, Mark D; Raiker, Joseph S; Orban, Sarah A; Eckrich, Samuel J

    2017-02-01

    Reading comprehension difficulties in children with ADHD are well established; however, limited information exists concerning the cognitive mechanisms that contribute to these difficulties and the extent to which they interact with one another. The current study examines two broad cognitive processes known to be involved in children's reading comprehension abilities-(a) working memory (i.e., central executive processes [CE], phonological short-term memory [PH STM], and visuospatial short-term memory [VS STM]) and (b) orthographic conversion (i.e., conversion of visually presented text to a phonological code)-to elucidate their unique and interactive contribution to ADHD-related reading comprehension differences. Thirty-one boys with ADHD-combined type and 30 typically developing (TD) boys aged 8 to 12 years (M = 9.64, SD = 1.22) were administered multiple counterbalanced tasks assessing WM and orthographic conversion processes. Relative to TD boys, boys with ADHD exhibited significant deficits in PH STM (d = -0.70), VS STM (d = -0.92), CE (d = -1.58), and orthographic conversion (d = -0.93). Bias-corrected, bootstrapped mediation analyses revealed that CE and orthographic conversion processes modeled separately mediated ADHD-related reading comprehension differences partially, whereas PH STM and VS STM did not. CE and orthographic conversion modeled jointly mediated ADHD-related reading comprehension differences fully wherein orthographic conversion's large magnitude influence on reading comprehension occurred indirectly through CE's impact on the orthographic system. The findings suggest that adaptive cognitive interventions designed to improve reading-related outcomes in children with ADHD may benefit by including modules that train CE and orthographic conversion processes independently and interactively.

  4. Right upper quadrant pain and mass in a 41-year-old previously healthy man: a presenting feature of HIV-associated extranodal diffuse large B cell lymphoma with cardiac involvement.

    PubMed

    Vivekanandarajah, Abhirami; Bhatt, Vijaya Raj; Krishnarasa, Balakumar; Murukutla, Srujitha; Brenner, Arnold; Gupta, Shilpi

    2012-04-28

    With an increasing pandemic of HIV/AIDS, the incidence of HIV-associated lymphoma is expected to rise. Here, the authors report a case of a 41-year-old man who presented with right upper quadrant pain and mass, and was subsequently diagnosed with HIV-associated diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with cardiac involvement. This case illustrates some of the uncommon and interesting aspects of DLBCL: primary extramedullary extranodal stage IV disease as the presenting feature; cardiac involvement at presentation; DLBCL as the only clue to the diagnosis of HIV; and management of HIV-associated DLBCL. This case is also a reminder of the importance of the routine HIV screening for all patients between the ages of 13-64 years, as advocated by centres of disease control and prevention.

  5. Laser energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1989-01-01

    The conversion of laser energy to other, more useful, forms is an important element of any space power transmission system employing lasers. In general the user, at the receiving sight, will require the energy in a form other than laser radiation. In particular, conversion to rocket power and electricity are considered to be two major areas where one must consider various conversion techniques. Three systems (photovoltaic cells, MHD generators, and gas turbines) have been identified as the laser-to-electricity conversion systems that appear to meet most of the criteria for a space-based system. The laser thruster also shows considerable promise as a space propulsion system. At this time one cannot predict which of the three laser-to-electric converters will be best suited to particular mission needs. All three systems have some particular advantages, as well as disadvantages. It would be prudent to continue research on all three systems, as well as the laser rocket thruster. Research on novel energy conversion systems, such as the optical rectenna and the reverse free-electron laser, should continue due to their potential for high payoff.

  6. Laser energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1989-07-01

    The conversion of laser energy to other, more useful, forms is an important element of any space power transmission system employing lasers. In general the user, at the receiving sight, will require the energy in a form other than laser radiation. In particular, conversion to rocket power and electricity are considered to be two major areas where one must consider various conversion techniques. Three systems (photovoltaic cells, MHD generators, and gas turbines) have been identified as the laser-to-electricity conversion systems that appear to meet most of the criteria for a space-based system. The laser thruster also shows considerable promise as a space propulsion system. At this time one cannot predict which of the three laser-to-electric converters will be best suited to particular mission needs. All three systems have some particular advantages, as well as disadvantages. It would be prudent to continue research on all three systems, as well as the laser rocket thruster. Research on novel energy conversion systems, such as the optical rectenna and the reverse free-electron laser, should continue due to their potential for high payoff.

  7. Realistic Activities for the Conversation Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, William H.

    1986-01-01

    Six exercises intended to promote conversation skills are presented, including five survival games situated in space, caves, the middle of the ocean, the Sahara desert, and the North Pole; and a game to select a prison parolee from a group of candidates. The games involve role playing and decision-making activities. (MSE)

  8. Automatic Intention Recognition in Conversation Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental assumption of many theories of conversation is that comprehension of a speaker's utterance involves recognition of the speaker's intention in producing that remark. However, the nature of intention recognition is not clear. One approach is to conceptualize a speaker's intention in terms of speech acts [Searle, J. (1969). "Speech…

  9. Automatic Intention Recognition in Conversation Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental assumption of many theories of conversation is that comprehension of a speaker's utterance involves recognition of the speaker's intention in producing that remark. However, the nature of intention recognition is not clear. One approach is to conceptualize a speaker's intention in terms of speech acts [Searle, J. (1969). "Speech…

  10. Biological conversion of synthesis gas culture development

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Basu, R.; Johnson, E.R.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    Research continues on the conversion of synthesis by shift reactions involving bacteria. Topics discussed here include: biological water gas shift, sulfur gas utilization, experimental screening procedures, water gas shift studies, H{sub 2}S removal studies, COS degradation by selected CO-utilizing bacteria, and indirect COS utilization by Chlorobia. (VC)

  11. Turn-Taking Patterns in Deaf Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Jennifer; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the turn-taking patterns of Deaf signers and compares them with turn-taking patterns found in spoken interaction. Reports on research involving conversational data obtained from two Deaf friendship groups that aimed to establish whether Deaf interactants orient to a one-at-a-time model of turn-taking or whether there was any evidence to…

  12. Biological conversion of synthesis gas culture development

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Basu, R.; Johnson, E.R.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    Research continues on the conversion of synthesis by shift reactions involving bacteria. Topics discussed here include: biological water gas shift, sulfur gas utilization, experimental screening procedures, water gas shift studies, H{sub 2}S removal studies, COS degradation by selected CO-utilizing bacteria, and indirect COS utilization by Chlorobia. (VC)

  13. Direct conversion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

    1992-01-07

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  14. Frequency conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Steven (Inventor); Waarts, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A frequency conversion system comprises first and second gain sources providing first and second frequency radiation outputs where the second gain source receives as input the output of the first gain source and, further, the second gain source comprises a Raman or Brillouin gain fiber for wave shifting a portion of the radiation of the first frequency output into second frequency radiation output to provided a combined output of first and second frequencies. Powers are gain enhanced by the addition of a rare earth amplifier or oscillator, or a Raman/Brillouin amplifier or oscillator between the high power source and the NFM device. Further, polarization conversion using Raman or Brillouin wavelength shifting is provided to optimize frequency conversion efficiency in the NFM device.

  15. Direct conversion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massier, Paul F.; Bankston, C. P.; Williams, R.; Underwood, M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Fabris, G.

    1989-01-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal Magnetohydrodynamic Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1989 through December 31, 1989. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (nitinol heat engines); and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  16. Digital optical conversion module

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-02-26

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

  17. Digital optical conversion module

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  18. On Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Michael B.

    Involvement Ratings In Settings (IRIS), a multi-dimensional non-verbal scale of involvement adaptable to a time-sampling method of data collection, was constructed with the aid of the videotapes of second-grade Follow Through classrooms made by CCEP. Scales were defined through observations of involved and alienated behavior, and the IRIS was…

  19. On Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Michael B.

    Involvement Ratings In Settings (IRIS), a multi-dimensional non-verbal scale of involvement adaptable to a time-sampling method of data collection, was constructed with the aid of the videotapes of second-grade Follow Through classrooms made by CCEP. Scales were defined through observations of involved and alienated behavior, and the IRIS was…

  20. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  1. ADEPT: Efficient Power Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    ADEPT Project: In today’s increasingly electrified world, power conversion—the process of converting electricity between different currents, voltage levels, and frequencies—forms a vital link between the electronic devices we use every day and the sources of power required to run them. The 14 projects that make up ARPA-E’s ADEPT Project, short for “Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,” are paving the way for more energy efficient power conversion and advancing the basic building blocks of power conversion: circuits, transistors, inductors, transformers, and capacitors.

  2. Power conversion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Haigh, R E

    1998-01-01

    The Power Conservation Technologies thrust area supports initiatives that enhance the core competencies of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Engineering Directorate in the area of solid-state power electronics. Through partnerships with LLNL programs, projects focus on the development of enabling technologies for existing and emerging programs that have unique power conversion requirements. This year, a multi-disciplinary effort was supported which demonstrated solid-state, high voltage generation by using a dense, monolithic photovoltaic array. This effort builds upon Engineering's strengths in the core technology areas of power conversion, photonics, and microtechnologies.

  3. Direct Conversion Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Back, L.H.; Fabris, G.; Ryan, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. Initially, two systems were selected for exploratory research and advanced development. These are Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and Two-Phase Liquid Metal MD Generator (LMMHD). This report describes progress that has been made during the first six months of 1992 on research activities associated with these two systems. (GHH)

  4. LEU conversion status of US research reactors, September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Matos, J.E.

    1996-10-07

    This paper summarizes the conversion status of research and test reactors in the United States from the use of fuels containing highly- enriched uranium (HEU, greater than or equal to 20%) to the use of fuels containing low-enriched uranium (LEU, < 20%). Estimates of the uranium densities required for conversion are made for reactors with power levels greater than or equal to 1 MW that are not currently involved in the LEU conversion process.

  5. Left ventricular rigid body rotation in a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patient with cardiac involvement: A case from the three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiographic MAGYAR-Path Study.

    PubMed

    Földeák, Dóra; Kalapos, Anita; Domsik, Péter; Sinkó, Mária; Szeleczki, Nóra; Bagdi, Enikő; Krenács, László; Forster, Tamás; Borbényi, Zita; Nemes, Attila

    2017-02-01

    Secondary myocardial involvement by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is a rare occurrence. Left ventricular (LV) twist is considered an essential part of LV function. In normal circumstances LV twist results from the movement of two orthogonally oriented muscular bands of a helical myocardial structure with consequent clockwise rotation of the base and counterclockwise rotation of the apex. Three-dimensional (3D) speckle-tracking echocardiography (3DSTE) has been found to be feasible for non-invasive 3D quantification of LV wall motion and rotational mechanics. The present report aimed to assess LV twisting motion in a patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with positron emission tomography/computer tomography-proven cardiac involvement by 3DSTE. During 3DSTE, reduction in some segmental radial, longitudinal, circumferential, area and 3D LV strains were found. Apical and basal LV rotations were found to be in the same counterclockwise direction, confirming near absence of LV twist - so-called rigid body rotation.

  6. Observation of heptamethylbenzenium cation over SAPO-type molecular sieve DNL-6 under real MTO conversion conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinzhe; Wei, Yingxu; Chen, Jingrun; Tian, Peng; Su, Xiong; Xu, Shutao; Qi, Yue; Wang, Quanyi; Zhou, You; He, Yanli; Liu, Zhongmin

    2012-01-18

    The heptamethylbenzenium cation (heptaMB(+)) has been speculated to be one of the most important active intermediates involved in the "hydrocarbon pool" mechanism of methanol-to-olefin (MTO) conversion. By the use of DNL-6, a newly synthesized SAPO-type molecular sieve with large cavities, heptaMB(+) has for the first time been directly observed during methanol conversion under real working conditions. (13)C-labeling experiments suggested that olefin formation mediated by heptaMB(+) mainly follows the side-chain mechanism. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. Planetary image conversion task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. D.; Stanley, C. L.; Laughlin, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Planetary Image Conversion Task group processed 12,500 magnetic tapes containing raw imaging data from JPL planetary missions and produced an image data base in consistent format on 1200 fully packed 6250-bpi tapes. The output tapes will remain at JPL. A copy of the entire tape set was delivered to US Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz. A secondary task converted computer datalogs, which had been stored in project specific MARK IV File Management System data types and structures, to flat-file, text format that is processable on any modern computer system. The conversion processing took place at JPL's Image Processing Laboratory on an IBM 370-158 with existing software modified slightly to meet the needs of the conversion task. More than 99% of the original digital image data was successfully recovered by the conversion task. However, processing data tapes recorded before 1975 was destructive. This discovery is of critical importance to facilities responsible for maintaining digital archives since normal periodic random sampling techniques would be unlikely to detect this phenomenon, and entire data sets could be wiped out in the act of generating seemingly positive sampling results. Reccomended follow-on activities are also included.

  8. Clinical Linguistics: Conversational Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crystal, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference…

  9. Stories in Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Roberta Senner

    Although conversational stories within one individual's corpus share the same structure, they have features that set them apart from one another. Based on the stories' general characteristics and the way they function in ongoing talk, they can be identified as: (1) durable personal experience narratives (PENs), which are often repeated during the…

  10. Evaluating Energy Conversion Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Smith, B. T.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    Devices that convert solar radiation directly into storable chemical or electrical energy, have characteristic energy absorption spectrum; specifically, each of these devices has energy threshold. The conversion efficiency of generalized system that emcompasses all threshold devices is analyzed, resulting in family of curves for devices of various threshold energies operating at different temperatures.

  11. A Conversation about Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.; Mao, Minnie Yuan

    2012-01-01

    In the spirit of the Lindau Meeting, we present a dialogue between a Nobel laureate and a young researcher. This interchange started online, where it continues to unfold. Here is a digest of this conversation, which has developed across time and space.

  12. Conversations and Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korpan, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at how a series of conversations contributed to the development of a newly formed role at the University of Victoria--Teaching Assistant Consultants (TACs). TACs act as departmental mentors for teaching assistants (TAs) in their respective departments, charged with providing support in the form of discipline-specific workshops…

  13. Clinical Linguistics: Conversational Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crystal, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference…

  14. Ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, W.H.

    1983-03-17

    A brief explanation of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) concept and an estimate of the amount of energy that can be produced from the ocean resource without introducing environmental concerns are presented. Use of the OTEC system to generate electric power and products which can replace fossil fuels is shown. The OTEC program status and its prospects for the future are discussed.

