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Sample records for cooked meat fish

  1. Loss of vitamin B(12) in fish (round herring) meats during various cooking treatments.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Michiko; Kanosue, Fuki; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

    2011-01-01

    The loss of vitamin B(12) in round herring meats during various cooking treatments was evaluated. Although amounts of vitamin B(12) were three times greater in the viscera (37.5 ± 10.6 µg/100 g fresh weight) than in the meats, about 73% of total vitamin B(12) found in the whole fish body (except for head and bones) were recovered in the meats (5.1 ± 1.0 µg of vitamin B(12)). The vitamin B(12) contents of the round herring's meats were significantly decreased up to ~62% during cooking by grilling, boiling, frying, steaming, and microwaving. There was, however, no loss of vitamin B(12) during vacuum-packed pouch cooking. Model experiment using hydroxocobalamin suggest that loss of vitamin B(12) is dependent on the degree of temperature and time used in conventional cooking, and is further affected by the concomitant ingredients of food. Retention of vitamin B(12) was not dependent on vacuum or temperature (or both) used in the vacuum-packed pouch cooking.

  2. Dietary exposure to heterocyclic amines in high-temperature cooked meat and fish in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jahurul, M H A; Jinap, S; Ang, S J; Abdul-Hamid, A; Hajeb, P; Lioe, H N; Zaidul, I S M

    2010-08-01

    The intake of heterocyclic amines is influenced by the amount and type of meat and fish ingested, frequency of consumption, cooking methods, cooking temperature, and duration of cooking. In this study, the dietary intake of heterocyclic amines in Malaysia and their main sources were investigated. Forty-two samples of meat and fish were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector to determine the concentration of the six predominant heterocyclic amines, namely: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline(MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Dietary intake data were obtained using a food-frequency questionnaire when interviewing 600 Malaysian respondents. The level of total heterocyclic amines in food samples studies ranged from not detected to 38.7 ng g(-1). The average daily intake level of heterocyclic amine was 553.7 ng per capita day(-1). The intake of PhIP was the highest, followed by MeIQx and MeIQ. The results reveal that fried and grilled chicken were the major dietary source of heterocyclic amines in Malaysia. However, the heterocyclic amine intake by the Malaysian population was lower than those reported from other regions.

  3. Heterocyclic amines: Mutagens/carcinogens produced during cooking of meat and fish.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Nagao, Minako

    2004-04-01

    Research leading to the discovery of a series of mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs) was inspired by the idea that smoke produced during cooking of food, especially meat or fish, might be carcinogenic. More than ten kinds of HCAs, actually produced by cooking or heating of meat or fish, have now been isolated and their structures determined, most being previously unregistered compounds. They are highly mutagenic towards Salmonella typhimurium in the presence of S9 mix and are also mutagenic in vitro and in vivo toward mammalian cells. HCAs have now been chemically synthesized in quantity and subjected to long-term animal testing. When HCAs were fed in the diet, rodents developed cancers in many organs, including the colon, breast and prostate, and one HCA produced hepatomas in monkeys. The lesions exhibited alteration in genes including Apc, beta-catenin and Ha-ras, and these changes provide clues to the induction mechanisms. The HCAs are oxidized to hydroxyamino derivatives by cytochrome P450s, and further converted to ester forms by acetyltransferase and sulfotransferase. Eventually, they produce DNA adducts through the formation of N-C bonds at guanine bases. There are HCA-sensitive and resistant strains of rodents and a search for the responsible genes is now under way. While the content of HCAs in dishes consumed in ordinary life is low and not sufficient in itself to explain human cancer, the coexistence of many other mutagens/carcinogens of either autobiotic or xenobiotic type and the possibility that HCAs induce genomic instability and heightened sensitivity to tumor promoters suggest that avoidance of exposure to HCAs or reduction of HCAs' biological effects as far as possible are to be highly recommended. Usage of microwave ovens for cooking and supplementation of the diet, for example with soy-isoflavones, which have been found to suppress the occurrence of HCA-induced breast cancers, should be encouraged. Advice to the general public

  4. Tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid compounds in fish and meat: possible precursors of co-mutagenic beta-carbolines norharman and harman in cooked foods.

    PubMed

    Herraiz, T

    2000-10-01

    The presence of tetrahydro-beta-carbolines and beta-carbolines was studied in raw, cooked and smoked fish and meat. 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (THCA) usually was the major beta-carboline found, whereas 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCA) appeared in smoked and 'well done' cooked samples. THCA was detected in raw fish (nd-2.52 micrograms/g), cooked fish (nd-6.43 micrograms/g), cooked meats (nd-0.036 microgram/g), smoked fish (0.19-0.67 microgram/g) and smoked meats (0.02-1.1 micrograms/g). Smoked and cooked samples contained higher amounts of THCA and MTCA than raw products. Deep cooking of fish and meat increased both THCA and MTCA, and this was accompanied by the formation of more beta-carbolines, norharman and harman. The tetrahydro-beta-carbolines THCA and MTCA were chemical precursors of the co-mutagens norharman and harman during cooking. These and previous results confirm that foods are an important source of beta-carbolines in humans.

  5. Prevalence and challenge tests of Listeria monocytogenes in Belgian produced and retailed mayonnaise-based deli-salads, cooked meat products and smoked fish between 2005 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Uyttendaele, M; Busschaert, P; Valero, A; Geeraerd, A H; Vermeulen, A; Jacxsens, L; Goh, K K; De Loy, A; Van Impe, J F; Devlieghere, F

    2009-07-31

    Processed ready-to-eat (RTE) foods with a prolonged shelf-life under refrigeration are at risk products for listeriosis. This manuscript provides an overview of prevalence data (n=1974) and challenge tests (n=299) related to Listeria monocytogenes for three categories of RTE food i) mayonnaise-based deli-salads (1187 presence/absence tests and 182 challenge tests), ii) cooked meat products (639 presence/absence tests and 92 challenge tests), and iii) smoked fish (90 presence/absence tests and 25 challenge tests), based on data records obtained from various food business operators in Belgium in the frame of the validation and verification of their HACCP plans over the period 2005-2007. Overall, the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in these RTE foods in the present study was lower compared to former studies in Belgium. For mayonnaise-based deli-salads, in 80 out of 1187 samples (6.7%) the pathogen was detected in 25 g. L. monocytogenes positive samples were often associated with smoked fish deli-salads. Cooked meat products showed a 1.1% (n=639) prevalence of the pathogen. For both food categories, numbers per gram never exceeded 100 CFU. L. monocytogenes was detected in 27.8% (25/90) smoked fish samples, while 4/25 positive samples failed to comply to the 100 CFU/g limit set out in EU Regulation 2073/2005. Challenge testing showed growth potential in 18/182 (9.9%) deli-salads and 61/92 (66%) cooked meat products. Nevertheless, both for deli-salads and cooked meat products, appropriate product formulation and storage conditions based upon hurdle technology could guarantee no growth of L. monocytogenes throughout the shelf-life as specified by the food business operator. Challenge testing of smoked fish showed growth of L. monocytogenes in 12/25 samples stored for 3-4 weeks at 4 degrees C. Of 45 (non-inoculated) smoked fish samples (13 of which were initially positive in 25 g) which were subjected to shelf-life testing, numbers exceeded 100 CFU/g in only one sample

  6. Determination of advanced glycation endproducts in cooked meat products.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gengjun; Smith, J Scott

    2015-02-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), a pathogenic factor implicated in diabetes and other chronic diseases, are produced in cooked meat products. The objective of this study was to determine the AGE content, as measured by Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML) levels, in cooked chicken, pork, beef and fish (salmon and tilapia) prepared by three common cooking methods used by U.S. consumers: frying, baking, and broiling. The CML was detected in all the cooked samples, but the levels were dependent on types of meat, cooking conditions, and the final internal temperature. Broiling and frying at higher cooking temperature produced higher levels of CML, and broiled beef contained the highest CML content (21.8μg/g). Baked salmon (8.6μg/g) and baked tilapia (9.7μg/g) contained less CML as compared to the other muscle food samples.

  7. Diet and Cancer Are Cooked Meats Involved

    SciTech Connect

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2008-05-01

    Diet has been associated with differences in cancer rates in human populations for many years. Mark Knize presents the latest research on cancer causes including work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigating some interesting chemical products created when meat is cooked and how to reduce them. Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 11542

  8. Diet and Cancer Are Cooked Meats Involved

    ScienceCinema

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2016-07-12

    Diet has been associated with differences in cancer rates in human populations for many years. Mark Knize presents the latest research on cancer causes including work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigating some interesting chemical products created when meat is cooked and how to reduce them. Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 11542

  9. Effects of cooking on concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and related compounds in fish and meat.

    PubMed

    Hori, Tsuguhide; Nakagawa, Reiko; Tobiishi, Kazuhiro; Iida, Takao; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Sasaki, Kumiko; Toyoda, Masatake

    2005-11-02

    We investigated the cooking-induced changes in concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (dioxins) using mackerel and beef. The concentrations of dioxins (29 congeners) were determined by isomer specific analyses and were compared between uncooked and cooked samples. The cooking procedures examined in this study included grilling as a fillet, boiling as a fillet, and boiling as tsumire (small, hand-rolled balls) for mackerel and boiling as a slice, broiling as a slice, and broiling as a hamburger for beef. Three trials were carried out for each cooking method. Generally, concentrations of dioxins were reduced in every cooking trial. When nondetected congener concentrations were assumed to be half the limit of detection for mackerel, the maximum percentage reductions of total concentrations given as 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD equivalents (TEQ) were 31% in grilling as a slice, 14% in boiling as a slice, and 21% in boiling as tsumire under the conditions of this study. In contrast, for beef, the reductions were 42% in boiling as a slice, 42% in broiling as a slice, and 44% in broiling as a hamburger. These results suggest that ordinary cooking processes with heating undoubtedly reduce the dioxin content in animal products, and the reductions estimated should be considered when dioxin intake is evaluated using contamination data for individual food items.

  10. Heterocyclic amine levels in cooked meat and the implication for New Zealanders.

    PubMed

    Thomson, B

    1999-07-01

    This paper was presented to an expert workshop on meat intake and colorectal cancer risk, held in Adelaide, Australia on 4 December 1998, as a contribution to discussion of the possible role of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in colorectal cancer. HCAs, which are genotoxic and carcinogenic to experimental animals, are formed in fish, meat and meat residues under certain cooking conditions which are relevant to human lifestyle practices. The most important variables contributing to the formation of HCAs are: cooking temperature (>150 degrees C), cooking time (>2 min), cooking method (frying, oven grilling/broiling, barbecuing), and meat type (e.g. sausage < whole meat). Humans will be exposed to HCAs from the consumption of meat or fish cooked by these methods and from the consumption of gravy prepared from pan residues. Approximately one-third of the meat consumed on a daily basis in New Zealand is cooked by methods likely to result in the formation of HCAs. When intake estimates are combined with animal cancer potency data, the greatest contributor to cancer risk is from the consumption of chicken. Red meat is no more implicated than any other meat type. Although the role of HCA in human cancer is yet to be clearly established, exposure can be minimized by lifestyle choices.

  11. Captain Cook on poison fish.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Michael J

    2005-12-13

    On his second voyage of discovery, Captain James Cook charted much of the South Pacific. The journey was long, from 1772 to 1775. During the exploration, the geographic, ethnographic, and scientific variety provided no shortage of work for the accompanying naturalists, astronomers, navigators, and painters. Culinary discoveries included new species of fish, many of which were sketched, dressed, and ultimately eaten. The examined journals and correspondence document clinical poisonings after ingestion of two different species of fish. The clinical findings are described and likely represent ciguatera and tetrodotoxin poisonings. Mechanisms of these toxin's actions are discussed in light of more recent studies.

  12. Validation of feasibility and quality of chicken breast meat cooked under various water-cooking conditions.

    PubMed

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2016-12-01

    Under laboratory conditions, the qualities of boneless chicken breasts are commonly determined by placing them in a bag and cooking them in a water bath. The results are often applied as references for comparing the influences of cooking techniques. However, whether a sample cooked under this "laboratory" condition actually represents the meat cooked under the "real-life" condition in which meat is frequently cooked directly in water without packaging remains unclear. Whether the two cooking conditions lead to comparable results in meat quality should be determined. This study evaluated the influence of cooking conditions, including "placed-in-bag and cooked in a water bath (BC)" and "cooked directly in hot water (WC)" conditions, on the quality of chicken meat. The results reveal that BC samples had a longer cooking time. Deboned-and-skinless BC samples had a higher cooking loss and lower protein solubility (P < 0.01). BC samples with bone and skin had a higher lightness in both skin and muscle. No significant differences were observed in attributes, including shear force, collagen solubility, microstructures, redness, yellowness and descriptive sensory characteristics between treatments. Based on the results, considering the quality attributes that might be influenced, is critical when conducting relevant research.

  13. Formation of heterocyclic amines during cooking of duck meat.

    PubMed

    Liao, G Z; Wang, G Y; Zhang, Y J; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2012-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HAs) are an important class of food mutagens and carcinogens produced in meat cooked at high temperature. In the present study, the effects of various cooking methods: boiling, microwave cooking, charcoal-grilling, roasting, deep-frying and pan-frying on the formation of HAs in duck breast were studied. The various HAs formed during cooking were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analysed by HPLC. Results showed that both the varieties and contents of HAs and the cooking loss of duck breast increase along with increasing cooking temperature and time. Pan-fried duck breasts contained the highest amount of total HAs, followed by charcoal-grilling, deep-frying, roasting, microwave cooking and boiling. 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (norharman) and 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (harman) were detected in all of the cooked duck meat, with levels in the range of 0.1-33 ng g⁻¹. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]pyridine (PhIP) was formed easily in duck meat cooked by pan-frying and charcoal-grilling in the range of 0.9-17.8 ng g⁻¹. 2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) was identified in duck meat cooked by charcoal-grilling and pan-frying, in the range of 0.4-4.2 ng g⁻¹. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) was detected in amounts below 4.5 ng g⁻¹ in duck meat cooked by charcoal-grilling, roasting, deep-frying and pan-frying. The other HAs were detected in amounts below 10 ng g⁻¹. Colour development increased with cooking temperature, but no correlation with HAs' content was observed.

