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Sample records for cooked meat fish

  1. Loss of vitamin B(12) in fish (round herring) meats during various cooking treatments.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Michiko; Kanosue, Fuki; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

    2011-01-01

    The loss of vitamin B(12) in round herring meats during various cooking treatments was evaluated. Although amounts of vitamin B(12) were three times greater in the viscera (37.5 ± 10.6 µg/100 g fresh weight) than in the meats, about 73% of total vitamin B(12) found in the whole fish body (except for head and bones) were recovered in the meats (5.1 ± 1.0 µg of vitamin B(12)). The vitamin B(12) contents of the round herring's meats were significantly decreased up to ~62% during cooking by grilling, boiling, frying, steaming, and microwaving. There was, however, no loss of vitamin B(12) during vacuum-packed pouch cooking. Model experiment using hydroxocobalamin suggest that loss of vitamin B(12) is dependent on the degree of temperature and time used in conventional cooking, and is further affected by the concomitant ingredients of food. Retention of vitamin B(12) was not dependent on vacuum or temperature (or both) used in the vacuum-packed pouch cooking.

  2. Improvement of cooking quality and gel formation capacity of Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus) fish meat.

    PubMed

    Rupsankar, Chakrabarti

    2010-10-01

    High moisture content (89%) along with high enzymatic and bacteriological activity in Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus) meat are responsible for short shelf life and disintegration of meat in cooking. Minimum solubility was at pH 5 (iso-electric point) of muscle protein. Citric acid- sodium citrate buffer (pH 5) with 0.2% potassium sorbate was very effective in reducing moisture in dressed fish and in increasing shelf life up to 4 days at ambient temperature (25-28 °C). Reduction in moisture in meat improved its cooking quality and gel formation capacity with increased protein content. Fish meat contained 1.0-1.5% NaCl and produced stronger gel by using 2% NaCl than conventionally prepared gel with 4% NaCl. Washing fish mince with cold water followed by pressing at pH 5, gave fish cake with more salt soluble protein and better gel strength (>500 gcm) than the same operation done at ambient temperature.

  3. Heterocyclic amines content of meat and fish cooked by Brazilian methods

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Hamada, Gerson Shigeaki; Sharma, Sangita; Le Marchand, Loïc; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2009-01-01

    Heterocyclic amine (HCA) concentrations were measured in meat and fish samples cooked by pan-frying, grilling and churrasco (Brazilian barbecue) to various levels of doneness in accordance with the cooking methods most commonly used in Brazil. HCAs were extracted by the Blue-rayon absorption method and measured by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx) were sharply increased in very well-done meats and fish. HCA levels varied somewhat across cooking methods: levels of PhIP (ng/g) in very well-done, non-marinated samples were particularly high for churrasco (31.8 in the exterior of the sample), compared to lower levels for grilled (16.3), and pan-fried beef (0.58). On comparison across foods, chicken contained higher HCA levels than other non-marinated samples. For example, PhIP levels (ng/g) in very well-done pan-fried foods were 34.6 for chicken with the skin, 0.58 for beef, 7.25 for pork, 2.28 for sardines, and 7.37 for salmon cooked with the skin. HCA levels were lower in marinated meats and fish than in non-marinated samples, except for pan-fried salmon. This study provides valuable information which will allow the estimation of dietary HCA exposure using an epidemiologic questionnaire and the investigation of the association of HCA intake with cancer risk in Brazil. PMID:20383312

  4. Dietary exposure to heterocyclic amines in high-temperature cooked meat and fish in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jahurul, M H A; Jinap, S; Ang, S J; Abdul-Hamid, A; Hajeb, P; Lioe, H N; Zaidul, I S M

    2010-08-01

    The intake of heterocyclic amines is influenced by the amount and type of meat and fish ingested, frequency of consumption, cooking methods, cooking temperature, and duration of cooking. In this study, the dietary intake of heterocyclic amines in Malaysia and their main sources were investigated. Forty-two samples of meat and fish were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector to determine the concentration of the six predominant heterocyclic amines, namely: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline(MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Dietary intake data were obtained using a food-frequency questionnaire when interviewing 600 Malaysian respondents. The level of total heterocyclic amines in food samples studies ranged from not detected to 38.7 ng g(-1). The average daily intake level of heterocyclic amine was 553.7 ng per capita day(-1). The intake of PhIP was the highest, followed by MeIQx and MeIQ. The results reveal that fried and grilled chicken were the major dietary source of heterocyclic amines in Malaysia. However, the heterocyclic amine intake by the Malaysian population was lower than those reported from other regions.

  5. Heterocyclic amines: Mutagens/carcinogens produced during cooking of meat and fish.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Nagao, Minako

    2004-04-01

    Research leading to the discovery of a series of mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs) was inspired by the idea that smoke produced during cooking of food, especially meat or fish, might be carcinogenic. More than ten kinds of HCAs, actually produced by cooking or heating of meat or fish, have now been isolated and their structures determined, most being previously unregistered compounds. They are highly mutagenic towards Salmonella typhimurium in the presence of S9 mix and are also mutagenic in vitro and in vivo toward mammalian cells. HCAs have now been chemically synthesized in quantity and subjected to long-term animal testing. When HCAs were fed in the diet, rodents developed cancers in many organs, including the colon, breast and prostate, and one HCA produced hepatomas in monkeys. The lesions exhibited alteration in genes including Apc, beta-catenin and Ha-ras, and these changes provide clues to the induction mechanisms. The HCAs are oxidized to hydroxyamino derivatives by cytochrome P450s, and further converted to ester forms by acetyltransferase and sulfotransferase. Eventually, they produce DNA adducts through the formation of N-C bonds at guanine bases. There are HCA-sensitive and resistant strains of rodents and a search for the responsible genes is now under way. While the content of HCAs in dishes consumed in ordinary life is low and not sufficient in itself to explain human cancer, the coexistence of many other mutagens/carcinogens of either autobiotic or xenobiotic type and the possibility that HCAs induce genomic instability and heightened sensitivity to tumor promoters suggest that avoidance of exposure to HCAs or reduction of HCAs' biological effects as far as possible are to be highly recommended. Usage of microwave ovens for cooking and supplementation of the diet, for example with soy-isoflavones, which have been found to suppress the occurrence of HCA-induced breast cancers, should be encouraged. Advice to the general public

  6. Tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid compounds in fish and meat: possible precursors of co-mutagenic beta-carbolines norharman and harman in cooked foods.

    PubMed

    Herraiz, T

    2000-10-01

    The presence of tetrahydro-beta-carbolines and beta-carbolines was studied in raw, cooked and smoked fish and meat. 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (THCA) usually was the major beta-carboline found, whereas 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCA) appeared in smoked and 'well done' cooked samples. THCA was detected in raw fish (nd-2.52 micrograms/g), cooked fish (nd-6.43 micrograms/g), cooked meats (nd-0.036 microgram/g), smoked fish (0.19-0.67 microgram/g) and smoked meats (0.02-1.1 micrograms/g). Smoked and cooked samples contained higher amounts of THCA and MTCA than raw products. Deep cooking of fish and meat increased both THCA and MTCA, and this was accompanied by the formation of more beta-carbolines, norharman and harman. The tetrahydro-beta-carbolines THCA and MTCA were chemical precursors of the co-mutagens norharman and harman during cooking. These and previous results confirm that foods are an important source of beta-carbolines in humans.

  7. Prevalence and challenge tests of Listeria monocytogenes in Belgian produced and retailed mayonnaise-based deli-salads, cooked meat products and smoked fish between 2005 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Uyttendaele, M; Busschaert, P; Valero, A; Geeraerd, A H; Vermeulen, A; Jacxsens, L; Goh, K K; De Loy, A; Van Impe, J F; Devlieghere, F

    2009-07-31

    Processed ready-to-eat (RTE) foods with a prolonged shelf-life under refrigeration are at risk products for listeriosis. This manuscript provides an overview of prevalence data (n=1974) and challenge tests (n=299) related to Listeria monocytogenes for three categories of RTE food i) mayonnaise-based deli-salads (1187 presence/absence tests and 182 challenge tests), ii) cooked meat products (639 presence/absence tests and 92 challenge tests), and iii) smoked fish (90 presence/absence tests and 25 challenge tests), based on data records obtained from various food business operators in Belgium in the frame of the validation and verification of their HACCP plans over the period 2005-2007. Overall, the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in these RTE foods in the present study was lower compared to former studies in Belgium. For mayonnaise-based deli-salads, in 80 out of 1187 samples (6.7%) the pathogen was detected in 25 g. L. monocytogenes positive samples were often associated with smoked fish deli-salads. Cooked meat products showed a 1.1% (n=639) prevalence of the pathogen. For both food categories, numbers per gram never exceeded 100 CFU. L. monocytogenes was detected in 27.8% (25/90) smoked fish samples, while 4/25 positive samples failed to comply to the 100 CFU/g limit set out in EU Regulation 2073/2005. Challenge testing showed growth potential in 18/182 (9.9%) deli-salads and 61/92 (66%) cooked meat products. Nevertheless, both for deli-salads and cooked meat products, appropriate product formulation and storage conditions based upon hurdle technology could guarantee no growth of L. monocytogenes throughout the shelf-life as specified by the food business operator. Challenge testing of smoked fish showed growth of L. monocytogenes in 12/25 samples stored for 3-4 weeks at 4 degrees C. Of 45 (non-inoculated) smoked fish samples (13 of which were initially positive in 25 g) which were subjected to shelf-life testing, numbers exceeded 100 CFU/g in only one sample

  8. Determination of advanced glycation endproducts in cooked meat products.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gengjun; Smith, J Scott

    2015-02-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), a pathogenic factor implicated in diabetes and other chronic diseases, are produced in cooked meat products. The objective of this study was to determine the AGE content, as measured by Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML) levels, in cooked chicken, pork, beef and fish (salmon and tilapia) prepared by three common cooking methods used by U.S. consumers: frying, baking, and broiling. The CML was detected in all the cooked samples, but the levels were dependent on types of meat, cooking conditions, and the final internal temperature. Broiling and frying at higher cooking temperature produced higher levels of CML, and broiled beef contained the highest CML content (21.8μg/g). Baked salmon (8.6μg/g) and baked tilapia (9.7μg/g) contained less CML as compared to the other muscle food samples.

  9. Meat, Poultry and Fish

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart area Search By Zipcode Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 ( ... other flavorings in cooking and at the table. Select meat substitutes such as dried beans, peas, lentils ...

  10. Diet and Cancer Are Cooked Meats Involved

    ScienceCinema

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2016-07-12

    Diet has been associated with differences in cancer rates in human populations for many years. Mark Knize presents the latest research on cancer causes including work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigating some interesting chemical products created when meat is cooked and how to reduce them. Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 11542

  11. Diet and Cancer Are Cooked Meats Involved

    SciTech Connect

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2008-05-01

    Diet has been associated with differences in cancer rates in human populations for many years. Mark Knize presents the latest research on cancer causes including work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigating some interesting chemical products created when meat is cooked and how to reduce them. Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 11542

  12. Effects of cooking on concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and related compounds in fish and meat.

    PubMed

    Hori, Tsuguhide; Nakagawa, Reiko; Tobiishi, Kazuhiro; Iida, Takao; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Sasaki, Kumiko; Toyoda, Masatake

    2005-11-02

    We investigated the cooking-induced changes in concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (dioxins) using mackerel and beef. The concentrations of dioxins (29 congeners) were determined by isomer specific analyses and were compared between uncooked and cooked samples. The cooking procedures examined in this study included grilling as a fillet, boiling as a fillet, and boiling as tsumire (small, hand-rolled balls) for mackerel and boiling as a slice, broiling as a slice, and broiling as a hamburger for beef. Three trials were carried out for each cooking method. Generally, concentrations of dioxins were reduced in every cooking trial. When nondetected congener concentrations were assumed to be half the limit of detection for mackerel, the maximum percentage reductions of total concentrations given as 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD equivalents (TEQ) were 31% in grilling as a slice, 14% in boiling as a slice, and 21% in boiling as tsumire under the conditions of this study. In contrast, for beef, the reductions were 42% in boiling as a slice, 42% in broiling as a slice, and 44% in broiling as a hamburger. These results suggest that ordinary cooking processes with heating undoubtedly reduce the dioxin content in animal products, and the reductions estimated should be considered when dioxin intake is evaluated using contamination data for individual food items.

  13. Heterocyclic amine levels in cooked meat and the implication for New Zealanders.

    PubMed

    Thomson, B

    1999-07-01

    This paper was presented to an expert workshop on meat intake and colorectal cancer risk, held in Adelaide, Australia on 4 December 1998, as a contribution to discussion of the possible role of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in colorectal cancer. HCAs, which are genotoxic and carcinogenic to experimental animals, are formed in fish, meat and meat residues under certain cooking conditions which are relevant to human lifestyle practices. The most important variables contributing to the formation of HCAs are: cooking temperature (>150 degrees C), cooking time (>2 min), cooking method (frying, oven grilling/broiling, barbecuing), and meat type (e.g. sausage < whole meat). Humans will be exposed to HCAs from the consumption of meat or fish cooked by these methods and from the consumption of gravy prepared from pan residues. Approximately one-third of the meat consumed on a daily basis in New Zealand is cooked by methods likely to result in the formation of HCAs. When intake estimates are combined with animal cancer potency data, the greatest contributor to cancer risk is from the consumption of chicken. Red meat is no more implicated than any other meat type. Although the role of HCA in human cancer is yet to be clearly established, exposure can be minimized by lifestyle choices.

  14. Cooling of cooked RTE meats and computer simulation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming pathogen that causes foodborne outbreaks associated with cooked or partially cooked meat and poultry products regulated by USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The spores, activated during cooking, may germinate, outgrow, and multiply in meat or...

  15. Captain Cook on poison fish.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Michael J

    2005-12-13

    On his second voyage of discovery, Captain James Cook charted much of the South Pacific. The journey was long, from 1772 to 1775. During the exploration, the geographic, ethnographic, and scientific variety provided no shortage of work for the accompanying naturalists, astronomers, navigators, and painters. Culinary discoveries included new species of fish, many of which were sketched, dressed, and ultimately eaten. The examined journals and correspondence document clinical poisonings after ingestion of two different species of fish. The clinical findings are described and likely represent ciguatera and tetrodotoxin poisonings. Mechanisms of these toxin's actions are discussed in light of more recent studies.

  16. Validation of feasibility and quality of chicken breast meat cooked under various water-cooking conditions.

    PubMed

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2016-12-01

    Under laboratory conditions, the qualities of boneless chicken breasts are commonly determined by placing them in a bag and cooking them in a water bath. The results are often applied as references for comparing the influences of cooking techniques. However, whether a sample cooked under this "laboratory" condition actually represents the meat cooked under the "real-life" condition in which meat is frequently cooked directly in water without packaging remains unclear. Whether the two cooking conditions lead to comparable results in meat quality should be determined. This study evaluated the influence of cooking conditions, including "placed-in-bag and cooked in a water bath (BC)" and "cooked directly in hot water (WC)" conditions, on the quality of chicken meat. The results reveal that BC samples had a longer cooking time. Deboned-and-skinless BC samples had a higher cooking loss and lower protein solubility (P < 0.01). BC samples with bone and skin had a higher lightness in both skin and muscle. No significant differences were observed in attributes, including shear force, collagen solubility, microstructures, redness, yellowness and descriptive sensory characteristics between treatments. Based on the results, considering the quality attributes that might be influenced, is critical when conducting relevant research. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Formation of heterocyclic amines during cooking of duck meat.

    PubMed

    Liao, G Z; Wang, G Y; Zhang, Y J; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2012-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HAs) are an important class of food mutagens and carcinogens produced in meat cooked at high temperature. In the present study, the effects of various cooking methods: boiling, microwave cooking, charcoal-grilling, roasting, deep-frying and pan-frying on the formation of HAs in duck breast were studied. The various HAs formed during cooking were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analysed by HPLC. Results showed that both the varieties and contents of HAs and the cooking loss of duck breast increase along with increasing cooking temperature and time. Pan-fried duck breasts contained the highest amount of total HAs, followed by charcoal-grilling, deep-frying, roasting, microwave cooking and boiling. 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (norharman) and 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (harman) were detected in all of the cooked duck meat, with levels in the range of 0.1-33 ng g⁻¹. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]pyridine (PhIP) was formed easily in duck meat cooked by pan-frying and charcoal-grilling in the range of 0.9-17.8 ng g⁻¹. 2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) was identified in duck meat cooked by charcoal-grilling and pan-frying, in the range of 0.4-4.2 ng g⁻¹. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) was detected in amounts below 4.5 ng g⁻¹ in duck meat cooked by charcoal-grilling, roasting, deep-frying and pan-frying. The other HAs were detected in amounts below 10 ng g⁻¹. Colour development increased with cooking temperature, but no correlation with HAs' content was observed.

  18. Concentration of Umami Compounds in Pork Meat and Cooking Juice with Different Cooking Times and Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Rotola-Pukkila, Minna K; Pihlajaviita, Seija T; Kaimainen, Mika T; Hopia, Anu I

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the concentrations of umami compounds in pork loins cooked at 3 different temperatures and 3 different lengths of cooking times. The pork loins were cooked with the sous vide technique. The free amino acids (FAAs), glutamic acid and aspartic acid; the 5'-nucleotides, inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) and adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP); and corresponding nucleoside inosine of the cooked meat and its released juice were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under the experimental conditions used, the cooking temperature played a more important role than the cooking time in the concentration of the analyzed compounds. The amino acid concentrations in the meat did not remain constant under these experimental conditions. The most notable effect observed was that of the cooking temperature and the higher amino acid concentrations in the released juice of meat cooked at 80 °C compared with 60 and 70 °C. This is most likely due to the heat induced hydrolysis of proteins and peptides releasing water soluble FAAs from the meat into the cooking juice. In this experiment, the cooking time and temperature had no influence on the IMP concentrations observed. However, the AMP concentrations increased with the increasing temperature and time. This suggests that the choice of time and temperature in sous vide cooking affects the nucleotide concentration of pork meat. The Sous vide technique proved to be a good technique to preserve the cooking juice and the results presented here show that cooking juice is rich in umami compounds, which can be used to provide a savory or brothy taste. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Development of a monoclonal antibody specific to cooked mammalian meats.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Y H; Sheu, S C; Bridgman, R C

    1998-04-01

    Detection of species adulteration in ground meat products is important for consumer protection and food-labeling law enforcement. This study was conducted to develop monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that can be used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for rapid detection of any cooked mammalian meats in cooked poultry products. Soluble muscle proteins extracted from cooked pork (heated at 100 degrees C for 15 min) were used as the antigen to immunized mice for developing the MAb. One that was developed, MAb 2F8 (IgG2b class), strongly reacted with cooked meat of five mammalian species (beef cattle, hogs, sheep, horse, and deer) but did not react with any cooked poultry (chicken, turkey, and duck) or raw meats. At least 0.5% by weight of pork, beef, lamb, and horse meats in a chicken-based mixture could not detect using the indirect ELISA with MAb 2F8. The MAb 2F8 is useful in a single initial screening test to detect the presence of five nonpoultry meat adulterants in cooked poultry products.

  20. Effects of raw broiler breast meat color variation on marination and cooked meat quality.

    PubMed

    Qiao, M; Fletcher, D L; Smith, D P; Northcutt, J K

    2002-02-01

    Three replicate trials were conducted to determine the effect of raw broiler breast meat color on marinated and cooked meat quality. In each trial, 90 fillets were collected from a commercial processing plant based on lightness (L*) values of breast meat as follows: light, L* > 53; normal, 48 < L* < 51; and, dark, L* < 46. For each fillet the color, pH, and weight were determined, and the fillets were marinated in three lots of 10 fillets from each color group (20% wt:wt of 5% salt and 2.5% sodium tripolyphosphate in a vacuum tumbler). Marination uptake was determined; the samples were held for 24 h at 2 C, and color, pH, and weight again were determined. Next, the samples were cooked, and the meat was subjected to color, pH, cooked yield, shear force, and moisture analyses. Results showed that absolute color values changed with marination and cooking, but that L* and pH differences by color group were maintained through marination and cooking. There were also significant differences in marinade absorption, cooked yield, and shear value, particularly among the extremes of light and dark meats. There was no significant difference in final cooked meat moisture. As expected, there were significant negative correlations between meat lightness and pH; however, raw muscle pH was not correlated to final product moisture or shear but was positively correlated to cooked meat yield and negatively correlated to marinade absorption. These results indicate that the pH variation associated with extreme raw breast meat color variation can affect breast meat marination and cooked meat quality.

  1. Temperature dependent formation of heterocyclic aromatic amine mutagens/carcinogens during the cooking of meats

    SciTech Connect

    Knize, M.G.; Salmon, C.P.; Dewhirst, K.P.

    1995-12-01

    A series of heterocyclic aromatic amines that have been shown to be mutagenic and carcinogenic have been found as cooking products of muscle meats. Amounts range from undetectable levels (less than 0.1 ppb) when meats are boiled, microwave cooked, and baked, to tens to hundreds of ppb for frying/grilling at high meat surface temperatures. Griddle surface temperatures of 150{degrees}C and frying ground beef patties for six min per side form a total of 0.7 ppb of four heterocyclic amines, and a temperature of 230{degrees}C for six min per side forms 15 ppb. Beef and chicken appear to form more of the heterocyclic amines than fish, in part due to traditional cooking practices.

  2. Meat-cooking mutagens and risk of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, C R; Schwartz, K L; Colt, J S; Dong, L M; Ruterbusch, J J; Purdue, M P; Cross, A J; Rothman, N; Davis, F G; Wacholder, S; Graubard, B I; Chow, W H; Sinha, R

    2011-01-01

    Background: High-temperature cooked meat contains two families of carcinogens, heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Given the kidneys' role in metabolism and urinary excretion of these compounds, we investigated meat-derived mutagens, as well as meat intake and cooking methods, in a population-based case–control study conducted in metropolitan Detroit and Chicago. Methods: Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the renal parenchyma (renal cell carcinoma (RCC)) cases (n=1192) were frequency matched on age, sex, and race to controls (n=1175). The interviewer-administered Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) included queries for meat-cooking methods and doneness with photographic aids. Levels of meat mutagens were estimated using the DHQ in conjunction with the CHARRED database. Results: The risk of RCC increased with intake of barbecued meat (Ptrend=0.04) and the PAH, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval, highest vs lowest quartile: 1.50 (1.14, 1.95), Ptrend=0.001). With increasing BaP intake, the risk of RCC was more than twofold in African Americans and current smokers (Pinteraction<0.05). We found no association for HCAs or overall meat intake. Conclusion: BaP intake, a PAH in barbecued meat, was positively associated with RCC. These biologically plausible findings advocate further epidemiological investigation into dietary intake of BaP and risk of RCC. PMID:21897389

  3. Predictive Modeling of Pathogen Growth in Cooked Meats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan; Korasapati, Nageswara Rao; Sanchez-Plata, Marcos X.

    Thermal processing or cooking of food products has been adopted for centuries as a method of food preservation. Enhancement of product quality parameters such as color, flavor, and texture probably contributed to the adoption of the method for a variety of products. Today, cooking or thermal processing is one of the most commonly used unit operation in the food industry. The significant advantages to cooking of meat and poultry products include extension of shelf life, desirable organoleptic properties, enhanced economic value, and assurance of safety of the products.

  4. A comparative in vitro investigation into the effects of cooked meats on the human faecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing; Chen, Yin An; Tuohy, Kieran M

    2010-12-01

    Protein fermentation is one of the important microbial activities in the human colon. Meat foods rich in protein provide substantial resource for this metabolic activity. However, little information exists on the relative impact of different meats on the composition and activities of the human gut microbiota. Similarly, little information is available on the confounding effects of cooking on these activities. In this study, beef, chicken and fish (salmon) were examined in vitro for their impact on the human faecal microbiota. The influence of cooking method was also investigated by using either frying or boiling. Upon fermentation over 48 h the Clostridium perfringens/histolyticum group increased significantly in number in the beef fermentations, either fried (p = 0.023) or boiled (p = 0.017). Cooking method appeared to influence Clostridium spp. growth, with higher numbers in fried meat compared to boiled meats after 5 h (p = 0.024) and 48 h (p = 0.003) fermentation. Significant differences between meat types were also seen for numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. at 48 h (p = 0.028), Bacteroides group at 24 h (p = 0.016) as well as Coriobacterium/Atopobium group at 10 h (p = 0.038). Most types of short chain fatty acids increased significantly in concentration over the experiment (p < 0.05). Significant differences between meat types were found in n-butyric acid production at 24, 30 and 48 h (p = 0.015, p = 0.024 and p = 0.035 respectively) and in i-valeric acid production at 10, 24, 30 and 48 h (p = 0.026, p = 0.002, p = 0.019 and p = 0.022 respectively). The concentration of i-valeric acid differed significantly between cooking methods at 24 h (p = 0.042). These findings suggest that both the type of meat and cooking process can influence fermentation profiles within the human gut microbiota. Interactions between ingested cooked meats and the gut microbiota may represent a novel corollary to mechanisms underlying the observed increased risk of intestinal and

  5. Physicochemical properties of foal meat as affected by cooking methods.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Cittadini, Aurora; Munekata, Paulo E; Domínguez, Rubén

    2015-10-01

    The present study deals with the effect of four different cooking techniques (roasting, grilling, microwave baking and frying with olive oil) on physicochemical parameters (cooking loss, WHC, texture and colour) and lipid oxidation (by TBARS measurement) of foal meat. Thermal treatments induced water loss (P<0.001), being lower in foal steaks cooked in the grill (25.8%) and higher in foal samples cooked in the microwave (39.5%). As it was expected, all the cooking methods increased TBARS index, since high temperature during cooking seems to cause an increase of the lipid oxidation in foal steaks. Statistical analysis displayed that WHC was affected (P<0.001) by thermal treatment, since the smallest WHC values were observed in samples from microwave treatment. Thermal treatment also caused a significant (P<0.001) increase in the force needed to cut the foal steaks. Regarding colour parameter, cooking led to an increase of L*-value (lightness) and b*-value (yellowness), while a*-value (redness) markedly decreased in all samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Meat consumption, Cooking Practices, Meat Mutagens and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    John, Esther M.; Stern, Mariana C.; Sinha, Rashmi; Koo, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of red meat, particularly well done meat, has been associated with increased prostate cancer risk. High temperature cooking methods such as grilling and barbequeing may produce heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are known carcinogens. We assessed the association with meat consumption and estimated HCA and PAH exposure in a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer. Newly diagnosed cases aged 40–79 years (531 advanced cases, 195 localized cases) and 527 controls were asked about dietary intake, including usual meat cooking methods and doneness levels. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. For advanced prostate cancer, but not localized disease, increased risks were associated with higher consumption of hamburgers (OR=1.79. CI=1.10–2.92), processed meat (OR=1.57, CI=1.04, 2.36), grilled red meat (OR=1.63, CI=0.99–2.68), and well done red meat (OR=1.52, CI=0.93–2.46), and intermediate intake of 2-amino-1-methyl1-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (quartile 2 vs. 1: OR=1.41, CI=0.98–2.01; quartile 3 vs. 1: OR=1.42, CI=0.98–2.04), but not for higher intake. White meat consumption was not associated with prostate cancer. These findings provide further evidence that consumption of processed meat and red meat cooked at high temperature is associated with increased risk of advanced, but not localized prostate cancer. PMID:21526454

  7. Meat consumption, cooking practices, meat mutagens, and risk of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    John, Esther M; Stern, Mariana C; Sinha, Rashmi; Koo, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of red meat, particularly well-done meat, has been associated with increased prostate cancer risk. High-temperature cooking methods such as grilling and barbecuing may produce heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are known carcinogens. We assessed the association with meat consumption and estimated HCA and PAH exposure in a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer. Newly diagnosed cases aged 40-79 years (531 advanced cases, 195 localized cases) and 527 controls were asked about dietary intake, including usual meat cooking methods and doneness levels. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. For advanced prostate cancer, but not localized disease, increased risks were associated with higher consumption of hamburgers (OR = 1.79, CI = 1.10-2.92), processed meat (OR = 1.57, CI = 1.04-2.36), grilled red meat (OR = 1.63, CI = 0.99-2.68), and well-done red meat (OR = 1.52, CI = 0.93-2.46), and intermediate intake of 2-amino-1-methyl1-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (Quartile 2 vs. 1: OR = 1.41, CI = 0.98-2.01; Quartile 3 vs. 1: OR = 1.42, CI = 0.98-2.04), but not for higher intake. White meat consumption was not associated with prostate cancer. These findings provide further evidence that consumption of processed meat and red meat cooked at high temperature is associated with increased risk of advanced, but not localized, prostate cancer.

  8. Effects of pan cooking on micropollutants in meat.

    PubMed

    Planche, Christelle; Ratel, Jérémy; Blinet, Patrick; Mercier, Frédéric; Angénieux, Magaly; Chafey, Claude; Zinck, Julie; Marchond, Nathalie; Chevolleau, Sylvie; Marchand, Philippe; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Guérin, Thierry; Debrauwer, Laurent; Engel, Erwan

    2017-10-01

    This work presents the effects of pan cooking on PCBs, PCDD/Fs, pesticides and trace elements in meat from a risk assessment perspective. Three different realistic cooking intensities were studied. A GC×GC-TOF/MS method was set up for the multiresidue analysis of 189 PCBs, 17 PCDD/Fs and 16 pesticides whereas Cd, As, Pb and Hg were assayed by ICP-MS. In terms of quantity, average PCB losses after cooking were 18±5% for rare, 30±3% for medium, and 48±2% for well-done meat. In contrast, average PCDD/F losses were not significant. For pesticides, no loss occurred for aldrin, lindane, DDE or DDD, whereas losses exceeding 80% were found for dieldrin, sulfotep or phorate. Losses close to the margin of error were observed for trace elements. These results are discussed in light of the physicochemical properties of the micropollutants as well as of water and fat losses into cooking juice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of eliminating the carcass chilling step in the production of pre-cooked chicken breast meat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pre-cooked chicken meat provides convenience to consumers and is growing in popularity globally. Poultry meat destined for pre-cooked meat products typically undergoes chilling on the carcass skeletal frame and deboning before cooking. However, compared to immersion chilling with antimicrobial, cook...

  10. Nutritional value and digestion rate of rhea meat proteins in association with storage and cooking processes.

    PubMed

    Filgueras, Renata S; Gatellier, Philippe; Ferreira, Claude; Zambiazi, Rui C; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2011-09-01

    The nutritional value of proteins was investigated after the storage and cooking of rhea M. Gastrocnemius pars interna. Oxidation of basic and aromatic amino acids, surface hydrophobicity and aggregation state of proteins, were determined in raw and cooked meat. In addition, myofibrillar proteins were exposed in vitro to proteases of the digestive tract. Cooking markedly affected the protein surface hydrophobicity. The BBP bound content was three times greater in cooked than in fresh rhea meat. A small increment in tryptophan content after cooking was observed. Storage influenced Schiff bases formation indicating the presence of protein-aldehyde adducts after cooking. High content of Schiff bases was found after cooking of samples stored for 5 days, demonstrating a probable implication of free amino groups, most likely from lysine. Cooking decreased the myofibrillar protein susceptibility to pepsin activity. After cooking, the proteolysis rate by pancreatic enzymes increased. Our findings support the importance of protein aggregation in the nutritional value of meat proteins.

  11. Optical and Chemical Characterization of Aerosols Produced from Cooked Meats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedziela, R. F.; Foreman, E.; Blanc, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    Cooking processes can release a variety compounds into the air immediately above a cooking surface. The distribution of compounds will largely depend on the type of food that is being processed and the temperatures at which the food is prepared. High temperatures release compounds from foods like meats and carry them away from the preparation surface into cooler regions where condensation into particles can occur. Aerosols formed in this manner can impact air quality, particularly in urban areas where the amount of food preparation is high. Reported here are the results of laboratory experiments designed to optically and chemically characterize aerosols derived from cooking several types of meats including ground beef, salmon, chicken, and pork both in an inert atmosphere and in synthetic air. The laboratory-generated aerosols are studied using a laminar flow cell that is configured to accommodate simultaneous optical characterization in the mid-infrared and collection of particles for subsequent chemical analysis by gas chromatography. Preliminary optical results in the visible and ultra-violet will also be presented.

  12. Effect of cooking temperatures on characteristics and microstructure of camel meat emulsion sausages.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hussein Mh; Emara, Mohamed Mt; Nouman, Taha M

    2016-07-01

    The camel is an excellent source of high quality meat and camel meat might be a potential alternative for beef. This study aimed to manipulate the raw camel meat for the production of stable and acceptable emulsion sausage, as well as to study the effect of cooking at different core temperatures on the tenderness, sensory quality and microstructure of produced sausage. Increasing the cooking temperature of sausages resulted in reduction of the shear force values from 2.67 kgf after cooking at 85 °C to 1.57 kgf after cooking at 105 °C. The sensory scores of sausages have been improved by increasing the cooking core temperature of meat batter. The light and scanning electron microscope micrographs revealed solubilisation of the high quantity of connective tissue of camel meat. High emulsion stability values for the camel meat batter associated with high values of water-holding capacity for raw camel meat and meat batter have been recorded. Stable and acceptable camel meat emulsion can be developed from camel meat. Increasing the cooking core temperature of meat batter improved the quality of produced sausages. Therefore, camel meat emulsion sausages might be a potential alternative for beef particularly in Asian and African countries. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Meats and Meat Cookery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on meats and meat cookery is designed to help the Marine cook to identify, handle, process, and serve meats, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students and a study guide (guidelines to complete…

  14. Postmortem Biochemistry of Meat and Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultin, Herbert O.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses structural and chemical features of muscle tissue. Emphasizes chemical and physical changes which occur during processing and storage and how these changes affect the eating quality of meat and fish. (JN)

  15. Postmortem Biochemistry of Meat and Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultin, Herbert O.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses structural and chemical features of muscle tissue. Emphasizes chemical and physical changes which occur during processing and storage and how these changes affect the eating quality of meat and fish. (JN)

  16. URINARY MUTAGENICITY AS A BIOMARKER OF COOKED-MEAT-ASSOCIATED MUTAGENS AND RISK FOR COLORECTAL ADENOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary Mutagenicity as a Biomarker of Cooked-Meat-Associated Mutagens and Risk for Colorectal Adenoma

    In a controlled feeding study involving 60 subjects, we have investigated urinary mutagenicity as a biomarker of exposure to cooked-meat-associated mutagens. In a separa...

  17. URINARY MUTAGENICITY AS A BIOMARKER OF COOKED-MEAT-ASSOCIATED MUTAGENS AND RISK FOR COLORECTAL ADENOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary Mutagenicity as a Biomarker of Cooked-Meat-Associated Mutagens and Risk for Colorectal Adenoma

    In a controlled feeding study involving 60 subjects, we have investigated urinary mutagenicity as a biomarker of exposure to cooked-meat-associated mutagens. In a separa...

  18. Effect of irradiation on the parameters that influence quality characteristics of uncured and cured cooked turkey meat products.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xi; Moon, Sunhee; Lee, Hyunyong; Ahn, Dong U

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on lipid/protein oxidation, color changes, and off-odor volatiles production in uncured and cured cooked turkey meat products. Uncured cooked turkey breast meat and cured commercial turkey breast rolls and ham were prepared and irradiated at 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 kGy using a linear accelerator. The results showed that irradiation had little effects on lipid oxidation of cured cooked turkey products, but accelerated lipid oxidation in uncured cooked turkey breast meat (P < 0.05). Protein oxidation was increased both in cured and uncured meats (P < 0.05), but more in cured cooked meat by irradiation. The redness of uncured cooked turkey was increased (P < 0.05), but the redness of cured cooked turkey meat was faded by irradiation (P < 0.05). Irradiated cured cooked turkey meat products produced less off-odor volatile compounds (dimethyl disulfide, 3-methyl/2-methyl-butananl, and hexanal) than irradiated uncured cooked meat products due to various additives in the cured meat products. Our results suggested that irradiation resulted in different chemical reactions to pigments in uncured and cured cooked turkey meat products, but cured cooked turkey meat products have a higher tolerance to odor deterioration than uncured cooked turkey meat products. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Application of Leuconostoc carnosum for biopreservation of cooked meat products.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, T; Budde, B B; Koch, A G

    2003-01-01

    To optimize the practical use of the bacteriocin producing Leuconostoc carnosum 4010 in order to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in sliced meat products. Four different methods for biopreservation using the partially purified bacteriocin or the living culture of Leuc. carnosum 4010 were evaluated. The methods using the living protective culture added to the sliced gas packed meat product were more effective in preventing growth of L. monocytogenes than the use of the partially purified leucocins 4010 or bacteriocin produced during fermentation before heat treatment of the saveloy. The application method giving the highest reduction in L. monocytogenes used nozzles for sprinkling the protective culture on all surfaces of each slice of the meat product. In the control samples without the protective culture, L. monocytogenes grew to ca. 107 CFU g(-1), whereas for the application method using nozzles for distributing the protective culture, counts of L. monocytogenes never exceeded 10 CFU g(-1) during 4 weeks of storage at 10 degrees C. The live cells of the bacteriocin producing Leuc. carnosum 4010 was the most efficient method as it inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes in cooked, sliced and gas packed saveloy stored at 5 and 10 degrees C for 4 weeks. The results indicate that biopreservation with lactic acid bacteria is a suitable alternative to chemical preservatives. An even distribution of the protective culture was found to be essential for the efficacy of the protective culture in pilot plant trials.

  20. Genotoxicity testing of cooked cured meat pigment (CCMP) and meat emulsion coagulates prepared with CCMP.

    PubMed

    Stevanović, M; Cadez, P; Zlender, B; Filipic, M

    2000-07-01

    The preformed cooked cured meat pigment (CCMP) synthesized directly from bovine red blood cells or through a hemin intermediate was found to be a viable colorant for application to comminuted pork as a nitrite substitute. However the genotoxicity of CCMP and meat emulsion coagulates prepared with CCMP has not been evaluated. Therefore the objectives of this work were to investigate genotoxicity of CCMP and the influence of CCMP addition on genotoxicity and the content of residual nitrite in model meat emulsion coagulates. Meat emulsions were prepared from white (musculus longissimus dorsi) and red (musculus quadriceps femoris) pork muscles with two different amounts of synthesized pigment CCMP. Comparatively, emulsions with fixed addition of nitrite salt and emulsions without any addition for color development were made. Genotoxicity of CCMP and meat emulsion coagulates was tested with the SOS/umu test and the Ames test. Neither CCMP nor meat emulsion coagulates prepared with CCMP or nitrite salt were genotoxic in the SOS/umu test. In the Ames test using Salmonella Typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 samples of coagulates prepared with CCMP and with nitrite showed weak mutagenic activity in Salmonella Typhimurium strain TA100 but only in the absence of the metabolic activation, while CCMP was not mutagenic. Coagulates prepared with CCMP contained significantly less residual nitrite than coagulates prepared with nitrite salt. These results indicate that from the human health standpoint the substitution of nitrite salt with CCMP would be highly recommendable.

  1. Cooking methods and the formation of PhIP (2-Amino, 1-methyl, 6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine) in the crust of the habitually consumed meat in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Reartes, Gabriela Angelina; Di Paola Naranjo, Romina Daniela; Eynard, Aldo Renato; Muñoz, Sonia Edith

    2016-06-01

    Content of carcinogenic molecules like, 2-Amino, 1-methyl, 6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine in meals is one of the main mutagenic substances formed during meat cooking, and it can be used as a dietary exposure marker. Our objective was to estimate the amount of PhIP consumed from habitual Argentinean diet, rich in red meats, comparing different cooking procedures and meat type. Samples (n = 240) of lean and fatty beef, chicken, pork, and fish were cooked using different methods: griddle, grill, sauté pan, and oven. Samples were: Overcooked, or cooked with a microbiologically suitable or "healthy technique" (HT). The PhIP was determined by HPLC-MS. Meats cooked using HT formed little crust amounts and PhIP was below the detection levels. In overcooked meats, large amounts of crust were formed in lean meats, fatty beef, fatty chicken and baked pork. PhIP was measured in lean meats sauted or cooked on a griddle, a method reaching temperatures until 250 °C.It was estimated that Argentine people eats about 12,268.0 ng/day of PhIP being these values above those tolerated limits for total dietary heterocyclic amines in some developed countries. Hence, cooking small meat portions, at medium temperature, avoiding prolonged cooking and preferring baked lean meats could be recommended as a healthier habit. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Effects of freezing-thawing on sensory descriptive profiles of cooked poultry breast meat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Freezing is a common method used by consumers to extend meat shelf life and by researchers to allow for subsequent meat quality assessments and processing. However, the effects of freezing on the sensory quality of cooked poultry breast meat are not well documented. The objective of this study was t...

  3. URINARY MUTAGENESIS AS AN EXPOSURE BIOMARKER OF COOKED-MEAT-ASSOCIATED MUTAGENS: INFLUENCE OF COOKING TEMPERATURE, PHENOTYPE, AND GENOTYPE IN A CONTROLLED METABOLIC FEEDING STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    We evaluated urinary mutagenicity and selected phenotypes and genotypes in 60 subjects in a metabolic feeding study in which meat cooked at low temperature (100oC) was consumed for 1 week followed by meat cooked at high temperature (250oC) the second week. Meat coo...

  4. Cooking, storage, and reheating effect on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products in processed meat products.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad I; Min, Joong-Seok; Lee, Sang-Ok; Yim, Dong Gyun; Seol, Kuk-Hwan; Lee, Mooha; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-08-11

    Cholesterol is an important biological compound; however, its oxidation products have been proven to be harmful to human health. Cooking, storage, and reheating methods significantly affect the safety of meat products, as they contribute to the production of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). Three cooking methods were used to cook sausages, loin ham, bacon, luncheon meat, and pressed ham, in order to investigate the effect of cooking, storage, and reheating on total cholesterol and on the formation of COPs. Cooked samples were stored at 4 °C and reheated after 3 and 6 storage days by the same cooking method or by microwaving. The samples were assessed for total lipids, cholesterol, and cholesterol oxides. The average cholesterol content in the processed meat varied from 76.0 mg/100 g to 201.70 mg/100 g. Microwaved ham showed the lowest cholesterol content compared to that of other processed meat products. Significant differences were found in cholesterol content and cholesterol oxidation products depending on cooking, storage, and reheating methods. Six cholesterol oxides were found in processed meat, of which 7β-hydroxycholesterol and α-epoxides were detected as the major oxidation products. Microwaving and oven grilling resulted in higher production of COPs in processed meat as compared with other cooking methods. Refrigerated storage tended to significantly increase the COPs content.

  5. Kinetics of hydration properties of meat emulsions containing various fillers during smokehouse cooking.

    PubMed

    Correia, L R; Mittal, G S

    1991-01-01

    The cooking kinetics of meat emulsions containing various fillers was determined by monitoring changes in hydration properties such as cooking loss and water-holding capacity during smokehouse cooking. Press juice, consumer cook test and emulsion stability of cooked product were also determined. The fillers used were buttermilk powder, corn starch, microcrystalline cellulose, modified corn starch, modified wheat flour, soy-protein concentrate and whey-protein concentrate. The cooking process was modelled using reaction kinetics and Eyring's absolute reaction rate theory. Enthalpy and entropy changes of activation were calculated for various properties and fillers.

  6. Microstructure and physical changes in the Mexican cooked lamb meat barbacoa made with chilled and frozen meat.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Solís, Joaquín; Figueroa-Rodríguez, Katia A; Figueroa-Sandoval, Benjamín; Hernández-Rosas, Francisco; Hernández-Cazares, Aleida S

    2016-08-01

    Longissimus dorci (LD) samples of different origin (imported and domestic) with pre-treatments (imported meat stored at -18°C for 6months, domestic meat stored at -18°C for 10days, and domestic meat stored at 4°C for 24h) were cooked as barbacoa and frozen using two treatments (air blast and liquid immersion) and then evaluated after 30days of storage. The results showed that the origin and pre-treatment of meat affected L*, a*, instrumental texture and microstructure; that the storage time affected pH, aw, b* and microstructure; and that the freezing treatments did not affect the meat. Overall, the frozen cooked lamb dish barbacoa could present some problems at the conservation stage due to an increase in pH, aw and changes in microstructure; however, the physical traits (color and texture) remained mostly unchanged and depended more on the quality of the raw meat.

  7. A prospective study of meat, cooking methods, meat mutagens, heme iron, and lung cancer risks123

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rashmi; Kipnis, Victor; Subar, Amy F; Leitzmann, Michael F; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Caporaso, Neil E; Schatzkin, Arthur; Cross, Amanda J

    2009-01-01

    Background: Red and processed meat consumption may play a role in lung cancer pathogenesis because of these meats' fat and carcinogen content. Objective: We prospectively investigated whether meat type, cooking method, doneness level, and intake of specific meat mutagens and heme iron are associated with lung carcinoma. Design: Men (n = 278,380) and women (n = 189,596) from the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study with no history of cancer at baseline were monitored for 8 y. Diet was assessed with a 124-item food-frequency questionnaire. A meat-cooking module was used to estimate the intake of individual heterocyclic amines, benzo(a)pyrene, and heme iron. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Results: In a comparison of quintiles 5 with 1 (Q5vsQ1), a high intake of red meat was associated with an increased risk of lung carcinoma in both men (HRQ5vsQ1: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.38; P for trend = 0.005) and women (HRQ5vsQ1: 1.13; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.32; P for trend = 0.05). A high intake of processed meat increased the risk only in men (HRQ5vsQ1: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.37; P for trend = 0.003). In an analysis stratified by smoking status, we observed a tendency for an increased risk with red meat intake in never smoking men and women; however, the risks were not statistically significant. In a comparison of tertiles 3 and 1 (T3vsT1), the risk of lung carcinoma was associated with intake of well-/very-well-done meat (HRT3vsT1: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.35; P for trend = 0.002) and the intake of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (HRQ5vsQ1: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.38; P for trend = 0.04) in men. Heme iron intake increased the risk of lung carcinoma in both men (HRQ5vsQ1: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.45; P for trend = 0.02) and women (HRQ5vsQ1: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.42; P for trend = 0.002). Conclusion: We observed a moderate association between meat consumption and lung carcinoma, which might be explained

  8. Integrity of nuclear genomic deoxyribonucleic acid in cooked meat: Implications for food traceability.

    PubMed

    Aslan, O; Hamill, R M; Sweeney, T; Reardon, W; Mullen, A M

    2009-01-01

    It is essential to isolate high-quality DNA from muscle tissue for PCR-based applications in traceability of animal origin. We wished to examine the impact of cooking meat to a range of core temperatures on the quality and quantity of subsequently isolated genomic (specifically, nuclear) DNA. Triplicate steak samples were cooked in a water bath (100 degrees C) until their final internal temperature was 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, or 100 degrees C, and DNA was extracted. Deoxyribonucleic acid quantity was significantly reduced in cooked meat samples compared with raw (6.5 vs. 56.6 ng/microL; P < 0.001), but there was no relationship with cooking temperature. Quality (A(260)/A(280), i.e., absorbance at 260 and 280 nm) was also affected by cooking (P < 0.001). For all 3 genes, large PCR amplicons (product size >800 bp) were observed only when using DNA from raw meat and steak cooked to lower core temperatures. Small amplicons (<200 bp) were present for all core temperatures. Cooking meat to high temperatures thus resulted in a reduced overall yield and probable fragmentation of DNA to sizes less than 800 bp. Although nuclear DNA is preferable to mitochondrial DNA for food authentication, it is less abundant, and results suggest that analyses should be designed to use small amplicon sizes for meat cooked to high core temperatures.

  9. Consumers' Attitude Towards Fish Meat.

    PubMed

    Conte, Francesca; Passantino, Annamaria; Longo, Sabrina; Voslářová, Eva

    2014-08-28

    The overall aim of this paper is to show the factors that may affect consumers' attitude towards farmed fish products. Consumers ask new products on the basis of different quality attributes: stability, safety, composition, better health effects, environment protection, etc. Different and controversial opinions on farmed and wild fish are also explored by literature review. The authors pay attention also to fish welfare as an emerging issue and effective information about fish products as a factor exerting a positive influence on consumers' decision of purchase. Some relevant legislative notes on the paper's topics are also cited. The qualitative aspects of aquaculture fish and the consumers' demand and choice need further studies, according to some factors, such as the changing consumers' attitudes towards fish products, the different fish quality perception and the development in the aquaculture systems.

  10. Consumers’ Attitude Towards Fish Meat

    PubMed Central

    Passantino, Annamaria; Longo, Sabrina; Voslářová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to show the factors that may affect consumers’ attitude towards farmed fish products. Consumers ask new products on the basis of different quality attributes: stability, safety, composition, better health effects, environment protection, etc. Different and controversial opinions on farmed and wild fish are also explored by literature review. The authors pay attention also to fish welfare as an emerging issue and effective information about fish products as a factor exerting a positive influence on consumers’ decision of purchase. Some relevant legislative notes on the paper’s topics are also cited. The qualitative aspects of aquaculture fish and the consumers’ demand and choice need further studies, according to some factors, such as the changing consumers’ attitudes towards fish products, the different fish quality perception and the development in the aquaculture systems. PMID:27800359

  11. Wine industry residues extracts as natural antioxidants in raw and cooked chicken meat during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Selani, M M; Contreras-Castillo, C J; Shirahigue, L D; Gallo, C R; Plata-Oviedo, M; Montes-Villanueva, N D

    2011-07-01

    The effect of Isabel (IGE) and Niagara (NGE) grape seed and peel extracts on lipid oxidation, instrumental colour, pH and sensory properties of raw and cooked processed chicken meat stored at -18°C for nine months was evaluated. The pH of raw and cooked samples was not affected by the addition of grape extracts. IGE and NGE were effective in inhibiting the lipid oxidation of raw and cooked chicken meat, with results comparable to synthetic antioxidants. The extracts caused alterations in colour, as evidenced by the instrumental (darkening and lower intensity of red and yellow colour) and sensory results of cooked samples. In the sensory evaluation of odour and flavour, IGE produced satisfactory results, which did not differ from synthetic antioxidants. These findings suggest that the IGE and NGE are effective in retarding lipid oxidation of raw and cooked chicken meat during frozen storage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Meat, Fish, and Poultry Processing Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchfield, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of industrial wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes studies on: (1) meat industry wastes; (2) fish-processing waste treatment; and (3) poultry-processing waste treatment. A list of 76 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Meat, Fish, and Poultry Processing Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchfield, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of industrial wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes studies on: (1) meat industry wastes; (2) fish-processing waste treatment; and (3) poultry-processing waste treatment. A list of 76 references is also presented. (HM)

  14. Kinetics of pH and colour of meat emulsions containing various fillers during smokehouse cooking.

    PubMed

    Correia, L R; Mittal, G S

    1991-01-01

    The cooking kinetics of meat emulsions containing various fillers was determined by monitoring changes in pH and colour during smokehouse cooking. The fillers used were buttermilk powder, corn starch, microcrystallline cellulose, modified corn starch, modified wheat flour, soy-protein concentrate and whey-protein concentrate. The cooking process was modelled using reaction kinetics and Eyring's absolute reaction rate theory. Enthalpy and entropy changes of activation were calculated for various properties and fillers.

  15. Comparison of objective texture measurements in raw and cooked wooden breast meat.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Broiler breast meat exhibiting the wooden breast condition is characterized as having an abnormally hard or rigid texture. The efficacy of using objective texture measurements to characterize the texture attributes of breast meat exhibiting this condition before and after cooking are not well under...

  16. Antioxidant-rich spice added to hamburger meat during cooking results in reduced meat, plasma, and urine malondialdehyde concentrations.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaoping; Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Luyi; Gao, Kun; Lee, Ru-Po; Karp, Hannah; Thames, Gail; Bowerman, Susan; Heber, David

    2010-05-01

    Emerging science has shown the effect of oxidation products and inflammation on atherogenesis and carcinogenesis. Cooking hamburger meat can promote the formation of malondialdehyde that can be absorbed after ingestion. We studied the effect of an antioxidant spice mixture on malondialdehyde formation while cooking hamburger meat and its effects on plasma and urinary malondialdehyde concentrations. Eleven healthy volunteers consumed 2 kinds of burgers in a randomized order: one burger was seasoned with a spice blend, and one burger was not seasoned with the spice blend. The production of malondialdehyde in burgers and malondialdehyde concentrations in plasma and urine after ingestion were measured by HPLC. Rosmarinic acid from oregano was monitored to assess the effect of cooking on spice antioxidant content. Forty percent (19 mg) of the added rosmarinic acid remained in the spiced burger (SB) after cooking. There was a 71% reduction in the malondialdehyde concentration (mean +/- SD: 0.52 +/- 0.02 micromol/250 g) in the meat of the SBs compared with the malondialdehyde concentration (1.79 +/- 0.17 micromol/250 g) in the meat of the control burgers (CBs). The plasma malondialdehyde concentration increased significantly in the CB group as a change from baseline (P = 0.026). There was a significant time-trend difference (P = 0.013) between the 2 groups. Urinary malondialdehyde concentrations (micromol/g creatinine) decreased by 49% (P = 0.021) in subjects consuming the SBs compared with subjects consuming the CBs. The overall effect of adding the spice mixture to hamburger meat before cooking was a reduction in malondialdehyde concentrations in the meat, plasma, and urine after ingestion. Therefore, cooking hamburgers with a polyphenol-rich spice mixture can significantly decrease the concentration of malondialdehyde, which suggests potential health benefits for atherogenesis and carcinogenesis. This trial was registered at clinical trials.gov as NCT01027052.

  17. Quantification of peptides released during in vitro digestion of cooked meat.

    PubMed

    Sayd, T; Chambon, C; Santé-Lhoutellier, V

    2016-04-15

    We aimed to identify and quantify the peptides generated during in vitro digestion of cooked meat by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometer. A total of 940 non-redundant peptides in the gastric compartment and 989 non-redundant peptides in the intestinal compartment were quantified and identified. Among the 71 different proteins identified, 43 meat proteins were found in the two digestive compartments, 20 proteins were specific to the gastric compartment and 8 proteins to the intestinal compartment. In terms of estimation, the proteins involved in muscle contraction and structure were preferentially enzymatically hydrolyzed in the small intestine. The effect of cooking provided different but less clear patterns of digestion. To the best of our knowledge, this constitutes the highest number of peptides identified in beef meat digests and provides a comprehensive database for meat protein digestion associated with cooking conditions. Such quantitative and qualitative differences may have important nutritional consequences.

  18. Measuring changes in internal meat colour, colour lightness and colour opacity as predictors of cooking time.

    PubMed

    Pakula, Christiane; Stamminger, Rainer

    2012-03-01

    Consumers and cooks often assess the degree of doneness of roasted beef by the internal meat colour. Real-time colour measurement of the cooking process is therefore developed in order to determine the degree of doneness, and thus the end of the cooking process, by the internal meat colour. The colour values (X, Y, Z) provided by the true colour sensor show significant variation within initial values and end values. Change in colour lightness caused by the increase of meat colour opacity is dominant. Calculating the first deviation of the Y values (dY/dt) indicates that most rapid changes in lightness are within a temperature range of 42°C and 56°C. At this temperature, the degree of meat doneness is still assumed to be rare, but it is possible to predict the time needed from this point until the desired degree of doneness is reached.

  19. The Effect of Thawing Condition for Frozen Fish Meats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Shuji; Osako, Kazufumi; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    The influence of thawing speed on denaturation of muscle protein and quality of several kinds frozen fish meat was studied by measuring Ca-ATPase activity, drip loss, and microscopic observation. Frozen bigeye tuna, chub mackerel, alaska pollack and yellow tail meat thawed at 10°C by air (slow thawing) and water (rapid thawing). Ca-ATPase activity of slow thawed fishes meat decreased than it of rapid thawed fishes meat. On the other hand drip loss of slow thawed fishes meat increased than it of rapid thawed fishes meat. Decreasing of Ca-ATPase activity showed a good linear relation to increasing of drip loss. Further, from microscopic observation, it was confirmed that muscle cells of slow thawed fishes meat were disrupted than it of rapid thawed samples. Therefore,it was suggested that rapid warming on thawing process is better to inhibit protein denaturation and drip loss.

  20. Changes in Meat Quality Characteristics of the Sous-vide Cooked Chicken Breast during Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Ji-Han; Ahn, Su-Jin; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the changes in meat quality characteristics of the sous vide cooked chicken breast during refrigerated storage at 4℃ for 14 d between before and after sous-vide cooking. Cooking loss and shear force were significantly increased, whereas expressible drip was significantly decreased along with reduction in the water holding capacity in both of two groups. Redness of meat juice was significantly (p<0.05) increased during storage, and considerably increased in the refrigerated samples after sous-vide cooked at the 7 to 10 d. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was significantly increased and was higher in the refrigerator stored chicken breast samples after sous-vide cooking. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value was significantly increased in both groups, but the VBN value of the stored raw meat sample before sous-vide cooking was increased at an early storage, while the VBN value of the stored sample after sous-vide cooking was increased gradually in this study. Total viable counts and coliform counts were significantly decreased during storage, and coliforms were not detected after 7 d of storage in both groups. Salmonella spp. was not detected during the whole studied period. The outcome of this research can provide preliminary data that could be used to apply for further study of chicken breast using sous-vide cooking method that could be attractive to consumers.

  1. Changes in Meat Quality Characteristics of the Sous-vide Cooked Chicken Breast during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the changes in meat quality characteristics of the sous vide cooked chicken breast during refrigerated storage at 4℃ for 14 d between before and after sous-vide cooking. Cooking loss and shear force were significantly increased, whereas expressible drip was significantly decreased along with reduction in the water holding capacity in both of two groups. Redness of meat juice was significantly (p<0.05) increased during storage, and considerably increased in the refrigerated samples after sous-vide cooked at the 7 to 10 d. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was significantly increased and was higher in the refrigerator stored chicken breast samples after sous-vide cooking. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value was significantly increased in both groups, but the VBN value of the stored raw meat sample before sous-vide cooking was increased at an early storage, while the VBN value of the stored sample after sous-vide cooking was increased gradually in this study. Total viable counts and coliform counts were significantly decreased during storage, and coliforms were not detected after 7 d of storage in both groups. Salmonella spp. was not detected during the whole studied period. The outcome of this research can provide preliminary data that could be used to apply for further study of chicken breast using sous-vide cooking method that could be attractive to consumers. PMID:26877635

  2. Dietary supplemented and meat-added antioxidants effect on the lipid oxidative stability of refrigerated and frozen cooked chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Avila-Ramos, F; Pro-Martínez, A; Sosa-Montes, E; Cuca-García, J Manuel; Becerril-Pérez, C; Figueroa-Velasco, J L; Ruiz-Feria, C A; Hernández-Cázares, A S; Narciso-Gaytán, C

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation of fatty acids decreases the quality and shelf-life of meats. To reduce this process, dietary supplemented and meat-added antioxidants were evaluated on the lipid oxidative stability of cooked chicken meat. Broilers were fed 2 levels of vitamin E (10 or 100 mg•kg(-1) of feed; VE-10 and VE-100, respectively) or oregano essential oil (100 mg•kg(-1) of feed; OR-100). Additionally, honey (3%) or butylated hydroxytoluene (0.02%; BHT) were added to chicken meat from the control treatment (VE-10). Breast meat was ground, formed into patties, and cooked on electric grills until it reached an internal temperature of 74°C. Cooked meat was cooled at room temperature, packaged, and stored under refrigeration for 9 d (4°C) or frozen for 45 d (-20°C). The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance test was used to quantify malondialdehyde (MDA) values in the meat. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design, 5 treatments with 12 replications each, and the least squares means were compared with 4 orthogonal contrasts. The results showed that the meat of the VE-10 treatment had higher values of MDA (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the other antioxidant treatments in all the storage days. There were no differences (P ≥ 0.05) in MDA values between the dietary supplemented and meat-added antioxidant treatments. The meat added with honey had lower MDA values than the one with BHT (P ≤ 0.05). Meat of the VE-100 treatment showed lower MDA values than the one of OR-100 (P ≤ 0.05) in most storage days. In conclusion, supplementation of 10 mg•kg(-1) of vitamin E to the diet resulted in a higher development of lipid oxidation in the meat. Both dietary supplemented or meat-added antioxidants had similar effects on the lipid oxidative stability. The addition of honey maintained longer the lipid oxidative stability of the meat than BHT. Finally, dietary supplementation of vitamin E at the same level of oregano oil, 100 mg•kg(-1), resulted in a higher antioxidant

  3. Bioaccessibility of Pb from Ammunition in Game Meat Is Affected by Cooking Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mateo, Rafael; Baos, Ana R.; Vidal, Dolors; Camarero, Pablo R.; Martinez-Haro, Monica; Taggart, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The presence of lead (Pb) ammunition residues in game meat has been widely documented, yet little information exists regarding the bioaccessibility of this Pb contamination. We study how cooking treatment (recipe) can affect Pb bioaccessibility in meat of animals hunted with Pb ammunition. Methodology/Principal Findings We used an in vitro gastrointestinal simulation to study bioaccessibility. The simulation was applied to meat from red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) hunted with Pb shot pellets and cooked using various traditional Spanish game recipes involving wine or vinegar. Total Pb concentrations in the meat were higher in samples with visible Pb ammunition by X-ray (mean±SE: 3.29±1.12 µg/g w.w.) than in samples without this evidence (1.28±0.61 µg/g). The percentage of Pb that was bioaccessible within the simulated intestine phase was far higher in meat cooked with vinegar (6.75%) and wine (4.51%) than in uncooked meat (0.7%). Risk assessment simulations using our results transformed to bioavailability and the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic model (IEUBK; US EPA) show that the use of wine instead of vinegar in cooking recipes may reduce the percentage of children that would be expected to have >10 µg/dl of Pb in blood from 2.08% to 0.26% when game meat represents 50% of the meat in diet. Conclusions/Significance Lead from ammunition in game meat is more bioaccessible after cooking, especially when using highly acidic recipes. These results are important because existing theoretical models regarding Pb uptake and subsequent risk in humans should take such factors into account. PMID:21264290

  4. Burden of diseases estimates associated to different red meat cooking practices.

    PubMed

    Berjia, Firew Lemma; Poulsen, Morten; Nauta, Maarten

    2014-04-01

    The burden of disease estimate has been performed for diseases attributable to nutritional deficiency, foodborne pathogens, the environment, infection and other factors. However, the burden of disease estimate attributable to different food processing practices has not been investigated before. The aim of this study is to compare the burden of disease estimate attributed to red meat consumption processed using different cooking practices. The red meat cooking practices were categorized into three: (A) barbecuing/grilling; (B) frying/broiling and (C) roasting/baking. The associated endpoints, affected population, intake and dose-response data are obtained by literature survey. The selected endpoints are four types of cancer: colorectal, prostate, breast and pancreatic. The burden of disease per cooking practice, endpoint, sex and age is estimated in the Danish population, using disability adjusted life years (DALY) as a common health metric. The results reveal that the consumption of barbecued red meat is associated with the highest disease burden, followed by fried red meat and roasted red meat. The method used to quantify the difference in disease burden of different cooking practices can help to inform the consumer to make a choice on whether the benefit of a preferred cooking style is worth the associated health loss.

  5. A method for identification of frozen meat used for production of cooked ham.

    PubMed

    de Peña, M P; Cid, M C; Bello, J

    1998-03-01

    A simple method to distinguish if the meat used for production of cooked hams was frozen or unfrozen was developed. Several analytical parameters of quality in meat products (general and colour parameters and protein fraction) were determined in two types of cooked hams: one elaborated with refrigerated (R) and another with frozen and thawed (F/T) raw hams. Student's t-test was applied to compare both groups, but it could not be concluded if R and F/T cooked hams had the same quality or not. For this reason two multivariate statistical analyses, Factor (FA) and Discriminant Analysis (DA), were applied. The application of FA resulted in the separation of the two groups of cooked hams and allowed the selection of the parameters which were used in Discriminant Analysis (DA). A discriminant function, that is both easy to use and to interpret, was obtained.

  6. The effect of different cooking methods on fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of n-3 fatty acids fortified tilapia meat with or without clove essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ramezani-Fard, Ehsan; Romano, Nicholas; Goh, Yong-Meng; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Ehteshami, Fariborz; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2016-07-01

    Tilapia farmers are increasingly relying on dietary fish oil alternatives which substantially reduces health beneficial n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in tilapia products.? This may be further exacerbated depending on the cooking method.? This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different cooking methods on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of tilapia minced meat after prior fish oil fortifications with or without clove essential oil. Results showed that frying tilapia in either sunflower or palm oil significantly increased the saturated fatty acid and linoleic acid content, respectively, of tilapia. However, fish oil fortifications significantly increased the n-3 PUFA content, but tended to decrease oxidative stability, particularly when microwaving. This was mitigated by clove essential oil, which significantly improved oxidative stability after cooking. Results indicate that n-3 PUFA and clove essential oil fortifications is an effective method to deliver and protect these beneficial fatty acids for human consumers. ?