  15. Electromechanical Energy Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePage, Wilbur R.

    This programed text on electromechanical energy conversion (motors and generators) was developed under contract with the U.S. Office of Education as Number 12 in a series of materials for use in an electrical engineering sequence. It is intended to be used in conjunction with other materials and with other short texts in the series. (DH)

  16. Evaluating Energy Conversion Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Smith, B. T.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    Devices that convert solar radiation directly into storable chemical or electrical energy, have characteristic energy absorption spectrum; specifically, each of these devices has energy threshold. The conversion efficiency of generalized system that emcompasses all threshold devices is analyzed, resulting in family of curves for devices of various threshold energies operating at different temperatures.

  17. Conversational English Program, 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.

    This second book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…

  18. Mechanochemical Energy Conversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pines, E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the thermodynamics of macromolecular systems, including theories and experiments of cyclic energy conversion with rubber and collagen as working substances. Indicates that an early introduction into the concept of chemical potential and solution thermodynamics is made possible through the study of the cyclic processes. (CC)

  19. Conversational English Program, 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.

    This first book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…

  20. Mechanochemical Energy Conversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pines, E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the thermodynamics of macromolecular systems, including theories and experiments of cyclic energy conversion with rubber and collagen as working substances. Indicates that an early introduction into the concept of chemical potential and solution thermodynamics is made possible through the study of the cyclic processes. (CC)

  1. Leadership is a conversation.

    PubMed

    Groysberg, Boris; Slind, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Globalization and new technologies have sharply reduced the efficacy of command-and-control management and its accompanying forms of corporate communication. In the course of a recent research project, the authors concluded that by talking with employees, rather than simply issuing orders, leaders can promote operational flexibility, employee engagement, and tight strategic alignment. Groysberg and Slind have identified four elements of organizational conversation that reflect the essential attributes of interpersonal conversation: intimacy, interactivity, inclusion, and intentionality. Intimacy shifts the focus from a top-down distribution of information to a bottom-up exchange of ideas. Organizational conversation is less corporate in tone and more casual. And it's less about issuing and taking orders than about asking and answering questions. Interactivity entails shunning the simplicity of monologue and embracing the unpredictable vitality of dialogue. Traditional one-way media-print and broadcast, in particular-give way to social media buttressed by social thinking. Inclusion turns employees into full-fledged conversation partners, entitling them to provide their own ideas, often on company channels. They can create content and act as brand ambassadors, thought leaders, and storytellers. Intentionality enables leaders and employees to derive strategically relevant action from the push and pull of discussion and debate.

  2. Conversations on ecology IV

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1963-01-01

    The conversations on ecology have mentioned the pesticide problem, and in such discussion it is easy to lose sight of the basic philosophic view which is an undercurrent in Miss Carson's book. I should like to expand on that philosophic premise and examine some of its implications for planning vegetation management measures as well as other measures for resource development.

  3. Conversion or New Building?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Phil

    1970-01-01

    Examined first is "the overall problem of housing a TV studio complex to see what particular sorts of buildings are required and how they must be related," and then considered are "the relative merits and particular problems of new studio building or a conversion." (LS)

  4. Solar energy conversion.

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S.

    2008-03-01

    If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels, we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity, fuel, and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology, materials, and especially nanoscience. The Sun has the enormous untapped potential to supply our growing energy needs. The barrier to greater use of the solar resource is its high cost relative to the cost of fossil fuels, although the disparity will decrease with the rising prices of fossil fuels and the rising costs of mitigating their impact on the environment and climate. The cost of solar energy is directly related to the low conversion efficiency, the modest energy density of solar radiation, and the costly materials currently required. The development of materials and methods to improve solar energy conversion is primarily a scientific challenge: Breakthroughs in fundamental understanding ought to enable marked progress. There is plenty of room for improvement, since photovoltaic conversion efficiencies for inexpensive organic and dye-sensitized solar cells are currently about 10% or less, the conversion efficiency of photosynthesis is less than 1%, and the best solar thermal efficiency is 30%. The theoretical limits suggest that we can do much better. Solar conversion is a young science. Its major growth began in the 1970s, spurred by the oil crisis that highlighted the pervasive importance of energy to our personal, social, economic, and political lives. In contrast, fossil-fuel science has developed over more than 250 years, stimulated by the Industrial Revolution and the promise of abundant fossil fuels. The science of thermodynamics, for example, is intimately intertwined with the development of the steam engine. The Carnot cycle, the mechanical equivalent of heat, and entropy all played starring roles in the development of thermodynamics and the technology of heat engines. Solar-energy science faces

  5. Organic Solvent Effects in Biomass Conversion Reactions.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Li; Luterbacher, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Transforming lignocellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals has been intensely studied in recent years. A large amount of work has been dedicated to finding suitable solvent systems, which can improve the transformation of biomass into value-added chemicals. These efforts have been undertaken based on numerous research results that have shown that organic solvents can improve both conversion and selectivity of biomass to platform molecules. We present an overview of these organic solvent effects, which are harnessed in biomass conversion processes, including conversion of biomass to sugars, conversion of sugars to furanic compounds, and production of lignin monomers. A special emphasis is placed on comparing the solvent effects on conversion and product selectivity in water with those in organic solvents while discussing the origins of the differences that arise. We have categorized results as benefiting from two major types of effects: solvent effects on solubility of biomass components including cellulose and lignin and solvent effects on chemical thermodynamics including those affecting reactants, intermediates, products, and/or catalysts. Finally, the challenges of using organic solvents in industrial processes are discussed from the perspective of solvent cost, solvent stability, and solvent safety. We suggest that a holistic view of solvent effects, the mechanistic elucidation of these effects, and the careful consideration of the challenges associated with solvent use could assist researchers in choosing and designing improved solvent systems for targeted biomass conversion processes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A Cooperative Conversion Project from Vertical File Hardcopy to Jacketed Microfiche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worden, Diane D.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a cooperative project to convert a library's hardcopy materials to microfiche, including the steps involved in conversion, conversion costs, sources of funding, and staff performance rates. Six references are listed. (FM)

  7. Improving Teaching, One Conversation at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arneson, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Both speaking and listening are essential to effective communication. Unfortunately, meaningful two-way exchanges are largely absent from conversations about improving professional practice. Instead, many teachers say that they feel the observation and evaluation process is something that is done "to" them--at the post-observation…

  8. Improving Teaching, One Conversation at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arneson, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Both speaking and listening are essential to effective communication. Unfortunately, meaningful two-way exchanges are largely absent from conversations about improving professional practice. Instead, many teachers say that they feel the observation and evaluation process is something that is done "to" them--at the post-observation…

  9. Software conversion history of the Flight Dynamics System (FDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, K.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes the overall history of the Flight Dynamics System (FDS) applications software conversion project. It describes the background and nature of the project; traces the actual course of conversion; assesses the process, product, and personnel involved; and offers suggestions for future projects. It also contains lists of pertinent reference material and examples of supporting data.

  10. Bilingualism Accentuates Children's Conversational Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca; Matsuo, Ayumi; Geraci, Alessandra; Iozzi, Laura; Okumura, Yuko; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    Background Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3–6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be relevant, and be polite). Principal Findings In Experiment 1, with increasing age, children showed greater sensitivity to maxim violations. Children in Italy who were bilingual in German and Italian (with German as the dominant language L1) significantly outperformed Italian monolinguals. In Experiment 2, children in England who were bilingual in English and Japanese (with English as L1) significantly outperformed Japanese monolinguals in Japan with vocabulary age partialled out. Conclusions As the monolingual and bilingual groups had a similar family SES background (Experiment 1) and similar family cultural identity (Experiment 2), these results point to a specific role for early bilingualism in accentuating children's developing ability to appreciate effective communicative responses. PMID:20140246

  11. Standardized uptake value for (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose is correlated with a high International Prognostic Index and the presence of extranodal involvement in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Akkas, B E; Vural, G U

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) correlates with the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and the presence of extranodal involvement in patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL). 77 patients (age: 57.2±18.5, 40F, 37M) with DLBCL who underwent FDG PET/CT for initial staging were included. SUVmax of the predominant lesions were compared to Ann Arbor stage, IPI scores, the presence of extranodal involvement and the number extranodal sites. PET/CT detected nodal (n:25) and extranodal involvement (n:52) in all the patients. In 27 patients, extranodal disease could only be detected by PET. SUVmax of the predominant lesion in patients with extranodal disease was significantly higher than that of the patients who had only nodal disease (25±12 vs. 15.3±10 respectively, p=0.001). SUVmax significantly correlated with IPI scores; the average SUVmax was significantly correlated with the IPI: Mean SUVmax of the predominant lesion was 13.9±9.5 in patients with low risk (IPI=0-1), 14.2±8.8 in low-intermediate risk group (IPI=2) whereas 26.6±9.5 in high-intermediate risk group (IPI=3) and 25±13.6 in high risk group patients (IPI=4-5) (p=0.002). SUVmax was not correlated with clinical stage, the number of extranodal sites and serum LDH levels. FDG uptake correlates with IPI and the presence of extranodal involvement in DLBCL. PET is a powerful method to detect extranodal disease in DLBCL. The correlation of SUVmax with these prognostic factors may highlight the importance of pretreatment FDG uptake as a metabolic marker of poor prognosis for patients with DLBCL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  12. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  13. Comparing the intestinal transcriptome of Meishan and Large White piglets during late fetal development reveals genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism and immunity as valuable clues of intestinal maturity.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ying; Voillet, Valentin; Jegou, Maeva; SanCristobal, Magali; Dou, Samir; Romé, Véronique; Lippi, Yannick; Billon, Yvon; Père, Marie-Christine; Boudry, Gaëlle; Gress, Laure; Iannucelli, Nathalie; Mormède, Pierre; Quesnel, Hélène; Canario, Laurianne; Liaubet, Laurence; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle

    2017-08-22

    Maturity of intestinal functions is critical for neonatal health and survival, but comprehensive description of mechanisms underlying intestinal maturation that occur during late gestation still remain poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate biological processes specifically involved in intestinal maturation by comparing fetal jejunal transcriptomes of two representative porcine breeds (Large White, LW; Meishan, MS) with contrasting neonatal vitality and maturity, at two key time points during late gestation (gestational days 90 and 110). MS and LW sows inseminated with mixed semen (from breed LW and MS) gave birth to both purebred and crossbred fetuses. We hypothesized that part of the differences in neonatal maturity between the two breeds results from distinct developmental profiles of the fetal intestine during late gestation. Reciprocal crossed fetuses were used to analyze the effect of parental genome. Transcriptomic data and 23 phenotypic variables known to be associated with maturity trait were integrated using multivariate analysis with expectation of identifying relevant genes-phenotypic variable relationships involved in intestinal maturation. A moderate maternal genotype effect, but no paternal genotype effect, was observed on offspring intestinal maturation. Four hundred and four differentially expressed probes, corresponding to 274 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), more specifically involved in the maturation process were further studied. In day 110-MS fetuses, Ingenuity® functional enrichment analysis revealed that 46% of DEGs were involved in glucose and lipid metabolism, cell proliferation, vasculogenesis and hormone synthesis compared to day 90-MS fetuses. Expression of genes involved in immune pathways including phagocytosis, inflammation and defense processes was changed in day 110-LW compared to day 90-LW fetuses (corresponding to 13% of DEGs). The transcriptional regulator PPARGC1A was predicted to be an important

  14. Family Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liontos, Lynn Balster

    1992-01-01

    Family involvement in schools will work only when perceived as an enlarged concept focusing on all children, including those from at-risk families. Each publication reviewed here is specifically concerned with family involvement strategies concerned with all children or targeted at primarily high risk students. Susan McAllister Swap looks at three…

  15. Direct Carbon Conversion: Application to the Efficient Conversion of Fossil Fuels to Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N; Berry, G; Pasternak, A; Surles, T; Steinberg, M

    2001-03-07

    We introduce a concept for efficient conversion of fossil fuels to electricity that entails the decomposition of fossil-derived hydrocarbons into carbon and hydrogen, and electrochemical conversion of these fuels in separate fuel cells. Carbon/air fuel cells have the advantages of near zero entropy change and associated heat production (allowing 100% theoretical conversion efficiency). The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product are invariant, allowing constant EMF and full utilization of fuel in single pass mode of operation. System efficiency estimates were conducted for several routes involving sequential extraction of a hydrocarbon from the fossil resource by (hydro) pyrolysis followed by thermal decomposition. The total energy conversion efficiencies of the processes were estimated to be (1) 80% for direct conversion of petroleum coke; (2) 67% HHV for CH{sub 4}; (3) 72% HHV for heavy oil (modeled using properties of decane); (4) 75.5% HHV (83% LHV) for natural gas conversion with a Rankine bottoming cycle for the H{sub 2} portion; and (5) 69% HHV for conversion of low rank coals and lignite through hydrogenation and pyrolysis of the CH{sub 4} intermediate. The cost of carbon fuel is roughly $7/GJ, based on the cost of the pyrolysis step in the industrial furnace black process. Cell hardware costs are estimated to be less than $500/kW.

  16. Comparative life cycle assessment of lignocellulosic ethanol production: biochemical versus thermochemical conversion.