  14. Concentration of Umami Compounds in Pork Meat and Cooking Juice with Different Cooking Times and Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Rotola-Pukkila, Minna K; Pihlajaviita, Seija T; Kaimainen, Mika T; Hopia, Anu I

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the concentrations of umami compounds in pork loins cooked at 3 different temperatures and 3 different lengths of cooking times. The pork loins were cooked with the sous vide technique. The free amino acids (FAAs), glutamic acid and aspartic acid; the 5'-nucleotides, inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) and adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP); and corresponding nucleoside inosine of the cooked meat and its released juice were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under the experimental conditions used, the cooking temperature played a more important role than the cooking time in the concentration of the analyzed compounds. The amino acid concentrations in the meat did not remain constant under these experimental conditions. The most notable effect observed was that of the cooking temperature and the higher amino acid concentrations in the released juice of meat cooked at 80 °C compared with 60 and 70 °C. This is most likely due to the heat induced hydrolysis of proteins and peptides releasing water soluble FAAs from the meat into the cooking juice. In this experiment, the cooking time and temperature had no influence on the IMP concentrations observed. However, the AMP concentrations increased with the increasing temperature and time. This suggests that the choice of time and temperature in sous vide cooking affects the nucleotide concentration of pork meat. The Sous vide technique proved to be a good technique to preserve the cooking juice and the results presented here show that cooking juice is rich in umami compounds, which can be used to provide a savory or brothy taste.

  15. Development of a monoclonal antibody specific to cooked mammalian meats.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Y H; Sheu, S C; Bridgman, R C

    1998-04-01

    Detection of species adulteration in ground meat products is important for consumer protection and food-labeling law enforcement. This study was conducted to develop monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that can be used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for rapid detection of any cooked mammalian meats in cooked poultry products. Soluble muscle proteins extracted from cooked pork (heated at 100 degrees C for 15 min) were used as the antigen to immunized mice for developing the MAb. One that was developed, MAb 2F8 (IgG2b class), strongly reacted with cooked meat of five mammalian species (beef cattle, hogs, sheep, horse, and deer) but did not react with any cooked poultry (chicken, turkey, and duck) or raw meats. At least 0.5% by weight of pork, beef, lamb, and horse meats in a chicken-based mixture could not detect using the indirect ELISA with MAb 2F8. The MAb 2F8 is useful in a single initial screening test to detect the presence of five nonpoultry meat adulterants in cooked poultry products.

  16. Temperature dependent formation of heterocyclic aromatic amine mutagens/carcinogens during the cooking of meats

    SciTech Connect

    Knize, M.G.; Salmon, C.P.; Dewhirst, K.P.

    1995-12-01

    A series of heterocyclic aromatic amines that have been shown to be mutagenic and carcinogenic have been found as cooking products of muscle meats. Amounts range from undetectable levels (less than 0.1 ppb) when meats are boiled, microwave cooked, and baked, to tens to hundreds of ppb for frying/grilling at high meat surface temperatures. Griddle surface temperatures of 150{degrees}C and frying ground beef patties for six min per side form a total of 0.7 ppb of four heterocyclic amines, and a temperature of 230{degrees}C for six min per side forms 15 ppb. Beef and chicken appear to form more of the heterocyclic amines than fish, in part due to traditional cooking practices.

  17. Meat, Poultry and Fish

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as dried beans, peas, lentils or tofu (soybean curd) in entrees, salads or soups. Choose from ... serving of cooked beans, peas or lentils, or soybean curd (tofu) can replace a 2-ounce serving ...

  18. A comparative in vitro investigation into the effects of cooked meats on the human faecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing; Chen, Yin An; Tuohy, Kieran M

    2010-12-01

    Protein fermentation is one of the important microbial activities in the human colon. Meat foods rich in protein provide substantial resource for this metabolic activity. However, little information exists on the relative impact of different meats on the composition and activities of the human gut microbiota. Similarly, little information is available on the confounding effects of cooking on these activities. In this study, beef, chicken and fish (salmon) were examined in vitro for their impact on the human faecal microbiota. The influence of cooking method was also investigated by using either frying or boiling. Upon fermentation over 48 h the Clostridium perfringens/histolyticum group increased significantly in number in the beef fermentations, either fried (p = 0.023) or boiled (p = 0.017). Cooking method appeared to influence Clostridium spp. growth, with higher numbers in fried meat compared to boiled meats after 5 h (p = 0.024) and 48 h (p = 0.003) fermentation. Significant differences between meat types were also seen for numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. at 48 h (p = 0.028), Bacteroides group at 24 h (p = 0.016) as well as Coriobacterium/Atopobium group at 10 h (p = 0.038). Most types of short chain fatty acids increased significantly in concentration over the experiment (p < 0.05). Significant differences between meat types were found in n-butyric acid production at 24, 30 and 48 h (p = 0.015, p = 0.024 and p = 0.035 respectively) and in i-valeric acid production at 10, 24, 30 and 48 h (p = 0.026, p = 0.002, p = 0.019 and p = 0.022 respectively). The concentration of i-valeric acid differed significantly between cooking methods at 24 h (p = 0.042). These findings suggest that both the type of meat and cooking process can influence fermentation profiles within the human gut microbiota. Interactions between ingested cooked meats and the gut microbiota may represent a novel corollary to mechanisms underlying the observed increased risk of intestinal and

  19. Physicochemical properties of foal meat as affected by cooking methods.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Cittadini, Aurora; Munekata, Paulo E; Domínguez, Rubén

    2015-10-01

    The present study deals with the effect of four different cooking techniques (roasting, grilling, microwave baking and frying with olive oil) on physicochemical parameters (cooking loss, WHC, texture and colour) and lipid oxidation (by TBARS measurement) of foal meat. Thermal treatments induced water loss (P<0.001), being lower in foal steaks cooked in the grill (25.8%) and higher in foal samples cooked in the microwave (39.5%). As it was expected, all the cooking methods increased TBARS index, since high temperature during cooking seems to cause an increase of the lipid oxidation in foal steaks. Statistical analysis displayed that WHC was affected (P<0.001) by thermal treatment, since the smallest WHC values were observed in samples from microwave treatment. Thermal treatment also caused a significant (P<0.001) increase in the force needed to cut the foal steaks. Regarding colour parameter, cooking led to an increase of L*-value (lightness) and b*-value (yellowness), while a*-value (redness) markedly decreased in all samples.

  20. Nutritional value and digestion rate of rhea meat proteins in association with storage and cooking processes.

    PubMed

    Filgueras, Renata S; Gatellier, Philippe; Ferreira, Claude; Zambiazi, Rui C; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2011-09-01

    The nutritional value of proteins was investigated after the storage and cooking of rhea M. Gastrocnemius pars interna. Oxidation of basic and aromatic amino acids, surface hydrophobicity and aggregation state of proteins, were determined in raw and cooked meat. In addition, myofibrillar proteins were exposed in vitro to proteases of the digestive tract. Cooking markedly affected the protein surface hydrophobicity. The BBP bound content was three times greater in cooked than in fresh rhea meat. A small increment in tryptophan content after cooking was observed. Storage influenced Schiff bases formation indicating the presence of protein-aldehyde adducts after cooking. High content of Schiff bases was found after cooking of samples stored for 5 days, demonstrating a probable implication of free amino groups, most likely from lysine. Cooking decreased the myofibrillar protein susceptibility to pepsin activity. After cooking, the proteolysis rate by pancreatic enzymes increased. Our findings support the importance of protein aggregation in the nutritional value of meat proteins.

  1. Optical and Chemical Characterization of Aerosols Produced from Cooked Meats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedziela, R. F.; Foreman, E.; Blanc, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    Cooking processes can release a variety compounds into the air immediately above a cooking surface. The distribution of compounds will largely depend on the type of food that is being processed and the temperatures at which the food is prepared. High temperatures release compounds from foods like meats and carry them away from the preparation surface into cooler regions where condensation into particles can occur. Aerosols formed in this manner can impact air quality, particularly in urban areas where the amount of food preparation is high. Reported here are the results of laboratory experiments designed to optically and chemically characterize aerosols derived from cooking several types of meats including ground beef, salmon, chicken, and pork both in an inert atmosphere and in synthetic air. The laboratory-generated aerosols are studied using a laminar flow cell that is configured to accommodate simultaneous optical characterization in the mid-infrared and collection of particles for subsequent chemical analysis by gas chromatography. Preliminary optical results in the visible and ultra-violet will also be presented.

  2. Meats and Meat Cookery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on meats and meat cookery is designed to help the Marine cook to identify, handle, process, and serve meats, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students and a study guide (guidelines to complete…

  3. URINARY MUTAGENICITY AS A BIOMARKER OF COOKED-MEAT-ASSOCIATED MUTAGENS AND RISK FOR COLORECTAL ADENOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary Mutagenicity as a Biomarker of Cooked-Meat-Associated Mutagens and Risk for Colorectal Adenoma

    In a controlled feeding study involving 60 subjects, we have investigated urinary mutagenicity as a biomarker of exposure to cooked-meat-associated mutagens. In a separa...

  4. Postmortem Biochemistry of Meat and Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultin, Herbert O.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses structural and chemical features of muscle tissue. Emphasizes chemical and physical changes which occur during processing and storage and how these changes affect the eating quality of meat and fish. (JN)

  5. Effect of irradiation on the parameters that influence quality characteristics of uncured and cured cooked turkey meat products.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xi; Moon, Sunhee; Lee, Hyunyong; Ahn, Dong U

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on lipid/protein oxidation, color changes, and off-odor volatiles production in uncured and cured cooked turkey meat products. Uncured cooked turkey breast meat and cured commercial turkey breast rolls and ham were prepared and irradiated at 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 kGy using a linear accelerator. The results showed that irradiation had little effects on lipid oxidation of cured cooked turkey products, but accelerated lipid oxidation in uncured cooked turkey breast meat (P < 0.05). Protein oxidation was increased both in cured and uncured meats (P < 0.05), but more in cured cooked meat by irradiation. The redness of uncured cooked turkey was increased (P < 0.05), but the redness of cured cooked turkey meat was faded by irradiation (P < 0.05). Irradiated cured cooked turkey meat products produced less off-odor volatile compounds (dimethyl disulfide, 3-methyl/2-methyl-butananl, and hexanal) than irradiated uncured cooked meat products due to various additives in the cured meat products. Our results suggested that irradiation resulted in different chemical reactions to pigments in uncured and cured cooked turkey meat products, but cured cooked turkey meat products have a higher tolerance to odor deterioration than uncured cooked turkey meat products.

  6. Cooking methods and the formation of PhIP (2-Amino, 1-methyl, 6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine) in the crust of the habitually consumed meat in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Reartes, Gabriela Angelina; Di Paola Naranjo, Romina Daniela; Eynard, Aldo Renato; Muñoz, Sonia Edith

    2016-06-01

    Content of carcinogenic molecules like, 2-Amino, 1-methyl, 6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine in meals is one of the main mutagenic substances formed during meat cooking, and it can be used as a dietary exposure marker. Our objective was to estimate the amount of PhIP consumed from habitual Argentinean diet, rich in red meats, comparing different cooking procedures and meat type. Samples (n = 240) of lean and fatty beef, chicken, pork, and fish were cooked using different methods: griddle, grill, sauté pan, and oven. Samples were: Overcooked, or cooked with a microbiologically suitable or "healthy technique" (HT). The PhIP was determined by HPLC-MS. Meats cooked using HT formed little crust amounts and PhIP was below the detection levels. In overcooked meats, large amounts of crust were formed in lean meats, fatty beef, fatty chicken and baked pork. PhIP was measured in lean meats sauted or cooked on a griddle, a method reaching temperatures until 250 °C.It was estimated that Argentine people eats about 12,268.0 ng/day of PhIP being these values above those tolerated limits for total dietary heterocyclic amines in some developed countries. Hence, cooking small meat portions, at medium temperature, avoiding prolonged cooking and preferring baked lean meats could be recommended as a healthier habit.

  7. Effects of freezing-thawing on sensory descriptive profiles of cooked poultry breast meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freezing is a common method used by consumers to extend meat shelf life and by researchers to allow for subsequent meat quality assessments and processing. However, the effects of freezing on the sensory quality of cooked poultry breast meat are not well documented. The objective of this study was t...

  8. URINARY MUTAGENESIS AS AN EXPOSURE BIOMARKER OF COOKED-MEAT-ASSOCIATED MUTAGENS: INFLUENCE OF COOKING TEMPERATURE, PHENOTYPE, AND GENOTYPE IN A CONTROLLED METABOLIC FEEDING STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    We evaluated urinary mutagenicity and selected phenotypes and genotypes in 60 subjects in a metabolic feeding study in which meat cooked at low temperature (100oC) was consumed for 1 week followed by meat cooked at high temperature (250oC) the second week. Meat coo...

  9. Kinetics of hydration properties of meat emulsions containing various fillers during smokehouse cooking.

    PubMed

    Correia, L R; Mittal, G S

    1991-01-01

    The cooking kinetics of meat emulsions containing various fillers was determined by monitoring changes in hydration properties such as cooking loss and water-holding capacity during smokehouse cooking. Press juice, consumer cook test and emulsion stability of cooked product were also determined. The fillers used were buttermilk powder, corn starch, microcrystalline cellulose, modified corn starch, modified wheat flour, soy-protein concentrate and whey-protein concentrate. The cooking process was modelled using reaction kinetics and Eyring's absolute reaction rate theory. Enthalpy and entropy changes of activation were calculated for various properties and fillers.