  7. A metabolomic study of biomarkers of meat and fish intake.

    PubMed

    Cheung, William; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Assi, Nada; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rundle, Milena; Frost, Gary; Gibbons, Helena; Carr, Eibhlin; Brennan, Lorraine; Cross, Amanda J; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Mancini, Francesca; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Baglietto, Laura; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Scalbert, Augustin

    2017-03-01

    Background: Meat and fish intakes have been associated with various chronic diseases. The use of specific biomarkers may help to assess meat and fish intake and improve subject classification according to the amount and type of meat or fish consumed.Objective: A metabolomic approach was applied to search for biomarkers of meat and fish intake in a dietary intervention study and in free-living subjects from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Design: In the dietary intervention study, 4 groups of 10 subjects consumed increasing quantities of chicken, red meat, processed meat, and fish over 3 successive weeks. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected during each period and analyzed by high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Signals characteristic of meat or fish intake were replicated in 50 EPIC subjects for whom a 24-h urine sample and 24-h dietary recall were available and who were selected for their exclusive intake or no intake of any of the 4 same foods.Results: A total of 249 mass spectrometric features showed a positive dose-dependent response to meat or fish intake in the intervention study. Eighteen of these features best predicted intake of the 4 food groups in the EPIC urine samples on the basis of partial receiver operator curve analyses with permutation testing (areas under the curve ranging between 0.61 and 1.0). Of these signals, 8 metabolites were identified. Anserine was found to be specific for chicken intake, whereas trimethylamine-N-oxide showed good specificity for fish. Carnosine and 3 acylcarnitines (acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, and 2-methylbutyrylcarnitine) appeared to be more generic indicators of meat and meat and fish intake, respectively.Conclusion: The meat and fish biomarkers identified in this work may be used to study associations between meat and fish intake and disease risk in epidemiologic studies. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01684917.

  8. Effect of plant extracts on physicochemical properties of chicken breast meat cooked using conventional electric oven or microwave.

    PubMed

    Rababah, T M; Ereifej, K I; Al-Mahasneh, M A; Al-Rababah, M A

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of vacuum-infused fresh chicken breast meats with grape seed extracts, green tea extracts, or tertiary butyl hydroquinone on pH, texture, color, and thiobarbituric reactive substances after cooking using a microwave or conventional electric oven for 12 d storage at 5 degrees C. Thiobarbituric reactive substances values of uncooked (raw) chicken breast meats for 0 to 12 d of storage ranged from 1.12 to 3.5 mg of malonaldehyde/100 g of chicken. During 0 to 12 d of storage, thiobarbituric reactive substances values ranged from 2.50 to 7.80 and from 2.4 to 7.35 mg of malonaldehyde/100 g of chicken breast meat cooked by microwave and conventional electric oven, respectively. Meats cooked by microwave had higher redness and lower lightness values than those cooked by conventional electric oven. Also, meats cooked by microwave had higher maximum shear force, working of shear, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, and chewiness values than meats cooked by conventional electric oven. Tertiary butyl hydroquinone was the most effective in raw and cooked meats in reducing lipid oxidation, followed by grape seed and green tea extracts. Plant extracts are effective in preventing undesirable changes in chemical properties in chicken breast meat caused by microwave and conventional electric oven cooking.

  9. Quality of cooked ground buffalo meat treated with the crude extracts of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Suchandra; Biswas, Subhasish; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Das, Sudip Kumar; Khan, Anupam

    2012-04-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical, microbial and organoleptic qualities of cooked ground buffalo meat (GBM), treated with, 1, 1.5 and 2% levels of aqueous solution of crude extract of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves. The meat samples treated with 1.5% crude extract of drumstick leaves significantly (P < 0.05) improved meat pH and water holding capacity (WHC) and lowered cooking loss and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value as compared to control and other treated samples. Microbial load in terms of Total Plate Count (TPC) was found to be decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in treated samples. No significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed in juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability scores between the treated meat samples.

  10. No effect of meat, meat cooking preferences, meat mutagens or heme iron on lung cancer risk in the prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer screening trial.

    PubMed

    Tasevska, Nataša; Cross, Amanda J; Dodd, Kevin W; Ziegler, Regina G; Caporaso, Neil E; Sinha, Rashmi

    2011-01-15

    Recent epidemiological studies have suggested that red and processed meat may increase the risk of lung cancer. Possible underlying mechanisms include mutagens produced during high-temperature cooking or preservation, or formed endogenously from heme iron in meat. We used data from 99,579 participants of both screened and nonscreened arms of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, aged 55-74 years, to investigate whether meat type, cooking method, doneness level, intake of specific meat mutagens 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline] (DiMeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P)] and heme iron are associated with lung cancer. Participants' diet was assessed prospectively using a 124-item food frequency questionnaire and an additional meat-cooking module. Dietary data were used in conjunction with a database to estimate intake of MeIQx, DiMeIQx, PhIP, B(a)P and heme iron. After up to 8 years of follow-up, 782 incident lung cancer cases were ascertained. Lung cancer risk was not associated with the consumption of either red (men: HR(Q₅ vs. Q₁) = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.79-1.56, P(trend) = 0.42; women: HR(Q₅ vs. Q₁) = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.87-1.95, P(trend) = 0.65) or processed meat (men: HR(Q₅ vs. Q₁1) = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.83-1.53, P(trend) = 0.22; women: HR(Q₅ vs. Q₁) = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.68-1.41, P(trend) = 0.32) in multivariable models. High-temperature cooking methods, level of meat doneness, meat mutagens and heme iron had no effect on lung cancer risk. In this population, we found no association between meat type, cooking method, doneness level or intake of specific meat mutagens or heme iron and lung cancer risk.

  11. Assessing the performance of Clostridium perfringens cooling models for cooked, uncured meat and poultry products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heat-resistant spores of C. perfringens may germinate and multiply in cooked meat and poultry products if the rate and extent of cooling does not occur in a timely manner. Therefore, six cooling models (PMP 7.0 broth model; PMIP Uncured Beef, Chicken, and Pork Models; Smith-Schaffner (version 3); a...

  12. Near-Infrared Surface Pasteurization to Eliminate Listeria monocytogenes on Cooked Chicken Breast Meat Surfaces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research was to develop and evaluate a near-infrared (NIR) surface pasteurization process for decontamination of cooked ready-to-eat (RTE) meats to eliminate Listeria monocytogenes. An infrared heating device equipped with two fast-acting NIR-generating quartz lamps, an infrar...

  13. Oropharyngeal tularemia in father and son after consumption of under-cooked rabbit meat.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic-Spasic, Marina; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Kostic, Velimir; Lako, Branislav; Spasic, Zivojin

    2011-12-01

    Tularemia has been recognized for more than 10 y in Serbia, since the first epidemic of tularemia occurred in Sokobanja region in 1999. We report 2 cases of oropharyngeal tularemia in a father and son after the consumption of under-cooked rabbit meat. Both presented with fever, unilateral tonsillopharyngitis and cervical lymphadenitis.

  14. A New Automated Microwave Heating Process for Cooking and Pasteurization of Microwaveable Foods Containing Raw Meats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new microwave heating process was developed for cooking microwaveable foods containing raw meats. A commercially available inverter-based microwave oven was modified for pasteurization of mechanically tenderized beef, inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (~ 5 log cfu/g) and packaged in a 12 o...

  15. Use of meat fluorescence emission as a marker of oxidation promoted by cooking.

    PubMed

    Gatellier, Ph; Santé-Lhoutellier, V; Portanguen, S; Kondjoyan, A

    2009-12-01

    Accumulation of fluorescent pigments in cooked bovine meat (M. Longissimus thoracis) was studied in relationship with the heating parameters (time and temperature). Muscles were aged at 4°C for 11days under vacuum before cooking. Meat cooking was performed by applying jets of steam. Three different heating treatments were tested: two with constant surface temperatures of 65 and 96°C for 300s, and one with a continuously increasing surface temperature up to 207°C. After extraction in water/dichloromethane/ethanol, fluorescence pigments were distributed between the apolar phase (emission 420-440nm after excitation at 360nm) and the polar phase, where two emission peaks were seen (emission 410-430 and 515nm after excitation at 360nm). Fluorescence in the two phases was little affected by heating at the two constant temperatures while it increased exponentially after 1min of treatment, as the varying temperature reached 141°C. The maximum fluorescence increases, measured in the extreme conditions of cooking (207°C/300s), were of 5000% in the apolar phase and 1700% in the polar phase. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyls were measured in parallel. The correlations between these two parameters and the fluorescence emission demonstrated that the interaction between proteins and aldehyde products of lipid peroxidation was mainly involved in the production of fluorescent pigments in cooked meat.

  16. Effect of different cooking methods on lipid oxidation and formation of volatile compounds in foal meat.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Rubén; Gómez, María; Fonseca, Sonia; Lorenzo, José M

    2014-06-01

    The influence of four different cooking methods (roasting, grilling, microwaving and frying) on cooking loss, lipid oxidation and volatile profile of foal meat was studied. Cooking loss were significantly (P<0.001) affected by thermal treatment, being higher (32.5%) after microwaving and lower after grilling (22.5%) and frying (23.8%). As expected, all the cooking methods increased TBARs content, since high temperature during cooking causes increased oxidation in foal steaks, this increase was significantly (P<0.001) higher when foal steaks were microwaved or roasted. The four different cooking methods led to increased total volatile compounds (between 366.7 and 633.1AU×10(6)/g dry matter) compared to raw steaks (216.4AU×10(6)/g dry matter). The roasted steaks showed the highest volatile content, indicating that increased cooking temperature increases the formation of volatile compounds. Aldehydes were the most abundant compounds in cooked samples, with amounts of 217.2, 364.5, 283.5 and 409.1AU×10(6)/g dry matter in grilled, microwaved, fried and roasted samples, respectively, whereas esters were the most abundant compounds in raw samples, with mean amounts of 98.8AU×10(6)/g dry matter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermal imaging during infrared final cooking of semi-processed cylindrical meat product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kor, Gamze; Icier, Filiz

    2016-11-01

    The temperature measurements during the infrared cooking of the semi-cooked cylindrical minced beef product (koefte) were taken by both contact (thermocouples) and non-contact (thermal imaging) techniques. The meat product was semi-cooked till its core temperature reached up to 75 °C by ohmic heating applied at 15.26 V/cm voltage gradient. Then, infrared cooking was applied as a final cooking method at different combinations of heat fluxes (3.7, 5.7 and 8.5 kW/m2), applied distances (10.5, 13.5 and 16.5 cm) and applied durations (4, 8 and 12 min). The average surface temperature increased as the heat flux and the applied duration increased but the applied distance decreased. The temperature distribution of the surface during infrared cooking was determined successfully by non-contact measurements. The temperature homogeneity varied between 0.77 and 0.86. The process condition of 8.5 kW/m2 for 8 min resulted in core temperature greater than 75 °C, which was essential for safe production of ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products. Thermal imaging was much more convenient method for minimizing the point measurement mistakes and determining temperature distribution images more clear and visual.

  18. Turmeric and black pepper spices decrease lipid peroxidation in meat patties during cooking

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanjun; Henning, Susanne M.; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Spices are rich in natural antioxidants and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation during cooking of meat. Turmeric contains unique conjugated curcuminoids with strong antioxidant activity. Piperine, one of the main constituents of black pepper, is known to increase the bioavailability of curcuminoids in mouse and human studies when consumed with turmeric. We investigated whether adding black pepper to turmeric powder may further inhibit lipid peroxidation when added to meat patties prior to cooking. The addition of black pepper to turmeric significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation in hamburger meat. When investigating the antioxidant activity of the main chemical markers, we determined that piperine did not exhibit any antioxidant activity. Therefore, we conclude that other black pepper ingredients are responsible for the increased antioxidant activity of combining black pepper with turmeric powder. PMID:25582173

  19. Turmeric and black pepper spices decrease lipid peroxidation in meat patties during cooking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Henning, Susanne M; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2015-05-01

    Spices are rich in natural antioxidants and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation during cooking of meat. Turmeric contains unique conjugated curcuminoids with strong antioxidant activity. Piperine, one of the main constituents of black pepper, is known to increase the bioavailability of curcuminoids in mouse and human studies when consumed with turmeric. We investigated whether adding black pepper to turmeric powder may further inhibit lipid peroxidation when added to meat patties prior to cooking. The addition of black pepper to turmeric significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation in hamburger meat. When investigating the antioxidant activity of the main chemical markers, we determined that piperine did not exhibit any antioxidant activity. Therefore, we conclude that other black pepper ingredients are responsible for the increased antioxidant activity of combining black pepper with turmeric powder.

  20. Modeling cooking of chicken meat in industrial tunnel ovens with the Flory-Rehner theory.

    PubMed

    van der Sman, R G M

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a numerical model describing the heat and mass transport during the cooking of chicken meat in industrial tunnels. The mass transport is driven by gradients in the swelling pressure, which is described by the Flory-Rehner theory, which relates to the water holding capacity (WHC). For cooking temperatures up to boiling point and practical relevant cooking times, the model renders good prediction of heat and mass transport and the total loss of moisture. We have shown that for cooking temperatures above boiling point, the model has to be extended with the dynamic growth of capillary water (drip) channels. Furthermore, we discuss that the Flory-Rehner theory provides the proper physical basis for describing the change of the WHC by a wide variety of factors like salt and pH.

  1. Detection and quantification of 4(5)-methylimidazole in cooked meat.

    PubMed

    Karim, Faris; Smith, J Scott

    2015-02-01

    4(5)-Methylimidazole (4-MeI) is a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compound found in class III and IV ammoniated caramel colors, a group of additives widely used in the food industry. A suspected carcinogen and neurotoxin and efforts are underway to limit its presence in foods. Several methods have been developed to detect and quantitate 4-MeI in different food matrices, including roasted coffee, beer, soft drinks, and soy sauce; however, no methods are available to measure 4-MeI in cooked meat and meat products containing lipids and high levels of interfering nitrogen compounds, such as amino acids and peptides. A rapid method using 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer (pH 5) as an extraction solvent followed by derivatization with isobutylchloroformate and gas chromatograph mass-spectrometry was developed to quantify 4-MeI in cooked meat products with added caramel colors containing 4-MeI. Selected ion monitoring mode was used to monitor 4-MeI ions fragments. In the 8 commercial meat products tested, 4-MeI levels ranged from 0.041 to 1.015 mg/kg, with recovery of 94.76% to 103.94%. In addition, a matrix-matched calibration performed by analyzing a spiked cooked meat sample indicated no significant difference (P > 0.05), which means the meat matrix had no effect on the developed method. This method proved useful in analyzing 4-MeI in meat products with added caramel color containing 4-MeI.

  2. Combined heat transfer and kinetic models to predict cooking loss during heat treatment of beef meat.

    PubMed

    Kondjoyan, Alain; Oillic, Samuel; Portanguen, Stéphane; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    2013-10-01

    A heat transfer model was used to simulate the temperature in 3 dimensions inside the meat. This model was combined with a first-order kinetic models to predict cooking losses. Identification of the parameters of the kinetic models and first validations were performed in a water bath. Afterwards, the performance of the combined model was determined in a fan-assisted oven under different air/steam conditions. Accurate knowledge of the heat transfer coefficient values and consideration of the retraction of the meat pieces are needed for the prediction of meat temperature. This is important since the temperature at the center of the product is often used to determine the cooking time. The combined model was also able to predict cooking losses from meat pieces of different sizes and subjected to different air/steam conditions. It was found that under the studied conditions, most of the water loss comes from the juice expelled by protein denaturation and contraction and not from evaporation.

  3. The effect of high pressure at subzero temperature on proteins solubility, drip loss and texture of fish (cod and salmon) and mammal's (pork and beef) meat.

    PubMed

    Malinowska-Pańczyk, Edyta; Walecka, Marta; Pawłowicz, Roman; Tylingo, Robert; Kołodziejska, Ilona

    2014-07-01

    One of the possibilities of using high-pressure technique in inactivation of microorganism is conducting this process at subzero temperature. However, for its practical application in meat preservation the appropriate properties of meat should be maintained. Therefore, the aim of this work was to examine the effect of pressure at subzero temperature (without freezing of water) on proteins and texture of mammal's and cold-adapted fish meat. The data showed that cod and salmon meat proteins were more susceptible to pressure-induced denaturation/aggregation than beef and pork proteins. Glucose and saccharose exerted protective effect on fish meat proteins treated with pressure of 111 MPa(tc) and -10 degrees C but not at 193 MPa(tc) and -20 degrees C. The pressure treatment under the latter conditions increased cook loss of fish meat but not of mammal's meat. However, after cooking the hardness of all kinds of pressurized meat was at the same level as that for unpressurized cooked samples.

  4. Effect of different air/steam convection cooking methods on turkey breast meat: physical characterization, water status and sensory properties.

    PubMed

    Mora, B; Curti, E; Vittadini, E; Barbanti, D

    2011-07-01

    Turkey breast samples were cooked using a forced convection oven at three relative humidity levels (RH=8, 35 and 88%) at 100°C. Cooking parameters (temperature, cook value, and yield), textural and sensory properties as well as water status of the samples were evaluated. The application of different RH levels resulted in different cooking performances and cooked meat quality. Low steam cooking conditions (RH=35%) significantly increased cooking yield (7% higher than the high steam cooking), moisture content and water-holding capacity and had a positive effect on perceived tenderness, as shown by sensory analysis, where steam cooked samples were perceived as the most tender. The more mobile protons of (1)H T(2) (relaxing at times longer than 1s) in low steam samples were related to the higher perceived tenderness. Low steam cooking allowed for less water consumption, making this process an attractive cooking method as compared to high steam, as it also resulted in higher quality cooked turkey meat.

  5. Comparison of cook loss, shear force, and sensory descriptive profiles of boneless skinless white meat cooked from a frozen or thawed state.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Hong; Savage, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Four replications were conducted to compare quality measurements, cook loss, shear force, and sensory quality attributes of cooked boneless skinless white meat, broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major) prepared directly from a frozen state or prepared from a thawed state. In each replication, fresh broiler fillets (removed from carcasses 6-8 h postmortem) were procured from a local commercial processing plant and stored in a -20°C freezer until use. On the sensory evaluation date, fillets were cooked to an endpoint temperature of 78°C either directly from the frozen state (thawing during cooking) or after the frozen samples were thawed in a refrigerator (2°C) overnight (thawing before cooking). Cook loss and Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force were used as indicators for instrumental quality measurements. Sensory quality measurements were conducted by trained descriptive panelists using 0 to 15 universal intensity scales for 8 texture and 10 flavor attributes. Results show that there were no differences (P > 0.05) in measurements for sensory descriptive flavor attributes of cooked fillets between the 2 sample thawing methods, indicating that the sensory flavor profiles of both methods were similar to each other. However, WB shear force (36.98 N), cook loss (21.2%), sensory texture attributes of cohesiveness (intensity score was 5.59), hardness (5.14), rate of breakdown (5.50), and chewiness (5.21) of the breast fillets cooked directly from the frozen state were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the breast meat cooked after being thawed (30.56 N, 19.0%, 5.19, 4.78, 5.29, and 5.02, respectively). These results indicate that cookery directly from frozen boneless skinless white meat can result in different measurement values of cook loss, shear force, and sensory descriptive texture attributes compared with cookery after frozen fillets are thawed.

  6. Taste-active compound levels in Korean native chicken meat: The effects of bird age and the cooking process.

    PubMed

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Yong, Hae In; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-08-01

    The effects of bird age and the cooking process on the levels of several taste-active compounds, including inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), glutamic acid, cysteine, reducing sugars, as well as oleic, linoleic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), in the breast and leg meats from a certified meat-type commercial Korean native chicken (KNC) strain (Woorimatdag) were investigated. KNC cocks were raised under similar standard conditions at a commercial chicken farm, and breast and leg meats from birds of various ages (10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 wk; 10 birds/age group) were obtained. After raw and cooked meat samples were prepared, they were analyzed for the aforementioned taste-active compounds. Compared to the leg meat, KNC breast meat had higher levels of IMP, arachidonic acid, and DHA, but lower levels of the other taste-active compounds (P < 0.05). KNC meat lost significant amounts of all the taste-active compounds, excluding oleic and linoleic acids, during the cooking process (P < 0.05). However, bird age only had a minor effect on the levels of these taste-active compounds. The results of this study provide useful information regarding the levels of taste-active compounds in KNC meat from birds of different ages, and their fate during the cooking process. This information could be useful for selection and breeding programs, and for popularizing native chicken meat.

  7. Behavior of Psychrotrophic Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Spoiling Cooked Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Yoshikatsu; Ayaki, Mitsuko; Fuchu, Hidetaka; Sugiyama, Masaaki; Morita, Hidetoshi

    2003-01-01

    Three kinds of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from spoiling cooked meat products stored below 10°C. They were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, and Leuconostoc citreum. All three strains grew well in MRS broth at 10°C. In particular, L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and L. citreum grew even at 4°C, and their doubling times were 23.6 and 51.5 h, respectively. On the other hand, although the bacteria were initially below the detection limit (<10 CFU/g) in model cooked meat products, the bacterial counts increased to 108 CFU/g at 10°C after 7 to 12 days. PMID:12788779

  8. Industrial wastes: meat, fish and poultry processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Litchfield, J.H.

    1980-06-01

    This article is a review of meat, fish and poultry processing wastes. Reviews on slaughterhouse and packinghouse wastewater treatment methods were mentioned together with processes for protein recovery from wastewater and wastewater treatment sludges.

  9. Meat-, fish-, and poultry-processing wastes. [Industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Litchfield, J.H.

    1982-06-01

    A review of the literature dealing with the effectiveness of various waste processing methods for meat-, fish,-, and poultry-processing wastes is presented. Activated sludge processes, anaerobic digestion, filtration, screening, oxidation ponds, and aerobic digestion are discussed.

  10. Cooking Methods for Red Meats and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study of U.S. Women.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Zong, Geng; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Eisenberg, David M; Sun, Qi

    2017-08-01

    This study examined different cooking methods for red meats in relation to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk among U.S. women who consumed red meats regularly (≥2 servings/week). We monitored 59,033 women (1986-2012) aged 30-55 years and free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline when information on frequency of different cooking methods for red meats, including broiling, barbequing, roasting, pan-frying, and stewing/boiling, was collected. During 1.24 million person-years of follow-up, we documented 6,206 incident cases of T2D. After multivariate adjustment including red meat cooking methods, total red meat and processed red meat intake were both associated with a monotonically increased T2D risk (both P trend <0.05). After multivariate adjustment including total red meat intake, a higher frequency of broiling, barbequing, and roasting red meats was each independently associated with a higher T2D risk. When comparing ≥2 times/week with <1 time/month, the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CI of T2D were 1.29 (1.19, 1.40; P trend <0.001) for broiling, 1.23 (1.11, 1.38; P trend <0.001) for barbequing, and 1.11 (1.01, 1.23; P trend = 0.14) for roasting. In contrast, the frequency of stewing/boiling red meats was not associated with T2D risk, and an inverse association was observed for pan-frying frequency and T2D risk. The results remained similar after cooking methods were further mutually adjusted. Independent of total red meat consumption, high-temperature and/or open-flame cooking methods for red meats, especially broiling and barbequing, may further increase diabetes risk among regular meat eaters. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  11. Influences of muscle composition and structure of pork from different breeds on stability and textural properties of cooked meat emulsion.

    PubMed

    Sorapukdee, Supaluk; Kongtasorn, Chananya; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop

    2013-06-01

    The influences of composition and structure of meats from different pig breeds, including Duroc (D), Large White (LW), Landrace (LR), two-way cross (LR×LW) and three-way cross (D×[LR×LW]) on stability and textural characteristics of cooked meat emulsions were studied by using partial least squares (PLS) regression. Compared to other pig breeds, cooked meat emulsion from LW exhibited superior properties as indicated by lower water and fat released as well as higher chewiness, gumminess, cohesiveness, resilience, springiness and hardness. The univariate analyses of those selected properties indicated a significant correlation with higher contents of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins, smaller muscle fibre diameter and lower myofibril fragmentation of LW meat, as compared to other breeds. Therefore properties of cooked pork emulsion were influenced by composition and structure of meat, which varied according to the pig breeds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An experimental approach to identifying the genotoxic risk from cooked meat mutagens.

    PubMed

    Loprieno, N; Boncristiani, G; Loprieno, G

    1991-06-01

    In order to define the toxicological risk to the human population from the chemical compounds formed during the process of cooking animal meat, which have been described as possessing mutagenic, genotoxic and carcinogenic activities, an extensive study was undertaken of cooked meat extract and two cooked meat mutagens, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoxaline (MeIQx). The study involved toxicokinetics and mouse-tissue distribution studies of the two chemicals, in vitro and in vivo mutagenicity/genotoxicity analyses (i.e. the detection of gene mutations, chromosome aberrations and micronuclei in mouse bone marrow cells, and mouse urine and faeces mutagenicity tests), as well as in vivo protein and DNA binding assays. IQ and MeIQx were found to be positive for the induction of gene mutations in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, but not in Chinese hamster V79 cells; IQ only was found to be positive for the induction of chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells and cultured human lymphocytes. IQ and MeIQx were negative for the induction of micronuclei in mice treated with 40 mg chemical/kg body weight; the lowest effective dose administered to the mice that produced mutagenic urine was 0.4 mg IQ/kg body weight and 0.04 mg MeIQx/kg. A dose of 40 mg IQ/kg, given orally by gavage to mice, produced an excretion of 1-4% of the applied dose in the urine and 0.1-2% of the applied dose in the faeces, when evaluated chemically or mutagenically. The number of DNA adducts in the liver correlated with the dose of IQ or MeIQx administered to the mice. All the data have been used for defining a possible risk estimate to the human population as a consequence of a cooked meat diet.

  13. An experimental approach to identifying the genotoxic risk by cooked meat mutagens.

    PubMed

    Loprieno, N; Boncristiani, G; Loprieno, G

    1991-01-01

    In order to define the toxicological risk for the human population derived from the chemical compounds formed during the process of cooking animal meat, which have been described to possess a mutagenic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic activity, an extensive study has been developed on cooked meat extract and two cooked meat mutagens, IQ and MeIQx. The study has been based on toxicokinetics and mouse tissue distribution of the two chemicals, on in vitro and in vivo mutagenicity/genotoxicity analyses (gene mutation, chromosome aberration, micronuclea in mouse bone marrow cells, mice urine and faeces mutagenicity test), as well as in vivo protein and DNA binding. The two chemicals have been found positive for the induction of gene mutation on Salmonella, but not in V-79 Chinese hamster cells; IQ only has been found positive for the induction of chromosome aberrations on CHO cells and cultured human lymphocytes. IQ and MeIQx were negative for the induction of micronuclea in mice treated with 40 mg/kg of the chemicals; the lowest effective administered dose to the mice which produced mutagenic urine was 0.4 mg/kg of IQ and 0.04 mg/kg of MeIQx. A dose of 40 mg/kg of IQ given by gavage to mice produced an excretion of 1-4% of the applied dose in the urine and 0.1-2% of the applied dose in the faeces, when evaluated chemically or mutagenically. The DNA adducts for the liver were correlated with the dose of the IQ and MeIQx administered to the mice. All the data have been used for defining a possible risk estimate derived to the human population as a consequence of a cooked meat diet.

  14. Differences in textural properties of cooked caponized and broiler chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    U-Chupaj, J; Malila, Y; Gamonpilas, C; Kijroongrojana, K; Petracci, M; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W

    2017-07-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating textural properties of cooked chicken breast meats obtained from 3 production systems (conventional raising, feed modification, and caponization) and determining the relationship between instrumental parameters and sensory attributes associated with the texture of capon meat. Texture of cooked breast meats was determined using 3 instrumental methods: Warner-Bratzler Shear (WBS), texture profile analysis (TPA), and uniaxial compression (UC), and sensory analysis by trained panelists. The results indicated that cooked caponized meat showed the lowest values of WBS force, shear energy, hardness, Young's modulus of UC, and the 2 sensory attributes (firmness and number of chews) (P < 0.05). In contrast, springiness and juiciness were the highest in the caponized meat (P < 0.05), suggesting that capon meat was more tender and juicier than the others. Feed-modified chicken samples showed intermediate textural characteristics between the samples of capon and conventionally raised broiler. Pearson's correlation revealed that WBS force, shear energy, Young's modulus of UC, gumminess, and springiness were strongly correlated with 3 sensory attributes (firmness, number of chews, and juiciness). Partial least squares regression (PLSR) demonstrated that 72% of all sensory attributes for the first 2 PLSR components were explained by 36% of the instrumental parameters and the production systems. Loading and score plot illustrated that conventional raising contributed to a high degree of firmness and number of chews, and positively correlated with shear energy, WBS force, gumminess, hardness, and Young's modulus. Contrarily, caponization was negatively correlated with those sensory attributes. The univariate analysis indicated that firmness and number of chews were positively correlated with all instrumental parameters, except springiness. Juiciness was positively correlated with springiness but negatively correlated with the others. The study

  15. Evaluation of meat born lactic acid bacteria as protective cultures for the biopreservation of cooked meat products.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, L; Devlieghere, F; Debevere, J

    2004-11-01

    In this study, 91 strains, originating from meat products, were subjected to a step-by-step screening and characterisation to search for potential protective cultures to be used in the cooked cured meat industry. Strains were first tested on their homofermentative and psychrotrophic character and salt tolerance. Secondly, the antibacterial capacities towards Listeria monocytogenes, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Leuconostoc carnosum and Brochotrix thermosphacta were determined in an agar spot test. In total, 38% of the tested strains were inhibitory towards all indicator strains. However, 91%, 88% and 74% of the strains could inhibit, respectively, L. monocytogenes, B. thermosphacta and Leuc. mesenteroides. Finally, 12 strains, with the highest antibacterial capacities, were evaluated on their competitive nature by comparing their growth rate, acidifying character and lactic acid production at 7 degrees C under anaerobic conditions in a liquid broth. All 12 strains, except for a bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus plantarum strain and the lactocin S producing Lactobacillus sakei 148, combined a fast growth rate with a deep and rapid acidification caused by the production of high levels of lactic acid. The 12 selected strains were then further investigated for their growth capacity on a model cooked ham product to establish whether the presence of these cultures on the ham did not negatively influence the sensory properties of the ham. All strains grew in 6 days at 7 degrees C from a level of 10(5)-10(6) to 10(7)-10(8) cfu/g and again the bacteriocin producing L. plantarum strain was the slowest growing strain. As the glucose level of the model cooked ham product was low (0.09+/-0.03%), growth of the putative protective cultures resulted in glucose depletion and a limited lactic acid production and accompanying pH decrease. Cooked ham inoculated with isolates 13E, 10A, 14A (all three identified as L. sakei subsp. carnosus by SDS-PAGE) and with strains L. sakei 148 (LS5

  16. Effect of meat cooking on physicochemical state and in vitro digestibility of myofibrillar proteins.

    PubMed

    Santé-Lhoutellier, Veronique; Astruc, Thierry; Marinova, Penka; Greve, Eleonore; Gatellier, Philippe

    2008-02-27

    The effect of meat cooking was measured on myofibrillar proteins from bovine M. Rectus abdominis. The heating treatment involved two temperatures (100 degrees C during 5, 15, 30, and 45 min and 270 degrees C during 1 min). Protein oxidation induced by cooking was evaluated by the level of carbonyl and free thiol groups. Structural modifications of proteins were assessed by the measurement of their surface hydrophobicity and by their aggregation state. With the aim of evaluating the impact of heat treatment on the digestive process, myofibrillar proteins were then exposed to proteases of the digestive tract (pepsin, trypsin, and alpha-chymotrypsin) in conditions of pH and temperature that simulate stomach and duodenal digestion. Meat cooking affected myofibrillar protein susceptibility to proteases, with increased or decreased rates, depending on the nature of the protease and the time/temperature parameters. Results showed a direct and quantitative relationship between protein carbonylation (p<0.01) and aggregation (p<0.05) induced by cooking and proteolytic susceptibility to pepsin. However, no such correlations have been observed with trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin.

  17. Meat quality and cooking attributes of thawed pork with different low field NMR T(21).

    PubMed

    Li, Chunbao; Liu, Dengyong; Zhou, Guanghong; Xu, Xinglian; Qi, Jun; Shi, Peilei; Xia, Tianlan

    2012-10-01

    A relationship of low field NMR T(2) components to meat quality and cooking attributes of pork was investigated. Longissimus muscle was removed from 23 pig carcasses at 24h postmortem for meat quality measurements and cooking test. Frozen samples were classified into three groups by LF-NMR T(21) of thawed samples: A (<40ms), B (40-44ms) and C (>44ms). There were significant differences (P<0.05) in pH, lightness (L* value) and pressing loss among the three groups. Cooking time to attain 70°C was slightly lower in group C than the other groups. Shear force value of cooked samples was not affected by T(21). The component T(21) correlated (P<0.05) with L* value, muscle pH and pressing loss, while L* value correlated (P<0.05) with thawing loss and muscle pH. Therefore, combined LF-NMR and color measurements could be a good way to differentiate water holding capacity of pork.

  18. Sources of fine organic aerosol. 1. Charbroilers and meat cooking operations

    SciTech Connect

    Rogge, W.F.; Hildemann, L.M.; Mazurek, M.A.; Cass, G.R. ); Simonelt, B.R.T. )

    1991-06-01

    Meat cooking operations are a major source of organic aerosol emissions to the urban atmosphere, comprising up to 21% of the primary fine organic carbon particle emissions in the Los Angeles area. In the present study, the chemical composition of meat smoke aerosol is examined by high-resolution gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The objective is to search for molecular markers that will confirm the presence of meat smoke aerosol in urban atmospheric samples. More than 75 organic compounds are quantified, including the series of the n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkenoic acids, dicarboxylic acids, n-alkanals, n-alkenals, n-alkanones, n-alkanols, furans, lactones, amides, nitriles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, steroids, and pesticide residues. Prominent among the compounds emitted are n-hexadecanoic acid (i.e., palmitic acid), n-octadecanoic acid (i.e., stearic acid), cis-9-octadecenoic acid (i.e., oleic acid), nonanal, 2-octadecanal, 2-octadecanol, and cholesterol. Al-nanal, 2-octadecanal, 2-octadecanol, and cholesterol. Although cholesterol can be emitted from other sources, cholesterol concentrations measured in the West Los Angeles atmospheric aerosol are consistent with the cholesterol mass emission rates determined from meat cooking source tests.

  19. Meat species identification and Halal authentication using PCR analysis of raw and cooked traditional Turkish foods.

    PubMed

    Ulca, Pelin; Balta, Handan; Çağın, Ilknur; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2013-07-01

    The method performance characteristics of commercially available PCR kits for animal species identification were established. Comminuted meat products containing different levels of pork were prepared from authentic beef, chicken, and turkey. These meat products were analysed in the raw state and after cooking for 20 min at 200 °C. For both raw and cooked meats, the PCR kit could correctly identify the animal species and could reliably detect the addition of pork at a level below 0.1%. A survey of 42 Turkish processed meat products such as soudjouk, salami, sausage, meatball, cured spiced beef and doner kebap was conducted. Thirty-six samples were negative for the presence of pork (<0.1%) and four were found to be correctly labelled as containing pork. However, one sausage sample was labelled as containing 5% beef, but beef DNA was not detected and a meatball sample labelled as 100% beef was found to contain chicken. Another turkey meatball sample was predominantly chicken.

  20. Fish, shellfish, and meat meals of the public in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Fleischer, Jennifer; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-07-01

    Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component of the assessment of risk from contaminants in fish. While there have been extensive studies of fish consumption in Western cultures, less attention has been devoted to the role of fish and meat in the diets of people in other cultures. A survey of 212 people living in Singapore was conducted to examine the relative importance of fish, shellfish, and other meat in their diets and to ascertain whether there were differences as a function of age, income, education or gender. As expected, fish and shellfish played an important role in their daily diets. On average, people ate fish in about 10 meals a week, chicken for eight meals, and shrimp and pork for about six meals each. While nearly 8% never ate fish, 18% ate fish at all 21 meals a week and over 20% ate shellfish for all 21 meals. Income explained about 14% of the variation in the number of fish meals consumed, and age explained about 8% of the variation in number of chicken meals per week. There were no gender differences in the number of meals of each type. People less than 26 years old ate significantly more pork, chicken, and other meat meals and fewer shellfish meals than older people. People with higher incomes ate significantly more fish meals than those with lower incomes. Chinese individuals ate significantly more meals of pork, chicken, and other meat than other ethnic groups, and they ate only 26% of their meals at home, while others ate 33% of their meals at home. The data indicate a great deal of variation in the number of meals of fish, shellfish, and other meats eaten by the people interviewed, making dietary and risk assessments challenging.

  1. Design and testing of small scale fish meat bone separator useful for fish processing.

    PubMed

    Ali Muhammed, M; Manjunatha, N; Murthy, K Venkatesh; Bhaskar, N

    2015-06-01

    The present study relates to the food processing machinery and, more specifically machine for producing boneless comminuted meat from raw fish fillet. This machine is of belt and drum type meat bone separator designed for small scale fish processing in a continuous mode. The basic principal involved in this machine is compression force. The electric geared motor consists of 1HP and the conveyor belt has a linear velocity of 19 to 22 m min(-1), which was sufficient to debone the fish effectively. During the meat bone separation trials an efficiency up to 75 % on dressed fish weight basis was observed and with a capacity to separate 70 kg h(-1) of meat from fish at the machine speed of 25 rpm. During the trials, it was demonstrated that there was no significant change in the proximate composition of comminuted fish meat when compared to unprocessed fish meat. This design has a greater emphasis on hygiene, provision for cleaning-in-place (CIP) and gives cost effective need and reliability for small scale industries to produce fish meat in turn used for their value added products.

  2. Assessing the Performance of Clostridium perfringens Cooling Models for Cooked, Uncured Meat and Poultry Products.

    PubMed

    Mohr, T B; Juneja, V K; Thippareddi, H H; Schaffner, D W; Bronstein, P A; Silverman, M; Cook, L V

    2015-08-01

    Heat-resistant spores of Clostridium perfringens may germinate and multiply in cooked meat and poultry products when the rate and extent of cooling does not occur in a timely manner. Therefore, six cooling models (PMP 7.0 broth model; PMIP uncured beef, chicken, and pork models; Smith-Schaffner version 3; and UK IFR ComBase Perfringens Predictor) were evaluated for relative performance in predicting growth of C. perfringens under dynamic temperature conditions encountered during cooling of cooked, uncured meat and poultry products. The predicted growth responses from the models were extensively compared with those observed in food. Data from 188 time-temperature cooling profiles (176 for single-rate exponential cooling and 12 for dual-rate exponential cooling) were collected from 17 independent sources (16 peer-reviewed publications and one report) for model evaluation. Data were obtained for a variety of cooked products, including meat and poultry slurries, ground meat and poultry products with and without added ingredients (e.g., potato starch, sodium triphosphate, and potassium tetrapyrophosphate), and processed products such as ham and roast beef. Performance of the models was evaluated using three sets of criteria, and accuracy was defined within a 1- to 2-log range. The percentages of accurate, fail-safe, or fail-dangerous predictions for each cooling model differed depending on which criterion was used to evaluate the data set. Nevertheless, the combined percentages of accurate and fail-safe predictions based on the three performance criteria were 34.66 to 42.61% for the PMP 7.0 beef broth model, 100% for the PMIP cooling models for uncured beef, uncured pork and uncured chicken, 80.11 to 93.18% for the Smith-Schaffner cooling model, and 74.43 to 85.23% for the UK IFR ComBase Perfringens Predictor model during single-rate exponential chilling. Except for the PMP 7.0 broth model, the other five cooling models (PMIP, Smith-Schaffner, and UK IFR ComBase) are

  3. Mutagenic aromatic amines formed from cooking meat, metabolism and their possible significance to human health

    SciTech Connect

    Turteltaub, K.W.; Felton, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aminoimidozaarene (AIA) compounds are thought to be present in cooked meat, but as yet, have not been identified due to low mutagenic potency and mass amounts. Work is currently underway in our laboratory to identify mutagenic members of this class of compounds utilizing different methodology. We have recently developed six monoclonal antibodies named IQ-1, IQ-2, AIA-1, AIA-2, AIA-4, and AIA-7 which have shown promise in immunoassays specific for cooked food mutagens. Each of the antibodies has it's own selectivity profile for the mutagens resulting in some antibodies which are compound specific and some which are specific for the entire AIA class. We demonstrated the utility of these antibodies by showing that a high-mutagen extract of cooked meat had much more immunologically cross-reactive components than a low-mutagen extract. These antibodies also cross-react with mouse microsomal metabolites of 4,8-DiMeIQx. We hope to use these antibodies to help isolate previously unidentified members of the AIA class and to screen food items for specific mutagenic components. 27 refs.

  4. Volatiles in raw and cooked meat from lambs fed olive cake and linseed.

    PubMed

    Gravador, R S; Serra, A; Luciano, G; Pennisi, P; Vasta, V; Mele, M; Pauselli, M; Priolo, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding olive cake and linseed to lambs on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in raw and cooked meat. Four groups of eight male Appenninica lambs each were fed: conventional cereal-based concentrates (diet C), concentrates containing 20% on a dry matter (DM) basis of rolled linseed (diet L), concentrates containing 35% DM of stoned olive cake (diet OC), or concentrates containing both rolled linseed (10% DM) and stoned olive cake (17% DM; diet OCL). The longissimus dorsi muscle of each lamb was sampled at slaughter and was subjected to VOC profiling through the use of SPME-GC-MS. In the raw meat, the concentration of 3-methylpentanoic acid was higher in treatment C as compared with treatments L, OC and OCL (P<0.01). Moreover the level of nonanoic acid was greater in treatments C and OC than in treatment L (P<0.05). With respect to alcohols, in raw meat the amount of 2-phenoxyethanol in treatment OCL was lower than in treatments C (P<0.01) and OC (P<0.05), while in cooked meat the amount of 1-pentanol was higher in treatment C than in treatment OC (P<0.05). Apart from these compounds, none of the lipid oxidation-derived volatiles was significantly affected by the dietary treatment. Therefore, the results suggest that the replacement of cereal concentrates with linseed and/or olive cake did not cause appreciable changes in the production of volatile organic compounds in lamb meat.

  5. Volatile organic compound analysis in wood combustion and meat cooking emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinska, B.; McDonald, J.

    1999-07-01

    Residential wood combustion and meat cooking emissions were each analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC). Emissions were diluted 60--100 times, cooled to ambient temperature, and allowed 80 seconds for condensation prior to collection with the aid of a DRI-constructed dilution stack sampler. Fireplace and wood-stove emissions testing was conducted at the DRI facilities. Wood type, wood moisture, burn rate, and fuel load were varied for different experiments. Meat emissions testing was conducted at the CE-CERT stationary emissions lab, University of California, Riverside. Meat type, fat content, and cooking appliance were changed in different tests. VOCs were collected using stainless-steel 6 L canisters and Tenax cartridges, whereas for carbonyl compound collection 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-impregnated C{sub 18} SepPack cartridges were used. Analysis of VOC collected with canisters and Tenax cartridges was conducted by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) and by GC/FID/ECD (flame ionization detection/electron capture detection). DNPH-impregnated cartridges were analyzed for fourteen C{sub 1}--C{sub 7} carbonyl compounds, using the HPLC method. The results of these measurements are discussed.

  6. Cooking fish is not effective in reducing exposure to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Zhang, Xianming; Guo, Rui; Braekevelt, Eric; Petro, Steve; Gandhi, Nilima; Reiner, Eric J; Lee, Holly; Bronson, Roni; Tittlemier, Sheryl A

    2014-05-01

    Consumption of fish is considered a part of a healthy diet; however, health risks from fish consumption exist due to potential exposure to various contaminants accumulated in fish. Cooking fish can reduce exposure to many organic chemicals in fish. Similar results have been presented for low levels of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), a class of contaminants of emerging concern, in grocery store fish. We examined the effectiveness of three cooking methods (i.e., baking, broiling, and frying) on reducing PFAS levels in four sport fish species. Samples of Chinook salmon, common carp, lake trout and walleye were collected from four rivers in Ontario, Canada and skin-off fillets were analyzed for regular groups of PFASs such as perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), as well as perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids (PFPAs), perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids (PFPIAs) and polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAPs), which are PFASs of emerging concern. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFAS detected and the concentrations were more than an order of magnitude higher than those reported for fish from grocery stores in Canada, Spain, and China. Although concentrations of PFOS in fish fillets generally increase after cooking, amounts of PFOS largely remain unchanged. Relatively minor differences in changes in the fish PFAS amounts after cooking depended on fish species and cooking method used. We conclude that cooking sport fish is generally not an effective approach to reduce dietary exposure to PFASs, especially PFOS. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Furosine as an index of heat treatment intensity in meat products: Its application to cooked ham.

    PubMed

    Pompei, C; Spagnolello, A

    1997-06-01

    Furosine, a product of acid hydrolysis of Amadori compounds, has been proposed as an index of the heat treament intensity in various food products. In this paper we suggest furosine as an index of heat treatment in pork-meat products as well. Furosine is not detectable in fresh raw pork muscle and in injected tumbled pork muscle, the latter being used for the production of cooked ham. Activation energy of furosine formation in raw muscle and tumbled muscle, in the temperature range of 70 °-90 °C, was 79.2 kJ/mole and 81.7 kJ/mole, respectively. Furosine concentration was assessed in cooked hams whose time-temperature profiles, with reference to the cooking and cooling processes, were well known, thus enabling the verification of the feasibility of its use in the evaluation of heat damage. The good correlation between the values found during this investigation and the values foreseen by kinetic calculation confirms that furosine can be used as an index of heat treatment intensity in the production of cooked ham.

  8. Muscle composition slightly affects in vitro digestion of aged and cooked meat: identification of associated proteomic markers.

    PubMed

    Bax, M-L; Sayd, T; Aubry, L; Ferreira, C; Viala, D; Chambon, C; Rémond, D; Santé-Lhoutellier, V

    2013-02-15

    Meat is an appropriate source of proteins and minerals for human nutrition. Technological treatments modify the physical-chemical properties of proteins, making them liable to decrease the nutritional potential of meat. To counteract this damage, antioxidants and chaperone proteins in muscle cells can prevent oxidation, restore the function of denatured proteins, and thus prevent aggregation. This study aimed to explore the impact of indoor vs outdoor-reared meat protein composition on digestion and to associate protein markers to in vitro digestion parameters. Indoor-reared meat tended to show less oxidation and denaturation than outdoor-reared meat and was characterised by an overexpression of contractile and chaperone proteins. Outdoor-reared meat showed amplification of antioxidant and detoxification metabolism defending against oxidised compounds. Impacts on digestion remained minor. Several protein markers of in vitro digestion parameters were found for aged and cooked meat, linked to the detoxification process and to muscle contraction.

  9. Meat and fish consumption and cancer in Canada.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinfu; La Vecchia, Carlo; DesMeules, Marie; Negri, Eva; Mery, Les

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined the association between meat and fish intake and the risk of various cancers. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 19,732 incident, histologically confirmed cases of cancer of the stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, lung, breast, ovary, prostate, testis, kidney, bladder, brain, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), and leukemia and 5,039 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in 8 Canadian provinces. Measurement included information on socioeconomic status, lifestyle habits, and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire provided data on eating habits 2 yr before data collection. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were derived through unconditional logistic regression. Total meat and processed meat were directly related to the risk of stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, lung, breast (mainly postmenopausal), prostate, testis, kidney, bladder, and leukemia. Red meat was significantly associated with colon, lung (mainly in men), and bladder cancer. No relation was observed for cancer of the ovary, brain, and NHL. No consistent excess risk emerged for fish and poultry, which were inversely related to the risk of a number of cancer sites. These findings add further evidence that meat, specifically red and processed meat, plays an unfavorable role in the risk of several cancers. Fish and poultry appear to be favorable diet indicators.

  10. Detection of the end point temperature of thermal denatured protein in fish and chicken meat through SDS-PAGE electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hongwei; Mao, Mao; Liang, Chengzhu; Lin, Chao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2009-03-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was applied in the detection of the end point temperature (EPT) of thermal denatured protein in fish and meat in this study. It was also used in studying the thermal denatured temperature range of proteins in salmon and chicken meat. The results show that the temperature ranges of denatured proteins were from 65°C to 75°C, and these temperature ranges were influenced by the processing methods. Through SDS-PAGE, the features of repeated heating thermal denatured proteins under the same temperature and processing time were studied. The electrophoresis patterns of thermal denatured proteins determined through repeated heating at the same temperature did not exhibit any change. For the detection of cooked fish and meat samples, they were subjected to applying the SDS-PAGE method, which revealed an EPT ranging from 60°C to 80°C.

  11. Rheological behaviour of commercial cooked meat products evaluated by tensile test and texture profile analysis (TPA).

    PubMed

    Romero de Ávila, M Dolores; Isabel Cambero, M; Ordóñez, Juan A; de la Hoz, Lorenzo; Herrero, Ana M

    2014-10-01

    The breaking strength (BS) and energy to fracture (EF) of commercial cooked meat products (CMP) manufactured from different entire pieces were determined by tensile test. BS and EF were related to texture profile analysis (TPA) and physico-chemical data. Two textural profiles were characterized mainly by BS, springiness adhesiveness and fat content. Multivariate regression analysis confirms that TPA parameters could be used to construct models to predict BS and EF. Therefore, just one TPA analysis will allow to obtain both TPA and tensile parameters, providing valuable information about mechanical behaviour to improve product handling at industrial level especially in sliced CMP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Consumption of Red Meat, but Not Cooking Oils High in Polyunsaturated Fat, Is Associated with Higher Arachidonic Acid Status in Singapore Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Seah, Jowy Yi Hoong; Gay, Gibson Ming Wei; Su, Jin; Tai, E-Shyong; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Ong, Choon Nam; van Dam, Rob M.

    2017-01-01

    High arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) status may have adverse effects on inflammation and risk of cardiovascular diseases. Concerns about high intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are based on the premise that endogenous conversion from linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6) is an important source of AA, but few population-based studies have investigated dietary determinants of AA status. In this study, we examined habitual food consumption in relation to plasma concentrations of AA and other PUFAs in population-based studies. We used cross-sectional data from 269 healthy, ethnic Chinese participants (25–80 years old) with contrasting intakes of fish and red meat from the Singapore Prospective Study Program and 769 healthy participants (44–74 years old) from the Singapore Chinese Health Study as a validation set. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine PUFA intake (% energy) and food sources of PUFA (fish, red meat, poultry, soy and cooking oils) in relation to plasma PUFAs (AA, LA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3n-6), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3)) concentrations. Higher intake of red meat was associated with higher plasma AA concentrations. High intake of PUFA or PUFA-rich oils was associated with higher plasma ALA but not with plasma AA. Higher intakes of soy were associated with higher ALA and fish with higher DHA and EPA concentrations. These associations were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in both studies. Red meat consumption, but not PUFA or PUFA-rich cooking oil, was associated with circulating AA suggesting that intake of pre-formed AA rather than LA is an important determinant of AA status. A diet high in fish, soy products and polyunsaturated cooking oil, and low in red meat may be associated with an optimal plasma profile of PUFA in this Chinese population. PMID:28146136

  13. Consumption of Red Meat, but Not Cooking Oils High in Polyunsaturated Fat, Is Associated with Higher Arachidonic Acid Status in Singapore Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Seah, Jowy Yi Hoong; Gay, Gibson Ming Wei; Su, Jin; Tai, E-Shyong; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Ong, Choon Nam; van Dam, Rob M

    2017-01-31

    High arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 n - 6) status may have adverse effects on inflammation and risk of cardiovascular diseases. Concerns about high intake of n - 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are based on the premise that endogenous conversion from linoleic acid (LA; 18:2 n - 6) is an important source of AA, but few population-based studies have investigated dietary determinants of AA status. In this study, we examined habitual food consumption in relation to plasma concentrations of AA and other PUFAs in population-based studies. We used cross-sectional data from 269 healthy, ethnic Chinese participants (25-80 years old) with contrasting intakes of fish and red meat from the Singapore Prospective Study Program and 769 healthy participants (44-74 years old) from the Singapore Chinese Health Study as a validation set. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine PUFA intake (% energy) and food sources of PUFA (fish, red meat, poultry, soy and cooking oils) in relation to plasma PUFAs (AA, LA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3 n - 6), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 n - 3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n - 3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n - 3)) concentrations. Higher intake of red meat was associated with higher plasma AA concentrations. High intake of PUFA or PUFA-rich oils was associated with higher plasma ALA but not with plasma AA. Higher intakes of soy were associated with higher ALA and fish with higher DHA and EPA concentrations. These associations were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in both studies. Red meat consumption, but not PUFA or PUFA-rich cooking oil, was associated with circulating AA suggesting that intake of pre-formed AA rather than LA is an important determinant of AA status. A diet high in fish, soy products and polyunsaturated cooking oil, and low in red meat may be associated with an optimal plasma profile of PUFA in this Chinese population.

  14. Bioactive Peptides from Muscle Sources: Meat and Fish

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Joseph Thomas; Ross, Reynolds Paul; Bolton, Declan; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Stanton, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive peptides have been identified in a range of foods, including plant, milk and muscle, e.g., beef, chicken, pork and fish muscle proteins. Bioactive peptides from food proteins offer major potential for incorporation into functional foods and nutraceuticals. The aim of this paper is to present an outline of the bioactive peptides identified in the muscle protein of meat to date, with a focus on muscle protein from domestic animals and fish. The majority of research on bioactives from meat sources has focused on angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant peptides. PMID:22254123

  15. Bioactive peptides from muscle sources: meat and fish.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph Thomas; Ross, Reynolds Paul; Bolton, Declan; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine

    2011-09-01

    Bioactive peptides have been identified in a range of foods, including plant, milk and muscle, e.g., beef, chicken, pork and fish muscle proteins. Bioactive peptides from food proteins offer major potential for incorporation into functional foods and nutraceuticals. The aim of this paper is to present an outline of the bioactive peptides identified in the muscle protein of meat to date, with a focus on muscle protein from domestic animals and fish. The majority of research on bioactives from meat sources has focused on angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant peptides.

  16. Comparison of flavor changes in cooked-refrigerated beef, pork and chicken meat patties.

    PubMed

    Rhee, K S; Anderson, L M; Sams, A R

    2005-10-01

    Beef and pork longissimus dorsi (LD) and semimembranosus (SM) and chicken breast (B) and thigh (T) muscles excised 24 h postmortem were ground by muscle/species group, formed into patties, pan-fried, refrigerated for 0, 3 or 6 days, and evaluated by a trained sensory panel for intensity of specific flavors. The rate of decline in species-specific natural meat flavor intensity and the rate of increase in "cardboard" (CBD) flavor intensity during the first half of the 6-day storage were fastest for beef, while such decline and increase during the entire storage period were slowest for chicken B. Overall trends of natural meat flavor and CBD intensity changes for chicken T appeared more like those for the red meats than chicken B. It was concluded that, while flavor deterioration can occur in cooked-stored meats from all the species, quantitative or the magnitude of differences between species would depend on muscle types and sensory terms/method used.

  17. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation of Raw and Cooked Meat of Korean Native Chickens and Other Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Muhlisin; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Ji Hye; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe antioxidant enzyme activity, iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chickens and other poultry. The breast and thigh meat of three Korean native chicken breeds including Woorimatdak, Hyunin black and Yeonsan ogye, and three commercial poultry breeds including the broiler, White Leghorn and Pekin duck (Anasplatyrhyncos domesticus) were studied. The analyses of the antioxidant enzymes activity, iron content and lipid oxidation were performed in raw and cooked samples. The activity of catalase (CAT) in the thigh meat was higher than that of the breast meat of three Korean native chickens and the broiler, respectively. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the uncooked thigh meat of three Korean native chickens was higher than that of the breasts. The breast meat of Woorimatdak and Pekin duck had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than the others, while only the thigh meat of Pekin duck had the highest activity. Cooking inactivated CAT and decreased the activity of GPx and SOD. The thigh meat of Woorimatdak, White Leghorn, Yeonsan ogye and Hyunin black contained more total iron than the breast meat of those breeds. The heme-iron lost during cooking ranged from 3.2% to 14.8%. It is noted that the thigh meat had higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values than the breast in all chicken breeds. Though Woorimatdak showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and lower released-iron percentage among Korean native chickens, no differences were found on lipid oxidation. We confirm that the dark meat of poultry exhibited higher antioxidant enzyme activity and contained more iron than the white meat. PMID:26954148

  18. Effects of cooking on radiocesium in fish from the Savannah River: exposure differences for the public.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gaines, Karen F; Boring, C Shane; Snodgrass, J; Stephens, W L; Gochfeld, M

    2004-02-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to the risk from fish consumption is an important public health concern because of potential adverse effects of radionuclides, organochlorines, other pesticides, and mercury. Risk from consumption is normally computed on the basis of contaminant levels in fish, meal frequency, and meal size, yet cooking practices may also affect risk. This study examines the effect of deep-frying on radiocesium (137Cs) levels and risk to people fishing along the Savannah River. South Carolina and Georgia have issued consumption advisories for the Savannah River, based partly on 137Cs. 137Cs levels were significantly higher in the cooked fish compared to the raw fish on a wet weight basis. Mean 137Cs levels were 0.61 pCi/g (wet weight basis) in raw fish, 0.81 pCi/g in cooked-breaded, and 0.99 pCi/g in cooked-unbreaded fish. Deep-frying with and without breading resulted in a weight loss of 25 and 39%, while 137Cs levels increased by 32 and 62%, respectively. Therefore, the differences were due mainly to weight loss during cooking. However, the data suggest that risk assessments should be based on cooked portion size for contaminant analysis, or the risk from 137Cs in fish will be underestimated. People are likely to estimate the amounts of fish they eat based on a meal size of the cooked portion, while risk assessors determine 137Cs levels in raw fish. A conversion factor of at least two for 137Cs increase during cooking is reasonable and conservative, given the variability in 137Cs levels. The data also suggest that surveys determining consumption should specifically ask about portion size before or after cooking and state which was used in their methods.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids, nutrient retention values, and sensory meat eating quality in cooked and raw Australian lamb.

    PubMed

    Flakemore, Aaron Ross; Malau-Aduli, Bunmi Sherifat; Nichols, Peter David; Malau-Aduli, Aduli Enoch Othniel

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated omega-3 intramuscular fatty acids in the longissimus thoracis et lumborum of commercially prepared Australian lamb loin chops. Meats, denuded of external fats were cooked by means of conductive dry-heat using a fry grilling hot plate, to a core temperature of 70°C. An untrained consumer panel assessed meat appearance, aroma, tenderness, juiciness, taste and overall liking. Results showed no compositional alterations (P>0.05) to omega-3 fatty acids due to cooking treatment, whereas on absolute terms (mg/100g muscle) omega-3 fatty acids significantly (P<0.05) increased. The mean EPA+DHA content of the cooked meat at 32.8±2.3mg/100g muscle exceeded the minimum 30mg/100g per edible portion required for the defined Australian classification as 'source' long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 for cooked lamb. A 3.4% intramuscular fat content in the initial raw meat was sufficient to maintain acceptable overall sensory eating quality. Results endorse the application of this cooking method to enable delivery of health beneficial long-chain omega-3 fatty acids of commercially prepared Australian lamb loin chops to consumers without impediments to sensory eating properties.

  20. Antioxidant Effect of Extracts from the Coffee Residue in Raw and Cooked Meat

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Ahn, Dong Uk; Eun, Jong Bang; Moon, Sun Hee

    2016-01-01

    The residue of ground coffee obtained after the brewing process (spent coffee) still contains various functional components with high antioxidant capacity and health benefits, but no attempts have been made to use it as a resource to produce value-added food ingredients. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of ethanol or hot water extracts from the residues of coffee after brewing. An extraction experiment was carried out using the conventional solid–liquid methods, including ethanol and water as the extraction media at different temperatures and liquid/solid ratios. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested for total phenolic compound (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) using oil emulsion and raw/cooked meat systems. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extracts with heating (HEE) and without heating (CEE) were higher than that of the hot water extracts (WE). The highest DPPH value of HEE and CEE at 1000 ppm was 91.22% and 90.21%, respectively. In oil emulsion and raw/cooked systems, both the water and ethanol extracts had similar antioxidant effects to the positive control (BHA), but HEE and CEE extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than WE extract. These results indicated that the ethanol extracts of coffee residue have a strong antioxidant activity and have the potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat. PMID:27384587

  1. Capillarity proposed as the predominant mechanism of water and fat stabilization in cooked comminuted meat batters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjie; Lanier, Tyre C; Osborne, Jason A

    2016-01-01

    Fat- and nonfat-containing meat gels structurally became coarser and porous by partial substitution of whey protein isolate for myofibrillar protein, creating a weaker texture plus greater cook loss (CL: fat+water) and expressible water (EW). Microstructure examinations revealed a tendency for fat to coalesce during cooking of the more coarse-structured gels. This tendency was unaffected by fat pre-emulsification prior to addition, arguing against a strong role of an interfacial protein film in stabilizing fat. Instead, a gel structure with evenly distributed small pores leads to lower CL and EW, thus controlling both water- and fat- holding since fat cannot readily permeate small water-filled hydrophilic pores. Only when large pores or continuous fissures are structurally present can water be released, allowing liquid fat to also migrate and coalesce. This changes the current paradigm of understanding regarding the mechanism of fat/water-holding in comminuted meat products: gel capillarity (gel structure), not fat emulsifying ability of protein, is the likely determining factor.

  2. Antioxidant Effect of Extracts from the Coffee Residue in Raw and Cooked Meat.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Ahn, Dong Uk; Eun, Jong Bang; Moon, Sun Hee

    2016-07-04

    The residue of ground coffee obtained after the brewing process (spent coffee) still contains various functional components with high antioxidant capacity and health benefits, but no attempts have been made to use it as a resource to produce value-added food ingredients. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of ethanol or hot water extracts from the residues of coffee after brewing. An extraction experiment was carried out using the conventional solid-liquid methods, including ethanol and water as the extraction media at different temperatures and liquid/solid ratios. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested for total phenolic compound (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) using oil emulsion and raw/cooked meat systems. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extracts with heating (HEE) and without heating (CEE) were higher than that of the hot water extracts (WE). The highest DPPH value of HEE and CEE at 1000 ppm was 91.22% and 90.21%, respectively. In oil emulsion and raw/cooked systems, both the water and ethanol extracts had similar antioxidant effects to the positive control (BHA), but HEE and CEE extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than WE extract. These results indicated that the ethanol extracts of coffee residue have a strong antioxidant activity and have the potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat.

  3. Cooking temperature is a key determinant of in vitro meat protein digestion rate: investigation of underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bax, Marie-Laure; Aubry, Laurent; Ferreira, Claude; Daudin, Jean-Dominique; Gatellier, Philippe; Rémond, Didier; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2012-03-14

    The present study aimed to evaluate the digestion rate and nutritional quality of pig muscle proteins in relation to different meat processes (aging, mincing, and cooking). Under our experimental conditions, aging and mincing had little impact on protein digestion. Heat treatments had different temperature-dependent effects on the meat protein digestion rate and degradation potential. At 70 °C, the proteins underwent denaturation that enhanced the speed of pepsin digestion by increasing enzyme accessibility to protein cleavage sites. Above 100 °C, oxidation-related protein aggregation slowed pepsin digestion but improved meat protein overall digestibility. The digestion parameters defined here open new insights on the dynamics governing the in vitro digestion of meat protein. However, the effect of cooking temperature on protein digestion observed in vitro needs to be confirmed in vivo.

  4. Proteomic Investigation of Protein Profile Changes and Amino Acid Residue Level Modification in Cooked Lamb Meat: The Effect of Boiling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tzer-Yang; Morton, James D; Clerens, Stefan; Dyer, Jolon M

    2015-10-21

    Hydrothermal treatment (heating in water) is a common method of general food processing and preparation. For red-meat-based foods, boiling is common; however, how the molecular level effects of this treatment correlate to the overall food properties is not yet well-understood. The effects of differing boiling times on lamb meat and the resultant cooking water were here examined through proteomic evaluation. The longer boiling time was found to result in increased protein aggregation involving particularly proteins such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, as well as truncation in proteins such as in α-actinin-2. Heat-induced protein backbone cleavage was observed adjacent to aspartic acid and asparagine residues. Side-chain modifications of amino acid residues resulting from the heating, including oxidation of phenylalanine and formation of carboxyethyllysine, were characterized in the cooked samples. Actin and myoglobin bands from the cooked meat per se remained visible on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, even after significant cooking time. These proteins were also found to be the major source of observed heat-induced modifications. This study provides new insights into molecular-level modifications occurring in lamb meat proteins during boiling and a protein chemistry basis for better understanding the effect of this common treatment on the nutritional and functional properties of red-meat-based foods.