    PubMed

    Mu, Dongyan; Seager, Thomas; Rao, P Suresh; Zhao, Fu

    2010-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted into ethanol through either biochemical or thermochemical conversion processes. Biochemical conversion involves hydrolysis and fermentation while thermochemical conversion involves gasification and catalytic synthesis. Even though these routes produce comparable amounts of ethanol and have similar energy efficiency at the plant level, little is known about their relative environmental performance from a life cycle perspective. Especially, the indirect impacts, i.e. emissions and resource consumption associated with the production of various process inputs, are largely neglected in previous studies. This article compiles material and energy flow data from process simulation models to develop life cycle inventory and compares the fossil fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and water consumption of both biomass-to-ethanol production processes. The results are presented in terms of contributions from feedstock, direct, indirect, and co-product credits for four representative biomass feedstocks i.e., wood chips, corn stover, waste paper, and wheat straw. To explore the potentials of the two conversion pathways, different technological scenarios are modeled, including current, 2012 and 2020 technology targets, as well as different production/co-production configurations. The modeling results suggest that biochemical conversion has slightly better performance on greenhouse gas emission and fossil fuel consumption, but that thermochemical conversion has significantly less direct, indirect, and life cycle water consumption. Also, if the thermochemical plant operates as a biorefinery with mixed alcohol co-products separated for chemicals, it has the potential to achieve better performance than biochemical pathway across all environmental impact categories considered due to higher co-product credits associated with chemicals being displaced. The results from this work serve as a starting point for developing full life cycle

  17. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Lignocellulosic Ethanol Production: Biochemical Versus Thermochemical Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Dongyan; Seager, Thomas; Rao, P. Suresh; Zhao, Fu

    2010-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted into ethanol through either biochemical or thermochemical conversion processes. Biochemical conversion involves hydrolysis and fermentation while thermochemical conversion involves gasification and catalytic synthesis. Even though these routes produce comparable amounts of ethanol and have similar energy efficiency at the plant level, little is known about their relative environmental performance from a life cycle perspective. Especially, the indirect impacts, i.e. emissions and resource consumption associated with the production of various process inputs, are largely neglected in previous studies. This article compiles material and energy flow data from process simulation models to develop life cycle inventory and compares the fossil fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and water consumption of both biomass-to-ethanol production processes. The results are presented in terms of contributions from feedstock, direct, indirect, and co-product credits for four representative biomass feedstocks i.e., wood chips, corn stover, waste paper, and wheat straw. To explore the potentials of the two conversion pathways, different technological scenarios are modeled, including current, 2012 and 2020 technology targets, as well as different production/co-production configurations. The modeling results suggest that biochemical conversion has slightly better performance on greenhouse gas emission and fossil fuel consumption, but that thermochemical conversion has significantly less direct, indirect, and life cycle water consumption. Also, if the thermochemical plant operates as a biorefinery with mixed alcohol co-products separated for chemicals, it has the potential to achieve better performance than biochemical pathway across all environmental impact categories considered due to higher co-product credits associated with chemicals being displaced. The results from this work serve as a starting point for developing full life cycle

  18. Electromagnetic wave energy conversion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. L.; Callahan, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    Known electromagnetic wave absorbing structures found in nature were first studied for clues of how one might later design large area man-made radiant-electric converters. This led to the study of the electro-optics of insect dielectric antennae. Insights were achieved into how these antennae probably operate in the infrared 7-14um range. EWEC theoretical models and relevant cases were concisely formulated and justified for metal and dielectric absorber materials. Finding the electromagnetic field solutions to these models is a problem not yet solved. A rough estimate of losses in metal, solid dielectric, and hollow dielectric waveguides indicates future radiant-electric EWEC research should aim toward dielectric materials for maximum conversion efficiency. It was also found that the absorber bandwidth is a theoretical limitation on radiant-electric conversion efficiency. Ideally, the absorbers' wavelength would be centered on the irradiating spectrum and have the same bandwith as the irradiating wave. The EWEC concept appears to have a valid scientific basis, but considerable more research is needed before it is thoroughly understood, especially for the complex randomly polarized, wide band, phase incoherent spectrum of the sun. Specific recommended research areas are identified.

  19. Radiation energy conversion in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, K. W.

    1979-01-01

    Topics discussed at the third NASA conference on radiant energy conversion are reviewed. The unconcentrated-photovoltaic-generation version of a solar power satellite is described, noting that it will consist of a 21.3 x 5.3-sq-km silicon-solar-cell array expected to provide 17 Gw of electrical power, with 1 km in diam transmitters oriented to beam 2.45 GHz microwave power to two receiving/rectifying 'rectennas' on earth. The Solares space-energy-system concept, designed for providing a large fraction of the world's energy needs at costs comparable to those of future coal/nuclear alternative, is considered, as are subsystems for improving the economics of the solar power satellite. A concept proposing the use of relativistic-electron-storage rings for electron-beam energy transmission and storage, and a report on the production of a high temperature plasma with concentrated solar radiation are taken into account. Laser-conversion systems, including the direct-solar-pumped space laser, and the telec-powered spacecraft, are discussed.

  20. Radiation energy conversion in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, K. W.

    1979-01-01

    Topics discussed at the third NASA conference on radiant energy conversion are reviewed. The unconcentrated-photovoltaic-generation version of a solar power satellite is described, noting that it will consist of a 21.3 x 5.3-sq-km silicon-solar-cell array expected to provide 17 Gw of electrical power, with 1 km in diam transmitters oriented to beam 2.45 GHz microwave power to two receiving/rectifying 'rectennas' on earth. The Solares space-energy-system concept, designed for providing a large fraction of the world's energy needs at costs comparable to those of future coal/nuclear alternative, is considered, as are subsystems for improving the economics of the solar power satellite. A concept proposing the use of relativistic-electron-storage rings for electron-beam energy transmission and storage, and a report on the production of a high temperature plasma with concentrated solar radiation are taken into account. Laser-conversion systems, including the direct-solar-pumped space laser, and the telec-powered spacecraft, are discussed.

  1. Wind energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  2. Frequency conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Steven (Inventor); Lang, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Laser diode pumped mid-IR wavelength sources include at least one high power, near-IR wavelength, injection and/or sources wherein one or both of such sources may be tunable providing a pump wave output beam to a quasi-phase matched (QPM) nonlinear frequency mixing (NFM) device. The NFM device may be a difference frequency mixing (DFM) device or an optical parametric oscillation (OPO) device. Wavelength tuning of at least one of the sources advantageously provides the ability for optimizing pump or injection wavelengths to match the QPM properties of the NFM device enabling a broad range of mid-IR wavelength selectivity. Also, pump powers are gain enhanced by the addition of a rare earth amplifier or oscillator, or a Raman/Brillouin amplifier or oscillator between the high power source and the NFM device. Further, polarization conversion using Raman or Brillouin wavelength shifting is provided to optimize frequency conversion efficiency in the NFM device.

  3. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    PubMed

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  4. Advanced Thermal Conversion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-18

    BAA09-31 3  Figure 1. (a) Energy diagram of the PETE process. Photo -excitation leads to enhanced...photovoltaic cells at 3000x concentration (~38%). As shown in Fig. 2(b), the highest conversion efficiencies are obtained by using photo -cathodes...p-type 4H-SiC (left) and polycrystalline n-type 3C-SiC (right). The fabrication process for p-type devices used bulk p- doped 4H-SiC wafers from

  5. Session: Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, David; LaSala, Raymond J.; Kukacka, Lawrence E.; Bliem, Carl J.; Premuzic, Eugene T.; Weare, John H.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hydrothermal Energy Conversion Technology'' by David Robertson and Raymond J. LaSala; ''Materials for Geothermal Production'' by Lawrence E. Kukacka; ''Supersaturated Turbine Expansions for Binary Geothermal Power Plants'' by Carl J. Bliem; ''Geothermal Waster Treatment Biotechnology: Progress and Advantages to the Utilities'' by Eugen T. Premuzic; and ''Geothermal Brine Chemistry Modeling Program'' by John H. Weare.

  6. Persuasion Detection in Conversation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    is the first step in developing machine learning systems that can automatically detect persuasion in conversations. This corpus was developed from...requires some form of persuasion. Based on this research, it may be possible to construct a machine learning system that can automatically detect...specific markers, can these markers be learned and identified by annotators? Our research attempted to answer all of these questions by annotating a

  7. Direct conversion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massier, P. F.; Bankston, C. P.; Fabris, G.; Kirol, L. D.

    1988-01-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1988 through December 1988. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. In addition, status reviews and assessments are presented for thermomagnetic converter concepts and for thermoelastic converters (Nitinol heat engines). Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic thermophotovoltaic and thermoacoustic; and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems. A tabulated summary of the various systems which have been reviewed thus far has been prepared. Some of the important technical research needs are listed and a schematic of each system is shown.

  8. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

  9. Direct conversion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massier, P. F.; Bankston, C. P.; Fabris, G.; Kirol, L. D.

    1988-12-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1988 through December 1988. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. In addition, status reviews and assessments are presented for thermomagnetic converter concepts and for thermoelastic converters (Nitinol heat engines). Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic thermophotovoltaic and thermoacoustic; and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems. A tabulated summary of the various systems which have been reviewed thus far has been prepared. Some of the important technical research needs are listed and a schematic of each system is shown.

  10. Alpine radar conversion for LAWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, M.; Burlando, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) is a ship-born weather radar system operating in X-band developed by the DHI Group to detect precipitation in urban areas. To date more than thirty units are installed in different settings around the world. A LAWR was also deployed in the Alps, at 3883 m a.s.l. on the Kl. Matterhorn (Valais, Switzerland). This was the highest LAWR of the world and it led to the development of an Alpine LAWR system that, besides featuring important technological improvements needed to withstand the severe Alpine conditions, required the development of a new Alpine Radar COnversion Model (ARCOM), which is the main focus of this contribution. The LAWR system is equipped with the original FURUNO fan-beam slotted antenna and the original logarithmic receiver, which limits the radar observations to the video signal (L) withour providing the reflectivity (Z). The beam is 0.95 deg wide and 20 deg high. It can detect precipitation to a max range of 60 km. In order to account for the limited availability of raw signal and information and the specific mountain set-up, the conversion model had to be developed differently from the state-of-the-art radar conversion technique used for this class of radars. In particular, the ARCOM is based on a model used to simulate a spatial dependent factor, hereafter called ACF, which is in turn function of parameters that take in account climatological conditions, also used in other conversion methods, but additionally accounting for local radar beam features and for orographic forcings such as the effective sampling power (sP), which is modelled by means of antenna pattern, geometric ground clutter and their interaction. The result is a conversion factor formulated to account for a range correction that is based on the increase of the sampling volume, partial beam blocking and local climatological conditions. The importance of the latter in this study is double with respect to the standard conversion technique for this

  11. Ocean thermal-energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, G.; Niblett, C.; Walker, L.

    1983-03-01

    The principles underlying ocean thermal-energy conversion (OTEC) are reviewed, and a schematic layout of a system is included. The two systems currently under study, the open system and the closed system, are described. The prospect now, it is noted, is that OTEC plants will not be commercially viable on a widespread basis, even in the tropics. This is especially true of the large-scale plants that have been envisioned. A strong possibility is seen, however, that smaller plants, generating about 40 megawatts of electrical power, can survive commercially. The following conditions would favor their success: placement on land rather than at sea; placement in areas (such as islands) where alternative energy supplies are at a premium; and designing the plant to operate in conjunction with either an aquaculture or a desalination plant.

  12. A Register Approach to Teaching Conversation: Farewell to Standard English?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhlemann, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Owing to analyses of large spoken corpora the linguistic knowledge of conversation has grown in recent years exponentially. Up until now little of this knowledge has trickled down to the EFL classroom. One of the reasons, this paper argues, is the failure in the relevant literature to spell out clearly how teaching conversational grammar affects…

  13. A Register Approach to Teaching Conversation: Farewell to Standard English?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhlemann, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Owing to analyses of large spoken corpora the linguistic knowledge of conversation has grown in recent years exponentially. Up until now little of this knowledge has trickled down to the EFL classroom. One of the reasons, this paper argues, is the failure in the relevant literature to spell out clearly how teaching conversational grammar affects…

  14. Why platinum catalysts involving ligands with large bite angle are so efficient in the allylation of amines: design of a highly active catalyst and comprehensive experimental and DFT study.

    PubMed

    Mora, Guilhem; Piechaczyk, Olivier; Houdard, Romaric; Mézailles, Nicolas; Le Goff, Xavier-Frederic; le Floch, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    The platinum-catalyzed allylation of amines with allyl alcohols was studied experimentally and theoretically. The complexes [Pt(eta(3)-allyl)(dppe)]OTf (2) and [Pt(eta(3)-allyl)(DPP-Xantphos)]PF(6) (5) were synthesized and structurally characterized, and their reactivity toward amines was explored. The bicyclic aminopropyl complex [Pt(CH(2)CH(2)CH(2)NHBn-kappa-C,N)(dppe)]OTf (3) was obtained from the reaction of complex 2 with an excess of benzylamine, and this complex was shown to be a deactivated form of catalyst 2. On the other hand, reaction of complex 5 with benzylamine and allyl alcohol led to formation of the 16-VE platinum(0) complex [Pt(eta(2)-C(3)H(5)OH)(DPP-Xantphos)] (7), which was structurally characterized and appears to be a catalytic intermediate. A DFT study showed that the mechanism of the platinum-catalyzed allylation of amines with allyl alcohols differs from the palladium-catalyzed process, since it involves an associative ligand-exchange step involving formation of a tetracoordinate 18-VE complex. This DFT study also revealed that ligands with large bite angles disfavor the formation of platinum hydride complexes and therefore the formation of a bicyclic aminopropyl complex, which is a thermodynamic sink. Finally, a combination of 5 and a proton source was shown to efficiently catalyze the allylation of a broad variety of amines with allyl alcohols under mild conditions.

  15. Conversion of Questionnaire Data

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann

  16. Motor inhibition in hysterical conversion paralysis.

    PubMed

    Cojan, Yann; Waber, Lakshmi; Carruzzo, Alain; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2009-09-01

    Brain mechanisms underlying hysterical conversion symptoms are still poorly known. Recent hypotheses suggested that activation of motor pathways might be suppressed by inhibitory signals based on particular emotional situations. To assess motor and inhibitory brain circuits during conversion paralysis, we designed a go-nogo task while a patient underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Preparatory activation arose in right motor cortex despite left paralysis, indicating preserved motor intentions, but with concomitant increases in vmPFC regions that normally mediate motivational and affective processing. Failure to execute movement on go trials with the affected left hand was associated with activations in precuneus and ventrolateral frontal gyrus. However, right frontal areas normally subserving inhibition were activated by nogo trials for the right (normal) hand, but not during go trials for the left hand (affected by conversion paralysis). By contrast, a group of healthy controls who were asked to feign paralysis showed similar activation on nogo trials and left-go trials with simulated weakness, suggesting that distinct inhibitory mechanisms are implicated in simulation and conversion paralysis. In the patient, right motor cortex also showed enhanced functional connectivity with the posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, and vmPFC. These results suggest that conversion symptoms do not act through cognitive inhibitory circuits, but involve selective activations in midline brain regions associated with self-related representations and emotion regulation.

  17. Prospective content in the friendship conversations of young adults.

    PubMed

    Young, Richard A; Marshall, Sheila K; Murray, John

    2017-01-01

    Prospection is cognitive processes that involve constructing, encoding, and remembering the future. Less is known about the how these processes are evident in the prospective content of conversations. This study sought to identify and describe evidence of the prospective content in the conversations of friends as they transition to adulthood. The present secondary content analysis of the videotaped conversations of 15 young adult friendship dyads (n = 30, 16 females, 14 males, mean age = 21.3 years) in Canada examined these conversations based the following characteristics of prospection: simulation, reasoning about counterfactuals, constructing multiple possible futures, and episodic memory of the past. Four categories of prospective content were evident in these conversations, these processes were used sparingly in all but one conversation, and relatively few of them were collaborative in that dyad partners did not appear to serve to augment, clarify, or disconfirm prospective content.