  10. Microstructure and physical changes in the Mexican cooked lamb meat barbacoa made with chilled and frozen meat.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Solís, Joaquín; Figueroa-Rodríguez, Katia A; Figueroa-Sandoval, Benjamín; Hernández-Rosas, Francisco; Hernández-Cazares, Aleida S

    2016-08-01

    Longissimus dorci (LD) samples of different origin (imported and domestic) with pre-treatments (imported meat stored at -18°C for 6months, domestic meat stored at -18°C for 10days, and domestic meat stored at 4°C for 24h) were cooked as barbacoa and frozen using two treatments (air blast and liquid immersion) and then evaluated after 30days of storage. The results showed that the origin and pre-treatment of meat affected L*, a*, instrumental texture and microstructure; that the storage time affected pH, aw, b* and microstructure; and that the freezing treatments did not affect the meat. Overall, the frozen cooked lamb dish barbacoa could present some problems at the conservation stage due to an increase in pH, aw and changes in microstructure; however, the physical traits (color and texture) remained mostly unchanged and depended more on the quality of the raw meat.

  11. Integrity of nuclear genomic deoxyribonucleic acid in cooked meat: Implications for food traceability.

    PubMed

    Aslan, O; Hamill, R M; Sweeney, T; Reardon, W; Mullen, A M

    2009-01-01

    It is essential to isolate high-quality DNA from muscle tissue for PCR-based applications in traceability of animal origin. We wished to examine the impact of cooking meat to a range of core temperatures on the quality and quantity of subsequently isolated genomic (specifically, nuclear) DNA. Triplicate steak samples were cooked in a water bath (100 degrees C) until their final internal temperature was 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, or 100 degrees C, and DNA was extracted. Deoxyribonucleic acid quantity was significantly reduced in cooked meat samples compared with raw (6.5 vs. 56.6 ng/microL; P < 0.001), but there was no relationship with cooking temperature. Quality (A(260)/A(280), i.e., absorbance at 260 and 280 nm) was also affected by cooking (P < 0.001). For all 3 genes, large PCR amplicons (product size >800 bp) were observed only when using DNA from raw meat and steak cooked to lower core temperatures. Small amplicons (<200 bp) were present for all core temperatures. Cooking meat to high temperatures thus resulted in a reduced overall yield and probable fragmentation of DNA to sizes less than 800 bp. Although nuclear DNA is preferable to mitochondrial DNA for food authentication, it is less abundant, and results suggest that analyses should be designed to use small amplicon sizes for meat cooked to high core temperatures.

  12. Consumers’ Attitude Towards Fish Meat

    PubMed Central

    Passantino, Annamaria; Longo, Sabrina; Voslářová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to show the factors that may affect consumers’ attitude towards farmed fish products. Consumers ask new products on the basis of different quality attributes: stability, safety, composition, better health effects, environment protection, etc. Different and controversial opinions on farmed and wild fish are also explored by literature review. The authors pay attention also to fish welfare as an emerging issue and effective information about fish products as a factor exerting a positive influence on consumers’ decision of purchase. Some relevant legislative notes on the paper’s topics are also cited. The qualitative aspects of aquaculture fish and the consumers’ demand and choice need further studies, according to some factors, such as the changing consumers’ attitudes towards fish products, the different fish quality perception and the development in the aquaculture systems. PMID:27800359

  13. Kinetics of pH and colour of meat emulsions containing various fillers during smokehouse cooking.

    PubMed

    Correia, L R; Mittal, G S

    1991-01-01

    The cooking kinetics of meat emulsions containing various fillers was determined by monitoring changes in pH and colour during smokehouse cooking. The fillers used were buttermilk powder, corn starch, microcrystallline cellulose, modified corn starch, modified wheat flour, soy-protein concentrate and whey-protein concentrate. The cooking process was modelled using reaction kinetics and Eyring's absolute reaction rate theory. Enthalpy and entropy changes of activation were calculated for various properties and fillers.

  14. Meat, Fish, and Poultry Processing Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchfield, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of industrial wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes studies on: (1) meat industry wastes; (2) fish-processing waste treatment; and (3) poultry-processing waste treatment. A list of 76 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Comparison of objective texture measurements in raw and cooked wooden breast meat.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler breast meat exhibiting the wooden breast condition is characterized as having an abnormally hard or rigid texture. The efficacy of using objective texture measurements to characterize the texture attributes of breast meat exhibiting this condition before and after cooking are not well under...

  16. Measuring changes in internal meat colour, colour lightness and colour opacity as predictors of cooking time.

    PubMed

    Pakula, Christiane; Stamminger, Rainer

    2012-03-01

    Consumers and cooks often assess the degree of doneness of roasted beef by the internal meat colour. Real-time colour measurement of the cooking process is therefore developed in order to determine the degree of doneness, and thus the end of the cooking process, by the internal meat colour. The colour values (X, Y, Z) provided by the true colour sensor show significant variation within initial values and end values. Change in colour lightness caused by the increase of meat colour opacity is dominant. Calculating the first deviation of the Y values (dY/dt) indicates that most rapid changes in lightness are within a temperature range of 42°C and 56°C. At this temperature, the degree of meat doneness is still assumed to be rare, but it is possible to predict the time needed from this point until the desired degree of doneness is reached.

  17. Quantification of peptides released during in vitro digestion of cooked meat.

    PubMed

    Sayd, T; Chambon, C; Santé-Lhoutellier, V

    2016-04-15

    We aimed to identify and quantify the peptides generated during in vitro digestion of cooked meat by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometer. A total of 940 non-redundant peptides in the gastric compartment and 989 non-redundant peptides in the intestinal compartment were quantified and identified. Among the 71 different proteins identified, 43 meat proteins were found in the two digestive compartments, 20 proteins were specific to the gastric compartment and 8 proteins to the intestinal compartment. In terms of estimation, the proteins involved in muscle contraction and structure were preferentially enzymatically hydrolyzed in the small intestine. The effect of cooking provided different but less clear patterns of digestion. To the best of our knowledge, this constitutes the highest number of peptides identified in beef meat digests and provides a comprehensive database for meat protein digestion associated with cooking conditions. Such quantitative and qualitative differences may have important nutritional consequences.

  18. Changes in Meat Quality Characteristics of the Sous-vide Cooked Chicken Breast during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the changes in meat quality characteristics of the sous vide cooked chicken breast during refrigerated storage at 4℃ for 14 d between before and after sous-vide cooking. Cooking loss and shear force were significantly increased, whereas expressible drip was significantly decreased along with reduction in the water holding capacity in both of two groups. Redness of meat juice was significantly (p<0.05) increased during storage, and considerably increased in the refrigerated samples after sous-vide cooked at the 7 to 10 d. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was significantly increased and was higher in the refrigerator stored chicken breast samples after sous-vide cooking. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value was significantly increased in both groups, but the VBN value of the stored raw meat sample before sous-vide cooking was increased at an early storage, while the VBN value of the stored sample after sous-vide cooking was increased gradually in this study. Total viable counts and coliform counts were significantly decreased during storage, and coliforms were not detected after 7 d of storage in both groups. Salmonella spp. was not detected during the whole studied period. The outcome of this research can provide preliminary data that could be used to apply for further study of chicken breast using sous-vide cooking method that could be attractive to consumers. PMID:26877635

  19. Dietary supplemented and meat-added antioxidants effect on the lipid oxidative stability of refrigerated and frozen cooked chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Avila-Ramos, F; Pro-Martínez, A; Sosa-Montes, E; Cuca-García, J Manuel; Becerril-Pérez, C; Figueroa-Velasco, J L; Ruiz-Feria, C A; Hernández-Cázares, A S; Narciso-Gaytán, C

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation of fatty acids decreases the quality and shelf-life of meats. To reduce this process, dietary supplemented and meat-added antioxidants were evaluated on the lipid oxidative stability of cooked chicken meat. Broilers were fed 2 levels of vitamin E (10 or 100 mg•kg(-1) of feed; VE-10 and VE-100, respectively) or oregano essential oil (100 mg•kg(-1) of feed; OR-100). Additionally, honey (3%) or butylated hydroxytoluene (0.02%; BHT) were added to chicken meat from the control treatment (VE-10). Breast meat was ground, formed into patties, and cooked on electric grills until it reached an internal temperature of 74°C. Cooked meat was cooled at room temperature, packaged, and stored under refrigeration for 9 d (4°C) or frozen for 45 d (-20°C). The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance test was used to quantify malondialdehyde (MDA) values in the meat. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design, 5 treatments with 12 replications each, and the least squares means were compared with 4 orthogonal contrasts. The results showed that the meat of the VE-10 treatment had higher values of MDA (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the other antioxidant treatments in all the storage days. There were no differences (P ≥ 0.05) in MDA values between the dietary supplemented and meat-added antioxidant treatments. The meat added with honey had lower MDA values than the one with BHT (P ≤ 0.05). Meat of the VE-100 treatment showed lower MDA values than the one of OR-100 (P ≤ 0.05) in most storage days. In conclusion, supplementation of 10 mg•kg(-1) of vitamin E to the diet resulted in a higher development of lipid oxidation in the meat. Both dietary supplemented or meat-added antioxidants had similar effects on the lipid oxidative stability. The addition of honey maintained longer the lipid oxidative stability of the meat than BHT. Finally, dietary supplementation of vitamin E at the same level of oregano oil, 100 mg•kg(-1), resulted in a higher antioxidant

  20. Bioaccessibility of Pb from Ammunition in Game Meat Is Affected by Cooking Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mateo, Rafael; Baos, Ana R.; Vidal, Dolors; Camarero, Pablo R.; Martinez-Haro, Monica; Taggart, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The presence of lead (Pb) ammunition residues in game meat has been widely documented, yet little information exists regarding the bioaccessibility of this Pb contamination. We study how cooking treatment (recipe) can affect Pb bioaccessibility in meat of animals hunted with Pb ammunition. Methodology/Principal Findings We used an in vitro gastrointestinal simulation to study bioaccessibility. The simulation was applied to meat from red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) hunted with Pb shot pellets and cooked using various traditional Spanish game recipes involving wine or vinegar. Total Pb concentrations in the meat were higher in samples with visible Pb ammunition by X-ray (mean±SE: 3.29±1.12 µg/g w.w.) than in samples without this evidence (1.28±0.61 µg/g). The percentage of Pb that was bioaccessible within the simulated intestine phase was far higher in meat cooked with vinegar (6.75%) and wine (4.51%) than in uncooked meat (0.7%). Risk assessment simulations using our results transformed to bioavailability and the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic model (IEUBK; US EPA) show that the use of wine instead of vinegar in cooking recipes may reduce the percentage of children that would be expected to have >10 µg/dl of Pb in blood from 2.08% to 0.26% when game meat represents 50% of the meat in diet. Conclusions/Significance Lead from ammunition in game meat is more bioaccessible after cooking, especially when using highly acidic recipes. These results are important because existing theoretical models regarding Pb uptake and subsequent risk in humans should take such factors into account. PMID:21264290

  1. The Effect of Thawing Condition for Frozen Fish Meats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Shuji; Osako, Kazufumi; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    The influence of thawing speed on denaturation of muscle protein and quality of several kinds frozen fish meat was studied by measuring Ca-ATPase activity, drip loss, and microscopic observation. Frozen bigeye tuna, chub mackerel, alaska pollack and yellow tail meat thawed at 10°C by air (slow thawing) and water (rapid thawing). Ca-ATPase activity of slow thawed fishes meat decreased than it of rapid thawed fishes meat. On the other hand drip loss of slow thawed fishes meat increased than it of rapid thawed fishes meat. Decreasing of Ca-ATPase activity showed a good linear relation to increasing of drip loss. Further, from microscopic observation, it was confirmed that muscle cells of slow thawed fishes meat were disrupted than it of rapid thawed samples. Therefore,it was suggested that rapid warming on thawing process is better to inhibit protein denaturation and drip loss.

  2. Burden of diseases estimates associated to different red meat cooking practices.

    PubMed

    Berjia, Firew Lemma; Poulsen, Morten; Nauta, Maarten

    2014-04-01

    The burden of disease estimate has been performed for diseases attributable to nutritional deficiency, foodborne pathogens, the environment, infection and other factors. However, the burden of disease estimate attributable to different food processing practices has not been investigated before. The aim of this study is to compare the burden of disease estimate attributed to red meat consumption processed using different cooking practices. The red meat cooking practices were categorized into three: (A) barbecuing/grilling; (B) frying/broiling and (C) roasting/baking. The associated endpoints, affected population, intake and dose-response data are obtained by literature survey. The selected endpoints are four types of cancer: colorectal, prostate, breast and pancreatic. The burden of disease per cooking practice, endpoint, sex and age is estimated in the Danish population, using disability adjusted life years (DALY) as a common health metric. The results reveal that the consumption of barbecued red meat is associated with the highest disease burden, followed by fried red meat and roasted red meat. The method used to quantify the difference in disease burden of different cooking practices can help to inform the consumer to make a choice on whether the benefit of a preferred cooking style is worth the associated health loss.

  3. A method for identification of frozen meat used for production of cooked ham.

    PubMed

    de Peña, M P; Cid, M C; Bello, J

    1998-03-01

    A simple method to distinguish if the meat used for production of cooked hams was frozen or unfrozen was developed. Several analytical parameters of quality in meat products (general and colour parameters and protein fraction) were determined in two types of cooked hams: one elaborated with refrigerated (R) and another with frozen and thawed (F/T) raw hams. Student's t-test was applied to compare both groups, but it could not be concluded if R and F/T cooked hams had the same quality or not. For this reason two multivariate statistical analyses, Factor (FA) and Discriminant Analysis (DA), were applied. The application of FA resulted in the separation of the two groups of cooked hams and allowed the selection of the parameters which were used in Discriminant Analysis (DA). A discriminant function, that is both easy to use and to interpret, was obtained.

  4. Effect of plant extracts on physicochemical properties of chicken breast meat cooked using conventional electric oven or microwave.