  5. Meat intake, cooking methods, dietary carcinogens, and colorectal cancer risk: findings from the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Amit D; Kim, Andre; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Potter, John D; Cotterchio, Michelle; Le Marchand, Loic; Stern, Mariana C

    2015-01-01

    Diets high in red meat and processed meats are established colorectal cancer (CRC) risk factors. However, it is still not well understood what explains this association. We conducted comprehensive analyses of CRC risk and red meat and poultry intakes, taking into account cooking methods, level of doneness, estimated intakes of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) that accumulate during meat cooking, tumor location, and tumor mismatch repair proficiency (MMR) status. We analyzed food frequency and portion size data including a meat cooking module for 3364 CRC cases, 1806 unaffected siblings, 136 unaffected spouses, and 1620 unaffected population-based controls, recruited into the CRC Family Registry. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for nutrient density variables were estimated using generalized estimating equations. We found no evidence of an association between total nonprocessed red meat or total processed meat and CRC risk. Our main finding was a positive association with CRC for pan-fried beefsteak (Ptrend < 0.001), which was stronger among MMR deficient cases (heterogeneity P = 0.059). Other worth noting associations, of borderline statistical significance after multiple testing correction, were a positive association between diets high in oven-broiled short ribs or spareribs and CRC risk (Ptrend = 0.002), which was also stronger among MMR-deficient cases, and an inverse association with grilled hamburgers (Ptrend = 0.002). Our results support the role of specific meat types and cooking practices as possible sources of human carcinogens relevant for CRC risk. PMID:25846122

  6. Meat intake, cooking methods, dietary carcinogens, and colorectal cancer risk: findings from the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Amit D; Kim, Andre; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Potter, John D; Cotterchio, Michelle; Le Marchand, Loic; Stern, Mariana C

    2015-06-01

    Diets high in red meat and processed meats are established colorectal cancer (CRC) risk factors. However, it is still not well understood what explains this association. We conducted comprehensive analyses of CRC risk and red meat and poultry intakes, taking into account cooking methods, level of doneness, estimated intakes of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) that accumulate during meat cooking, tumor location, and tumor mismatch repair proficiency (MMR) status. We analyzed food frequency and portion size data including a meat cooking module for 3364 CRC cases, 1806 unaffected siblings, 136 unaffected spouses, and 1620 unaffected population-based controls, recruited into the CRC Family Registry. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for nutrient density variables were estimated using generalized estimating equations. We found no evidence of an association between total nonprocessed red meat or total processed meat and CRC risk. Our main finding was a positive association with CRC for pan-fried beefsteak (P(trend) < 0.001), which was stronger among MMR deficient cases (heterogeneity P = 0.059). Other worth noting associations, of borderline statistical significance after multiple testing correction, were a positive association between diets high in oven-broiled short ribs or spareribs and CRC risk (P(trend) = 0.002), which was also stronger among MMR-deficient cases, and an inverse association with grilled hamburgers (P(trend) = 0.002). Our results support the role of specific meat types and cooking practices as possible sources of human carcinogens relevant for CRC risk. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effects of Tannic Acid on Lipid and Protein Oxidation, Color, and Volatiles of Raw and Cooked Chicken Breast Meat during Storage.

    PubMed

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-06-13

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tannic acid (TA) on the oxidative stability and the quality characteristics of ground chicken breast meat. Five treatments including (1) control (none added), (2) 2.5 ppm TA, (3) 5 ppm TA, (4) 10 ppm TA, and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were added to boneless, skinless ground chicken breast meat, and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For the raw meat study, the ground chicken breast meat was packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored at 4 °C for 7 days. For the cooked study, raw ground meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags, cooked in-bag to the internal temperature of 75 °C, re-packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, and then stored. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, color, and volatiles (cooked meat only) at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Raw meats with 10 ppm of TA added had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower lipid and protein oxidation than other treatments during storage. In addition, TA at 10 ppm level maintained the highest color a*- and L*-values during storage. Cooked chicken breast meat with 5 and 10 ppm TA added produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower amounts of off-odor volatiles than other treatments. Among the volatile compounds, the amount of hexanal increased rapidly during storage for cooked meat. However, meats with 5 and 10 ppm TA added showed the lowest amount of hexanal and other aldehydes related to lipid oxidation, indicating a strong antioxidant effect of TA in cooked chicken breast meat. Furthermore, the differences in aldehydes among the treatments were bigger in cooked than in raw meat, indicating that the antioxidant effect of TA in cooked meat was greater than that in raw meat. Therefore, TA at >5 ppm can be used as a good natural preservative in cooked chicken meat to maintain its quality during storage.

  8. Effects of Tannic Acid on Lipid and Protein Oxidation, Color, and Volatiles of Raw and Cooked Chicken Breast Meat during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tannic acid (TA) on the oxidative stability and the quality characteristics of ground chicken breast meat. Five treatments including (1) control (none added), (2) 2.5 ppm TA, (3) 5 ppm TA, (4) 10 ppm TA, and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were added to boneless, skinless ground chicken breast meat, and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For the raw meat study, the ground chicken breast meat was packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored at 4 °C for 7 days. For the cooked study, raw ground meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags, cooked in-bag to the internal temperature of 75 °C, re-packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, and then stored. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, color, and volatiles (cooked meat only) at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Raw meats with 10 ppm of TA added had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower lipid and protein oxidation than other treatments during storage. In addition, TA at 10 ppm level maintained the highest color a*- and L*-values during storage. Cooked chicken breast meat with 5 and 10 ppm TA added produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower amounts of off-odor volatiles than other treatments. Among the volatile compounds, the amount of hexanal increased rapidly during storage for cooked meat. However, meats with 5 and 10 ppm TA added showed the lowest amount of hexanal and other aldehydes related to lipid oxidation, indicating a strong antioxidant effect of TA in cooked chicken breast meat. Furthermore, the differences in aldehydes among the treatments were bigger in cooked than in raw meat, indicating that the antioxidant effect of TA in cooked meat was greater than that in raw meat. Therefore, TA at >5 ppm can be used as a good natural preservative in cooked chicken meat to maintain its quality during storage. PMID:27304971

  9. A review and meta-analysis of prospective studies of red and processed meat, meat cooking methods, heme iron, heterocyclic amines and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Bylsma, Lauren C; Alexander, Dominik D

    2015-12-21

    Prostate cancer remains a significant public health concern among men in the U.S. and worldwide. Epidemiologic studies have generally produced inconclusive results for dietary risk factors for prostate cancer, including consumption of red and processed meats. We aimed to update a previous meta-analysis of prospective cohorts of red and processed meats and prostate cancer with the inclusion of new and updated cohort studies, as well as evaluate meat cooking methods, heme iron, and heterocyclic amine (HCA) intake exposure data. A comprehensive literature search was performed and 26 publications from 19 different cohort studies were included. Random effects models were used to calculate summary relative risk estimates (SRREs) for high vs. low exposure categories. Additionally, meta-regression analyses and stratified intake analyses were conducted to evaluate dose-response relationships. The SRREs for total prostate cancer and total red meat consumption, fresh red meat consumption, and processed meat consumption were 1.02 (95% CI: 0.92-1.12), 1.06 (95% CI: 0.97-1.16), and 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01-1.10), respectively. Analyses were also conducted for the outcomes of non-advanced, advanced, and fatal prostate cancer when sufficient data were available, but these analyses did not produce significant results. No significant SRREs were observed for any of the meat cooking methods, HCA, or heme iron analyses. Dose-response analyses did not reveal significant patterns of associations between red or processed meat and prostate cancer. In conclusion, the results from our analyses do not support an association between red meat or processed consumption and prostate cancer, although we observed a weak positive summary estimate for processed meats.

  10. Analysis and Optimization of the Production Process of Cooked Sausage Meat Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, L.; Rauh, C.; Delgado, A.

    2010-09-01

    In the production of cooked sausages a critical step for product quality is the cutting process, where the comminuting and mixing of meat, fat, ice and spices are carried out. These processes take usually place in bowl cutters, which main control parameters are the working time, knife geometry (shape and sharpness) and rotational velocities of the knives and the bowl. The choice of the geometry and sharpness of the knives influences not only the meat matrix properties (mechanical, rheological, etc.) and, as a consequence, the sensory value of the sausages (size of connective tissue particles, water binding, etc.), but also the energetic demand for the production. However, the cutting process proves to be understood only fragmentarily due to the complex colloid chemical and mechanical behavior of the product. This is documented on the one hand by numerous knife types on the market, extremely empirical approach during determination of geometry and process parameters in practice as well as, on the other hand, by contradictory statements and explanation approaches of observed phenomena present in literature. The present contribution applies numerical simulations to analyze thermo fluid mechanical phenomena, e.g. shear stresses, during the cutting process of the non-Newtonian meat matrix. Combining these results with selected experimental investigations from literature, e.g. sensory properties, knife geometry, velocity of the knife and bowl, improvements of the cutting and mixing process are proposed using cognitive algorithms (Artificial neural networks) aiming at an optimization regarding energy and time demand and product quality.

  11. Ochratoxin A in raw materials and cooked meat products made from OTA-treated pigs.

    PubMed

    Perši, Nina; Pleadin, Jelka; Kovačević, Dragan; Scortichini, Giampiero; Milone, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine ochratoxin A (OTA) concentrations in the raw materials and cooked meat products made from pigs sub-chronically exposed to OTA. The treated animal group (n=5) was administered with 300 μg OTA/kg of feed for 30 days, whereas the control group (n=5) was left untreated. OTA concentrations were quantified using immunoassay (ELISA) and high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD). OTA concentration was the highest in the kidney, followed by the lungs, liver, blood, spleen, heart, and adipose tissue. As for the final meat products, the highest average OTA concentration was detected in black pudding sausages (14.02±2.75 μg/kg), then in liver sausages (13.77±3.92 μg/kg), while the lowest was found in pâté (9.33±2.66 μg/kg). The results pointed out that a sub-chronic pig exposure leads to the accumulation of OTA in raw materials and consequently in meat products, whose level of contamination is directly dependent on OTA contents in raw materials used for their production.

  12. Meat processing and colon carcinogenesis: cooked, nitrite-treated, and oxidized high-heme cured meat promotes mucin-depleted foci in rats.

    PubMed

    Santarelli, Raphaëlle L; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Viau, Michelle; Genot, Claude; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2010-07-01

    Processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but no experimental study supports the epidemiologic evidence. To study the effect of meat processing on carcinogenesis promotion, we first did a 14-day study with 16 models of cured meat. Studied factors, in a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 design, were muscle color (a proxy for heme level), processing temperature, added nitrite, and packaging. Fischer 344 rats were fed these 16 diets, and we evaluated fecal and urinary fat oxidation and cytotoxicity, three biomarkers of heme-induced carcinogenesis promotion. A principal component analysis allowed for selection of four cured meats for inclusion into a promotion study. These selected diets were given for 100 days to rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Colons were scored for preneoplastic lesions: aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF). Cured meat diets significantly increased the number of ACF/colon compared with a no-meat control diet (P = 0.002). Only the cooked nitrite-treated and oxidized high-heme meat significantly increased the fecal level of apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) and the number of MDF per colon compared with the no-meat control diet (P < 0.05). This nitrite-treated and oxidized cured meat specifically increased the MDF number compared with similar nonnitrite-treated meat (P = 0.03) and with similar nonoxidized meat (P = 0.004). Thus, a model cured meat, similar to ham stored aerobically, increased the number of preneoplastic lesions, which suggests colon carcinogenesis promotion. Nitrite treatment and oxidation increased this promoting effect, which was linked with increased fecal ATNC level. This study could lead to process modifications to make nonpromoting processed meat. 2010 AACR.

  13. Meat processing and colon carcinogenesis: cooked, nitrite-treated, and oxidized high-heme cured meat promotes mucin-depleted foci in rats

    PubMed Central

    Santarelli, Raphaëlle L; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Viau, Michelle; Genot, Claude; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2010-01-01

    Processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but no experimental study supports the epidemiologic evidence. To study the effect of meat processing on carcinogenesis promotion, we first did a 14-day study with 16 models of cured meat. Studied factors, in a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 design, were muscle color (a proxy for heme level), processing temperature, added nitrite, and packaging. Fischer 344 rats were fed these 16 diets, and we evaluated fecal and urinary fat oxidation and cytotoxicity, three biomarkers of heme-induced carcinogenesis promotion. A principal component analysis allowed for selection of four cured meats for inclusion into a promotion study. These selected diets were given for 100 days to rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Colons were scored for preneoplastic lesions: aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF). Cured meat diets significantly increased the number of ACF/colon compared with a no-meat control diet (P = 0.002). Only the cooked nitrite-treated and oxidized high heme meat significantly increased the fecal level of apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) and the number of MDF per colon compared with the no-meat control diet (P < 0.05). This nitrite-treated and oxidized cured meat specifically increased the MDF number compared with similar non nitrite-treated meat (P = 0.03) and with similar non oxidized meat (P = 0.004). Thus, a model cured meat, similar to ham stored aerobically, increased the number of preneoplastic lesions, which suggests colon carcinogenesis promotion. Nitrite treatment and oxidation increased this promoting effect, which was linked with increased fecal ATNC level. This study could lead to process modifications to make non promoting processed meat. PMID:20530708

  14. Microwave sensing for meat and fish structure evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerjon, S.; Damez, J. L.

    2007-04-01

    Monitoring changes in muscle structure during the ageing of bovine meat and quality loss due to fish freezing are major industrial challenges. During ageing, bovine muscle becomes tender through muscle fibre deterioration, and full control of this process is essential. Conversely, degradation of fish muscle, often due to long storage or a freezing cycle, lowers quality. To improve competitiveness, and to respond to consumer quality demand, muscle structure needs to be evaluated in-line. We present here a polarimetric microwave method (10-24 GHz) consisting in free space and contact reflection coefficient measurements using a horn antenna and rectangular probes, respectively. This method is based on the measurement of dielectric properties of tissues parallel and perpendicular to muscle fibre directions. The dielectric properties of structured tissues such as muscles are anisotropic, but during processing structural disorganization reduces this anisotropy. The method is illustrated by the discrimination of fresh and frozen-thawed fish fillets and by monitoring of meat ageing.

  15. Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Najam ul; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor), and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy. PMID:23202222

  16. Preliminary investigation on the relationship of Raman spectra of sheep meat with shear force and cooking loss.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Heinar; Scheier, Rico; Hopkins, David L

    2013-01-01

    A prototype handheld Raman system was used as a rapid non-invasive optical device to measure raw sheep meat to estimate cooked meat tenderness and cooking loss. Raman measurements were conducted on m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum samples from two sheep flocks from two different origins which had been aged for five days at 3-4°C before deep freezing and further analysis. The Raman data of 140 samples were correlated with shear force and cooking loss data using PLS regression. Both sample origins could be discriminated and separate correlation models yielded better correlations than the joint correlation model. For shear force, R(2)=0.79 and R(2)=0.86 were obtained for the two sites. Results for cooking loss were comparable: separate models yielded R(2)=0.79 and R(2)=0.83 for the two sites. The results show the potential usefulness of Raman spectra which can be recorded during meat processing for the prediction of quality traits such as tenderness and cooking loss.

  17. Using a 3D profiler and infrared camera to monitor oven loading in fully cooked meat operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, John; Giorges, Aklilu

    2009-05-01

    Ensuring meat is fully cooked is an important food safety issue for operations that produce "ready to eat" products. In order to kill harmful pathogens like Salmonella, all of the product must reach a minimum threshold temperature. Producers typically overcook the majority of the product to ensure meat in the most difficult scenario reaches the desired temperature. A difficult scenario can be caused by an especially thick piece of meat or by a surge of product into the process. Overcooking wastes energy, degrades product quality, lowers the maximum throughput rate of the production line and decreases product yield. At typical production rates of 6000lbs/hour, these losses from overcooking can have a significant cost impact on producers. A wide area 3D camera coupled with a thermal camera was used to measure the thermal mass variability of chicken breasts in a cooking process. Several types of variability are considered including time varying thermal mass (mass x temperature / time), variation in individual product geometry and variation in product temperature. The automatic identification of product arrangement issues that affect cooking such as overlapping product and folded products is also addressed. A thermal model is used along with individual product geometry and oven cook profiles to predict the percentage of product that will be overcooked and to identify products that may not fully cook in a given process.

  18. Significance of Cooking Oil to Bioaccessibility of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Raw and Cooked Fish: Implications for Human Health Risk.

    PubMed

    Mi, Xiu-Bo; Su, Yang; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2017-04-26

    The present study examined the bioacessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in cooked fish (yellow grouper; Epinephelus awoara) with and without heating using the colon extended physiologically based extraction test. The bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs increased from 60 and 26% in raw fish to 83 and 63%, respectively, after the addition of oil to raw fish. However, they decreased from 83 to 66% and from 63 to 40%, respectively, when oil-added fish were cooked. Human health risk assessment based on bioaccessible concentrations of DDTs and PBDEs in fish showed that the maximum allowable daily fish consumption rates decreased from 25, 59, and 86 g day(-1) to 22, 53, and 77 g day(-1) for children, youths, and adults, respectively, after fish were cooked with oil. These findings indicated that the significance of cooking oil to the bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in food should be considered in assessments of human health risk.

  19. Evaluation of hygiene practices and microbiological quality of cooked meat products during slicing and handling at retail.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, F; Castro, R; Posada-Izquierdo, G D; Valero, A; Carrasco, E; García-Gimeno, R M; Zurera, G

    2010-10-01

    Cooked meat ready-to-eat products are recognized to be contaminated during slicing which, in the last years, has been associated with several outbreaks. This work aimed to find out possible relation between the hygiene practice taking place at retail point during slicing of cooked meat products in small and medium-sized establishments (SMEs) and large-sized establishments (LEs) and the microbiological quality of sliced cooked meat products. For that, a checklist was drawn up and filled in based on scoring handling practice during slicing in different establishments in Cordoba (Southern Spain). In addition, sliced cooked meats were analyzed for different microbiological indicators and investigated for the presence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Results indicated that SMEs showed a more deficient handling practices compared to LEs. In spite of these differences, microbiological counts indicated similar microbiological quality in cooked meat samples for both types of establishments. On the other hand, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria inocua were isolated from 7.35% (5/68) and 8.82% (6/68) of analyzed samples, respectively. Positive samples for Listeria spp. were found in establishments which showed acceptable hygiene levels, though contamination could be associated to the lack of exclusiveness of slicers at retail points. Moreover, Listeria spp presence could not be statistically linked to any microbiological parameters; however, it was observed that seasonality influenced significantly (P<0.05) L. monocytogenes presence, being all samples found during warm season (5/5). As a conclusion, results suggested that more effort should be made to adequately educate handlers in food hygiene practices, focused specially on SMEs.

  20. A survey of commercially available broilers marketed as organic, free-range, and conventional broilers for cooked meat yields, meat composition, and relative value.

    PubMed

    Husak, R L; Sebranek, J G; Bregendahl, K

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this survey was to investigate qualitative and quantitative properties of meat from organic, free-range, and conventional broilers as currently provided to consumers. Fifteen broilers from 4 suppliers of each type were evaluated for raw meat yield, cooked meat yield, proximate composition, pH, color, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition, and sensory attributes. Organic broilers yielded more dark (thigh) meat (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional, when compared on a raw-meat basis, but conventional and free-range broilers yielded more (P < 0.05) cooked light (breast) meat than organic. Protein content of organic breast and thigh meat was greater (P < 0.05) than conventional in the raw and the cooked meat comparisons. The pH of breast meat from organic broilers was higher (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional. Organic breast and thigh meat was less yellow (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional. Fatty acid analysis showed that organic breasts and thighs were lower (P < 0.05) in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and higher (P < 0.05) in polyunsaturated fatty acids than free-range and conventional broilers. Shear force measurements were less (P < 0.05) for both breast and thigh meat from conventional broilers relative to free-range and organic broilers. Sensory panel results indicated that thighs from conventional broilers were more tender (P < 0.05) and less chewy (P < 0.05) than thighs from free-range and organic broilers, whereas other sensory properties did not differ. At the time of the study, March through May of 2006, the average retail prices for US broilers were USD 3.19, USD 2.78, and USD 1.29 per pound (USD 7.03, USD 6.13, and USD 2.84/kg) for organic, free-range, and conventional, respectively. Whereas a difference in the fatty acid composition was the largest difference observed between retail broilers in this survey, it is important to note that diets and production environments within the study were not controlled

  1. New automated microwave heating process for cooking and pasteurization of microwaveable foods containing raw meats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lihan; Sites, Joseph

    2010-03-01

    A new microwave heating process was developed for cooking microwaveable foods containing raw meats. A commercially available inverter-based microwave oven was modified for pasteurization of mechanically tenderized beef, inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (approximately 5 log(10) CFU/g) and packaged in a 12-oz CPET tray containing 150-mL de-ionized water. The new microwave heating system was equipped with an infrared sensor and a proportional feedback mechanism to allow temperature controlled microwave heating. A 2-stage heating strategy was adopted to cook the product. In the primary heating stage, the sample surface temperature was increased to an initial temperature set-point (ITSP, 65, 70, 75, or 80 degrees C). In the secondary heating stage, the heating was continued with a small fraction of microwave power. The effect of ITSP, hold time (0 to 3 min), and sample elevation (0, 0.03, and 0.07 m above turntable) on inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and background microflora was evaluated. It was observed that only a small number (approximately 1.3 logs) of E. coli O157:H7 and background microflora were inactivated in the primary heating stage. The elevation 0.07 m, which was in the proximity of the geometric center of the metal cavity, was more effective in inactivating both E. coli O157:H7 and background microflora. Substantially more bacteria were inactivated in the secondary heating stage. Complete inactivation of E. coli and background microflora was observed with heating at temperatures above 70 degrees C for more than 1 min. This study demonstrated a new approach for ensuring the safety of microwaveable products containing raw meats.

  2. Relationship between the solubility, dosage and antioxidant capacity of carnosic acid in raw and cooked ground buffalo meat patties and chicken patties.

    PubMed

    Naveena, B M; Vaithiyanathan, S; Muthukumar, M; Sen, A R; Kumar, Y Praveen; Kiran, M; Shaju, V A; Chandran, K Ramesh

    2013-10-01

    Antioxidant capacity of oil soluble and water dispersible carnosic acid (CA) extracted from dried rosemary leaves using HPLC was evaluated at two different dosages (22.5 ppm vs 130 ppm) in raw and cooked ground buffalo meat patties and chicken patties. Irrespective of total phenolic content, CA extracts reduced (p<0.05) the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) by 39%-47% and 37%-40% in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties at lower dosage (22.5 ppm) relative to control samples. However, at higher dosage (130 ppm) the TBARS values were reduced (p<0.05) by 86%-96% and 78%-87% in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties compared to controls. The CA extracts were also effective in inhibiting (p<0.05) peroxide value and free fatty acids in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties. The CA extracts when used at higher dosage, were also effective in stabilizing raw buffalo meat color.

  3. Prevalence of Foodborne Pathogens in Cooked Meat and Seafood from 2010 to 2013 in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Hua-Ning; HOU, Pei-Bin; CHEN, Yu-Zhen; MA, Yu; LI, Xin-Peng; LV, Hui; WANG, Mei; TAN, Hai-Lian; BI, Zhen-Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current food safety issues are deleteriously reshaping the lifestyle of the population in the developing world. The globalization of food supply impacts patterns of foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, and consumers are having increased concern about microbiological food safety. Methods: A total of 2305 samples including sauced meat, sausage, smoked meat, shrimp, sashimi and shellfish were collected from different farmer’s markets and supermarkets. The prevalence of selected foodborne pathogens was evaluated in cooked meat and seafood from 2010 to 2013 in Shandong Province, China. Results: The average contamination rate was 6.39% (93.1456) for the selected pathogens in cooked meat and 16.84% (143.849) for V. parahaemolyticus in seafood. For the selected pathogens, 0.55%, 1.03%, 1.17%, 3.64% and 16.84% samples were contaminated with E.coli O157: H7, Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and VP, respectively. There was a significant (P<0.05) difference in the contamination rate between the farmer’s markets and supermarkets. Conclusion: The contamination was decreasing in cooked meat and maintaining a relatively high level in seafood from 2010 to 2013. E. coli O157: H7, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. existed at a relatively low rate in retail foods. For VP, the contamination rate has been maintained at a relatively high level in Shandong Province in China. Moreover, cooked meat and seafood obtained from farmer’s markets are more susceptible to be contaminated compared to those from supermarkets. PMID:28053923

  4. Effect of storage and cooking on the fatty acid profile of omega-3 enriched eggs and pork meat marketed in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Douny, Caroline; El Khoury, Rawad; Delmelle, Julien; Brose, François; Degand, Guy; Moula, Nassim; Farnir, Frédéric; Clinquart, Antoine; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acids (FA) profile was determined in n-3 enriched (Columbus™) Belgian eggs and pork in order to evaluate to what extent the n-3 fatty acids, which are very sensitive to oxidation, are resistant to storage or cooking. In standard eggs or pork, no change of the fatty acid profile was observed after storage or cooking without culinary fat, as well as in Columbus™ eggs and pork after storage. Some cooking processes (eggs in custard and meat in oven) induced a slight significant loss of n-3 fatty acids in Columbus™ eggs or pork (11.1% in fat from eggs cooked in custard vs. 15.3% in raw Columbus™ eggs and 11.0% in fat from oven cooked meat vs. 11.6% in raw Columbus™ meat). As expected, when Columbus™ pork is cooked with culinary fat, its fatty acid profile is modified according to the nature of the fat used. PMID:25838892

  5. Effect of storage and cooking on the fatty acid profile of omega-3 enriched eggs and pork meat marketed in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Douny, Caroline; El Khoury, Rawad; Delmelle, Julien; Brose, François; Degand, Guy; Moula, Nassim; Farnir, Frédéric; Clinquart, Antoine; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2015-03-01

    The fatty acids (FA) profile was determined in n-3 enriched (Columbus™) Belgian eggs and pork in order to evaluate to what extent the n-3 fatty acids, which are very sensitive to oxidation, are resistant to storage or cooking. In standard eggs or pork, no change of the fatty acid profile was observed after storage or cooking without culinary fat, as well as in Columbus™ eggs and pork after storage. Some cooking processes (eggs in custard and meat in oven) induced a slight significant loss of n-3 fatty acids in Columbus™ eggs or pork (11.1% in fat from eggs cooked in custard vs. 15.3% in raw Columbus™ eggs and 11.0% in fat from oven cooked meat vs. 11.6% in raw Columbus™ meat). As expected, when Columbus™ pork is cooked with culinary fat, its fatty acid profile is modified according to the nature of the fat used.

  6. Effect of cooking method on carnosine and its homologues, pentosidine and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance contents in beef and turkey meat.

    PubMed

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Medana, Claudio; Visentin, Sonja; Dal Bello, Federica; Meineri, Giorgia

    2012-05-01

    Commercial samples of beef and turkey meat were prepared by commonly used cooking methods with standard cooking times: (1) broiled at 200°C for 10min, (2) broiled at a medium temperature (140°C) for 10min, (3) cooked by microwave (MW) for 3min and then grilled (MW/grill) for 7min, (4) cooked in a domestic microwave oven for 10min, and (5) boiled in water for 10min. The raw and cooked meats were then analysed to determine the carnosine, anserine, homocarnosine, pentosidine, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) contents. It was observed that boiling beef caused a loss of approximately 50% of the carnosine, probably because of the high water solubility of carnosine and its homologues; cooking by microwave caused a medium loss of the anti-oxidants of approximately 20%; cooking by MW/grill led to a reduction in carnosine of approximately 10%. As far as the anserine and homocarnosine contents were concerned, a greater loss was observed for the boiling method (approximately 70%) while, for the other cooking methods, the value ranged from 30% to 70%. The data oscillate more for the turkey meat: the minimum carnosine decrease was observed in the cases of MW/grill and broiling at high temperature (25%). Analogously, the anserine and homocarnosine contents decreased slightly in the case of MW/grill and broiling at a high temperature (2-7%) and by 10-30% in the other cases. No analysed meat sample showed any traces of pentosidine above the instrumental determination limits. The cooked beef showed an increased TBARS value compared to the raw meat, and the highest values were found when the beef was broiled at a high temperature, cooked by microwave or boiled in water. The TBARS value of the turkey meat decreased for all the cooking methods in comparison to the TBARS value of the fresh meat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of additional cooking procedures to achieve lethality microbiological performance standards for large, intact meat products.

    PubMed

    Haneklaus, A N; Harris, K B; Cuervo, M P; Ilhak, O I; Lucia, L M; Castillo, A; Hardin, M D; Osburn, W N; Savell, J W

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) has a specific lethality performance standard for ready-to-eat products. To assist meat processing establishments in meeting the performance standard, USDA-FSIS developed Appendix A, which provides guidelines for cooking temperatures, times, and relative humidity. This project determined whether the USDA-FSIS performance standards for lethality were met when using parameters other than those identified in Appendix A to cook large hams and beef inside rounds. The effects of alternative lethality parameters on the reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium and coliforms and on the toxin production of Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Large (9- to 12-kg) cured bone-in hams (n = 80) and large (8- to 13-kg) uncured beef inside rounds (n = 80) were used in this study. The products were subjected to 1 of 10 treatments defined by combinations of final internal product temperatures (48.9, 54.4, 60.0, 65.6, or 71.1°C) and batch oven relative humidities (50 or 90 % ). For all treatments, at least a 6.5-log reduction in Salmonella Typhimurium was achieved. The coliform counts were also substantially reduced for both hams and rounds. Across all treatments for both products, S. aureus toxin production was not detected. The relative humidity did not alter the lethality effectiveness for any of the treatments. The final internal temperatures and relative humidity combinations used in this project achieved the lethality performance standard established by USDA-FSIS for fully cooked, ready-to-eat products.

  8. Impact of cooking, cooling, and subsequent refrigeration on the growth or survival of Clostridium perfringens in cooked meat and poultry products.

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Robin M; Tompkin, R Bruce; Bodnaruk, Peter W; Pruett, W Payton

    2003-07-01

    In January 1999, the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) finalized performance standards for the cooking and chilling of meat and poultry products in federally inspected establishments. More restrictive chilling (stabilization) requirements were adopted despite the lack of strong evidence of a public health risk posed by industry practices employing the original May 1988 guidelines (U.S. Department of Agriculture FSIS Directive 7110.3). Baseline data led the FSIS to estimate a "worst case" of 10(4) Clostridium perfringens cells per g in raw meat products. The rationale for the FSIS performance standards was based on this estimate and the assumption that the numbers detected in the baseline study were spores that could survive cooking. The assumptions underlying the regulation stimulated work in our laboratory to help address why there have been so few documented outbreaks of C. perfringens illness associated with the consumption of commercially processed cooked meat and poultry products. Our research took into account the numbers of C. perfringens spores in both raw and cooked products. One hundred ninety-seven raw comminuted meat samples were cooked to 73.9 degrees C and analyzed for C. perfringens levels. All but two samples had undetectable levels (<3 spores per g). Two ground pork samples contained 3.3 and 66 spores per g. Research was also conducted to determine the effect of chilling on the outgrowth of C. perfringens spores in cured and uncured turkey. Raw meat blends inoculated with C. perfringens spores, cooked to 73.9 degrees C, and chilled according to current guidelines or under abuse conditions yielded increases of 2.25 and 2.44 log10 CFU/g for uncured turkey chilled for 6 h and an increase of 3.07 log10 CFU/g for cured turkey chilled for 24 h. No growth occurred in cured turkey during a 6-h cooling period. Furthermore, the fate of C. perfringens in cooked cured and uncured turkey held at refrigeration temperatures was investigated. C

  9. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kadri; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Aldrich, Greg

    2014-05-23

    The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0-2.6 baked vs. 3.5-4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0-15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3-0.6 baked, 0.6-1.5 extruded, scale 0-15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods.

  10. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Koppel, Kadri; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Aldrich, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The results of this research indicate that processing (baked vs. extruded) plays an important role in determining pet food product texture. In addition, raw ingredients (fresh meat vs. meal-based) did not consistently affect product sensory characteristics. These results may help pet food technologists better understand factors that affect palatability. Abstract The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0–2.6 baked vs. 3.5–4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0–15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3–0.6 baked, 0.6–1.5 extruded, scale 0–15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods. PMID:26480040

  11. Resistant starch prevents colonic DNA damage induced by high dietary cooked red meat or casein in rats.

    PubMed

    Toden, Shusuke; Bird, Anthony R; Topping, David L; Conlon, Michael A

    2006-03-01

    In a previous study we have shown that high levels of dietary protein (as casein) result in increased levels of colonic DNA damage, measured by the comet assay, and thinning of the colonic mucus layer in rats when dietary resistant starch (RS) is negligible. Feeding RS abolishes these effects. This study aimed to establish whether a diet high in protein as cooked red meat would have similar effects and whether RS was protective. Rats were fed a diet containing 15% or 25% casein or 25% cooked lean red beef, each with or without the addition of 48% high amylose maize starch (a rich source of RS) for four weeks. As expected, high dietary casein caused a 2-fold increase in colonic DNA damage compared with a low casein diet and reduced the thickness of the colonic mucus layer by 41%. High levels of cooked meat caused 26% greater DNA damage than the high casein diet but reduced mucus thickness to a similar degree to casein. Addition of RS to the diet abolished the increase in DNA damage and the loss of colonic mucus thickness induced by either high protein diet. Cecal and fecal short chain fatty acid pools were also increased by inclusion of RS in the diet. Because DNA damage is an early step in the initiation of cancer, these findings suggest that increased DNA damage due to high dietary protein as cooked red meat or casein could increase colorectal cancer risk but inclusion of resistant starch in the diet could significantly reduce that risk.

  12. Meat consumption, cooking methods, mutagens, and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Boffetta, Paolo; Correa, Pelayo; Aune, Dagfinn; Mendilaharsu, María; Acosta, Gisele; Silva, Cecilia; Landó, Gabriel; Luaces, María E

    2012-01-01

    The role of meat in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (ESCC) has been considered conflictive. For this reason, we decided to conduct a case-control study on meat consumption and ESCC. Data included 234 newly diagnosed and microscopically examined ESCC and 2,020 controls with conditions not related to tobacco smoking nor alcohol drinking and without changes in their diets. We studied total meat, red meat, beef, lamb, processed meat, poultry, fish, total white meat, liver, fried meat, barbecued meat, boiled meat, heterocyclic amines, nitrosodimethylamine, and benzo[a]pyrene in relation with the risk of ESCC. Red meat, lamb, and boiled meat were directly associated with the risk of ESCC, whereas total white meat, poultry, fish, and liver were mainly protective against this malignancy.

  13. Effects of vitamin E and organic selenium on oxidative stability of omega-3 enriched dark chicken meat during cooking.

    PubMed

    Perez, T I; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A; Curtis, J M; Ren, Y; Betti, M

    2010-03-01

    The influence of vitamin E and selenomethionine (SeMet) on lipid oxidation in frozen-raw and cooked omega-3 enriched dark chicken meat was evaluated. Feed was supplemented with 2 levels of vitamin E (250 and 50 IU/kg of feed) and selenium (0.1 mg of sodium selenite/kg of feed and 0.3 mg of SeMet/kg of feed). An extruded linseed product was used as the alpha-linolenic acid source. Fatty acid (FA) profile, oxysterols, and thiobarbituric reactive acid substances (TBARs) were analyzed in frozen-raw, boiled, pan-fried, and roasted meat. After 6 mo of storage, oxysterols in frozen-raw meat remained stable with either high or low levels of dietary antioxidants. During cooking, high levels of vitamin E reduced oxysterol formation, whereas high levels of SeMet were inconsistent and even increased oxysterols during roasting. TBARs in frozen-raw meat stored for 6 mo were inhibited by high levels of either antioxidant. Conversely, no protective effect during cooking was observed at this time of storage. After 12 mo at -30 degrees C no antioxidant protection was observed.

  14. Effect of an active packaging with citrus extract on lipid oxidation and sensory quality of cooked turkey meat.

    PubMed

    Contini, Claudia; Álvarez, Rocío; O'Sullivan, Michael; Dowling, Denis P; Gargan, Sean Óg; Monahan, Frank J

    2014-03-01

    An antioxidant active packaging was prepared by coating a citrus extract, consisting of a mixture of carboxylic acids and flavanones, on polyethylene terephthalate trays. The effect of the packaging in reducing lipid oxidation in cooked turkey meat and on meat pH, colour characteristics and sensorial parameters was investigated. An untrained sensory panel evaluated the odour, taste, tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptability of the meat, using triangle, paired preference and quantitative response scale tests. A comparison between the antioxidant effects of the different components of the extract was also carried out. The packaging led to a significant reduction in lipid oxidation. After 2 days of refrigerated storage the sensory panel detected differences in odour and, after 4 days, rated the meat stored in the active packaging higher for tenderness and overall acceptability. Citric acid appeared to be the most important component of the extract with regard to its antioxidant potency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Salt, sodium chloride or sodium? Content and relationship with chemical, instrumental and sensory attributes in cooked meat products.

    PubMed

    Kameník, Josef; Saláková, Alena; Vyskočilová, Věra; Pechová, Alena; Haruštiaková, Danka

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the salt content in selected cooked meat products by the methods of determining the sodium content and the content of chlorides. The resulting data was compared with other chemical, instrumental and sensory parameters of the analysed samples. A total of 133 samples of 5 meat products were tested. The sodium content ranged from 558.0 to 1308.0mgNa/100g. Salt level determined by the two methods strongly correlated and did not differ in any meat product. Intensity of salty taste of the product was independent on its salt content. The salt (sodium) content may be reduced without a negative impact on sensory or instrumental properties of meat products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sakacin Q produced by Lactobacillus curvatus ACU-1: functionality characterization and antilisterial activity on cooked meat surface.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Franco P; Castro, Marcela P; Vallejo, Marisol; Marguet, Emilio; Campos, Carmen A

    2014-08-01

    This work was conducted to evaluate the antilisterial activity of sakacin Q produced by Lactobacillus curvatus ACU-1 on the surface of cooked pork meat. A genetic re-characterization of the producer strain and a study of the structural genes involved in bacteriocin production were carried out as complementary data. Studies indicated that the bacteriocin was not attached to the producer cells favoring pre-purifications steps. Bacteriocin effectiveness was not compromised by adsorption to meat and fat tissues. Several ways of dispensing the bacteriocin onto the meat surface, namely cell culture, cell free supernatant (CFS), a mixture of both and freeze-dried reconstituted CFS, were investigated. The use of the latter was the most effective one to control Listeria growth within studied systems. L. curvatus ACU-1 and its bacteriocin presented promising technological characteristics that made them suitable for meat biopreservation.

  17. Effects of various cooking methods and food components on bioaccessibility of mercury from fish.

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, Ousséni; Amyot, Marc

    2011-11-01

    Fish consumption is the main source of human exposure to mercury. Studies from specific human populations have reported Hg levels lower than those modeled from consumption data. These discrepancies between expected and measured Hg levels may be explained by differences in dietary habits such as cooking methods and food components on fish Hg bioavailability. We assessed the effects of three cooking methods (no cooking, frying and boiling) and of the co-ingestion of selected food items (tea, coffee and corn starch) on Hg bioaccessibility in three fish species (tuna, shark and mackerel) containing between 1 and 4 μg/g dry weight of Hg. We used in vitro techniques simulating human digestion and each experiment was repeated three times with at least three different individuals for each fish species. For all fish species, Hg concentrations (dry weight) in boiled fish were slightly but not significantly higher than those in fried or raw fish. Boiling and frying reduced Hg bioaccessibility by 40% and 60%, respectively, compared to raw fish Hg bioaccessibility. Black coffee as well as green and black tea significantly reduced raw fish Hg bioaccessibility by 50-60%, whereas, corn starch did not. The combined effect of cooking and addition of tea or coffee led to very low levels of Hg bioaccessibility. This study suggests that Hg bioaccessibilty from fish can be modified by cooking and by the co-ingestion of tea and coffee. These results should be further validated in vitro with different fish species before proceeding with in vivo approaches using animal models. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa ethanolic leaf extract for the bio-control of Listeria monocytogenes post-cooking contamination in cooked chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Odedina, Grace Fiyinfoluwa; Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2016-12-01

    Controlling foodborne pathogen in ready-to-eat food is important in food safety. The present study accessed the potential use of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa ethanolic leaf extract as a bio-control agent against Listeria monocytogenes in cooked chicken meat model system. The antilisterial activity of the plant extract was better under microwave condition and enhanced as storage temperature increased from 4 to 37 °C. The extract could reduce L. monocytogenes numbers at low (10(4) CFU/g) and high (10(6) CFU/g) inoculum levels in cooked chicken by both rinse and injection application methods. A 5 min rinse in 8% w/v R. tomentosa extract reduced the bacterial number by ≥2-log before storage and ≥3-log after storage at 4 °C for 5 days. Injection with 0.4% w/w R. tomentosa extract resulted in approximately 2-log reduction in the cell numbers both before and after storage at 4 °C for 5 days. Five minutes rinse in the extract bath demonstrated better sensory preferences which were not significantly different from the control. Addition of black pepper powder to the extract rinsed samples improved odour but not appearance, colour, and texture preferences. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa extract was significantly effective for the bio-control of L. monocytogenes contaminations in cooked chicken meat model. The extract was observed as a potent bio-additive agent to control contaminations from L. monocytogenes and ensure safety in ready-to-eat meat.

  19. Red meat and poultry, cooking practices, genetic susceptibility and risk of prostate cancer: results from a multiethnic case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Mariana C.

    2012-01-01

    Red meat, processed and unprocessed, has been considered a potential prostate cancer (PCA) risk factor; epidemiological evidence, however, is inconclusive. An association between meat intake and PCA may be due to potent chemical carcinogens that are generated when meats are cooked at high temperatures. We investigated the association between red meat and poultry intake and localized and advanced PCA taking into account cooking practices and polymorphisms in enzymes that metabolize carcinogens that accumulate in cooked meats. We analyzed data for 1096 controls, 717 localized and 1140 advanced cases from the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study, a multiethnic, population-based case–control study. We examined nutrient density-adjusted intake of red meat and poultry and tested for effect modification by 12 SNPs and 2 copy number variants in 10 carcinogen metabolism genes: GSTP1, PTGS2, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, EPHX1, CYP1B1, UGT1A6, NAT2, GSTM1 and GSTT1. We observed a positive association between risk of advanced PCA and high intake of red meat cooked at high temperatures (trend P = 0.026), cooked by pan-frying (trend P = 0.035), and cooked until well-done (trend P = 0.013). An inverse association was observed for baked poultry and advanced PCA risk (trend P = 0.023). A gene-by-diet interaction was observed between an SNP in the PTGS2 gene and the estimated levels of meat mutagens (interaction P = 0.008). Our results support a role for carcinogens that accumulate in meats cooked at high temperatures as potential PCA risk factors, and may support a role for heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in PCA etiology. PMID:22822096

  20. Red meat and poultry, cooking practices, genetic susceptibility and risk of prostate cancer: results from a multiethnic case-control study.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Amit D; Corral, Román; Catsburg, Chelsea; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Koo, Jocelyn; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue A; Stern, Mariana C

    2012-11-01

    Red meat, processed and unprocessed, has been considered a potential prostate cancer (PCA) risk factor; epidemiological evidence, however, is inconclusive. An association between meat intake and PCA may be due to potent chemical carcinogens that are generated when meats are cooked at high temperatures. We investigated the association between red meat and poultry intake and localized and advanced PCA taking into account cooking practices and polymorphisms in enzymes that metabolize carcinogens that accumulate in cooked meats. We analyzed data for 1096 controls, 717 localized and 1140 advanced cases from the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study, a multiethnic, population-based case-control study. We examined nutrient density-adjusted intake of red meat and poultry and tested for effect modification by 12 SNPs and 2 copy number variants in 10 carcinogen metabolism genes: GSTP1, PTGS2, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, EPHX1, CYP1B1, UGT1A6, NAT2, GSTM1 and GSTT1. We observed a positive association between risk of advanced PCA and high intake of red meat cooked at high temperatures (trend P = 0.026), cooked by pan-frying (trend P = 0.035), and cooked until well-done (trend P = 0.013). An inverse association was observed for baked poultry and advanced PCA risk (trend P = 0.023). A gene-by-diet interaction was observed between an SNP in the PTGS2 gene and the estimated levels of meat mutagens (interaction P = 0.008). Our results support a role for carcinogens that accumulate in meats cooked at high temperatures as potential PCA risk factors, and may support a role for heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in PCA etiology.

  1. Probabilistic framework for assessing the arsenic exposure risk from cooked fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Ling, Min-Pei; Wu, Chiu-Hua; Chen, Szu-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Yu; Chio, Chia-Pin; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Liao, Chung-Min

    2014-12-01

    Geogenic arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater is a major ecological and human health problem in southwestern and northeastern coastal areas of Taiwan. Here, we present a probabilistic framework for assessing the human health risks from consuming raw and cooked fish that were cultured in groundwater As-contaminated ponds in Taiwan by linking a physiologically based pharmacokinetics model and a Weibull dose-response model. Results indicate that As levels in baked, fried, and grilled fish were higher than those of raw fish. Frying resulted in the greatest increase in As concentration, followed by grilling, with baking affecting the As concentration the least. Simulation results show that, following consumption of baked As-contaminated fish, the health risk to humans is <10(-6) excess bladder cancer risk level for lifetime exposure; as the incidence ratios of liver and lung cancers are generally acceptable at risk ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-4), the consumption of baked As-contaminated fish is unlikely to pose a significant risk to human health. However, contaminated fish cooked by frying resulted in significant health risks, showing the highest cumulative incidence ratios of liver cancer. We also show that males have higher cumulative incidence ratio of liver cancer than females. We found that although cooking resulted in an increase for As levels in As-contaminated fish, the risk to human health of consuming baked fish is nevertheless acceptable. We suggest the adoption of baking as a cooking method and warn against frying As-contaminated fish. We conclude that the concentration of contaminants after cooking should be taken into consideration when assessing the risk to human health.

  2. Red meat and cancer risk in a network of case-control studies focusing on cooking practices.

    PubMed

    Di Maso, M; Talamini, R; Bosetti, C; Montella, M; Zucchetto, A; Libra, M; Negri, E; Levi, F; La Vecchia, C; Franceschi, S; Serraino, D; Polesel, J

    2013-12-01

    Consumption of red meat has been related to increased risk of several cancers. Cooking methods could modify the magnitude of this association, as production of chemicals depends on the temperature and duration of cooking. We analyzed data from a network of case-control studies conducted in Italy and Switzerland between 1991 and 2009. The studies included 1465 oral and pharyngeal, 198 nasopharyngeal, 851 laryngeal, 505 esophageal, 230 stomach, 1463 colon, 927 rectal, 326 pancreatic, 3034 breast, 454 endometrial, 1031 ovarian, 1294 prostate and 767 renal cancer cases. Controls included 11 656 patients admitted for acute, non-neoplastic conditions. Odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by multiple logistic regression models, adjusted for known confounding factors. Daily intake of red meat was significantly associated with the risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx (OR for increase of 50 g/day = 1.38; 95% CI: 1.26-1.52), nasopharynx (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.04-1.60), larynx (OR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.30-1.64), esophagus (OR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.23-1.72), colon (OR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.08-1.26), rectum (OR = 1.22; 95% CI:1.11-1.33), pancreas (OR = 1.51; 95% CI: 1.25-1.82), breast (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.04-1.19), endometrium (OR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.10-1.55) and ovary (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.16-1.43). Fried meat was associated with a higher risk of cancer of oral cavity and pharynx (OR = 2.80; 95% CI: 2.02-3.89) and esophagus (OR = 4.52; 95% CI: 2.50-8.18). Risk of prostate cancer increased for meat cooked by roasting/grilling (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.12-1.54). No heterogeneity according to cooking methods emerged for other cancers. Nonetheless, significant associations with boiled/stewed meat also emerged for cancer of the nasopharynx (OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.30-3.00) and stomach (OR = 1.86; 95% CI: 1.20-2.87). Our analysis confirmed red meat consumption as a risk factor for several cancer sites, with a limited impact of cooking methods. These findings, thus

  3. Effect of cooking temperature on the percentage colour formation, nitrite decomposition and sarcoplasmic protein denaturation in processed meat products.

    PubMed

    Okayama, T; Fujii, M; Yamanoue, M

    1991-01-01

    The effect of cooking temperature and time on the percentage colour formation, nitrite decomposition and denaturation of sarcoplasmic proteins in processed meat products was investigated in detail. The colour forming percentage increased with a rise in temperature of heating, especially at 50-60°C (P < 0·05). The percentage nitrite decomposition was promoted by the retention time of cooking rather than by the cooking temperature (P < 0·05). The percentage of sarcoplasmic proteins denatured was enhanced by heating temperature in the range 50-80°C (especially at 50-60°C) (P < 0·05). The relationship between the percentage colour formation and the percentage of sarcoplasmic proteins denatured is discussed. The SDS-PAGE patterns of the heat-treated samples revealed the components of the sarcoplasmic proteins which had been denatured.

  4. Contribution of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol to the cooked meat-like aroma of fermented soy sauce.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qi; Kitagawa, Riho; Imamura, Miho; Katayama, Hiroshi; Obata, Akio; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2017-01-01

    The cooked meat-like aroma compound, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (2M3F), was detected in fermented soy sauce (FSS) by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS. 2M3F was present in FSS at a concentration considerably greater than the perception threshold, and the 2M3F concentration increased with heating temperature. Sensory analysis indicated that with the addition of only 0.2 μg/L of 2M3F to the soy sauce sample, the cooked meat-like aroma is significantly stronger than that of sample without the addition of 2M3F. Hence, 2M3F contributes to the cooked meat-like aroma of FSS, which constitutes the key aroma component of FSS. In addition, 2M3F was generated from the addition of ribose and cysteine in FSS by heating at 120 °C, but it was not detected in a phosphate buffer under the same condition. Furthermore, 2M3F was not detected in acid-hydrolyzed vegetable-protein-mixed soy sauce (ASS) and heated ASS. These results indicated that fermentation by micro-organisms facilitates the generation of 2M3F in FSS.

  5. Meat intake, cooking methods and doneness and risk of colorectal tumours in the Spanish multicase-control study (MCC-Spain).

    PubMed

    de Batlle, Jordi; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Romaguera, Dora; Mendez, Michelle; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Martín, Vicente; Aragonés, Núria; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Jimenez-Moleon, José Juan; Guevara, Marcela; Azpiri, Mikel; Llorens-Ivorra, Cristóbal; Fernandez-Tardon, Guillermo; Lorca, Jose Andrés; Huerta, José María; Moreno, Victor; Boldo, Elena; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Castilla, Jesús; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Barrio, Juan Pablo; Andreu, Montserrat; Castells, Antoni; Dierssen, Trinidad; Altzibar, Jone M; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pollán, Marina; Amiano, Pilar

    2016-11-24

    Although there is convincing evidence that red and processed meat intake increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), the potential role of meat cooking practices has not been established yet and could partly explain the current heterogeneity of results among studies. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between meat consumption and cooking practices and the risk of CRC in a population-based case-control study. A total of 1671 CRC cases and 3095 controls recruited in Spain between September 2008 and December 2013 completing a food frequency questionnaire with a meat-specific module were included in the analyses. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by logistic regression models adjusted for known confounders. Total meat intake was associated with increased risk of CRC (OR T3-T1 1.41; 95% CI 1.19-1.67; p trend < 0.001), and similar associations were found for white, red and processed/cured/organ meat. Rare-cooked meat preference was associated with low risk of CRC in red meat (ORrare vs. medium 0.66; 95% CI 0.51-0.85) and total meat (ORrare vs. medium 0.56; 95% CI 0.37-0.86) consumers, these associations being stronger in women than in men. Griddle-grilled/barbecued meat was associated with an increased CRC risk (total meat: OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.13-1.87). Stewing (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.04-1.51) and oven-baking (OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.00-1.40) were associated with increased CRC risk of white, but not red, meat. Our study supports an association of white, red, processed/cured/organ and total meat intake with an increased risk of CRC. Moreover, our study showed that cooking practices can modulate such risk.

  6. EFFECTS OF COMMONLY USED COOKING PRACTICES ON TOTAL MERCURY CONCENTRATION IN FISH AND THEIR IMPACT ON EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of cooking practices commonly used by Native Americans on total mercury concentrations in fish were investigated. A preparation factor relating mercury concentrations in fish as prepared for consumption to mercury concentration data as measured in typical environmenta...

  7. EFFECTS OF COMMONLY USED COOKING PRACTICES ON TOTAL MERCURY CONCENTRATION IN FISH AND THEIR IMPACT ON EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of cooking practices commonly used by Native Americans on total mercury concentrations in fish were investigated. A preparation factor relating mercury concentrations in fish as prepared for consumption to mercury concentration data as measured in typical environmenta...

  8. Discrimination of in vitro and in vivo digestion products of meat proteins from pork, beef, chicken, and fish.

    PubMed

    Wen, Siying; Zhou, Guanghong; Song, Shangxin; Xu, Xinglian; Voglmeir, Josef; Liu, Li; Zhao, Fan; Li, Mengjie; Li, Li; Yu, Xiaobo; Bai, Yun; Li, Chunbao

    2015-11-01

    In vitro digestion products of proteins were compared among beef, pork, chicken, and fish. Gastric and jejunal contents from the rats fed these meat proteins were also compared. Cooked pork, beef, chicken, and fish were homogenized and incubated with pepsin alone or followed by trypsin. The digestion products with molecular weights of less than 3000 Da were identified with MALDI-TOF-MS and nano-LC-MS/MS. Gastric and jejunal contents obtained from the rats fed the four meat proteins for 7 days were also analyzed. After pepsin digestion, pork, and beef samples had a greater number of fragments in similarity than chicken and fish samples, but the in vitro digestibility was the greatest (p < 0.05) for pork and the smallest for beef samples. After trypsin digestion, the species differences were less pronounced (p > 0.05). A total of 822 and 659 peptides were identified from the in vitro and in vivo digestion products, respectively. Our results could interpret for the differences in physiological functions after the ingestion of different species of meat.

  9. Discrimination of in vitro and in vivo digestion products of meat proteins from pork, beef, chicken, and fish

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Siying; Zhou, Guanghong; Song, Shangxin; Xu, Xinglian; Voglmeir, Josef; Liu, Li; Zhao, Fan; Li, Mengjie; Li, Li; Yu, Xiaobo; Bai, Yun

    2015-01-01

    In vitro digestion products of proteins were compared among beef, pork, chicken, and fish. Gastric and jejunal contents from the rats fed these meat proteins were also compared. Cooked pork, beef, chicken, and fish were homogenized and incubated with pepsin alone or followed by trypsin. The digestion products with molecular weights of less than 3000 Da were identified with MALDI‐TOF‐MS and nano‐LC‐MS/MS. Gastric and jejunal contents obtained from the rats fed the four meat proteins for 7 days were also analyzed. After pepsin digestion, pork, and beef samples had a greater number of fragments in similarity than chicken and fish samples, but the in vitro digestibility was the greatest (p < 0.05) for pork and the smallest for beef samples. After trypsin digestion, the species differences were less pronounced (p > 0.05). A total of 822 and 659 peptides were identified from the in vitro and in vivo digestion products, respectively. Our results could interpret for the differences in physiological functions after the ingestion of different species of meat. PMID:26227428

  10. Effects of Meat Cooking, and of Ingested Amount, on Protein Digestion Speed and Entry of Residual Proteins into the Colon: A Study in Minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Bax, Marie-Laure; Buffière, Caroline; Hafnaoui, Noureddine; Gaudichon, Claire; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Dardevet, Dominique; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Rémond, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The speed of protein digestion impacts on postprandial protein anabolism. After exercise or in the elderly, fast proteins stimulate protein synthesis more efficiently than slow proteins. It has been shown that meat might be a source of fast proteins. However, cooking temperature, acting on the macrostructure and microstructure of the meat could affect both the speed, and efficiency, of protein digestion. This study aims to evaluate, in vivo, the effect of meat cooking on digestion parameters, in the context of a complete meal. Six minipigs fitted with an ileal cannula and an arterial catheter were used. In order to measure the true ileal digestibility, tested meat was obtained from a calf, the muscle proteins of which were intrinsically labelled with 15N-amino acids. Three cooking temperatures (60, 75 and 95°C; core temperature for 30 min), and three levels of intake (1, 1.45, and 1.90 g protein/kg body weight) were tested. Following meat ingestion, ileal digesta and arterial blood were collected over a 9-h period. The speed of digestion, evaluated from the kinetics of amino acid appearance in blood within the first 3 h, was greater for the cooking temperature of 75°C, than for 60 or 95°C. The true ileal digestibility, which averaged 95%, was not affected by cooking temperature or by the level of meat intake. The amino acid composition of the digesta flowing at the ileum was not affected by cooking temperature. These results show that cooking temperature can modulate the speed of meat protein digestion, without affecting the efficiency of the small intestinal digestion, and consequently the entry of meat protein residues into the colon. PMID:23593443

  11. An in vitro model system to predict the bioaccessibility of heterocyclic amines from a cooked meat matrix.

    PubMed

    Kulp, Kristen S; Fortson, Susan L; Knize, Mark G; Felton, James S

    2003-12-01

    To understand the impact of variation in digestion parameters on the release of heterocyclic amines naturally formed during cooking, we developed and characterized a model system to assess the effect of amylase, pepsin, and pancreatin on digestion of well-done chicken. The amounts of MeIQx, DiMeIQx, IFP, and PhIP in the liquid portion of the digestate were compared to levels in the undigested meat to determine the percentage released (accessible fraction). Incubating the meat with amylase and pepsin did not change the accessibility of HAs when compared to incubation with water alone. In contrast, increasing amounts of pancreatin increased the accessibility up to 6.4-fold. Comparing the amounts of the HAs in the liquid to the solid fraction showed that there was more MeIQx, DiMeIQx, and IFP in the liquid fraction. In contrast, PhIP was equally divided between the solid and liquid fractions. For all four compounds, increasing the doneness of the meat decreased the amount of the compound accessible from the meat matrix. Our data suggest that bioaccessability of HAs may vary according to the polarity of the individual HAs and also may depend upon the doneness of the meat. These results may have important ramifications for human feeding studies, which assume that the total amount of each HA in the meat matrix is equally bioavailable.

  12. Species-specific identification of adulteration in cooked mutton Rista (a Kashmiri Wazwan cuisine product) with beef and buffalo meat through multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, M. Mansoor; Salahuddin, Mir; Mantoo, Imtiyaz A.; Adil, Sheikh; Jalal, Henna; Pal, M. Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Meat adulteration is a serious problem in the meat industry and needs to be tackled to ensure the authenticity of meat products and protect the consumers from being the victims. In view of such likely problem in indigenous meat products of Kashmiri cuisine (Wazwan), the present work was performed to study the detection of beef and buffalo meat in cooked mutton Rista by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) based multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method under laboratory conditions. Materials and Methods: Three experimental trials were conducted wherein the products were prepared from pure mutton, beef and buffalo meat, and their admixtures in the ratios of 60:20:20, 80:10:10, 90:05:05 and 98:01:01, respectively. Results: The primers used in the study amplified the cyt b gene fragments of sizes 124 bp, 472 bp and 585 bp for buffalo, cattle and sheep, respectively. It was possible to detect cattle and buffalo meat at the level of 1% in the mixed meat cooked Rista. The multiplex PCR successfully amplified cyt b gene fragments of mtDNA of the target species and thus produced characteristic band pattern for each species. The band intensities of cattle and buffalo in the mixed meat Rista progressively decreased corresponding to their decreasing level from 20% to 1%. Processing, cooking (moist heating) and non-meat formulation ingredients had no effect on detection of meat species adulteration. Conclusion: The multiplex PCR procedure standardized and developed in this study is simple, efficient, sensitive, reliable and highly specific for detecting falsification of cooked mutton product with beef and buffalo meat up to 1% level. PMID:27057103

  13. Rapid detection of peptide markers for authentication purposes in raw and cooked meat using ambient liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Montowska, Magdalena; Alexander, Morgan R; Tucker, Gregory A; Barrett, David A

    2014-10-21

    In this Article, our previously developed ambient LESA-MS methodology is implemented to analyze five types of thermally treated meat species, namely, beef, pork, horse, chicken, and turkey meat, to select and identify heat-stable and species-specific peptide markers. In-solution tryptic digests of cooked meats were deposited onto a polymer surface, followed by LESA-MS analysis and evaluation using multivariate data analysis and tandem electrospray MS. The five types of cooked meat were clearly discriminated using principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. 23 heat stable peptide markers unique to species and muscle protein were identified following data-dependent tandem LESA-MS analysis. Surface extraction and direct ambient MS analysis of mixtures of cooked meat species was performed for the first time and enabled detection of 10% (w/w) of pork, horse, and turkey meat and 5% (w/w) of chicken meat in beef, using the developed LESA-MS/MS analysis. The study shows, for the first time, that ambient LESA-MS methodology displays specificity sufficient to be implemented effectively for the analysis of processed and complex peptide digests. The proposed approach is much faster and simpler than other measurement tools for meat speciation; it has potential for application in other areas of meat science or food production.

  14. Variation in the microbiological quality of commercially produced vacuum-packed cooked sliced meat between production and the end of shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Richard James; Charles, Deborah; Mannion, Philip; Ellis, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A study of the microbiological quality of cooked, sliced vacuum-packed meat was undertaken. Three hundred and eighty-one samples were taken (127 sets of three samples) from 55 commercial premises that produced packets of sliced, cooked, vacuum-packed meat for retail sale. The set of three samples consisted of one from the unsliced, cooked meat, one from the sliced product immediately after slicing, and one sliced packet for end of shelf-life testing. Samples were examined for aerobic colony count (ACC), Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Listeria, and Salmonella. When compared to current UK guidelines for the quality of ready to eat food, samples were found to be unsatisfactory for ACC, Enterobacteriaceae, and E. coli. Unsatisfactory rates increased at the end of shelf-life compared to the unsliced meat sample results. No samples were positive for Listeria monocytogenes or Salmonella. This data is important for producers setting the shelf-life of their products.

  15. 21 CFR Appendix D to Part 101 - Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish D Appendix D to Part 101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Pt. 101, App. D Appendix D to Part 101—Nutrition Facts...

  16. 21 CFR Appendix D to Part 101 - Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish D Appendix D to Part 101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Pt. 101, App. D Appendix D to Part 101—Nutrition Facts...

  17. 21 CFR Appendix D to Part 101 - Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish D Appendix D to Part 101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Pt. 101, App. D Appendix D to Part 101—Nutrition Facts...

  18. 21 CFR Appendix D to Part 101 - Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish D Appendix D to Part 101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Pt. 101, App. D Appendix D to Part 101—Nutrition Facts...

  19. 21 CFR Appendix D to Part 101 - Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish D Appendix D to Part 101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Pt. 101, App. D Appendix D to Part 101—Nutrition Facts...

  20. Lactic acid bacteria associated with vacuum-packed cooked meat product spoilage: population analysis by rDNA-based methods.

    PubMed

    Chenoll, E; Macián, M C; Elizaquível, P; Aznar, R

    2007-02-01

    To determine the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) implicated in bloating spoilage of vacuum-packed and refrigerated meat products. A total of 18 samples corresponding to four types of meat products, with and without spoilage symptoms, were studied. In all, 387 colonies growing on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe, yeast glucose lactose peptone and trypticase soy yeast extract plates were identified by internal spacer region (ISR), ISR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and rapid amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis profiles as Lactobacillus (37%), Leuconostoc (43%), Carnobacterium (11%), Enterococcus (4%) and Lactococcus (2%). Leuconostoc mesenteroides dominated the microbial population of spoiled products and was always present at the moment bloating occurred. Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus curvatus were found in decreasing order of abundance. The analysis of two meat products, 'morcilla' and 'fiambre de magro adobado' obtained from production lines revealed a common succession pattern in LAB populations in both products and showed that Leuc. mesenteroides became the main species during storage, despite being below the detection level of culture methods after packing. Our results pointed to Leuc. mesenteroides as the main species responsible for bloating spoilage in vacuum-packed meat products. Prevention of bloating spoilage in vacuum-packed cooked meat products requires the sensitive detection of Leuc. mesenteroides (i.e. by PCR).