  18. Tables and conversions for microclimatology.

    Treesearch

    James M. Brown

    1973-01-01

    A series of tables, charts, and conversion factors have been prepared for use in microclimatic and ecological studies. Included are: the solution to various equations of radiant energy exchange; solar radiation diagrams; psychometric and precipitation data; and unit conversion factors.

  19. Microbial Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Merry; Wall, Judy D.

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium March 10-12, 2006, in San Francisco, California, to discuss the production of energy fuels by microbial conversions. The status of research into various microbial energy technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches, research needs in the field, and education and training issues were examined, with the goal of identifying routes for producing biofuels that would both decrease the need for fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the choices for providing energy are limited. Policy makers and the research community must begin to pursue a broader array of potential energy technologies. A diverse energy portfolio that includes an assortment of microbial energy choices will allow communities and consumers to select the best energy solution for their own particular needs. Funding agencies and governments alike need to prepare for future energy needs by investing both in the microbial energy technologies that work today and in the untested technologies that will serve the world’s needs tomorrow. More mature bioprocesses, such as ethanol production from starchy materials and methane from waste digestors, will find applications in the short term. However, innovative techniques for liquid fuel or biohydrogen production are among the longer term possibilities that should also be vigorously explored, starting now. Microorganisms can help meet human energy needs in any of a number of ways. In their most obvious role in energy conversion, microorganisms can generate fuels, including ethanol, hydrogen, methane, lipids, and butanol, which can be burned to produce energy. Alternatively, bacteria can be put to use in microbial fuel cells, where they carry out the direct conversion of biomass into electricity. Microorganisms may also be used some day to make oil and natural gas technologies more efficient by sequestering carbon or by assisting in the recovery of oil and

  20. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  1. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  2. Crucial Conversations about America's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, John C.; Protheroe, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    It's up to school leaders to shift the momentum away from conversations based on misperceptions and toward those that study critical issues about school improvement. "Crucial Conversations About America's Schools" talks about how to do this and provides examples of how to reframe conversations on the hot-button but important topics of…

  3. The Personal Enjoyment of Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Paul W.

    Conversation reminds us that we are not alone, that shared language is the opportunity to try on our many masks to see how many of them we can do without. The variety of pleasures accrued from conversation--"layers of pleasure"--deepen only as they move away from the individual orbits into the circle of mutual experience. When conversation is…

  4. Crucial Conversations about America's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, John C.; Protheroe, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    It's up to school leaders to shift the momentum away from conversations based on misperceptions and toward those that study critical issues about school improvement. "Crucial Conversations About America's Schools" talks about how to do this and provides examples of how to reframe conversations on the hot-button but important topics of…

  5. Special Features in Children's Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karjalainen, Merja

    In a study of features that seem to be typical of children's conversations, 10 Finnish preschool children's conversations were videotaped and audiotaped over a period of 10 hours. The children were taped in conversation, play, fairy tale, and eating situations. Among the findings are that all children enjoy playing with language, but some initiate…

  6. Biomass for thermochemical conversion: targets and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Tanger, Paul; Field, John L.; Jahn, Courtney E.; DeFoort, Morgan W.; Leach, Jan E.

    2013-01-01

    Bioenergy will be one component of a suite of alternatives to fossil fuels. Effective conversion of biomass to energy will require the careful pairing of advanced conversion technologies with biomass feedstocks optimized for the purpose. Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted to useful energy products via two distinct pathways: enzymatic or thermochemical conversion. The thermochemical pathways are reviewed and potential biotechnology or breeding targets to improve feedstocks for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion are identified. Biomass traits influencing the effectiveness of the thermochemical process (cell wall composition, mineral and moisture content) differ from those important for enzymatic conversion and so properties are discussed in the language of biologists (biochemical analysis) as well as that of engineers (proximate and ultimate analysis). We discuss the genetic control, potential environmental influence, and consequences of modification of these traits. Improving feedstocks for thermochemical conversion can be accomplished by the optimization of lignin levels, and the reduction of ash and moisture content. We suggest that ultimate analysis and associated properties such as H:C, O:C, and heating value might be more amenable than traditional biochemical analysis to the high-throughput necessary for the phenotyping of large plant populations. Expanding our knowledge of these biomass traits will play a critical role in the utilization of biomass for energy production globally, and add to our understanding of how plants tailor their composition with their environment. PMID:23847629

  7. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  8. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  9. Conversing Cooperatively: Using "Mini-Conversations" to Develop Conversational Knowledge and Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elizabeth B.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Interpersonal communication, relational communication, language and social interaction, professional communication, interviewing practices. Objectives: This single class activity enables students to understand the theoretical foundations of conversation and to develop their conversational skills by talking in dyads with classmates. Upon…

  10. Direct somatic lineage conversion

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Koji; Haag, Daniel; Wernig, Marius

    2015-01-01

    The predominant view of embryonic development and cell differentiation has been that rigid and even irreversible epigenetic marks are laid down along the path of cell specialization ensuring the proper silencing of unrelated lineage programmes. This model made the prediction that specialized cell types are stable and cannot be redirected into other lineages. Accordingly, early attempts to change the identity of somatic cells had little success and was limited to conversions between closely related cell types. Nuclear transplantation experiments demonstrated, however, that specialized cells even from adult mammals can be reprogrammed into a totipotent state. The discovery that a small combination of transcription factors can reprogramme cells to pluripotency without the need of oocytes further supported the view that these epigenetic barriers can be overcome much easier than assumed, but the extent of this flexibility was still unclear. When we showed that a differentiated mesodermal cell can be directly converted to a differentiated ectodermal cell without a pluripotent intermediate, it was suggested that in principle any cell type could be converted into any other cell type. Indeed, the work of several groups in recent years has provided many more examples of direct somatic lineage conversions. Today, the question is not anymore whether a specific cell type can be generated by direct reprogramming but how it can be induced. PMID:26416679

  11. Conversion program in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Jonsson, E.B.

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  12. Energy conversion system

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1987-01-01

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weatherproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction, and operational with a minimal power draw.

  13. Mode conversion in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Myra, J. R.

    2006-10-01

    Fast magnetosonic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) can convert to much shorter wavelength modes such as ion Bernstein waves (IBW) and ion cyclotron waves (ICW) [1]. These modes are potentially useful for plasma control through the generation of localized currents and sheared flows. As part of the SciDAC Center for Simulation of Wave-Plasma Interactions project, the AORSA global-wave solver [2] has been ported to the new, dual-core Cray XT-3 (Jaguar) at ORNL where it demonstrates excellent scaling with the number of processors. Preliminary calculations using 4096 processors have allowed the first full-wave simulations of mode conversion in ITER. Mode conversion from the fast wave to the ICW is observed in mixtures of deuterium, tritium and helium3 at 53 MHz. The resulting flow velocity and electric field shear will be calculated. [1] F.W. Perkins, Nucl. Fusion 17, 1197 (1977). [2] E.F. Jaeger, L.A. Berry, J.R. Myra, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 195001-1 (2003).

  14. Energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, L.M.

    1985-09-16

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weathproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction and operational with a minimal power draw.

  15. Light alkane conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1991-07-09

    This patent describes a process for the aromatization of an aliphatic feedstream. It comprises fluidizing finely divided solid particles in a combustion zone; charging oxygen-containing combustion gas and fuel to the combustion zone under combustion conditions; withdrawing a stream of finely divided particles from the combustion zone; flowing the withdrawn stream of finely divided particles above to a cracking/dehydrogenation zone; fluidizing the finely divided particles above in an aliphatic feedstream under conditions within the cracking/dehydrogenation zone controlled to at least partially crack and at least partially dehydrogenate the aliphatic feedstream to form an intermediate product stream containing a quantity of C{sub 4}-olefins such that the exothermic catalytic conversion of the C{sub 4}-olefins is sufficient to supply a portion of the endothermic heat of reaction for the endothermic catalytic conversion of paraffins contained in the intermediate feedstream to aromatics; contacting the intermediate product stream with an aromatization catalyst under aromatization conditions sufficient to evolve an aromatics-rich products stream.

  16. Extensive alterations of the whole-blood transcriptome are associated with body mass index: results of an mRNA profiling study involving two large population-based cohorts.

    PubMed

    Homuth, Georg; Wahl, Simone; Müller, Christian; Schurmann, Claudia; Mäder, Ulrike; Blankenberg, Stefan; Carstensen, Maren; Dörr, Marcus; Endlich, Karlhans; Englbrecht, Christian; Felix, Stephan B; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Herder, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Kruppa, Jochen; Marzi, Carola S; Mayerle, Julia; Meitinger, Thomas; Metspalu, Andres; Nauck, Matthias; Peters, Annette; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Reinmaa, Eva; Rettig, Rainer; Roden, Michael; Schillert, Arne; Schramm, Katharina; Steil, Leif; Strauch, Konstantin; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Philipp S; Ziegler, Andreas; Völker, Uwe; Prokisch, Holger; Zeller, Tanja

    2015-10-15

    Obesity, defined as pathologically increased body mass index (BMI), is strongly related to an increased risk for numerous common cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. It is particularly associated with insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and systemic oxidative stress and represents the most important risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these associations are still not completely understood. Therefore, in order to identify potentially disease-relevant BMI-associated gene expression signatures, a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) on BMI was performed. Whole-blood mRNA levels determined by array-based transcriptional profiling were correlated with BMI in two large independent population-based cohort studies (KORA F4 and SHIP-TREND) comprising a total of 1977 individuals. Extensive alterations of the whole-blood transcriptome were associated with BMI: More than 3500 transcripts exhibited significant positive or negative BMI-correlation. Three major whole-blood gene expression signatures associated with increased BMI were identified. The three signatures suggested: i) a ratio shift from mature erythrocytes towards reticulocytes, ii) decreased expression of several genes essentially involved in the transmission and amplification of the insulin signal, and iii) reduced expression of several key genes involved in the defence against reactive oxygen species (ROS). Whereas the first signature confirms published results, the other two provide possible mechanistic explanations for well-known epidemiological findings under conditions of increased BMI, namely attenuated insulin signaling and increased oxidative stress. The putatively causative BMI-dependent down-regulation of the expression of numerous genes on the mRNA level represents a novel finding. BMI-associated negative transcriptional regulation of insulin signaling and oxidative stress management provide new insights into the pathogenesis of metabolic

  17. Characterization of pFOX-7a, a conjugative IncL/M plasmid encoding the FOX-7 AmpC-type β-lactamase, involved in a large outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Arena, Fabio; Giani, Tommaso; Conte, Viola; Cresti, Stefania; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2014-10-01

    FOX-type enzymes are a lineage of AmpC-type β-lactamases from Aeromonas spp. whose genes have been mobilized to plasmids spreading among Enterobacteriaceae, where they can be responsible for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and β-lactamase inhibitor combinations. Little is known about the genetic context and plasmid vehicles of bla(FOX) determinants. Here, we have characterized a plasmid encoding the FOX-7 β-lactamase, which was involved in a large outbreak caused by two Klebsiella pneumoniae clones in a neonatal intensive care unit. Plasmid transferability was tested in conjugation experiments using Escherichia coli recipients. Plasmids from different strains were compared by restriction profiling and PCR mapping. The complete sequence of pFOX-7a plasmid was determined by a next-generation sequencing approach followed by gap filling using PCR and sequencing. An apparently identical conjugative plasmid encoding FOX-7 was detected in representatives of the K. pneumoniae clones that caused the outbreak and in sporadic FOX-7-producing strains of other species from the same ward. The plasmid, named pFOX-7a, has an IncL/M-type backbone and two separate resistance modules including a Tn3-like transposon and a novel Tn1696 derivative, named Tn6234, which carries an integron platform, a hybrid (but still functional) mercury resistance module and a novel putative transposon of original structure, named Tn6240, associated with the bla(FOX-7) gene. pFOX-7a is the first completely characterized plasmid encoding a FOX-type β-lactamase. The bla(FOX-7) gene was associated with a putative transposable element of original structure, which was likely involved in its mobilization from the Aeromonas metagenome. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Power conversion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, M. A.

    1997-02-01

    The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective is to be a resource to existing and emerging LLNL programs that require advanced solid-state power electronic technologies.. Our focus is on developing and integrating technologies that will significantly impact the capability, size, cost, and reliability of future power electronic systems. During FY-96, we concentrated our research efforts on the areas of (1) Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR); (2) novel solid-state opening switches; (3) advanced modulator technology for accelerators; (4) compact accelerators; and (5) compact pulse generators.

  19. Advanced thermionic energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Developments towards space and terrestrial applications of thermionic energy conversion are presented. Significant accomplishments for the three month period include: (1) devised a blade-type distributed lead design with many advantages compared to the stud-type distributed lead; (2) completed design of Marchuk tube test apparatus; (3) concluded, based on current understanding, that residual hydrogen should not contribute to a negative space charge barrier at the collector; (4) modified THX design program to include series-coupled designs as well as inductively-coupled designs; (5) initiated work on the heat transfer technology, THX test module, output power transfer system, heat transfer system, and conceptual plant design tasks; and (6) reached 2200 hours of operation in JPL-5 cylindrical converter envelope test.

  20. Automated FORTRAN conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aharonian, Gregory

    1986-01-01

    The most pratical solution to the conversion of FORTRAN to other programming languages which STO and a few others have adopted, uses an intermediate language that is easy to translate FORTRAN into, and allows for source codes in other languages to be generated automatically. The intermediate language is the union of all other programming languages (and the trick is to create a useful union) with some extensions that reflect the nature of the algorithms. The benefits of this approach are many. First the original FORTRAN program has to be rewritten only once, and then only parts of the program: most FORTRAN code passes through without and change (i.e., assignment and simple IF statements). Software tools are provided to ease this initial translation. Once in the intermediate language, the algorithm can then be obtained in any other language automatically. An example of a subroutine from the Rispack library in ten different languages is given.

  1. The Role of Conversation Policy in Carrying Out Agent Conversations

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Hamilton E.; Phillips, Laurence R.