    PubMed

    Rababah, T M; Ereifej, K I; Al-Mahasneh, M A; Al-Rababah, M A

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of vacuum-infused fresh chicken breast meats with grape seed extracts, green tea extracts, or tertiary butyl hydroquinone on pH, texture, color, and thiobarbituric reactive substances after cooking using a microwave or conventional electric oven for 12 d storage at 5 degrees C. Thiobarbituric reactive substances values of uncooked (raw) chicken breast meats for 0 to 12 d of storage ranged from 1.12 to 3.5 mg of malonaldehyde/100 g of chicken. During 0 to 12 d of storage, thiobarbituric reactive substances values ranged from 2.50 to 7.80 and from 2.4 to 7.35 mg of malonaldehyde/100 g of chicken breast meat cooked by microwave and conventional electric oven, respectively. Meats cooked by microwave had higher redness and lower lightness values than those cooked by conventional electric oven. Also, meats cooked by microwave had higher maximum shear force, working of shear, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, and chewiness values than meats cooked by conventional electric oven. Tertiary butyl hydroquinone was the most effective in raw and cooked meats in reducing lipid oxidation, followed by grape seed and green tea extracts. Plant extracts are effective in preventing undesirable changes in chemical properties in chicken breast meat caused by microwave and conventional electric oven cooking.

  5. A metabolomic study of biomarkers of meat and fish intake.

    PubMed

    Cheung, William; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Assi, Nada; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rundle, Milena; Frost, Gary; Gibbons, Helena; Carr, Eibhlin; Brennan, Lorraine; Cross, Amanda J; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Mancini, Francesca; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Baglietto, Laura; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Scalbert, Augustin

    2017-03-01

    Background: Meat and fish intakes have been associated with various chronic diseases. The use of specific biomarkers may help to assess meat and fish intake and improve subject classification according to the amount and type of meat or fish consumed.Objective: A metabolomic approach was applied to search for biomarkers of meat and fish intake in a dietary intervention study and in free-living subjects from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Design: In the dietary intervention study, 4 groups of 10 subjects consumed increasing quantities of chicken, red meat, processed meat, and fish over 3 successive weeks. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected during each period and analyzed by high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Signals characteristic of meat or fish intake were replicated in 50 EPIC subjects for whom a 24-h urine sample and 24-h dietary recall were available and who were selected for their exclusive intake or no intake of any of the 4 same foods.Results: A total of 249 mass spectrometric features showed a positive dose-dependent response to meat or fish intake in the intervention study. Eighteen of these features best predicted intake of the 4 food groups in the EPIC urine samples on the basis of partial receiver operator curve analyses with permutation testing (areas under the curve ranging between 0.61 and 1.0). Of these signals, 8 metabolites were identified. Anserine was found to be specific for chicken intake, whereas trimethylamine-N-oxide showed good specificity for fish. Carnosine and 3 acylcarnitines (acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, and 2-methylbutyrylcarnitine) appeared to be more generic indicators of meat and meat and fish intake, respectively.Conclusion: The meat and fish biomarkers identified in this work may be used to study associations between meat and fish intake and disease risk in epidemiologic studies. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01684917.

  6. No effect of meat, meat cooking preferences, meat mutagens or heme iron on lung cancer risk in the prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer screening trial.

    PubMed

    Tasevska, Nataša; Cross, Amanda J; Dodd, Kevin W; Ziegler, Regina G; Caporaso, Neil E; Sinha, Rashmi

    2011-01-15

    Recent epidemiological studies have suggested that red and processed meat may increase the risk of lung cancer. Possible underlying mechanisms include mutagens produced during high-temperature cooking or preservation, or formed endogenously from heme iron in meat. We used data from 99,579 participants of both screened and nonscreened arms of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, aged 55-74 years, to investigate whether meat type, cooking method, doneness level, intake of specific meat mutagens 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline] (DiMeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P)] and heme iron are associated with lung cancer. Participants' diet was assessed prospectively using a 124-item food frequency questionnaire and an additional meat-cooking module. Dietary data were used in conjunction with a database to estimate intake of MeIQx, DiMeIQx, PhIP, B(a)P and heme iron. After up to 8 years of follow-up, 782 incident lung cancer cases were ascertained. Lung cancer risk was not associated with the consumption of either red (men: HR(Q₅ vs. Q₁) = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.79-1.56, P(trend) = 0.42; women: HR(Q₅ vs. Q₁) = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.87-1.95, P(trend) = 0.65) or processed meat (men: HR(Q₅ vs. Q₁1) = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.83-1.53, P(trend) = 0.22; women: HR(Q₅ vs. Q₁) = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.68-1.41, P(trend) = 0.32) in multivariable models. High-temperature cooking methods, level of meat doneness, meat mutagens and heme iron had no effect on lung cancer risk. In this population, we found no association between meat type, cooking method, doneness level or intake of specific meat mutagens or heme iron and lung cancer risk.

  7. Near-Infrared Surface Pasteurization to Eliminate Listeria monocytogenes on Cooked Chicken Breast Meat Surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to develop and evaluate a near-infrared (NIR) surface pasteurization process for decontamination of cooked ready-to-eat (RTE) meats to eliminate Listeria monocytogenes. An infrared heating device equipped with two fast-acting NIR-generating quartz lamps, an infrar...

  8. A New Automated Microwave Heating Process for Cooking and Pasteurization of Microwaveable Foods Containing Raw Meats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new microwave heating process was developed for cooking microwaveable foods containing raw meats. A commercially available inverter-based microwave oven was modified for pasteurization of mechanically tenderized beef, inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (~ 5 log cfu/g) and packaged in a 12 o...

  9. Assessing the performance of Clostridium perfringens cooling models for cooked, uncured meat and poultry products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat-resistant spores of C. perfringens may germinate and multiply in cooked meat and poultry products if the rate and extent of cooling does not occur in a timely manner. Therefore, six cooling models (PMP 7.0 broth model; PMIP Uncured Beef, Chicken, and Pork Models; Smith-Schaffner (version 3); a...

  10. Oropharyngeal tularemia in father and son after consumption of under-cooked rabbit meat.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic-Spasic, Marina; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Kostic, Velimir; Lako, Branislav; Spasic, Zivojin

    2011-12-01

    Tularemia has been recognized for more than 10 y in Serbia, since the first epidemic of tularemia occurred in Sokobanja region in 1999. We report 2 cases of oropharyngeal tularemia in a father and son after the consumption of under-cooked rabbit meat. Both presented with fever, unilateral tonsillopharyngitis and cervical lymphadenitis.

  11. Effect of different cooking methods on lipid oxidation and formation of volatile compounds in foal meat.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Rubén; Gómez, María; Fonseca, Sonia; Lorenzo, José M

    2014-06-01

    The influence of four different cooking methods (roasting, grilling, microwaving and frying) on cooking loss, lipid oxidation and volatile profile of foal meat was studied. Cooking loss were significantly (P<0.001) affected by thermal treatment, being higher (32.5%) after microwaving and lower after grilling (22.5%) and frying (23.8%). As expected, all the cooking methods increased TBARs content, since high temperature during cooking causes increased oxidation in foal steaks, this increase was significantly (P<0.001) higher when foal steaks were microwaved or roasted. The four different cooking methods led to increased total volatile compounds (between 366.7 and 633.1AU×10(6)/g dry matter) compared to raw steaks (216.4AU×10(6)/g dry matter). The roasted steaks showed the highest volatile content, indicating that increased cooking temperature increases the formation of volatile compounds. Aldehydes were the most abundant compounds in cooked samples, with amounts of 217.2, 364.5, 283.5 and 409.1AU×10(6)/g dry matter in grilled, microwaved, fried and roasted samples, respectively, whereas esters were the most abundant compounds in raw samples, with mean amounts of 98.8AU×10(6)/g dry matter.

  12. Thermal imaging during infrared final cooking of semi-processed cylindrical meat product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kor, Gamze; Icier, Filiz

    2016-11-01

    The temperature measurements during the infrared cooking of the semi-cooked cylindrical minced beef product (koefte) were taken by both contact (thermocouples) and non-contact (thermal imaging) techniques. The meat product was semi-cooked till its core temperature reached up to 75 °C by ohmic heating applied at 15.26 V/cm voltage gradient. Then, infrared cooking was applied as a final cooking method at different combinations of heat fluxes (3.7, 5.7 and 8.5 kW/m2), applied distances (10.5, 13.5 and 16.5 cm) and applied durations (4, 8 and 12 min). The average surface temperature increased as the heat flux and the applied duration increased but the applied distance decreased. The temperature distribution of the surface during infrared cooking was determined successfully by non-contact measurements. The temperature homogeneity varied between 0.77 and 0.86. The process condition of 8.5 kW/m2 for 8 min resulted in core temperature greater than 75 °C, which was essential for safe production of ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products. Thermal imaging was much more convenient method for minimizing the point measurement mistakes and determining temperature distribution images more clear and visual.

  13. Turmeric and black pepper spices decrease lipid peroxidation in meat patties during cooking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Henning, Susanne M; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2015-05-01

    Spices are rich in natural antioxidants and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation during cooking of meat. Turmeric contains unique conjugated curcuminoids with strong antioxidant activity. Piperine, one of the main constituents of black pepper, is known to increase the bioavailability of curcuminoids in mouse and human studies when consumed with turmeric. We investigated whether adding black pepper to turmeric powder may further inhibit lipid peroxidation when added to meat patties prior to cooking. The addition of black pepper to turmeric significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation in hamburger meat. When investigating the antioxidant activity of the main chemical markers, we determined that piperine did not exhibit any antioxidant activity. Therefore, we conclude that other black pepper ingredients are responsible for the increased antioxidant activity of combining black pepper with turmeric powder.

  14. Turmeric and black pepper spices decrease lipid peroxidation in meat patties during cooking

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanjun; Henning, Susanne M.; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Spices are rich in natural antioxidants and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation during cooking of meat. Turmeric contains unique conjugated curcuminoids with strong antioxidant activity. Piperine, one of the main constituents of black pepper, is known to increase the bioavailability of curcuminoids in mouse and human studies when consumed with turmeric. We investigated whether adding black pepper to turmeric powder may further inhibit lipid peroxidation when added to meat patties prior to cooking. The addition of black pepper to turmeric significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation in hamburger meat. When investigating the antioxidant activity of the main chemical markers, we determined that piperine did not exhibit any antioxidant activity. Therefore, we conclude that other black pepper ingredients are responsible for the increased antioxidant activity of combining black pepper with turmeric powder. PMID:25582173

  15. Modeling cooking of chicken meat in industrial tunnel ovens with the Flory-Rehner theory.

    PubMed

    van der Sman, R G M

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a numerical model describing the heat and mass transport during the cooking of chicken meat in industrial tunnels. The mass transport is driven by gradients in the swelling pressure, which is described by the Flory-Rehner theory, which relates to the water holding capacity (WHC). For cooking temperatures up to boiling point and practical relevant cooking times, the model renders good prediction of heat and mass transport and the total loss of moisture. We have shown that for cooking temperatures above boiling point, the model has to be extended with the dynamic growth of capillary water (drip) channels. Furthermore, we discuss that the Flory-Rehner theory provides the proper physical basis for describing the change of the WHC by a wide variety of factors like salt and pH.

  16. Detection and quantification of 4(5)-methylimidazole in cooked meat.

    PubMed

    Karim, Faris; Smith, J Scott

    2015-02-01

    4(5)-Methylimidazole (4-MeI) is a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compound found in class III and IV ammoniated caramel colors, a group of additives widely used in the food industry. A suspected carcinogen and neurotoxin and efforts are underway to limit its presence in foods. Several methods have been developed to detect and quantitate 4-MeI in different food matrices, including roasted coffee, beer, soft drinks, and soy sauce; however, no methods are available to measure 4-MeI in cooked meat and meat products containing lipids and high levels of interfering nitrogen compounds, such as amino acids and peptides. A rapid method using 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer (pH 5) as an extraction solvent followed by derivatization with isobutylchloroformate and gas chromatograph mass-spectrometry was developed to quantify 4-MeI in cooked meat products with added caramel colors containing 4-MeI. Selected ion monitoring mode was used to monitor 4-MeI ions fragments. In the 8 commercial meat products tested, 4-MeI levels ranged from 0.041 to 1.015 mg/kg, with recovery of 94.76% to 103.94%. In addition, a matrix-matched calibration performed by analyzing a spiked cooked meat sample indicated no significant difference (P > 0.05), which means the meat matrix had no effect on the developed method. This method proved useful in analyzing 4-MeI in meat products with added caramel color containing 4-MeI.

  17. Combined heat transfer and kinetic models to predict cooking loss during heat treatment of beef meat.

    PubMed

    Kondjoyan, Alain; Oillic, Samuel; Portanguen, Stéphane; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    2013-10-01

    A heat transfer model was used to simulate the temperature in 3 dimensions inside the meat. This model was combined with a first-order kinetic models to predict cooking losses. Identification of the parameters of the kinetic models and first validations were performed in a water bath. Afterwards, the performance of the combined model was determined in a fan-assisted oven under different air/steam conditions. Accurate knowledge of the heat transfer coefficient values and consideration of the retraction of the meat pieces are needed for the prediction of meat temperature. This is important since the temperature at the center of the product is often used to determine the cooking time. The combined model was also able to predict cooking losses from meat pieces of different sizes and subjected to different air/steam conditions. It was found that under the studied conditions, most of the water loss comes from the juice expelled by protein denaturation and contraction and not from evaporation.

  18. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.4 Cured or cooked meat from...

  19. Effect of different air/steam convection cooking methods on turkey breast meat: physical characterization, water status and sensory properties.

    PubMed

    Mora, B; Curti, E; Vittadini, E; Barbanti, D

    2011-07-01

    Turkey breast samples were cooked using a forced convection oven at three relative humidity levels (RH=8, 35 and 88%) at 100°C. Cooking parameters (temperature, cook value, and yield), textural and sensory properties as well as water status of the samples were evaluated. The application of different RH levels resulted in different cooking performances and cooked meat quality. Low steam cooking conditions (RH=35%) significantly increased cooking yield (7% higher than the high steam cooking), moisture content and water-holding capacity and had a positive effect on perceived tenderness, as shown by sensory analysis, where steam cooked samples were perceived as the most tender. The more mobile protons of (1)H T(2) (relaxing at times longer than 1s) in low steam samples were related to the higher perceived tenderness. Low steam cooking allowed for less water consumption, making this process an attractive cooking method as compared to high steam, as it also resulted in higher quality cooked turkey meat.