  1. Genetic Variation of an Odorant Receptor OR7D4 and Sensory Perception of Cooked Meat Containing Androstenone

    PubMed Central

    Lunde, Kathrine; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Skuterud, Ellen; Mainland, Joel D.; Lea, Tor; Hersleth, Margrethe; Matsunami, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Although odour perception impacts food preferences, the effect of genotypic variation of odorant receptors (ORs) on the sensory perception of food is unclear. Human OR7D4 responds to androstenone, and genotypic variation in OR7D4 predicts variation in the perception of androstenone. Since androstenone is naturally present in meat derived from male pigs, we asked whether OR7D4 genotype correlates with either the ability to detect androstenone or the evaluation of cooked pork tainted with varying levels of androstenone within the naturally-occurring range. Consistent with previous findings, subjects with two copies of the functional OR7D4 RT variant were more sensitive to androstenone than subjects carrying a non-functional OR7D4 WM variant. When pork containing varying levels of androstenone was cooked and tested by sniffing and tasting, subjects with two copies of the RT variant tended to rate the androstenone-containing meat as less favourable than subjects carrying the WM variant. Our data is consistent with the idea that OR7D4 genotype predicts the sensory perception of meat containing androstenone and that genetic variation in an odorant receptor can alter food preferences. PMID:22567099

  2. Restriction of meat, fish, and poultry in omnivores improves mood: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Beezhold, Bonnie L; Johnston, Carol S

    2012-02-14

    Omnivorous diets are high in arachidonic acid (AA) compared to vegetarian diets. Research shows that high intakes of AA promote changes in brain that can disturb mood. Omnivores who eat fish regularly increase their intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), fats that oppose the negative effects of AA in vivo. In a recent cross-sectional study, omnivores reported significantly worse mood than vegetarians despite higher intakes of EPA and DHA. This study investigated the impact of restricting meat, fish, and poultry on mood. Thirty-nine omnivores were randomly assigned to a control group consuming meat, fish, and poultry daily (OMN); a group consuming fish 3-4 times weekly but avoiding meat and poultry (FISH), or a vegetarian group avoiding meat, fish, and poultry (VEG). At baseline and after two weeks, participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, the Profile of Mood States questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales. After the diet intervention, VEG participants reduced their EPA, DHA, and AA intakes, while FISH participants increased their EPA and DHA intakes. Mood scores were unchanged for OMN or FISH participants, but several mood scores for VEG participants improved significantly after two weeks. Restricting meat, fish, and poultry improved some domains of short-term mood state in modern omnivores. To our knowledge, this is the first trial to examine the impact of restricting meat, fish, and poultry on mood state in omnivores.

  3. Restriction of meat, fish, and poultry in omnivores improves mood: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Omnivorous diets are high in arachidonic acid (AA) compared to vegetarian diets. Research shows that high intakes of AA promote changes in brain that can disturb mood. Omnivores who eat fish regularly increase their intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), fats that oppose the negative effects of AA in vivo. In a recent cross-sectional study, omnivores reported significantly worse mood than vegetarians despite higher intakes of EPA and DHA. This study investigated the impact of restricting meat, fish, and poultry on mood. Findings Thirty-nine omnivores were randomly assigned to a control group consuming meat, fish, and poultry daily (OMN); a group consuming fish 3-4 times weekly but avoiding meat and poultry (FISH), or a vegetarian group avoiding meat, fish, and poultry (VEG). At baseline and after two weeks, participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, the Profile of Mood States questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales. After the diet intervention, VEG participants reduced their EPA, DHA, and AA intakes, while FISH participants increased their EPA and DHA intakes. Mood scores were unchanged for OMN or FISH participants, but several mood scores for VEG participants improved significantly after two weeks. Conclusions Restricting meat, fish, and poultry improved some domains of short-term mood state in modern omnivores. To our knowledge, this is the first trial to examine the impact of restricting meat, fish, and poultry on mood state in omnivores. PMID:22333737

  4. A meta-analysis of the effects of shockwave and high pressure processing on color and cook loss of fresh meat.

    PubMed

    Ha, Minh; Dunshea, Frank R; Warner, Robyn D

    2017-10-01

    Meta-analysis is a statistical approach for investigating experimental differences across studies. Meta-analyses were performed to examine the effects of hydrodynamic processing (shockwave; n=12 papers) and high pressure processing (HPP; n=8 papers) on the color and cook loss of fresh meat. Shockwave did not affect color (L*, a*), whereas cook loss was increased by 0.6% relative to untreated meat. HPP resulted in an increase in lightness (L*) and a decrease in redness (a*), with the effect being greater at higher pressures (>300MPa vs <300MPa). In addition, HPP applied at moderate pressure (<300MPa) reduced cook loss but at high pressure (>300MPa) the cook loss was increased (-1.5% vs 3.0% respectively). The increased cook loss with shockwave and high pressure (>300MPa) processing needs to be balanced against benefits in texture if this technology is applied to meat. The reduced cook loss of meat treated at moderate pressures (<300MPa) is an advantage which would likely improve sensory traits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Low Temperature Storage of Red-Meat Fish-III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takeo; Inaba, Minoru

    In order to find out a suitable method for freezing and storage of chub mackerel, a kind of fatty fish, the round fish were frozen experimentally by liquid nitrogen spraying metho d (LN2-freezing) and usual contact freezing as a control experiment, and stored at -10, - 20 and -40°C for 6 months. Quality change of the fish meat during frozen storage was checked using indices such as pH, POV and VBN. The quality was also evaluated by histological observation and sensory score. Results are as follows : (l)The present data did not always show the superiority of ultra-rapid freezing with LN2 in quality of frozen-stored chub mackerel as compared with contact freezing, regardless of storage temperature. (2) It seemd to be necessary to store fatty chub mackerel at a temperature below -20°C, such as -25 - -30°C being advisable. (3) Quality of chub mackerel was observed to change more markedly than that of sardine tested already during frozen storage.

  6. Effect of inulin, β-Glucan and their mixtures on emulsion stability, color and textural parameters of cooked meat batters.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, D; Barbut, S

    2013-07-01

    The effects of fat level (20.0, 12.5 and 5.0%), Inulin (gel-IG, and powder-IP) and β-Glucan (βG) on emulsion stability, color, textural characteristics and microstructure of cooked meat batters were investigated. Reducing fat to 5.0% increased cooking loss and decreased emulsion stability, lightness, hardness and fracturability of cooked emulsions. Inulin, βG, and their mixtures were used as fat replacers in low fat formulations. Adding IP provided better emulsion stability compared to IG, which had no significant effect on stability. IP also produced harder (27-34 N) low fat products with a high fracturability (26-29 N). On the contrary, emulsions containing IG resulted in creamy and softer characteristics. The results were supported by light micrographs, which indicated that appropriate addition of IG and βG mixtures (3%-IG & 0.3%-βG, 6%-IG & 0.6%-βG) could compensate for some of the changes brought about by fat reduction, and maintained several of the textural characteristics of the product as well as reducing cook loss. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sensory quality of broiler breast meat influenced by low atmospheric pressure stunning, deboning time and cooking methods.

    PubMed

    Schilling, M W; Radhakrishnan, V; Vizzier-Thaxton, Y; Christensen, K; Williams, J B; Joseph, P

    2015-06-01

    Stunning method (low atmospheric pressure stunning, LAPS and electrical stunning, ES), deboning time (0.75 h and 4 h), and cooking method (baking, frying, and sous vide) were evaluated for their impact on the descriptive sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of breast meat (n=576, 144 birds per stunning × deboning time combination). Sensory evaluation was conducted by trained descriptive (n=8) and consumer (n=185) panels. On average, no differences (P>0.05) existed in the sensory acceptability of fried and sous vide cooked broiler breast treatment combinations. However, for oven-baking, the LAPS treatment that was deboned at 4 h was more acceptable (P<0.05) than other treatments and the ES and LAPS 4 h samples had greater (P<0.05) acceptability for texture than their ES and LAPS 0.75 h counterparts. Since consumers were highly variable in their liking of chicken breast treatments, consumers were grouped into clusters for each cooking method based on liking and preference. Cluster analysis data revealed that the largest groups of consumers liked (score≥6.0) all chicken breast treatments, but a larger proportion of consumers liked the 4 h LAPS and ES treatments when compared to the 0.75 h LAPS and ES treatments for all cooking methods. In addition, the consumers who indicated that baked chicken breast was highly acceptable preferred (P<0.05) 4 h LAPS over the 4 h ES samples. Based on sensory results, chicken breast meat from all stunning and deboning method combinations was highly acceptable to the majority of consumers, but the LAPS 4 h treatment had enhanced sensory characteristics when baked. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Fate of Salmonella enterica in a mixed ingredient salad containing lettuce, cheddar cheese, and cooked chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Bovo, Federica; De Cesare, Alessandra; Manfreda, Gerardo; Bach, Susan; Delaquis, Pascal

    2015-03-01

    Food service and retail sectors offer consumers a variety of mixed ingredient salads that contain fresh-cut vegetables and other ingredients such as fruits, nuts, cereals, dairy products, cooked seafood, cooked meat, cured meats, or dairy products obtained from external suppliers. Little is known about the behavior of enteric bacterial pathogens in mixed ingredient salads. A model system was developed to examine the fate of Salmonella enterica (inoculum consisting of S. enterica serovars Agona, Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Brandenberg, and Kentucky) on the surface of romaine lettuce tissues incubated alone and in direct contact with Cheddar cheese or cooked chicken. S. enterica survived but did not grow on lettuce tissues incubated alone or in contact with Cheddar cheese for 6 days at either 6 or 14°C. In contrast, populations increased from 2.01 ± 0.22 to 9.26 ± 0.22 CFU/cm(2) when lettuce washed in water was incubated in contact with cooked chicken at 14°C. Populations on lettuce leaves were reduced to 1.28 ± 0.14 CFU/cm(2) by washing with a chlorine solution (70 ppm of free chlorine) but increased to 8.45 ± 0.22 CFU/cm(2) after 6 days at 14°C. Experimentation with a commercial product in which one third of the fresh-cut romaine lettuce was replaced with inoculated lettuce revealed that S. enterica populations increased by 4 log CFU/g during storage for 3 days at 14°C. These findings indicate that rapid growth of bacterial enteric pathogens may occur in mixed ingredient salads; therefore, strict temperature control during the manufacture, distribution, handling, and storage of these products is critical.

  9. Fatty acid composition of cooked chicken meat and chicken meat products as influenced by price range at retail.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Rachael A; Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D I

    2013-06-01

    The primary objective was to determine fatty acid composition of skinless chicken breast and leg meat portions and chicken burgers and nuggets from the economy price range, standard price range (both conventional intensive rearing) and the organic range from four leading supermarkets. Few significant differences in the SFA, MUFA and PUFA composition of breast and leg meat portions were found among price ranges, and supermarket had no effect. No significant differences in fatty acid concentrations of economy and standard chicken burgers were found, whereas economy chicken nuggets had higher C16:1, C18:1 cis, C18:1 trans and C18:3 n-3 concentrations than had standard ones. Overall, processed chicken products had much higher fat contents and SFA than had whole meat. Long chain n-3 fatty acids had considerably lower concentrations in processed products than in whole meat. Overall there was no evidence that organic chicken breast or leg meat had a more favourable fatty acid composition than had meat from conventionally reared birds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Particular applications of food irradiation: Meat, fish and others

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlermann, Dieter A. E.

    2016-12-01

    It is surprising what all can be achieved by radiation processing of food; this chapter narrates a number of less obvious applications mostly hidden to the consumer. Also the labelling regulations differing world-wide are responsible for leaving the consumer uninformed. Several of the early proposals could not reach technological maturity or are commercially not competitive. Still considerable energy is spent in research for such applications. Other applications are serving a certain niche, companies mostly are reluctant to release reliable information about their activities. Labelling regulation vary world-wide significantly. Hence, the market place does not really give the full picture of irradiated food available to the consumer. Despite those restrictions, this report intends to give a full picture of the actual situation for meat, fish and others and of unique uses.

  11. Effects of dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin E on the lipid oxidation stability of cooked chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Avila-Ramos, F; Pro-Martínez, A; Sosa-Montes, E; Cuca-García, J M; Becerril-Pérez, C M; Figueroa-Velasco, J L; Narciso-Gaytán, C

    2012-02-01

    The antioxidant effect of oregano essential oil and vitamin E was evaluated in cooked chicken breast meat. In total, 480 broilers were randomly assigned to 6 treatments and 4 replications. Broilers were raised with a corn-soybean meal diet including either crude soybean oil or acidulated soybean oil soapstock, each supplemented with vitamin E at 10 or 100 mg or oregano essential oil at 100 mg/kg of feed. At 42 d, broilers were slaughtered and their breast meat was prepared into strips (1.5 × 10 cm) or patties (150 g). Fatty acid composition of the muscle was determined. For lipid oxidation stability, both meat strips and patties were cooked to an internal temperature of 74°C and malonaldehyde contents were assessed during 0, 3, 6, and 9 d of storage at 4°C. Each storage day had 4 replications per treatment. The meat lipid oxidative stability was estimated by content of malonaldehyde values. Results showed that feed consumption, weight gain, and feed conversion were not affected by the dietary oils or antioxidants, except for the mortality in acidulated soybean oil soapstock with the 10-mg vitamin E treatment. The fatty acid composition of the meat was similar between the 2 diets given the same antioxidant supplement. The oxidation stability of meat lipids in both types of meats showed a significant (P < 0.05) interaction between oils, antioxidants, and storage time. In the crude soybean oil oil diet, the malonaldehyde value in the 10-mg vitamin E treatment was the highest, followed by oregano essential oil, and then the 100-mg vitamin E treatment at 9 d of storage, whereas the value of oregano essential oil in the acidulated soybean oil soapstock diet was the highest, followed by the 10-mg vitamin E, and then the 100-mg vitamin E treatment during the 9 d of storage. In conclusion, the dietary oils and antioxidants used can be included in broiler diets without negative effects on their productivity. The antioxidant effect of vitamin E was higher with a higher

  12. Towards models for the prediction of beef meat quality during cooking.

    PubMed

    Kondjoyan, Alain; Kohler, Achim; Realini, Carolina Eva; Portanguen, Stéphane; Kowalski, Ryszard; Clerjon, Sylvie; Gatellier, Philippe; Chevolleau, Sylvie; Bonny, Jean-Marie; Debrauwer, Laurent

    2014-07-01

    Heating of beef muscles modifies the water content, the micronutrient content and the colour of beef meat. Juice expelling and loss of water soluble micronutrients were predicted by combined transfer-kinetics models. Kinetics modeling and crust formation are needed to progress toward a reliable prediction of HAAs formation. HAAs formation in uniformly heated beef meat slices was compared with the values issued from the kinetic models developed in literature in liquid systems. The models of literature were adapted to meat slices but the parameter values were different from those determined in liquid systems. Results in meat slices were confronted to the HAAs formation at the surface of bigger meat pieces subjected to air roasting conditions. The transposition of the results from the meat slices towards the bigger meat pieces was not direct because the formation of HAAs was affected by the thickening of the crust and the migration of precursors.

  13. Comparison of algal and fish sources on the oxidative stability of poultry meat and its enrichment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Rymer, C; Gibbs, R A; Givens, D I

    2010-01-01

    Human consumption of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) is below recommendations, and enriching chicken meat (by incorporating LC n-3 PUFA into broiler diets) is a viable means of increasing consumption. Fish oil is the most common LC n-3 PUFA supplement used but is unsustainable and reduces the oxidative stability of the mat. The objective of this experiment was to compare fresh fish oil (FFO) with fish oil encapsulated (EFO) in a gelatin matrix (to maintain its oxidative stability) and algal biomass at a low (LAG, 11), medium (MAG, 22), or high (HAG, 33 g/kg of diet) level of inclusion. The C22:6n-3 contents of the FFO, EFO, and MAG diets were equal. A control (CON) diet using blended vegetable oil was also made. As-hatched 1-d-old Ross 308 broilers (144) were reared (21 d) on a common starter diet then allocated to treatment pens (4 pens per treatment, 6 birds per pen) and fed treatment diets for 21 d before being slaughtered. Breast and leg meat was analyzed (per pen) for fatty acids, and cooked samples (2 pens per treatment) were analyzed for volatile aldehydes. Concentrations (mg/100 g of meat) of C20:5n-3, C22:5n-3, and C22:6n-3 were (respectively) CON: 4, 15, 24; FFO: 31, 46, 129; EFO: 18, 27, 122; LAG: 9, 19, 111; MAG: 6, 16, 147; and HAG: 9, 14, 187 (SEM: 2.4, 3.6, 13.1) in breast meat and CON: 4, 12, 9; FFO: 58, 56, 132; EFO: 63, 49, 153; LAG: 13, 14, 101; MAG: 11, 15, 102; HAG: 37, 37, 203 (SEM: 7.8, 6.7, 14.4) in leg meat. Cooked EFO and HAG leg meat was more oxidized (5.2 mg of hexanal/kg of meat) than the other meats (mean 2.2 mg/kg, SEM 0.63). It is concluded that algal biomass is as effective as fish oil at enriching broiler diets with C22:6 LC n-3 PUFA, and at equal C22:6n-3 contents, there is no significant difference between these 2 supplements on the oxidative stability of the meat that is produced.

  14. Changes in Meat/Poultry/Fish Consumption in Australia: From 1995 to 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Sui, Zhixian; Raubenheimer, David; Cunningham, Judy; Rangan, Anna

    2016-11-24

    The purpose of the study was to examine temporal changes in meat/poultry/fish consumption patterns between 1995 and 2011-2012 in the Australian population. Meat/poultry/fish consumption from all food sources, including recipes, was analysed by gender, age group, and socio-economic status using 24-h recall data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (n = 13,858) and the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n = 12,153). The overall proportion of people consuming meat/poultry/fish remained stable (91.7% versus 91.3%, p = 0.55), but a shift in the type of meat consumed was observed. Red meat, including beef and lamb, was consumed by fewer people over the time period (from 56% to 49%), whereas poultry consumption increased (from 29% to 38%). Amounts of all meat/poultry/fish consumed were reportedly higher in 2011-2012 compared with 1995. This resulted in similar (red meat, and processed meat) or slightly higher (poultry, and fish) per-capita intakes in 2011-2012. The magnitude of change of consumption varied between children and adults, and by gender. Monitoring trends in consumption is particularly relevant to policy makers, researchers and other health professionals for the formulation of dietary recommendations and estimation of potential health outcomes.

  15. Changes in Meat/Poultry/Fish Consumption in Australia: From 1995 to 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Zhixian; Raubenheimer, David; Cunningham, Judy; Rangan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine temporal changes in meat/poultry/fish consumption patterns between 1995 and 2011–2012 in the Australian population. Meat/poultry/fish consumption from all food sources, including recipes, was analysed by gender, age group, and socio-economic status using 24-h recall data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (n = 13,858) and the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n = 12,153). The overall proportion of people consuming meat/poultry/fish remained stable (91.7% versus 91.3%, p = 0.55), but a shift in the type of meat consumed was observed. Red meat, including beef and lamb, was consumed by fewer people over the time period (from 56% to 49%), whereas poultry consumption increased (from 29% to 38%). Amounts of all meat/poultry/fish consumed were reportedly higher in 2011–2012 compared with 1995. This resulted in similar (red meat, and processed meat) or slightly higher (poultry, and fish) per-capita intakes in 2011–2012. The magnitude of change of consumption varied between children and adults, and by gender. Monitoring trends in consumption is particularly relevant to policy makers, researchers and other health professionals for the formulation of dietary recommendations and estimation of potential health outcomes. PMID:27886131

  16. A comparison of Oregon pellet and fish-meat diets for administration of sulfamethazine to Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, D.F.; Fryer, J.L.; Pilcher, K.S.

    1967-01-01

    The absorption of sulfamethazine by yearling spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was compared when administered in the Oregon Pellet and a fish-meat diet. The pelleted diet delivered the drug to the fish approximately twice as efficiently as the fish-meat diet. Dosage levels are recommended for both diets, and the efficacy of administering drugs in fish feed is discussed.

  17. Initially unrecognized distribution of a commercially cooked meat product contaminated over several months with Salmonella serotype Infantis.

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, K. S.; Farley, T. A.

    2000-01-01

    An outbreak of salmonellosis occurred among 63 wedding participants. The outbreak was investigated through cohort, laboratory, and environmental studies. Consumption of rice-dressing made from a commercially cooked, meat-based, rice-dressing mix was strongly associated with illness. Nineteen patient isolates, six company/grocery store isolates cultured from the rice-dressing mix, and one environmental isolate from a pump in the production line were of an identical outbreak strain of Salmonella Infantis characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. In the production line, cooked rice-dressing mix tested negative for S. Infantis before and positive after contact with the contaminated pump. The dressing-mix had an estimated 200 colony-forming units of salmonella per gram of product, and > 180,000 pounds were distributed in 9 states for > or = 2 months before contamination was recognized. Food manufacturers should be required to use systematic, hazard analysis critical control point risk management practices for all processed meat products, validated by periodic microbiologic monitoring of the end product. PMID:11218199

  18. Quality changes during storage of cooked and sliced meat products measured with PTR-MS and HS-GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Holm, E S; Adamsen, A P S; Feilberg, A; Schäfer, A; Løkke, M M; Petersen, M A

    2013-10-01

    The changes in the VOC composition of industrially produced saveloy were measured with Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and HeadSpace Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) during a six weeks storage period. A decrease in the volatile organic compounds contributing to the fresh aroma of saveloy was the main change observed with both PTR-MS and HS-GC-MS. Samples of four other types of cooked and sliced meat product were measured with PTR-MS in the middle and at the end of the four week shelf-life period. These measurements showed an increase in m/z 69, 71, 87 and 89 for the pork loin and in m/z 61 for the herbal saveloy samples. These ions were assigned to the microbial spoilage markers: acetic acid, 2- and 3-methylbutanol, 2- and 3-methylbutanal, diacetyl and acetoin. Overall, this study shows that PTR-MS has potential for quality control of cooked and sliced meat products.

  19. Quality and safety of fish curry processed by sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology process during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Shakila, R Jeya; Raj, B Edwin; Felix, N

    2012-06-01

    Fish curry, a traditional Indian dish was prepared from farmed fish Cobia (Rachycentron canadum), packaged by two different cook-chill processes namely, sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology and held at 2 °C. Biochemical composition revealed that fish curry contained 5% protein and 6% fat. Omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) retained 55.44% while docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) retained 29% during cook-chilling process. The major fatty acids in fish curry were C18:2, C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1. Shelf-life of sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed fish curry were 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacterial counts were detected after 4 weeks and 12 weeks in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processes, respectively. Total staphylococci were detected in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed cobia fish curry after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacilli, anaerobic sulfite reducing clostridia, Salmonella, and lactic acid bacteria were absent. Hot filled technology process was more efficient and could be applied for chilled fish curry preservation for 12 weeks without any safety problems.

  20. Effect of dietary meat and fish on endogenous nitrosation, inflammation and genotoxicity of faecal water.

    PubMed

    Joosen, Annemiek M C P; Lecommandeur, Emmanuelle; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Aspinall, Sue M; Kap, Lisanne; Rodwell, Sheila A

    2010-05-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been associated with reduced colon tumorigenesis. However, their association with colorectal cancer incidence is not conclusive. We investigated the influence of isocaloric replacement of red meat with fatty fish on endogenous nitrosation, inflammation and genotoxicity of faecal water in apparently healthy human volunteers on controlled diets. Fourteen volunteers consumed a high red meat, a combined red meat/fish and a high fish diet for 8 days each. Faecal homogenates were analysed for haem, nitroso compounds (NOC) and calprotectin and associated supernatants for genotoxicity. Both faecal NOC and haem excretion decreased with more fish and less meat in the diet. Nitrosyl iron (FeNO) was the main contributor to total NOC on all diets. The proportion of other NOC increased with more fish and less meat in the diet (P = 0.01), resulting in a non-statistically significant decrease in the proportion of FeNO on the fish diet. There was no statistically significant difference in faecal calprotectin (P = 0.54) and faecal water-induced DNA strand breaks and oxidized purines and pyrimidines between the diets (P > 0.36). Increasing fish intake and reducing the intake of red meat does not seem to have an effect on inflammation and faecal water-induced (oxidative) DNA damage; however, it does reduce the formation of mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic NOC and may as such beneficially affect colorectal risk.

  1. In vitro and in situ growth characteristics and behaviour of spoilage organisms associated with anaerobically stored cooked meat products.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, L; Devlieghere, F; De Graef, V; Debevere, J

    2005-01-01

    Understanding spoilage caused by different types of spoilage organisms, associated with vacuum-packaged sliced cooked meat products (CMP). First, strains were characterized in a broth at 7 degrees C under anaerobic conditions to compare their growth rate, acidifying character and metabolite production under conditions simulating refrigerated vacuum-packaged conditions. Brochotrix thermosphacta grew faster than the lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Within the group of the LAB, all strains grew fast except Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum and Leuconostoc carnosum. Secondly, the organisms were inoculated on a model cooked ham to better understand the relationship between spoilage, microbial growth, pH, metabolite production and accompanying sensory changes. Most rapidly growing strains were Leuc. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides followed by B. thermosphacta, while Leuc. mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum and Leuc. carnosum grew very slowly compared with the other LAB. Brochotrix thermosphacta caused sensory deviations at a lower cell number compared with the LAB. The related pH changes, metabolite production and sensory perception are presented. In this pure culture study, B. thermosphacta and Leuc. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides had the highest potential to cause rapid spoilage on CMP. A systematic study on the behaviour of spoilage organisms on a model cooked ham to establish the relationship between microbial growth, pH, metabolite formation and organoleptic deviations.

  2. Quantification of Anisakis simplex allergens in fresh, long-term frozen, and cooked fish muscle.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Mahillo, Ana Isabel; González-Muñoz, Miguel; de las Heras, Cristina; Tejada, Margarita; Moneo, Ignacio

    2010-08-01

    Fish-borne parasitic zoonoses such as Anisakiasis were once limited to people living in countries where raw or undercooked fish is traditionally consumed. Nowadays, several factors, such as the growing international markets, the improved transportation systems, the population movements, and the expansion of ethnic ways of cooking in developed countries, have increased the population exposed to these parasites. Improved diagnosis technology and a better knowledge of the symptoms by clinicians have increased the Anisakiasis cases worldwide. Dietary recommendations to Anisakis-sensitized patients include the consumption of frozen or well-cooked fish, but these probably do not defend sensitized patients from allergen exposure. The aim of our work was to develop a sensitive and specific method to detect and quantify Anisakis simplex allergens in fish muscle and its derivatives. Protein extraction was made in saline buffer followed by preparation under acid conditions. A. simplex antigens were detected by IgG immunoblot and quantified by dot blot. The allergenic properties of the extracts were assessed by IgE immunoblotting and basophil activation test. We were able to detect less than 1 ppm of A. simplex antigens, among them the allergen Ani s 4, in fish muscle with no cross-reactions and with a recovery rate of 82.5%. A. simplex antigens were detected in hakes and anchovies but not in sardines, red mullets, or shellfish. We detected A. simplex allergens in cooked hakes and also in hake stock. We proved that A. simplex allergens are preserved in long-term frozen storage (-20 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C for 11 months) of parasitized hakes. Basophil activation tests have proven the capability of the A. simplex-positive fish extracts to induce allergic symptoms.

  3. Fat and fatty acid composition of cooked meat from UK retail chickens labelled as from organic and non-organic production systems.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, Courtney J; Kliem, Kirsty E; Givens, D Ian

    2015-07-15

    This study compared fat and fatty acids in cooked retail chicken meat from conventional and organic systems. Fat contents were 1.7, 5.2, 7.1 and 12.9 g/100 g cooked weight in skinless breast, breast with skin, skinless leg and leg with skin respectively, with organic meat containing less fat overall (P<0.01). Meat was rich in cis-monounsaturated fatty acids, although organic meat contained less than did conventional meat (1850 vs. 2538 mg/100 g; P<0.001). Organic meat was also lower (P<0.001) in 18:3 n-3 (115 vs. 180 mg/100 g) and, whilst it contained more (P<0.001) docosahexaenoic acid (30.9 vs. 13.7 mg/100 g), this was due to the large effect of one supermarket. This system by supermarket interaction suggests that poultry meat labelled as organic is not a guarantee of higher long chain n-3 fatty acids. Overall there were few major differences in fatty acid contents/profiles between organic and conventional meat that were consistent across all supermarkets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inter-household and intra-household patterns of fish and meat consumption in fishing communities in two states in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Gomna, Ahmed; Rana, Krishen

    2007-01-01

    Fish is generally regarded as a primary source of protein for many poor African fishing communities. The present study compared the relative importance of fish as a high-quality dietary protein source with meat in fishing communities in two states in Nigeria. Fifty fishing households in which active fishing was the primary activity and fifty non-fishing households (agriculture being stated as primary activity) in traditional fishing communities were randomly selected in the coastal state of Lagos and the inland state of Niger. A simple weighing balance was designed and given to each household to measure fish or meat entering the household for consumption. A comparison of consumption using this method against the 24h recall method revealed that the recall method accounted for only one third of actual fish consumed. Overall, the price of fish was higher and consumption lower in Lagos compared with Niger State. At the household level in both states, the consumption of fish in fishing households was twice that of non-fishing households, whereas meat consumption was similar. A total of thirty-nine different fish species were consumed, with Tilapia contributing 24% by weight of the fish consumed. In both states, beef was the most frequently consumed meat, followed by goat meat. The study revealed a high preference for fresh fish. The highest fish consumption occurred in March, corresponding to the period of lowest meat consumption. On a unit weight basis, heads of households consumed 59% more fish than their wives or children.

  5. Bioaccumulation of metals in fish of Salmonidae family and the impact on fish meat quality.

    PubMed

    Alibabić, Vildana; Vahcić, Nada; Bajramović, Melisa

    2007-08-01

    The study was aimed at determining the levels of metals in water samples and muscles of the fish caught in the Una River basin, located in the northwestern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. For that purpose, three fish species: Brown Trout (Salmo trutta m. fario), Grayling (Thymallus thymallus) and Californian Trout (Salmo gairdneri), together with stem water samples, were analyzed for metal concentrations (Pb, Hg, Cd, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cr, Se, Co, Sn, Zn, Fe, Ca, P) during a 2-year period. The fish was captured using electric fishing, nets or fishing equipment. The capture was undertaken on three sites (the river source, the middle flow and the river mouth) of each of the five biggest rivers belonging to the Una River basin (Unac, Krusnica, Sana, Klokot, and Una). The concentrations of metals in each sample were determined via atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In the tested waters, the presence of Mn in concentrations higher than permitted (0.07 mg/l) had been detected. In the tested meat, the following average concentrations of metals (mg/kg) had been found: Pb (0.67), Cd (0.06), Mn (0.65), Ni (0.15), Cu (0.79), Cr (1.05), Se (0.03), Zn (8.92), Fe (5.40), Ca (14.68), and P (10.85). The correlation between Mn concentrations identified in the tested waters and those identified in the meat of Brown Trout was revealed to be statistically significant, which confirms that, over time, bioaccumulation of metals took place. Even though the results were not indicative of contamination, they strongly suggest that constant monitoring of the ecosystems in reference should be implemented.

  6. Impact of Cooking Procedures and Storage Practices at Home on Consumer Exposure to Listeria Monocytogenes and Salmonella Due to the Consumption of Pork Meat.

    PubMed

    De Cesare, Alessandra; Doménech, Eva; Comin, Damiano; Meluzzi, Adele; Manfreda, Gerardo

    2017-08-28

    The objective of this research was to analyze the impact of different cooking procedures (i.e., gas hob and traditional static oven) and levels of cooking (i.e., rare, medium, and well-done) on inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella in pork loin chops. Moreover, the consumer's exposure to both microorganisms after simulation of meat leftover storage at home was assessed. The results showed that well-done cooking in a static oven was the only treatment able to inactivate the tested pathogens. The other cooking combinations allowed to reach in the product temperatures always ≥73.6 °C, decreasing both pathogens between 6 log10 cfu/g and 7 log10 cfu/g. However, according to simulation results, the few cells surviving cooking treatments can multiply during storage by consumers up to 1 log10 cfu/g, with probabilities of 0.059 (gas hob) and 0.035 (static oven) for L. monocytogenes and 0.049 (gas hob) and 0.031 (static oven) for Salmonella. The key factors affecting consumer exposure in relation to storage practices were probability of pathogen occurrence after cooking, doneness degree, time of storage, and time of storage at room temperature. The results of this study can be combined with prevalence data and dose-response models in risk assessment models and included in guidelines for consumers on practices to be followed to manage cooking of pork meat at home. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Effect of cooking and cold storage on biologically active antibiotic residues in meat.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, J. J.; Campbell, N.; Conaghan, T.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to see if cooking or cold storage would destroy or decrease the level of biologically active antibiotic in tissues from animals given therapeutic doses of antibiotic on three occasions prior to slaughter. The effects of cooking and cold storage on the biological activity of the residues of ampicillin, chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline, streptomycin and sulphadimidine were varied; in some instances the effects were minimal, in others nil. PMID:7310129

  8. Effect of irradiation on Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine and Nε-carboxyethyl-lysine formation in cooked meat products during storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ligang; He, Zhiyong; Zeng, Maomao; Zheng, Zongping; Chen, Jie

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of irradiation on Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and Nε-carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL) formation in cooked red and white meats during storage. The results showed that irradiation did not affect CML/CEL formation (0 weeks). After 6 weeks, CML/CEL contents in the irradiated samples exhibited a higher growth rate than the non-irradiated samples, especially the red meat. The results of electron spin resonance spectrometry and 2-Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances suggested irradiation had induced free-radical reactions and accelerated lipid oxidation during storage. A linear correlation (r=0.810-0.906, p<0.01) was found between the loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids content and increase of CML/CEL content in the irradiated samples after 0 and 6 weeks of storage. The results indicate that irradiation-induced lipid oxidation promotes CML/CEL formation, and CML/CEL formation by the lipid oxidation pathways may be an important pathway for CML/CEL accumulation in irradiated meat products during storage.

  9. Low-fat meat sausages with fish oil: optimization of milk proteins and carrageenan contents using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, L; Andrés, S C; Califano, A N

    2014-03-01

    Response surface methodology was used to analyze the effect of milk proteins and 2:1 κ:ι-carrageenans on cooking loss (CL), weight lost by centrifugation (WLC) and texture attributes of low-fat meat sausages with pre-emulsified fish oil. A central-composite design was used to develop models for the objective responses. Changes in carrageenans affected more the responses than milk proteins levels. Convenience functions were calculated for CL, WLC, hardness, and springiness of the product. Responses were optimized simultaneously minimizing CL and WLC; ranges for hardness and springiness corresponded to commercial products (20 g of pork fat/100 g). The optimum corresponded to 0.593 g of carrageenans/100 g and 0.320 g of milk proteins and its total lipid content was 6.3 g/100 g. This formulation was prepared and evaluated showing a good agreement between predicted and experimental responses. These additives could produce low-fat meat sausages with pre-emulsified fish oil with good nutritional quality and similar characteristics than traditional ones.

  10. Evaluating the performance of a new model for predicting the growth of Clostridium perfringens in cooked, uncured meat and poultry products under isothermal, heating, and dynamically cooling conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clostridium perfringens Type A is a significant public health threat and may germinate, outgrow, and multiply during cooling of cooked meats. This study evaluates a new C. perfringens growth model in IPMP Dynamic Prediction using the same criteria and cooling data in Mohr and others (2015), but inc...

  11. Effects of different cooking methods on fatty acid profiles in four freshwater fishes from the Laurentian Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Neff, Margaret R; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Braekevelt, Eric; Arts, Michael T

    2014-12-01

    Fish is often promoted as a healthy part of the human diet due its high content of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Previous studies have shown that cooked fish can have different fatty acid profiles than raw fillets, depending on the cooking method and fish species. In this study, the fatty acid content of broiled, baked or fried skinless, boneless fillets of four fish species from the tributaries of the Great Lakes, or connecting rivers, was compared to fatty acid profiles in raw sections from the same fillet. Cooking treatments had little effect on n-3 fatty acid content; however, fried treatments generally had higher n-6 and MUFA content, which is likely a result of the cooking oil used (canola). Broiling or baking is generally the most healthy option presented in this study, as these methods result in lower levels of less-favourable fatty acids; however, the choice of cooking oil may also influence the overall fatty acid content in cooked fish.

  12. Association between Dietary Patterns of Meat and Fish Consumption with Bone Mineral Density or Fracture Risk: A Systematic Literature

    PubMed Central

    Avanzato, Ilaria; Nichetti, Mara; D’Antona, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to investigate the association of fish and sea fish dietary patterns (FishDiet) and meat or processed meat dietary patterns (MeatDiet) with bone mineral density (BMD) and/or risk of fractures (RF). This review includes 37 studies with a total of 432,924 subjects. The results suggest that MeatDiet and FishDiet did not affect BMD or RF in 48.2% of the subjects with MeatDiet and in 86.5% of the subjects with FishDiet. Positive effects on bone were found in 3% of subjects with MeatDiet and in 12% with FishDiet. Negative effects on bone were observed in 2.7% of FishDiet and in 47.9% of MeatDiet. Major negative effects of MeatDiet were found in subjects located in the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Italy, Norway, UK and Spain who do not sustain a Mediterranean diet (92.7%); in Korea (27.1%); in Brazil and Mexico (96.4%); and in Australia (62.5%). This study suggests that protein intake from fish or meat is not harmful to bone. Negative effects on bone linked to FishDiet are almost null. Negative effects on bone were associated to MeatDiet in the setting of a Western Diet but not in Mediterranean or Asian Diets.

  13. Effects of regular and modified starches on cooked pale, soft, and exudative; normal; and dry, firm, and dark breast meat batters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Barbut, S

    2005-05-01

    The effects of potato and tapioca starches (regular and modified) on the texture, yield, and microstructure of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE); normal; and dark, firm, and dry (DFD) chicken breast meats were studied. Cook yield and fracture force were higher in DFD than in normal and PSE meat. All starches significantly improved yield with modified tapioca showing the best results. Light microscopy showed even distribution and gelatinization of large potato starch granules and small tapioca granules. Addition of starches to the normal meat (46 < L* < 53, 5.9 < pH < 6.1) resulted in higher modulus of rigidity (G') values above 60 degrees C. During cooling, this trend continued as all starches provided significantly higher G' values compared with the control; regular and modified potato resulted in higher G' values than the tapioca starches. Overall, starch addition can compensate for part of the meat protein functionality lost in PSE meat.

  14. Differences in nutrient composition and choice of side dishes between red meat and fish dinners in Norwegian adults

    PubMed Central

    Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Løken, Elin Bjørge; Wandel, Margareta; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-based dietary guidelines often recommend increased consumption of fish and reduced intake of red and processed meat. However, little is known about how changing the main protein source from red meat to fish may influence the choice of side dishes. Objective To investigate whether side dish choices differed between red meat and fish dinners. Moreover, to compare intakes of macronutrients and selected micronutrients in red meat and fish dinners and to see whether whole-day intakes of these nutrients differed between days with red meat dinners and days with fish dinners. Design Data were collected in a cross-sectional nationwide Norwegian dietary survey using two non-consecutive telephone-administered 24-h recalls. The recalls were conducted approximately 4 weeks apart. In total, 2,277 dinners from 1,517 participants aged 18–70 were included in the analyses. Results Fish dinners were more likely to include potatoes and carrots than red meat dinners, whereas red meat dinners more often contained bread, tomato sauce, and cheese. Red meat dinners contained more energy and iron; had higher percentages of energy (E%) from fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat; and a lower E% from protein and polyunsaturated fat than fish dinners. Fish dinners contained more vitamin D, β-carotene, and folate than red meat dinners. Similar differences were found when comparing whole-day intakes of the same nutrients on days with red meat versus fish dinners. Conclusion Fish dinners were accompanied by different side dishes than red meat dinners. With regard to nutrient content, fish dinners generally had a healthier profile than red meat dinners. However, iron intake was higher for red meat dinners. Information about associated foods will be useful both for developing public health guidelines and when studying associations between dietary factors and health outcomes. PMID:26781818

  15. Use of histidine dipeptides and myoglobin to monitor adulteration of cooked beef with meat from other species.

    PubMed

    Carnegie, P R; Ilic, M Z; Etheridge, M O; Stuart, S

    1985-08-01

    A new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to monitor the adulteration of cooked beef products with meat from other species. The ratio of the histidine dipeptides anserine and carnosine which are present in skeletal muscle, are so different between sheep, cattle, horse and kangaroo that detection of adulteration can be rapidly achieved by chromatography on a Partisil-10 SCX column with 0.2 M lithium formate, pH 2.9. To obtain a definitive identification of the adulterant it was necessary to also examine the electrophoretic mobility of myoglobin in sodium dodecylsulphate gels. One brand of "beefsteak" pie was found to actually be a mixture of mutton and beef.

  16. Substitutions of red meat, poultry and fish and risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Würtz, Anne M L; Hansen, Mette D; Tjønneland, Anne; Rimm, Eric B; Schmidt, Erik B; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne U

    2016-05-01

    Red meat has been suggested to be adversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI), but previous studies have rarely taken replacement foods into consideration. We aimed to investigate optimal substitutions between and within the food groups of red meat, poultry and fish for MI prevention. We followed up 55 171 women and men aged 50-64 years with no known history of MI at recruitment. Diet was assessed by a validated 192-item FFQ at baseline. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for specified food substitutions of 150 g/week. During a median follow-up time of 13·6 years, we identified 656 female and 1694 male cases. Among women, the HR for replacing red meat with fatty fish was 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·89), whereas the HR for replacing red meat with lean fish was 1·00 (95 % CI 0·89, 1·14). Similarly, replacing poultry with fatty but not lean fish was inversely associated with MI: the HR was 0·81 (95 % CI 0·67, 0·98) for fatty fish and was 1·08 (95 % CI 0·92, 1·27) for lean fish. The HR for replacing lean with fatty fish was 0·75 (95 % CI 0·60, 0·94). Replacing processed with unprocessed red meat was not associated with MI. Among men, a similar pattern was found, although the associations were not statistically significant. This study suggests that replacing red meat, poultry or lean fish with fatty fish is associated with a lower risk of MI.

  17. Iron status biomarkers in iron deficient women consuming oily fish versus red meat diet.

    PubMed

    Navas-Carretero, S; Pérez-Granados, A M; Schoppen, S; Sarria, B; Carbajal, A; Vaquero, M P

    2009-06-01

    Specific recommendations for anemic individuals consist in increasing red meat intake, but the population at large is advised to reduce consumption of red meat and increase that of fish, in order to prevent the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to determine the effects of consuming an oily fish compared to a red meat diet on iron status in women with low iron stores. The study was designed attending the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement guidelines. It was a randomised crossover dietary intervention study of two 8-week periods. Twenty-five young women with low iron stores completed the study. Two diets containing a total of 8 portions of fish, meat and poultry per week were designed differing only in their oily fish or red meat content (5 portions per week). At the beginning and the end of each period blood samples were taken and hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum ferritin, serum iron, serum transferrin, serum transferrin receptor-2 and the Zn-protoporphyrin/free-protoporphyrin ratio were determined. Food intake and body weight were monitored. During the oily fish diet, PUFA intake was significantly higher (p=0.010) and iron intake lower (mean+/-SD, 11.5+/-3.4 mg/day vs. 13.9+/-0.1 mg/day, p=0.008), both diets providing lower mean daily iron intake than recommended for menstruating women. Although there were no significant differences after 16 weeks, serum ferritin moderately decreased and soluble transferrin receptor increased with the oily fish, while changes with the red meat diet were the opposite. In conclusion, an oily fish diet compared to a red meat diet does not decrease iron status after 8 weeks in iron deficient women.

  18. Meat, fish, and esophageal cancer risk: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Maryam; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Salehi, Mohhamad Hossein; Nojomi, Marziyeh; Kolahdooz, Fariba

    2013-05-01

    Risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are well defined, while the role of diet in these conditions remains controversial. To help elucidate the role of particular dietary components, major bibliographic databases were searched for published studies (1990-2011) on associations between esophageal cancer risk (EC) and consumption of various types of meat and fish. Random-effects models and dose-response meta-analyses were used to pool study results. Subgroup analyses were conducted by histological subtype, study design, and nationality. Four cohorts and 31 case-control studies were identified. The overall pooled relative risk (RR) of EC and the confidence intervals (CIs) for the groups with the highest versus the lowest levels of intake were as follows: 0.99 (95% CI: 0.85-1.15) for total meat; 1.40 (95%CI: 1.09-1.81) for red meat; 1.41 (95%CI: 1.13-1.76) for processed meat; 0.87 (95%CI: 0.60-1.24) for poultry; and 0.80 (95%CI: 0.64-1.00) for fish. People with the highest levels of red meat intake had a significantly increased risk of ESCC. Processed meat intake was associated with increased risk of EAC. These results suggest that low levels of red and processed meat consumption and higher levels of fish intake might reduce EC risk.

  19. Functional properties of bicarbonates and lactic acid on chicken breast retail display properties and cooked meat quality.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nakia; Sharma, Vijendra; Brown, Nettie; Mohan, Anand

    2015-02-01

    Whole chicken breast was injected with potassium bicarbonate (PB), sodium bicarbonate (SB), and potassium lactate (K-lactate) and salt, alone or in combination at different concentration levels. The objectives were to 1) investigate the effects of different concentration of PB, SB, and PL on instrumental color, water-holding capacity (WHC), objective tenderness, expressible moisture, and moisture content and 2) evaluate whether sodium-containing ingredients can be replaced with potassium as a potential strategy to reduce total sodium content in the finished product. Results showed that chicken breast tissue marinated with SB and PB had greater moisture retention, display characteristics, and cooked product qualities than chicken breast tissue injected with water and the nonmarinated control. The L* values (lightness) did not change over the period of retail display and were not different compared to the control (P>0.05). The chicken breast enhanced with SB, PB, and K-lactate retained better retail display color than the controls (marinated with water and nonmarinated). Increasing the potassium bicarbonate concentration from 0.5 to 1.5% significantly improved the water-holding capacity (82.17 to 92.61%; P<0.05) and led to better cook yield (83.84 to 91.96%). Shear force values were lower at the 0.5% level for both SB and PB compared to the control. PB performed better on retail display and cooked meat quality than SB. This study suggests that chicken breast tissue can be marinated with KB as a healthier alternative to phosphate or SB. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Effect of Acacia karroo Supplementation on Growth, Ultimate pH, Colour and Cooking Losses of Meat from Indigenous Xhosa Lop-eared Goats

    PubMed Central

    Ngambu, S.; Muchenje, V.; Marume, U.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of Acacia karroo supplementation on growth, ultimate pH, colour and cooking losses of meat from indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goats. Eighteen castrated 4-month-old kids were used in the study until slaughter. The kids were subdivided in two treatment groups A. karroo supplemented (AK) and non-supplemented (NS). The supplemented goats were given 200 g per head per d of fresh A. karroo leaves. The kids were slaughtered on d 60 and sample cuttings for meat quality assessment were taken from the Longistimus dorsi muscle. The supplemented kids had higher (p<0.05) growth rates than the non-supplemented ones. The meat from the A. karroo supplemented goats had lower (p<0.05) ultimate pH and cooking loss than the meat from the non-supplemented goats. Acacia karroo supplemented goats produced higher (p<0.05) b* (yellowness) value, but supplementation had no significant effect on L* (lightness) and a* (redness) of the meat. Therefore, A. karroo supplementation improved growth performance and the quality of meat from goats. PMID:25049715

  1. Effect of Acacia karroo Supplementation on Growth, Ultimate pH, Colour and Cooking Losses of Meat from Indigenous Xhosa Lop-eared Goats.

    PubMed

    Ngambu, S; Muchenje, V; Marume, U

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of Acacia karroo supplementation on growth, ultimate pH, colour and cooking losses of meat from indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goats. Eighteen castrated 4-month-old kids were used in the study until slaughter. The kids were subdivided in two treatment groups A. karroo supplemented (AK) and non-supplemented (NS). The supplemented goats were given 200 g per head per d of fresh A. karroo leaves. The kids were slaughtered on d 60 and sample cuttings for meat quality assessment were taken from the Longistimus dorsi muscle. The supplemented kids had higher (p<0.05) growth rates than the non-supplemented ones. The meat from the A. karroo supplemented goats had lower (p<0.05) ultimate pH and cooking loss than the meat from the non-supplemented goats. Acacia karroo supplemented goats produced higher (p<0.05) b* (yellowness) value, but supplementation had no significant effect on L* (lightness) and a* (redness) of the meat. Therefore, A. karroo supplementation improved growth performance and the quality of meat from goats.

  2. Effects of commonly used cooking practices on total mercury concentration in fish and their impact on exposure assessments.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J N; Berry, M R; Graves, R L

    1997-01-01

    The effects of cooking practices commonly used by Native Americans on total mercury concentrations in fish were investigated. A preparation factor relating mercury concentrations in fish as prepared for consumption to mercury concentration data as measured in typical environmental monitoring programs was calculated. Preparation factors are needed to provide risk assessors with a more accurate estimate of the actual amount of mercury ingested through consumption of contaminated fish. Data on fish preparation and consumption practices of two communities of Chippewa residing on the shores of Lake Superior in northern Wisconsin were used to select practices for study. The most commonly consumed species, walleye and lake trout, were selected. Whitefish livers were also selected for study. Commonly used cooking techniques including panfrying, deep-frying, baking, boiling, and smoking were duplicated in the laboratory. Total mercury concentrations were determined in fish portions before and after cooking and in a portion representative of that analyzed in programs to assess water quality (skin-on fillets). Total mercury was determined by microwave digestion-cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury concentrations (wet weight basis) in panfried, baked, and boiled walleye fillets and deep-fried and baked whitefish livers ranged from 1.1 to 1.5 times higher than in corresponding raw portions. In lake trout, mercury concentrations were 1.5 to 2.0 times higher in cooked portions than in the raw portion. However, total mercury levels were constant before and after cooking, indicating the concentration effect is caused by weight (moisture and fat) loss. The addition of lemon juice to potentially release mercury from its bound state and promote volatilization did not exert any measurable influence on mercury concentrations in cooked walleye. In some cases mercury concentrations were increased with increased cooking times due to further loss of moisture and fat

  3. Impact of Added Encapsulated Phosphate Level on Lipid Oxidation Inhibition during the Storage of Cooked Ground Meat.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, B; Şimşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E; Bilecen, D

    2016-02-01

    The effect of levels (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%) of added encapsulated (e) phosphate (sodium tripolyphosphate, STP; sodium hexametaphosphate, HMP; sodium pyrophosphate, SPP) on lipid oxidation inhibition during storage (0, 1, and 7 d) of ground meat (chicken, beef) was evaluated. The use of eSTP and eSPP resulted in lower and higher cooking loss (CL) compared to eHMP, respectively (P < 0.05). Increasing encapsulated phosphate level (PL) enhanced the impact of phosphates on CL in both chicken and beef samples (P < 0.05). Encapsulated STP increased pH, whereas eSPP decreased pH (P < 0.05). pH was not affected by PL. The highest orthophosphate (OP) was obtained with eSTP, followed by eSPP and eHMP (P < 0.05). The level of OP determined in both chicken and beef samples increased (P < 0.05) during storage. Increasing PL caused an increase in OP (P < 0.05). The highest reduction rate in the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and LPO for both meat species were obtained with eSPP, followed by eSTP and eHMP (P < 0.05). Increasing PL resulted in lower TBARS and LPO (P < 0.05). Findings suggest that encapsulated phosphates can be a strategy to inhibit lipid oxidation for the meat industry and the efficiency of encapsulated phosphates on lipid oxidation inhibition can be enhanced by increasing PL.

  4. Prevalence of Listeria spp and Listeria monocytogenes in meat and fermented fish in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Z; Purwati, E; Radu, S; Rahim, R A; Rusul, G

    2001-06-01

    Fermented fish and meat samples were purchased from supermarket and wet market for microbiological analysis of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes contamination. Listeria species were isolated from 17 (73.9%) of 23 samples of imported frozen beef, 10 (43.5%) of the 23 samples of local beef and 14 (56%) of the 25 samples of fermented fish from wet market. Listeria monocytogenes occurred in 15 (75%) of the frozen beef samples, 6 (30.4%) of the 23 samples of local meat and 3 (12%) of the 25 samples from fermented fish. Listeria species was not isolated from any of the 23 samples of imported frozen beef from supermarket and from the 5 samples of buffalo meat examined. This highlights the possibility of Listeria spp or L. monocytogenes to persist in meat and fermented fish in wet market and raises the problem of illness due to the handling and consumption of Listeria-contaminated meat or fermented fish are likely as evidence by the high contamination rates of samples sold at the wet market.

  5. Impact of cooking and handling conditions on furanic compounds in breaded fish products.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Palacios, T; Petisca, C; Henriques, R; Ferreira, I M P L V O

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of cooking and handling conditions on the quantity of furanic compounds (furan, 2-furfural, furfuryl alcohol, 2-pentylfuran, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) in breaded fish products. Oven-baking and reheating in the microwave lead to low furanic compounds formation in comparison with deep-frying. The use of olive oil for deep-frying promoted higher levels of furanic compounds than sunflower oil. The amounts of these compounds diminished as the temperature and time of deep-frying decreased as well as after a delay after deep-frying. Thus, the generation of furanic compounds can be minimized by adjusting the cooking method and conditions, such as using an electric oven, deep-frying in sunflower oil at 160°C during 4min, or waiting 10min after cooking. However, these conditions that reduce furanic compounds levels also reduce the content of volatile compounds related to the aroma and flavour of fried foods. In this sense, new efforts should be done to reduce the formation of furanic compounds without being detrimental to the volatile profile.

  6. Effect of a dietary supplementation with linseed oil and selenium to growing rabbits on their productive performances, carcass traits and fresh and cooked meat quality.

    PubMed

    Matics, Zs; Cullere, M; Szín, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Szabó, A; Fébel, H; Odermatt, M; Radnai, I; Dalle Zotte, A; Szendrő, Zs

    2016-08-23

    The present experiment tested a dietary supplementation with linseed oil and selenium to growing rabbits. The basal diet (B) contained 3% sunflower oil, while it was substituted with 3% linseed oil in the experimental feed (S). The selenium (Se) content of the two diets was 0.10 vs. 0.46 mg/kg. Rabbits were fed with B diet from the age of 18 days. One group was fed with the B diet until 11 weeks of age (group B), whereas the experimental groups were fed with S diet for 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks (groups S1, S2, S3 and S4, respectively), before slaughtering (11 weeks of age). Live performance and carcass traits of rabbits, fatty acid (FA) profile and selenium content of their hind leg (HL) and Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) meat were considered in this study. In addition, the effect of two different cooking methods on the nutritional value of the enriched HL meat was also assessed. The tested dietary supplementation only minimally affected the live performance and carcass traits of rabbits. The S supplementation significantly reduced the Σ n-6 FA and increased the Σ n-3 FA of the HL meat and LTL meat, compared to the B diet (p < 0.001); thus, n-6/n-3 ratio was improved (p < 0.001). In addition, HL meat and LTL meat of S fed rabbits were significantly enriched in Se reaching a twofold increase in both meat cuts (p < 0.01). Therefore, the S supplementation improved the functional value of the rabbit meat. The heat treatment affected cooking loss, Se and vitamin E contents as well as the oxidative status of the HL meat (p < 0.001), with the different cooking methods providing different results. In addition, even if the beneficial C20:5 n-3 and C22:6 n-3 decreased with cooking, the n-6/n-3 ratio remained unaffected.

  7. Meat, Fish, Poultry, and Egg Intake at Diagnosis and Risk of Prostate Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kathryn M; Mucci, Lorelei A; Drake, Bettina F; Preston, Mark A; Stampfer, Meir J; Giovannucci, Edward; Kibel, Adam S

    2016-12-01

    Little information exists on diet and prostate cancer progression. We examined the association between intakes of total red meat, processed and unprocessed red meat, poultry, fish, and eggs and prostate cancer recurrence. We conducted a prospective study of 971 men treated with radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer between 2003 and 2010. Men completed a food frequency questionnaire at diagnosis. We used logistic regression to study the association between diet and high-grade or advanced-stage disease. We used Cox models to study the risk of progression [N = 94 events, mainly prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence]. Total red meat intake was marginally associated with risk of high-grade disease [Gleason ≥ 4+3; adjusted OR top vs. bottom quartile: 1.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.93-2.97; Ptrend = 0.05], as was very high intake of eggs (OR top decile vs. bottom quartile: 1.98; 95% CI, 1.08-3.63, Ptrend = 0.08). Well-done red meat was associated with advanced disease (≥pT3; OR top vs. bottom quartile: 1.74, 95% CI, 1.05-2.90; Ptrend = 0.01). Intakes of red meat, fish, and eggs were not associated with progression. Very high poultry intake was inversely associated with progression (HR top decile vs. bottom quartile: 0.19; 95% CI, 0.06-0.63; Ptrend = 0.02). Substituting 30 g/d of poultry or fish for total or unprocessed red meat was associated with significantly lower risk of recurrence. Lower intakes of red meat and well-done red meat and higher intakes of poultry and fish are associated with lower risk of high grade and advanced prostate cancer and reduced recurrence risk, independent of stage and grade. Cancer Prev Res; 9(12); 933-41. ©2016 AACR.

  8. High True Ileal Digestibility but Not Postprandial Utilization of Nitrogen from Bovine Meat Protein in Humans Is Moderately Decreased by High-Temperature, Long-Duration Cooking.

    PubMed

    Oberli, Marion; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès; Airinei, Gheorghe; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Khodorova, Nadezda; Rémond, Didier; Foucault-Simonin, Angélique; Piedcoq, Julien; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles; Benamouzig, Robert; Gaudichon, Claire

    2015-10-01

    Meat protein digestibility can be impaired because of indigestible protein aggregates that form during cooking. When the aggregates are subsequently fermented by the microbiota, they can generate potentially harmful compounds for the colonic mucosa. This study evaluated the quantity of bovine meat protein escaping digestion in the human small intestine and the metabolic fate of exogenous nitrogen, depending on cooking processes. Sixteen volunteers (5 women and 11 men; aged 28 ± 8 y) were equipped with a double lumen intestinal tube positioned at the ileal level. They received a test meal exclusively composed of 120 g of intrinsically (15)N-labeled bovine meat, cooked either at 55°C for 5 min (n = 8) or at 90°C for 30 min (n = 8). Ileal effluents and blood and urine samples were collected over an 8-h period after the meal ingestion, and (15)N enrichments were measured to assess the digestibility of meat proteins and the transfer of dietary nitrogen into the metabolic pools. Proteins tended to be less digestible for the meat cooked at 90°C for 30 min than at 55°C for 5 min (90.1% ± 2.1% vs. 94.1% ± 0.7% of ingested N; P = 0.08). However, the particle number and size in ileal digesta did not differ between groups. The appearance of variable amounts of intact fibers was observed by microscopy. The kinetics of (15)N appearance in plasma proteins, amino acids, and urea were similar between groups. The amount of exogenous nitrogen lost through deamination did not differ between groups (21.2% ± 0.8% of ingested N). Cooking bovine meat at a high temperature for a long time can moderately decrease protein digestibility compared with cooking at a lower temperature for a short time and does not affect postprandial exogenous protein metabolism in young adults. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01685307. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Assessment of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes level in ready-to-cook poultry meat: effect of various high pressure treatments and potassium lactate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lerasle, M; Guillou, S; Simonin, H; Anthoine, V; Chéret, R; Federighi, M; Membré, J-M

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a probabilistic model in order to determine the contamination level of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-cook poultry meat, after a high pressure (HP) treatment. The model included four steps: i) Reception of raw meat materials, mincing and mixing meat, ii) Partitioning and packaging into 200-g modified atmosphere packs, iii) High pressure treatment of the meat, and iv) Storage in chilled conditions until the end of the shelf-life. The model excluded the cooking step and consumption at consumer's home as cooking practices and heating times are highly variable. The initial contamination level of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes was determined using data collected in meat primary processing plants. The effect of HP treatment and potassium lactate on microbial reduction was assessed in minced meat, using a full factorial design with three high pressure treatments (200, 350 and 500 MPa), three holding times (2, 8 and 14 min) and two potassium lactate concentrations (0 or 1.8% w/w). The inactivation curves fitted with a Weibull model highlighted that the inactivation rate was significantly dependent on the HP treatment. From the literature, it was established that Salmonella was not able to grow in the presence of lactate, under modified atmosphere and chilled conditions whereas the growth of L. monocytogenes was determined using an existing model validated in poultry (available in Seafood Spoilage and Safety Predictor software, V. 3.1). Once implemented in the Excel add-in @Risk, the model was run using Monte Carlo simulation. The probability distribution of contamination levels was determined for various scenarios. For an average scenario such as an HP treatment of 350 MPa for 8 min, of 200 g minced meat containing 1.8% lactate (pH 6.1; aw 0.96), conditioned under 50% CO2, the prevalence rate of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes, after a 20-day storage at 6 °C was estimated to be 4.1% and 7.1%, respectively. The

  10. Meat intake, cooking methods and risk of proximal colon, distal colon and rectal cancer: the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) cohort study.

    PubMed

    Parr, Christine L; Hjartåker, Anette; Lund, Eiliv; Veierød, Marit B

    2013-09-01

    Red and processed meat intake is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), but epidemiological evidence by subsite and sex is still limited. In the population-based Norwegian Women and Cancer cohort, we examined associations of meat intake with incident proximal colon, distal colon and rectal cancer, in 84,538 women who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) during 1996-1998 or 2003-2005 (baseline or exposure update) at age 41-70 years, with follow-up by register linkages through 2009. We also examined the effect of meat cooking methods in a subsample (n = 43,636). Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox regression. There were 459 colon (242 proximal and 167 distal), and 215 rectal cancer cases with follow-up ≥ 1 (median 11.1) year. Processed meat intake ≥60 vs. <15 g/day was associated with significantly increased cancer risk in all subsites with HRs (95% confidence interval, CI) of 1.69 (1.05-2.72) for proximal colon, 2.13 (1.18-3.83) for distal colon and 1.71 (1.02-2.85) for rectal cancer. Regression calibration of continuous effects based on repeated 24-hr dietary recalls, indicated attenuation due to measurement errors in FFQ data, but corrected HRs were not statistically significant due to wider CIs. Our study did not support an association between CRC risk and intake of red meat, chicken, or meat cooking methods, but a high processed meat intake was associated with increased risk of proximal colon, distal colon and rectal cancer. The effect of processed meat was mainly driven by the intake of sausages.

  11. CO2 Plant Extracts Reduce Cholesterol Oxidation in Fish Patties during Cooking and Storage.

    PubMed

    Tarvainen, Marko; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2016-12-28

    Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in foods may pose risks for human health. Suitable antioxidants can reduce the formation of COPs in industrial products. Consumer awareness of food additives has brought a need for more natural alternatives. This is the first study on the effects of supercritical CO2 extracts of rosemary, oregano, and an antimicrobial blend of seven herbs, tested at two levels (1 and 3 g/kg fish), against cholesterol oxidation in patties made of a widely consumed fish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), during baking and storage. Cholesterol oxidation was reduced by the extracts as indicated by lowered levels of 7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, and 7-ketocholesterol, which were quantified by GC-MS. The total amount of COPs was smaller in all of the cooked samples containing the plant extracts (<1 μg/g extracted fat) than in the cooked control (14 μg/g). Furthermore, the plant extracts exhibited protective effects also during cold storage for up to 14 days.

  12. Identification and quantification of turkey meat adulteration in fresh, frozen-thawed and cooked minced beef by FT-NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Alamprese, Cristina; Amigo, José Manuel; Casiraghi, Ernestina; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-11-01

    This work aims at the development of a method based on FT-NIR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for the identification and quantification of minced beef meat adulteration with turkey meat. Samples were analyzed as raw, frozen-thawed and cooked. Different multivariate regression and class-modeling strategies were evaluated. PLS regression models with R(2) in prediction higher than 0.884 and RMSEP lower than 10.8% were developed. PLS-DA applied to discriminate each type of sample in two classes (adulteration threshold=20%) showed values of sensitivity and specificity in prediction higher than 0.84 and 0.76, respectively. Thus, the study demonstrates that FT-NIR spectroscopy coupled with suitable chemometric strategies is a reliable tool for the identification and quantification of minced beef adulteration with turkey meat not only in fresh products, but also in frozen-thawed and cooked samples. This achievement is of crucial importance in the meat industry due to the increasing number of processed meat products, in which technological treatments can mask a possible inter-species adulteration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of processing meat and fish products on phosphorus intake in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Lou-Arnal, Luis M; Caverni-Muñoz, Alberto; Arnaudas-Casanova, Laura; Vercet-Tormo, Antonio; Gimeno-Orna, José A; Sanz-París, Alejandro; Caramelo-Gutiérrez, Rocío; Alvarez-Lipe, Rafael; Sahdalá-Santana, Laura; Gracia-García, Olga; Luzón-Alonso, Marta

    2013-11-13

    The use of phosphate additives in meat and fish processing leads to a phosphorus overload that we cannot quantify through labelling or food composition tables. We analysed this increase by measuring phosphorus content in these products by spectrophotometry. We determined the phosphorus/protein ratio in fresh meat and fish products with varying degrees of processing by spectrophotometry (phosphorus) and the Kjeldahl method (proteins). We contrasted these results with those reflected in the food composition tables. The phosphorus/protein ratio was higher in processed meat products (15.83 mg/g) than in battered (11.04 mg/g) and frozen meat products (10.5mg/g), and was lower in fresh (8.41 mg/g) and refrigerated meat products (8.78 mg/g). Fresh white fish had a phosphorus/protein ratio of 8.58mg/g, while it increased by 22% (10.3mg/g) in frozen white fish and by 46% (12.54 mg/g) in battered fish. The information in the tables was poor and confusing, and no reference is made to the brands tested. Processing meat and fish products poses a serious obstacle to the reduction of phosphorus intake. The current regulatory framework does not assist us in the objective of reducing phosphorus additives, since it considers them safe for public consumption. Overcoming these barriers requires a coordinated effort to demonstrate that a high intake of these additives may be harmful to the general population and it should be more closely examined by regulators.