    1999-05-20

    Structured conversation diagrams, or conversation specifications, allow agents to have predictable interactions and achieve predefined information-based goals, but they lack the flexibility needed to function robustly in an unpredictable environment. We propose a mechanism that combines a typical conversation structure with a separately established policy to generate an actual conversation. The word "policy" connotes a high-level direction external to a specific planned interaction with the environment. Policies, which describe acceptable procedures and influence decisions, can be applied to broad sets of activity. Based on their observation of issues related to a policy, agents may dynamically adjust their communication patterns. The policy object describes limitations, constraints, and requirements that may affect the conversation in certain circumstances. Using this new mechanism of interaction simplifies the description of individual conversations and allows domain-specific issues to be brought to bear more easily during agent communication. By following the behavior of the conversation specification when possible and deferring to the policy to derive behavior in exceptional circumstances, an agent is able to function predictably under normal situations and still act rationally in abnormal situations. Different conversation policies applied to a given conversation specification can change the nature of the interaction without changing the specification.

  2. Spin-dependent μ → e conversion

    DOE PAGES

    Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Davidson, Sacha; Kuno, Yoshitaka

    2017-05-22

    The experimental sensitivity to μ→e conversion on nuclei is expected to improve by four orders of magnitude in coming years. Here, we consider the impact of μ→e flavour-changing tensor and axial-vector four-fermion operators which couple to the spin of nucleons. Such operators, which have not previously been considered, contribute to μ→e conversion in three ways: in nuclei with spin they mediate a spin-dependent transition; in all nuclei they contribute to the coherent (A2-enhanced) spin-independent conversion via finite recoil effects and via loop mixing with dipole, scalar, and vector operators. Furthermore, we estimate the spin-dependent rate in Aluminium (the target ofmore » the upcoming COMET and Mu2e experiments), show that the loop effects give the greatest sensitivity to tensor and axial-vector operators involving first-generation quarks, and discuss the complementarity of the spin-dependent and independent contributions to μ→e conversion.« less

  3. Spin-dependent μ → e conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Davidson, Sacha; Kuno, Yoshitaka

    2017-08-01

    The experimental sensitivity to μ → e conversion on nuclei is expected to improve by four orders of magnitude in coming years. We consider the impact of μ → e flavour-changing tensor and axial-vector four-fermion operators which couple to the spin of nucleons. Such operators, which have not previously been considered, contribute to μ → e conversion in three ways: in nuclei with spin they mediate a spin-dependent transition; in all nuclei they contribute to the coherent (A2-enhanced) spin-independent conversion via finite recoil effects and via loop mixing with dipole, scalar, and vector operators. We estimate the spin-dependent rate in Aluminium (the target of the upcoming COMET and Mu2e experiments), show that the loop effects give the greatest sensitivity to tensor and axial-vector operators involving first-generation quarks, and discuss the complementarity of the spin-dependent and independent contributions to μ → e conversion.

  4. Difficult conversations: from diagnosis to death.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Joel D; Mott, Frank E

    2014-01-01

    Communication is the cornerstone of good multidisciplinary medical care, and the impact of conversations about diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis is indisputable. Healthcare providers must be able to have difficult conversations that accurately describe diagnostic procedures, treatment goals, and the benefits and/or risks involved. This paper reviews the literature about the importance of communication in delivering bad news, the status of communication training, communication strategies, and psychosocial interventions. Although many published guidelines address difficult communication, communication training is lacking. Consequently, many clinicians may have difficulties with, or in the worst-case scenario, avoid delivering bad news and discussing end-of-life treatment. Clinicians also struggle with how to have the last conversation with a patient and how to support patient autonomy when they disagree with a patient's choices. There is a clinical imperative to educate physicians and other healthcare workers on how to effectively deliver information about a patient's health status, diagnostic avenues to be explored, and decisions to be made at critical health junctions. Knowing how to implement the most rudimentary techniques of motivational interviewing, solution-focused brief therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy can help physicians facilitate conversations of the most difficult type to generate positive change in patients and families and to help them make decisions that minimize end-of-life distress.

  5. Respiratory markers of conversational interaction.

    PubMed

    McFarland, D H

    2001-02-01

    Respiratory movements were recorded from 10 dyads (20 subjects) during quiet breathing, reading aloud, spontaneous monologue, scripted dialog, and spontaneous conversation. Timing measures of inspiratory, expiratory, and total cycle duration were used to compare respiratory function during quiet breathing, listening, and speech. Cross-correlation analyses of the respiratory movements of conversational partners provided an index of conversational synchrony. Inspiratory duration was found to be the most consistent and sensitive measure for discriminating quiet breathing from speech breathing. In the scripted dialog and spontaneous conversation conditions, respiratory kinematics changed during listening to more closely resemble speech, and systematic changes were observed in anticipation of turn-taking speech onset. For the breathing cycles immediately surrounding turn changes and simultaneously produced vocal events, the kinematic signals of conversational partners were strongly correlated. Results are discussed in the context of similar findings concerning conversational interactions and motor preparation for speech.

  6. Keep meaning in conversational coordination

    PubMed Central

    Cuffari, Elena C.

    2014-01-01

    Coordination is a widely employed term across recent quantitative and qualitative approaches to intersubjectivity, particularly approaches that give embodiment and enaction central explanatory roles. With a focus on linguistic and bodily coordination in conversational contexts, I review the operational meaning of coordination in recent empirical research and related theorizing of embodied intersubjectivity. This discussion articulates what must be involved in treating linguistic meaning as dynamic processes of coordination. The coordination approach presents languaging as a set of dynamic self-organizing processes and actions on multiple timescales and across multiple modalities that come about and work in certain domains (those jointly constructed in social, interactive, high-order sense-making). These processes go beyond meaning at the level that is available to first-person experience. I take one crucial consequence of this to be the ubiquitously moral nature of languaging with others. Languaging coordinates experience, among other levels of behavior and event. Ethical effort is called for by the automatic autonomy-influencing forces of languaging as coordination. PMID:25520693

  7. Direct solar energy conversion for large scale terrestrial use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boeer, K. W.; Meakin, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Various techniques to increase the open circuit voltage are being explored. It had been previously observed that cells made on CdS deposited from a single source gave a consistently higher V sub oc. Further tests have now shown that this effect may in fact relate to differences in source and substrate temperatures. The resulting differences in CdS structure and crystallinity are being documented. Deposits of mixed CdS and ZnS are being produced and will be initially made into cells using the conventional barriering technique. Analysis of I-V characteristics at temperatures between 25 and 110 C is being perfected to provide nondestructive analysis of the Cu2S. Changes due to vacuum heat treatments and exposure to oxygen are also being monitored by the same technique. Detailed spectral response measurements are being made.

  8. Parametric wavelength conversion in photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sigang; Wu, Zhaohui; Yang, Yi; Chen, Minghua; Xie, Shizhong

    2016-11-01

    Nonlinear wavelength conversion provides flexible solutions for generating wideband tunable radiation in novel wavelength band. Parametric process in photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) has attracted comprehensive interests since it can act as broadband tunable light sources in non-conventional wavelength bands. The current state-of-the-art photonic crystal fibers can provide more freedom for customizing the dispersion and nonlinearity which is critical to the nonlinear process, such as four wave mixing (FWM), compared with the traditional fibers fabricated with doping techniques. Here we demonstrate broadband parametric wavelength conversion in our homemade photonic crystal fibers. The zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW) of PCFs is critical for the requirement of phase matching condition in the parametric four wave mixing process. Firstly a procedure of the theoretical design of PCF with the ZDW at 1060 nm is proposed through our homemade simulation software. A group of PCF samples with gradually variable parameters are fabricated according to the theoretical design. The broadband parametric gain around 1060 nm band is demonstrated pumped with our homemade mode locked fiber laser in the anomalous dispersion region. Also a narrow gain band with very large wavelength detune with the pump wavelength in the normal dispersion region is realized. Wavelength conversion with a span of 194 nm is realized. Furthermore a fiber optical parametric oscillator based on the fabricated PCF is built up. A wavelength tunable range as high as 340 nm is obtained. This report demonstrates a systematic procedure to realize wide band wavelength conversion based on PCFs.

  9. Conversion of board foot scaled logs to cubic meters in Washington State, 1970–1998

    Treesearch

    Henry Spelter

    2002-01-01

    The conversion factor generally used to convert logs measured in board feet to cubic meters has traditionally been set at 4.53. Because of diminishing old growth, large diameter trees, the average conversion factor has risen, as illustrated in this analysis of Washington state sawmill data over the period 1970–1998. Conversion factors for coastal and interior...

  10. Introduction to Solar Photon Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Nozik, A.; Miller, J.

    2010-11-10

    is potential for the PV industry to grow enormously in the future (by factors of 100-300) in order for it to provide a significant fraction of total global electricity needs (currently about 3.5 TW). Such growth will be greatly facilitated by, and probably even require, major advances in the conversion efficiency and cost reduction for PV cells and modules; such advances will depend upon advances in PV science and technology, and these approaches are discussed in this Thematic Issue. Industrial and domestic electricity utilization accounts for only about 30% of the total energy consumed globally. Most ({approx}70%) of our energy consumption is in the form of liquid and gaseous fuels. Presently, solar-derived fuels are produced from biomass (labeled as biofuels) and are generated through biological photosynthesis. The global production of liquid biofuels in 2009 was about 1.6 million barrels/day, equivalent to a yearly output of about 2.5 EJ (about 1.3% of global liquid fuel utilization). The direct conversion of solar photons to fuels produces high-energy chemical products that are labeled as solar fuels; these can be produced through nonbiological approaches, generally called artificial photosynthesis. The feedstocks for artificial photosynthesis are H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}, either reacting as coupled oxidation-reduction reactions, as in biological photosynthesis, or by first splitting H{sub 2}O into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} and then reacting the solar H{sub 2} with CO{sub 2} (or CO produced from CO2) in a second step to produce fuels through various well-known chemical routes involving syngas, water gas shift, and alcohol synthesis; in some applications, the generated solar H{sub 2} itself can be used as an excellent gaseous fuel, for example, in fuel cells. But at the present time, there is no solar fuels industry. Much research and development are required to create a solar fuels industry, and this Thematic Issue presents several reviews on the relevant solar fuels

  11. Spin-Charge Conversion Phenomena in Germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyarzún, Simón; Rortais, Fabien; Rojas-Sánchez, Juan-Carlos; Bottegoni, Federico; Laczkowski, Piotr; Vergnaud, Céline; Pouget, Stéphanie; Okuno, Hanako; Vila, Laurent; Attané, Jean-Philippe; Beigné, Cyrille; Marty, Alain; Gambarelli, Serge; Ducruet, Clarisse; Widiez, Julie; George, Jean-Marie; Jaffrès, Henri; Jamet, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    The spin-orbit coupling relating the electron spin and momentum allows for spin generation, detection and manipulation. It thus fulfils the three basic functions of the spin field-effect-transistor made of semiconductors. In this paper, we review our recent results on spin-charge conversion in bulk germanium and at the Ge(111) surface. We used the spin pumping technique to generate pure spin currents to be injected into bulk germanium and at the Fe/Ge(111) interface. The mechanism for spin-charge conversion in bulk germanium is the spin Hall effect and we could experimentally determine the spin Hall angle θSHE, i.e., the spin-charge conversion efficiency, in heavily doped n-type and p-type germanium. We found very small values at room temperature: θSHE ≈ (1-2) × 10-3 in n-Ge and θSHE ≈ (6-7) × 10-4 in p-Ge. Moreover, we pointed out the essential role of spin dependent scattering on ionized impurities in the spin Hall effect mechanism. We concluded that the spin Hall effect in bulk germanium is too weak to produce large spin currents, whereas a large Rashba effect (>100 meV) at Ge(111) surfaces covered with heavy metals could generate spin polarized currents. We could indeed demonstrate a giant spin-to-charge conversion in metallic states at the Fe/Ge(111) interface due to the Rashba coupling. We generated very large charge currents by direct spin pumping into the interface states from 20 K to room temperature. By this, we raise a new paradigm: the possibility to use the spin-orbit coupling for the development of the spin-field-effect-transistor.

  12. Non-editorial Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, John

    1974-01-01

    In his position as retiring chief of the Workers' Education Branch of the International Labour Office (ILO), Paul B. J. Chu is interviewed on worker education, the ILO organization and tole, personal disappointments and satisfactions, future educational developments in which the ILO will be involved, and problems facing workers' education. (AG)

  13. Non-editorial Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, John

    1974-01-01

    In his position as retiring chief of the Workers' Education Branch of the International Labour Office (ILO), Paul B. J. Chu is interviewed on worker education, the ILO organization and tole, personal disappointments and satisfactions, future educational developments in which the ILO will be involved, and problems facing workers' education. (AG)

  14. Solar energy conversion apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, S.G.

    1983-10-18

    Solar energy conversion apparatus is disclosed including a housing portion, an energy absorbing portion, a fluid directing portion and a cover portion; the housing portion including a molded plastic pan member including a base section with upwardly extending spaced spacer sections, the pan member including outwardly inclined sidewall sections having spaced inner and outer wall sections with a top section including an outwardly extending flange section and an inwardly extending slotted frame section; the energy absorbing portion including a conductive metal liner member positioned within the housing portion and resting on the upper surfaces of the spacer sections, a conductive metal separator section extending between the liner sidewall sections adjacent the upper ends thereof and enclosing the liner member; the fluid directing portion including a plurality of parallel spaced longitudinal baffle members arranged in a staggered relationship to provide a tortuous fluid path through the apparatus, an inlet opening and an outlet opening to the tortuous path, the baffle members extending upwardly from the liner bottom to the separator section; the cover portion including transparent impact resistant flat and dome members, the edges of the flat member being secured to the top section, the dome member being disposed over the flat member with its edges engaged with the flange section slots, the dome member including flat sections extending upwardly at an angle of 20/sup 0/ to 30/sup 0/ and a convex central section joining the flat sections.

  15. Reactor for methane conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, R.A.; Axelrod, M.G.

    1989-08-08

    This patent describes a reactor adapted for the conversion of methane to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. It comprises a central support column and an outer shell which together define an annular reaction zone, inlet means for introducing a mixture of methane containing gas and fluidized solid catalyst particles into the reaction zone, and outlet means for withdrawing a mixture of gas and fluidized solid catalyst particles from the zone, and a plurality of vertically spaced ceramic baffle assemblies comprised of wedged-shaped segments positioned in the reaction zone each perpendicular to the central support column and the outer shell. The baffle assemblies filling the annular cross-section between the support column and the outer shell and being supported at the outer wall of the central support column and at the inner wall of the outer shell, adjacent baffle assembly segments also being supported by radial ceramic support beams. The baffle assemblies each having a plurality of openings 0.25 to 3 inches in diameter adapted to permit passage of the mixture of gas and fluidized solid catalyst particles through the baffle assemblies only toward the outlet means, the area of the openings being 10-70% of the baffle area of each baffle assembly.