  20. Comparison of cook loss, shear force, and sensory descriptive profiles of boneless skinless white meat cooked from a frozen or thawed state.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Hong; Savage, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Four replications were conducted to compare quality measurements, cook loss, shear force, and sensory quality attributes of cooked boneless skinless white meat, broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major) prepared directly from a frozen state or prepared from a thawed state. In each replication, fresh broiler fillets (removed from carcasses 6-8 h postmortem) were procured from a local commercial processing plant and stored in a -20°C freezer until use. On the sensory evaluation date, fillets were cooked to an endpoint temperature of 78°C either directly from the frozen state (thawing during cooking) or after the frozen samples were thawed in a refrigerator (2°C) overnight (thawing before cooking). Cook loss and Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force were used as indicators for instrumental quality measurements. Sensory quality measurements were conducted by trained descriptive panelists using 0 to 15 universal intensity scales for 8 texture and 10 flavor attributes. Results show that there were no differences (P > 0.05) in measurements for sensory descriptive flavor attributes of cooked fillets between the 2 sample thawing methods, indicating that the sensory flavor profiles of both methods were similar to each other. However, WB shear force (36.98 N), cook loss (21.2%), sensory texture attributes of cohesiveness (intensity score was 5.59), hardness (5.14), rate of breakdown (5.50), and chewiness (5.21) of the breast fillets cooked directly from the frozen state were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the breast meat cooked after being thawed (30.56 N, 19.0%, 5.19, 4.78, 5.29, and 5.02, respectively). These results indicate that cookery directly from frozen boneless skinless white meat can result in different measurement values of cook loss, shear force, and sensory descriptive texture attributes compared with cookery after frozen fillets are thawed.

  1. Taste-active compound levels in Korean native chicken meat: The effects of bird age and the cooking process.

    PubMed

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Yong, Hae In; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-08-01

    The effects of bird age and the cooking process on the levels of several taste-active compounds, including inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), glutamic acid, cysteine, reducing sugars, as well as oleic, linoleic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), in the breast and leg meats from a certified meat-type commercial Korean native chicken (KNC) strain (Woorimatdag) were investigated. KNC cocks were raised under similar standard conditions at a commercial chicken farm, and breast and leg meats from birds of various ages (10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 wk; 10 birds/age group) were obtained. After raw and cooked meat samples were prepared, they were analyzed for the aforementioned taste-active compounds. Compared to the leg meat, KNC breast meat had higher levels of IMP, arachidonic acid, and DHA, but lower levels of the other taste-active compounds (P < 0.05). KNC meat lost significant amounts of all the taste-active compounds, excluding oleic and linoleic acids, during the cooking process (P < 0.05). However, bird age only had a minor effect on the levels of these taste-active compounds. The results of this study provide useful information regarding the levels of taste-active compounds in KNC meat from birds of different ages, and their fate during the cooking process. This information could be useful for selection and breeding programs, and for popularizing native chicken meat.

  2. Behavior of Psychrotrophic Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Spoiling Cooked Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Yoshikatsu; Ayaki, Mitsuko; Fuchu, Hidetaka; Sugiyama, Masaaki; Morita, Hidetoshi

    2003-01-01

    Three kinds of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from spoiling cooked meat products stored below 10°C. They were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, and Leuconostoc citreum. All three strains grew well in MRS broth at 10°C. In particular, L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and L. citreum grew even at 4°C, and their doubling times were 23.6 and 51.5 h, respectively. On the other hand, although the bacteria were initially below the detection limit (<10 CFU/g) in model cooked meat products, the bacterial counts increased to 108 CFU/g at 10°C after 7 to 12 days. PMID:12788779

  3. The effect of high pressure at subzero temperature on proteins solubility, drip loss and texture of fish (cod and salmon) and mammal's (pork and beef) meat.

    PubMed

    Malinowska-Pańczyk, Edyta; Walecka, Marta; Pawłowicz, Roman; Tylingo, Robert; Kołodziejska, Ilona

    2014-07-01

    One of the possibilities of using high-pressure technique in inactivation of microorganism is conducting this process at subzero temperature. However, for its practical application in meat preservation the appropriate properties of meat should be maintained. Therefore, the aim of this work was to examine the effect of pressure at subzero temperature (without freezing of water) on proteins and texture of mammal's and cold-adapted fish meat. The data showed that cod and salmon meat proteins were more susceptible to pressure-induced denaturation/aggregation than beef and pork proteins. Glucose and saccharose exerted protective effect on fish meat proteins treated with pressure of 111 MPa(tc) and -10 degrees C but not at 193 MPa(tc) and -20 degrees C. The pressure treatment under the latter conditions increased cook loss of fish meat but not of mammal's meat. However, after cooking the hardness of all kinds of pressurized meat was at the same level as that for unpressurized cooked samples.

  4. An experimental approach to identifying the genotoxic risk from cooked meat mutagens.

    PubMed

    Loprieno, N; Boncristiani, G; Loprieno, G

    1991-06-01

    In order to define the toxicological risk to the human population from the chemical compounds formed during the process of cooking animal meat, which have been described as possessing mutagenic, genotoxic and carcinogenic activities, an extensive study was undertaken of cooked meat extract and two cooked meat mutagens, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoxaline (MeIQx). The study involved toxicokinetics and mouse-tissue distribution studies of the two chemicals, in vitro and in vivo mutagenicity/genotoxicity analyses (i.e. the detection of gene mutations, chromosome aberrations and micronuclei in mouse bone marrow cells, and mouse urine and faeces mutagenicity tests), as well as in vivo protein and DNA binding assays. IQ and MeIQx were found to be positive for the induction of gene mutations in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, but not in Chinese hamster V79 cells; IQ only was found to be positive for the induction of chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells and cultured human lymphocytes. IQ and MeIQx were negative for the induction of micronuclei in mice treated with 40 mg chemical/kg body weight; the lowest effective dose administered to the mice that produced mutagenic urine was 0.4 mg IQ/kg body weight and 0.04 mg MeIQx/kg. A dose of 40 mg IQ/kg, given orally by gavage to mice, produced an excretion of 1-4% of the applied dose in the urine and 0.1-2% of the applied dose in the faeces, when evaluated chemically or mutagenically. The number of DNA adducts in the liver correlated with the dose of IQ or MeIQx administered to the mice. All the data have been used for defining a possible risk estimate to the human population as a consequence of a cooked meat diet.

  5. An experimental approach to identifying the genotoxic risk by cooked meat mutagens.

    PubMed

    Loprieno, N; Boncristiani, G; Loprieno, G

    1991-01-01

    In order to define the toxicological risk for the human population derived from the chemical compounds formed during the process of cooking animal meat, which have been described to possess a mutagenic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic activity, an extensive study has been developed on cooked meat extract and two cooked meat mutagens, IQ and MeIQx. The study has been based on toxicokinetics and mouse tissue distribution of the two chemicals, on in vitro and in vivo mutagenicity/genotoxicity analyses (gene mutation, chromosome aberration, micronuclea in mouse bone marrow cells, mice urine and faeces mutagenicity test), as well as in vivo protein and DNA binding. The two chemicals have been found positive for the induction of gene mutation on Salmonella, but not in V-79 Chinese hamster cells; IQ only has been found positive for the induction of chromosome aberrations on CHO cells and cultured human lymphocytes. IQ and MeIQx were negative for the induction of micronuclea in mice treated with 40 mg/kg of the chemicals; the lowest effective administered dose to the mice which produced mutagenic urine was 0.4 mg/kg of IQ and 0.04 mg/kg of MeIQx. A dose of 40 mg/kg of IQ given by gavage to mice produced an excretion of 1-4% of the applied dose in the urine and 0.1-2% of the applied dose in the faeces, when evaluated chemically or mutagenically. The DNA adducts for the liver were correlated with the dose of the IQ and MeIQx administered to the mice. All the data have been used for defining a possible risk estimate derived to the human population as a consequence of a cooked meat diet.

  6. Meat quality and cooking attributes of thawed pork with different low field NMR T(21).

    PubMed

    Li, Chunbao; Liu, Dengyong; Zhou, Guanghong; Xu, Xinglian; Qi, Jun; Shi, Peilei; Xia, Tianlan

    2012-10-01

    A relationship of low field NMR T(2) components to meat quality and cooking attributes of pork was investigated. Longissimus muscle was removed from 23 pig carcasses at 24h postmortem for meat quality measurements and cooking test. Frozen samples were classified into three groups by LF-NMR T(21) of thawed samples: A (<40ms), B (40-44ms) and C (>44ms). There were significant differences (P<0.05) in pH, lightness (L* value) and pressing loss among the three groups. Cooking time to attain 70°C was slightly lower in group C than the other groups. Shear force value of cooked samples was not affected by T(21). The component T(21) correlated (P<0.05) with L* value, muscle pH and pressing loss, while L* value correlated (P<0.05) with thawing loss and muscle pH. Therefore, combined LF-NMR and color measurements could be a good way to differentiate water holding capacity of pork.

  7. Effect of meat cooking on physicochemical state and in vitro digestibility of myofibrillar proteins.

    PubMed

    Santé-Lhoutellier, Veronique; Astruc, Thierry; Marinova, Penka; Greve, Eleonore; Gatellier, Philippe

    2008-02-27

    The effect of meat cooking was measured on myofibrillar proteins from bovine M. Rectus abdominis. The heating treatment involved two temperatures (100 degrees C during 5, 15, 30, and 45 min and 270 degrees C during 1 min). Protein oxidation induced by cooking was evaluated by the level of carbonyl and free thiol groups. Structural modifications of proteins were assessed by the measurement of their surface hydrophobicity and by their aggregation state. With the aim of evaluating the impact of heat treatment on the digestive process, myofibrillar proteins were then exposed to proteases of the digestive tract (pepsin, trypsin, and alpha-chymotrypsin) in conditions of pH and temperature that simulate stomach and duodenal digestion. Meat cooking affected myofibrillar protein susceptibility to proteases, with increased or decreased rates, depending on the nature of the protease and the time/temperature parameters. Results showed a direct and quantitative relationship between protein carbonylation (p<0.01) and aggregation (p<0.05) induced by cooking and proteolytic susceptibility to pepsin. However, no such correlations have been observed with trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin.

  8. Industrial wastes: meat, fish and poultry processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Litchfield, J.H.

    1980-06-01

    This article is a review of meat, fish and poultry processing wastes. Reviews on slaughterhouse and packinghouse wastewater treatment methods were mentioned together with processes for protein recovery from wastewater and wastewater treatment sludges.

  9. Meat-, fish-, and poultry-processing wastes. [Industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Litchfield, J.H.

    1982-06-01

    A review of the literature dealing with the effectiveness of various waste processing methods for meat-, fish,-, and poultry-processing wastes is presented. Activated sludge processes, anaerobic digestion, filtration, screening, oxidation ponds, and aerobic digestion are discussed.

  10. Meat species identification and Halal authentication using PCR analysis of raw and cooked traditional Turkish foods.

    PubMed

    Ulca, Pelin; Balta, Handan; Çağın, Ilknur; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2013-07-01

    The method performance characteristics of commercially available PCR kits for animal species identification were established. Comminuted meat products containing different levels of pork were prepared from authentic beef, chicken, and turkey. These meat products were analysed in the raw state and after cooking for 20 min at 200 °C. For both raw and cooked meats, the PCR kit could correctly identify the animal species and could reliably detect the addition of pork at a level below 0.1%. A survey of 42 Turkish processed meat products such as soudjouk, salami, sausage, meatball, cured spiced beef and doner kebap was conducted. Thirty-six samples were negative for the presence of pork (<0.1%) and four were found to be correctly labelled as containing pork. However, one sausage sample was labelled as containing 5% beef, but beef DNA was not detected and a meatball sample labelled as 100% beef was found to contain chicken. Another turkey meatball sample was predominantly chicken.

  11. Meat intake, cooking methods, dietary carcinogens, and colorectal cancer risk: findings from the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Amit D; Kim, Andre; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Potter, John D; Cotterchio, Michelle; Le Marchand, Loic; Stern, Mariana C

    2015-06-01

    Diets high in red meat and processed meats are established colorectal cancer (CRC) risk factors. However, it is still not well understood what explains this association. We conducted comprehensive analyses of CRC risk and red meat and poultry intakes, taking into account cooking methods, level of doneness, estimated intakes of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) that accumulate during meat cooking, tumor location, and tumor mismatch repair proficiency (MMR) status. We analyzed food frequency and portion size data including a meat cooking module for 3364 CRC cases, 1806 unaffected siblings, 136 unaffected spouses, and 1620 unaffected population-based controls, recruited into the CRC Family Registry. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for nutrient density variables were estimated using generalized estimating equations. We found no evidence of an association between total nonprocessed red meat or total processed meat and CRC risk. Our main finding was a positive association with CRC for pan-fried beefsteak (P(trend) < 0.001), which was stronger among MMR deficient cases (heterogeneity P = 0.059). Other worth noting associations, of borderline statistical significance after multiple testing correction, were a positive association between diets high in oven-broiled short ribs or spareribs and CRC risk (P(trend) = 0.002), which was also stronger among MMR-deficient cases, and an inverse association with grilled hamburgers (P(trend) = 0.002). Our results support the role of specific meat types and cooking practices as possible sources of human carcinogens relevant for CRC risk.