  14. Antilisterial properties of marinades during refrigerated storage and microwave oven reheating against post-cooking inoculated chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Fouladkhah, Aliyar; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Nychas, George-John; Sofos, John N

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated growth of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on cooked chicken meat with different marinades and survival of the pathogen as affected by microwave oven reheating. During aerobic storage at 7 °C, on days 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7, samples were reheated by microwave oven (1100 W) for 45 or 90 s and analyzed microbiologically. L. monocytogenes counts on nonmarinated (control) samples increased (P < 0.05) from 2.7 ± 0.1 (day-0) to 6.9 ± 0.1 (day-7) log CFU/g during storage. Initial (day-0) pathogen counts of marinated samples were <0.5 log CFU/g lower than those of the control, irrespective of marinating treatment. At 7 d of storage, pathogen levels on samples marinated with tomato juice were not different (P ≥ 0.05; 6.9 ± 0.1 log CFU/g) from those of the control, whereas for samples treated with the remaining marinades, pathogen counts were 0.7 (soy sauce) to 2.0 (lemon juice) log CFU/g lower (P < 0.05) than those of the control. Microwave oven reheating reduced L. monocytogenes counts by 1.9 to 4.1 (45 s) and >2.4 to 5.0 (90 s) log CFU/g. With similar trends across different marinates, the high levels of L. monocytogenes survivors found after microwave reheating, especially after storage for more than 2 d, indicate that length of storage and reheating time need to be considered for safe consumption of leftover cooked chicken. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Characterization of primary organic aerosol emissions from meat cooking, trash burning, and motor vehicles with high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry and comparison with ambient and chamber observations.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Claudia; Huffman, Alex; Cubison, Michael J; Aiken, Allison C; Docherty, Kenneth S; Kimmel, Joel R; Ulbrich, Ingrid M; Hannigan, Michael; Jimenez, Jose L

    2009-04-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) emissions from motor vehicles, meat-cooking and trash burning are analyzed here using a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). High resolution data show that aerosols emitted by combustion engines and plastic burning are dominated by hydrocarbon-like organic compounds. Meat cooking and especially paper burning emissions contain significant fractions of oxygenated organic compounds; however, their unit-resolution mass spectral signatures are very similar to those from ambient hydrocarbon-like OA, and very different from the mass spectra of ambient secondary or oxygenated OA (OOA). Thus, primary OA from these sources is unlikelyto be a significant direct source of ambient OOA. There are significant differences in high-resolution tracer m/zs that may be useful for differentiating some of these sources. Unlike in most ambient spectra, all of these sources have low total m/z 44 and this signal is not dominated by the CO2+ ion. All sources have high m/z 57, which is low during high OOA ambient periods. Spectra from paper burning are similar to some types of biomass burning OA, with elevated m/z 60. Meat cooking aerosols also have slightly elevated m/z 60, whereas motor vehicle emissions have very low signal at this m/z.

  16. Antioxidative effects of glycosyl-ascorbic acids synthesized by maltogenic amylase to reduce lipid oxidation and volatiles production in cooked chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Bok; Nam, Ki-chang; Lee, Sung-Joon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Inouye, Kuniyo; Park, Kwan-Hwa

    2004-01-01

    Glycosylated ascorbic acids were synthesized by using the transglycosylation activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase with maltotriose to show effective antioxidative activity with enhanced oxidative stability. The modified ascorbic acids comprised mono- and di-glycosyl transfer products with an alpha-(1,6)-glycosidic linkage. The antioxidative effects of the glycosyl derivatives of ascorbic acid on the lipid oxidation of cooked chicken breast meat patties were compared, and the synergistic effect when combined with alpha-tocopherol was determined in terms of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and volatiles production during storage. The results indicate that the glycosylated ascorbic acids had very effective antioxidative activity in preventing lipid oxidation, and were better in their synergistic effect in comparison to authentic ascorbic acid, with maltosyl-ascorbic acid being the most effective. Volatiles production was highly correlated with the TBARS values in the lipid oxidation of cooked meat. The antioxidative effect preventing the production of volatiles was particularly strong on pentanal, fairly strong on propanal and butanal, and not at all on ethanal. Propanal, pentanal, and the total volatiles thus provided a good representation of the lipid oxidation status of cooked chicken meat.

  17. Free-sodium salts mixture and AlgySalt® use as NaCl substitutes in fresh and cooked meat products intended for the hypertensive population.

    PubMed

    Triki, M; Khemakhem, I; Trigui, I; Ben Salah, R; Jaballi, S; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Ayadi, M A; Attia, H; Besbes, S

    2017-11-01

    This work aims at reducing the use of added NaCl in processed meat products because of its negative effects on hypertensive population by replacing it by sodium-free salts mixture (SM: KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2) in fresh and cooked sausages. The technological, sensory, and microbiological effects of SM were compared with a commercial replacer based on seaweed extracts (AlgySalt®). A total substitution of NaCl with the latter and a partial one with SM (80% and 50%) were studied in cooked sausages and a total NaCl substitution with both substitutes was performed in fresh sausages. As a result, hardness increased in AlgySalt® reformulated samples, while it decreased when 80% SM were used. Whereas, AlgySalt® induced less cooking loses than SM. To some extent, microbiological counts showed a similarity between reformulated and control samples for both sausage types, whereas reformulated products containing SM revealed better sensory properties for both meat products. Therefore, using SM as NaCl replacer is adequate for processed meat products. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Urinary mutagenesis and fried red meat intake: influence of cooking temperature, phenotype, and genotype of metabolizing enzymes in a controlled feeding study.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ulrike; Sinha, Rashmi; Bell, Douglas A; Rothman, Nathaniel; Grant, Delores J; Watson, Mary A; Kulldorff, Martin; Brooks, Lance R; Warren, Sarah H; DeMarini, David M

    2004-01-01

    Meat cooked at high temperatures contains potential carcinogenic compounds, such as heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Samples from a 2-week controlled feeding study were used to examine the relationship between the intake of mutagenicity from meat fried at different temperatures and the levels of mutagenicity subsequently detected in urine, as well as the influence of the genotype of drug metabolizing enzymes on urinary mutagenicity. Sixty subjects consumed ground beef patties fried at low temperature (100 degrees C) for 1 week, followed by ground beef patties fried at high temperature (250 degrees C) the second week. Mutagenicity in the meat was assayed in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 (+S9), and urinary mutagenicity was determined using Salmonella YG1024 (+S9). Genotypes for NAT1, NAT2, GSTM1, and UGT1A1 were analyzed using blood samples from the subjects. Meat fried at 100 degrees C was not mutagenic, whereas meat fried at 250 degrees C was mutagenic (1023 rev/g). Unhydrolyzed and hydrolyzed urine samples were 22x and 131x more mutagenic, respectively, when subjects consumed red meat fried at 250 degrees C compared with red meat fried at 100 degrees C. We found that hydrolyzed urine was approximately 8x more mutagenic than unhydrolyzed urine, likely due to the deconjugation of mutagens from glucuronide. The intake of meat cooked at high temperature correlated with the mutagenicity of unhydrolyzed urine (r = 0.32, P = 0.01) and hydrolyzed urine (r = 0.34, P = 0.008). Mutagenicity in unhydrolyzed urine was not influenced by NAT1, NAT2, or GSTM1 genotypes. However, a UGT1A1*28 polymorphism that reduced UGT1A1 expression and conjugation modified the effect of intake of meat cooked at high temperature on mutagenicity of unhydrolyzed urine (P for interaction = 0.04). These mutagenicity data were also compared with previously determined levels of HCAs (measured as MeIQx, DiMeIQx, and PhIP) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

  19. Effect of cooking and in vitro digestion on the stability of co-enzyme Q10 in processed meat products.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Brian D; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Hamill, Ruth; Kerry, Joseph P

    2014-05-01

    The use of CoQ10 fortification in the production of a functional food has been demonstrated in the past but primarily for dairy products. This study aimed to determine the bio-accessibility of CoQ10 in processed meat products, beef patties and pork breakfast sausages, fortified with CoQ10. Both the patties and sausages were fortified with a micellarized form of CoQ10 to enhance solubility to a concentration of 1mg/g of sample (NovaSolQ®). An assay was developed combining in vitro digestion and HPLC analysis to quantify the CoQ10 present in fortified products (100mg/g). The cooking retention level of CoQ10 in the products was found to be 74±1.42% for patties and 79.69±0.75% for sausages. The digestibility for both products ranged between 93% and 95%, sausages did have a higher digestibility level than patties but this was not found to be significant (P<0.01).

  20. Protein digestibility evaluations of meat and fish substrates using laboratory, avian and ileally cannulated dog assays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fish and meat protein serves as important protein sources in the human and companion animal diets: however, limited information is available on differences in protein quality. Pollock fillet, and salmon fillet, beef loin, pork loin and chicken breast, were evaluated for protein quality and amino aci...

  1. [Determination of spiramycin and tilmicosin in meat and fish by LC/MS].

    PubMed

    Horie, Masakazu; Takegami, Harumi; Toya, Kazuo; Kikuchi, Yoshinori; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2003-06-01

    A simple and reliable method using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) has been developed for the determination of the macrolide antibiotics spiramycin and tilmicosin in meat and fish. The drugs were extracted from meat and fish with 0.2% metaphosphoric acid-methanol (6:4), and the extracts were cleaned up on an Oasis HLB cartridge (60 mg). Positive ionization produced the molecular related ions, (M + 2H)2+, at m/z 350.2, 422.3 and 435.3 for neospiramycin I, spiramycin I and tilmicosin, respectively. The LC separation was performed on a Capcell Pak MG-C18 column (150 x 2 mm i.d.) with a gradient system of 0.02% formic acid-acetonitrile as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The molecular-related ions of the drugs were very clear under this condition. The calibration graph for each drug was rectilinear from 0.05 to 5 ng with selected ion monitoring (SIM). The recoveries of the drugs from meat and fish fortified at the level of 0.2 microgram/g was 73.2-89.2%, with high precision. The limits of detection of the drugs in meat and fish were 0.01 microgram/g.

  2. Maintenance of raw and cooked ready-to-eat product quality of infused poultry meats with selected plant extracts during electron beam irradiation and after storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rababah, Taha

    The purpose of this study included: preparing plant extracts and evaluating these extracts for total phenolics and antioxidant activities (AA); infusing extract/combination that demonstrates superior AA into chicken breast and irradiating at 3.0 kGy; evaluating the physicochemical properties of irradiated and non-irradiated raw and cooked chicken breast at 5°C for 12 days and -20°C for 9 months; and selecting the extracts that demonstrated desirable AA, infusing these extracts into chicken breast and evaluating head-space volatiles, and conducting sensory evaluation. The total phenolic content and AA of the plant extracts ranged from 24.8 to 92.5 mg/g dry material (conjugated diene of methyl linoleate) and 3.4 to 86.3%, respectively. The AA of plant extracts using oxidative stability instrument were 4.6 to 10.2 h (Induction time). Green tea and grape seed extracts had the highest AA within several plant extracts, and were selected to retard lipid oxidation in further studies. Fresh boneless and skinless chicken breast meats were vacuum infused with varying concentrations of antioxidants: Green tea and grape seed extracts alone/in combination and tert-butylhydroquinone. The results showed that irradiation had no significant effect on pH, water holding capacity, but increased the redness and carbonyls in raw meats (p < 0.05). Irradiation increased shear force, hardness, and chewiness of cooked meats. Infusion of plant extracts into meats increased lightness and decreased redness as well as hardness and shear force. Irradiation increased TBARS, hexanal, and pentanal values in raw and cooked meats. Addition of plant extracts decreased the amount of TBARS, hexanal, pentanal, and carbonyl values. Similar results were observed when the samples were stored at -20°C for 9 months. Descriptive sensory flavor results showed that irradiation did not affect the flavor attributes. Consumer, descriptive, and instrumental results showed that irradiation increased toughness

  3. Estimated intakes of meat and fish by children and adolescents in Australia and comparison with recommendations.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Edward H; Hanstock, Tanya L; Watson, Jane F

    2009-06-01

    Long-chain n-3 PUFA are considered important for cardiovascular health and brain development. Meat other than fish contributes significantly to total intakes of long-chain n-3 PUFA in adults; however, there are limited published data examining the intake of individual meat sources in children and adolescents in the Australian population. A review of literature was conducted using PubMed, Agricola and CAB Abstracts using the terms 'intake', 'beef', 'lamb', 'pork', 'poultry', 'fish', 'children' and 'adolescents' and using reference lists in published articles. Studies and surveys were identified that contained published values for intakes of meat or fish. Two national dietary surveys of children and adolescents were conducted in Australia in 1985 and 1995 and two regional surveys were conducted in Western Sydney and Western Australia in 1994 and 2003, respectively. Comprehensive data for the intake of individual meat sources were not reported from the 1995 survey, but estimations of intake were calculated from published values. Reported intakes of meat and fish are generally lower in females than males and tend to increase with age. Weighted mean intakes of red meat (beef plus lamb) across the three most recent studies were 67.3 and 52.2 g/d, respectively, for males and females aged between 7 and 12 years and 87.7 and 54.2 g/d, respectively, for males and females aged 12-18 years. These weighted intakes are within Australian guidelines and are likely to contribute significantly to total long-chain n-3 PUFA intake in children and adolescents in the Australian population.

  4. Characterization of Virulence Potential of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated from Bovine Meat, Fresh Fish, and Smoked Fish

    PubMed Central

    Benie, Comoé Koffi Donatien; Dadié, Adjéhi; Guessennd, Nathalie; N’gbesso-Kouadio, Nadège Ahou; Kouame, N’zebo Désiré; N’golo, David Coulibaly; Aka, Solange; Dako, Etienne; Dje, Koffi Marcellin; Dosso, Mireille

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa owns a variability of virulence factors. These factors can increase bacterial pathogenicity and infection severity. Despite the importance of knowledge about them, these factors are not more characterized at level of strains derived from local food products. This study aimed to characterize the virulence potential of P. aeruginosa isolated from various animal products. Several structural and virulence genes of P. aeruginosa including lasB, exoS, algD, plcH, pilB, exoU, and nan1 were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on 204 strains of P. aeruginosa. They were isolated from bovine meat (122), fresh fish (49), and smoked fish (33). The 16S rRNA gene was detected on 91.1% of the presumptive strains as Pseudomonas. The rpoB gene showed that 99.5% of the strains were P. aeruginosa. The lasB gene (89.2%) was the most frequently detected (p < 0.05). In decreasing importance order, exoS (86.8%), algD (72.1%), plcH (72.1%), pilB (40.2%), and exoU (2.5%) were detected. The lasB gene was detected in all strains of P. aeruginosa serogroups O11 and O16. The prevalence of algD, exoS, and exoU genes in these strains varied from 51.2% to 87.4%. The simultaneous determination of serogroups and virulence factors is of interest for the efficacy of surveillance of infections associated with P. aeruginosa. PMID:28386471

  5. SPME technique for analyzing headspace volatiles in fish miso, a Japanese fish meat-based fermented product.

    PubMed

    Giri, Anupam; Osako, Kazufumi; Ohshima, Toshiaki

    2010-01-01

    The optimized conditions were evaluated for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) to investigate the headspace volatiles in fish miso, a Japanese fish meat-based fermented product. The influence on the efficiency for microextraction of such parameters as the sample size, isolation time and temperature, sensitivity and selectivity of several SPME fibers of different liquid phases as well as several extraction techniques was evaluated. Suitable reproducibility and sensitivity of SPME were achieved by combining carbowax/divenylbenzene of 65 µm thickness as the liquid phase of SPME, 3 g of fish miso, 40 °C of isolation temperature and 40 min of isolation time. The headspace volatiles of fish miso prepared from spotted mackerel were analyzed under the optimized conditions. Although several volatiles contributed to fish miso, certain volatile esters might have played the greatest role in imparting the sweet-fruity aroma to the product.

  6. Development of farmed fish: a nutritionally necessary alternative to meat.

    PubMed

    Sargent, J R; Tacon, A G

    1999-05-01

    The projected stagnation in the catch from global fisheries and the continuing expansion of aquaculture is considered against the background that fishmeal and fish oil are major feed stocks for farmed salmon and trout, and also for marine fish. The dietary requirement of these farmed fish for high-quality protein, rich in essential amino acids, can be met by sources other than fishmeal. However, the highly-polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) present in high concentrations in fish oil are essential dietary constituents for marine fish and highly-desirable dietary constituents for salmonids. Currently, there is no feasible alternative source to fish oil for these nutrients in fish feeds. Vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid (18:2n-6) can partially substitute for 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in salmonid and marine-fish feeds. However, this is nutritionally undesirable for human nutrition because the health-promoting effects of fish-derived 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 reflect a very high intake of 18:2n-6 relative to linolenic acid (18:3n-3) in Western diets. If partial replacement of fish oils in fish feeds with vegetable oils becomes necessary in future, it is argued that 18:3n-3-rich oils, such as linseed oil, are the oils of choice because they are much more acceptable from a human nutritional perspective, especially given the innate ability of freshwater fish, including salmonids, to convert dietary 18:3n-3 to 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. In the meantime, a more judicious use of increasingly-expensive fish oil in aquaculture is recommended. High priorities in the future development of aquaculture are considered to be genetic improvement of farmed fish stocks with enhanced abilities to convert C18 to C20 and C22 n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, enhanced development of primary production of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 by single-cell marine organisms, and continuing development of new species.

  7. The Use of Tomato Powder Fermented with Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus sakei for the Ready-to-Cook Minced Meat Quality Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Juodeikiene, Grazina; Zadeike, Daiva; Viskelis, Pranas; Urbonaviciene, Dalia

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this study, the influence of lactic acid fermentation on the quality of tomato powder was evaluated. The effect of adding fermented tomato powder to ready-to-cook minced pork meat to improve its nutritional value and sensory characteristics was also analysed. The cell growth of Lactobacillus sakei (7.53 log CFU/g) was more intense in the medium containing tomato powder, compared to the growth of Pediococcus pentosaceus (6.35 log CFU/g) during 24 h of fermentation; however, higher acidity (pH=4.1) was observed in the tomato powder samples fermented with Pediococcus pentosaceus. The spontaneous fermentation of tomato powder reduced cell growth by 38% and pH values slightly increased to 4.17, compared to the fermentation with pure LAB. The lactofermentation of tomato powder increased the average β-carotene and lycopene mass fractions by 43.9 and 50.2%, respectively, compared with the nonfermented samples. Lycopene and β-carotene contents in the ready-to-cook minced pork meat were proportional to the added tomato powder (10 and 30%). After cooking, β-carotene and lycopene contents decreased, on average, by 24.2 and 41.2%, respectively. The highest loss (up to 49.2%) of carotenoids was found in samples with 30% nonfermented tomato powder. Tomato powder fermented with 10% Lactobacillus sakei KTU05-6 can be recommended as both a colouring agent and a source of lycopene in the preparation of ready-to-cook minced pork meat. PMID:27904345

  8. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued meats... cooking process. The weight of barbecued meat shall not exceed 70 percent of the weight of the...

  9. Progress and recent advances in fabrication and utilization of hypoxanthine biosensors for meat and fish quality assessment: a review.

    PubMed

    Lawal, Abdulazeez T; Adeloju, Samuel B

    2012-10-15

    This review provides an update on the research conducted on the fabrication and utilization of hypoxanthine (Hx) biosensors published over the past four decades. In particular, the review focuses on progress made in the development and use of Hx biosensors for the assessment of fish and meat quality which has dominated research in this area. The various fish and meat freshness indexes that have been proposed over this period are highlighted. Furthermore, recent developments and future advances in the use of screen-printed electrodes and nanomaterials for achieving improved performances for the reliable determination of Hx in fish and meat are discussed.

  10. Effect of refrigerated and frozen storage on the survival of Campylobacter jejuni in cooked chicken meat breast.

    PubMed

    Eideh, Ala'a M F; Al-Qadiri, Hamzah M

    2011-01-01

    This experimental work aimed to examine the survivability of Campylobacter jejuni in cooked chicken breast under several conditions: storage for 1, 3, and 7 d at refrigerated temperatures (4 °C) and for 20 d at frozen temperatures (-18 °C). In addition, storage at ambient temperature (26 to 28 °C) was involved. Chicken samples were inoculated with a mixed culture of C. jejuni strains (ATCC: 29428 and 33219) of known concentrations (50 and 500 CFU/g). Bacterial cells were recovered and enumerated using standard procedure (Preston method). Bacteria were not detected in the majority of samples stored at ambient temperature. Refrigeration reduced survivals in 95, 90, and 77.5% for samples inoculated with 500 CFU/g and kept for 1, 3, and 7 d, respectively. The maximum reduction reached 1 log(10) cycle for all refrigeration durations. It was observed that bacteria died in 17.5% of samples kept for 7 d at 4 °C. However, survivors in samples inoculated with 50 CFU/g were not detected in 50, 65, and 55% of samples kept for 1, 3, and 7 d, respectively. Freezing rendered survivors not detectable in 70% of samples inoculated with 50 CFU/g, while survived viable counts were reduced in 92.5% of samples inoculated with 500 CFU/g. These findings suggested that C. jejuni could be killed or just sublethally injured with or without reduction in viable counts under the investigated storage temperatures, which may indicate the ability of this bacterium to survive in chicken meat stored under refrigerated and frozen conditions.

  11. Heavy metals in marine fish meat and consumer health: a review.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Adina C; O'Neill, Bernadette; Sigge, Gunnar O; Kerwath, Sven E; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2016-01-15

    The numerous health benefits provided by fish consumption may be compromised by the presence of toxic metals and metalloids such as lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury, which can have harmful effects on the human body if consumed in toxic quantities. The monitoring of metal concentrations in fish meat is therefore important to ensure compliance with food safety regulations and consequent consumer protection. The toxicity of these metals may be dependent on their chemical forms, which requires metal speciation processes for direct measurement of toxic metal species or the identification of prediction models in order to determine toxic metal forms from measured total metal concentrations. This review addresses various shortcomings in current knowledge and research on the accumulation of metal contaminants in commercially consumed marine fish globally and particularly in South Africa, affecting both the fishing industry as well as fish consumers. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Evaluation of Salmonella thermal inactivation model validity for slow cooking of whole-muscle meat roasts in a pilot-scale oven.

    PubMed

    Breslin, T J; Tenorio-Bernal, M I; Marks, B P; Booren, A M; Ryser, E T; Hall, N O

    2014-11-01

    Sublethal heating can increase subsequent thermal resistance of bacteria, which may compromise the validity of thermal process validations for slow-roasted meats. Therefore, this research evaluated the accuracy of a traditional log-linear inactivation model, developed via prior laboratory-scale isothermal tests, and a novel path-dependent model accounting for sublethal injury, applied to pilot-scale slow cooking of whole-muscle roasts. Irradiated turkey breasts, beef rounds, and pork loins were inoculated with an eight-serovar Salmonella cocktail via vacuum tumble marination in a salt-phosphate marinade. The resulting initial Salmonella population in the geometric center (core) was 7.0, 6.3, and 6.3 log CFU/g for turkey, beef, and pork, respectively. Seven different cooking schedules representing industry practices were evaluated in a pilot-scale, moist-air convection oven. Core temperatures recorded during cooking were used to calculate lethality real-time via the log-linear model. The path-dependent model reduced the bias (mean residual) and root mean square error by 4.24 and 4.60 log CFU/g respectively, in turkey; however, the new model did not reduce the prediction error in beef or pork. Overall, results demonstrated that slow-cooked roasts, processed to a computed lethality at or near that required by the regulatory performance standards, as calculated with a state-dependent model, may be underprocessed.

  13. Effects of fermentatively recovered fish waste lipids on the growth and composition of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Muhammed, M A; Domendra, D; Muthukumar, S P; Sakhare, P Z; Bhaskar, N

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of feeding fermentatively recovered fish oil (FFO) from fish processing waste (FPW), on the performance and carcass composition of broilers. A total of 60 one-d-old VenCobb broiler chicks randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups were studied. 2. The birds were randomly assigned to treatment groups and fed with a normal commercial diet (control, T1), a diet with 2% groundnut oil (positive control, T2), a diet with 1% FFO (T3), a diet with 1.5% FFO (T4) and a diet with 2% FFO (T5). Performance and growth parameters (feed intake and body weight) and fatty acid composition of serum, liver and meat were determined. 3. The performance characteristics of broiler meat did not differ among treatments. Feeding FFO reduced total cholesterol concentration in serum, meat and liver of the FFO-fed groups (T3 to T5) as compared to both the controls (T1 and T2), but there was no significant difference in triglyceride concentration between treatments. Increased concentrations of EPA and DHA in serum, liver and meat of FFO-fed groups, as compared to both controls, were observed as the FFO concentration increased. 4. The study clearly demonstrates the value of oil recovered from FPW in addition to addressing the environmental issues related to disposal of such biological waste.

  14. Educational intervention enhances consumers' readiness to adopt food thermometer use when cooking small cuts of meat: an application of the transtheoretical model.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Masami T; Edlefsen, Miriam; McCurdy, Sandra M; Hillers, Virginia N

    2005-09-01

    An intervention to promote use of food thermometers when cooking small cuts of meat was conducted using the Transtheoretical Model. Objectives were to (i) increase use of food thermometers by home food preparers, (ii) improve consumers' attitudes regarding use of a food thermometer, and (iii) examine relationships between stages of change and decisional balance, self-efficacy, and processes of change. A randomly selected group of residents of Washington and Idaho (n = 2,500) were invited to participate in the research; 295 persons completed all phases of the multistep intervention. Following the intervention program, there was a significant increase in food thermometer use when cooking small cuts of meat (P < 0.01); those persons classified in action and maintenance stages increased from 9 to 34%. Ownership of thermometers also significantly increased (P < 0.05). The three constructs related to the Transtheoretical Model that were used in the study (decisional balance, self-efficacy, and processes of change) were very useful for examining differences among people at different stages of change because the responses for each set of questions differed positively and significantly (P < 0.01) as stages of change classifications advanced from precontemplation (no interest in thermometer use) to action and maintenance (individuals who use food thermometers). Additional educational campaigns designed to increase use of food thermometers are needed. Because most consumers are currently in the precontemplation stage, food thermometer campaigns will be most effective when they are focused on raising awareness of the food safety risks and the benefits of using food thermometers when cooking small cuts of meat.

  15. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria from modified atmosphere packaged sliced cooked meat products at sell-by date assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Audenaert, Kris; D'Haene, Klaas; Messens, Kathy; Ruyssen, Tony; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2010-02-01

    The predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota associated with three types of modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) sliced cooked meat products (i.e. ham, turkey and chicken) was analyzed at sell-by date using a combination of culturing and molecular population fingerprinting. Likewise routine analyses during industrial MAP production, meat samples were plated on the general heterotrophic Plate Count Agar (PCA) and on the LAB-specific de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS) agar under different temperature and atmosphere conditions. Subsequently, community DNA extracts were prepared from culturable bacterial fractions harvested from both media and used for PCR targeting the V3 hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA gene followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR amplicons (PCR-DGGE). Irrespective of aerobic or anaerobic incubation conditions, V3-16S rDNA DGGE fingerprints of culturable fractions from PCA and MRS medium displayed a high level of similarity indicating that LAB constituted the most dominant group in the culturable bacterial community. Comparison of DGGE profiles of fractions grown at 20, 28 or 37 degrees C indicated that part of the culturable community consisted of psychrotrophs. Four DGGE bands were common among cooked ham, turkey and chicken products, suggesting that these represent the microbiota circulating in the plant where all three MAP product types were sliced and packaged. Based on band sequencing and band position analysis using LAB reference strains, these four bands could be assigned to Lactobacillus sakei and/or the closely related Lactobacillus fuchuensis, Lactobacillus curvatus, Carnobacterium divergens and Leuconostoc carnosum. In conclusion, the PCR-DGGE approach described in this study allows to discriminate, identify and monitor core and occasional LAB microbiota of MAP sliced cooked meat products and provides valuable complementary information to the current plating procedures routinely used in industrial plants.

  16. Effect of malva nut gum (purified and crude), sodium chloride and phosphate on cooking, texture, colour, rheology and microstructure of different chicken meat batters.

    PubMed

    Barbut, S; Somboonpanyakul, P; Quinton, M; Smith, A

    2009-01-01

    1. In the first experiment, the effect of adding purified malva nut gum (PMG) to comminuted poultry breast meat batters formulated with different contents of sodium chloride (NaCl; 10 to 30 g/kg) and tripolyphosphate (TPP; 0 and 5 g/kg) was studied. 2. Increasing salt (sodium chloride) content, along with the addition of 1 g/kg PMG, was beneficial in reducing cooking loss. At all salt contents, batters with PMG showed lower springiness than batters without PMG. Adding PMG to the batter with 20 g/kg salt and TPP decreased fracture force, springiness and chewiness. 3. In a second experiment, the effects of PMG (0.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g/kg), crude malva nut gum (CMG; 3.0 g/kg) and TPP (0.0 and 4.0 g/kg) on cooking loss, fat loss, colour, texture, rheology and microstructure of emulsified chicken meat batters were studied. 4. Increasing PMG reduced cooking and fat losses. Adding TPP increased hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness. The 1.0 g/kg PMG and TPP provided the greatest hardness. The batter with 3.0 g/kg PMG resulted in the lowest lightness (L*) and highest redness (a*). Adding PMG and TPP resulted in stable batters, as was evident by light microscopy results. The rheological evaluation showed the highest G' in the batter with 4.0 g/kg TPP followed in decreasing order by the batters containing TPP plus 3.0 g/kg PMG, TPP plus 1.0 g/kg PMG, 3.0 g/kg PMG, 1.0 g/kg PMG, 3.0 g/kg CMG and the control. 5. Overall, the results are important for developing new applications where malva nut gum can be used to improve yield and stability of meat products.

  17. [Sick leave benefits for workers in the Brazilian meat and fish industries in 2008].

    PubMed

    Jakobi, Heinz Roland; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh; Bueno, Luis Fernando; Ferreira, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyze factors associated with sick leave rates among workers in the meat, fish, and seafood industries in Brazil. The study analyzed all sick leave benefits granted by the country's social security system to workers in these industries in 2008. Incidence of sick leave per 10 thousand jobs was stratified by sex, age, diagnosis, job position, State, and nature and length of benefits. The study analyzed 31,913 sick leaves, with an annual incidence of 788.7. Meat processing and packaging showed the highest incidence, and fish and seafood processing and packaging showed the longest mean length of sick leave. Women showed a higher sick leave incidence, while men received longer average sick leaves. Injuries, musculoskeletal disorders, and mental disorders accounted for 67.2% of sick leaves. The most common diagnoses were lower back pain, first-trimester bleeding in pregnancy, and depression. The data suggest poor job protection and adverse working conditions in these industries.

  18. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios of urine and faeces as novel nutritional biomarkers of meat and fish intake.

    PubMed

    Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Joosen, Annemiek M C P; Kneale, Catherine J; O'Connell, Tamsin C

    2013-02-01

    Meat and fish consumption are associated with changes in the risk of chronic diseases. Intake is mainly assessed using self-reporting, as no true quantitative nutritional biomarker is available. The measurement of plasma fatty acids, often used as an alternative, is expensive and time-consuming. As meat and fish differ in their stable isotope ratios, δ(13)C and δ(15)N have been proposed as biomarkers. However, they have never been investigated in controlled human dietary intervention studies. In a short-term feeding study, we investigated the suitability of δ(13)C and δ(15)N in blood, urine and faeces as biomarkers of meat and fish intake. The dietary intervention study (n = 14) followed a randomised cross-over design with three eight-day dietary periods (meat, fish and half-meat-half-fish). In addition, 4 participants completed a vegetarian control period. At the end of each period, 24-h urine, fasting venous blood and faeces were collected and their δ(13)C and δ(15)N analysed. There was a significant difference between diets in isotope ratios in faeces and urine samples, but not in blood samples (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). In pairwise comparisons, δ(13)C and δ(15)N were significantly higher in urine and faecal samples following a fish diet when compared with all other diets, and significantly lower following a vegetarian diet. There was no significant difference in isotope ratio between meat and half-meat-half-fish diets for blood, urine or faecal samples. The results of this study show that urinary and faecal δ(13)C and δ(15)N are suitable candidate biomarkers for short-term meat and fish intake.

  19. Intakes of meat, fish, poultry, and eggs and risk of prostate cancer progression1234

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Erin L; Stampfer, Meir J; Paciorek, Alan; Broering, Jeanette M; Carroll, Peter R; Chan, June M

    2010-01-01

    Background: Processed meat and fish have been shown to be associated with the risk of advanced prostate cancer, but few studies have examined diet after prostate cancer diagnosis and risk of its progression. Objective: We examined the association between postdiagnostic consumption of processed and unprocessed red meat, fish, poultry, and eggs and the risk of prostate cancer recurrence or progression. Design: We conducted a prospective study in 1294 men with prostate cancer, without recurrence or progression as of 2004–2005, who were participating in the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor and who were followed for an average of 2 y. Results: We observed 127 events (prostate cancer death or metastases, elevated prostate-specific antigen concentration, or secondary treatment) during 2610 person-years. Intakes of processed and unprocessed red meat, fish, total poultry, and skinless poultry were not associated with prostate cancer recurrence or progression. Greater consumption of eggs and poultry with skin was associated with 2-fold increases in risk in a comparison of extreme quantiles: eggs [hazard ratio (HR): 2.02; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.72; P for trend = 0.05] and poultry with skin (HR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.36, 3.76; P for trend = 0.003). An interaction was observed between prognostic risk at diagnosis and poultry. Men with high prognostic risk and a high poultry intake had a 4-fold increased risk of recurrence or progression compared with men with low/intermediate prognostic risk and a low poultry intake (P for interaction = 0.003). Conclusions: Our results suggest that the postdiagnostic consumption of processed or unprocessed red meat, fish, or skinless poultry is not associated with prostate cancer recurrence or progression, whereas consumption of eggs and poultry with skin may increase the risk. PMID:20042525

  20. Intakes of meat, fish, poultry, and eggs and risk of prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Richman, Erin L; Stampfer, Meir J; Paciorek, Alan; Broering, Jeanette M; Carroll, Peter R; Chan, June M

    2010-03-01

    Processed meat and fish have been shown to be associated with the risk of advanced prostate cancer, but few studies have examined diet after prostate cancer diagnosis and risk of its progression. We examined the association between postdiagnostic consumption of processed and unprocessed red meat, fish, poultry, and eggs and the risk of prostate cancer recurrence or progression. We conducted a prospective study in 1294 men with prostate cancer, without recurrence or progression as of 2004-2005, who were participating in the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor and who were followed for an average of 2 y. We observed 127 events (prostate cancer death or metastases, elevated prostate-specific antigen concentration, or secondary treatment) during 2610 person-years. Intakes of processed and unprocessed red meat, fish, total poultry, and skinless poultry were not associated with prostate cancer recurrence or progression. Greater consumption of eggs and poultry with skin was associated with 2-fold increases in risk in a comparison of extreme quantiles: eggs [hazard ratio (HR): 2.02; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.72; P for trend = 0.05] and poultry with skin (HR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.36, 3.76; P for trend = 0.003). An interaction was observed between prognostic risk at diagnosis and poultry. Men with high prognostic risk and a high poultry intake had a 4-fold increased risk of recurrence or progression compared with men with low/intermediate prognostic risk and a low poultry intake (P for interaction = 0.003). Our results suggest that the postdiagnostic consumption of processed or unprocessed red meat, fish, or skinless poultry is not associated with prostate cancer recurrence or progression, whereas consumption of eggs and poultry with skin may increase the risk.

  1. Utilization of byproducts and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish processing industries: a review.

    PubMed

    Jayathilakan, K; Sultana, Khudsia; Radhakrishna, K; Bawa, A S

    2012-06-01

    India is bestowed with vast livestock wealth and it is growing at the rate of 6% per annum. The contribution of livestock industry including poultry and fish is increasing substantially in GDP of country which accounts for >40% of total agricultural sector and >12% of GDP. This contribution would have been much greater had the animal by-products been also efficiently utilized. Efficient utilization of by-products has direct impact on the economy and environmental pollution of the country. Non-utilization or under utilization of by-products not only lead to loss of potential revenues but also lead to the added and increasing cost of disposal of these products. Non-utilization of animal by-products in a proper way may create major aesthetic and catastrophic health problems. Besides pollution and hazard aspects, in many cases meat, poultry and fish processing wastes have a potential for recycling raw materials or for conversion into useful products of higher value. Traditions, culture and religion are often important when a meat by-product is being utilized for food. Regulatory requirements are also important because many countries restrict the use of meat by-products for reasons of food safety and quality. By-products such as blood, liver, lung, kidney, brains, spleen and tripe has good nutritive value. Medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of by-product are also highlighted in this review. Waste products from the poultry processing and egg production industries must be efficiently dealt with as the growth of these industries depends largely on waste management. Treated fish waste has found many applications among with which the most important are animal feed, biodiesel/biogas, dietectic products (chitosan), natural pigments (after extraction) and cosmetics (collagen). Available information pertaining to the utilization of by-products and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish and their processing industries has been reviewed here.

  2. Substitution of meat and fish with vegetables or potatoes and risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Würtz, Anne M L; Hansen, Mette D; Tjønneland, Anne; Rimm, Eric B; Schmidt, Erik B; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne U

    2016-11-01

    Red meat has been suggested to be adversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI), whereas vegetable consumption has been found to be protective. The aim of this study was to investigate substitutions of red meat, poultry and fish with vegetables or potatoes for MI prevention. We followed up 29 142 women and 26 029 men in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study aged 50-64 years with no known history of MI at baseline. Diet was assessed by a validated 192-item FFQ at baseline. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for MI associated with specified food substitutions of 150 g/week. During a median follow-up of 13·6 years, we identified 656 female and 1694 male cases. Among women, the HR for MI when replacing red meat with vegetables was 0·94 (95 % CI 0·90, 0·98). Replacing fatty fish with vegetables was associated with a higher risk of MI (HR 1·23; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·45), whereas an inverse, statistically non-significant association was found for lean fish (HR 0·93; 95 % CI 0·83, 1·05). Substituting poultry with vegetables was not associated with risk of MI (HR 1·00; 95 % CI 0·90, 1·11). Findings for substitution with potatoes were similar to findings for vegetables. Among men, a similar pattern was observed, but the associations were weak and mostly statistically non-significant. This study suggests that replacing red meat with vegetables or potatoes is associated with a lower risk of MI, whereas replacing fatty fish with vegetables or potatoes is associated with a higher risk of MI.

  3. Evaluating the Performance of a New Model for Predicting the Growth of Clostridium perfringens in Cooked, Uncured Meat and Poultry Products under Isothermal, Heating, and Dynamically Cooling Conditions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lihan

    2016-07-01

    Clostridium perfringens type A is a significant public health threat and its spores may germinate, outgrow, and multiply during cooling of cooked meats. This study applies a new C. perfringens growth model in the USDA Integrated Pathogen Modeling Program-Dynamic Prediction (IPMP Dynamic Prediction) Dynamic Prediction to predict the growth from spores of C. perfringens in cooked uncured meat and poultry products using isothermal, dynamic heating, and cooling data reported in the literature. The residual errors of predictions (observation-prediction) are analyzed, and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) calculated. For isothermal and heating profiles, each data point in growth curves is compared. The mean residual errors (MRE) of predictions range from -0.40 to 0.02 Log colony forming units (CFU)/g, with a RMSE of approximately 0.6 Log CFU/g. For cooling, the end point predictions are conservative in nature, with an MRE of -1.16 Log CFU/g for single-rate cooling and -0.66 Log CFU/g for dual-rate cooling. The RMSE is between 0.6 and 0.7 Log CFU/g. Compared with other models reported in the literature, this model makes more accurate and fail-safe predictions. For cooling, the percentage for accurate and fail-safe predictions is between 97.6% and 100%. Under criterion 1, the percentage of accurate predictions is 47.5% for single-rate cooling and 66.7% for dual-rate cooling, while the fail-dangerous predictions are between 0% and 2.4%. This study demonstrates that IPMP Dynamic Prediction can be used by food processors and regulatory agencies as a tool to predict the growth of C. perfringens in uncured cooked meats and evaluate the safety of cooked or heat-treated uncured meat and poultry products exposed to cooling deviations or to develop customized cooling schedules. This study also demonstrates the need for more accurate data collection during cooling.

  4. Intake of meat and fish and risk of head-neck cancer subtypes in the Netherlands Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Perloy, Andy; Maasland, Denise H E; van den Brandt, Piet A; Kremer, Bernd; Schouten, Leo J

    2017-06-01

    To date, the role of meat and fish intake in head-neck cancer (HNC) etiology is not well understood and prospective evidence is limited. This prompted us to study the association between meat, fish, and HNC subtypes, i.e., oral cavity cancer (OCC), oro- and hypopharyngeal cancer (OHPC), and laryngeal cancer (LC), within the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). In 1986, 120,852 participants (aged 55-69 years) completed a baseline 150-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), from which daily meat and fish intake were calculated. After 20.3 years of follow-up, 430 HNC overall (134 OCC, 90 OHPC and 203 LC) cases and 4,111 subcohort members were found to be eligible for case-cohort analysis. Multivariate hazard ratios were calculated using Cox's proportional hazards model within quartiles of energy-adjusted meat and fish intake. Processed meat intake, but not red meat intake, was positively associated with HNC overall [HR(Q4 vs. Q1) = 1.46, 95% CI 1.06-2.00; ptrend = 0.03]. Among HNC subtypes, processed meat was positively associated with OCC, while no associations were found with OHPC and LC. Fish intake was not associated with HNC risk. Tests for interaction did not reveal statistically significant interaction between meat, fish, and alcohol or smoking on HNC overall risk. In this large cohort study, processed meat intake was positively associated with HNC overall and HNC subtype OCC, but not with OHPC and LC.

  5. Effects of dressing and cooking on DDT concentrations in certain fish from Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.; Stewart, Donald; Seagran, Harry L.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrations of DDT residues were highest in parts of the body with the highest oil content in four species of fish from Lake Michigan: yellow perch (Perca flavescens), bloater (Coregonus hoyi), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Dressing reduced the DDT residues and oil content by more than 90% in yellow perch but had little effect in the other three species. The concentration of DDT residues in bloaters was changed little by smoking but was reduced 64–72% by other methods of cooking: from 8.0 ppm (raw) to 2.2 ppm after frying in corn oil; from 10.7 to 3.9 ppm after frying in lard; and from 9.1 to 3.2 ppm after broiling. The concentration of DDT residues in fillets of yellow perch changed only from 0.3 ppm (raw) to 0.4 or 0.5 ppm after baking, frying, or broiling.

  6. Comparison of immunohistochemical, histochemical and immunochemical methods for the detection of wheat protein allergens in meat samples and cooked, dry, raw and fermented sausage samples.

    PubMed

    Lukášková, Z Řezáčová; Tremlová, B; Pospiech, M; Renčová, E; Randulová, Z; Steinhauser, L; Reichová, A; Bednář, J

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays is it a common practice to add vegetable protein in the production of meat products. Because of the possible substitution of high-quality raw meat with vegetable protein without the labelling the product package and because of the allergenic potential of many vegetable proteins, it is important to develop accurate methods for its detection. The objective of the study was to compare histochemical, immunochemical (ELISA, ALERT gliadin screening test) and immunohistochemical methods for the detection of wheat protein in meat samples and sausages. Histochemical methods were useful for the detection of flour in meat samples, but the immunohistochemical method was better for the detection of wheat protein. ALERT gliadin screening test detected gliadin from 10 mg kg(-1), while an immunohistochemical method detected wheat protein concentrations from 1 g kg(-1) and an ELISA method detected wheat protein concentrations from 4 g kg(-1). ALERT gliadin screening test showed results within 1 day, whilst an ELISA detection method took 2 days, and an immunohistochemical procedure took 5 days at the soonest, all including sample preparation. This study also focused on optimisation of an immunohistochemical method for samples of cooked sausage. In addition, three samples were sufficient for wheat protein detection at a concentration of 1 g kg(-1) (and greater) with a confidence level greater than 95%.

  7. Oceanographic conditions structure forage fishes into lipid-rich and lipid-poor communities in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abookire, Alisa A.; Piatt, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Forage fishes were sampled with a mid-water trawl in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA, from late July to early August 1996 to 1999. We sampled 3 oceanographically distinct areas of lower Cook Inlet: waters adjacent to Chisik Island, in Kachemak Bay, and near the Barren Islands. In 163 tows using a mid-water trawl, 229 437 fishes with fork length < 200 mm were captured. More than 39 species were captured in lower Cook Inlet, but Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, and juvenile walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma comprised 97.5% of the total individuals. Both species richness and species diversity were highest in warm, low-salinity, weakly stratified waters near Chisik Island. Kachemak Bay, which had thermohaline values between those found near Chisik Island and the Barren Islands, had an intermediate value of species richness. Species richness was lowest at the Barren Islands, an exposed region that regularly receives oceanic, upwelled water from the Gulf of Alaska. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to compute axes of species composition based on an ordination of pairwise site dissimilarities. Each axis was strongly rank-correlated with unique groups of species and examined separately as a function of environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, depth), area, and year. Oce??anographie parameters accounted for 41 and 12% of the variability among forage fishes indicated by Axis 1 and Axis 2, respectively. Axis 1 also captured the spatial variability in the upwelled area of lower Cook Inlet and essentially contrasted the distribution of species among shallow, nearshore (sand lance, herring) and deep, offshore (walleye pollock) habitats. Axis 2 captured the spatial variability in forage fish communities from the north (Chisik Island) to the south (Barren Islands) of lower Cook Inlet and essentially contrasted a highly diverse community dominated by salmonids and osmerids (warmer, less saline) with a fish

  8. Oceanographic conditions structure forage fishes into lipid-rich and lipid-poor communities in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abookire, Alisa A.; Piatt, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Forage fishes were sampled with a mid-water trawl in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA, from late July to early August 1996 to 1999. We sampled 3 oceanographically distinct areas of lower Cook Inlet: waters adjacent to Chisik Island, in Kachemak Bay, and near the Barren Islands. In 163 tows using a mid-water trawl, 229437 fishes with fork length <200 mm were captured. More than 39 species were captured in lower Cook Inlet, but Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, and juvenile walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma comprised 97.5% of the total individuals. Both species richness and species diversity were highest in warm, low-salinity, weakly stratified waters near Chisik Island. Kachemak Bay, which had thermohaline values between those found near Chisik Island and the Barren Islands, had an intermediate value of species richness. Species richness was lowest at the Barren Islands, an exposed region that regularly receives oceanic, upwelled water from the Gulf of Alaska. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to compute axes of species composition based on an ordination of pairwise site dissimilarities. Each axis was strongly rank-correlated with unique groups of species and examined separately as a function of environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, depth), area, and year. Oceanographic parameters accounted for 41 and 12% of the variability among forage fishes indicated by Axis 1 and Axis 2, respectively. Axis 1 also captured the spatial variability in the upwelled area of lower Cook Inlet and essentially contrasted the distribution of species among shallow, nearshore (sand lance, herring) and deep, offshore (walleye pollock) habitats. Axis 2 captured the spatial variability in forage fish communities from the north (Chisik Island) to the south (Barren Islands) of lower Cook Inlet and essentially contrasted a highly diverse community dominated by salmonids and osmerids (warmer, less saline) with a fish

  9. Antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of pig meat before and after cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion: Comparison between Italian autochthonous pig Suino Nero Lucano and a modern crossbred pig.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio; Perna, Annamaria

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of Longissimus dorsi muscle from Suino Nero Lucano (SNL) and a modern crossbred (CG) pigs, before and after cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Pig meat showed antioxidative and antihypertensive activities, heat treatment decreased the thiols content but at the same time increased angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion enhanced the biological activity of meat. Autochthonous SNL meat showed a higher nutraceutical quality compared to CG meat, highlighting a greater potential beneficial physiological effect on human health. The results of this study indicate that the pig meat, in particular autochthonous pig meat, may be considered a functional food since it is a good source of antioxidative and antihypertensive peptides.

  10. Blood and tissue fatty acid compositions, lipoprotein levels, performance and meat flavor of broilers fed fish oil: changes in the pre- and post-withdrawal design.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, N; Safamehr, A; Mehmannavaz, Y; Chekaniazar, S

    2012-12-01

    Administration of fish oil (FO) in broiler diets can elevate α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) levels, which are protective against cardiovascular disease. However, optimization based solely on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enrichment in chicken meat could lead to lower meat quality, unless the withdrawal period (plan) is applied for 1 week. The present study investigated whether the incorporation of FO in the diet for 32 days followed by its withdrawal for 1 week affected blood lipid profiles, lipoprotein particles, performance and meat flavor in male broiler chickens. Two hundred and forty birds (1-day-old, Ross 308) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary groups: 0%, 1%, 2% or 3% FO with four replicates. Broilers were fed for 49 days according to a 4-phase feeding program. The experimental phase comprised day 11 to 42, and FO was removed on day 42. Blood samples were collected during the pre- and post-withdrawal period after the recordings before slaughter. The FO groups demonstrated decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increased high-density lipoprotein levels on day 42 (P < 0.01); however, these values were not significant after design withdrawal. Diet supplementation with FO elevated the blood levels of palmitic acid (C16:0) and n-3 PUFAs, especially long-chain (LC) PUFAs (EPA, C20:5n-3 and DHA, C22:6n-3), and caused a decline in the level of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6; P < 0.05). Application of a one-week withdrawal period resulted in a decrease in (P < 0.05) linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) and an increase in the level of AA, unlike their amounts on day 42. Although blood and tissue LC n-3 PUFA levels on day 49 were significantly higher in the FO groups compared with the control, they demonstrated a substantial decrease on day 49 compared with day 42. The best results, mainly the lowest n-6/n-3 fatty acids (FAs) and feed conversion ratio (FCRs), were observed for 3% FO (group T4), even after institution

  11. The effect of two methods of cooking and cooling on Clostridium welchii and other bacteria in meat

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, R. G. A.; Kendall, Margaret; Hobbs, Betty C.

    1972-01-01

    A comparison was made of beef cooked in conventional and moist air (Rapidaire) ovens. In both large (ca. 4·5 kg.) and small (ca. 2·7 kg.) joints, spores of Clostridium welchii survived after cooking but vegetative cells, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, did not, regardless of the type of oven used. Cooling at room temperature after cooking permitted growth of Cl. welchii. Although some multiplication also occurred in the centre of large roasts cooled under refrigeration, the viable counts were considered too low to constitute a potential health risk. PMID:4341997

  12. Effects of Different End-Point Cooking Temperatures on the Efficiency of Encapsulated Phosphates on Lipid Oxidation Inhibition in Ground Meat.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, B; Şimşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E; Aktaş, N

    2015-10-01

    Effects of 0.5% encapsulated (e) phosphates (sodium tripolyphosphate, STP; sodium hexametaphosphate, HMP; sodium pyrophosphate, SPP) on lipid oxidation during storage (0, 1, and 7 d) of ground meat (chicken, beef) after being cooked to 3 end-point cooking temperatures (EPCT; 71, 74, and 77 °C) were evaluated. The use of STP or eSTP resulted in lower (P < 0.05) cooking loss (CL) compared to encapsulated or unencapsulated forms of HMP and SPP. Increasing EPCT led to a significant increase in CL (P < 0.05). Both STP and eSTP increased pH, whereas SPP and eSPP decreased pH (P < 0.05). The higher orthophosphate (OP) was obtained with STP or SPP compared to their encapsulated counterparts (P < 0.05). The lowest OP was determined in samples with HMP or eHMP (P < 0.05). A 77 °C EPCT resulted in lower OP in chicken compared to 74 and 71 °C (P < 0.05), dissimilar to beef, where EPCT did not affect OP. In encapsulated or unencapsulated form, using STP and SPP enhanced reduction in TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) compared with HMP (P < 0.05). Regardless of the phosphate type, more effective lipid oxidation inhibition was achieved by the use of encapsulated forms (P < 0.05). Increasing EPCT resulted in lower TBARS in beef and higher LPO values in both beef and chicken samples (P < 0.05). Findings suggest that encapsulated phosphates can be a strategy to inhibit lipid oxidation for meat industry and the efficiency of encapsulated phosphates on lipid oxidation inhibition can be enhanced by lowering EPCT. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Selected organic compounds and trace elements in streambed sediments and fish tissues, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, Steven A.

    2000-01-01

    Organochlorines, semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and trace elements were investigated in streambed sediments and fish tissues at selected sites in the Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, during 1998. At most sites, SVOCs and organochlorine compounds were either not detected or detected at very low concentrations. Chester Creek at Arctic Boulevard at Anchorage, which was the only site sampled with a significant degree of development in the watershed, had elevated levels of many SVOCs in streambed sediment. Coring of sediments from two ponds on Chester Creek confirmed the presence of elevated concentrations of a variety of organic compounds. Moose Creek, a stream with extensive coal deposits in its watershed, had low concentrations of numerous SVOCs in streambed sediment. Three sites located in national parks or in a national wildlife refuge had no detectable concentrations of SVOCs. Trace elements were analyzed in both streambed sediments and tissues of slimy sculpin. The two media provided similar evidence for elevated concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc at Chester Creek. In this study, 'probable effect levels '(PELs) were determined from sediments finer than 0.063 millimeters, where concentrations tend to be greatest. Arsenic and chromium concentrations exceeded the PEL at eight and six sites respectively. Zinc exceeded the PEL at one site. Cadmium and copper concentrations were smaller than the PEL at all sites. Mercury concentrations in streambed sediments from the Deshka River were near the PEL, and selenium concentrations at that site also appear to be elevated above background levels. At half the sites where slimy sculpin were sampled, selenium concentrations were at levels that may cause adverse effects in some species.

  14. Influence of different dietary doses of n-3- or n-6-rich vegetable fats and alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on raw and cooked rabbit meat composition and oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Tres, Alba; Bou, Ricard; Codony, Rafael; Guardiola, Francesc

    2008-08-27

    This study evaluates the effects of replacing beef tallow added to rabbit feeds (3% w/w) by different doses (0%, 1.5% and 3% w/w) of n-6- or n-3-rich vegetable fat sources (sunflower and linseed oil, respectively) and alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation (0 and 100 mg/kg) on the fatty acid composition, alpha-tocopherol content, and oxidation levels [assessed by analyzing thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and lipid hydroperoxide values] in rabbit meat. We also measured these parameters after cooking and refrigerated storage of cooked rabbit meat. Both dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation and the dose and source of fat added to feeds influenced meat fatty acid composition, modifying the n-6/n-3 ratio, which was more nutritionally favorable when linseed oil was used. Furthermore, the addition of linseed oil and the supplementation with alpha-tocopheryl acetate enhanced long-chain PUFA biosynthesis. However, the addition of 3% linseed oil increased meat oxidation, and although it was reduced by dietary supplementation with alpha-tocopheryl acetate in raw meat, this reduction was not as effective after cooking. Therefore, dietary supplementation with 1.5% linseed oil plus 1.5% beef tallow and with alpha-tocopheryl acetate would be recommended to improve the nutritional quality of rabbit meat.

  15. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... must weigh no more than 115 grams, with fat content no greater than 30 percent. These patties must be... connecting them; and there is at all times a positive air flow from the cooked to the raw product side;...

  16. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... must weigh no more than 115 grams, with fat content no greater than 30 percent. These patties must be... end of the cooking cycle connecting them; and there is at all times a positive air flow from...

  17. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... must weigh no more than 115 grams, with fat content no greater than 30 percent. These patties must be... connecting them; and there is at all times a positive air flow from the cooked to the raw product side;...

  18. Identification of gadoid species in fish meat by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Hubalkova, Zora; Kralik, Petr; Kasalova, Janka; Rencova, Eva

    2008-05-28

    Identification of fish species is significant due to the increasing interest of consumers in the meat of sea fish. Methods focusing on fish species identification help to reveal fraudulent substitution among economically important gadoid species in commercial seafood products. The objective of this work was to develop a conventional PCR method for the differentiation of the following gadoid fish species in fish products: Alaska pollack ( Theragra chalcogramma), blue whiting ( Micromesistius poutassou), hake spp. ( Merluccius spp.), Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua), saithe ( Pollachius virens), and whiting ( Merlangius merlangus). The species-specific primer pairs for gadoid species determination were based on the partial pantophysin I ( PanI) genomic sequence. Sequence identification was confirmed by cloning and sequencing of the PCR products obtained from the species considered. For the simultaneous detection of Alaska pollack, blue whiting, and hake spp., a quadruplex PCR system was constructed. Other gadoid species were detected in separate PCR reactions. After optimization of the reactions, the developed PCR systems were used for the analysis of codfish samples obtained from the Czech market and the customs' laboratories. This method represents an alternative approach in the use of genomic DNA for the identification of fish species. This method is rapid, simple, and reliable without the need for further confirmative methods. Furthermore, the identification of a mixture of more than one species is possible. The PCR system has been optimized for routine diagnostic purposes.

  19. Dietary Intake of Meat Cooking-Related Mutagens (HCAs) and Risk of Colorectal Adenoma and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chiavarini, Manuela; Bertarelli, Gaia; Minelli, Liliana; Fabiani, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Much evidence suggests that the positive association between meat intake and colorectal adenoma (CRA) and cancer (CRC) risk is mediated by mutagenic compounds generated during cooking at high temperature. A number of epidemiological studies have estimated the effect of meat-related mutagens intake on CRC/CRA risk with contradictory and sometimes inconsistent results. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus) to identify articles reporting the relationship between the intake of meat-related mutagens (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline: DiMeIQx, benzo(a) pyrene (B(a)P) and “meat derived mutagenic activity” (MDM)) and CRC/CRA risk. A random-effect model was used to calculate the risk association. Thirty-nine studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Polled CRA risk (15229 cases) was significantly increased by intake of PhIP (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.13,1.28; p < 0.001), MeIQx (OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.05,1.23; p = 0.001), DiMeIQx (OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.05,1.21; p = 0.001), B(a)P (OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.02,1.19; p = 0.017) and MDM (OR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.07,1.28; p = 0.001). A linear and curvilinear trend was observed in dose–response meta-analysis between CRA risk in association with PhIP, MDM, and MeIQx. CRC risk (21,344 cases) was increased by uptake of MeIQx (OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.04,1.25; p = 0.004), DiMeIQx (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.02,1.22; p = 0.014) and MDM (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.06,1.19; p < 0.001). No publication bias could be detected, whereas heterogeneity was in some cases rather high. Mutagenic compounds formed during cooking of meat at high temperature may be responsible of its carcinogenicity. PMID:28524104

  20. Analysing and modelling the growth behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes on RTE cooked meat products after a high pressure treatment at 400 MPa.

    PubMed

    Hereu, A; Dalgaard, P; Garriga, M; Aymerich, T; Bover-Cid, S

    2014-09-01

    Various predictive models are available for high pressure inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in food, but currently available models do not consider the growth kinetics of surviving cells during the subsequent storage of products. Therefore, we characterised the growth of L. monocytogenes in sliced cooked meat products after a pressurization treatment. Two inoculum levels (10(7) or 10(4) CFU/g) and two physiological states before pressurization (freeze-stressed or cold-adapted) were evaluated. Samples of cooked ham and mortadella were inoculated, high pressure processed (400 MPa, 5 min) and subsequently stored at 4, 8 and 12 °C. The Logistic model with delay was used to estimate lag phase (λ) and maximum specific growth rate (μmax) values from the obtained growth curves. The effect of storage temperature on μmax and λ was modelled using the Ratkowsky square root model and the relative lag time (RLT) concept. Compared with cold-adapted cells the freeze-stressed cells were more pressure-resistant and showed a much longer lag phase during growth after the pressure treatment. Interestingly, for high-pressure inactivation and subsequent growth, the time to achieve a concentration of L. monocytogenes 100-fold (2-log) higher than the cell concentration prior to the pressure treatment was similar for the two studied physiological states of the inoculum. Two secondary models were necessary to describe the different growth behaviour of L. monocytogenes on ready-to-eat cooked ham (lean product) and mortadella (fatty product). This supported the need of a product-oriented approach to assess growth after high pressure processing. The performance of the developed predictive models for the growth of L. monocytogenes in high-pressure processed cooked ham and mortadella was evaluated by comparison with available data from the literature and by using the Acceptable Simulation Zone approach. Overall, 91% of the relative errors fell into the Acceptable Simulation Zone

  1. Microbial load, acidity, lipid oxidation and volatile basic nitrogen of irradiated fish and meat-bone meals.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M R; Al-Bachir, M

    2007-04-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of different doses of gamma irradiation (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kilo gray; kGy) on some nutritive components and chemical aspects pertaining to quality of fish meal and meat-bone meal. The radiation doses required to reduce the total microbial load and Salmonella sp. one log cycle (D(10)) in fish meal and meat-bone meal were determined. Results indicated that gamma irradiation of fish meal and meat-bone meal with 5-20 kGy doses had no effects on the total acidity values but increased the values of lipid oxidation and total volatile basic nitrogen. D(10) of total microbial load and Salmonella sp. were 833 and 313 Gy for fish meal and 526 Gy and 278 Gy for meat-bone meal, respectively. It can be concluded that radiation processing could be employed in the recycling of fish and meat-bone meals by using them as feedstuffs in poultry diets with no fear of losing their nutritive components.

  2. Use of rRNA gene restriction patterns to evaluate lactic acid bacterium contamination of vacuum-packaged sliced cooked whole-meat product in a meat processing plant.

    PubMed Central

    Björkroth, K J; Korkeala, H J

    1997-01-01

    Molecular typing was applied to an in-plant lactic acid bacterium (LAB) contamination analysis of a vacuum-packaged sliced cooked whole-meat product. A total of 982 LAB isolates from the raw mass, product, and the environment at different production stages were screened by restriction endonuclease (EcoRI and HindIII) analysis. rRNA gene restriction patterns were further determined for different strains obtained from each source. These patterns were used for recognizing the spoilage-causing LAB strains from the product on the sell-by day and tracing the sources and sites of spoilage LAB contamination during the manufacture. LAB typing resulted in 71 different ribotypes, of which 27 were associated with contamination routes. Raw material was distinguished as the source of the major spoilage strains. Contamination of the product surfaces after cooking was shown to be airborne. The removal of the product from the cooking forms was localized as a major site of airborne LAB contamination. Food handlers and some surfaces in contact with the product during the manufacture were also contaminated with the spoilage strains. Some LAB strains were also able to resist cooking in the core of the product bar. These strains may have an effect on the product shelf life by contaminating the slicing machine. The air in the slicing department and adjacent cold room contained very few LAB. Surface-mediated contamination was detected during the slicing and packaging stages. Food handlers also carried strains later found in the packaged product. Molecular typing provided useful information revealing the LAB contamination sources and sites of this product. The production line will be reorganized in accordance with these results to reduce spoilage LAB contamination. PMID:9023922

  3. Use of rRNA gene restriction patterns to evaluate lactic acid bacterium contamination of vacuum-packaged sliced cooked whole-meat product in a meat processing plant.