  16. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  17. Energy conversion apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, D.R.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes an energy conversion apparatus comprising: an engine, the engine comprising a cylinder and a piston reciprocally mounted therein, the cylinder defining a combustion chamber on one side of the piston for receiving a fuel mixture and a fluid drive chamber on the other side of the piston for receiving hydraulic fluid, a turbine, the turbine comprising a housing and a vaned turbine wheel rotatably mounted on a drive shaft journalled in the housing, hydraulic means for coupling fluid in the fluid drive chamber of the cylinder with the housing for rotatably driving the turbine wheel and the drive shaft upon a given movement of the piston, means for providing the combustion chamber of the engine with a fuel mixture comprising hydrogen and oxygen, an ignition means for selectively igniting the mixture in the combustion chamber, and purging means for selectively rotating the turbine prior to ignition of the fuel mixture in the engine to remove air therefrom, the purging means comprising a pump means for moving fluid from the reservoir into the fluid drive chambers, the conduit means and the turbine housing, whereby the piston driven by the ignited fuel mixture forces fluid in the fluid drive chamber against the vanes of the turbine wheel to rotate the drive shaft.

  18. GPU color space conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Patrick; Vondran, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Tetrahedral interpolation is commonly used to implement continuous color space conversions from sparse 3D and 4D lookup tables. We investigate the implementation and optimization of tetrahedral interpolation algorithms for GPUs, and compare to the best known CPU implementations as well as to a well known GPU-based trilinear implementation. We show that a 500 NVIDIA GTX-580 GPU is 3x faster than a 1000 Intel Core i7 980X CPU for 3D interpolation, and 9x faster for 4D interpolation. Performance-relevant GPU attributes are explored including thread scheduling, local memory characteristics, global memory hierarchy, and cache behaviors. We consider existing tetrahedral interpolation algorithms and tune based on the structure and branching capabilities of current GPUs. Global memory performance is improved by reordering and expanding the lookup table to ensure optimal access behaviors. Per multiprocessor local memory is exploited to implement optimally coalesced global memory accesses, and local memory addressing is optimized to minimize bank conflicts. We explore the impacts of lookup table density upon computation and memory access costs. Also presented are CPU-based 3D and 4D interpolators, using SSE vector operations that are faster than any previously published solution.

  19. Garden Banks 388 floating production vessel selection and conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, M.J.; McBee, H.E.; Edelblum, L.S.; Henderson, A.D.; Scovell, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the key elements involved in the selection of the Ocean Victory Class semisubmersible drilling vessel by Enserch Exploration, Inc. for conversion to a Floating Production Facility (FPF). It also presents an overview of the various facets of engineering required to specify and procure all mooring, production facilities and marine systems equipment, and all structural and naval architectural design work necessary to obtain ABS classification and provide a conversion specification bid package and detailed design.

  20. Recent Advances in Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-04-30

    With increased availability and decreased cost, ethanol is potentially a promising platform molecule for the production of a variety of value-added chemicals. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of recent advances in catalytic conversion of ethanol to a wide range of chemicals and fuels. We particularly focus on catalyst advances and fundamental understanding of reaction mechanisms involved in ethanol steam reforming (ESR) to produce hydrogen, ethanol conversion to hydrocarbons ranging from light olefins to longer chain alkenes/alkanes and aromatics, and ethanol conversion to other oxygenates including 1-butanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate.

  1. A conversation with Joseph Lau.

    PubMed

    Lau, Joseph; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Ingerick, Meghan

    2015-03-01

    Dr. Joseph Lau is a world-leading expert in meta-analysis and systematic reviews. Currently a professor in the Department of Health Services, Policy and Practice and co-director of the Center for Evidence-based Medicine at Brown University, Professor Lau has applied evidence-based methods to a variety of clinical, biomedical and healthcare topics; has developed reliable and efficient methods and tools to conduct systematic reviews and meta-analyses; and has advanced an understanding on the impact of factors that may contribute to differences of results in scientific studies. His past research includes cumulative meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, comparison of results from large trials and meta-analyses of small trials, effect of baseline risk in the interpretation of clinical trial results, and empirical evaluation of existing methods of combining data. His current focus is on a Web-based repository of systematic review data, reviews of diagnostic tests, nutrition, clinical practice guidelines, and dissemination of evidence-based methods to varied health-care disciplines. This report is a conversation from an adapted version of an interview, more or less chronologically arranged, between Joseph C. Cappelleri as interviewer and Joseph Lau as interviewee, with Meghan Ingerick recording and transcribing the interview.

  2. Parental Involvement in High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brian, Donna JG

    Although parental involvement is recommended at all levels of schooling, involvement of parents at the secondary level has not been well defined in the literature. This paper presents findings of a case study that examined three high schools with varying levels of parental involvement--the first, a large high school with a predominantly working…

  3. Effective Charge Carrier Utilization in Photocatalytic Conversions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Chang, Xiaoxia; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-05-17

    Continuous efforts have been devoted to searching for sustainable energy resources to alleviate the upcoming energy crises. Among various types of new energy resources, solar energy has been considered as one of the most promising choices, since it is clean, sustainable, and safe. Moreover, solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy, with a total power of 173 000 terawatts striking Earth continuously. Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, which could potentially provide continuous and flexible energy supplies, has been investigated extensively. However, the conversion efficiency is still relatively low since complicated physical, electrical, and chemical processes are involved. Therefore, carefully designed photocatalysts with a wide absorption range of solar illumination, a high conductivity for charge carriers, a small number of recombination centers, and fast surface reaction kinetics are required to achieve a high activity. This Account describes our recent efforts to enhance the utilization of charge carriers for semiconductor photocatalysts toward efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion. During photocatalytic reactions, photogenerated electrons and holes are involved in complex processes to convert solar energy into chemical energy. The initial step is the generation of charge carriers in semiconductor photocatalysts, which could be enhanced by extending the light absorption range. Integration of plasmonic materials and introduction of self-dopants have been proved to be effective methods to improve the light absorption ability of photocatalysts to produce larger amounts of photogenerated charge carriers. Subsequently, the photogenerated electrons and holes migrate to the surface. Therefore, acceleration of the transport process can result in enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency. Different strategies such as morphology control and conductivity improvement have been demonstrated to achieve this goal. Fine-tuning of the

  4. Record Conversion at Oregon State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Deane

    1985-01-01

    Describes the conversion of card catalog records at William Jasper Kerr Library, Oregon State University, to an online system. Discussion covers the use of OCLC and student assistants, procedures and specifications, and problems associated with massive retrospective conversion needs and uncertain budget allocations. Eight sources are recommended.…

  5. [Neuropsychological assessment in conversion disorder].

    PubMed

    Demır, Süleyman; Çelıkel, Feryal Çam; Taycan, Serap Erdoğan; Etıkan, İlker

    2013-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by functional impairment in motor, sensory, or neurovegetative systems that cannot be explained by a general medical condition. Diagnostic systems emphasize the absence of an organic basis for the dysfunction observed in conversion disorder. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of data on the specific functional brain correlates of conversion symptoms, particularly those obtained via neuroimaging and neurophysiological assessment. The present study aimed to determine if there are differences in measures of cognitive functioning between patients with conversion disorder and healthy controls. The hypothesis of the study was that the patients with conversion disorder would have poorer neurocognitive performance than the controls. The patient group included 43 patients diagnosed as conversion disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities according to DSM-IV-TR. Control group 1 included 44 patients diagnosed with similar psychiatric comorbidities, but not conversion diosorder, and control group 2 included 43 healthy individuals. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and were administered the SCID-I and a neuropsychological test battery of 6 tests, including the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Wechsler Memory Scale, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLOT), and Cancellation Test. The patient group had significantly poorer performance on the SDLT, AVLT, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, and BJLOT than both control groups. The present findings highlight the differences between the groups in learning and memory, executive and visuospatial functions, and attention, which seemed to be specific to conversion disorder.

  6. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  7. In Conversation with Jim Blair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Jim Blair is the only consultant nurse working with people with learning disabilities in the country. His job helps make people better and saves money. This article shares a conversation with Jim Blair. In the conversation, Blair says he is unhappy Valuing People programme did not do as much as it could have done. Jim is worried all the changes,…

  8. Older Siblings as Conversational Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff-Ginsberg, Erika; Krueger, Wendy M.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses a study of conversational dyadic interaction between children aged 1.5 to 3 years; their 4-, 5-, 7-, or 8-year-old siblings; and their mothers. Mothers were more supportive conversational partners and adapted their level of speech more than siblings. (GH)

  9. Language Teacher Educators Collaborative Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Francis; Hawkins, Maggie; Irujo, Suzanne; Larsen-Freeman, Diane; Rintell, Ellen; Willett, Jerri

    1998-01-01

    Conveys the power and value of collaborative conversation among a small group of language teacher educators who meet regularly to discuss practice. Excerpts from a discussion are presented to show a sample of real issues the teachers face and illustrate how the conversations allow ongoing feedback about real dilemmas from a supportive community of…

  10. Tree value conversion standards revisited

    Treesearch

    Paul S. DeBald; Martin E. Dale; Martin E. Dale

    1991-01-01

    Updated tree value conversion standards (TVCS) are presented for 12 important hardwood species of the oak-hickory forest. These updated standards-developed for each species by butt-log grade, merchantable height, and diameter at breast height-reflect the changes in lumber prices and in conversion costs which have occurred since 1976 when the original TVCS were...

  11. Selecting a Retrospective Conversion Vendor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisowski, Andrew; Sessions, Judith

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of using vendors for retrospective conversion of library catalogs rather than in-house projects highlights reasons to consider vendors, four conversion methodologies, and vendor selection criteria (database, non-matches, local data, accuracy, charging, schedule, product delivery time, local system compatibility, MARC format, impact on…

  12. Faculty Meetings: Hidden Conversational Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    In the everydayness of faculty meetings, collegial conversations mirror distinctive dynamics and practices, which either enhance or undercut organizational effectiveness. A cluster of conversational practices affect how colleagues connect, engage, interact, and influence others during faculty meetings in diverse educational settings. The…

  13. Record Conversion at Oregon State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Deane

    1985-01-01

    Describes the conversion of card catalog records at William Jasper Kerr Library, Oregon State University, to an online system. Discussion covers the use of OCLC and student assistants, procedures and specifications, and problems associated with massive retrospective conversion needs and uncertain budget allocations. Eight sources are recommended.…

  14. Selecting a Retrospective Conversion Vendor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisowski, Andrew; Sessions, Judith

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of using vendors for retrospective conversion of library catalogs rather than in-house projects highlights reasons to consider vendors, four conversion methodologies, and vendor selection criteria (database, non-matches, local data, accuracy, charging, schedule, product delivery time, local system compatibility, MARC format, impact on…

  15. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  16. Conversational Expansion in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boynton, Kathleen Reardon; Henke, Lucy L.

    1978-01-01

    The importance of contextual influences to conversational competence development is emphasized. Included are one or more significant adults whose systematic patterns of feedback teach children rules of conversation while providing guided practice in the use of these rules. The role of expansion is examined as one of the common patterns of feedback…

  17. Faculty Meetings: Hidden Conversational Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    In the everydayness of faculty meetings, collegial conversations mirror distinctive dynamics and practices, which either enhance or undercut organizational effectiveness. A cluster of conversational practices affect how colleagues connect, engage, interact, and influence others during faculty meetings in diverse educational settings. The…

  18. In Conversation with Jim Blair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Jim Blair is the only consultant nurse working with people with learning disabilities in the country. His job helps make people better and saves money. This article shares a conversation with Jim Blair. In the conversation, Blair says he is unhappy Valuing People programme did not do as much as it could have done. Jim is worried all the changes,…

  19. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  20. Medicinal relationships: caring conversation.

    PubMed

    Mikesell, Lisa

    2013-05-01

    Good social relationships are crucial to well-being and to health in particular. The perception of having supportive social relationships has effects on reducing morbidity and mortality comparable with those of a good diet, regular exercise and cessation of moderate smoking. This suggests that supportive, trusting relationships with doctors could have a substantial direct biomedical effect on patients' health. A critical review of the patient-doctor relationship (PDR) literature is presented, along with a review of relevant interactional studies that examine doctor-patient interactions from the perspective of conversation analysis (CA). This literature shows how patients respond to doctors' verbal and non-verbal behaviours in systematic ways that affect how they disclose and how they relate to doctors. Findings from the CA literature suggest that clinicians might consider several important interactional features to improve the PDR and perhaps also patient health outcomes: (i) the use of open-ended questions (e.g. 'What brought you in today?') and positive polarity items (e.g. 'Is there something else you wanted to talk about today?') elicits patient concerns and addresses unmet concerns more effectively than the use of closed questions and negative polarity items, respectively; (ii) eye gaze suggests availability and an attending recipient, and patients indicate that doctor attentiveness at crucial parts of their problem presentation is important, and (iii) verbal dysfluencies are one practice speakers employ to gain the attention of a non-attending recipient. Doctors may want to pay attention to patients' dysfluencies to better understand when their attention is valued. Constructing supportive relationships with patients often does not require a great investment of time, but it does require commitment to 'being there for patients'. This review suggests that when doctors attune to language and social practices during medical consultations, the relationships they

  1. Small Talk: Conversations about Nanotechnology through Podcasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Doherty, P.

    2006-12-01

    Why didn't we all just stay home today? Partly, we like to hear people talk. It’s more fun than reading. Podcasts (downloadable audio files created on a computer) allow us to easily become radio producers and exploit the power of audio. The listener may relate on an intimate level to discussions, conversations, and stories that are communicated through this medium. Therefore, science topics with strong societal or human connections are ideal candidates for podcasting. Nanotechnology has the potential to change the world through advances in medicine, computing, environmental sensing, renewable energy, fuel, and more. The public remains largely uninformed, however, about nanotechnology, and its potential benefits and risks. I will show you how we have used podcasts to broadcast conversations with researchers about nanotechnology. I will also talk about other public programs at the Exploratorium which engage the public in discussions about this emerging science. (See http://www.nisenet.org/)

  2. New Conversion Laws for CO Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Peter J.; Muller, Erik; Hernandez, Audra K.; Duarte-Cabral, Ana; Schuller, Frederic

    2017-03-01

    We describe new conversion laws, from CO molecular line data to inferred mass column, based on observations of the three main CO isotopologues in several surveys of the Galactic Plane. The new conversion laws replace the use of the single ``X-factor'' in widespread use, with a more physically-based relationship between the CO line's optical depth, excitation, and column density. It has the effect of increasing the inferred mass column, over the single X-factor, by typically a factor of 2-3. This means that the molecular mass of the Milky Way may have been substantially underestimated in previous studies, and suggests that scaling laws like the Kennicutt-Schmidt relations may also need to be recalibrated. Because of its statistical basis on a large fraction of our Galaxy's ISM, this new law is also recommended for use in studies of other Milky-Way-analogue spiral galaxies.