  12. Fish, shellfish, and meat meals of the public in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Fleischer, Jennifer; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-07-01

    Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component of the assessment of risk from contaminants in fish. While there have been extensive studies of fish consumption in Western cultures, less attention has been devoted to the role of fish and meat in the diets of people in other cultures. A survey of 212 people living in Singapore was conducted to examine the relative importance of fish, shellfish, and other meat in their diets and to ascertain whether there were differences as a function of age, income, education or gender. As expected, fish and shellfish played an important role in their daily diets. On average, people ate fish in about 10 meals a week, chicken for eight meals, and shrimp and pork for about six meals each. While nearly 8% never ate fish, 18% ate fish at all 21 meals a week and over 20% ate shellfish for all 21 meals. Income explained about 14% of the variation in the number of fish meals consumed, and age explained about 8% of the variation in number of chicken meals per week. There were no gender differences in the number of meals of each type. People less than 26 years old ate significantly more pork, chicken, and other meat meals and fewer shellfish meals than older people. People with higher incomes ate significantly more fish meals than those with lower incomes. Chinese individuals ate significantly more meals of pork, chicken, and other meat than other ethnic groups, and they ate only 26% of their meals at home, while others ate 33% of their meals at home. The data indicate a great deal of variation in the number of meals of fish, shellfish, and other meats eaten by the people interviewed, making dietary and risk assessments challenging.

  13. Assessing the Performance of Clostridium perfringens Cooling Models for Cooked, Uncured Meat and Poultry Products.

    PubMed

    Mohr, T B; Juneja, V K; Thippareddi, H H; Schaffner, D W; Bronstein, P A; Silverman, M; Cook, L V

    2015-08-01

    Heat-resistant spores of Clostridium perfringens may germinate and multiply in cooked meat and poultry products when the rate and extent of cooling does not occur in a timely manner. Therefore, six cooling models (PMP 7.0 broth model; PMIP uncured beef, chicken, and pork models; Smith-Schaffner version 3; and UK IFR ComBase Perfringens Predictor) were evaluated for relative performance in predicting growth of C. perfringens under dynamic temperature conditions encountered during cooling of cooked, uncured meat and poultry products. The predicted growth responses from the models were extensively compared with those observed in food. Data from 188 time-temperature cooling profiles (176 for single-rate exponential cooling and 12 for dual-rate exponential cooling) were collected from 17 independent sources (16 peer-reviewed publications and one report) for model evaluation. Data were obtained for a variety of cooked products, including meat and poultry slurries, ground meat and poultry products with and without added ingredients (e.g., potato starch, sodium triphosphate, and potassium tetrapyrophosphate), and processed products such as ham and roast beef. Performance of the models was evaluated using three sets of criteria, and accuracy was defined within a 1- to 2-log range. The percentages of accurate, fail-safe, or fail-dangerous predictions for each cooling model differed depending on which criterion was used to evaluate the data set. Nevertheless, the combined percentages of accurate and fail-safe predictions based on the three performance criteria were 34.66 to 42.61% for the PMP 7.0 beef broth model, 100% for the PMIP cooling models for uncured beef, uncured pork and uncured chicken, 80.11 to 93.18% for the Smith-Schaffner cooling model, and 74.43 to 85.23% for the UK IFR ComBase Perfringens Predictor model during single-rate exponential chilling. Except for the PMP 7.0 broth model, the other five cooling models (PMIP, Smith-Schaffner, and UK IFR ComBase) are

  14. Mutagenic aromatic amines formed from cooking meat, metabolism and their possible significance to human health

    SciTech Connect

    Turteltaub, K.W.; Felton, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aminoimidozaarene (AIA) compounds are thought to be present in cooked meat, but as yet, have not been identified due to low mutagenic potency and mass amounts. Work is currently underway in our laboratory to identify mutagenic members of this class of compounds utilizing different methodology. We have recently developed six monoclonal antibodies named IQ-1, IQ-2, AIA-1, AIA-2, AIA-4, and AIA-7 which have shown promise in immunoassays specific for cooked food mutagens. Each of the antibodies has it's own selectivity profile for the mutagens resulting in some antibodies which are compound specific and some which are specific for the entire AIA class. We demonstrated the utility of these antibodies by showing that a high-mutagen extract of cooked meat had much more immunologically cross-reactive components than a low-mutagen extract. These antibodies also cross-react with mouse microsomal metabolites of 4,8-DiMeIQx. We hope to use these antibodies to help isolate previously unidentified members of the AIA class and to screen food items for specific mutagenic components. 27 refs.

  15. Volatile organic compound analysis in wood combustion and meat cooking emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinska, B.; McDonald, J.

    1999-07-01

    Residential wood combustion and meat cooking emissions were each analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC). Emissions were diluted 60--100 times, cooled to ambient temperature, and allowed 80 seconds for condensation prior to collection with the aid of a DRI-constructed dilution stack sampler. Fireplace and wood-stove emissions testing was conducted at the DRI facilities. Wood type, wood moisture, burn rate, and fuel load were varied for different experiments. Meat emissions testing was conducted at the CE-CERT stationary emissions lab, University of California, Riverside. Meat type, fat content, and cooking appliance were changed in different tests. VOCs were collected using stainless-steel 6 L canisters and Tenax cartridges, whereas for carbonyl compound collection 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-impregnated C{sub 18} SepPack cartridges were used. Analysis of VOC collected with canisters and Tenax cartridges was conducted by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) and by GC/FID/ECD (flame ionization detection/electron capture detection). DNPH-impregnated cartridges were analyzed for fourteen C{sub 1}--C{sub 7} carbonyl compounds, using the HPLC method. The results of these measurements are discussed.

  16. Design and testing of small scale fish meat bone separator useful for fish processing.

    PubMed

    Ali Muhammed, M; Manjunatha, N; Murthy, K Venkatesh; Bhaskar, N

    2015-06-01

    The present study relates to the food processing machinery and, more specifically machine for producing boneless comminuted meat from raw fish fillet. This machine is of belt and drum type meat bone separator designed for small scale fish processing in a continuous mode. The basic principal involved in this machine is compression force. The electric geared motor consists of 1HP and the conveyor belt has a linear velocity of 19 to 22 m min(-1), which was sufficient to debone the fish effectively. During the meat bone separation trials an efficiency up to 75 % on dressed fish weight basis was observed and with a capacity to separate 70 kg h(-1) of meat from fish at the machine speed of 25 rpm. During the trials, it was demonstrated that there was no significant change in the proximate composition of comminuted fish meat when compared to unprocessed fish meat. This design has a greater emphasis on hygiene, provision for cleaning-in-place (CIP) and gives cost effective need and reliability for small scale industries to produce fish meat in turn used for their value added products.

  17. Muscle composition slightly affects in vitro digestion of aged and cooked meat: identification of associated proteomic markers.

    PubMed

    Bax, M-L; Sayd, T; Aubry, L; Ferreira, C; Viala, D; Chambon, C; Rémond, D; Santé-Lhoutellier, V

    2013-02-15

    Meat is an appropriate source of proteins and minerals for human nutrition. Technological treatments modify the physical-chemical properties of proteins, making them liable to decrease the nutritional potential of meat. To counteract this damage, antioxidants and chaperone proteins in muscle cells can prevent oxidation, restore the function of denatured proteins, and thus prevent aggregation. This study aimed to explore the impact of indoor vs outdoor-reared meat protein composition on digestion and to associate protein markers to in vitro digestion parameters. Indoor-reared meat tended to show less oxidation and denaturation than outdoor-reared meat and was characterised by an overexpression of contractile and chaperone proteins. Outdoor-reared meat showed amplification of antioxidant and detoxification metabolism defending against oxidised compounds. Impacts on digestion remained minor. Several protein markers of in vitro digestion parameters were found for aged and cooked meat, linked to the detoxification process and to muscle contraction.

  18. Cooking fish is not effective in reducing exposure to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Zhang, Xianming; Guo, Rui; Braekevelt, Eric; Petro, Steve; Gandhi, Nilima; Reiner, Eric J; Lee, Holly; Bronson, Roni; Tittlemier, Sheryl A

    2014-05-01

    Consumption of fish is considered a part of a healthy diet; however, health risks from fish consumption exist due to potential exposure to various contaminants accumulated in fish. Cooking fish can reduce exposure to many organic chemicals in fish. Similar results have been presented for low levels of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), a class of contaminants of emerging concern, in grocery store fish. We examined the effectiveness of three cooking methods (i.e., baking, broiling, and frying) on reducing PFAS levels in four sport fish species. Samples of Chinook salmon, common carp, lake trout and walleye were collected from four rivers in Ontario, Canada and skin-off fillets were analyzed for regular groups of PFASs such as perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), as well as perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids (PFPAs), perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids (PFPIAs) and polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAPs), which are PFASs of emerging concern. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFAS detected and the concentrations were more than an order of magnitude higher than those reported for fish from grocery stores in Canada, Spain, and China. Although concentrations of PFOS in fish fillets generally increase after cooking, amounts of PFOS largely remain unchanged. Relatively minor differences in changes in the fish PFAS amounts after cooking depended on fish species and cooking method used. We conclude that cooking sport fish is generally not an effective approach to reduce dietary exposure to PFASs, especially PFOS.

  19. Comparison of flavor changes in cooked-refrigerated beef, pork and chicken meat patties.

    PubMed

    Rhee, K S; Anderson, L M; Sams, A R

    2005-10-01

    Beef and pork longissimus dorsi (LD) and semimembranosus (SM) and chicken breast (B) and thigh (T) muscles excised 24 h postmortem were ground by muscle/species group, formed into patties, pan-fried, refrigerated for 0, 3 or 6 days, and evaluated by a trained sensory panel for intensity of specific flavors. The rate of decline in species-specific natural meat flavor intensity and the rate of increase in "cardboard" (CBD) flavor intensity during the first half of the 6-day storage were fastest for beef, while such decline and increase during the entire storage period were slowest for chicken B. Overall trends of natural meat flavor and CBD intensity changes for chicken T appeared more like those for the red meats than chicken B. It was concluded that, while flavor deterioration can occur in cooked-stored meats from all the species, quantitative or the magnitude of differences between species would depend on muscle types and sensory terms/method used.

  20. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation of Raw and Cooked Meat of Korean Native Chickens and Other Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Muhlisin; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Ji Hye; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe antioxidant enzyme activity, iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chickens and other poultry. The breast and thigh meat of three Korean native chicken breeds including Woorimatdak, Hyunin black and Yeonsan ogye, and three commercial poultry breeds including the broiler, White Leghorn and Pekin duck (Anasplatyrhyncos domesticus) were studied. The analyses of the antioxidant enzymes activity, iron content and lipid oxidation were performed in raw and cooked samples. The activity of catalase (CAT) in the thigh meat was higher than that of the breast meat of three Korean native chickens and the broiler, respectively. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the uncooked thigh meat of three Korean native chickens was higher than that of the breasts. The breast meat of Woorimatdak and Pekin duck had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than the others, while only the thigh meat of Pekin duck had the highest activity. Cooking inactivated CAT and decreased the activity of GPx and SOD. The thigh meat of Woorimatdak, White Leghorn, Yeonsan ogye and Hyunin black contained more total iron than the breast meat of those breeds. The heme-iron lost during cooking ranged from 3.2% to 14.8%. It is noted that the thigh meat had higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values than the breast in all chicken breeds. Though Woorimatdak showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and lower released-iron percentage among Korean native chickens, no differences were found on lipid oxidation. We confirm that the dark meat of poultry exhibited higher antioxidant enzyme activity and contained more iron than the white meat. PMID:26954148

  1. Detection of the end point temperature of thermal denatured protein in fish and chicken meat through SDS-PAGE electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hongwei; Mao, Mao; Liang, Chengzhu; Lin, Chao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2009-03-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was applied in the detection of the end point temperature (EPT) of thermal denatured protein in fish and meat in this study. It was also used in studying the thermal denatured temperature range of proteins in salmon and chicken meat. The results show that the temperature ranges of denatured proteins were from 65°C to 75°C, and these temperature ranges were influenced by the processing methods. Through SDS-PAGE, the features of repeated heating thermal denatured proteins under the same temperature and processing time were studied. The electrophoresis patterns of thermal denatured proteins determined through repeated heating at the same temperature did not exhibit any change. For the detection of cooked fish and meat samples, they were subjected to applying the SDS-PAGE method, which revealed an EPT ranging from 60°C to 80°C.

  2. Consumption of Red Meat, but Not Cooking Oils High in Polyunsaturated Fat, Is Associated with Higher Arachidonic Acid Status in Singapore Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Seah, Jowy Yi Hoong; Gay, Gibson Ming Wei; Su, Jin; Tai, E-Shyong; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Ong, Choon Nam; van Dam, Rob M

    2017-01-31

    High arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 n - 6) status may have adverse effects on inflammation and risk of cardiovascular diseases. Concerns about high intake of n - 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are based on the premise that endogenous conversion from linoleic acid (LA; 18:2 n - 6) is an important source of AA, but few population-based studies have investigated dietary determinants of AA status. In this study, we examined habitual food consumption in relation to plasma concentrations of AA and other PUFAs in population-based studies. We used cross-sectional data from 269 healthy, ethnic Chinese participants (25-80 years old) with contrasting intakes of fish and red meat from the Singapore Prospective Study Program and 769 healthy participants (44-74 years old) from the Singapore Chinese Health Study as a validation set. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine PUFA intake (% energy) and food sources of PUFA (fish, red meat, poultry, soy and cooking oils) in relation to plasma PUFAs (AA, LA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3 n - 6), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 n - 3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n - 3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n - 3)) concentrations. Higher intake of red meat was associated with higher plasma AA concentrations. High intake of PUFA or PUFA-rich oils was associated with higher plasma ALA but not with plasma AA. Higher intakes of soy were associated with higher ALA and fish with higher DHA and EPA concentrations. These associations were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in both studies. Red meat consumption, but not PUFA or PUFA-rich cooking oil, was associated with circulating AA suggesting that intake of pre-formed AA rather than LA is an important determinant of AA status. A diet high in fish, soy products and polyunsaturated cooking oil, and low in red meat may be associated with an optimal plasma profile of PUFA in this Chinese population.

  3. Consumption of Red Meat, but Not Cooking Oils High in Polyunsaturated Fat, Is Associated with Higher Arachidonic Acid Status in Singapore Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Seah, Jowy Yi Hoong; Gay, Gibson Ming Wei; Su, Jin; Tai, E-Shyong; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Ong, Choon Nam; van Dam, Rob M.