    PubMed

    Björkroth, K J; Korkeala, H J

    1997-02-01

    Molecular typing was applied to an in-plant lactic acid bacterium (LAB) contamination analysis of a vacuum-packaged sliced cooked whole-meat product. A total of 982 LAB isolates from the raw mass, product, and the environment at different production stages were screened by restriction endonuclease (EcoRI and HindIII) analysis. rRNA gene restriction patterns were further determined for different strains obtained from each source. These patterns were used for recognizing the spoilage-causing LAB strains from the product on the sell-by day and tracing the sources and sites of spoilage LAB contamination during the manufacture. LAB typing resulted in 71 different ribotypes, of which 27 were associated with contamination routes. Raw material was distinguished as the source of the major spoilage strains. Contamination of the product surfaces after cooking was shown to be airborne. The removal of the product from the cooking forms was localized as a major site of airborne LAB contamination. Food handlers and some surfaces in contact with the product during the manufacture were also contaminated with the spoilage strains. Some LAB strains were also able to resist cooking in the core of the product bar. These strains may have an effect on the product shelf life by contaminating the slicing machine. The air in the slicing department and adjacent cold room contained very few LAB. Surface-mediated contamination was detected during the slicing and packaging stages. Food handlers also carried strains later found in the packaged product. Molecular typing provided useful information revealing the LAB contamination sources and sites of this product. The production line will be reorganized in accordance with these results to reduce spoilage LAB contamination.

  4. Meat and fish consumption and the risk of renal cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Overvad, Kim; Lund Würtz, Anne Mette; Roswall, Nina; Tjonneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Bastide, Nadia; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Weikert, Steffen; Steffen, Annika; Kühn, Tilman; Li, Kuanrong; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Peppa, Eleni; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Hjartåker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Jakszyn, Paula; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Santiuste de Pablos, Carmen; Molina-Montes, Esther; de la Torre, Ramón Alonso; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mattias; Ljungberg, Börje; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Riboli, Elio; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-03-01

    Renal cell cancer (RCC) incidence varies worldwide with a higher incidence in developed countries and lifestyle is likely to contribute to the development of this disease. We examined whether meat and fish consumption were related to the risk of RCC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The analysis included 493,179 EPIC participants, recruited between 1992 and 2000. Until December 2008, 691 RCC cases have been identified. Meat and fish consumption was assessed at baseline using country-specific dietary assessment instruments; 24-hour recalls were applied in an 8% subsample for calibration purposes. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Women with a high consumption of red meat (HR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.14-1.62; calibrated, per 50 g/day) and processed meat (HR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.05-3.03; calibrated, per 50 g/day) had a higher risk of RCC, while no association existed in men. For processed meat, the association with RCC incidence was prominent in premenopausal women and was lacking in postmenopausal women (p interaction = 0.02). Neither poultry nor fish consumption were statistically significantly associated with the risk of RCC. The results show a distinct association of red and processed meat consumption with incident RCC in women but not in men. A biological explanation for these findings remains unclear.

  5. Cooking Has Variable Effects on the Fermentability in the Large Intestine of the Fraction of Meats, Grain Legumes, and Insects That Is Resistant to Digestion in the Small Intestine in an in Vitro Model of the Pig's Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Poelaert, Christine; Despret, Xavier; Sindic, Marianne; Beckers, Yves; Francis, Frédéric; Portetelle, Daniel; Soyeurt, Hélène; Théwis, André; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2017-01-18

    This study aimed to evaluate the fermentation in the large intestine of indigestible dietary protein sources from animal, insect, and plant origin using an in vitro model of the pig's gastrointestinal tract. Protein sources were used raw and after a cooking treatment. Results showed that the category of the ingredient (meats, insects, or grain legumes) exerts a stronger impact on enzymatic digestibility, fermentation patterns, and bacterial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) than the cooking treatment. The digestibility and the fermentation characteristics of insects were more affected by the cooking procedure than the other categories. Per gram of consumed food, ingredients from animal origin, namely, meats and insects, were associated with fewer fermentation end-products (gas, H2S, SCFA) than ingredients from plant origin, which is related to their higher small intestinal digestibility.

  6. The UK Women's Cohort Study: comparison of vegetarians, fish-eaters and meat-eaters.

    PubMed

    Cade, J E; Burley, V J; Greenwood, D C

    2004-10-01

    This paper describes the development of the UK Women's Cohort Study and presents cohort baseline characteristics. In total, 35,372 women, aged 35-69 years at recruitment, were selected to ensure a wide range of dietary intakes. Diet was assessed by a 217-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Detailed lifestyle information was collected by postal questionnaire. Vegetarians, fish-eaters and meat-eaters were compared. The cohort women are mainly white, well-educated, middle-class and married with children. They are health-conscious with only 11% current smokers and 58% taking dietary supplements. Twenty-eight per cent of subjects self-report as being vegetarian and 1% as vegan. However, only 18% are defined as 'vegetarian' from the FFQ. Fat provides 32% of energy; vitamin and mineral intakes are high, with a broad range of intakes. Meat-eaters are older, with a higher body mass index (BMI) and the lowest intakes of carbohydrate, fibre, vitamin C, folate, iron and calcium. Other fish-eaters are similar to vegetarians. Vegetarians have the lowest intakes of protein, fat and saturated fat. Oily fish-eaters have the lowest BMI; are the least likely to smoke or use full-fat milk; and are the most likely to use dietary supplements and consume the most fruit and vegetables. Oily fish-eaters have the highest total energy intake and vegetarians the lowest. Semi-skimmed milk, bread, potatoes, wine, bananas and muesli are important contributors to energy for all groups. A large cohort of middle-aged women has been created encompassing a wide range of different eating patterns, including diets currently of interest to research into protection against cancer and coronary heart disease. Participants will be followed up to study the effects of different food and nutrient intakes on long-term health outcomes.

  7. Impacts of cooking technique on polychlorinated biphenyl and polychlorinated dioxins/furan concentrations in fish and fish products with intake estimates.

    PubMed

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Breakell, Kenneth; Verigin, Victor; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Del Gobbo, Liana; Diamond, Miriam; Vanderlinden, Loren; Sit, Daniel

    2013-01-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations were determined in composites of 18 different fish products and were prepared as raw, baked, boiled, and fried. ∑PCB concentrations were found to range from 0.12 ng·g(-1) whole weight (ww) in raw octopus to 33 ng·g(-1) ww in baked mackerel. Boiled monkfish was found to have the lowest ∑PCDD/F concentrations (0.41 pg·g(-1) ww), while maximum concentrations were observed in fried catfish (59 pg·g(-1) ww). PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in fish were generally reduced during cooking, although differences were small. The average PCB reduction in finfish was 7.9%, while an increase in PCB mass was observed in non-finfish (2.9%). PCDD/F losses, on average, were observed in both the finfish (3.6%) and non-finfish products (25%). Maximum ∑PCB, ∑PCDD/F, and TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) (toxic equivalency) intakes, based on 150 g serving size, were determined to be 3300 ng (mackerel), 6600 pg (catfish), and 270 pg (catfish), respectively. PCB and PCDD/F changes associated with cooking generally were small (<15%), although larger mean differences (∼40%) were observed in some fish products (e.g., catfish).

  8. Effect of six different cooking techniques in the nutritional composition of two fish species previously selected as optimal for renal patient's diet.

    PubMed

    Castro-González, Isabel; Maafs-Rodríguez, Ana Gabriela; Pérez-Gil Romo, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    Benefits of fish consumption are widely known, but there is little information about nutrient values of raw and cooked fish. The aim was to study the impact that six cooking techniques have on the nutritional composition of two fish species with low content of adverse nutrients in renal diet. Raw and steamed, foiled with aluminum, foiled with banana leaf, gas oven-baked, microwave oven-coked and fried lightly samples were chemically analyzed to determine their protein, phosphorus and lipid content. Crevalle jack: all methods increased lipid and protein content and fatty acids (FA) varied in all cooking methods. Phosphorus decreased in the steamed and microwave oven-cooked samples. Red drum: foiled and fried lightly increased lipid content compared to the raw sample. FA concentration changed in all cooking methods. Protein increased with every technique and phosphorus decreased in the steamed and gas oven-baked samples. Renal patients should preferably consume crevalle jack steamed or microwave oven-cooked and red drum steamed or gas oven-baked.

  9. A Combined Kinetic and Volatility Basis Set Approach to Model Secondary Organic Aerosol from Toluene and Diesel Exhaust/Meat Cooking Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikh, H. M.; Carlton, A. G.; Zhang, H.; Kamens, R.; Vizuete, W.

    2011-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is simulated for 6 outdoor smog chamber experiments using a SOA model based on a kinetic chemical mechanism in conjunction with a volatility basis set (VBS) approach. The experiments include toluene, a non-SOA-forming hydrocarbon mixture, diesel exhaust or meat cooking emissions and NOx, and are performed under varying conditions of relative humidity. SOA formation from toluene is modeled using a condensed kinetic aromatic mechanism that includes partitioning of lumped semi-volatile products in particle organic-phase and incorporates particle aqueous-phase chemistry to describe uptake of glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Modeling using the kinetic mechanism alone, along with primary organic aerosol (POA) from diesel exhaust (DE) /meat cooking (MC) fails to simulate the rapid SOA formation at the beginning hours of the experiments. Inclusion of a VBS approach with the kinetic mechanism to characterize the emissions and chemistry of complex mixture of intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) from DE/MC, substantially improves SOA predictions when compared with observed data. The VBS model includes photochemical aging of IVOCs and evaporation of POA after dilution. The relative contribution of SOA mass from DE/MC is as high as 95% in the morning, but substantially decreases after mid-afternoon. For high humidity experiments, aqueous-phase SOA fraction dominates the total SOA mass at the end of the day (approximately 50%). In summary, the combined kinetic and VBS approach provides a new and improved framework to semi-explicitly model SOA from VOC precursors in conjunction with a VBS approach that can be used on complex emission mixtures comprised with hundreds of individual chemical species.

  10. Effects of microbial transglutaminase, fibrimex and alginate on physicochemical properties of cooked ground meat with reduced salt level.

    PubMed

    Atilgan, Esra; Kilic, Birol

    2017-02-01

    Effects of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase), fibrin/thrombin combination (fibrimex), alginate or combination of these binding agents on physicochemical parameters of cooked ground beef with reduced salt level were investigated. Seventeen treatments included three control (no binding agent) groups incorporated with varying concentrations of salt (0.5, 1, 2%, w/w) and fourteen treatment groups produced with MTGase or fibrimex or alginate or their combinations at 0.5 or 1% salt levels. The samples were analyzed for cooking loss (CL), pH, color, moisture, fat, protein, ash, salt, texture and TBARS. The results indicated that the use of MTGase or fibrimex or MTGase/fibrimex combination had significant effect on preventing textural deterioration caused by salt reduction. Even though the use of MTGase resulted in higher CL values, formulation of ground beef with fibrimex or alginate or MTGase/fibrimex/alginate combinations reduced CL when compared with the control groups. The use of fibrimex in ground beef resulted in a decrease in TBARS, lightness, redness and pH values. However, the use of alginate caused an increase in pH, lightness and redness values of ground beef. Based on the present study, the use of fibrimex or a combination of fibrimex with MTGase in the product formulation can be an effective strategy to reduce cooking loss, to improve or maintain the textural properties and to extend shelf life of cooked ground beef with reduced salt level.

  11. The ratio of fish to meat in the diet is positively associated with favorable intake of food groups and nutrients among young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2011-03-01

    Although fish and meat may exert opposing influences on chronic disease, information on the balance of intake between fish and meat to overall diet quality is limited, particularly in Japanese, who have a much higher fish intake than Western populations. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that intake balance between fish and meat is associated with food and nutrient intakes in young Japanese women. The subjects were 3716 Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 20 years. Diet was assessed by a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. The dietary ratio of fish to meat was calculated from fish and meat intakes as a temporal indicator of overall intake balance. The ratio of fish to meat intake was associated positively with intakes of vegetables, fruits, pulses, dairy products, and alcohol, and negatively with those of energy-containing beverages and fat and oils. At the nutrient level, the ratio of fish to meat intake was associated negatively with intakes of energy, total fat, saturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin B(1), and zinc, and positively with those of protein, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, and key vitamins and minerals. After limiting analysis to nutrients derived from foods other than fish and meat, the ratio of fish to meat intake was positively associated with intakes of almost all vitamins and minerals examined. In conclusion, women who consumed more fish than meat (ratio >1) tended to choose more favorable food groups that included higher amounts of vegetables and fruits, resulting in a better profile of nutrient intake patterns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of olive leaf (Olea europea L.) extracts on protein and lipid oxidation in cooked pork meat patties enriched with n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Botsoglou, Evropi; Govaris, Alexandros; Ambrosiadis, Ioannis; Fletouris, Dimitrios; Papageorgiou, Georgios

    2014-01-30

    The effect of olive leaf extracts on lipid and protein oxidation of cooked pork patties refrigerated stored for 9 days was evaluated. Patties were prepared from longissimus dorsi muscle of pigs, and dietary supplemented with linseed oil. Results showed that dietary linseed oil modified the fatty acid composition of pork patties by increasing (P ≤ 0.05) n-3 (α-linolenic acid) and decreasing (P ≤ 0.05) n-6 (linoleic acid) fatty acids. Olive leaf extracts at supplementation levels of 200 and, especially, of 300 mg gallic acid equivalents kg⁻¹ meat, delayed lipid oxidation by reducing (P ≤ 0.05) both primary (conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides) and secondary (malondialdehyde) oxidation products. They also inhibited protein oxidation in a concentration-dependent manner by reducing (P ≤ 0.05) protein carbonyls and increasing (P ≤ 0.05) protein sulfhydryls. In addition, they improved sensory attributes of the n-3 enriched patties. Results suggested that olive leaf extracts might be useful to the meat industry as an efficient alternative to synthetic antioxidants. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Performance objectives for Salmonella in fresh pork meat intended to be eaten cooked: how to derive them and verify their achievement.

    PubMed

    Manfreda, Gerardo; Valero, Antonio; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Hernández, Marta; Pasquali, Frederique; De Cesare, Alessandra

    2014-08-01

    In our study we aimed at deriving performance objectives (POs) for Salmonella in fresh pork meat intended to be eaten cooked, using loin chop as a model. Moreover, sampling plans to verify the compliance of meat lots to such POs are presented. Ten lots of product, collected in the same slaughterhouse along a one-year period, were tested for Salmonella detection under four different storage stages through the product shelf life. The POs were considered as different target values from Salmonella prevalence and were calculated at the 50th percentile of prevalence distributions under each stage. Results obtained indicated that values increased between a minimum of 26.10% of positives after final storage at 14°C to a maximum of 46.70% of positives after storage at retail. The number of samples to be tested in order to detect at least one positive and verify the compliance to the estimated POs ranged between five, for samples after storage at retail, and ten, for samples stored at 14°C before the expiration date. For risk management purposes, percentiles different from the 50th can be selected in order to derive the POs as well as the number of samples to be tested in order to verify their fulfillment. Thus, the approach presented in this paper offers different options to risk managers for improving the decision-making process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of modified atmosphere and temperature abuse on the growth from spores and cereulide production of Bacillus weihenstephanensis in a cooked chilled meat sausage.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Line; Budde, Birgitte Bjørn; Koch, Anette Granly; Klingberg, Trine Danø

    2009-04-15

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the germination and growth of toxin producing psychrotolerant Bacillus spp is not well described. A model agar system mimicking a cooked meat product was used in initial experiments. Incubation at refrigeration temperature of 8 degrees C for 5 weeks of 26 Bacillus weihenstephanensis including two emetic toxin (cereulide) producing strains showed that B. weihenstephanensis is sensitive to MAP containing CO2. The sensitivity to 20% CO2 was dependent on strain and oxygen level, being increased when oxygen was excluded from the MAP. Growth from spores was observed at the earliest within 2 weeks when 20% CO2 was combined with 2% O2 and in 3 weeks when combined with "0"% O2 (the remaining atmosphere was made up from N2). Results were validated in a cooked meat sausage model for two non-emetic and one emetic B. weihenstephanensis strain. The packaging film oxygen transfer rates (OTR) were 1.3 and 40 ml/m(2)/24 h and the atmospheres were 2% O2/20% CO2 and "0"% O2/20% CO2. Oxygen availability had a large impact on the growth from spores in the MAP meat sausage, only the most oxygen restricted condition (OTR of 1.3 ml/m(2)/24 h and "0"% O2/20 % CO2 inhibited growth of the three strains during 4 weeks storage at 8 degrees C. Cereulide production was undetectable during storage at 8 degrees C irrespective of choice of the MAP (quantified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry). MAP storage at 8 degrees C for 1 and 3 weeks followed by opening of packages and temperature abuse for 1.5 h daily at 20 degrees C during 1 week resulted in increased cell counts and variable cereulide production in the meat sausage. A pre-history at 8 degrees C for 1 week in MAP with OTR of 1.3 or 40 ml/m(2)/24 h and 2% O2 resulted in cereulide concentrations of 0.816-1.353 microg/g meat sausage, while a pre-history under the most oxygen restricted condition (OTR of 1.3 ml/m(2)/24 h, "0"% O2/20 % CO2 resulted in minimal

  15. Effects of various cooking processes on the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in foods.

    PubMed

    Perelló, Gemma; Martí-Cid, Roser; Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, José L

    2008-12-10

    The effects of cooking processes commonly used by the population of Catalonia (Spain) on total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) concentrations in various foodstuffs were investigated. All food samples were randomly acquired in local markets, big supermarkets, and grocery stores of Reus (Catalonia). Foods included fish (sardine, hake, and tuna), meat (veal steak, loin of pork, breast and thigh of chicken, and steak and rib of lamb), string bean, potato, rice, and olive oil. For each food item, two composite samples were prepared for metal analyses, whose levels in raw and cooked (fried, grilled, roasted, and boiled) samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As, Hg, and Pb (raw and cooked samples) were mainly found in fish, with a clear tendency, in general, to increase metal concentrations after cooking. However, in these samples, Cd levels were very close to their detection limit. In turn, the concentrations of metals in raw and cooked meat samples were detected in all samples (As) or only in a very few samples (Cd, Hg, and Pb). A similar finding corresponded to string beans, rice, and olive oil, while in potatoes, Hg could not be detected and Pb only was detected in the raw samples. In summary, the results of the present study show that, in general terms, the cooking process is only of a very limited value as a means of reducing metal concentrations. This hypothetical reduction depends upon cooking conditions (time, temperature, and medium of cooking).

  16. Use of Dual Electromagnetic Radiation Technology to Reduce Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes Risk on Cooked and Packaged Meat Products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pathogenic bacteria including Salmonella and Listeria can potentially contaminate ready-to-eat meats. These bacteria compromise the safety of our food supply. The objective of this research was to develop and test new low temperature pasteurization technology for packaged or thermally sensitive food...

  17. Consumption of meat and fish and risk of lung cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Büchner, Frederike L; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Agudo, Antonio; Gram, Inger Torhild; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjønneland, Anne; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Berrino, Franco; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, José-Maria; Rodríguez, Laudina; Sánchez, María-José; Rasmuson, Torgny; Hallmans, Göran; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Katsoulis, Michael; Oikonomou, Eleni; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Peeters, Petra H M; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Allen, Naomi; Key, Tim; Brennan, Paul; Romieu, Isabelle; Slimani, Nadia; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Xun, Wei W; Vineis, Paolo; Riboli, Elio

    2011-06-01

    Evidence from case-control studies, but less so from cohort studies, suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer. Therefore, this association was evaluated in the frame of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, EPIC. Data from 478,021 participants, recruited from 10 European countries, who completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-2000 were evaluated; 1,822 incident primary lung cancer cases were included in the present evaluation. Relative risk estimates were calculated for categories of meat intake using multi-variably adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. In addition, the continuous intake variables were calibrated by means of 24-h diet recall data to account for part of the measurement error. There were no consistent associations between meat consumption and the risk of lung cancer. Neither red meat (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.89-1.27 per 50 g intake/day; calibrated model) nor processed meat (RR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.95-1.34 per 50 g/day; calibrated model) was significantly related to an increased risk of lung cancer. Also, consumption of white meat and fish was not associated with the risk of lung cancer. These findings do not support the hypothesis that a high intake of red and processed meat is a risk factor for lung cancer.

  18. Reliability of meat, fish, dairy, and egg intake over a 33-year interval in Adventist Health Study 2.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pramil N; Batech, Michael; Faed, Pegah; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Martins, Marcia; Fraser, Gary E

    2014-01-01

    We studied Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) cohort members to determine the reliability of long-term recall of adult dietary intake that occurred 33 years ago. Establishing the reliability of these measures supports studies of how dietary exposure across the life course affects risk of cancer and other noncommunicable disease outcomes. Among 1816 AHS-2 cohort members, we conducted a statistical comparison of long-term recall of meat, fish, dairy, and eggs at AHS-2 baseline with their report of current diet 33 years before AHS-2 baseline at an age of 30-60 years. Major findings are as follows: 1) a high correlation for frequency of red meat (R = 0.71), poultry (R = 0.67), and fish (R = 0.60); lower correlations for dairy (R = 0.19) and eggs (R = 0.28); 2) good concordance for dichotomous measures of red meat [sensitivity: 0.70; specificity: 0.92; positive predictive value (PPV): 0.91], poultry (sensitivity: 0.76; specificity: 0.87; PPV: 0.83), fish (sensitivity: 0.61; specificity: 0.93; PPV: 0.89), dairy (sensitivity: 0.95; specificity: 0.57; PPV: 0.99), and eggs (sensitivity: 0.95; specificity: 0.41; PPV: 0.96); negative predictive value for dairy and eggs was poor. Among older AHS-2 cohort members, we found good reliability of recall of red meat, poultry, and fish intake that occurred 33 years earlier.

  19. Effect of protein on the detection of fluoroquinolone residues in fish meat.

    PubMed

    Li, Huifang; Yin, Jungang; Liu, Yongming; Shang, Jian

    2012-02-22

    Using fish serum albumin (FSA) as the model protein, molecular fluorescence spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were applied to study the effect of protein on the extraction of fluoroquinolone (FQ) residues in fish meat. There was a strong interaction between FQs and protein through hydrogen bonds, which could be broken as protein degenerated with 60-100% (v/v) acetonitrile acid solution, and FQs bound with protein were released in various degrees. On the basis of the results, a novel sample preparation procedure loosely based on QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) methodology was developed for the determination of FQ residues in fish muscle samples, using 90% (v/v) acetonitrile acid solution as the extractant, combined with a dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) cleanup step. Mean recoveries of four FQs from spiked samples at a concentration range of 50-200 ng g(-1) were 73.3-95.9% with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 10.7%.

  20. Effects of thermal treatments during cooking, microwave oven and boiling, on the unconjugated microcystin concentration in muscle of fish (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Prieto, Ana I; Moreno, Isabel; Soria, Ma Eugenia; Cameán, Ana M

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to the risk from fish consumption is a relevant public health concern due to potential adverse effects of cyanobacterial toxins. The aim of this work was to study the influence of two usual cooking practices, microwave oven and boiling, on the microcystin (MCs) concentration in fish muscle (Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus) spiked with a stock solution (500 μL) containing a mixture of three toxins (MC-LR, MC-RR, and MC-YR) (1.5 μg/mL of each toxin). Two different variables were investigated: time of cooking in the microwaves treatment (1 or 5 min), and way of boiling, "boiled muscle" or "continuously heated muscle". All samples were then lyophilized and MCs were extracted and purified (Oasis HLB cartridge) and quantified by HPLC-MS. Furthermore, the waters in which the samples boiled were also analyzed after their purification. The results suggest a reduction on MC-LR (36%) and MC-YR (24.6%) in samples cooked in the microwave for 5 min. Major changes were found when the fish was cooked by the continuous boiling, with a decrease of 45.0% (MC-RR), 56.4% (MC-YR) and 59.3% (MC-LR). More studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved when aquatic food is submitted to usual cooking practices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of Enterotoxin Production and Cross-Contamination of Staphylococcus aureus between Food Processing Materials and Ready-To-Eat Cooked Fish Paste.

    PubMed

    Tango, Charles Nkufi; Hong, Sung-Sam; Wang, Jun; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated Staphylococcus aureus growth and subsequent staphylococcal enterotoxin A production in tryptone soy broth and on ready-to-eat cooked fish paste at 12 to 37 °C, as well as cross-contamination between stainless steel, polyethylene, and latex glove at room temperature. A model was developed using Barany and Roberts's growth model, which satisfactorily described the suitable growth of S. aureus with R(2)-adj from 0.94 to 0.99. Except at 12 °C, S. aureus cells in TSB presented a lag time lower (14.64 to 1.65 h), grew faster (0.08 to 0.31 log CFU/h) and produced SEA at lower cell density levels (5.65 to 6.44 log CFU/mL) compare to those inoculated on cooked fish paste with data of 16.920 to 1.985 h, 0.02 to 0.23 log CFU/h, and 6.19 to 7.11 log CFU/g, respectively. Staphylococcal enterotoxin type A (SEA) visual immunoassay test showed that primary SEA detection varied considerably among different storage temperature degrees and media. For example, it occurred only during exponential phase at 30 and 37 °C in TSB, but in cooked fish paste it took place at late exponential phase of S. aureus growth at 20 and 25 °C. The SEA detection test was negative on presence of S. aureus on cooked fish paste stored at 12 and 15 °C, although cell density reached level of 6.12 log CFU/g at 15 °C. Cross-contamination expressed as transfer rate of S. aureus from polyethylene surface to cooked fish paste surface was slower than that observed with steel surface to cooked fish paste under same conditions. These results provide helpful information for controlling S. aureus growth, SEA production and cross-contamination during processing of cooked fish paste.

  2. A 2-step cooking method of searing and hot water pasteurization to maximize the safety of refrigerated, vacuum packaged, chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Enns, D K; Crandall, P G; O'Bryan, C A; Griffis, C L; Martin, E M

    2007-05-01

    Americans consume almost 40 kg per capita of chicken each year. Increasing consumption of chicken surpassed pork in 1982 and beef in 1992. The objectives of this study were to examine the effectiveness of a novel, 2-step cooking method of grilling, slicing, vacuum packaging, and hot water pasteurization to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in chicken breast meat. Because this study required the use of pilot plant scale pasteurization equipment, Listeria innocua M1, a nonpathogen with slightly greater heat resistance than L. monocytogenes, was used as a surrogate. We first examined the lethal effects of grilling on a boneless skinless chicken breast to mimic cross-contaminated, surface-inoculated Listeria. Searing produced a mean reduction of 2.5 log CFU/g of Listeria and a moisture loss of only 7% (w/w). A 2nd experiment studied the lethal effect of pasteurization of the sliced seared chicken breast. L. innocua M1 inoculated between the slices mimicked contamination in deep muscle. Pasteurization in a 71 degrees C bath (final internal temperature of 66 degrees C) gave an additional 2.3 log CFU/g reduction. L. innocua M1 did not show significant regrowth during a wk of refrigerated storage. The combined 2-step cooking method of searing and pasteurization gave a combined 4.8 log reduction in LI M1. In parallel tests a non-Listeria indicator, Corynebacterium glutamicum, inoculated between sliced, seared chicken, showed a 3 log reduction after pasteurization for 10 min in a 71 degrees C bath compared to 2.3 log reduction of Listeria. Corynebacterium regrowth occurred much faster than did L. innocua M1.

  3. Meat Processing Plant Microbiome and Contamination Patterns of Cold-Tolerant Bacteria Causing Food Safety and Spoilage Risks in the Manufacture of Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Rahkila, Riitta; Ali, Javeria; Rousu, Juho; Björkroth, K. Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Refrigerated food processing facilities are specific man-made niches likely to harbor cold-tolerant bacteria. To characterize this type of microbiota and study the link between processing plant and product microbiomes, we followed and compared microbiota associated with the raw materials and processing stages of a vacuum-packaged, cooked sausage product affected by a prolonged quality fluctuation with occasional spoilage manifestations during shelf life. A total of 195 samples were subjected to culturing and amplicon sequence analyses. Abundant mesophilic psychrotrophs were detected within the microbiomes throughout the different compartments of the production plant environment. However, each of the main genera of food safety and quality interest, e.g., Leuconostoc, Brochothrix, and Yersinia, had their own characteristic patterns of contamination. Bacteria from the genus Leuconostoc, commonly causing spoilage of cold-stored, modified-atmosphere-packaged foods, were detected in high abundance (up to >98%) in the sausages studied. The same operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were, however, detected in lower abundances in raw meat and emulsion (average relative abundance of 2% ± 5%), as well as on the processing plant surfaces (<4%). A completely different abundance profile was found for OTUs phylogenetically close to the species Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. These OTUs were detected in high abundance (up to 28%) on the processing plant surfaces but to a lesser extent (<1%) in raw meat, sausage emulsion, and sausages. The fact that Yersinia-like OTUs were found on the surfaces of a high-hygiene packaging compartment raises food safety concerns related to their resilient existence on surfaces. PMID:26231646

  4. Meat Processing Plant Microbiome and Contamination Patterns of Cold-Tolerant Bacteria Causing Food Safety and Spoilage Risks in the Manufacture of Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Sausages.

    PubMed

    Hultman, Jenni; Rahkila, Riitta; Ali, Javeria; Rousu, Juho; Björkroth, K Johanna

    2015-10-01

    Refrigerated food processing facilities are specific man-made niches likely to harbor cold-tolerant bacteria. To characterize this type of microbiota and study the link between processing plant and product microbiomes, we followed and compared microbiota associated with the raw materials and processing stages of a vacuum-packaged, cooked sausage product affected by a prolonged quality fluctuation with occasional spoilage manifestations during shelf life. A total of 195 samples were subjected to culturing and amplicon sequence analyses. Abundant mesophilic psychrotrophs were detected within the microbiomes throughout the different compartments of the production plant environment. However, each of the main genera of food safety and quality interest, e.g., Leuconostoc, Brochothrix, and Yersinia, had their own characteristic patterns of contamination. Bacteria from the genus Leuconostoc, commonly causing spoilage of cold-stored, modified-atmosphere-packaged foods, were detected in high abundance (up to >98%) in the sausages studied. The same operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were, however, detected in lower abundances in raw meat and emulsion (average relative abundance of 2%±5%), as well as on the processing plant surfaces (<4%). A completely different abundance profile was found for OTUs phylogenetically close to the species Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. These OTUs were detected in high abundance (up to 28%) on the processing plant surfaces but to a lesser extent (<1%) in raw meat, sausage emulsion, and sausages. The fact that Yersinia-like OTUs were found on the surfaces of a high-hygiene packaging compartment raises food safety concerns related to their resilient existence on surfaces. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Concentration of biologically active polyamines in rabbit meat, liver and kidney after slaughter and their changes during meat storage and cooking.

    PubMed

    Dadáková, Eva; Pelikánová, Tamara; Kalač, Pavel

    2012-03-01

    The concentration of putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD) and spermine (SPM) was determined in chilled meat and kidneys of 18 rabbits and in liver of 12 animals 24h after slaughter. Very low PUT concentrations were detected only in kidneys. Mean SPD levels were 2.2, 2.2, 61.7 and 32.7mgkg(-1) in saddle, leg, liver and kidneys, respectively. The respective SPM concentrations were 14.7, 8.0, 115 and 88.4mgkg(-1). SPD and SPM losses of about one third of the initial levels were apparent in saddles stored at -18°C for 8months. Losses of both polyamines of about 15-20% of the initial concentrations were found in saddles stored aerobically at +2°C for up to 9days. Stewing of saddles caused significant SPD and SPM losses of about 20-25%, while upon roasting and pan-roasting without oil a decrease of about 50% of the initial concentration was observed.

  6. Meat and fish consumption and risk of lung cancer: A case-control study in Galicia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Dosil-Díaz, O; Ruano-Ravina, A; Gestal-Otero, J J; Barros-Dios, J M

    2007-07-08

    Diet is one of the elements that may influence the development of lung cancer. To ascertain the relationship between meat and fish consumption and the appearance of this disease, a case-control study was conducted on a population in Galicia (NW Spain), with a sample of 295 cases and 322 controls. All cases had histologic confirmation, and controls were individuals who were attending the hospital to undergo trivial surgery. All subjects were over 35, and sampling was based on sex frequency. Frequent consumption of meat seemed to have a protective effect, with an OR of 0.24 (95% CI 0.11-0.50), an effect that was maintained for pork consumption (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.18-0.67). In contrast, consumption of fish showed an association with lung cancer, with an OR of 1.67 (95% CI 0.99-2.81), an association that extended to both white (OR 1.61 95% CI 0.93-2.79) and blue fish (OR 2.03 95% CI 1.23-3.34). Consumption of meat seems to reduce the risk of lung cancer, whereas consumption of fish could exert an influence by increasing the risk of this disease.

  7. Strategies to predict and improve eating quality of cooked beef using carcass and meat composition traits in Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Mateescu, R G; Oltenacu, P A; Garmyn, A J; Mafi, G G; VanOverbeke, D L

    2016-05-01

    Product quality is a high priority for the beef industry because of its importance as a major driver of consumer demand for beef and the ability of the industry to improve it. A 2-prong approach based on implementation of a genetic program to improve eating quality and a system to communicate eating quality and increase the probability that consumers' eating quality expectations are met is outlined. The objectives of this study were 1) to identify the best carcass and meat composition traits to be used in a selection program to improve eating quality and 2) to develop a relatively small number of classes that reflect real and perceptible differences in eating quality that can be communicated to consumers and identify a subset of carcass and meat composition traits with the highest predictive accuracy across all eating quality classes. Carcass traits, meat composition, including Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), intramuscular fat content (IMFC), trained sensory panel scores, and mineral composition traits of 1,666 Angus cattle were used in this study. Three eating quality indexes, EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3, were generated by using different weights for the sensory traits (emphasis on tenderness, flavor, and juiciness, respectively). The best model for predicting eating quality explained 37%, 9%, and 19% of the variability of EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3, and 2 traits, WBSF and IMFC, accounted for most of the variability explained by the best models. EATQ1 combines tenderness, juiciness, and flavor assessed by trained panels with 0.60, 0.15, and 0.25 weights, best describes North American consumers, and has a moderate heritability (0.18 ± 0.06). A selection index (I= -0.5[WBSF] + 0.3[IMFC]) based on phenotypic and genetic variances and covariances can be used to improve eating quality as a correlated trait. The 3 indexes (EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3) were used to generate 3 equal (33.3%) low, medium, and high eating quality classes, and linear combinations of traits that

  8. An oily fish diet increases insulin sensitivity compared to a red meat diet in young iron-deficient women.

    PubMed

    Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Schoppen, Stefanie; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2009-08-01

    Beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids on a variety of physiological functions have been reported, but information related to the effects of oily fish consumed within a varied diet on glucose metabolism and diabetes risk is scarce. The objective of the study was to compare the effects of a diet rich in oily fish to those of a diet rich in red meat on lipid profile, oxidative status, glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in young, iron-deficient women. The study was designed attending the CONSORT statement guidelines. It was a randomised crossover dietary intervention study with two 8-week periods. Two diets were designed differing only in their oily fish or red meat content (four portions per week). Twenty-five young iron-deficient women with normal lipid, glucose and insulin levels participated in the assay. Lipid profile (total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, TAG), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and oxidation (lipoperoxides) and inflammation (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) biomarkers were analysed. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI). Insulin levels significantly decreased and insulin sensitivity significantly increased with the oily fish diet. HDL-cholesterol significantly increased with the oily fish diet. Other parameters did not significantly differ between diets. An increase in oily fish consumption increases insulin sensitivity in young iron-deficient women. This outcome should be considered when giving dietary advice to this population.

  9. Development and validation of stages-of-change questions to assess consumers' readiness to use a food thermometer when cooking small cuts of meat.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Masami T; Edlefsen, Miriam; McCurdy, Sandra M; Hillers, Virginia N

    2006-02-01

    Consumers' readiness to use a food thermometer when cooking small cuts of meat was assessed using Prochaska's Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change. Face, content, and concurrent validity were assessed by peer review, cognitive interviews, and mail surveys. The self-administered mail survey was sent to two groups of Washington and Idaho residents: 1,000 randomly selected consumers (41% return rate), and 231 employees and volunteers of Cooperative Extension involved in food and nutrition education (60% return rate). Two-stage classification questions were compared with a behavior question about thermometer use, and validated using Cronbach's if-item-deleted option for alpha. Concurrent validity was assessed using cross-tabulation chi2 test. The detailed classification question more accurately classified respondents in both Consumer and Extension groups. Cronbach's alpha of the detailed question with the behavior question showed a consistency level of alpha=.73 compared to alpha=.35 for the simple question format. As expected, Consumer and Extension groups differed significantly in their stages of change (P<0.0001), verifying concurrent validity. We recommend use of the detailed classification question when staging persons related to food thermometer use. The process used for development and testing can be used to refine instruments for use in other types of interventions.

  10. An Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography – Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Biomonitoring Cooked Meat Carcinogens and Their Metabolites in Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Dan; Raymundo, Melissa M.; Kadlubar, Fred F.; Turesky, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The cooked meat carcinogens 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and their principal metabolites produced by cytochrome P450 and/or uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases were simultaneously measured at the parts per trillion level in urine of omnivores, by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with a Michrom Advance CaptiveSpray™, source and a triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometer. Quantitation was performed in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The UPLC method is much more rapid and sensitive than our earlier capillary HPLC method: the duty cycle of the UPLC method is 19 minutes compared to 57 minutes for capillary HPLC. The performance of the UPLC assay was evaluated with urine samples from three subjects over 4 different days. The intraday and interday precisions of the estimates of PhIP, MeIQx, and their metabolites, reported as the coefficients of variation, were ≤10%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) values for PhIP and MeIQx were about 5 pg/mL, whereas the LOQ values of their metabolites ranged from 10 to 40 pg/mL. Furthermore, the identities of the analytes were corroborated by acquisition of full scan product ion spectra, employing between 0.5 and 5 pg of analyte for assay. PMID:21194225

  11. The effects of natural disturbances, reef state, and herbivorous fish densities on ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga, southern Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Rongo, Teina; van Woesik, Robert

    2013-03-15

    Ciguatera poisoning is a critical public-health issue among Pacific island nations. Accurately predicting ciguatera outbreaks has become a priority, particularly in Rarotonga in the southern Cook Islands, which has reported the highest incidence of ciguatera poisoning globally. Since 2006, however, cases of ciguatera poisoning have declined, and in 2011 ciguatera cases were the lowest in nearly 20 years. Here we examined the relationships between cases of ciguatera poisoning, from 1994 to 2011, and: (i) coral cover, used as a proxy of reef state, (ii) the densities of herbivorous fishes, and (iii) reef disturbances. We found that coral cover was not a good predictor of cases of ciguatera poisoning, but high densities of the herbivorous fish Ctenochaetus striatus and reef disturbances were both strong predictors of ciguatera poisoning. Yet these two predictors were correlated, because the densities of C. striatus increased only after major cyclones had disturbed the reefs. Since 2006, the number of cyclones has decreased considerably in Rarotonga, because of the climatic shift toward the negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We suggest that fewer cyclones have led to decreases in both the densities of C. striatus and of the number of reported cases of ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diet and body mass index in 38000 EPIC-Oxford meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Spencer, E A; Appleby, P N; Davey, G K; Key, T J

    2003-06-01

    To compare body mass index (BMI) in four diet groups (meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans) in the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford) and to investigate lifestyle and dietary factors associated with any observed differences. Cross-sectional analysis of self-reported dietary, anthropometric and lifestyle data. A total of 37875 healthy men and women aged 20-97 y participating in EPIC-Oxford. Age-adjusted mean BMI was significantly different between the four diet groups, being highest in the meat-eaters (24.41 kg/m(2) in men, 23.52 kg/m(2) in women) and lowest in the vegans (22.49 kg/m(2) in men, 21.98 kg/m(2) in women). Fish-eaters and vegetarians had similar, intermediate mean BMI. Differences in lifestyle factors including smoking, physical activity and education level accounted for less than 5% of the difference in mean age-adjusted BMI between meat-eaters and vegans, whereas differences in macronutrient intake accounted for about half of the difference. High protein (as percent energy) and low fibre intakes were the dietary factors most strongly and consistently associated with increasing BMI both between and within the diet groups. Fish-eaters, vegetarians and especially vegans had lower BMI than meat-eaters. Differences in macronutrient intakes accounted for about half the difference in mean BMI between vegans and meat-eaters. High protein and low fibre intakes were the factors most strongly associated with increasing BMI.

  13. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.2 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be used for the preparation of meat...

  14. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.2 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be used for the preparation of meat food...

  15. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.2 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be used for the preparation of meat food...

  16. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.2 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be used for the preparation of meat food...

  17. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.2 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be used for the preparation of meat food...

  18. Meat and fish consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Nöthlings, Ute; Overvad, Kim; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Cottet, Vanessa; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Vineis, Paolo; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias; Grote, Verena; Teucher, Birigit; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Crowe, Francesca L; Goufa, Ioulia; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Jeurnink, Suzanne M; Siersema, Peter D; Peeters, Petra H M; Brustad, Magritt; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Duell, Eric J; Amiano, Pilar; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Rodríguez, Laudina; Tormo, María-José; Sund, Malin; Ye, Weimin; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansen, Dorthe; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Ward, Heather; Riboli, Elio; Norat, Teresa; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2013-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer death worldwide with large geographical variation, which implies the contribution of diet and lifestyle in its etiology. We examined the association of meat and fish consumption with risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). A total of 477,202 EPIC participants from 10 European countries recruited between 1992 and 2000 were included in our analysis. Until 2008, 865 nonendocrine pancreatic cancer cases have been observed. Calibrated relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using multivariable-adjusted Cox hazard regression models. The consumption of red meat (RR per 50 g increase per day = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.93-1.14) and processed meat (RR per 50 g increase per day = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.71-1.23) were not associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk. Poultry consumption tended to be associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk (RR per 50 g increase per day = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.04-2.84); however, there was no association with fish consumption (RR per 50 g increase per day = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.92-1.62). Our results do not support the conclusion of the World Cancer Research Fund that red or processed meat consumption may possibly increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. The positive association of poultry consumption with pancreatic cancer might be a chance finding as it contradicts most previous findings.

  19. Effects of dietary fish oil supplementation on performance, meat quality, and cecal fermentation of growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M; Carro, M D; Valiente, V; Formoso-Rafferty, N; Rebollar, P G

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with fish oil on growth performance (during all fatening period), carcass characteristics and fatty acid (FA) profile of muscle and fat tissues (at slaughter), as well as cecal fermentation and ileal mucosa morphology of growing rabbits (at 30, 45, and 60 d of age). Two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, only differing in their fat source, were formulated and provided each to 24 does (12 per diet) and their offspring during pregnancy and lactation. The control diet contained 4.59 g of n-3 per 100 g of total FA, and the enriched diet contained 14.9 g of n-3 per 100 g of total FA. From weaning (30 d of age) to slaughter (60 d), the litters (12 per diet; 8 kits each) continued fed the corresponding experimental diet. There were no differences ( > 0.05) between groups in ADFI, ADG and G:F ratio during the growing period. At slaughter, BW, full gastrointestinal tract weight, carcass yield, meat color and pH, drip loss percentage, content of scapular fat and tissue composition of the left hind leg were similar between groups ( > 0.05), but perirenal fat was lower ( = 0.020) and skin weight and abdominal fat tended to be lower ( = 0.055 and = 0.063, respectively) in enriched rabbits than in control ones. Total PUFA content in both LM and perirenal fat was greater ( = 0.021 and < 0.001, respectively) in enriched rabbits, that also showed lower n-6/n-3 ratios in LM (1.61 vs. 5.80; < 0.001) and perirenal fat (4.71 vs. 12.0; < 0.001) than those fed the control diet. Cecal concentrations of total VFA were greater ( < 0.001) in enriched than in control group at 30, 45 and 60 d of age, but diet did not affect ( ≥ 0.332) VFA profile, with the exception of a lower ( = 0.013) proportion of minor VFA (sum of isobutyrate, isovalerate, and valerate) in control group. Diet did not affect ( > 0.255) either pH and NH-N concentrations in the cecum or ileal morphology (crypt depth and villi length

  20. Exposure to airborne ultrafine particles from cooking in Portuguese homes.

    PubMed

    Bordado, J C; Gomes, J F; Albuquerque, P C

    2012-10-01

    Cooking was found to be a main source of submicrometer and ultrafine aerosols from gas combustion in stoves. Therefore, this study consisted of the determination of the alveolar deposited surface area due to aerosols resulting from common domestic cooking activities (boiling fish, vegetables, or pasta, and frying hamburgers and eggs). The concentration of ultrafine particles during the cooking events significantly increased from a baseline of 42.7 microm2/cm3 (increased to 72.9 microm2/cm3 due to gas burning) to a maximum of 890.3 microm2/cm3 measured during fish boiling in water and a maximum of 4500 microm2/cm3 during meat frying. This clearly shows that a domestic activity such as cooking can lead to exposures as high as those of occupational exposure activities. The approach of this study considers the determination of alveolar deposited surface area of aerosols generated from cooking activities, namely, typical Portuguese dishes. This type of measurement has not been done so far, in spite of the recognition that cooking activity is a main source of submicrometer and ultrafine aerosols. The results have shown that the levels of generated aerosols surpass the outdoor concentrations in a major European town, which calls for further determinations, contributing to a better assessment of exposure of individuals to domestic activities such as this one.

  1. An improved method for the extraction of mutagens from human urine and cooked meat using blue rayon.

    PubMed

    Yoxall, Victoria; Wilson, Judith; Ioannides, Costas

    2004-04-11

    A reproducible method has been developed and validated that allows the detection of mutagenic material in human urine following the intake of a meal containing pan-fried beef patties. The mutagens are extracted from the urine with blue rayon and eluted with methanol/ammonia (100:1). Using 14C-2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (14C-IQ) as a tracer, the extraction efficiency of heterocyclic amines was consistently found to exceed 90%. It was observed that the critical factor in attaining high extraction efficiencies was the concentration of blue rayon, which depended on the nature of the matrix. Constituents of human urine were demonstrated to compete with IQ for the binding sites on the blue rayon. For the determination of the mutagenic activity in the extracted urine, the O-acetylase over-expressing Salmonella typhimurium strain YG1024 was utilised, and the Ames test procedure was optimised with respect to S9 concentration and incorporation of a pre-incubation step. Using the developed procedure, a marked rise in mutagenic activity, determined both in the absence and presence of an activation system, was evident in human urine following the intake of a beef patty meal. Normal mutagenicity levels were restored within 24 h. Finally, a method is described, once again employing blue rayon, for the extraction of heterocyclic amines from cooked beef patties with a 92% efficiency, as exemplified by IQ.

  2. Consumption of fish and meats and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    PubMed Central

    Fedirko, V.; Trichopolou, A.; Bamia, C.; Duarte-Salles, T.; Trepo, E.; Aleksandrova, K.; Nöthlings, U.; Lukanova, A.; Lagiou, P.; Boffetta, P.; Trichopoulos, D.; Katzke, V. A.; Overvad, K.; Tjønneland, A.; Hansen, L.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Fagherazzi, G.; Bastide, N.; Panico, S.; Grioni, S.; Vineis, P.; Palli, D.; Tumino, R.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, P. H.; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Parr, C. L.; Jakszyn, P.; Sánchez, M. J.; Barricarte, A.; Amiano, P.; Chirlaque, M.; Quirós, J. R.; Sund, M.; Werner, M.; Sonestedt, E.; Ericson, U.; Key, T. J.; Khaw, K. T.; Ferrari, P.; Romieu, I.; Riboli, E.; Jenab, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background While higher intake of fish and lower consumption of red/processed meats have been suggested to play a protective role in the etiology of several cancers, prospective evidence for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is limited, particularly in Western European populations. Methods The associations of fish and meats with HCC risk were analyzed in the EPIC cohort. Between 1992 and 2010, 191 incident HCC were identified among 477 206 participants. Baseline diet was assessed using validated dietary questionnaires. A single 24-h diet recall from a cohort subsample was used for calibration. Multivariable proportional hazard regression was utilized to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). In a nested case–control subset (HCC = 122), HBV/HCV status and liver function biomarkers were measured. Results HCC risk was inversely associated with intake of total fish (per 20 g/day increase, HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.74–0.95 and HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.69–0.97 before and after calibration, respectively). This inverse association was also suggested after adjusting for HBV/HCV status and liver function score (per 20-g/day increase, RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.66–1.11 and RR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.50–1.09, respectively) in a nested case–control subset. Intakes of total meats or subgroups of red/processed meats, and poultry were not associated with HCC risk. Conclusions In this large European cohort, total fish intake is associated with lower HCC risk. PMID:23670094

  3. Meat, fish and fat intake in relation to subsite-specific risk of colorectal cancer: The Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yasumi; Kono, Suminori; Toyomura, Kengo; Nagano, Jun; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Moore, Malcolm A; Mibu, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Masao; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Okamura, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Koji; Futami, Kitaroh; Yasunami, Yohichi; Maekawa, Takafumi; Takenaka, Kenji; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Imaizumi, Nobutoshi

    2007-04-01

    High intake of red meat has been associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer in Western countries. There has been much interest in the role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in colorectal cancer prevention, but epidemiological findings are limited and inconsistent. The objective of our study was to examine associations of meat, fish and fat intake with risk of colorectal cancer, paying particular attention to the subsite within the colorectum. Data were from the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study, covering 782 cases and 793 controls. Diet was assessed by interview, using newly developed personal-computer software for registering semiquantitative food frequencies. The intake of beef/pork, processed meat, total fat, saturated fat or n-6 PUFA showed no clear association with the overall or subsite-specific risk of colorectal cancer. There was an almost significant inverse association between n-3 PUFA and the risk of colorectal cancer; the covariate-adjusted odds ratio for the highest (median 3.94 g/day) versus lowest (median 1.99 g/day) quintile of energy-adjusted intake was 0.74 (95% confidence interval 0.52-1.06, trend P=0.050). The consumption of fish and fish products was similarly inversely related to the risk although the association was not statistically significant. These associations were more evident for distal colon cancer; adjusted odds ratio for the highest versus lowest quintile of n-3 PUFA intake was 0.56 (95% confidence interval 0.34-0.92, trend P=0.02). Our findings do not support the hypothesis that consumption of red meat increases colorectal cancer risk but do suggest that high intake of fish may decrease the risk, particularly of distal colon cancer.

  4. Antioxidant Effectiveness of Vegetable Powders on the Lipid and Protein Oxidative Stability of Cooked Turkey Meat Patties: Implications for Health

    PubMed Central

    Duthie, Garry; Campbell, Fiona; Bestwick, Charles; Stephen, Sylvia; Russell, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Lipid and protein oxidation decreases the shelf-life of foods and may result in formation of end-products potentially detrimental for health. Consumer pressure to decrease the use of synthetic phenolic antioxidants has encouraged identification of alternative compounds or extracts from natural sources. We have assessed whether inclusion of dried vegetable powders improves the oxidative stability of turkey meat patties. Such powders are not only potentially-rich sources of phenolic antioxidants, but also may impart additional health benefits, as inadequate vegetable consumption is a risk factor for heart disease and several cancers. In an accelerated oxidation system, six of eleven vegetable powders significantly (p < 0.05) improved oxidative stability of patties by 20%–30% (spinach < yellow pea < onion < red pepper < green pea < tomato). Improved lipid oxidative stability was strongly correlated with the decreased formation of protein carbonyls (r = 0.747, p < 0.01). However, improved lipid stability could not be ascribed to phenolic acids nor recognized antioxidants, such as α- and γ-tocopherol, despite their significant (p < 0.01) contribution to the total antioxidant capacity of the patties. Use of chemically complex vegetable powders offers an alternative to individual antioxidants for increasing shelf-life of animal-based food products and may also provide additional health benefits associated with increased vegetable intake. PMID:23595133

  5. Antioxidant effectiveness of vegetable powders on the lipid and protein oxidative stability of cooked Turkey meat patties: implications for health.

    PubMed

    Duthie, Garry; Campbell, Fiona; Bestwick, Charles; Stephen, Sylvia; Russell, Wendy

    2013-04-17

    Lipid and protein oxidation decreases the shelf-life of foods and may result in formation of end-products potentially detrimental for health. Consumer pressure to decrease the use of synthetic phenolic antioxidants has encouraged identification of alternative compounds or extracts from natural sources. We have assessed whether inclusion of dried vegetable powders improves the oxidative stability of turkey meat patties. Such powders are not only potentially-rich sources of phenolic antioxidants, but also may impart additional health benefits, as inadequate vegetable consumption is a risk factor for heart disease and several cancers. In an accelerated oxidation system, six of eleven vegetable powders significantly (p < 0.05) improved oxidative stability of patties by 20%-30% (spinach < yellow pea < onion < red pepper < green pea < tomato). Improved lipid oxidative stability was strongly correlated with the decreased formation of protein carbonyls (r = 0.747, p < 0.01). However, improved lipid stability could not be ascribed to phenolic acids nor recognized antioxidants, such as α- and γ-tocopherol, despite their significant (p < 0.01) contribution to the total antioxidant capacity of the patties. Use of chemically complex vegetable powders offers an alternative to individual antioxidants for increasing shelf-life of animal-based food products and may also provide additional health benefits associated with increased vegetable intake.

  6. Dietary greenhouse gas emissions of meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK.

    PubMed

    Scarborough, Peter; Appleby, Paul N; Mizdrak, Anja; Briggs, Adam D M; Travis, Ruth C; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Key, Timothy J

    The production of animal-based foods is associated with higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than plant-based foods. The objective of this study was to estimate the difference in dietary GHG emissions between self-selected meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK. Subjects were participants in the EPIC-Oxford cohort study. The diets of 2,041 vegans, 15,751 vegetarians, 8,123 fish-eaters and 29,589 meat-eaters aged 20-79 were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Comparable GHG emissions parameters were developed for the underlying food codes using a dataset of GHG emissions for 94 food commodities in the UK, with a weighting for the global warming potential of each component gas. The average GHG emissions associated with a standard 2,000 kcal diet were estimated for all subjects. ANOVA was used to estimate average dietary GHG emissions by diet group adjusted for sex and age. The age-and-sex-adjusted mean (95 % confidence interval) GHG emissions in kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents per day (kgCO2e/day) were 7.19 (7.16, 7.22) for high meat-eaters ( > = 100 g/d), 5.63 (5.61, 5.65) for medium meat-eaters (50-99 g/d), 4.67 (4.65, 4.70) for low meat-eaters ( < 50 g/d), 3.91 (3.88, 3.94) for fish-eaters, 3.81 (3.79, 3.83) for vegetarians and 2.89 (2.83, 2.94) for vegans. In conclusion, dietary GHG emissions in self-selected meat-eaters are approximately twice as high as those in vegans. It is likely that reductions in meat consumption would lead to reductions in dietary GHG emissions.

  7. Effect of Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat Hydrolysates on the Physicochemical Properties of Imitation Fish Paste

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Go, Gwang-woong; Jung, Eun-Young; Lim, Hyun-Jung; Yang, Han-Sul; Park, Jae-Hong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated on the effects of adding mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) hydrolysates on the quality properties of imitation fish paste (IFP) during storage. IFP was prepared from Alaska Pollack, spent laying hens surimi and protein hydrolysates which were enzymatically extracted from MDCM. The study was designed as a 3×4 factorial design with three MDCM hydrolysate content groups (0%, 0.4%, and 0.8%) and four storage times (0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks). Addition of MDCM hydrolysates increased crude fat content but lowered water content (p<0.05). The breaking force of IFP, an indicator of gel formation, increased in treated groups compared to control (p<0.05). Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was inhibited and free radical scavenging activity increased with increasing MDCM hydrolysate content (p<0.05). In conclusion, the addition of MDCM to IFP improves gel characteristics. Additionally, protein hydrolysates from MDCM serve as a potential source of ACE inhibiting peptides. PMID:25049933

  8. Processed meat intake is unfavorably and fish intake favorably associated with semen quality indicators among men attending a fertility clinic.

    PubMed

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Gaskins, Audrey J; Williams, Paige L; Toth, Thomas L; Wright, Diane L; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2014-07-01

    Emerging literature suggests that men's diets may affect spermatogenesis as reflected in semen quality indicators, but literature on the relation between meat intake and semen quality is limited. Our objective was to prospectively examine the relation between meat intake and indicators of semen quality. Men in subfertile couples presenting for evaluation at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center were invited to participate in an ongoing study of environmental factors and fertility. A total of 155 men completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire and subsequently provided 338 semen samples over an 18-mo period from 2007-2012. We used linear mixed regression models to examine the relation between meat intake and semen quality indicators (total sperm count, sperm concentration, progressive motility, morphology, and semen volume) while adjusting for potential confounders and accounting for within-person variability across repeat semen samples. Among the 155 men (median age: 36.1 y; 83% white, non-Hispanic), processed meat intake was inversely related to sperm morphology. Men in the highest quartile of processed meat intake had, on average, 1.7 percentage units (95% CI: -3.3, -0.04) fewer morphologically normal sperm than men in the lowest quartile of intake (P-trend = 0.02). Fish intake was related to higher sperm count and percentage of morphologically normal sperm. The adjusted mean total sperm count increased from 102 million (95% CI: 80, 131) in the lowest quartile to 168 million (95% CI: 136, 207) sperm in the highest quartile of fish intake (P-trend = 0.005). Similarly, the adjusted mean percentages of morphologically normal sperm for men in increasing quartiles of fish intake were 5.9 (95% CI: 5.0, 6.8), 5.3 (95% CI: 4.4, 6.3), 6.3 (95% CI: 5.2, 7.4), and 7.5 (95% CI: 6.5, 8.5) (P-trend = 0.01). Consuming fish may have a positive impact on sperm counts and morphology, particularly when consumed instead of processed red meats.

  9. Dietary fish and meat intake and dementia in Latin America, China, and India: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based study123

    PubMed Central

    Dangour, Alan D; Uauy, Ricardo; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Guerra, Sara S Gallardo; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, KS; Llibre de Rodriguez, Juan; Noriega, Lisseth Hernandex; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Sousa, Renata M; Williams, Joseph; Ferri, Cleusa P; Prince, Martin J

    2009-01-01

    Background: Evidence of an association between fish and meat consumption and risk of dementia is inconsistent and nonexistent in populations in developing countries. Objective: The objective was to investigate associations between fish and meat consumption with dementia in low- and middle-income countries. Design: One-phase cross-sectional surveys were conducted in all residents aged ≥65 y in 11 catchment areas in China, India, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, and Peru. A total of 14,960 residents were assessed by using the 10/66 standardized protocol, which includes face-to-face interviews for dietary habits and a cross-culturally validated dementia diagnosis. Results: Dietary intakes and the prevalence of dementia varied between sites. We combined site-specific Poisson regression prevalence ratios (PRs) for the association between fish and meat consumption and dementia in 2 fixed-effect model meta-analyses adjusted for sociodemographic and health characteristics and fish and meat consumption as appropriate. We found a dose-dependent inverse association between fish consumption and dementia (PR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.91) that was consistent across all sites except India and a less-consistent, dose-dependent, direct association between meat consumption and prevalence of dementia (PR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.31). Conclusions: Our results extend findings on the associations of fish and meat consumption with dementia risk to populations in low- and middle-income countries and are consistent with mechanistic data on the neuroprotective actions of omega-3 (n–3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids commonly found in fish. The inverse association between fish and prevalent dementia is unlikely to result from poorer dietary habits among demented individuals (reverse causality) because meat consumption was higher in those with a diagnosis of dementia. PMID:19553298

  10. The Electronic Nose: A Protocol To Evaluate Fresh Meat Flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isoppo, S.; Cornale, P.; Barbera, S.

    2009-05-01

    An Electronic Nose, comprising 10 MOS, was used to carry out meat aroma measurements in order to define an analytical protocol. Every meat sample (Longissimus Dorsi) was tested before, during and after cooking in oven (at 165° C for 600 seconds). Analysis took place in these three steps because consumers perceive odor when they buy (raw aroma), cook (cooking aroma) and eat meat (cooked aroma). Therefore these tests permitted to obtain a protocol useful to measure aroma daily perceived by meat eater.

  11. Dietary intakes of red meat, poultry, and fish during high school and risk of colorectal adenomas in women.

    PubMed

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Bernstein, Adam M; Giovannucci, Edward; Fuchs, Charles S; Willett, Walter C; Wu, Kana

    2013-07-15

    Adolescent diet may be etiologically relevant for colorectal carcinogenesis. We examined the association between meat and fish intakes during adolescence and the risk of colorectal adenomas later in life among 19,771 women participating in the Nurses' Health Study II. Subjects had completed a validated food frequency questionnaire in 1998 (when aged 34-51 years) about their diets during high school and subsequently underwent at least 1 lower-bowel endoscopy during the study period (1998-2007). During this period, 1,494 subjects were diagnosed with colorectal adenomas. Intake of red meat during adolescence was not associated with colorectal adenoma risk when comparing those in the highest versus lowest category of intake (odds ratio (OR) = 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81, 1.35). Similarly, intake of fish during adolescence was not associated with colorectal adenoma risk (OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.78, 1.17). Intake of poultry during adolescence was associated with a lower risk of total colorectal (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.99), distal (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51, 0.99), rectal (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.90), and advanced (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.93) adenomas. Replacement of 1 serving per day of red meat with 1 serving per day of poultry or fish was associated with 41% and 35% decreased risks for rectal adenomas and advanced adenomas, respectively. Our findings do not suggest an association between red meat intake during adolescence and colorectal adenomas later in life, but higher poultry intake during this time was associated with a lower risk of colorectal adenomas.

  12. Dietary Intakes of Red Meat, Poultry, and Fish During High School and Risk of Colorectal Adenomas in Women

    PubMed Central

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Bernstein, Adam M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Fuchs, Charles S.; Willett, Walter C.; Wu, Kana

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent diet may be etiologically relevant for colorectal carcinogenesis. We examined the association between meat and fish intakes during adolescence and the risk of colorectal adenomas later in life among 19,771 women participating in the Nurses' Health Study II. Subjects had completed a validated food frequency questionnaire in 1998 (when aged 34–51 years) about their diets during high school and subsequently underwent at least 1 lower-bowel endoscopy during the study period (1998–2007). During this period, 1,494 subjects were diagnosed with colorectal adenomas. Intake of red meat during adolescence was not associated with colorectal adenoma risk when comparing those in the highest versus lowest category of intake (odds ratio (OR) = 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81, 1.35). Similarly, intake of fish during adolescence was not associated with colorectal adenoma risk (OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.78, 1.17). Intake of poultry during adolescence was associated with a lower risk of total colorectal (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.99), distal (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51, 0.99), rectal (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.90), and advanced (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.93) adenomas. Replacement of 1 serving per day of red meat with 1 serving per day of poultry or fish was associated with 41% and 35% decreased risks for rectal adenomas and advanced adenomas, respectively. Our findings do not suggest an association between red meat intake during adolescence and colorectal adenomas later in life, but higher poultry intake during this time was associated with a lower risk of colorectal adenomas. PMID:23785116

  13. Effect of growth-promoting technologies on Longissimus lumborum muscle fiber morphometrics, collagen solubility, and cooked meat tenderness.

    PubMed

    Ebarb, S M; Drouillard, J S; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Phelps, K J; Vaughn, M A; Burnett, D D; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Paulk, C B; Grieger, D M; Gonzalez, J M

    2016-02-01

    insoluble collagen became positively correlated with WBSF ( < 0.01). This would indicate that relationship between muscle fiber CSA and WBSF decreases during postmortem aging, while the association between WBSF and collagen characteristics strengthens. The use of GP negatively impacted meat tenderness primarily through increased muscle fiber CSA and not through altering collagen solubility.

  14. Improvement of turkey breast meat quality and cooked gel functionality using hot-boning, quarter sectioning, crust-freeze-air-chilling and cold-batter-mincing technologies.