  3. Ferroelectric Phase Transformations for Energy Conversion and Storage Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Hwan Ryul

    Ferroelectric materials possess a spontaneous polarization and actively respond to external mechanical, electrical, and thermal loads. Due to their coupled behavior, ferroelectric materials are used in products such as sensors, actuators, detectors, and transducers. However, most current applications rely on low-energy conversion that involves low magnitude fields. They utilize the low-field linear properties of ferroelectric materials (piezoelectric, pyroelectric) and do not take full advantage of the large-field nonlinear behavior (irreversible domain wall motion, phase transformations) that can occur in ferroelectric materials. When external fields exceed a certain critical level, a structural transformation of the crystal can occur. These phase transformations are accompanied by a much larger response than the linear piezoelectric and pyroelectric responses, by as much as a multiple of ten times in the magnitude. This makes the non-linear behavior in ferroelectric materials promising for energy harvesting and energy storage technologies which will benefit from large-energy conversion. Yet, the ferroelectric phase transformation behavior under large external fields have been less studied and only a few studies have been directed at utilizing this large material response in applications. This dissertation addresses the development ferroelectric phase transformation-based applications, with particular focus on the materials. Development of the ferroelectric phase transformation-based applications was approached in several steps. First, the phase transformation behavior was fully characterized and understood by measuring the phase transformation responses under mechanical, electrical, thermal, and combined loads. Once the behavior was well characterized, systems level applications were addressed. This required assessing the effect of the phase transformation behavior on system performance. The performance of ferroelectric devices is strongly dependent on material

  4. Numerical simulation of all-optical wavelength conversion of DPSK signal based on SOA in a Mach-Zehnder configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wei; Li, Minghao; Huang, Dexiu; Zhang, Xinliang; Zhu, Guangxi

    2008-11-01

    All-optical wavelength conversion of differential phase-shift keyed (DPSK) signals based on SOA in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (SOA-MZI) configuration is simulated and analyzed using the transfer function of MZI and a wideband dynamic model of SOA. The operation principle is analyzed and operation point selection, influence of SOA physical parameters, different signal format and operation speed are discussed in detail. The results of 10Gb/s operation show that SOA-MZI is compatible with both non-return-to-zero (NRZ) and return-to-zero (RZ) formatted signals. However, the conversion performance is sensitive to the operation point of the involved SOAs. To maximize the Q value of the demodulated conversion signal, the power and wavelength of the original DPSK signal and the probe light should be optimized to obtain approximately π phase difference between the upper and lower arms of MZI in the middle of each bit. Besides, SOA with short carrier lifetime and large linewidth enhancement factor is preferred for wavelength conversion applications. 40Gb/s operation is also simulated with SOA carrier lifetime of 100ps, and the results strongly suggests 40Gb/s operation with RZ formatted signals and relatively large input powers of the clock signal.

  5. Measuring happiness in large population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenas, Annabelle; Sjahputri, Smita; Takwin, Bagus; Primaldhi, Alfindra; Muhamad, Roby

    2016-01-01

    The ability to know emotional states for large number of people is important, for example, to ensure the effectiveness of public policies. In this study, we propose a measure of happiness that can be used in large scale population that is based on the analysis of Indonesian language lexicons. Here, we incorporate human assessment of Indonesian words, then quantify happiness on large-scale of texts gathered from twitter conversations. We used two psychological constructs to measure happiness: valence and arousal. We found that Indonesian words have tendency towards positive emotions. We also identified several happiness patterns during days of the week, hours of the day, and selected conversation topics.

  6. Embodied Conversational Agents in Clinical Psychology: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Provoost, Simon; Lau, Ho Ming; Ruwaard, Jeroen; Riper, Heleen

    2017-05-09

    Embodied conversational agents (ECAs) are computer-generated characters that simulate key properties of human face-to-face conversation, such as verbal and nonverbal behavior. In Internet-based eHealth interventions, ECAs may be used for the delivery of automated human support factors. We aim to provide an overview of the technological and clinical possibilities, as well as the evidence base for ECA applications in clinical psychology, to inform health professionals about the activity in this field of research. Given the large variety of applied methodologies, types of applications, and scientific disciplines involved in ECA research, we conducted a systematic scoping review. Scoping reviews aim to map key concepts and types of evidence underlying an area of research, and answer less-specific questions than traditional systematic reviews. Systematic searches for ECA applications in the treatment of mood, anxiety, psychotic, autism spectrum, and substance use disorders were conducted in databases in the fields of psychology and computer science, as well as in interdisciplinary databases. Studies were included if they conveyed primary research findings on an ECA application that targeted one of the disorders. We mapped each study's background information, how the different disorders were addressed, how ECAs and users could interact with one another, methodological aspects, and the study's aims and outcomes. This study included N=54 publications (N=49 studies). More than half of the studies (n=26) focused on autism treatment, and ECAs were used most often for social skills training (n=23). Applications ranged from simple reinforcement of social behaviors through emotional expressions to sophisticated multimodal conversational systems. Most applications (n=43) were still in the development and piloting phase, that is, not yet ready for routine practice evaluation or application. Few studies conducted controlled research into clinical effects of ECAs, such as a

  7. Embodied Conversational Agents in Clinical Psychology: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Ho Ming; Ruwaard, Jeroen; Riper, Heleen

    2017-01-01

    Background Embodied conversational agents (ECAs) are computer-generated characters that simulate key properties of human face-to-face conversation, such as verbal and nonverbal behavior. In Internet-based eHealth interventions, ECAs may be used for the delivery of automated human support factors. Objective We aim to provide an overview of the technological and clinical possibilities, as well as the evidence base for ECA applications in clinical psychology, to inform health professionals about the activity in this field of research. Methods Given the large variety of applied methodologies, types of applications, and scientific disciplines involved in ECA research, we conducted a systematic scoping review. Scoping reviews aim to map key concepts and types of evidence underlying an area of research, and answer less-specific questions than traditional systematic reviews. Systematic searches for ECA applications in the treatment of mood, anxiety, psychotic, autism spectrum, and substance use disorders were conducted in databases in the fields of psychology and computer science, as well as in interdisciplinary databases. Studies were included if they conveyed primary research findings on an ECA application that targeted one of the disorders. We mapped each study’s background information, how the different disorders were addressed, how ECAs and users could interact with one another, methodological aspects, and the study’s aims and outcomes. Results This study included N=54 publications (N=49 studies). More than half of the studies (n=26) focused on autism treatment, and ECAs were used most often for social skills training (n=23). Applications ranged from simple reinforcement of social behaviors through emotional expressions to sophisticated multimodal conversational systems. Most applications (n=43) were still in the development and piloting phase, that is, not yet ready for routine practice evaluation or application. Few studies conducted controlled research into

  8. Petite fabrique de conversation francaise (Little Factory of French Conversation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubroca, Danielle

    1987-01-01

    A technique using dialogues and realistic prose passages from the works of Georges Simenon and Simone de Beauvoir to teach French conversational skills at the college level is explained and illustrated. (MSE)

  9. Petite fabrique de conversation francaise (Little Factory of French Conversation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubroca, Danielle

    1987-01-01

    A technique using dialogues and realistic prose passages from the works of Georges Simenon and Simone de Beauvoir to teach French conversational skills at the college level is explained and illustrated. (MSE)

  10. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; Yablonovitch, Eli; Beard, Matthew C.; Okada, Yoshitaka; Lany, Stephan; Gershon, Talia; Zakutayev, Andriy; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Dagenais, Mario; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Lu; Sheng, Xing; Bronstein, Noah D.; Rogers, John A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Di M.; Wisser, Michael D.; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer; Bermel, Peter; Greffet, Jean -Jacques; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel; Raman, Aaswath; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-24

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in the optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light-matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. As a result, it is our hope that

  11. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; Yablonovitch, Eli; Beard, Matthew C.; Okada, Yoshitaka; Lany, Stephan; Gershon, Talia; Zakutayev, Andriy; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Dagenais, Mario; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Lu; Sheng, Xing; Bronstein, Noah D.; Rogers, John A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Di M.; Wisser, Michael D.; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer; Bermel, Peter; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel; Raman, Aaswath; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Chen, Gang

    2016-07-01

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in the optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light-matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. It is our hope that the roadmap

  12. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; Yablonovitch, Eli; Beard, Matthew C.; Okada, Yoshitaka; Lany, Stephan; Gershon, Talia; Zakutayev, Andriy; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Dagenais, Mario; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Lu; Sheng, Xing; Bronstein, Noah D.; Rogers, John A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Di M.; Wisser, Michael D.; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer; Bermel, Peter; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel; Raman, Aaswath; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-24

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in the optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light-matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. It is our hope that the roadmap

  13. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    DOE PAGES

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; ...

    2016-06-24

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in themore » optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light-matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. As a result, it is our

  14. Energy conversion and storage program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemical and chemical engineering principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels; (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy storage; (4) characterization of complex chemical processes; and (5) the application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, and advanced methods of analysis. The following five areas are discussed: electrochemical energy storage and conversion; microstructured materials; biotechnology; fossil fuels; and high temperature superconducting processing. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  15. Catalytic processes for space station waste conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoonover, M. W.; Madsen, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Catalytic techniques for processing waste products onboard space vehicles were evaluated. The goal of the study was the conversion of waste to carbon, wash water, oxygen and nitrogen. However, the ultimate goal is conversion to plant nutrients and other materials useful in closure of an ecological life support system for extended planetary missions. The resulting process studied involves hydrolysis at 250 C and 600 psia to break down and compact cellulose material, distillation at 100 C to remove water, coking at 450 C and atmospheric pressure, and catalytic oxidation at 450 to 600 C and atmospheric pressure. Tests were conducted with a model waste to characterize the hydrolysis and coking processes. An oxidizer reactor was sized based on automotive catalytic conversion experience. Products obtained from the hydrolysis and coking steps included a solid residue, gases, water condensate streams, and a volatile coker oil. Based on the data obtained, sufficient component sizing was performed to make a preliminary comparison of the catalytic technique with oxidation for processing waste for a six-man spacecraft. Wet oxidation seems to be the preferred technique from the standpoint of both component simplicity and power consumption.

  16. Laser energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, K. W.

    1975-01-01

    Laser radiation could possibly provide a feasible approach for the transmission of energy between stations and vehicles in space and on earth. The transmitted energy could be used for the operational requirements of the receiving space station, lunar base, or spacecraft. In addition, laser energy could also be employed to provide power for the propulsion of vehicles in space. The present status of development regarding the various technological areas involved in an implementation of these objectives is examined, taking into account the possibility of further advances needed to satisfy the technical requirements. Attention is given to laser-induced chemistry for converting the radiation energy into chemical energy. Other subjects considered are related to photovoltaics, optical diodes, thermo-electronics, laser rockets, and photon engines.

  17. Novel Nuclear Powered Photocatalytic Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    White,John R.; Kinsmen,Douglas; Regan,Thomas M.; Bobek,Leo M.

    2005-08-29

    The University of Massachusetts Lowell Radiation Laboratory (UMLRL) is involved in a comprehensive project to investigate a unique radiation sensing and energy conversion technology with applications for in-situ monitoring of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) during cask transport and storage. The technology makes use of the gamma photons emitted from the SNF as an inherent power source for driving a GPS-class transceiver that has the ability to verify the position and contents of the SNF cask. The power conversion process, which converts the gamma photon energy into electrical power, is based on a variation of the successful dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) design developed by Konarka Technologies, Inc. (KTI). In particular, the focus of the current research is to make direct use of the high-energy gamma photons emitted from SNF, coupled with a scintillator material to convert some of the incident gamma photons into photons having wavelengths within the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The high-energy gammas from the SNF will generate some power directly via Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect, and the generated visible photons output from the scintillator material can also be converted to electrical power in a manner similar to that of a standard solar cell. Upon successful implementation of an energy conversion device based on this new gammavoltaic principle, this inherent power source could then be utilized within SNF storage casks to drive a tamper-proof, low-power, electronic detection/security monitoring system for the spent fuel. The current project has addressed several aspects associated with this new energy conversion concept, including the development of a base conceptual design for an inherent gamma-induced power conversion unit for SNF monitoring, the characterization of the radiation environment that can be expected within a typical SNF storage system, the initial evaluation of Konarka's base solar cell design, the design and

  18. NASA thermionic-conversion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    Technological processes in out-of-core thermionic energy conversion are described. The emphasis was on high temperature electrode materials and system engineering of converter geometries to produce practical power densities.

  19. A Conversation Well Worth Remembering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolven-Allen, John

    2009-01-01

    To mark the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, a special event was held at Oxford, which included a "Conversation" between Professor Richard Dawkins and Bishop Richard Harries. Here we present a personal reminiscence of the event.

  20. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    DOEpatents

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  1. Effective communication during difficult conversations.

    PubMed

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2013-06-01

    A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior

  2. Energy conversion at dipolarization fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Divin, A.; Vaivads, A.; André, M.; Markidis, S.

    2017-02-01

    We use multispacecraft observations by Cluster in the Earth's magnetotail and 3-D particle-in-cell simulations to investigate conversion of electromagnetic energy at the front of a fast plasma jet. We find that the major energy conversion is happening in the Earth (laboratory) frame, where the electromagnetic energy is being transferred from the electromagnetic field to particles. This process operates in a region with size of the order several ion inertial lengths across the jet front, and the primary contribution to E·j is coming from the motional electric field and the ion current. In the frame of the front we find fluctuating energy conversion with localized loads and generators at sub-ion scales which are primarily related to the lower hybrid drift instability excited at the front; however, these provide relatively small net energy conversion.

  3. Dynamic Conversion Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaffee, N.; Sovie, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of dynamic conversion devices for use in solar and nuclear dynamic space power systems was addressed. Conversion systems considered were based on the use of Brayton, Stirling and Rankine cycles. Both organic and liquid metal Rankine cycles were included. The basic system considerations were: mission requirements, system attributes, system options, technology issues and constraints, and priorities of needed technology development. Mission requirements, where dynamic conversion was considered enabling technology, were identified along with the associated power levels and potential energy sources. When considering the system options special attention was given to recommend operating temperatures and other significant discriminators. A list of prioritized tasks considered important for the successful development of dynamic conversion systems for 1995 and beyond was compiled.