    2017-01-01

    High arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) status may have adverse effects on inflammation and risk of cardiovascular diseases. Concerns about high intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are based on the premise that endogenous conversion from linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6) is an important source of AA, but few population-based studies have investigated dietary determinants of AA status. In this study, we examined habitual food consumption in relation to plasma concentrations of AA and other PUFAs in population-based studies. We used cross-sectional data from 269 healthy, ethnic Chinese participants (25–80 years old) with contrasting intakes of fish and red meat from the Singapore Prospective Study Program and 769 healthy participants (44–74 years old) from the Singapore Chinese Health Study as a validation set. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine PUFA intake (% energy) and food sources of PUFA (fish, red meat, poultry, soy and cooking oils) in relation to plasma PUFAs (AA, LA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3n-6), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3)) concentrations. Higher intake of red meat was associated with higher plasma AA concentrations. High intake of PUFA or PUFA-rich oils was associated with higher plasma ALA but not with plasma AA. Higher intakes of soy were associated with higher ALA and fish with higher DHA and EPA concentrations. These associations were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in both studies. Red meat consumption, but not PUFA or PUFA-rich cooking oil, was associated with circulating AA suggesting that intake of pre-formed AA rather than LA is an important determinant of AA status. A diet high in fish, soy products and polyunsaturated cooking oil, and low in red meat may be associated with an optimal plasma profile of PUFA in this Chinese population. PMID:28146136

  4. Meat and fish consumption and cancer in Canada.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinfu; La Vecchia, Carlo; DesMeules, Marie; Negri, Eva; Mery, Les

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined the association between meat and fish intake and the risk of various cancers. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 19,732 incident, histologically confirmed cases of cancer of the stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, lung, breast, ovary, prostate, testis, kidney, bladder, brain, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), and leukemia and 5,039 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in 8 Canadian provinces. Measurement included information on socioeconomic status, lifestyle habits, and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire provided data on eating habits 2 yr before data collection. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were derived through unconditional logistic regression. Total meat and processed meat were directly related to the risk of stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, lung, breast (mainly postmenopausal), prostate, testis, kidney, bladder, and leukemia. Red meat was significantly associated with colon, lung (mainly in men), and bladder cancer. No relation was observed for cancer of the ovary, brain, and NHL. No consistent excess risk emerged for fish and poultry, which were inversely related to the risk of a number of cancer sites. These findings add further evidence that meat, specifically red and processed meat, plays an unfavorable role in the risk of several cancers. Fish and poultry appear to be favorable diet indicators.

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids, nutrient retention values, and sensory meat eating quality in cooked and raw Australian lamb.

    PubMed

    Flakemore, Aaron Ross; Malau-Aduli, Bunmi Sherifat; Nichols, Peter David; Malau-Aduli, Aduli Enoch Othniel

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated omega-3 intramuscular fatty acids in the longissimus thoracis et lumborum of commercially prepared Australian lamb loin chops. Meats, denuded of external fats were cooked by means of conductive dry-heat using a fry grilling hot plate, to a core temperature of 70°C. An untrained consumer panel assessed meat appearance, aroma, tenderness, juiciness, taste and overall liking. Results showed no compositional alterations (P>0.05) to omega-3 fatty acids due to cooking treatment, whereas on absolute terms (mg/100g muscle) omega-3 fatty acids significantly (P<0.05) increased. The mean EPA+DHA content of the cooked meat at 32.8±2.3mg/100g muscle exceeded the minimum 30mg/100g per edible portion required for the defined Australian classification as 'source' long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 for cooked lamb. A 3.4% intramuscular fat content in the initial raw meat was sufficient to maintain acceptable overall sensory eating quality. Results endorse the application of this cooking method to enable delivery of health beneficial long-chain omega-3 fatty acids of commercially prepared Australian lamb loin chops to consumers without impediments to sensory eating properties.

  6. Bioactive Peptides from Muscle Sources: Meat and Fish

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Joseph Thomas; Ross, Reynolds Paul; Bolton, Declan; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Stanton, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive peptides have been identified in a range of foods, including plant, milk and muscle, e.g., beef, chicken, pork and fish muscle proteins. Bioactive peptides from food proteins offer major potential for incorporation into functional foods and nutraceuticals. The aim of this paper is to present an outline of the bioactive peptides identified in the muscle protein of meat to date, with a focus on muscle protein from domestic animals and fish. The majority of research on bioactives from meat sources has focused on angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant peptides. PMID:22254123

  7. Antioxidant Effect of Extracts from the Coffee Residue in Raw and Cooked Meat

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Ahn, Dong Uk; Eun, Jong Bang; Moon, Sun Hee

    2016-01-01

    The residue of ground coffee obtained after the brewing process (spent coffee) still contains various functional components with high antioxidant capacity and health benefits, but no attempts have been made to use it as a resource to produce value-added food ingredients. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of ethanol or hot water extracts from the residues of coffee after brewing. An extraction experiment was carried out using the conventional solid–liquid methods, including ethanol and water as the extraction media at different temperatures and liquid/solid ratios. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested for total phenolic compound (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) using oil emulsion and raw/cooked meat systems. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extracts with heating (HEE) and without heating (CEE) were higher than that of the hot water extracts (WE). The highest DPPH value of HEE and CEE at 1000 ppm was 91.22% and 90.21%, respectively. In oil emulsion and raw/cooked systems, both the water and ethanol extracts had similar antioxidant effects to the positive control (BHA), but HEE and CEE extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than WE extract. These results indicated that the ethanol extracts of coffee residue have a strong antioxidant activity and have the potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat. PMID:27384587

  8. Capillarity proposed as the predominant mechanism of water and fat stabilization in cooked comminuted meat batters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjie; Lanier, Tyre C; Osborne, Jason A

    2016-01-01

    Fat- and nonfat-containing meat gels structurally became coarser and porous by partial substitution of whey protein isolate for myofibrillar protein, creating a weaker texture plus greater cook loss (CL: fat+water) and expressible water (EW). Microstructure examinations revealed a tendency for fat to coalesce during cooking of the more coarse-structured gels. This tendency was unaffected by fat pre-emulsification prior to addition, arguing against a strong role of an interfacial protein film in stabilizing fat. Instead, a gel structure with evenly distributed small pores leads to lower CL and EW, thus controlling both water- and fat- holding since fat cannot readily permeate small water-filled hydrophilic pores. Only when large pores or continuous fissures are structurally present can water be released, allowing liquid fat to also migrate and coalesce. This changes the current paradigm of understanding regarding the mechanism of fat/water-holding in comminuted meat products: gel capillarity (gel structure), not fat emulsifying ability of protein, is the likely determining factor.

  9. Antioxidant Effect of Extracts from the Coffee Residue in Raw and Cooked Meat.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Ahn, Dong Uk; Eun, Jong Bang; Moon, Sun Hee

    2016-07-04

    The residue of ground coffee obtained after the brewing process (spent coffee) still contains various functional components with high antioxidant capacity and health benefits, but no attempts have been made to use it as a resource to produce value-added food ingredients. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of ethanol or hot water extracts from the residues of coffee after brewing. An extraction experiment was carried out using the conventional solid-liquid methods, including ethanol and water as the extraction media at different temperatures and liquid/solid ratios. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested for total phenolic compound (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) using oil emulsion and raw/cooked meat systems. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extracts with heating (HEE) and without heating (CEE) were higher than that of the hot water extracts (WE). The highest DPPH value of HEE and CEE at 1000 ppm was 91.22% and 90.21%, respectively. In oil emulsion and raw/cooked systems, both the water and ethanol extracts had similar antioxidant effects to the positive control (BHA), but HEE and CEE extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than WE extract. These results indicated that the ethanol extracts of coffee residue have a strong antioxidant activity and have the potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat.

  10. Cooking temperature is a key determinant of in vitro meat protein digestion rate: investigation of underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bax, Marie-Laure; Aubry, Laurent; Ferreira, Claude; Daudin, Jean-Dominique; Gatellier, Philippe; Rémond, Didier; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2012-03-14

    The present study aimed to evaluate the digestion rate and nutritional quality of pig muscle proteins in relation to different meat processes (aging, mincing, and cooking). Under our experimental conditions, aging and mincing had little impact on protein digestion. Heat treatments had different temperature-dependent effects on the meat protein digestion rate and degradation potential. At 70 °C, the proteins underwent denaturation that enhanced the speed of pepsin digestion by increasing enzyme accessibility to protein cleavage sites. Above 100 °C, oxidation-related protein aggregation slowed pepsin digestion but improved meat protein overall digestibility. The digestion parameters defined here open new insights on the dynamics governing the in vitro digestion of meat protein. However, the effect of cooking temperature on protein digestion observed in vitro needs to be confirmed in vivo.

  11. Proteomic Investigation of Protein Profile Changes and Amino Acid Residue Level Modification in Cooked Lamb Meat: The Effect of Boiling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tzer-Yang; Morton, James D; Clerens, Stefan; Dyer, Jolon M

    2015-10-21

    Hydrothermal treatment (heating in water) is a common method of general food processing and preparation. For red-meat-based foods, boiling is common; however, how the molecular level effects of this treatment correlate to the overall food properties is not yet well-understood. The effects of differing boiling times on lamb meat and the resultant cooking water were here examined through proteomic evaluation. The longer boiling time was found to result in increased protein aggregation involving particularly proteins such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, as well as truncation in proteins such as in α-actinin-2. Heat-induced protein backbone cleavage was observed adjacent to aspartic acid and asparagine residues. Side-chain modifications of amino acid residues resulting from the heating, including oxidation of phenylalanine and formation of carboxyethyllysine, were characterized in the cooked samples. Actin and myoglobin bands from the cooked meat per se remained visible on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, even after significant cooking time. These proteins were also found to be the major source of observed heat-induced modifications. This study provides new insights into molecular-level modifications occurring in lamb meat proteins during boiling and a protein chemistry basis for better understanding the effect of this common treatment on the nutritional and functional properties of red-meat-based foods.

  12. Effects of Tannic Acid on Lipid and Protein Oxidation, Color, and Volatiles of Raw and Cooked Chicken Breast Meat during Storage.

    PubMed

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-06-13

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tannic acid (TA) on the oxidative stability and the quality characteristics of ground chicken breast meat. Five treatments including (1) control (none added), (2) 2.5 ppm TA, (3) 5 ppm TA, (4) 10 ppm TA, and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were added to boneless, skinless ground chicken breast meat, and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For the raw meat study, the ground chicken breast meat was packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored at 4 °C for 7 days. For the cooked study, raw ground meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags, cooked in-bag to the internal temperature of 75 °C, re-packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, and then stored. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, color, and volatiles (cooked meat only) at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Raw meats with 10 ppm of TA added had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower lipid and protein oxidation than other treatments during storage. In addition, TA at 10 ppm level maintained the highest color a*- and L*-values during storage. Cooked chicken breast meat with 5 and 10 ppm TA added produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower amounts of off-odor volatiles than other treatments. Among the volatile compounds, the amount of hexanal increased rapidly during storage for cooked meat. However, meats with 5 and 10 ppm TA added showed the lowest amount of hexanal and other aldehydes related to lipid oxidation, indicating a strong antioxidant effect of TA in cooked chicken breast meat. Furthermore, the differences in aldehydes among the treatments were bigger in cooked than in raw meat, indicating that the antioxidant effect of TA in cooked meat was greater than that in raw meat. Therefore, TA at >5 ppm can be used as a good natural preservative in cooked chicken meat to maintain its quality during storage.

  13. Effects of Tannic Acid on Lipid and Protein Oxidation, Color, and Volatiles of Raw and Cooked Chicken Breast Meat during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tannic acid (TA) on the oxidative stability and the quality characteristics of ground chicken breast meat. Five treatments including (1) control (none added), (2) 2.5 ppm TA, (3) 5 ppm TA, (4) 10 ppm TA, and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were added to boneless, skinless ground chicken breast meat, and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For the raw meat study, the ground chicken breast meat was packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored at 4 °C for 7 days. For the cooked study, raw ground meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags, cooked in-bag to the internal temperature of 75 °C, re-packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, and then stored. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, color, and volatiles (cooked meat only) at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Raw meats with 10 ppm of TA added had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower lipid and protein oxidation than other treatments during storage. In addition, TA at 10 ppm level maintained the highest color a*- and L*-values during storage. Cooked chicken breast meat with 5 and 10 ppm TA added produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower amounts of off-odor volatiles than other treatments. Among the volatile compounds, the amount of hexanal increased rapidly during storage for cooked meat. However, meats with 5 and 10 ppm TA added showed the lowest amount of hexanal and other aldehydes related to lipid oxidation, indicating a strong antioxidant effect of TA in cooked chicken breast meat. Furthermore, the differences in aldehydes among the treatments were bigger in cooked than in raw meat, indicating that the antioxidant effect of TA in cooked meat was greater than that in raw meat. Therefore, TA at >5 ppm can be used as a good natural preservative in cooked chicken meat to maintain its quality during storage. PMID:27304971

  14. A review and meta-analysis of prospective studies of red and processed meat, meat cooking methods, heme iron, heterocyclic amines and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Bylsma, Lauren C; Alexander, Dominik D

    2015-12-21

    Prostate cancer remains a significant public health concern among men in the U.S. and worldwide. Epidemiologic studies have generally produced inconclusive results for dietary risk factors for prostate cancer, including consumption of red and processed meats. We aimed to update a previous meta-analysis of prospective cohorts of red and processed meats and prostate cancer with the inclusion of new and updated cohort studies, as well as evaluate meat cooking methods, heme iron, and heterocyclic amine (HCA) intake exposure data. A comprehensive literature search was performed and 26 publications from 19 different cohort studies were included. Random effects models were used to calculate summary relative risk estimates (SRREs) for high vs. low exposure categories. Additionally, meta-regression analyses and stratified intake analyses were conducted to evaluate dose-response relationships. The SRREs for total prostate cancer and total red meat consumption, fresh red meat consumption, and processed meat consumption were 1.02 (95% CI: 0.92-1.12), 1.06 (95% CI: 0.97-1.16), and 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01-1.10), respectively. Analyses were also conducted for the outcomes of non-advanced, advanced, and fatal prostate cancer when sufficient data were available, but these analyses did not produce significant results. No significant SRREs were observed for any of the meat cooking methods, HCA, or heme iron analyses. Dose-response analyses did not reveal significant patterns of associations between red or processed meat and prostate cancer. In conclusion, the results from our analyses do not support an association between red meat or processed consumption and prostate cancer, although we observed a weak positive summary estimate for processed meats.