    PubMed

    Lee, H C; Erasmus, M A; Swanson, J C; Hong, H G; Kang, I

    2016-01-01

    The effect of rapid carcass chilling on breast meat quality was evaluated using commercial (COMM) and random-bred (RB) turkeys. Immediately after slaughter, 48 turkeys from COMM or RB line were randomly subjected to one of four chilling methods: 1) water-immersion chilling (WIC) of the carcasses at 0°C ice slurry, 2) WIC after temperature abuse (TA) of the carcasses at 40°C for 30 min (TA-WIC), 3) hot-boning, quarter sectioning, and crust-freeze-air-chilling (HB-(1)/4CFAC) of breast fillets at -12°C, and 4) HB-(1)/4CFAC of fillets after TA of carcasses (TA-HB-(1)/4CFAC). The TA increased carcass and fillet temperatures by ∼1.3 and ∼4.1°C, respectively, regardless of turkey line, whereas HB-(1)/4CFAC of fillets required 28 and 33% of carcass chilling time for COMM and RB, respectively. During chilling, COMM breast pH rapidly reduced from 6.04 to 5.82, resulting in a significantly lower pH than RB after chilling (P < 0.05), whereas COMM R-value sharply increased from 1.17 to 1.43, causing no difference from RB (P > 0.05). Significantly higher L* value and cooking yield (P < 0.05) were seen in the samples of TA and WIC than those of no TA and HB-(1)/4CFAC, respectively, with no difference observed between COMM and RB fillets (P > 0.05). Higher values of hardness, gumminess, and chewiness were found for RB, no TA, and HB-(1)/4CFAC gels than COMM, TA, and WIC, respectively. These results generally indicated that protein quality and textural properties of turkey fillets were improved, regardless of strains or temperature abuse, using HB-(1)/4CFAC technology. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from fish and meat by residents of Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Guanyong; Liu, Xiaohua; Gao, Zishen; Xian, Qimin; Feng, Jianfang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Giesy, John P; Wei, Si; Liu, Hongling; Yu, Hongxia

    2012-07-01

    Concentrations of 14 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) and 28 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congers were measured in 137 samples of fish and meat from Nanjing, a city in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Total concentrations of PBDEs were less in fish (mean of 180 pg/g ww; range 8.0-1100 pg/g ww), but more in non fish foods (mean of 180 pg/g ww; range 15-950 pg/g ww) than those reported from other countries. The total dietary intake of PBDEs and PCBs by humans were 9.9 ng PBDE/d and 870 ng PCB/d, respectively. The daily intake by a 60 kg adult of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQ(WHO)) from PCBs was estimated to be 49 pg (PCB)TEQ(WHO)/d (0.82 pg (PCB)TEQ(WHO)/kg bw), which is less than the tolerable daily intake suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO). The daily intake of meat and fish accounted for 57.2% and 42.8% of the total intake of (PCB)TEQ(WHO).

  16. Non-invasive analytical technology for the detection of contamination, adulteration, and authenticity of meat, poultry, and fish: a review.

    PubMed

    Kamruzzaman, Mohammed; Makino, Yoshio; Oshita, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    The requirement of real-time monitoring of food products has encouraged the development of non-destructive measurement systems. Hyperspectral imaging is a rapid, reagentless, non-destructive analytical technique that integrates traditional spectroscopic and imaging techniques into one system to attain both spectral and spatial information from an object that cannot be achieved with either digital imaging or conventional spectroscopic techniques. Recently, this technique has emerged as one of the most powerful and inspiring techniques for assessing different meat species and building chemical images to show the distribution maps of constituents in a direct and easy manner. After presenting a brief description of the fundamentals of hyperspectral imaging, this paper reviews the potential applications of hyperspectral imaging for detecting the adulteration, contamination, and authenticity of meat, poultry, and fish. These applications envisage that hyperspectral imaging can be considered as a promising non-invasive analytical technique for predicting the contamination, adulteration, and authenticity of meat, poultry, and fish in a real-time mode.

  17. Serum Uric Acid Concentrations in Meat Eaters, Fish Eaters, Vegetarians and Vegans: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in the EPIC-Oxford Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Julie A.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Appleby, Paul N.; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Circulating concentrations of uric acid may be affected by dietary components such as meat, fish and dairy products, but only a few studies have compared uric acid concentrations among individuals who exclude some or all of these foods from their diet. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in serum uric acid concentrations between meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans. Subjects and Methods A sample of 670 men and 1,023 women (424 meat eaters, 425 fish eaters, 422 vegetarians and 422 vegans, matched on age and sex) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Oxford cohort were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Diet was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and serum concentrations of uric acid were measured. Mean concentrations of uric acid by diet group were calculated after adjusting for age, body mass index, calcium and alcohol intake. Results In both men and women, serum uric acid concentrations differed significantly by diet group (p<0.0001 and p = 0.01, respectively). The differences between diet groups were most pronounced in men; vegans had the highest concentration (340, 95% confidence interval 329–351 µmol/l), followed by meat eaters (315, 306–324 µmol/l), fish eaters (309, 300–318 µmol/l) and vegetarians (303, 294–312 µmol/l). In women, serum uric acid concentrations were slightly higher in vegans (241, 234–247 µmol/l) than in meat eaters (237, 231–242 µmol/l) and lower in vegetarians (230, 224–236 µmol/l) and fish eaters (227, 221–233 µmol/l). Conclusion Individuals consuming a vegan diet had the highest serum concentrations of uric acid compared to meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians, especially in men. Vegetarians and individuals who eat fish but not meat had the lowest concentrations of serum uric acid. PMID:23418557

  18. Serum uric acid concentrations in meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans: a cross-sectional analysis in the EPIC-Oxford cohort.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Julie A; Crowe, Francesca L; Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C

    2013-01-01

    Circulating concentrations of uric acid may be affected by dietary components such as meat, fish and dairy products, but only a few studies have compared uric acid concentrations among individuals who exclude some or all of these foods from their diet. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in serum uric acid concentrations between meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans. A sample of 670 men and 1,023 women (424 meat eaters, 425 fish eaters, 422 vegetarians and 422 vegans, matched on age and sex) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Oxford cohort were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Diet was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and serum concentrations of uric acid were measured. Mean concentrations of uric acid by diet group were calculated after adjusting for age, body mass index, calcium and alcohol intake. In both men and women, serum uric acid concentrations differed significantly by diet group (p<0.0001 and p = 0.01, respectively). The differences between diet groups were most pronounced in men; vegans had the highest concentration (340, 95% confidence interval 329-351 µmol/l), followed by meat eaters (315, 306-324 µmol/l), fish eaters (309, 300-318 µmol/l) and vegetarians (303, 294-312 µmol/l). In women, serum uric acid concentrations were slightly higher in vegans (241, 234-247 µmol/l) than in meat eaters (237, 231-242 µmol/l) and lower in vegetarians (230, 224-236 µmol/l) and fish eaters (227, 221-233 µmol/l). Individuals consuming a vegan diet had the highest serum concentrations of uric acid compared to meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians, especially in men. Vegetarians and individuals who eat fish but not meat had the lowest concentrations of serum uric acid.

  19. NIR spectroscopic sensing for point-of-need freshness assessment of meat, fish, vegetables and fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seoho; Noh, Tae Gyoon; Choi, Jun Hoe; Han, Jeongsu; Ha, Joo Young; Lee, Ji Young; Park, Yongjong

    2017-05-01

    Foodborne illness represents a significant health burden worldwide. While monitoring the freshness of food before consumption could significantly improve the current predicament, there is a lack of a simple system that one can use to accurately assess the freshness of their food. Currently, the most common practice for food quality determination is by visual or odor inspection which lacks objectivity, accuracy and precision. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic techniques can help address this problem by providing rapid and non-destructive means to estimate the freshness state of various foods based on the changes to their characteristic spectra in the NIR region. Recent advancements in the development of portable NIR spectrometers are also enabling the realization of this technique at the point-of-need. In this study, we have evaluated the feasibility of using NIR spectroscopy at the point-of-need to estimate the freshness of various foods including: beef sirloin, beef eyeround, pork sirloin, bass, salmon, corvina, tomato and watermelon. Using a commercial portable NIR spectrometer, we periodically scanned and collected NIR spectra from the food items that were stored at 4°C inside a refrigerator for up to 30 days. For these food items, we show that the NIR spectra can be classified by the foods' aging day as well as by the levels of chemical/microbial indicators (i.e., thiobarbituric acid, volatile basic nitrogen and bacteria levels) with high accuracy, which represents high prospects of NIR spectroscopy for point-of-need freshness assessment of meat, fish, vegetables and fruits.

  20. Combined effects of marinating and γ-irradiation in ensuring safety, protection of nutritional value and increase in shelf-life of ready-to-cook meat for immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Ben Fadhel, Yosra; Leroy, Valentin; Dussault, Dominic; St-Yves, France; Lauzon, Martine; Salmieri, Stéphane; Jamshidian, Majid; Vu, Dang Khanh; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combining marinating and γ-irradiation at doses of 1, 1.5 and 3kGy on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium and Clostridium sporogenes in raw meat packed under vacuum and stored at 4°C and to estimate its safety and shelf-life. Further, the effect of combined treatments on sensorial, nutritional values (lipid oxidation, concentration of thiamin and riboflavin) and color was evaluated. The study demonstrated that the use of marinade in combination with a low dose of γ-irradiation (1.5kGy) could act in synergy to reduce to undetectable level of pathogenic bacteria and increase the shelf-life of ready-to-cook meat loin without affecting its sensorial and nutritional quality.

  1. Development of an optical surface plasmon resonance biosensor assay for (fluoro)quinolones in egg, fish, and poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Huet, A-C; Charlier, C; Singh, G; Godefroy, S Benrejeb; Leivo, J; Vehniäinen, M; Nielen, M W F; Weigel, S; Delahaut, Ph

    2008-08-15

    The aim of this study was to develop an optical biosensor inhibition immunoassay, based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) principle, for use as a screening test for 13 (fluoro)quinolones, including flumequine, used as veterinary drugs in food-producing animals. For this, we immobilised various quinolone derivatives on the sensor chip and tested binding of a range of different antibodies (polyclonal and one engineered antibody) in the presence and absence of free (fluoro)quinolones. The main challenge was to detect flumequine in an assay giving good results for the other compounds. One antigen-antibody combination proved satisfactory: polyclonal antibodies raised against a dual immunogen and, on the sensor chip, a fluoroquinolone derivative. It was the first time that this concept of the bi-active antibody was described in the literature. The assay, optimised for detection in three matrices (poultry muscle, fish, and egg), was tested on incurred samples prepared by liquid extraction followed by two washing steps. This rapid, simple method proved adequate for detecting at least 13 (fluoro)quinolones at concentrations below established maximum residue levels (MRLs). The reference molecule norfloxacin could be detected in the range of 0.1-10 microg kg(-1) in extracts of egg and poultry meat and in the range of 0.1-100 microg kg(-1) in extracts of fish. The determined midpoints of these calibration curves were about 1, 1.5 and 3 microg kg(-1) in poultry meat, egg and fish, respectively.

  2. Meat, dairy and plant proteins alter bacterial composition of rat gut bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Zhao, Fan; Shi, Xuebin; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Zhu, Weiyun; Xu, Xinglian; Lu, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-01-01

    Long-term consumption of red meat has been considered a potential risk to gut health, but this is based on clinic investigations, excessive intake of fat, heme and some injurious compounds formed during cooking or additions to processed meat products. Whether intake of red meat protein affects gut bacteria and the health of the host remains unclear. In this work, we compared the composition of gut bacteria in the caecum, by sequencing the V4-V5 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene, obtained from rats fed with proteins from red meat (beef and pork), white meat (chicken and fish) and other sources (casein and soy). The results showed significant differences in profiles of gut bacteria between the six diet groups. Rats fed with meat proteins had a similar overall structure of caecal bacterial communities separated from those fed non-meat proteins. The beneficial genus Lactobacillus was higher in the white meat than in the red meat or non-meat protein groups. Also, rats fed with meat proteins and casein had significantly lower levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins, suggesting that the intake of meat proteins may maintain a more balanced composition of gut bacteria, thereby reducing the antigen load and inflammatory response in the host. PMID:26463271

  3. Meat, dairy and plant proteins alter bacterial composition of rat gut bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Zhao, Fan; Shi, Xuebin; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Zhu, Weiyun; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Lu, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-10-14

    Long-term consumption of red meat has been considered a potential risk to gut health, but this is based on clinic investigations, excessive intake of fat, heme and some injurious compounds formed during cooking or additions to processed meat products. Whether intake of red meat protein affects gut bacteria and the health of the host remains unclear. In this work, we compared the composition of gut bacteria in the caecum, by sequencing the V4-V5 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene, obtained from rats fed with proteins from red meat (beef and pork), white meat (chicken and fish) and other sources (casein and soy). The results showed significant differences in profiles of gut bacteria between the six diet groups. Rats fed with meat proteins had a similar overall structure of caecal bacterial communities separated from those fed non-meat proteins. The beneficial genus Lactobacillus was higher in the white meat than in the red meat or non-meat protein groups. Also, rats fed with meat proteins and casein had significantly lower levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins, suggesting that the intake of meat proteins may maintain a more balanced composition of gut bacteria, thereby reducing the antigen load and inflammatory response in the host.

  4. Retail Meat Cutting I. Apprentice Meat Cutter Related Training. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale H., Ed.

    Intended as a first-year curriculum for apprentice meat cutters, this text focuses on retail meat cutting. Topics covered in the 24 chapters are background and purpose of apprenticeship, job preparation, general layout of the meat department, operational procedures, beef structure and evaluation, retail cuts and cooking methods, beef forequarter:…

  5. Retail Meat Cutting I. Apprentice Meat Cutter Related Training. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale H., Ed.

    Intended as a first-year curriculum for apprentice meat cutters, this text focuses on retail meat cutting. Topics covered in the 24 chapters are background and purpose of apprenticeship, job preparation, general layout of the meat department, operational procedures, beef structure and evaluation, retail cuts and cooking methods, beef forequarter:…

  6. Carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in model systems and cooked foods: a review on formation, occurrence and intake.

    PubMed

    Skog, K I; Johansson, M A; Jägerstad, M I

    1998-01-01

    Frying or grilling of meat and fish products may generate low ppb levels of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HAs). Many heterocyclic amines are formed via the Maillard reaction from creatine, free amino acids and monosaccharides; compounds naturally occurring in protein-rich foods of animal origin. The formation and yield of HAs are dependent on physical parameters, such as cooking temperature and time, cooking technique and equipment, heat and mass transport, and on chemical parameters, especially the precursors to HAs. This paper reviews the current knowledge on the formation of HAs in cooked foods and model systems, and summarizes data on the content of HAs in various cooked foods, and estimates of the dietary intake of HAs. It should be noted that the presence of carcinogens of other types in food (e.g. nitrosamines, aromatic amines, cholesterol oxide products) and that their generation during frying and grilling are outside the scope of this review.

  7. Dietary soy, meat, and fish proteins modulate the effects of prebiotic raffinose on composition and fermentation of gut microbiota in rats.

    PubMed

    Bai, Gaowa; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Nishino, Naoki

    2017-09-28

    Soy, meat (mixture of pork and beef), and fish proteins were fed to rats with and without prebiotic raffinose (RAF), and the composition and fermentation of gut microbiota were examined. Bifidobacterium spp. populations were higher, and propionic acid concentration was lower in soy protein-fed than meat protein-fed rats. Likewise, Enterobacteriaceae populations were higher in fish protein-fed rats than other rats. RAF feeding increased Bifidobacterium spp. and decreased Faecalibacterium prausnitzii populations regardless of the dietary protein source. Interactions between dietary proteins and RAF were shown for Lactobacillus spp. and Clostridium perfringens group; the increase of Lactobacillus spp. populations by RAF was seen only for soy protein-fed rats, whereas the reduction of C. perfringens group by RAF was evident in fish and meat protein-fed rats. It is concluded that dietary proteins may differentially modulate the effects of prebiotic oligosaccharides on gut fermentation and microbiota, with differences observed between plant and animal proteins.

  8. Effects of low carbohydrate diets high in red meats or poultry, fish and shellfish on plasma lipids and weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Cassady, Bridget A; Charboneau, Nicole L; Brys, Emily E; Crouse, Kristin A; Beitz, Donald C; Wilson, Ted

    2007-01-01

    Background Low carbohydrate diets (LCDs) have been demonstrated to be effective tools for promoting weight loss and an improved plasma lipid profile. Such diets are often associated with increased meat consumption, either poultry, fish, and shellfish (PFS), which are generally high in polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) or red meats (RM), generally high in saturated fat (SFA). The fatty acid profile and content of a diet may influence the plasma lipid profile of humans. This study examined whether the type of meat consumed could influence the outcome of an LCD. Methods Moderately obese subjects consumed two different LCDs as part of a weight loss regimen: 1) a diet high in foods of mammalian origin (RM) intended to contain more SFA, or 2) a diet high in PFS intended to contain more PUFA. Diet dependent changes in body weight, nutritional intake, and plasma lipids were evaluated during a 28 day study period. Results Both diets were associated with significant weight loss after 28 days, -5.26 ± 0.84 kg and -5.74 ± 0.63 kg for RM and PFS groups, respectively. The PFS diet was associated with a significantly higher intake of PUFA and cholesterol. Despite high cholesterol and fat intakes, neither diet was associated with significant changes in plasma cholesterol or the plasma lipoprotein cholesterol profile. While plasma triglycerides were reduced in both groups, the effect was only statistically significant for the PFS diet. PMID:17974023

  9. Study of the effect of post-packaging pasteurization and argon modified atmosphere packaging on the sensory quality and growth of endogenous microflora of a sliced cooked meat product.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Zamorano, Arturo Rivera; Posada-Izquierdo, Guiomar Denisse; García-Gimeno, Rosa María

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of post-packaging pasteurization on the sensory quality and growth of natural microorganisms during refrigerated storage (6 °C) of a cooked meat product considering two packaging atmospheres based on mixture of typical gases (CO(2)/N(2) (22/78%) and novel gases (CO(2)/Ar (17/83%)). Growth of lactic acid bacteria was significantly different between samples with and without post-packaging pasteurization, showing a growth rate >0.44 and equal to 0.28 log cfu/day, respectively. For samples with post-packaging pasteurization, atmosphere CO(2)/Ar resulted in a lower growth of lactic acid bacteria and a better sensory quality. Overall, samples without post-packaging pasteurization did not show a significant reduction of sensory quality during storage time (121 days) while samples with post-packaging pasteurization showed deterioration in their sensory quality. Further investigation is needed to obtain more definitive conclusions about the effect of post-packaging pasteurization and argon-based packaging atmospheres on cooked meat products.

  10. Determination of macrolide antibiotics in meat and fish using pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Berrada, Houda; Borrull, Francesc; Font, Guillermina; Marcé, Rosa Maria

    2008-10-24

    We developed a method for determining the quantities of seven macrolide antibiotics in meat and fish by using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (LC-(ESI)MS). The PLE was optimized with regard to solvents, temperature, pressure, extraction time and number of cycles. The optimum conditions were: methanol as the extraction solvent; a temperature of 80 degrees C; a pressure of 1500psi; an extraction time of 15min; 2 cycles; a flush volume of 150% and a purge time of 300s. All recoveries for macrolide antibiotics were over 77% at 200mug/kg, except for erythromycin, which was 58%. The repeatability and reproducibility on days in between, expressed as %RSD (n=12), were lower than 10% and 12%, respectively. The quantification limits of all compounds were 25mug/kg of dry weight of animal muscle except for troleandomycin (50mug/kg). The method was applied to determine the pharmaceuticals in real samples taken from 18 meat and fish samples. The results showed that PLE is quantitative short time consuming technique, with use of smaller initial sample sizes. Greater specificity and selectivity in extraction and increased potential for automation were shown.

  11. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued meats... action of dry heat resulting from the burning of hard wood or the hot coals therefrom for a...

  12. The consumption of fish cooked by different methods was related to the risk of hyperuricemia in Japanese adults: A 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ren, Z; Huang, C; Momma, H; Cui, Y; Sugiyama, S; Niu, K; Nagatomi, R

    2016-09-01

    Fish consumption is a recognized risk factor for elevated serum uric acid (UA) levels, hyperuricemia, and gout. However, the relationship between the consumption of fish cooked by different methods and the risk of hyperuricemia is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the consumption of fish cooked by different methods and the risk of hyperuricemia in Japanese adults. A 3-year follow-up study was conducted with 424 Japanese adults aged 29-74 years. Fish consumption was assessed using a validated self-administered dietary history questionnaire, and hyperuricemia was defined as serum UA ≥7 mg/dL in men and ≥6 mg/dL in women or the use of any anti-gout treatment. During the 3-year follow-up period, we documented 30 newly diagnosed cases of hyperuricemia. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariate logistic regressions analysis revealed a significant positive relationship between the risk of hyperuricemia and raw (sashimi and sushi) or roasted fish consumption, but not boiled or fried fish consumption. The odds ratios (95% CI) for hyperuricemia with increasing raw fish consumption were 1.00 (reference), 2.51 (0.85, 7.39), and 3.46 (1.07, 11.14) (P for trend: 0.036). Similarly, the odds ratios (95% CI) with increasing roasted fish consumption were 1.00 (reference), 3.00 (0.75, 11.89), and 5.17 (1.30, 20.62) (P for trend: 0.018). This 3-year follow-up study showed that the consumption of raw or roasted fish, but not boiled or fried fish, was related with a higher risk of hyperuricemia in Japanese adults. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Metabolic profiles of male meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans from the EPIC-Oxford cohort12

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Julie A; Rinaldi, Sabina; Ferrari, Pietro; Carayol, Marion; Achaintre, David; Scalbert, Augustin; Cross, Amanda J; Gunter, Marc J; Fensom, Georgina K; Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human metabolism is influenced by dietary factors and lifestyle, environmental, and genetic factors; thus, men who exclude some or all animal products from their diet might have different metabolic profiles than meat eaters. Objective: We aimed to investigate differences in concentrations of 118 circulating metabolites, including acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, glycerophospholipids, hexose, and sphingolipids related to lipid, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism between male meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans from the Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Design: In this cross-sectional study, concentrations of metabolites were measured by mass spectrometry in plasma from 379 men categorized according to their diet group. Differences in mean metabolite concentrations across diet groups were tested by using ANOVA, and a false discovery rate–controlling procedure was used to account for multiple testing. Principal component analysis was used to investigate patterns in metabolic profiles. Results: Concentrations of 79% of metabolites differed significantly by diet group. In the vast majority of these cases, vegans had the lowest concentration, whereas meat eaters most often had the highest concentrations of the acylcarnitines, glycerophospholipids, and sphingolipids, and fish eaters or vegetarians most often had the highest concentrations of the amino acids and a biogenic amine. A clear separation between patterns in the metabolic profiles of the 4 diet groups was seen, with vegans being noticeably different from the other groups because of lower concentrations of some glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Conclusions: Metabolic profiles in plasma could effectively differentiate between men from different habitual diet groups, especially vegan men compared with men who consume animal products. The difference in metabolic profiles was mainly explained by the lower concentrations of

  14. Metabolic profiles of male meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans from the EPIC-Oxford cohort.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Julie A; Rinaldi, Sabina; Ferrari, Pietro; Carayol, Marion; Achaintre, David; Scalbert, Augustin; Cross, Amanda J; Gunter, Marc J; Fensom, Georgina K; Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C

    2015-12-01

    Human metabolism is influenced by dietary factors and lifestyle, environmental, and genetic factors; thus, men who exclude some or all animal products from their diet might have different metabolic profiles than meat eaters. We aimed to investigate differences in concentrations of 118 circulating metabolites, including acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, glycerophospholipids, hexose, and sphingolipids related to lipid, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism between male meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans from the Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. In this cross-sectional study, concentrations of metabolites were measured by mass spectrometry in plasma from 379 men categorized according to their diet group. Differences in mean metabolite concentrations across diet groups were tested by using ANOVA, and a false discovery rate-controlling procedure was used to account for multiple testing. Principal component analysis was used to investigate patterns in metabolic profiles. Concentrations of 79% of metabolites differed significantly by diet group. In the vast majority of these cases, vegans had the lowest concentration, whereas meat eaters most often had the highest concentrations of the acylcarnitines, glycerophospholipids, and sphingolipids, and fish eaters or vegetarians most often had the highest concentrations of the amino acids and a biogenic amine. A clear separation between patterns in the metabolic profiles of the 4 diet groups was seen, with vegans being noticeably different from the other groups because of lower concentrations of some glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Metabolic profiles in plasma could effectively differentiate between men from different habitual diet groups, especially vegan men compared with men who consume animal products. The difference in metabolic profiles was mainly explained by the lower concentrations of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in vegans.

  15. Determination of irradiation dose and distinguishing between irradiated and non irradiated fish meat by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Şakalar, Ergün; Mol, Sühendan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the effects of gamma irradiation on the DNA of fish (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by real-time PCR were studied. Fish (O. mykiss) were exposed to radiation doses of 0.250, 0.500, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 kGy in a gamma cell. Primers were designed for regions with different lengths of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, and each primer was used to amplify the DNA from irradiated samples. The amplicon curves for mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, and the correlations among the curves, were obtained. The Ct values for a 519 bp region of the 18S RNA gene on nuclear DNA correlated appropriately. Radiation doses applied to the fillets were estimated using the standard curve data obtained from the correlation values, and the DNA damage caused by each dose was calculated. As a consequence, a molecular methodology to analyze irradiated fish meat qualitatively and also for the estimation of administered dose was developed. This method allowed analysis of irradiated fish, which had been stored for up to 3 months with a dose limit of approximately 0.5 kGy.

  16. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... can react to touching fish or breathing in vapors from cooking fish. A fish allergy can cause ... hives red spots swelling a drop in blood pressure , causing lightheadedness or loss of consciousness Your child ...

  17. Contributions of non-volatile and volatile compounds to the umami taste and overall flavour of shiitake mushroom extracts and their application as flavour enhancers in cooked minced meat.

    PubMed

    Dermiki, Maria; Phanphensophon, Natalie; Mottram, Donald S; Methven, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Aqueous extracts of dried shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were prepared as taste and flavour enhancers for meat formulations. Effects of time and temperature on the chemical and sensory properties of the extracts were examined. Extracts prepared at 70°C had significantly higher concentrations (p<0.001) of the savoury tasting 5'-ribonucleotides than those prepared at 22°C but increasing the extraction time from 30 to 360 min only increased their recovery slightly (p=0.053). In contrast, higher temperature extracts had considerably smaller concentrations of the major volatile compounds, such as lenthionine, 1-octen-3-ol, 1,3-dithiethane and dimethyl disulfide, because of loss through volatilisation. A sensory discrimination test showed that the lower temperature extract was perceived to have less umami taste than the higher temperature extract (p=0.048). Incorporating the 70°C shiitake extract into minced meat formulations led to significantly higher levels of savoury tasting 5'-ribonucleotides in the cooked meat but no significant difference in umami perception.

  18. Intake of different types of red meat, poultry, and fish and incident colorectal cancer in women and men: results from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study.

    PubMed

    Vulcan, Alexandra; Manjer, Jonas; Ericson, Ulrika; Ohlsson, Bodil

    2017-01-01

    Background : Colorectal cancer (CRC) is considered one of the most common forms of cancer in the Western world. High intake of red and processed meat is considered to increase CRC development. Objective : This study examined associations between intake of red meats, poultry, and fish and incident CRC, and if weight status modifies the associations. Design : In the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, dietary data was collected through a modified diet history method. Via the Swedish Cancer Registry, 728 cases of CRC were identified during 428 924 person-years of follow-up of 16 944 women and 10 987 men. Results : Beef intake was inversely associated with colon cancer. However, in men high intake of beef was associated with increased risk of rectal cancer. High intake of pork was associated with increased incidence of CRC, and colon cancer. Processed meat was associated with increased risk of CRC in men. Fish intake was inversely associated with risk of rectal cancer. No significant interactions were found between different types of meat and weight status. Conclusions : Findings suggest that associations between meat intake and CRC differ depending on meat type, sex, and tumor location in the bowel. Weight status did not modify observed associations.

  19. Intake of different types of red meat, poultry, and fish and incident colorectal cancer in women and men: results from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    Vulcan, Alexandra; Manjer, Jonas; Ericson, Ulrika; Ohlsson, Bodil

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is considered one of the most common forms of cancer in the Western world. High intake of red and processed meat is considered to increase CRC development. Objective: This study examined associations between intake of red meats, poultry, and fish and incident CRC, and if weight status modifies the associations. Design: In the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, dietary data was collected through a modified diet history method. Via the Swedish Cancer Registry, 728 cases of CRC were identified during 428 924 person-years of follow-up of 16 944 women and 10 987 men. Results: Beef intake was inversely associated with colon cancer. However, in men high intake of beef was associated with increased risk of rectal cancer. High intake of pork was associated with increased incidence of CRC, and colon cancer. Processed meat was associated with increased risk of CRC in men. Fish intake was inversely associated with risk of rectal cancer. No significant interactions were found between different types of meat and weight status. Conclusions: Findings suggest that associations between meat intake and CRC differ depending on meat type, sex, and tumor location in the bowel. Weight status did not modify observed associations. PMID:28804436

  20. Myoglobin chemistry and meat color.

    PubMed

    Suman, Surendranath P; Joseph, Poulson

    2013-01-01

    Consumers rely heavily on fresh meat color as an indicator of wholesomeness at the point of sale, whereas cooked color is exploited as an indicator of doneness at the point of consumption. Deviations from the bright cherry-red color of fresh meat lead to product rejection and revenue loss. Myoglobin is the sarcoplasmic heme protein primarily responsible for the meat color, and the chemistry of myoglobin is species specific. The mechanistic interactions between myoglobin and multiple extrinsic and intrinsic factors govern the color of raw as well as cooked meats. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the current research in meat color and how the findings are applied in the meat industry. Characterizing the fundamental basis of myoglobin's interactions with biomolecules in postmortem skeletal muscles is necessary to interpret the chemistry of meat color phenomena and to engineer innovative processing strategies to minimize meat discoloration-induced revenue loss to the agricultural economy.

  1. The effect of supplementing organic diets with fish meal and premix on the performance of pigs and some meat and blood characteristics.

    PubMed

    Grela, E R; Matras, J; Pisarski, R K; Sobolewska, S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fish meal and mineral-vitamin premix, supplementing organic diets, on the performance of pigs and some meat and blood characteristics. The experiment was conducted on an organic pig fattening farm. The study involved 120 pigs with an approximate 25 kg body weight. Animals were divided into 3 groups, kept in pens, 10 animals each. Group I (control) animals were fed with plant feedstuffs of organic origin. Diets for group II and III were enriched with fish meal or fish meal and vitamin-mineral premix, respectively. The experiment was carried out till pigs reached a weight of 115 kg. Feed samples were subjected to laboratory analyses. Body weight (3 times) and feed intake were recorded. Blood samples were collected (2 times) to determine hematological and biochemical indices. Some parameters in meat samples were also determined. The fish meal addition improved (P < or = 0.05) the average daily gains as well as feed conversion ratio during fattening period and mineral-vitamin premix significantly (P < or = 0.05) fortified fish meal influence. Fish meal supplement improved (P < or = 0.05) also some carcass characteristics. Supplementation of the diet with premix additionally decreased (P < or = 0.05) backfat thickness and increased share of meat in carcass. Fish meal improved (P < or = 0.05) some meat characteristics and elevated content of some polyunsaturated fatty acids. An increase in hemoglobin, red blood cell, white blood cell and cholesterol level in blood of animals from both experimental groups were also found. The results obtained proved the usefulness of fish meal and mineral-vitamin premix in the fatteners nutrition based on organic diets.

  2. Mutagenic activity of heterocyclic amines in cooked foods

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J.S.; Knize, M.G.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1993-01-19

    Mutagenic heterocyclic amines are generated in foods when they are cooked at temperatures over 150{degrees}C. These compounds are present from 0.1 to 50 ppb depending on the food and the cooking conditions. These heterocyclic amines are not only present in cooked red meat, fish, chicken, and in baked and fried foods derived from grain. Mutagenicity of fried beef hamburgers cooked at 230{degrees}C is 800 {plus_minus} 37 TA98 revertants per gram cooked weight. We measured 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-flquinoxaline (MelQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-flquinoxaline (DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-flquinoline (IQ) formation at this temperature and found 3.0 {plus_minus} 2.0,1.0 {plus_minus} 0.18, and 0.06 {plus_minus} 0.03 ng/g, respectively. 2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was found at a higher concentration of 9.6 ng/g. We have shown these heterocyclic amines are capable of producing both reverse and forward mutations in Salmonella bacteria and forward mutations in Chinese Hamster Cells.

  3. Mutagenic activity of heterocyclic amines in cooked foods

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J.S.; Knize, M.G.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1993-01-19

    Mutagenic heterocyclic amines are generated in foods when they are cooked at temperatures over 150[degrees]C. These compounds are present from 0.1 to 50 ppb depending on the food and the cooking conditions. These heterocyclic amines are not only present in cooked red meat, fish, chicken, and in baked and fried foods derived from grain. Mutagenicity of fried beef hamburgers cooked at 230[degrees]C is 800 [plus minus] 37 TA98 revertants per gram cooked weight. We measured 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-flquinoxaline (MelQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-flquinoxaline (DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-flquinoline (IQ) formation at this temperature and found 3.0 [plus minus] 2.0,1.0 [plus minus] 0.18, and 0.06 [plus minus] 0.03 ng/g, respectively. 2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was found at a higher concentration of 9.6 ng/g. We have shown these heterocyclic amines are capable of producing both reverse and forward mutations in Salmonella bacteria and forward mutations in Chinese Hamster Cells.

  4. Encapsulated phosphates reduce lipid oxidation in both ground chicken and ground beef during raw and cooked meat storage with some influence on color, pH, and cooking loss.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, B; Simşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E

    2014-05-01

    Effects of encapsulated sodium tripolyphosphate (STP), sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP) and sodium pyrophosphate (SPP) on lipid oxidation in uncooked (0, 2, 24h) and cooked (0, 1, 7 d) ground chicken and beef during storage were determined. Ten phosphate treatments included a control (no phosphate), three unencapsulated (u) at 0.5% and three encapsulated (e) phosphates (0.5%) each at a low (e-low) and high (e-high) coating level. Two heating rates (slow, fast) were investigated. Cooking loss (CL), pH, color, orthophosphate (OP), TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) were determined. A fast heating and uSTP resulted in lower CL (p<0.05). Orthophosphate increased with phosphate incorporation, slow heating and storage (p<0.05). Encapsulated phosphates and increased coating level reduced OP (p<0.05). Unencapsulated STP increased CIE a* and pH, whereas uSPP decreased CIE a* and pH (p<0.05). Encapsulated phosphates and the greater coating level had no effect on the pH in cooked samples. Not increased coating level but encapsulated phosphates decreased lipid oxidation in cooked samples (p<0.05). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparison of the extraction procedures and quantification methods for the chromatographic determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in charcoal grilled meat and fish.

    PubMed

    Viegas, O; Novo, P; Pinho, O; Ferreira, I M P L V O

    2012-01-15

    A method for analysis of 15 PAHs in charcoal-grilled meat/fish was established by high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Gradient elution was performed with methanol/water/ethyl acetate. Maxima excitation and emission wavelengths were selected for each PAH. Retention times were very stable with coefficients of variation below 0.24% within analytical day and below 0.60% across analytical days. Two different methods of cleanup and pre-concentration steps were compared. Solvent extraction assisted by sonication carried out with n-hexane on 2g of lyophilized meat or 1g of lyophilized fish allowed to obtain high sensitivity, reproducibility and better extraction efficiency. Limits of quantification (LOQs, s/n=10) were lower than 0.01ng/g of meat wet weight and lower than 0.02ng/g of fish wet weight for all PAHs (except for Na, Fl and IP that were lower than 0.1ng/g). Two different quantification methods were compared. Standard addition method compensated PAHs losses due to incomplete extraction and it is recommended for analyses of grilled meat and fish samples that usually contain very low amounts of the eight high molecular weight PAHs (BaA, Ch, BbF, BkF, BaP, IP, BgP, DhA).

  6. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal b...

  7. Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages.

    PubMed

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Baghurst, Katrine; Meyer, Barbara J

    2015-10-19

    Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). The aim was (i) to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii) to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet the recommendations and (iii) to determine the cost of the models. Six n-3 LCPUFA enriched foods were identified. Fish was categorised by n-3 LCPUFA content (mg/100 g categories as "excellent" "good" and "moderate"). The four models to meet recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes were (i) fish only; (ii) moderate fish (with red meat and enriched foods); (iii) fish avoiders (red meat and enriched foods only); and (iv) lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (enriched foods only). Diets were modelled using the NUTTAB2010 database and n-3 LCPUFA were calculated and compared to the Suggested Dietary Targets (SDT). The cost of meeting these recommendations was calculated per 100 mg n-3 LCPUFA. The SDT were achieved for all life-stages with all four models. The weekly food intake in number of serves to meet the n-3 LCPUFA SDT for all life-stages for each dietary model were: (i) 2 "excellent" fish; (ii) 1 "excellent" and 1 "good" fish, and depending on life-stage, 3-4 lean red meat, 0-2 eggs and 3-26 enriched foods; (iii) 4 lean red meat, and 20-59 enriched foods; (iv) 37-66 enriched foods. Recommended intakes of n-3 LCPUFA were easily met by the consumption of fish, which was the cheapest source of n-3 LCPUFA. Other strategies may be required to achieve the recommendations including modifying the current food supply through feeding practices, novel plant sources and more enriched foods.

  8. Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages

    PubMed Central

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Baghurst, Katrine; Meyer, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). The aim was (i) to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii) to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet the recommendations and (iii) to determine the cost of the models. Six n-3 LCPUFA enriched foods were identified. Fish was categorised by n-3 LCPUFA content (mg/100 g categories as “excellent” “good” and “moderate”). The four models to meet recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes were (i) fish only; (ii) moderate fish (with red meat and enriched foods); (iii) fish avoiders (red meat and enriched foods only); and (iv) lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (enriched foods only). Diets were modelled using the NUTTAB2010 database and n-3 LCPUFA were calculated and compared to the Suggested Dietary Targets (SDT). The cost of meeting these recommendations was calculated per 100 mg n-3 LCPUFA. The SDT were achieved for all life-stages with all four models. The weekly food intake in number of serves to meet the n-3 LCPUFA SDT for all life-stages for each dietary model were: (i) 2 “excellent” fish; (ii) 1 “excellent” and 1 “good” fish, and depending on life-stage, 3–4 lean red meat, 0–2 eggs and 3–26 enriched foods; (iii) 4 lean red meat, and 20–59 enriched foods; (iv) 37–66 enriched foods. Recommended intakes of n-3 LCPUFA were easily met by the consumption of fish, which was the cheapest source of n-3 LCPUFA. Other strategies may be required to achieve the recommendations including modifying the current food supply through feeding practices, novel plant sources and more enriched foods. PMID:26492269

  9. Weight gain over 5 years in 21,966 meat-eating, fish-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men and women in EPIC-Oxford.

    PubMed

    Rosell, M; Appleby, P; Spencer, E; Key, T

    2006-09-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown that vegetarians and vegans are leaner than omnivores. Longitudinal data on weight gain in these groups are sparse. We investigated changes in weight and body mass index (BMI) over a 5-year period in meat-eating, fish-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men and women in the UK. Self-reported anthropometric, dietary and lifestyle data were collected at baseline in 1994-1999 and at follow-up in 2000-2003; the median duration of follow-up was 5.3 years. A total of 21,966 men and women participating in Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition aged 20-69 years at baseline. The mean annual weight gain was 389 (SD 884) g in men and 398 (SD 892) g in women. The differences between meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in age-adjusted mean BMI at follow-up were similar to those seen at baseline. Multivariable-adjusted mean weight gain was somewhat smaller in vegans (284 g in men and 303 g in women, P<0.05 for both sexes) and fish-eaters (338 g, women only, P<0.001) compared with meat-eaters. Men and women who changed their diet in one or several steps in the direction meat-eater --> fish-eater --> vegetarian --> vegan showed the smallest mean annual weight gain of 242 (95% CI 133-351) and 301 (95% CI 238-365) g, respectively. During 5 years follow-up, the mean annual weight gain in a health-conscious cohort in the UK was approximately 400 g. Small differences in weight gain were observed between meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans. Lowest weight gain was seen among those who, during follow-up, had changed to a diet containing fewer animal food.

  10. Final cook temperature monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, John; Matthews, Michael; Glasco, Marc

    2006-04-01

    Fully cooked, ready-to-eat products represent one of the fastest growing markets in the meat and poultry industries. Modern meat cooking facilities typically cook chicken strips and nuggets at rates of 6000 lbs per hour, and it is a critical food safety issue to ensure the products on these lines are indeed fully cooked. Common practice now employs oven technicians to constantly measure final cook temperature with insertion-type thermocouple probes. Prior research has demonstrated that thermal imagery of chicken breasts and other products can be used to predict core temperature of products leaving an oven. In practice, implementation of a system to monitor core temperature can be difficult for several reasons. First, a wide variety of products are typically produced on the same production line and the system must adapt to all products. Second, the products can be often hard to find because they often leave the process in random order and may be touching or even overlapping. Another issue is finite measurement time which is typically only a few seconds. Finally, the system is subjected to a rigorous sanitation cycle and must hold up under wash down conditions. To address these problems, a calibrated 320x240 micro-bolometer camera was used to monitor the temperature of formed, breaded poultry products on a fully cooked production line for a period of one year. The study addressed the installation and operation of the system as well as the development of algorithms used to identify the product on a cluttered conveyor belt. It also compared the oven tech insertion probe measurements to the non-contact monitoring system performance.

  11. The cooked meat derived genotoxic carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine has potent hormone-like activity: mechanistic support for a role in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lauber, Sandra N; Gooderham, Nigel J

    2007-10-01

    The cooked meat-derived heterocyclic amine 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is activated by CYP1A2 to the N-hydroxy metabolite, then esterified by acetyl transferase and sulfur transferase into unstable DNA-reactive products that can lead to mutation. The genotoxicity of PhIP has been implicated in its carcinogenicity. Yet, CYP1A2-null mice are still prone to PhIP-mediated cancer, inferring that alternative mechanisms must be operative in tumor induction. PhIP induces tumors of the breast, prostate, and colon in rats and lymphoma in mice. This profile of carcinogenicity is indicative of hormonal involvement. We recently reported that PhIP has potent estrogenic activity inducing transcription of estrogen (E2)-regulated genes, proliferation of E(2)-dependent cells, up-regulation of progesterone receptor, and stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. In this report, we show for the first time that PhIP at doses as low as of 10(-11) mol/L has direct effects on a rat pituitary lactotroph model (GH3 cells) and is able to induce cell proliferation and the synthesis and secretion of prolactin. This PhIP-induced pituitary cell proliferation and synthesis and secretion of prolactin can be attenuated by an estrogen receptor (ER) inhibitor, implying that PhIP effects on lactotroph responses are ERalpha mediated. In view of the strong association between estrogen, progesterone, prolactin, and breast cancer, the PhIP repertoire of hormone-like activities provides further mechanistic support for the tissue-specific carcinogenicity of the chemical. Furthermore, the recent epidemiology studies that report an association between consumption of cooked red meat and premenopausal and postmenopausal human breast cancer are consonant with these observations.

  12. Red meat, poultry, and fish intake and breast cancer risk among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic white women: The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Andre E; Lundgreen, Abbie; Wolff, Roger K; Fejerman, Laura; John, Esther M; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Ingles, Sue A; Boone, Stephanie D; Connor, Avonne E; Hines, Lisa M; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Giuliano, Anna; Joshi, Amit D; Slattery, Martha L; Stern, Mariana C

    2016-04-01

    There is suggestive but limited evidence for a relationship between meat intake and breast cancer (BC) risk. Few studies included Hispanic women. We investigated the association between meats and fish intake and BC risk among Hispanic and NHW women. The study included NHW (1,982 cases and 2,218 controls) and the US Hispanics (1,777 cases and 2,218 controls) from two population-based case-control studies. Analyses considered menopausal status and percent Native American ancestry. We estimated pooled ORs combining harmonized data from both studies, and study- and race-/ethnicity-specific ORs that were combined using fixed or random effects models, depending on heterogeneity levels. When comparing highest versus lowest tertile of intake, among NHW we observed an association between tuna intake and BC risk (pooled OR 1.25; 95 % CI 1.05-1.50; trend p = 0.006). Among Hispanics, we observed an association between BC risk and processed meat intake (pooled OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.18-1.71; trend p < 0.001), and between white meat (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.67-0.95; trend p = 0.01) and BC risk, driven by poultry. All these findings were supported by meta-analysis using fixed or random effect models and were restricted to estrogen receptor-positive tumors. Processed meats and poultry were not associated with BC risk among NHW women; red meat and fish were not associated with BC risk in either race/ethnic groups. Our results suggest the presence of ethnic differences in associations between meat and BC risk that may contribute to BC disparities.

  13. Red meat, poultry, and fish intake and breast cancer risk among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic white women: The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Andre; Lundgreen, Abbie; Wolff, Roger K.; Fejerman, Laura; John, Esther M.; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Ingles, Sue A.; Boone, Stephanie D.; Connor, Avonne E.; Hines, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Giuliano, Anna; Joshi, Amit D.; Slattery, Martha L.; Stern, Mariana C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There is suggestive but limited evidence for a relationship between meat intake and breast cancer (BC) risk. Few studies included Hispanic women. We investigated the association between meats and fish intake and BC risk among Hispanic and NHW women. Methods The study included NHW (1,982 cases and 2,218 controls) and US Hispanics (1,777 cases and 2,218 controls) from 2 population-based case-control studies. Analyses considered menopausal status and percent Native American ancestry. We estimated pooled ORs combining harmonized data from both studies, and study and race/ethnicity specific ORs that were combined using fixed or random effects models, depending on heterogeneity levels. Results When comparing highest versus lowest tertile of intake, among NHW we observed an association between tuna intake and BC risk (pooled OR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.05–1.50; trend p = 0.006),. Among Hispanics, we observed an association between BC risk and processed meat intake (pooled OR = 1.42; 95% CI 1.18–1.71; trend p < 0.001), and between white meat (OR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.67–0.95; trend p = 0.01) and BC risk, driven by poultry. All these findings were supported by meta-analysis using fixed or random effect models, and were restricted to estrogen receptor positive tumors. Processed meats and poultry were not associated with BC risk among NHW women; red meat and fish were not associated with BC risk in either race/ethnic groups. Conclusions Our results suggest the presence of ethnic differences in associations between meat and BC risk that may contribute to BC disparities. PMID:26898200

  14. Effect of grilling and baking on physicochemical and textural properties of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burger.

    PubMed

    Bainy, Eduarda Molardi; Bertan, Larissa Canhadas; Corazza, Marcos Lucio; Lenzi, Marcelo Kaminski

    2015-08-01

    The influence of two common cooking methods, grilling and baking, on chemical composition, water retention, fat retention, cooking yield, diameter reduction, expressible water, color and mechanical texture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burgers was investigated. Texture analyses were performed using a Warner-Bratzler test. The fish burger had a softer texture with a lower shear force than other meat products reported in the literature. There were no significant differences in proximate composition, diameter reduction, fat retention and expressible water between the grilled and oven-baked fish burgers. Cooking methods did not affect the cooking times and cooking rates. Warner-Bratzler parameters and color were significantly influenced by the cooking method. Grilling contributed to a shear force and work of shearing increase due to the lower cooking yield and water retention. Raw burgers had the highest L* (69.13 ± 0.96) and lowest b* (17.50 ± 0.75) values. Results indicated that baking yielded a product with better cooking characteristics, such as a desired softer texture with lower shear values (4.01 ± 0.54) and increased water retention (95.82 ± 0.77). Additionally, the baked fish burgers were lighter (higher L*) and less red (lower a*) than the grilled ones.

  15. Chinese Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  16. Chinese Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  17. Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation during food cooking: Implications for the interpretation of the fossil human record.

    PubMed

    Royer, Aurélien; Daux, Valérie; Fourel, François; Lécuyer, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    Stable isotope data provide insight into the reconstruction of ancient human diet. However, cooking may alter the original stable isotope compositions of food due to losses and modifications of biochemical and water components. To address this issue, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios were measured on meat aliquots sampled from various animals such as pork, beef, duck and chicken, and also from the flesh of fishes such as salmon, European seabass, European pilchard, sole, gilt-head bream, and tuna. For each specimen, three pieces were cooked according to the three most commonly-known cooking practices: boiling, frying and roasting on a barbecue. Our data show that cooking produced isotopic shifts up to 1.8‰, 3.5‰, and 5.2‰ for δ(13) C, δ(15) N, and δ(18) O values, respectively. Such variations between raw and cooked food are much greater than previously estimated in the literature; they are more sensitive to the type of food rather than to the cooking process itself, except in the case of boiling. Reconstructions of paleodietary may thus suffer slight bias in cases of populations with undiversified diets that are restrained toward a specific raw or cooked product, or using a specific cooking mode. In cases of oxygen isotope compositions from skeletal remains (bones, teeth), they not only constitute a valuable proxy for reconstructing past climatic conditions, but they could also be used to improve our knowledge of past human diet. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Dietary Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) supplementation to growing rabbits: effects on raw and cooked meat quality, nutrient true retention and oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Cullere, Marco; Sartori, Alberto; Szendrő, Zsolt; Kovàcs, Melinda; Giaccone, Valerio; Dal Bosco, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    The study evaluated the effect of Spirulina and Thyme dietary supplementation on rabbit meat quality, nutrient true retention and protection against oxidative stress. Rabbits in the control group (C-C) received a non-supplemented pellet throughout the experiment (5-11weeks of age). In the other groups, the pellet contained 5% Spirulina (S), 3% Thyme (T), or both (ST) for either the entire (groups S-S, T-T, ST-ST) or only the final part of the growing period (8-11weeks: groups C-S, C-T, C-ST). Spirulina supplementation increased the γ-linolenic acid content of rabbit meat, whereas Thyme improved the oxidative stability of raw and freeze-dried meat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Buying, Preparing, and Cooking Fish. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.13b. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with the market forms of fish, how to clean and portion them, and how to cook them. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these…

  20. The use of genetic engineering techniques to improve the lipid composition in meat, milk and fish products: a review.

    PubMed

    Świątkiewicz, S; Świątkiewicz, M; Arczewska-Włosek, A; Józefiak, D

    2015-04-01

    The health-promoting properties of dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) for humans are well-known. Products of animal-origin enriched with n-3 LCPUFAs can be a good example of functional food, that is food that besides traditionally understood nutritional value may have a beneficial influence on the metabolism and health of consumers, thus reducing the risk of various lifestyle diseases such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. The traditional method of enriching meat, milk or eggs with n-3 LCPUFA is the manipulation of the composition of animal diets. Huge progress in the development of genetic engineering techniques, for example transgenesis, has enabled the generation of many kinds of genetically modified animals. In recent years, one of the aims of animal transgenesis has been the modification of the lipid composition of meat and milk in order to improve the dietetic value of animal-origin products. This article reviews and discusses the data in the literature concerning studies where techniques of genetic engineering were used to create animal-origin products modified to contain health-promoting lipids. These studies are still at the laboratory stage, but their results have demonstrated that the transgenesis of pigs, cows, goats and fishes can be used in the future as efficient methods of production of healthy animal-origin food of high dietetic value. However, due to high costs and a low level of public acceptance, the introduction of this technology to commercial animal production and markets seems to be a distant prospect.

  1. 9 CFR 318.17 - Requirements for the production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for the production of...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO... production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. (a) Cooked beef, roast beef, and...

  2. 9 CFR 318.17 - Requirements for the production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for the production of...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO... production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products. (a) Cooked beef, roast beef, and...

  3. The influence of fish, meat and polyunsaturated fat intakes on platelet phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids in male Melbourne Chinese and Caucasian.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Zhang, H; Hsu-Hage, B H; Wahlqvist, M L; Sinclair, A J

    2001-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate (1) platelet phospholipid (PL) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition in subjects who were the Melbourne Chinese migrants, compared with those who were the Melbourne Caucasians and (2) the relationship between platelet PL PUFA and intake of fish, meat and PUFA. Cross-sectional comparison of the Melbourne Chinese and Caucasians. Free-living male subjects. Ninety-seven Melbourne Chinese migrants and 78 Melbourne Caucasians who were recruited in Melbourne. Dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The platelet PUFA was measured by gas-liquid chromatography. The Melbourne Chinese had significantly higher proportions of platelet PL 20:5n-3 (P=0.006), 22:6n-3 (P<0.0001), total n-3 (P=0.027) and 22:5n-6 (P=0.0002), and a significantly higher intake of fish (P=0.012) and white meat (P=0.0045) compared with the Melbourne Caucasians. In addition, the Melbourne Chinese had significantly lower proportions of 20:3n-6 (P=0.023), 20:4n-6 (P<0.002), 22:4n-6 (P<0.0001), total n-6 (P=0.037), 22:5n-3 (P<0.0001) and ratio of n-6/n-3 (P=0.011), and a significantly lower intake of red and total meat (P<0.0001) than the Melbourne Caucasians. Fish consumption was significantly positively correlated with platelet PL 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, and significantly negatively correlated with 22:5n-3 (P<0.05). Meat consumption was significantly positively correlated with 22:5n-3 and significantly negatively correlated with 22:5n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 (P<0.05). Dietary PUFA intake was significantly positively correlated with 20:3n-6, 22:4n-6 and 22:5n-3, and significantly negatively correlated with 22:5n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 (P<0.05). Compared with Caucasians, the Melbourne Chinese had a significantly higher level of platelet PL n-3 PUFA, which might contribute to the low CVD mortality in this population. Platelet PL 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 were significantly positively correlated with fish intake, and negatively

  4. Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans: results from the EPIC-Oxford study.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Francesca L; Steur, Marinka; Allen, Naomi E; Appleby, Paul N; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J

    2011-02-01

    Vegetarians and vegans exclude certain food sources of vitamin D from their diet, but it is not clear to what extent this affects plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). The objective was to investigate differences in vitamin D intake and plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans. A cross-sectional analysis. United Kingdom. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in 2107 white men and women (1388 meat eaters, 210 fish eaters, 420 vegetarians and eighty-nine vegans) aged 20-76 years from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford cohort. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations reflected the degree of animal product exclusion and, hence, dietary intake of vitamin D; meat eaters had the highest mean intake of vitamin D (3·1 (95 % CI 3·0, 3·2) μg/d) and mean plasma 25(OH)D concentrations (77·0 (95 % CI 75·4, 78·8) nmol/l) and vegans the lowest (0·7 (95 % CI 0·6, 0·8) μg/d and 55·8 (95 % CI 51·0, 61·0) nmol/l, respectively). The magnitude of difference in 25(OH)D concentrations between meat eaters and vegans was smaller (20 %) among those participants who had a blood sample collected during the summer months (July-September) compared with the winter months (38 %; January-March). The prevalence of low plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D (<25 nmol/l) during the winter and spring ranged from <1 % to 8 % across the diet groups. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were lower in vegetarians and vegans than in meat and fish eaters; diet is an important determinant of plasma 25(OH)D in this British population.

  5. Comparison of lipid content and Fatty Acid composition in the edible meat of wild and cultured freshwater and marine fish and shrimps from china.

    PubMed

    Li, Guipu; Sinclair, Andrew J; Li, Duo

    2011-03-09

    The lipid content and fatty acid composition in the edible meat of twenty-nine species of wild and cultured freshwater and marine fish and shrimps were investigated. Both the lipid content and fatty acid composition of the species were specified due to their unique food habits and trophic levels. Most of the marine fish demonstrated higher lipid content than the freshwater fish, whereas shrimps had the lowest lipid content. All the marine fish and shrimps had much higher total n-3 PUFA than n-6 PUFA, while most of the freshwater fish and shrimps demonstrated much lower total n-3 PUFA than n-6 PUFA. This may be the biggest difference in fatty acid composition between marine and freshwater species. The cultured freshwater fish demonstrated higher percentages of total PUFA, total n-3 PUFA, and EPA + DHA than the wild freshwater fish. Two freshwater fish, including bighead carp and silver carp, are comparable to the marine fish as sources of n-3 PUFA.

  6. Solvent microextraction-flame atomic absorption spectrometry (SME-FAAS) for determination of ultratrace amounts of cadmium in meat and fish samples.

    PubMed

    Goudarzi, Nasser

    2009-02-11

    A simple, low cost and highly sensitive method based on solvent microextraction (SME) for separation/preconcentration and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was proposed for the determination of ultratrace amounts of cadmium in meat and fish samples. The analytical procedure involved the formation of a hydrophobic complex by mixing the analyte solution with an ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) solution. In suitable conditions, the complex of cadmium-APDC entered the micro organic phase, and thus, separation of the analyte from the matrix was achieved. Under optimal chemical and instrumental conditions, a detection limit (3 sigma) of 0.8 ng L(-1) and an enrichment factor of 93 were achieved. The relative standard deviation for the method was found to be 2.2% for Cd. The interference effects of some anions and cations were also investigated. The developed method has been applied to the determination of trace Cd in meat and fish samples.

  7. Characterization of Cooking-Related Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedziela, R. F.; Blanc, L. E.

    2010-12-01

    The temperatures at which food is cooked are usually high enough to drive oils and other organic compounds out of materials which are being prepared for consumption. As these compounds move away from the hot cooking surface and into the atmosphere, they can participate in chemical reactions or condense to form particles. Given the high concentration of cooking in urban areas, cooking-related aerosols likely contribute to the overall amount of particulate matter on a local scale. Reported here are results for the mid-infrared optical characterization of aerosols formed during the cooking of several meat and vegetable samples in an inert atmosphere. The samples were heated in a novel aerosol generator that is designed to collect particles formed immediately above the cooking surface and inject them into a laminar aerosol flow cell. Preliminary results for the chemical processing of cooking-related aerosols in synthetic air will also be presented.

  8. Effect of cooking methods on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in chicken and duck breast.

    PubMed

    Liao, G Z; Wang, G Y; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2010-05-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), potent mutagens/carcinogens, are pyrolysis formed during the cooking of meat and fish. In the present study, the effects of various cooking methods, pan-frying, deep-frying, charcoal grilling and roasting on the formation of HAAs in chicken breast and duck breast were studied. The various HAAs formed during cooking were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that chicken breast cooked by charcoal grilling contained the highest content of total HAAs, as high as 112 ng/g, followed by pan-fried duck breast (53.3 ng/g), charcoal grilled duck breast (32 ng/g), pan-fried chicken breast (27.4 ng/g), deep-fried chicken breast (21.3 ng/g), deep-fried duck breast (14 ng/g), roasted duck breast (7 ng/g) and roasted chicken breast (4 ng/g). For individual HAA, the most abundant HAA was 9H-pyrido-[4,3-b]indole (Norharman), which was detected in charcoal grilled chicken breast at content as high as 32.2 ng/g, followed by 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[4,3-b] indole (Harman) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]pyridine(PhIP) at 32 and 31.1 ng/g in charcoal grilled chicken breast, respectively. The content of PhIP in pan-fried duck and chicken breast were 22 and 18.3 ng/g, respectively. Generally, the type and content of HAAs in cooked poultry meat varies with cooking method and cooking conditions.

  9. Technological, physico-chemical and sensory properties of raw and cooked meat batter incorporated with various levels of cold milled flaxseed powder.

    PubMed

    Yogesh, K; Langoo, B A; Sharma, S K; Yadav, D N

    2015-03-01

    Flaxseed has been proven for its multidimensional health benefits and can be used for development of emulsion type functional meat products. In view of this the incorporation of cold milled flaxseed powder (FSP) in meat batter at level 1-5 % was investigated. The results revealed that incorporation significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the total fluid release (TFR), fat release (FR) and water release (WR) of raw meat batter. The surface and internal color values were differed significantly (P < 0.05) among treatments at initial as well as during refrigerated storage period. Texture values especially hardness and chewiness values were found less (P < 0.05) in FSP treated samples and textural properties in FSP treated samples were not deteriorated during storage as compared to control samples. Thus incorporation of FSP had some beneficial effects on physico-chemical properties and textural properties which were also stable during storage period. However the redness values and sensory scores were observed less in FSP treated samples.

  10. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued meats...

  11. Performance, carcass traits, muscle fatty acid composition and meat sensory properties of male Mahabadi goat kids fed palm oil, soybean oil or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Najafi, M H; Zeinoaldini, S; Ganjkhanlou, M; Mohammadi, H; Hopkins, D L; Ponnampalam, E N

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the effect of palm, soybean or fish oils on the performance, muscle fatty acid composition and meat quality of goat kids. Twenty-four male Mahabadi kids (BW=19.4±1.2 kg) were divided into three groups according to liveweight and randomly allocated to one of three diets. Animals were fed ad libitum for 84 days. Different dietary fat sources had no effect on performance and/or carcass quality attributes. The soybean oil diet decreased 16:0 and 18:0 concentrations and increased 18:2 and 18:3 and the ratio of PUFA/SFA in the muscle compared with other treatments. Fish oil feeding increased 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 concentrations and decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 in the muscle. The results demonstrate that the use of fish oil is a nutritional strategy to improve the health claimable long-chain omega-3 fatty acid content and n-6/n-3 ratio in goat meat without changing the sensory properties or colour of meat.

  12. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review

    PubMed Central

    Praveen, Praveen Kumar; Debnath, Chanchal; Shekhar, Shashank; Dalai, Nirupama; Ganguly, Subha

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat. PMID:27051177

  13. Perceptual attributes of poultry and other meat products: a repertory grid application.

    PubMed

    Michel, L Martínez; Punter, P H; Wismer, W V

    2011-04-01

    Increased demand for processed poultry products through the growth of home meal replacements and ready to eat products, present an opportunity for the development of new value-added poultry products. Repertory grid interviews were conducted to generate insight into consumer driven product development of these products. Procrustes analysis revealed that healthiness, nutrition, convenience, and processing attributes were most important parameters for discriminating amongst 24 meat and meat alternatives. "White meat", "healthier", "leaner", "good source of protein", "easy to cook" and "convenient", were found to positively influence consumer preferences for unprocessed chicken products, eggs and salmon while price did not appear to be important for differentiating the products. Traditional processed fish and poultry products, such as chicken nuggets, represented undesirable composition, processing and quality concerns. Identification of consumer attributes for discriminating poultry products among other meat alternatives can guide the development of competitive value-added poultry products.

  14. Optimizing proteolytic digestion conditions for the analysis of serum albumin adducts of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, a potential human carcinogen formed in cooked meat.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lijuan; Turesky, Robert J

    2014-05-30

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are carcinogens formed during the cooking of meats or arise in tobacco smoke. The genotoxic N-oxidized metabolites of HAAs bind to Cys residues of proteins to form arylsulfinamide adducts. However, these adducts are unstable and undergo hydrolysis during enzymatic digestion, and thus have been precluded as biomarkers of exposure to HAAs. Arylsulfinamide adducts of HAAs can undergo oxidation to form stable arylsulfonamide linkages, which are chemically stable and amenable for analysis. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogen present in cooked meat. We established a quantitative MS-based method to measure the sulfinamide adduct of PhIP formed at the cysteine(34) (Cys(34)) residue of human serum albumin (SA), following chemical oxidation of PhIP-modified SA with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid. Different enzyme systems (trypsin; chymotrypsin; trypsin/chymotrypsin; proteinase K; pronase E; and pronase E/leucine aminopeptidase/prolidase) were evaluated for their proficiency of digestion of SA modified with PhIP. The strongest signal was observed for the L(31)QQC*PFEDHVK(41) peptide, by ultraperformance liquid chromatography and ion trap MS. A limit of quantification value was 0.3fmol of LQQC*PFEDHVK per μg SA, or 2.5 adducts per 10(5) SA molecules, when assaying 0.75μg of SA. This article describes a mass spectrometric based method to characterize and measure human serum albumin (SA) adducts of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meats and tobacco smoke. PhIP undergoes metabolic activation to form reactive N-oxidized intermediates that bind to DNA and proteins. N-oxidized PhIP metabolites bind to the Cys(34) residue of SA to form a sulfinamide linkage. However, the linkage undergoes hydrolysis during proteolysis, precluding the employment of this adduct as a biomarker in human studies. We have shown that the sulfinamide linkage

  15. Optimizing proteolytic digestion conditions for the analysis of serum albumin adducts of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, a potential human carcinogen formed in cooked meat

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lijuan; Turesky, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are carcinogens formed during the cooking of meats or arise in tobacco smoke. The genotoxic N-oxidized metabolites of HAAs bind to Cys residues of proteins to form arylsulfinamide adducts. However, these adducts are unstable and undergo hydrolysis during enzymatic digestion, and thus have been precluded as biomarkers of exposure to HAAs. Arylsulfinamide adducts of HAAs can undergo oxidation to form stable arylsulfonamide linkages, which are chemically stable and amenable for analysis. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogen present in cooked meat. We established a quantitative MS-based method to measure the sulfinamide adduct of PhIP formed at the cysteine34 (Cys34) residue of human serum albumin (SA), following chemical oxidation of PhIP-modified SA with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid. Different enzyme systems (trypsin; chymotrypsin; trypsin/chymotrypsin; proteinase K; pronase E; and pronase E/leucine aminopeptidase/prolidase) were evaluated for their proficiency of digestion of SA modified with PhIP. The strongest signal was observed for the L31QQC*PFEDHVK41 peptide, by ultraperformance liquid chromatography and ion trap MS. A limit of quantification value was 0.3 fmol of LQQC*PFEDHVK per μg SA, or 2.5 adducts per 105 SA molecules, when assaying 0.75 μg of SA. Biological significance This article describes a mass spectrometric based method to characterize and measure human serum albumin (SA) adducts of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meats and tobacco smoke. PhIP undergoes metabolic activation to form reactive N-oxidized intermediates that bind to DNA and proteins. N-oxidized PhIP metabolites bind to the Cys34 residue of SA to form a sulfinamide linkage. However, the linkage undergoes hydrolysis during proteolysis, precluding the employment of this adduct as a biomarker in human studies. We have shown that the

  16. Plant essential oils and allied volatile fractions as multifunctional additives in meat and fish-based food products: a review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils are concentrated aromatic volatile compounds derived from botanicals by distillation or mechanical pressing. They play multiple, crucial roles as antioxidants, food pathogen inhibitors, shelf-life enhancers, texture promoters, organoleptic agents and toxicity-reducing agents. For their versatility, they appear promising as food preservatives. Several research findings in recent times have validated their potential as functional ingredients in meat and fish processing. Among the assortment of bioactive compounds in the essential oils, p-cymene, thymol, eugenol, carvacrol, isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, linalool, 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, α-terpineol, γ-terpinene, citral and methyl chavicol are most familiar. These terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and phenolics (alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones) have been extracted from culinary herbs such as oregano, rosemary, basil, coriander, cumin, cinnamon, mint, sage and lavender as well as from trees such as myrtle, fir and eucalyptus. This review presents essential oils as alternatives to conventional chemical additives. Their synergistic actions with modified air packaging, irradiation, edible films, bacteriocins and plant byproducts are discussed. The decisive roles of metabolic engineering, microwave technology and metabolomics in quality and quantity augmentation of essential oil are briefly mooted. The limitations encountered and strategies to overcome them have been illuminated to pave way for their enhanced popularisation. The literature has been mined from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Pubchem, Scopus and SciFinder.