  4. Conversational topics in transsexual persons.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Cayzeele, Miet; Heirman, Eva; T'sjoen, Guy

    2014-06-01

    Abstract In general, speech language therapy for transsexual persons focuses on pitch and pitch variation and more recently also on resonance. Other communicative aspects are dealt with far less often, especially language. This study investigated to what extent conversational topics might need attention in therapy for transsexual persons. A total of 111 males, 116 females, 28 male-to-female and 18 female-to-male transsexuals were asked to indicate on a list with 34 topics how often they speak about each topic (never, sometimes, often) in conversations with males, with females and in a gender mixed group. Results showed that transsexual persons behave in accordance with the desired gender. However, they also tend to adopt a position depending on the gender of their conversational partner. It can be concluded that in general it is not necessary to pay attention to conversational topics in therapy for transsexual persons.

  5. Virginia Hamilton: Continuing the Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikkelsen, Nina

    1995-01-01

    Relates the latest installment of a continuing conversation between the author and Virginia Hamilton. Discusses ethnicity and identity, environmental issues, the creative process, and the way heritage, history, and family storytelling affect a writer's work. (RS)

  6. A Conversation Well Worth Remembering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolven-Allen, John

    2009-01-01

    To mark the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, a special event was held at Oxford, which included a "Conversation" between Professor Richard Dawkins and Bishop Richard Harries. Here we present a personal reminiscence of the event.

  7. Development of Geodetic Conversion Routines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    horizontal and vertical datums in the United States. It provides examples to invoke the Dynamic Link Library and use conversion functions in various programming languages, such as Visual Basic , C, and C++.

  8. Estimating meiotic gene conversion rates from population genetic data.

    PubMed

    Gay, J; Myers, S; McVean, G

    2007-10-01

    Gene conversion plays an important part in shaping genetic diversity in populations, yet estimating the rate at which it occurs is difficult because of the short lengths of DNA involved. We have developed a new statistical approach to estimating gene conversion rates from genetic variation, by extending an existing model for haplotype data in the presence of crossover events. We show, by simulation, that when the rate of gene conversion events is at least comparable to the rate of crossover events, the method provides a powerful approach to the detection of gene conversion and estimation of its rate. Application of the method to data from the telomeric X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, in which crossover activity is suppressed, indicates that gene conversion occurs approximately 400 times more often than crossover events. We also extend the method to estimating variable crossover and gene conversion rates and estimate the rate of gene conversion to be approximately 1.5 times higher than the crossover rate in a region of human chromosome 1 with known recombination hotspots.

  9. Direct Energy Conversion Literature Abstracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1962-12-01

    HOMOPOLAR Apparatus needed to fabricate and test MOTOR , by G. J. Bukow. 46p., Jan. 1961. candidate junction materials and modules (ASD TR-61-101...small homopolar motor as a 3085 component of a thermoelectric energy- NEW TYPE OF THERMOELECTRIC GENER- conversion system, utilizing the low- ATOR...CONVERSION AND HEAT-TRANSFER are silent outboard motors and power FLUIDS FCR SPACE APPLICATIONS, by lawnmiowers. W. D. Weatherford, J.C. Tyler and P. M

  10. Nurses' perspective of conducting family conversation.

    PubMed

    Dorell, Åsa; Östlund, Ulrika; Sundin, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nurses are in a prime position to manage to support families that have a family member living in a residential home for older people. Nurses' attitudes about meeting patients' family members vary. Studies describe that some nurses consider family members as a burden. But some nurses consider family members a resource and think it is important to establish good relationships with them. Aim The aim of this study was to describe how registered nurses (RNs) experienced to participate in and conduct the intervention Family Health Conversations (FamHCs) with families in residential homes for older people. Methods The intervention FamHC was accomplished at three residential homes for older people. FamHC is a family systems nursing (FSN) intervention developed to support families facing the ill health of someone in the family. One RN from each residential home conducted the conversations. The RNs wrote diary notes directly after each conversation. The RNs were also interviewed 1 month after they had each conducted four FamHCs. The diary notes and the interviews were analysed separately by qualitative content analysis, and the findings were then summarized in one theme and further discussed together. Findings The main findings were that the RNs experience the conversations as a valuable professional tool involving the whole family. The RNs grasped that silence can be a valuable tool and had learned to attentively listen to what the families were saying without interrupting, allowing them and the families to reflect upon what the family members said. Conclusion The findings show that the FamHC can be helpful for RNs in their work, helping them to perceive and understand the needs and desires of the families.

  11. Nurses’ perspective of conducting family conversation

    PubMed Central

    Dorell, Åsa; Östlund, Ulrika; Sundin, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nurses are in a prime position to manage to support families that have a family member living in a residential home for older people. Nurses’ attitudes about meeting patients’ family members vary. Studies describe that some nurses consider family members as a burden. But some nurses consider family members a resource and think it is important to establish good relationships with them. Aim The aim of this study was to describe how registered nurses (RNs) experienced to participate in and conduct the intervention Family Health Conversations (FamHCs) with families in residential homes for older people. Methods The intervention FamHC was accomplished at three residential homes for older people. FamHC is a family systems nursing (FSN) intervention developed to support families facing the ill health of someone in the family. One RN from each residential home conducted the conversations. The RNs wrote diary notes directly after each conversation. The RNs were also interviewed 1 month after they had each conducted four FamHCs. The diary notes and the interviews were analysed separately by qualitative content analysis, and the findings were then summarized in one theme and further discussed together. Findings The main findings were that the RNs experience the conversations as a valuable professional tool involving the whole family. The RNs grasped that silence can be a valuable tool and had learned to attentively listen to what the families were saying without interrupting, allowing them and the families to reflect upon what the family members said. Conclusion The findings show that the FamHC can be helpful for RNs in their work, helping them to perceive and understand the needs and desires of the families. PMID:27104342

  12. Nurses' perspective of conducting family conversation.

    PubMed

    Dorell, Åsa; Östlund, Ulrika; Sundin, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Nurses are in a prime position to manage to support families that have a family member living in a residential home for older people. Nurses' attitudes about meeting patients' family members vary. Studies describe that some nurses consider family members as a burden. But some nurses consider family members a resource and think it is important to establish good relationships with them. The aim of this study was to describe how registered nurses (RNs) experienced to participate in and conduct the intervention Family Health Conversations (FamHCs) with families in residential homes for older people. The intervention FamHC was accomplished at three residential homes for older people. FamHC is a family systems nursing (FSN) intervention developed to support families facing the ill health of someone in the family. One RN from each residential home conducted the conversations. The RNs wrote diary notes directly after each conversation. The RNs were also interviewed 1 month after they had each conducted four FamHCs. The diary notes and the interviews were analysed separately by qualitative content analysis, and the findings were then summarized in one theme and further discussed together. The main findings were that the RNs experience the conversations as a valuable professional tool involving the whole family. The RNs grasped that silence can be a valuable tool and had learned to attentively listen to what the families were saying without interrupting, allowing them and the families to reflect upon what the family members said. The findings show that the FamHC can be helpful for RNs in their work, helping them to perceive and understand the needs and desires of the families.

  13. Population-specific differences in gene conversion patterns between human SUZ12 and SUZ12P are indicative of the dynamic nature of interparalog gene conversion.

    PubMed

    Mussotter, Tanja; Bengesser, Kathrin; Högel, Josef; Cooper, David N; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard

    2014-04-01

    Nonallelic homologous gene conversion (NAHGC) resulting from interparalog recombination without crossover represents an important influence on the evolution of duplicated sequences in the human genome. In 17q11.2, different paralogous sequences mediate large NF1 deletions by nonallelic homologous recombination with crossover (NAHR). Among these paralogs are SUZ12 and its pseudogene SUZ12P which harbour the breakpoints of type-2 (1.2-Mb) NF1 deletions. Such deletions are caused predominantly by mitotic NAHR since somatic mosaicism with normal cells is evident in most patients. Investigating whether SUZ12 and SUZ12P have also been involved in NAHGC, we observed gene conversion tracts between these paralogs in both Africans (AFR) and Europeans (EUR). Since germline type-2 NF1 deletions resulting from meiotic NAHR are very rare, the vast majority of the gene conversion tracts in SUZ12 and SUZ12P are likely to have resulted from mitotic recombination during premeiotic cell divisions of germ cells. A higher number of gene conversion tracts were noted within SUZ12 and SUZ12P in AFR as compared to EUR. Further, the distinctive signature of NAHGC (a high number of SNPs per paralog and a high number of shared SNPs between paralogs), a characteristic of many actively recombining paralogs, was observed in both SUZ12 and SUZ12P but only in AFR and not in EUR. A novel polymorphic 2.3-kb deletion in SUZ12P was identified which exhibited a high allele frequency in EUR. We postulate that this interparalog structural difference, together with low allelic recombination rates, could have caused a reduction in NAHGC between SUZ12 and SUZ12P during human evolution.

  14. Frequency conversion of structured light

    PubMed Central

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P.

    2016-01-01

    Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging. PMID:26875448

  15. Frequency conversion of structured light.

    PubMed

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P

    2016-02-15

    Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging.

  16. Frequency conversion of structured light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P.

    2016-02-01

    Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging.

  17. Quantitative conversations: the importance of developing rapport in standardised interviewing.

    PubMed

    Bell, Karen; Fahmy, Eldin; Gordon, David

    When developing household surveys, much emphasis is understandably placed on developing survey instruments that can elicit accurate and comparable responses. In order to ensure that carefully crafted questions are not undermined by 'interviewer effects', standardised interviewing tends to be utilised in preference to conversational techniques. However, by drawing on a behaviour coding analysis of survey paradata arising from the 2012 UK Poverty and Social Exclusion Survey we show that in practice standardised survey interviewing often involves extensive unscripted conversation between the interviewer and the respondent. Whilst these interactions can enhance response accuracy, cooperation and ethicality, unscripted conversations can also be problematic in terms of survey reliability and the ethical conduct of survey interviews, as well as raising more basic epistemological questions concerning the degree of standardisation typically assumed within survey research. We conclude that better training in conversational techniques is necessary, even when applying standardised interviewing methodologies. We also draw out some theoretical implications regarding the usefulness of the qualitative-quantitative dichotomy.

  18. Solar to fuels conversion technologies: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Tuller, Harry L

    2017-01-01

    To meet increasing energy needs, while limiting greenhouse gas emissions over the coming decades, power capacity on a large scale will need to be provided from renewable sources, with solar expected to play a central role. While the focus to date has been on electricity generation via photovoltaic (PV) cells, electricity production currently accounts for only about one-third of total primary energy consumption. As a consequence, solar-to-fuel conversion will need to play an increasingly important role and, thereby, satisfy the need to replace high energy density fossil fuels with cleaner alternatives that remain easy to transport and store. The solar refinery concept (Herron et al. in Energy Environ Sci 8:126-157, 2015), in which captured solar radiation provides energy in the form of heat, electricity or photons, used to convert the basic chemical feedstocks CO2 and H2O into fuels, is reviewed as are the key conversion processes based on (1) combined PV and electrolysis, (2) photoelectrochemically driven electrolysis and (3) thermochemical processes, all focused on initially converting H2O and CO2 to H2 and CO. Recent advances, as well as remaining challenges, associated with solar-to-fuel conversion are discussed, as is the need for an intensive research and development effort to bring such processes to scale.

  19. Strong converse theorems using Rényi entropies

    SciTech Connect

    Leditzky, Felix; Datta, Nilanjana; Wilde, Mark M.

    2016-08-15

    We use a Rényi entropy method to prove strong converse theorems for certain information-theoretic tasks which involve local operations and quantum (or classical) communication between two parties. These include state redistribution, coherent state merging, quantum state splitting, measurement compression with quantum side information, randomness extraction against quantum side information, and data compression with quantum side information. The method we employ in proving these results extends ideas developed by Sharma [preprint http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.5940 [quant-ph] (2014)], which he used to give a new proof of the strong converse theorem for state merging. For state redistribution, we prove the strong converse property for the boundary of the entire achievable rate region in the (e, q)-plane, where e and q denote the entanglement cost and quantum communication cost, respectively. In the case of measurement compression with quantum side information, we prove a strong converse theorem for the classical communication cost, which is a new result extending the previously known weak converse. For the remaining tasks, we provide new proofs for strong converse theorems previously established using smooth entropies. For each task, we obtain the strong converse theorem from explicit bounds on the figure of merit of the task in terms of a Rényi generalization of the optimal rate. Hence, we identify candidates for the strong converse exponents for each task discussed in this paper. To prove our results, we establish various new entropic inequalities, which might be of independent interest. These involve conditional entropies and mutual information derived from the sandwiched Rényi divergence. In particular, we obtain novel bounds relating these quantities, as well as the Rényi conditional mutual information, to the fidelity of two quantum states.

  20. Photocatalytic conversion of methane to methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.E.; Noceti, R.P.; D`Este, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    A long-term goal of our research group is the exploration of novel pathways for the direct oxidation of methane to liquid fuels, chemicals, and intermediates. The use of three relatively abundant and inexpensive reactants, light, water, and methane, to produce methanol is attractive. The products of reaction, methanol and hydrogen, are both commercially desirable, methanol being used as is or converted to a variety of other chemicals, and the hydrogen could be utilized in petroleum and/or chemical manufacturing. Methane is produced as a by-product of coal gasification. Depending upon reactor design and operating conditions, up to 18% of total gasifier product may be methane. In addition, there are vast proven reserves of geologic methane in the world. Unfortunately, a large fraction of these reserves are in regions where there is little local demand for methane and it is not economically feasible to transport it to a market. There is a global research effort under way in academia, industry, and government to find methods to convert methane to useful, more readily transportable and storable materials. Methanol, the initial product of methane oxidation, is a desirable product of conversion because it retains much of the original energy of the methane while satisfying transportation and storage requirements. Investigation of direct conversion of methane to transportation fuels has been an ongoing effort at PETC for over 10 years. One of the current areas of research is the conversion of methane to methanol, under mild conditions, using light, water, and a semiconductor photocatalyst. The use of three relatively abundant and inexpensive reactants, light, water, and methane, to produce methanol, is attractive. Research in the laboratory is directed toward applying the techniques developed for the photocatalytic splitting of the water and the photochemical conversion of methane.