  17. Dietary phosphorus restriction in dialysis patients: potential impact of processed meat, poultry, and fish products as protein sources.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Richard A; Mehta, Ojas

    2009-07-01

    Dietary intake of phosphorus is derived largely from protein sources and is a critical determinant of phosphorus balance in patients with chronic kidney disease. Information about the phosphorus content of prepared foods generally is unavailable, but it is believed to contribute significantly to the phosphorus burden of patients with chronic kidney disease. Analysis of dietary components. We measured the phosphorus content of 44 food products, including 30 refrigerated or frozen precooked meat, poultry, and fish items, generally national brands. Measured and reported phosphorus content of foods. Phosphorus by using Association of Analytical Communities official method 984.27; protein by using Association of Analytical Communities official method 990.03. We found that the ratio of phosphorus to protein content in these items ranged from 6.1 to 21.5 mg of phosphorus per 1 g of protein. The mean ratio in the 19 food products with a label listing phosphorus as an additive was 14.6 mg/g compared with 9.0 mg/g in the 11 items without listed phosphorus. The phosphorus content of only 1 precooked food product was available in a widely used dietary database. Results cannot be extrapolated to other products. Manufacturers also may alter the phosphorus content of foods at any time. Protein content was not directly measured for all foods. Better reporting of phosphorus content of foods by manufacturers could result in improved dietary phosphorus control without risk of protein malnutrition.

  18. Could Grilled, Smoked Meats Lower Survival After Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Could Grilled, Smoked Meats Lower Survival After Breast Cancer? Study can't prove cause and effect, but ... and smoked meats could increase the risk of breast cancer. Now, a new study finds these cooking methods ...

  19. Anti-rancidity effect of essential oils, application in the lipid stability of cooked turkey meat patties and potential implications for health.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Francesco; Duthie, Garry

    2015-02-01

    Twenty-three commercial essential oils were tested for their anti-rancidity effect and potential implications to prolong the induction time of corn oil and extend the shelf life of cooked turkey patties. Moreover, the potential health benefit was investigated through DPPH, ABTS, β-carotene bleaching, FRAP, and α-amylase inhibitory assays. Essential oils' composition was investigated by GC-MS. Cumin, thyme, clove, and cinnamon oils improved oxidative stability and increased the induction time of the corn oil 1.5-3 fold. Clove and cinnamon oils were particularly effective in delaying lipid oxidation of cooked turkey patties (time of induction 11.04 and 9.43 h) compared with the plain burger (5.04 h). Both oils are also characterized by a potent radical scavenging activity in ABTS test (IC(50) values of 1.43 and 2.05 μg/ml for cinnamon and clove, respectively). In the α-amylase inhibitory assay, cumin and grape fruits were the most potent with IC(50) values of 21.88 and 23.95 μg/ml, respectively.

  20. Arsenic concentration in rice, fish, meat and vegetables in Cambodia: a preliminary risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Sheng; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Man, Yu-Bon; Du, Jun; Xing, Guang-Hua; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2013-12-01

    To assess arsenic contaminations and its possible adverse health effects, food samples were collected from Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham in Cambodia. The highest and the lowest concentrations were observed in fish (mean 2,832 ng g(-1), ww) collected from Kandal province and cattle stomach (1.86 ± 1.10 ng g(-1), ww) collected from Kratie, respectively. The daily intake of arsenic via food consumption was 604, 9.70 and 136 μg day(-1) in Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham, respectively. The arsenic dietary intake in Kandal ranked No. 1 among all the 17 compared countries or regions. Fish consumption contributed the greatest proportion of total arsenic daily intake in Kandal (about 63.0 %) and Kampong Cham (about 69.8 %). It is revealed to be a much more important exposure pathway than drinking water for residents in Kampong Cham. The results of risk assessment suggested that the residents in Cambodia, particularly for people in Kandal province, suffer high public health risks due to consuming arsenic-contaminated food.

  1. Let's Cook!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Diane

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author reports on a project which is teaching young parents, most of them from disadvantaged backgrounds, the skills they need to shop and cook healthily on a tight budget. In 2006, the Food Standards Agency (FSA) commissioned the National Federation of Women's Institutes (NFWI) to run "Let's Cook!", a three-year…

  2. Solar cooking

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over two billion people face fuel wood shortages, causing tremendous personal and environmental stress. Over 4 million people die prematurely from indoor air pollution. Solar cooking can reduce fuel wood consumption and indoor air pollution. Solar cooking has been practiced and published since th...

  3. Let's Cook!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Diane

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author reports on a project which is teaching young parents, most of them from disadvantaged backgrounds, the skills they need to shop and cook healthily on a tight budget. In 2006, the Food Standards Agency (FSA) commissioned the National Federation of Women's Institutes (NFWI) to run "Let's Cook!", a three-year…

  4. Effect of dietary fat sources and zinc and selenium supplements on the composition and consumer acceptability of chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Bou, R; Guardiola, F; Barroeta, A C; Codony, R

    2005-07-01

    A factorial design was used to study the effect of changes in broiler feed on the composition and consumer acceptability of chicken meat. One week before slaughter, 1.25% dietary fish oil was removed from the feed and replaced by other fat sources (animal fat or linseed oil) or we continued with fish oil, and diets were supplemented with Zn (0, 300, or 600 mg/kg), and Se (0 or 1.2 mg/kg as sodium selenite or 0.2 mg/kg as Se-enriched yeast). The changes in dietary fat led to distinct fatty acid compositions of mixed raw dark and white chicken meat with skin. The fish oil diet produced meat with the highest eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) content, whereas the linseed oil diet led to meat with the highest content in total n-3 polyunsaturated acids (PUFA), especially linolenic acid. However, meat from animals on the animal fat diet was still rich in very long-chain n-3 PUFA. Se content was affected by Se and Zn supplements. Se content increased with Zn supplementation. However, only Se from the organic source led to a significant increase in this mineral in meat compared with the control. Consumer acceptability scores and TBA values of cooked dark chicken meat after 74 d or after 18 mo of frozen storage were not affected by any of the dietary factors studied.

  5. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, K E; Crowe, F L; Appleby, P N; Schmidt, J A; Travis, R C; Key, T J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe serum lipid concentrations, including apolipoproteins A-I and B, in different diet groups. A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 424 meat-eaters, 425 fish-eaters, 423 vegetarians and 422 vegans, matched on sex and age, from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford cohort. Serum concentrations of total, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, as well as apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured, and serum non-HDL cholesterol was calculated. Vegans had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and the highest and lowest intakes of polyunsaturated and saturated fat, respectively. After adjustment for age, alcohol and physical activity, compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians, serum concentrations of total and non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were significantly lower in vegans. Serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations did not differ between the diet groups. In males, the mean serum total cholesterol concentration was 0.87 mmol/l lower in vegans than in meat-eaters; after further adjustment for BMI this difference was 0.76 mmol/l. In females, the difference in total cholesterol between these two groups was 0.6 mmol/l, and after further adjustment for BMI was 0.55 mmol/l. [corrected]. In this study, which included a large number of vegans, serum total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations were lower in vegans compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians. A small proportion of the observed differences in serum lipid concentrations was explained by differences in BMI, but a large proportion is most likely due to diet.

  6. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1 694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Kathryn E; Crowe, Francesca L; Appleby, Paul N; Schmidt, Julie A; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to describe serum lipid concentrations, including apolipoproteins A-I and B, in different diet groups. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 424 meat-eaters, 425 fish-eaters, 423 vegetarians, and 422 vegans, matched on sex and age, from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford cohort. Serum concentrations of total, and HDL cholesterol, as well as apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured, and serum non-HDL cholesterol was calculated. RESULTS Vegans had the lowest BMI, and the highest and lowest intakes of polyunsaturated and saturated fat, respectively. After adjustment for age, alcohol and physical activity, compared to meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians, serum concentrations of total and non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B were significantly lower in vegans. Serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations did not differ between the diet groups. In males, the mean serum total cholesterol concentration was 0.87 nmol/L lower in vegans than in meat-eaters; after further adjustment for BMI this difference was 0.76 nmol/L. In females, the difference in total cholesterol between these two groups was 0.60 nmol/L, and after further adjustment for BMI was 0.55 nmol/L. CONCLUSIONS In this study, which included a large number of vegans, serum total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations were lower in vegans compared to meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians. A small proportion of the observed differences in serum lipid concentrations was explained by differences in BMI, but a large proportion is most likely due to diet. PMID:24346473

  7. Application of quantitative microbial risk assessments for estimation of risk management metrics: Clostridium perfringens in ready-to-eat and partially cooked meat and poultry products as an example.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Edmund A; Labarre, David; Golden, Neal J; Kause, Janell R; Dearfield, Kerry L

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service is exploring quantitative risk assessment methodologies to incorporate the use of the Codex Alimentarius' newly adopted risk management metrics (e.g., food safety objectives and performance objectives). It is suggested that use of these metrics would more closely tie the results of quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRAs) to public health outcomes. By estimating the food safety objective (the maximum frequency and/or concentration of a hazard in a food at the time of consumption) and the performance objective (the maximum frequency and/or concentration of a hazard in a food at a specified step in the food chain before the time of consumption), risk managers will have a better understanding of the appropriate level of protection (ALOP) from microbial hazards for public health protection. We here demonstrate a general methodology that allows identification of an ALOP and evaluation of corresponding metrics at appropriate points in the food chain. It requires a two-dimensional probabilistic risk assessment, the example used being the Monte Carlo QMRA for Clostridium perfringens in ready-to eat and partially cooked meat and poultry products, with minor modifications to evaluate and abstract required measures. For demonstration purposes, the QMRA model was applied specifically to hot dogs produced and consumed in the United States. Evaluation of the cumulative uncertainty distribution for illness rate allows a specification of an ALOP that, with defined confidence, corresponds to current industry practices.

  8. Concentration of biologically active polyamines in meat and liver of sheep and lambs after slaughter and their changes in mutton during storage and cooking.

    PubMed

    Dadáková, Eva; Pelikánová, Tamara; Kalač, Pavel

    2011-02-01

    Putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD) and spermine (SPM) concentrations using a UPLC method, in chilled mutton, lamb and livers 24 h after slaughter were determined. PUT concentrations were quantifiable only in some samples. Mean SPD concentrations were 4-6, 13.5 and 16.8 mg kg-1 in the meats, sheep and lamb livers, respectively. The respective SPM concentrations were 17-25, 128 and 79 mg kg-1. SPD and SPM losses of about one fifth and half of the initial level, respectively, were apparent in mutton loins stored at -18°C for 6 months. Significant losses of SPD and SPM were found in mutton loins stored aerobically, vacuum-packaged or in a modified atmosphere at +2°C. Boiling and stewing of mutton legs caused SPD and SPM losses of about 40% and roasting of about 60% of the initial content.

  9. Formation of Malondialdehyde, 4-Hydroxynonenal, and 4-Hydroxyhexenal during in Vitro Digestion of Cooked Beef, Pork, Chicken, and Salmon.

    PubMed

    Steppeler, Christina; Haugen, John-Erik; Rødbotten, Rune; Kirkhus, Bente

    2016-01-20

    Red meat high in heme iron may promote the formation of potentially genotoxic aldehydes during lipid peroxidation in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) equivalents measured by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method was determined during in vitro digestion of cooked red meat (beef and pork), as well as white meat (chicken) and fish (salmon), whereas analysis of 4-hydroxyhexenal (HHE) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) was performed during in vitro digestion of cooked beef and salmon. Comparing products with similar fat contents indicated that the amount of unsaturated fat and not total iron content was the dominating factor influencing the formation of aldehydes. It was also shown that increasing fat content in beef products caused increasing concentrations of MDA equivalents. The highest levels, however, were found in minced beef with added fish oil high in unsaturated fat. This study indicates that when ingested alone, red meat products low in unsaturated fat and low in total fat content contribute to relatively low levels of potentially genotoxic aldehydes in the gastrointestinal tract.

  10. The effect of the change from a herbage- to a concentrate-based diet on the oxidative stability of raw and cooked lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Luciano, G; Biondi, L; Scerra, M; Serra, A; Mele, M; Lanza, M; Priolo, A

    2013-10-01

    Over 89 days, 10 lambs (S) were fed concentrates and hay in stall, while 9 lambs (P) grazed at pasture. Two groups of 9 animals grazed at pasture until switching to a concentrate-based diet for 14 or 37 days before slaughter (P-S14 and P-S37). The fat content of longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) increased with increasing duration of concentrate feeding (P=0.05). As a consequence, the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and of the highly peroxidisable (HP) PUFA in the polar lipids was similar between treatments. Lipid oxidation in fresh LM over 8 days of storage was affected by the diet (P<0.0005) with the P-S37 and P treatments producing, respectively, the highest and the lowest TBARS values. The P treatment reduced TBARS in cooked minced LM over 2 days of storage and no difference was found between the P-S14, P-S37 and S treatments. Colour stability of fresh LM was not noticeably affected by the dietary treatment.

  11. Polyunsaturated fat and fish oil in diets for growing-finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and meat, fat, and sausage quality.

    PubMed

    Bryhni, E A; Kjos, N P; Ofstad, R; Hunt, M

    2002-09-01

    Forty-eight crossbred growing-finishing pigs were used to study the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 31%= low and 50%= high) and fish oil (0, 0.2, and 0.4% capelin) diets on fatty acid composition, chemical traits, and sensory properties of the longissimus muscle, fat, and sausages. High levels of PUFA, independent of the level of fish oil, increased oxidation and rancidity for whole muscle (stored at 1 and 8 months at -23 °C) and sausages (TBARS 0.6-1.3). Fish oil at 0.4% in the diet increased TBA values of loin, but did not affect sensory evaluation scores. An interaction between PUFA and fish oil occurred for TBARS values and rancid odour in sausage, where the 0.4% fish oil and high PUFA level showed highest oxidation (TBARS 1.9). Although fish oil and high PUFA levels might contribute to a more healthy meat, their undesirable affects on palatability would limit their use.

  12. A study on the meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal as protein substitutes of fish meal in practical diets for Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Baigang; Wang, Fuzhen; Yu, Yu

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) as the replacement of fish meal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of Litopenaeus vannamei. The basal diets were formulated with 22% fish meal and other ingredients which provided about 40% protein and 9% lipid in the diet. The experimental diets included MBM or PBM to replace 0, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of total fish meal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric in gross terms. The results showed that there were no significant differences (Pτ;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 60% fish meal had been replaced with MBM, while the percent weight gain (WG, %), body length gain (BLG, %) and ADC significantly decreased when the MBM was up to 80% of the fish meal. There were no significant differences (Pτ;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among all the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 80% fish meal had been replaced with PBM.

  13. Effect of thawing methods on cook yield of frozen broiler breast fillets deboned at different postmortem times

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The influence of thawing conditions on weight loss or cook yield of frozen red meat has been intensively studied and results varied with meat types. There is a lack of information about the effect of thawing methods on cook yield of frozen white meat. The objective of the present study was to invest...

  14. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Naveen, Z; Naik, B R; Subramanyam, B V; Reddy, P M

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C). Duck meat sausages were prepared by utilizing raw and partially cooked duck meat with addition of soy flour at 10% level as a binder. Different quality characteristics like physical and chemical characteristics, proximate composition, and organoleptic characteristics were evaluated. Cooking loss of partially cooked meat sausages was lower than raw duck meat sausages, whereas emulsion stability and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of raw duck meat sausages were lesser than partially cooked meat sausages. Cooking loss and emulsion stability decreased in both types of meat sausages, while, 2-TBA values increased as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent moisture content of raw duck meat sausages was higher than partially cooked meat sausages, which decreased in both types of meat sausages as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent crude protein (CP) and percent ether extract (EE) content of partially cooked duck meat sausages were higher than raw duck meat sausages. Regardless of type of meat used, refrigerated storage of sausages increased CP and EE up to 10th day but decreased upon further storage up to 14th day. Organoleptic scores for raw duck meat sausages were higher than partially cooked duck meat sausages and all the scores decreased with an increase in the storage period. However the scores were within the acceptable limits. The findings prove that, duck meat can be effectively acclaimed as an alternative avenue to meet the escalating

  15. PCDD/F and DL-PCB levels in meat from broilers and rabbits fed with fish-oil enriched feeds.

    PubMed

    Abalos, Manuela; Parera, Jordi; Rivera, Josep; Abad, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect on the final levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in meat when fats, in particular fish oils, are included as ingredients in feeds. Two types of animals (broilers and rabbits) were fed with three different experimental feeds containing varying amounts of two selected fish oils. PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were determined in the fish oils, the feeds and in the animals' meat. For broilers, PCDD/F and DL-PCB profiles in meat samples were similar to those found in the corresponding feeds, even though bioaccumulation of the highest chlorinated PCDD/F congeners seemed to decrease. Depending on the treatment, PCDD/F and the sum of PCDD/F and DL-PCB levels were 1.11-4.60 and 6.03-16.71 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat, respectively. For most of the cases, these values exceeded the maximum established by the Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006. In contrast, the levels of these contaminants in the corresponding feeds ranged from 0.11 to 0.54 pg WHO-TEQ/g, in the case of PCDD/Fs, and from 0.59 to 1.75 pg WHO-TEQ/g, when DL-PCBs were also included. These levels were, in general, below the maximum allowed by the Commission Directive 2006/13/EC. The results of the experiments with rabbits were not as conclusive as those for broilers although bioaccumulation appeared to be slower.

  16. Past, present, and future of mutagens in cooked foods.

    PubMed Central

    Sugimura, T

    1986-01-01

    Mutation assay with Salmonella typhimurium enabled us to detect various types of mutagens in cooked foods. A series of mutagenic heterocyclic amines has been isolated and identified in broiled fish and meat and in pyrolyzates of amino acids and proteins. Feeding experiments showed these mutagens to be carcinogenic in mice and rats. The mechanism of formation and pathway of metabolic activation of these heterocyclic amines have been elucidated. Their contents in various cooked foods have been determined. The presence of mutagenic nitropyrenes (some of which were confirmed as carcinogens) in grilled chicken was also established. Roasted coffee beans also yield mutagens such as methylglyoxal. The formation of mutagen precursors, including beta-carboline derivatives and tyramine which become mutagens with nitrite treatment, was found during food processing. Oncogene activation in animal tumors induced by some of these food mutagens/carcinogens has been confirmed. The role of mutagens/carcinogens in cooked foods in human cancer development has not yet been exactly evaluated. In order to do this, more information on their carcinogenic potency, human intake, metabolism in the human body, and the effects of combined administration with other initiators, promoters and other modifying factors in food is required. PMID:3530738

  17. Effect of ohmic treatment on quality characteristic of meat: a review.

    PubMed

    Yildiz-Turp, G; Sengun, I Y; Kendirci, P; Icier, F

    2013-03-01

    Ohmic cooking, a well-known electro-heating technique, provides an alternative method for cooking meat products due to its ability for rapid heat generation. Ohmic heating uses the resistance of meat products to convert the electric energy into heat. The rate of heat generation depends on the voltage gradient applied and the electrical conductivity of the meat product. The advantages of ohmic cooking over conventional heating include shorter processing times, higher yields, and less power consumption while still maintaining the colour and nutritional value of meat products. In recent years, ohmic cooking has increasingly drawn interest from the meat industry as a method to ensure the quality and the safety of meat products. The present paper reviews the effects of ohmic cooking on the physical, chemical, sensory, and microbiological quality characteristics and toxicological properties of meat and meat products.

  18. Comparison of cook loss, shear force, and sensory descriptive profiles of broiler breast fillets cooked from a frozen state and cooked after freeze/thaw

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four replications were conducted to compare quality measurements, cook loss, shear force, and sensory quality profiles of cooked broiler breast meat (pectoralis major) prepared directly from a frozen state and prepared after freeze/thaw. In each replication, fresh broiler fillets (removed from carca...

  19. Evaluation of Escherichia coli biotype 1 as a surrogate for Escherichia coli O157:H7 for cooking, fermentation, freezing, and refrigerated storage in meat processes.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Carisa; Niebuhr, Steven E; Acuff, Gary R; Dickson, James S

    2009-04-01

    Five Escherichia coli biotype I isolates were compared with E. coli O157:H7 under four common meat processing conditions. The processes that were evaluated were freezing, refrigerating, fermentation, and thermal inactivation. For each study, at least one surrogate organism was not statistically different when compared with E. coli O157:H7. However, the four studies did not consistently show the same isolate as having this agreement. The three studies that involved temperature as a method of controlling or reducing the E. coli population all had at least one possible surrogate in common. In the fermentation study, only one isolate (BAA-1429) showed no statistical difference when compared with E. coli O157:H7. However, the population reductions that were observed indicated the isolates BAA-1427 and BAA-1431 would overestimate the surviving E. coli O157:H7 population in a fermented summer sausage. When all of the data from all of the surrogates were examined, it was found that isolates BAA-1427, BAA-1429, and BAA-1430 would be good surrogates for all four of the processes that were examined in this study. There was no statistical difference noted between these three isolates and E. coli O157:H7 in the refrigeration study. These isolates resulted in smaller population reductions than did E. coli O157:H7 in the frozen, fermentation, and thermal inactivation studies. This would indicate that these isolates would overpredict the E. coli O157:H7 population in these three instances. This overprediction results in an additional margin of safety when using E. coli biotype 1 as a surrogate.

  20. Peptides reproducibly released by in vivo digestion of beef meat and trout flesh in pigs.

    PubMed

    Bauchart, Caroline; Morzel, Martine; Chambon, Christophe; Mirand, Philippe Patureau; Reynès, Christelle; Buffière, Caroline; Rémond, Didier

    2007-12-01

    Characterisation and identification of peptides (800 to 5000 Da) generated by intestinal digestion of fish or meat were performed using MS analyses (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight and nano-liquid chromatography electrospray-ionisation ion trap MS/MS). Four pigs fitted with cannulas at the duodenum and jejunum received a meal exclusively made of cooked Pectoralis profundus beef meat or cooked trout fillets. A protein-free meal, made of free amino acids, starch and fat, was used to identify peptides of endogenous origin. Peptides reproducibly detected in digesta (i.e. from at least three pigs) were evidenced predominantly in the first 3 h after the meal. In the duodenum, most of the fish- and meat-derived peptides were characteristic of a peptic digestion. In the jejunum, the majority of peptides appeared to result from digestion by chymotrypsin and trypsin. Despite slight differences in gastric emptying kinetics and overall peptide production, possibly in relation to food structure and texture, six and four similar peptides were released after ingestion of fish or meat in the duodenum and jejunum. A total of twenty-six different peptides were identified in digesta. All were fragments of major structural (actin, myosin) or sarcoplasmic (creatine kinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and myoglobin) muscle proteins. Peptides were short ( < 2000 Da) and particularly rich in proline residues. Nineteen of them contained bioactive sequences corresponding mainly to an antihypertensive activity. The present work showed that after fish or meat ingestion, among the wide variety of peptides produced by enzymic digestion, some of them can be reproducibly observed in intestinal digesta.

  1. Meat consumption and risk of lung cancer: evidence from observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, W. S.; Wong, M. Y.; Vogtmann, E.; Tang, R. Q.; Xie, L.; Yang, Y. S.; Wu, Q. J.; Zhang, W.; Xiang, Y. B.

    2012-01-01

    Background A number of epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent findings on the association between meat consumption and lung cancer. Design We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between meat consumption and lung cancer risk in epidemiological studies. Results Twenty-three case–control and 11 cohort studies were included. All studies adjusted for smoking or conducted in never smokers. The summary relative risks (RRs) of lung cancer for the highest versus lowest intake categories were 1.35 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–1.69) for total meat, 1.34 (95% CI 1.18–1.52) for red meat, and 1.06 (95% CI 0.90–1.25) for processed meat. An inverse association was found between poultry intake and lung cancer (RR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.85–0.97), but not for total white meat (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.82–1.37) or fish (RR = 1.01, 95% CI 0.96–1.07). Conclusions The relationship between meat intake and lung cancer risk appears to depend on the types of meat consumed. A high intake of red meat may increase the risk of lung cancer by about 35%, while a high intake of poultry decreases the risk by about 10%. More well-designed cohort studies on meat mutagens or heme iron, meat cooking preferences, and doneness level are needed to fully characterize this meat–lung cancer association. PMID:22855553

  2. Changes in Moisture, Protein, and Fat Content of Fish and Rice Flour Coextrudates during Single-Screw Extrusion Cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Sukumar Bandyopadhyay; A. S. Bawa

    2013-02-01

    Changes in proximate composition of fish and rice flour coextrudates like moisture, protein, and fat content were studied with respect to extrusion process v ariables like barrel temperature, x1 (100–200 degrees C); screw speed, x2 (70–110 rpm); fish content of the feed, x3 (5–45 percent); and feed moisture content, x4 (20–60 percent). Experiments were conducted at five levels of the process variables based on rotatable experimental design. Response surface models (RSM) were developed that adequately described the changes in moisture, protein, and fat content of the extrudates based on the coeff icient of determination (R2) values of 0.95, 0.99, and 0.94. ANOVA analysis indicated that extrudate moisture content was influenced by x4, protein content by x1 and x3, and fat content by x3 and x4 at P < 0.001. Trends based on response surf ace plots indicated that the x1 of about 200 degrees C, x2 of about 90 rpm, x3 of about 25%, and x4 of about 20% minimized the moisture in the extrudates. Protein content was maximized at x1 of 100 degrees C, x2 > 80 rpm, x3 of about 45 percent, and x4 > 50 percent, and fat content was minimized at x1 of about 200 degrees C, x2 of about 85–95 rpm, x3 < 15 percent, and x4 of about >50 percent. Optimized process variables based on a genetic algorithm (GA) for minimum moisture and fat content and maximum protein content were x1 = 199.86, x2 = 109.86, x3 = 32.45, x4 = 20.03; x1 = 199.71, x2 = 90.09, x3 = 15.27, x4 = 58.47; and x1 = 102.97, x2 = 107.67, x3 = 44.56, x4 = 59.54. The predicted values were 17.52 percent, 0.57 percent, and 46.65 percent. Based on the RSM and GA analy sis, extrudate moisture and protein content was influenced by x1, x3, and x4 and fat content by x2, x3, and x4.

  3. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the control. When the concentration of pork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p<0.05) hardness and gumminess. The hardness and gumminess of frankfurters in other treatments were not significantly different (p>0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  4. A Method to Biomonitor the Cooked Meat Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in Dyed Hair by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Orbitrap High Resolution Multistage Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jingshu; Yonemori, Kim; Le Marchand, Loïc; Turesky, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meat. The use of naturally colored hair containing PhIP can serve as a long-term biomarker of exposure to this carcinogen. However, the measurement of PhIP in dyed hair, a cosmetic treatment commonly used by the adult population, is challenging because the dye process introduces a complex mixture of chemicals into the hair matrix, which interfere with the measurement of PhIP. The high-resolution scanning features of the Orbitrap Fusion™ mass spectrometer were employed to biomonitor PhIP in dyed hair. Because of the complexity of chemicals in the hair dye, the consecutive reaction monitoring of PhIP at the MS3 scan stage was employed to selectively remove the isobaric interferences. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of PhIP was 84 parts-per-trillion (ppt) employing 50 mg hair. Calibration curves were generated in dyed hair matrices and showed good linearity (40 to 1000 pg PhIP/g hair) with a goodness-of-fit regression value r2 > 0.9978. The within-day (between-day) coefficients of variation were 7.7% (17%) and 5.4% (6.1%), respectively, with dyed hair samples spiked with PhIP at 200 and 600 ppt. The levels of PhIP accrued in dyed hair from volunteers on a semi-controlled feeding study who ingested known levels of PhIP were comparable to the levels of PhIP accrued in hair of subjects with natural hair color. The method was successfully employed to measure PhIP in non-dyed and dyed hair biospecimens of participants in a case-control study of colorectal adenoma on their regular diet. PMID:25969997

  5. Method to Biomonitor the Cooked Meat Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in Dyed Hair by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Orbitrap High Resolution Multistage Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingshu; Yonemori, Kim; Le Marchand, Loïc; Turesky, Robert J

    2015-06-16

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meat. The use of naturally colored hair containing PhIP can serve as a long-term biomarker of exposure to this carcinogen. However, the measurement of PhIP in dyed hair, a cosmetic treatment commonly used by the adult population, is challenging because the dye process introduces into the hair matrix a complex mixture of chemicals that interferes with the measurement of PhIP. The high-resolution scanning features of the Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer were employed to biomonitor PhIP in dyed hair. Because of the complexity of chemicals in the hair dye, the consecutive reaction monitoring of PhIP at the MS(3) scan stage was employed to selectively remove the isobaric interferences. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of PhIP was 84 parts-per-trillion (ppt) employing 50 mg of hair. Calibration curves were generated in dyed hair matrixes and showed good linearity (40-1000 pg PhIP/g hair) with a goodness-of-fit regression value of r(2) > 0.9978. The within-day (between-day) coefficients of variation were 7.7% (17%) and 5.4% (6.1%), respectively, with dyed hair samples spiked with PhIP at 200 and 600 ppt. The levels of PhIP accrued in dyed hair from volunteers on a semicontrolled feeding study who ingested known levels of PhIP were comparable to the levels of PhIP accrued in hair of subjects with natural hair color. The method was successfully employed to measure PhIP in nondyed and dyed hair biospecimens of participants in a case-control study of colorectal adenoma on their regular diet.

  6. Meat flavor precursors and factors influencing flavor precursors--A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Issa; Jo, Cheorun; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-12-01

    Flavor is the sensory impression sensed by taste and smell buds and is a leading factor determining the meat quality and purchasing decision of the consumer. Meat flavor is characteristic of volatiles produced as a result of reactions of non-volatile components that are induced thermally. The water soluble compounds having low molecular weight and meat lipids are important precursors of cooked meat flavor. The Maillard reaction, lipid oxidation, and vitamin degradation are leading reactions during cooking which develop meat flavor from uncooked meat with little aroma and bloody taste. The pre-slaughter and postmortem factors like animal breed, sex, age, feed, aging and cooking conditions contribute to flavor development of cooked meat. The objective of this review is to highlight the flavor chemistry, meat flavor precursors and factors affecting meat flavor precursors.

  7. Vacuum cooling of meat products: current state-of-the-art research advances.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chaohui; Drummond, Liana; Zhang, Zhihang; Sun, Da-Wen; Wang, Qijun

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum cooling (VC) is commonly applied for cooling of several foodstuffs, to provide exceptionally rapid cooling rates with low energy consumption and resulting in high-quality food products. However, for products such as meat and cooked meat products, the higher cooling loss of vacuum cooling compared with established methods still means lower yields, and important meat quality parameters can be negatively affected. Substantial efforts during the past ten years have aimed to improve the technology in order to offer the meat industry, especially the cooked meat industry, optimized production in terms of safety regulations and guidelines, as well as meat quality. This review presents and discusses recent VC developments directed to the cooked meat industry. The principles of VC, and the basis for improvements of this technology, are firstly discussed; future prospects for research and development in this area are later explored, particularly in relation to cooling of cooked meat and meat products.

  8. In the elderly, meat protein assimilation from rare meat is lower than that from meat that is well done.

    PubMed

    Buffière, Caroline; Gaudichon, Claire; Hafnaoui, Noureddine; Migné, Carole; Scislowsky, Valérie; Khodorova, Nadezda; Mosoni, Laurent; Blot, Adeline; Boirie, Yves; Dardevet, Dominique; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Rémond, Didier

    2017-09-13

    Background: Meat cooking conditions in in vitro and in vivo models have been shown to influence the rate of protein digestion, which is known to affect postprandial protein metabolism in the elderly.Objectives: The present study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of cooking conditions on meat protein assimilation in the elderly. We used a single-meal protocol to assess the meat protein absorption rate and estimate postprandial meat protein utilization in elderly subjects.Design: The study recruited 10 elderly volunteers aged 70-82 y. Each received, on 2 separate occasions, a test meal exclusively composed of intrinsically (15)N-labeled bovine meat (30 g protein), cooked at 55°C for 5 min [rare meat (RM)] or at 90°C for 30 min [fully cooked meat (FCM)], and minced. Whole-body fluxes of leucine, before and after the meal, were determined with the use of a [1-(13)C]leucine intravenous infusion. Meat protein absorption was recorded with the use of (15)N enrichment of amino acids.Results: Postprandial time course observations showed a lower concentration in the plasma of indispensable amino acids (P < 0.01), a lower entry rate of meat leucine in the plasma (P < 0.01), and a lower contribution of meat nitrogen to plasma amino acid nitrogen (P < 0.001), evidencing lower peripheral bioavailability of meat amino acids with RM than with FCM. This was associated with decreased postprandial whole-body protein synthesis with RM than with FCM (40% compared with 56% of leucine intake, respectively; P < 0.01).Conclusions: Whereas meat cooking conditions have little effect on postprandial protein utilization in young adults, the present work showed that the bioavailability and assimilation of meat amino acids in the elderly is lower when meat is poorly cooked. In view to preventing sarcopenia, elderly subjects should be advised to favor the consumption of well-cooked meat. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02157805. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Plasma concentrations and intakes of amino acids in male meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans: a cross-sectional analysis in the EPIC-Oxford cohort.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J A; Rinaldi, S; Scalbert, A; Ferrari, P; Achaintre, D; Gunter, M J; Appleby, P N; Key, T J; Travis, R C

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the differences in plasma concentrations and in intakes of amino acids between male meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. This cross-sectional analysis included 392 men, aged 30-49 years. Plasma amino acid concentrations were measured with a targeted metabolomic approach using mass spectrometry, and dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Differences between diet groups in mean plasma concentrations and intakes of amino acids were examined using analysis of variance, controlling for potential confounding factors and multiple testing. In plasma, concentrations of 6 out of 21 amino acids varied significantly by diet group, with differences of -13% to +16% between meat-eaters and vegans. Concentrations of methionine, tryptophan and tyrosine were highest in fish-eaters and vegetarians, followed by meat-eaters, and lowest in vegans. A broadly similar pattern was seen for lysine, whereas alanine concentration was highest in fish-eaters and lowest in meat-eaters. For glycine, vegans had the highest concentration and meat-eaters the lowest. Intakes of all 18 dietary amino acids differed by diet group; for the majority of these, intake was highest in meat-eaters followed by fish-eaters, then vegetarians and lowest in vegans (up to 47% lower than in meat-eaters). Men belonging to different habitual diet groups have significantly different plasma concentrations of lysine, methionine, tryptophan, alanine, glycine and tyrosine. However, the differences in plasma concentrations were less marked than and did not necessarily mirror those seen for amino acid intakes.

  10. Plasma concentrations and intakes of amino acids in male meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans: a cross-sectional analysis in the EPIC-Oxford cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, J A; Rinaldi, S; Scalbert, A; Ferrari, P; Achaintre, D; Gunter, M J; Appleby, P N; Key, T J; Travis, R C

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: We aimed to investigate the differences in plasma concentrations and in intakes of amino acids between male meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Subjects/Methods: This cross-sectional analysis included 392 men, aged 30–49 years. Plasma amino acid concentrations were measured with a targeted metabolomic approach using mass spectrometry, and dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Differences between diet groups in mean plasma concentrations and intakes of amino acids were examined using analysis of variance, controlling for potential confounding factors and multiple testing. Results: In plasma, concentrations of 6 out of 21 amino acids varied significantly by diet group, with differences of −13% to +16% between meat-eaters and vegans. Concentrations of methionine, tryptophan and tyrosine were highest in fish-eaters and vegetarians, followed by meat-eaters, and lowest in vegans. A broadly similar pattern was seen for lysine, whereas alanine concentration was highest in fish-eaters and lowest in meat-eaters. For glycine, vegans had the highest concentration and meat-eaters the lowest. Intakes of all 18 dietary amino acids differed by diet group; for the majority of these, intake was highest in meat-eaters followed by fish-eaters, then vegetarians and lowest in vegans (up to 47% lower than in meat-eaters). Conclusions: Men belonging to different habitual diet groups have significantly different plasma concentrations of lysine, methionine, tryptophan, alanine, glycine and tyrosine. However, the differences in plasma concentrations were less marked than and did not necessarily mirror those seen for amino acid intakes. PMID:26395436

  11. Organoarsenical species contents in cooked seafood.

    PubMed

    Devesa, V; Súñer, M A; Algora, S; Vélez, D; Montoro, R; Jalón, M; Urieta, I; Macho, M L

    2005-11-02

    The organoarsenical species arsenobetaine (AB), arsenocholine (AC), tetramethylarsonium ion (TMA+), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were determined in 64 cooked seafood products (fish, bivalves, squid, crustaceans) included in a Total Diet Study carried out in the Basque Country (Spain). For cooking, various treatments were employed (grilling, roasting, baking, stewing, boiling, steaming, microwaving). The results obtained show that in cooked seafood AB is the major species, followed by DMA and TMA+. AC and MMA are minor species. The results in cooked seafood were compared with the arsenic species contents obtained for the same product raw. After cooking there was an increase in DMA for sardines and bivalves and an increase or appearance of TMA+ for meagrim, anchovy, Atlantic horse mackerel, and sardine. The data provided add to the very scant information available about organoarsenical species contents in cooked seafood.

  12. [Effect of cooking on the purine content of foods].

    PubMed

    Colling, M; Wolfram, G

    1987-12-01

    The total purine content and the content of purines bound in RNA and DNA was determined in selected food (veal meat, pork meat, pork liver, pork spleen, soja meat). Raw and boiled food samples were analysed. During preparation of food the total purine content is changed by losses of water or of purines into cooking water. Simultaneously, a great part of nucleic acids is hydrolysed.

  13. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal broiler assay (PFC). For the PFR, cecectomized roosters were precision-fed approximately 30 g of feed sample, and excreta were collected 48 h postfeeding. For the SIAAD, 16-d-old broilers were fed a semipurified diet containing the feed samples as the only source of protein from 17 to 21 d, with ileal digesta collected at 21 d. For the PFC, 22-d-old broilers were precision-fed 10 g of feed sample mixed with chromic oxide, and ileal digesta were collected at 4 h postfeeding. Digestibility coefficients were standardized using a nitrogen-free diet for the SIAAD and PFC and using fasted roosters for the PFR. There were generally no consistent differences in standardized amino acid digestibility values among assays, and values were in general agreement among assays, particularly for SBM and MBM. Differences did occur among methods for amino acid digestibility in fish meal; however, these differences were not consistent among methods or amino acids. The results of the study indicated that all 3 bioassays are acceptable for determining the amino acid digestibility of SBM, canola meal, MBM, and fish meal for poultry.

  14. Meat consumption, cancer risk and population groups within New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2002-09-30

    In comparison with other OECD countries with good cancer registries, New Zealand has the highest mortality rate of colon cancer, second highest of breast cancer and third highest of prostate cancer. A possible association with heterocyclic amine consumption has been suggested for each of these cancers. Studies of locally cooked meat suggest that the main contributors to heterocyclic amines in the New Zealand diet would be well-cooked beef, chicken and pork. Well-cooked beef steak, and the specific heterocyclic amine, IFP, showed a weak positive correlation with prostate cancer risk in the New Zealand population, but no studies thus far have considered the role of meat cooking practices or heterocyclic amines in the development of other cancers. The Maori and Pacific Island people, despite a superficially similar diet, have a substantially lower incidence of colon cancer than people of Caucasian origin. These differences are particularly intriguing in view of a report that a very high percentage of these people have a fast acetylator phenotype-a factor suggested to augment the effect of well-cooked red meat in other populations. The three population groups are known to differ in their preferences for meat type (including processed meats), and there are anecdotal suggestions that they may differ in preferred cooking methods. More detailed population studies are warranted to establish the role of meat, meat processing, cooking methods and the interaction with food plants and/or with genotype and phenotype in New Zealand.

  15. Identification of benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide N2-deoxyguanosine in human lung adenocarcinoma cells exposed to cooking oil fumes from frying fish under domestic conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, S C; Jenq, S N; Kang, Z C; Lee, H

    2000-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death among women in Taiwan. Epidemiological studies of lung cancer in Chinese women indicate that factors other than cigarette smoking are related to lung cancer risk. One such factor may be exposure to carcinogens formed during the cooking of food. The carcinogenic compounds in oil smoke particulates from Chinese cooking practice have not yet been characterized. To reveal the relationship between the high mortality rate of lung cancer in Chinese women and exposure to cooking oil fumes (COF), DNA adduct formation, induced by COF collected from frying fish under domestic conditions, was assessed in human lung adenocarcinoma CL-3 cell lines using the (32)P-postlabeling assay. DNA adduct levels were induced by COF in CL-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. DNA adducts with a diagonal radioactive zone (DRZ) were observed when CL-3 cells were treated with COF. Surprisingly, only one spot of the DNA adduct profile was in the DRZ. The DNA adduct was analyzed by HPLC coupled with an on-line radioactive detector. The retention time of the major DNA adduct corresponded to that of authentic benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol 9, 10-epoxide N2-deoxyguanonsine (BPDE-N2-dG). Moreover, the mass spectrum of the major DNA adduct in CL-3 cells was confirmed to be BPDE-N2-dG by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. In conclusion, BPDE-N2-dG adduct formation in human lung cells supports epidemiological findings of an association between cooking fume exposure and lung cancer in Chinese women.

  16. Carcinogens formed when Meat is Cooked

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J S; Salmon, C P; Knize, M G

    2003-05-30

    Diet has been associated with varying cancer rates in human populations for many years, yet the causes of the observed variation in cancer patterns have not been adequately explained (Wynder et al. 1977). Along with the effect of diet on human cancer incidence is the strong evidence that mutations are the initiating events in the cancer process (Vogelstein et al. 1992). Foods, when heated, are a good source of genotoxic carcinogens that very likely are a cause for some of these events(Doll et al. 1981). These carcinogens fall into two chemical classes: heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). There is ample evidence that many of these compounds are complete carcinogens in rodents(El-Bayoumy et al. 1995; Ohgaki et al. 1991). Heterocyclic aromatic amines are among the most potent mutagenic substances ever tested in the Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity test (Wakabayashi et al. 1992). Both classes of carcinogen cause tumors in rodents at multiple sites, (El-Bayoumy et al. 1995; Ohgaki et al. 1991) many of which are common tumor sites in people on a Western diet. An HAA, PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), and a PAH, B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene), of comparable carcinogenic potency caused mammary gland tumors in a feeding study in female rats (El-Bayoumy et al. 1995). In addition, PhIP has recently been shown to cause carcinomas in the prostate of the male rat (Shirai et al. 1997). Complementing the rodent cancer studies are numerous human case-control and prospective studies suggesting a relationship between overheated beef, chicken, and lamb, and cancer of the colon, breast, prostate, and stomach (Sinha et al. 1999; Ward et al. 1997; Zheng et al. 1998).

  17. Power ultrasound in meat processing.

    PubMed

    Alarcon-Rojo, A D; Janacua, H; Rodriguez, J C; Paniwnyk, L; Mason, T J

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound has a wide range of applications in various agricultural sectors. In food processing, it is considered to be an emerging technology with the potential to speed up processes without damaging the quality of foodstuffs. Here we review the reports on the applications of ultrasound specifically with a view to its use in meat processing. Emphasis is placed on the effects on quality and technological properties such as texture, water retention, colour, curing, marinating, cooking yield, freezing, thawing and microbial inhibition. After the literature review it is concluded that ultrasound is a useful tool for the meat industry as it helps in tenderisation, accelerates maturation and mass transfer, reduces cooking energy, increases shelf life of meat without affecting other quality properties, improves functional properties of emulsified products, eases mould cleaning and improves the sterilisation of equipment surfaces.

  18. Arctic trichinosis: two Alaskan outbreaks from walrus meat.

    PubMed

    Margolis, H S; Middaugh, J P; Burgess, R D

    1979-01-01

    The arctic form of Trichinella spiralis that infects terrestrial and marine mammals is of importance in public health because persons living in arctic regions still depend on wild animals for economic subsistence. In 1975, an extended common-source epidemic of trichinosis attributed to consumption of walrus meat involved 29 persons in Barrow, Alaska. Of those persons eating this meat, 64% became ill, and the rate of infection of persons eating meat prepared with little or no cooking was four times as great as that of persons eating cooked meat. One year later a second outbreak occurred when a family ate partially cooked meat from an infected walrus. Clinical illness differed little from the disease acquired in temperature climates; however, only 70% had a positive bentonite flocculation titer, whereas 96% had eosinophilia. These epidemics of trichinosis are the first reported in Alaska to be associated with the consumption of walrus meat.

  19. Dietary intake and status of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in a population of fish-eating and non-fish-eating meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans and the product-precursor ratio [corrected] of α-linolenic acid to long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: results from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

    PubMed

    Welch, Ailsa A; Shakya-Shrestha, Subodha; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2010-11-01

    Intakes of n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important for health. Because fish is the major source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), non-fish-eaters may have suboptimal n-3 PUFA status, although the importance of the conversion of plant-derived α-linolenic acid (ALA) to EPA and DHA is debated. The objective was to determine intakes, food sources, and status of n-3 PUFAs according to dietary habit (fish-eaters and non-fish-eating meat-eaters, vegetarians, or vegans) and estimated conversion between dietary ALA and circulating long-chain n-3 PUFAs. This study included 14,422 men and women aged 39-78 y from the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)-Norfolk cohort with 7-d diary data and a substudy in 4902 individuals with plasma phospholipid fatty acid measures. Intakes and status of n-3 PUFAs were measured, and the product-precursor ratio [corrected] of ALA to circulating n-3 PUFAs was calculated. Most of the dietary intake of EPA and DHA was supplied by fish; however, meat was the major source in meat-eaters, and spreading fats, soups, and sauces were the major sources in vegetarians. Total n-3 PUFA intakes in non-fish-eaters were 57-80% of those in fish-eaters, but status differences were considerably smaller [corrected]. The estimated product-precursor ratio [corrected] was greater in women than in men and greater in non-fish-eaters than in fish-eaters. Substantial differences in intakes and in sources of n-3 PUFAs existed between the dietary-habit groups, but the differences in status were smaller than expected, possibly because the product-precursor ratio [corrected] was greater in non-fish-eaters than in fish-eaters, potentially indicating increased estimated conversion of ALA. If intervention studies were to confirm these findings, it could have implications for fish requirements.

  20. Determination of pentachlorophenol residue in meat and fish by gas chromatography-electron capture detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dongmei

    2014-01-01

    A novel analytical method, using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) and GC-mass spectrometry detection (MS), was developed for the qualitative and quantitative measurement of pentachlorophenol in meat and fish. The analyte was extracted by methanol-2% trichloroacetic acid (3/1, v/v) with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The eluted fraction was evaporated and derivatized with acetic anhydride-pyridine (1/1, v/v) for GC-ECD analysis and GC-MS confirmation. The parameters for extraction pressure, temperature and cycle of ASE, cleanup, derivatization and analysis procedure were optimized. The averaged decision limits and detection capability of the method were in the ranges of 0.25-0.41 and 0.49-1.01 µg/kg in the muscle and liver of swine and bovine and in the muscle of carp and finless eel, respectively. Spiked recoveries from levels of 0.5-2.0 µg/kg were found to be more than 71.1%, with relative standard deviation less than 14.7% in GC-ECD and GC-MS. This rapid and reliable method can be used for the characterization and quantification of residues of pentachlorophenol in animal and fish tissues.

  1. Effect of sample preparation method on sensory quality of cooked chicken breast fillets processed for food service

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chicken fillets (Pectoralis major) are one of popular items for food service. In the store, especially in fast food service stores, ready-to-cook meat products are commonly stored in freezers before use. The frozen meat can be cooked either directly from a frozen stage or after thawing. However, the...

  2. Meat Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This publication provides an introduction to meat processing for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in four chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the meat processing industry and the techniques of meat processing and butchering. The first chapter introduces the meat processing industry and…

  3. Effect of radiation processing on meat tenderisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Chawla, S. P.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-01

    The effect of radiation processing (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on the tenderness of three types of popularly consumed meat in India namely chicken, lamb and buffalo was investigated. In irradiated meat samples dose dependant reduction in water holding capacity, cooking yield and shear force was observed. Reduction in shear force upon radiation processing was more pronounced in buffalo meat. Protein and collagen solubility as well as TCA soluble protein content increased on irradiation. Radiation processing of meat samples resulted in some change in colour of meat. Results suggested that irradiation leads to dose dependant tenderization of meat. Radiation processing of meat at a dose of 2.5 kGy improved its texture and had acceptable odour.

  4. Values, attitudes, and frequency of meat consumption. Predicting meat-reduced diet in Australians.

    PubMed

    Hayley, Alexa; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Hardiman, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Reduced consumption of meat, particularly red meat, is associated with numerous health benefits. While past research has examined demographic and cognitive correlates of meat-related diet identity and meat consumption behaviour, the predictive influence of personal values on meat-consumption attitudes and behaviour, as well as gender differences therein, has not been explicitly examined, nor has past research focusing on 'meat' generally addressed 'white meat' and 'fish/seafood' as distinct categories of interest. Two hundred and two Australians (59.9% female, 39.1% male, 1% unknown), aged 18 to 91 years (M = 31.42, SD = 16.18), completed an online questionnaire including the Schwartz Values Survey, and measures of diet identity, attitude towards reduced consumption of each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, as well as self-reported estimates of frequency of consumption of each meat type. Results showed that higher valuing of Universalism predicted more positive attitudes towards reducing, and less frequent consumption of, each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, while higher Power predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption of, these meats. Higher Security predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption, of white meat and fish/seafood, while Conformity produced this latter effect for fish/seafood only. Despite men valuing Power more highly than women, women valuing Universalism more highly than men, and men eating red meat more frequently than women, gender was not a significant moderator of the value-attitude-behaviour mediations described, suggesting that gender's effects on meat consumption may not be robust once entered into a multivariate model of MRD attitudes and behaviour. Results support past findings associating Universalism, Power, and Security values with meat-eating preferences, and extend these findings by articulating how these values relate specifically

  5. Mutagenicity of modelled-heat-treated meat extracts: Mutagenicity assay, analysis and mechanism of mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-11-01

    Cooking of meat usually aims in producing microbiologically safe food suitable for human consumption. However, doing so at such high temperatures may produce some cooking toxicants or mutagens. The objectives of this study were to investigate the mutagenicity of modelled-heat-treated meat after different cooking methods (boiling, pan-frying and charcoal grilling) using Ames Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay. In addition, the content of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in the meat extracts prepared under different cooking methods were measured using HPLC. In a trial to investigate the causes behind the mutagenicity of different meat extracts, HepG2 cell line was exposed to different modelled-heat-treated meat extracts. mRNA expression levels of various phase I and II xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) were examined using real time PCR. The results obtained declared that pan-fried and charcoal grilled-meat extracts significantly induced production of histidine+ revertants in the Ames mutagenicity assay. Grilled-meat extracts had the highest residual concentrations of B[a]P followed by pan-fried-meat, boiled meat and raw meat extracts, respectively. Induction of XMEs especially CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and NQO1 may contribute to the mutagenic ability of these extracts. It is highly advisable to control cooking temperature, time and method in order to reduce cooked-meat mutagens.

  6. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in Fish and Meat Systems by Use of Oregano and Cranberry Phytochemical Synergies

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Y. T.; Labbe, R. G.; Shetty, Kalidas

    2004-01-01

    Optimized phenolics from oregano and cranberry extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes in laboratory media and in beef and fish. The antimicrobial activity increased when oregano and cranberry extracts were mixed at a ratio of 75% oregano and 25% cranberry (wt/wt) with 0.1 mg of phenolic per disk or ml, and the efficacy was further enhanced by lactic acid. The inhibition by phytochemical and lactic acid synergies was most effective when beef and fish slices were stored at 4°C. PMID:15345457

  7. Dietary food groups intake and cooking methods associations with pancreatic cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Zeinab; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Zinab, Hassan Eini; Farrokhzad, Solmaz; Rahimi, Roya; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2015-05-01

    The role of dietary habits in the etiology of pancreatic cancer (PC) has not yet been well elucidated. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of the frequency of different food groups' intake and their cooking methods with PC risk based on a well-designed case-control study. A case-control study including 307 PC patients and 322 controls referred to four tertiary endosonography centers was conducted from January 2011 to January 2014 to compare the frequency intake of different food items and their cooking methods between cases and controls. After adjustment for gender, age, body mass index, years of education, diabetes and alcohol history, smoking status, and opium use, a significant direct relationship was observed between PC risk and intake frequency (time/week) of bread (OR = 1.50; 95 % CI 1.05-2.13; p-value 0.024), rice (OR = 2.10; 95 % CI 1.15-3.82; p for trend 0.034), and red meat (OR = 2.25; 95 % CI 1.22-4.14; p for trend 0.033) (time/day), when comparing the highest category of intake frequency with the lowest, while increasing frequency of fish consumption was associated with a lower risk of PC (OR = 0.93; 95 % CI0.59-1.47; p for trend 0.009). Increasing consumption of barbecuing red meat and deep fried vegetables was associated with 67 % and 70 % increased risk of PC (p-value 0.025 and 0.006, respectively). Our results indicate that increased frequency of intake of bread, rice, and red meat (especially barbecued) and deep fried vegetables can aggregate PC risk, while increased frequency of fish consumption can protect against PC. However, more studies are still needed.

  8. Arsenic contamination in groundwater and its effects on adolescent intelligence and social competence in Bangladesh with special reference to daily drinking/cooking water intake.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Mst Nasrin; Inaoka, Tsukasa; Fujimura, Miho; Watanabe, Chiho; Shimizu, Hana; Tasmin, Saira; Tasnim, Sayra; Sultana, Nayar

    2014-03-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship between arsenic (As) exposure and intelligence quotient (IQ) or social competence (SC) of Bangladeshi adolescents (aged 14 or 15 years) in Sonargaon thana. Information about socioeconomic status (SES) was collected as confounding factors. To evaluate the relative contribution of As sources to total As intake, the As concentrations in urine and drinking/cooking water, and the amount of water added in cooking, were assessed on site using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The results confirmed that As exposure was essential to lower adolescent IQ or SC because they were negatively associated with As exposure after controlling for SES (particularly household income). Except for cooking water, the amount of drinking water varied with season and appeared to be the major As source because the As concentration in water was generally correlated with the As concentration in urine, and they were related to lower IQ or SC (even after controlling for SES). The FFQ survey revealed that rice was consumed the most frequently (more than once daily), followed by daal (bean) soup and nonleafy vegetables, but fish, meat, and eggs were consumed approximately once a week. Water intake per meal from cooked rice was estimated to be 616 mL/person, followed by bean soup (258 mL/person) and cooked vegetables (82 mL/person). Our results suggest that water used for cooking might be an important source of As, and the cooking process can affect the amount of As in cooked food.

  9. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or...: Any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried...

  10. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable; any...

  11. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or...: Any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried...

  12. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable; any...

  13. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or...: Any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried...

  14. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or...: Any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried...

  15. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable; any...

  16. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable; any...

  17. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable; any...

  18. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or...: Any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried...

  19. Dietary meat, dairy products, fat, and cholesterol and pancreatic cancer risk in a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Dominique S; Giovannucci, Edward; Willett, Walter C; Colditz, Graham A; Fuchs, Charles S

    2003-06-15

    Case-control studies suggest that meat and cholesterol intakes may be related to elevated risks of pancreatic cancer. Few prospective studies have examined associations between diet and pancreatic cancer, although in one recent study saturated fat consumption was related to higher risk. In a cohort of US women, the authors confirmed 178 pancreatic cancer cases over 18 years of follow-up. A mailed 61-item food frequency questionnaire was self-administered at baseline, and health and lifestyle variables were updated biennially. Analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models to adjust for potential confounders. Intakes of total fat, different types of fats, and cholesterol were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Similarly, total meat, red meat, and dairy products were not related to risk. Individual food items contributing to intakes of total meat and dairy products, as well as fish and eggs, did not reveal any specific association. Updating dietary exposures by using questionnaires from 1980, 1984, 1986, and 1990 produced similar findings. The authors' data do not support previous findings that meat or saturated fat intakes are related to pancreatic cancer risk. Future prospective studies should examine the influence of cooking practices as well as other dietary habits on the risk of pancreatic cancer.

  20. Food control by applied biochemistry of marine organisms: Comparison of proteins and metabolites from fish and invertebrate muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehbein, H.

    1995-03-01

    Most fishery products consist of muscle tissue from fish and invertebrates. Differences in the molecular structure and in metabolism of muscles can be utilized to characterize and identify various seafood. Creatine and arginine were found to be useful for the differentiation between imitation crab/shrimp meat and real crustacean meat. Octopine served as an indicator for the meat of cephalopods and mussels. In order to identify the animal species of a fishery product, several electrophoretic methods were used. It depended on the type of product, whether sarcoplasmic or myofibrillar proteins were better suited. Raw products were best analysed by isoelectric focusing of sarcoplasmic proteins. Two types of sarcoplasmic calcium-binding proteins, parvalbumins of fish and soluble calcium-binding proteins of invertebrates, were especially useful for species identification. Due to their thermal stability, these proteins gave species-specific patterns for cooked products, too. Two other techniques were also investigated: urea gel isoelectric focusing, and sodium dodecyl sulphate — polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These methods were applied in the analysis of products where the sarcoplasmic proteins had been removed by washing steps, i.e. imitation crab meat made from surimi, and of other raw and cooked products. The myosin light chains gave protein patterns that were characteristic for many species. Paramyosin, which is absent from vertebrate muscle, indicated the presence of mollusc muscle. It was shown that the determination, of arginine kinase activity enabled differentiation between raw fish muscle and invertebrate muscles.

  1. Multi-residue screening of veterinary drugs in egg, fish and meat using high-resolution liquid chromatography accurate mass time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Peters, R J B; Bolck, Y J C; Rutgers, P; Stolker, A A M; Nielen, M W F

    2009-11-13

    The last 2 years multi-compound methods are gaining ground as screening methods. In this study a high-resolution liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HRLC-ToF-MS) is tested for the screening of about 100 veterinary drugs in three matrices, meat, fish and egg. While the results are satisfactory for 70-90% of the veterinary drugs, a more efficient sample preparation or extract purification is required for quantitative analysis of all analytes in more difficult matrices like egg. The average mass measurement error of the ToF-MS for the veterinary drugs spiked at concentrations ranging from 4 to 400 microg/kg, is 3.0 ppm (median 2.5 ppm) with little difference between the three matrices, but slightly decreases with increasing concentration. The SigmaFit value, a new feature for isotope pattern matching, also decreases with increasing concentration and, in addition, shows an increase with increasing matrix complexity. While the average SigmaFit value is 0.04, the median is 0.01 indicating some high individual deviations. As with the mass measurement error, the highest deviations are found in those regions of the chromatogram where most compounds elute from the column, be it analytes or matrix compounds. The median repeatability of the method ranges from 8% to 15%, decreasing with increasing concentration, while the median reproducibility ranges from 15% to 20% with little difference between matrices and concentrations. The median accuracy is in between 70% and 100% with a few compounds showing higher values due to matrix interference. The squared regression coefficient is >0.99 for 92% of the compounds showing a good overall linearity for most compounds. The detection capability, CCbeta, is within 2 times the associated validation level for >90% of the compounds studied. By changing a few conditions in the analyses protocol and analysing a number of blank samples, it was determined that the method is robust as well as specific. Finally

  2. Human Risk of Diseases Associated with Red Meat Intake: Analysis of Current Theories and Proposed Role for Metabolic Incorporation of a Non-Human Sialic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Alisson-Silva, Frederico; Kawanishi, Kunio; Varki, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    One of the most consistent epidemiological associations between diet and human disease risk is the impact of red meat consumption (beef, pork, and lamb, particularly in processed forms). While risk estimates vary, associations are reported with all-cause mortality, colorectal and other carcinomas, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and possibly other inflammatory processes. There are many proposed explanations for these associations, some long discussed in the literature. Attempts to explain the effects of red meat consumption have invoked various red meat-associated agents, including saturated fat, high salt intake, Trimethylamine–N-oxide (TMAO) generation by microbiota, and environmental pollutants contaminating red meat, none of which are specific for red meat. Even the frequently mentioned polycyclic aromatic carcinogens arising from high temperature cooking methods are not red meat specific, as these are also generated by grilling poultry or fish, as well as by other forms of cooking. The traditional explanations that appear to be more red meat specific invoke the impact of N-nitroso compounds, heme iron, and the potential of heme to catalyze endogenous nitrosation. However, heme can be denatured by cooking, high levels of plasma hemopexin will block its tissue delivery, and much higher amounts of heme likely originate from red blood cell breakdown in vivo. Therefore, red meat-derived heme could only contribute to colorectal carcinoma risk, via direct local effects. Also, none of these mechanisms explain the apparent human propensity i.e., other carnivores have not been reported at high risk for all these diseases. A more recently proposed hypothesis involves infectious agents in beef from specific dairy cattle as agents of colorectal cancer. We have also described another mechanistic explanation for the human propensity for risk of red-meat associated diseases that is consistent with most observations: metabolic incorporation of a non

  3. Human risk of diseases associated with red meat intake: Analysis of current theories and proposed role for metabolic incorporation of a non-human sialic acid.

    PubMed

    Alisson-Silva, Frederico; Kawanishi, Kunio; Varki, Ajit

    2016-10-01

    One of the most consistent epidemiological associations between diet and human disease risk is the impact of red meat consumption (beef, pork, and lamb, particularly in processed forms). While risk estimates vary, associations are reported with all-cause mortality, colorectal and other carcinomas, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and possibly other inflammatory processes. There are many proposed explanations for these associations, some long discussed in the literature. Attempts to explain the effects of red meat consumption have invoked various red meat-associated agents, including saturated fat, high salt intake, Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) generation by microbiota, and environmental pollutants contaminating red meat, none of which are specific for red meat. Even the frequently mentioned polycyclic aromatic carcinogens arising from high temperature cooking methods are not red meat specific, as these are also generated by grilling poultry or fish, as well as by other forms of cooking. The traditional explanations that appear to be more red meat specific invoke the impact of N-nitroso compounds, heme iron, and the potential of heme to catalyze endogenous nitrosation. However, heme can be denatured by cooking, high levels of plasma hemopexin will block its tissue delivery, and much higher amounts of heme likely originate from red blood cell breakdown in vivo. Therefore, red meat-derived heme could only contribute to colorectal carcinoma risk, via direct local effects. Also, none of these mechanisms explain the apparent human propensity i.e., other carnivores have not been reported at high risk for all these diseases. A more recently proposed hypothesis involves infectious agents in beef from specific dairy cattle as agents of colorectal cancer. We have also described another mechanistic explanation for the human propensity for risk of red-meat associated diseases that is consistent with most observations: metabolic incorporation of a non

  4. Control of Thermal Meat Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffis, Carl L.; Osaili, Tareq M.

    The recent growth of the market for ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products has led to serious concern over foodborne illnesses due to the presence of pathogens, particularly Salmonella spp, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat and poultry products. Emphasis has been placed on thermal processing since heat treatment is still considered the primary means of eliminating foodborne pathogens from raw meat and poultry products (Juneja, Eblen, & Ransom, 2001). Inadequate time/temperature exposure during cooking is a contributing factor in food poisoning outbreaks. Optimal heat treatment is required not only to destroy pathogenic microorganisms in meat and poultry products but also to maintain desirable food quality and product yield.

  5. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Sobiecki, Jakub G.; Appleby, Paul N.; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Key, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30 251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have