  15. Ochratoxin A in raw materials and cooked meat products made from OTA-treated pigs.

    PubMed

    Perši, Nina; Pleadin, Jelka; Kovačević, Dragan; Scortichini, Giampiero; Milone, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine ochratoxin A (OTA) concentrations in the raw materials and cooked meat products made from pigs sub-chronically exposed to OTA. The treated animal group (n=5) was administered with 300 μg OTA/kg of feed for 30 days, whereas the control group (n=5) was left untreated. OTA concentrations were quantified using immunoassay (ELISA) and high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD). OTA concentration was the highest in the kidney, followed by the lungs, liver, blood, spleen, heart, and adipose tissue. As for the final meat products, the highest average OTA concentration was detected in black pudding sausages (14.02±2.75 μg/kg), then in liver sausages (13.77±3.92 μg/kg), while the lowest was found in pâté (9.33±2.66 μg/kg). The results pointed out that a sub-chronic pig exposure leads to the accumulation of OTA in raw materials and consequently in meat products, whose level of contamination is directly dependent on OTA contents in raw materials used for their production.

  16. Analysis and Optimization of the Production Process of Cooked Sausage Meat Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, L.; Rauh, C.; Delgado, A.

    2010-09-01

    In the production of cooked sausages a critical step for product quality is the cutting process, where the comminuting and mixing of meat, fat, ice and spices are carried out. These processes take usually place in bowl cutters, which main control parameters are the working time, knife geometry (shape and sharpness) and rotational velocities of the knives and the bowl. The choice of the geometry and sharpness of the knives influences not only the meat matrix properties (mechanical, rheological, etc.) and, as a consequence, the sensory value of the sausages (size of connective tissue particles, water binding, etc.), but also the energetic demand for the production. However, the cutting process proves to be understood only fragmentarily due to the complex colloid chemical and mechanical behavior of the product. This is documented on the one hand by numerous knife types on the market, extremely empirical approach during determination of geometry and process parameters in practice as well as, on the other hand, by contradictory statements and explanation approaches of observed phenomena present in literature. The present contribution applies numerical simulations to analyze thermo fluid mechanical phenomena, e.g. shear stresses, during the cutting process of the non-Newtonian meat matrix. Combining these results with selected experimental investigations from literature, e.g. sensory properties, knife geometry, velocity of the knife and bowl, improvements of the cutting and mixing process are proposed using cognitive algorithms (Artificial neural networks) aiming at an optimization regarding energy and time demand and product quality.

  17. Preliminary investigation on the relationship of Raman spectra of sheep meat with shear force and cooking loss.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Heinar; Scheier, Rico; Hopkins, David L

    2013-01-01

    A prototype handheld Raman system was used as a rapid non-invasive optical device to measure raw sheep meat to estimate cooked meat tenderness and cooking loss. Raman measurements were conducted on m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum samples from two sheep flocks from two different origins which had been aged for five days at 3-4°C before deep freezing and further analysis. The Raman data of 140 samples were correlated with shear force and cooking loss data using PLS regression. Both sample origins could be discriminated and separate correlation models yielded better correlations than the joint correlation model. For shear force, R(2)=0.79 and R(2)=0.86 were obtained for the two sites. Results for cooking loss were comparable: separate models yielded R(2)=0.79 and R(2)=0.83 for the two sites. The results show the potential usefulness of Raman spectra which can be recorded during meat processing for the prediction of quality traits such as tenderness and cooking loss.

  18. Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Najam ul; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor), and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy. PMID:23202222

  19. Microwave sensing for meat and fish structure evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerjon, S.; Damez, J. L.

    2007-04-01

    Monitoring changes in muscle structure during the ageing of bovine meat and quality loss due to fish freezing are major industrial challenges. During ageing, bovine muscle becomes tender through muscle fibre deterioration, and full control of this process is essential. Conversely, degradation of fish muscle, often due to long storage or a freezing cycle, lowers quality. To improve competitiveness, and to respond to consumer quality demand, muscle structure needs to be evaluated in-line. We present here a polarimetric microwave method (10-24 GHz) consisting in free space and contact reflection coefficient measurements using a horn antenna and rectangular probes, respectively. This method is based on the measurement of dielectric properties of tissues parallel and perpendicular to muscle fibre directions. The dielectric properties of structured tissues such as muscles are anisotropic, but during processing structural disorganization reduces this anisotropy. The method is illustrated by the discrimination of fresh and frozen-thawed fish fillets and by monitoring of meat ageing.

  20. Evaluation of hygiene practices and microbiological quality of cooked meat products during slicing and handling at retail.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, F; Castro, R; Posada-Izquierdo, G D; Valero, A; Carrasco, E; García-Gimeno, R M; Zurera, G

    2010-10-01

    Cooked meat ready-to-eat products are recognized to be contaminated during slicing which, in the last years, has been associated with several outbreaks. This work aimed to find out possible relation between the hygiene practice taking place at retail point during slicing of cooked meat products in small and medium-sized establishments (SMEs) and large-sized establishments (LEs) and the microbiological quality of sliced cooked meat products. For that, a checklist was drawn up and filled in based on scoring handling practice during slicing in different establishments in Cordoba (Southern Spain). In addition, sliced cooked meats were analyzed for different microbiological indicators and investigated for the presence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Results indicated that SMEs showed a more deficient handling practices compared to LEs. In spite of these differences, microbiological counts indicated similar microbiological quality in cooked meat samples for both types of establishments. On the other hand, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria inocua were isolated from 7.35% (5/68) and 8.82% (6/68) of analyzed samples, respectively. Positive samples for Listeria spp. were found in establishments which showed acceptable hygiene levels, though contamination could be associated to the lack of exclusiveness of slicers at retail points. Moreover, Listeria spp presence could not be statistically linked to any microbiological parameters; however, it was observed that seasonality influenced significantly (P<0.05) L. monocytogenes presence, being all samples found during warm season (5/5). As a conclusion, results suggested that more effort should be made to adequately educate handlers in food hygiene practices, focused specially on SMEs.

  1. A survey of commercially available broilers marketed as organic, free-range, and conventional broilers for cooked meat yields, meat composition, and relative value.

    PubMed

    Husak, R L; Sebranek, J G; Bregendahl, K

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this survey was to investigate qualitative and quantitative properties of meat from organic, free-range, and conventional broilers as currently provided to consumers. Fifteen broilers from 4 suppliers of each type were evaluated for raw meat yield, cooked meat yield, proximate composition, pH, color, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition, and sensory attributes. Organic broilers yielded more dark (thigh) meat (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional, when compared on a raw-meat basis, but conventional and free-range broilers yielded more (P < 0.05) cooked light (breast) meat than organic. Protein content of organic breast and thigh meat was greater (P < 0.05) than conventional in the raw and the cooked meat comparisons. The pH of breast meat from organic broilers was higher (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional. Organic breast and thigh meat was less yellow (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional. Fatty acid analysis showed that organic breasts and thighs were lower (P < 0.05) in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and higher (P < 0.05) in polyunsaturated fatty acids than free-range and conventional broilers. Shear force measurements were less (P < 0.05) for both breast and thigh meat from conventional broilers relative to free-range and organic broilers. Sensory panel results indicated that thighs from conventional broilers were more tender (P < 0.05) and less chewy (P < 0.05) than thighs from free-range and organic broilers, whereas other sensory properties did not differ. At the time of the study, March through May of 2006, the average retail prices for US broilers were USD 3.19, USD 2.78, and USD 1.29 per pound (USD 7.03, USD 6.13, and USD 2.84/kg) for organic, free-range, and conventional, respectively. Whereas a difference in the fatty acid composition was the largest difference observed between retail broilers in this survey, it is important to note that diets and production environments within the study were not controlled

  2. New automated microwave heating process for cooking and pasteurization of microwaveable foods containing raw meats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lihan; Sites, Joseph

    2010-03-01

    A new microwave heating process was developed for cooking microwaveable foods containing raw meats. A commercially available inverter-based microwave oven was modified for pasteurization of mechanically tenderized beef, inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (approximately 5 log(10) CFU/g) and packaged in a 12-oz CPET tray containing 150-mL de-ionized water. The new microwave heating system was equipped with an infrared sensor and a proportional feedback mechanism to allow temperature controlled microwave heating. A 2-stage heating strategy was adopted to cook the product. In the primary heating stage, the sample surface temperature was increased to an initial temperature set-point (ITSP, 65, 70, 75, or 80 degrees C). In the secondary heating stage, the heating was continued with a small fraction of microwave power. The effect of ITSP, hold time (0 to 3 min), and sample elevation (0, 0.03, and 0.07 m above turntable) on inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and background microflora was evaluated. It was observed that only a small number (approximately 1.3 logs) of E. coli O157:H7 and background microflora were inactivated in the primary heating stage. The elevation 0.07 m, which was in the proximity of the geometric center of the metal cavity, was more effective in inactivating both E. coli O157:H7 and background microflora. Substantially more bacteria were inactivated in the secondary heating stage. Complete inactivation of E. coli and background microflora was observed with heating at temperatures above 70 degrees C for more than 1 min. This study demonstrated a new approach for ensuring the safety of microwaveable products containing raw meats.

  3. Relationship between the solubility, dosage and antioxidant capacity of carnosic acid in raw and cooked ground buffalo meat patties and chicken patties.

    PubMed

    Naveena, B M; Vaithiyanathan, S; Muthukumar, M; Sen, A R; Kumar, Y Praveen; Kiran, M; Shaju, V A; Chandran, K Ramesh

    2013-10-01

    Antioxidant capacity of oil soluble and water dispersible carnosic acid (CA) extracted from dried rosemary leaves using HPLC was evaluated at two different dosages (22.5 ppm vs 130 ppm) in raw and cooked ground buffalo meat patties and chicken patties. Irrespective of total phenolic content, CA extracts reduced (p<0.05) the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) by 39%-47% and 37%-40% in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties at lower dosage (22.5 ppm) relative to control samples. However, at higher dosage (130 ppm) the TBARS values were reduced (p<0.05) by 86%-96% and 78%-87% in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties compared to controls. The CA extracts were also effective in inhibiting (p<0.05) peroxide value and free fatty acids in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties. The CA extracts when used at higher dosage, were also effective in stabilizing raw buffalo meat color.

  4. Effect of storage and cooking on the fatty acid profile of omega-3 enriched eggs and pork meat marketed in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Douny, Caroline; El Khoury, Rawad; Delmelle, Julien; Brose, François; Degand, Guy; Moula, Nassim; Farnir, Frédéric; Clinquart, Antoine; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acids (FA) profile was determined in n-3 enriched (Columbus™) Belgian eggs and pork in order to evaluate to what extent the n-3 fatty acids, which are very sensitive to oxidation, are resistant to storage or cooking. In standard eggs or pork, no change of the fatty acid profile was observed after storage or cooking without culinary fat, as well as in Columbus™ eggs and pork after storage. Some cooking processes (eggs in custard and meat in oven) induced a slight significant loss of n-3 fatty acids in Columbus™ eggs or pork (11.1% in fat from eggs cooked in custard vs. 15.3% in raw Columbus™ eggs and 11.0% in fat from oven cooked meat vs. 11.6% in raw Columbus™ meat). As expected, when Columbus™ pork is cooked with culinary fat, its fatty acid profile is modified according to the nature of the fat used. PMID:25838892

  5. Prevalence of Foodborne Pathogens in Cooked Meat and Seafood from 2010 to 2013 in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Hua-Ning; HOU, Pei-Bin; CHEN, Yu-Zhen; MA, Yu; LI, Xin-Peng; LV, Hui; WANG, Mei; TAN, Hai-Lian; BI, Zhen-Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current food safety issues are deleteriously reshaping the lifestyle of the population in the developing world. The globalization of food supply impacts patterns of foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, and consumers are having increased concern about microbiological food safety. Methods: A total of 2305 samples including sauced meat, sausage, smoked meat, shrimp, sashimi and shellfish were collected from different farmer’s markets and supermarkets. The prevalence of selected foodborne pathogens was evaluated in cooked meat and seafood from 2010 to 2013 in Shandong Province, China. Results: The average contamination rate was 6.39% (93.1456) for the selected pathogens in cooked meat and 16.84% (143.849) for V. parahaemolyticus in seafood. For the selected pathogens, 0.55%, 1.03%, 1.17%, 3.64% and 16.84% samples were contaminated with E.coli O157: H7, Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and VP, respectively. There was a significant (P<0.05) difference in the contamination rate between the farmer’s markets and supermarkets. Conclusion: The contamination was decreasing in cooked meat and maintaining a relatively high level in seafood from 2010 to 2013. E. coli O157: H7, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. existed at a relatively low rate in retail foods. For VP, the contamination rate has been maintained at a relatively high level in Shandong Province in China. Moreover, cooked meat and seafood obtained from farmer’s markets are more susceptible to be contaminated compared to those from supermarkets. PMID:28053923

  6. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kadri; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Aldrich, Greg

    2014-05-23

    The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0-2.6 baked vs. 3.5-4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0-15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3-0.6 baked, 0.6-1.5 extruded, scale 0-15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods.

  7. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Koppel, Kadri; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Aldrich, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The results of this research indicate that processing (baked vs. extruded) plays an important role in determining pet food product texture. In addition, raw ingredients (fresh meat vs. meal-based) did not consistently affect product sensory characteristics. These results may help pet food technologists better understand factors that affect palatability. Abstract The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0–2.6 baked vs. 3.5–4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0–15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3–0.6 baked, 0.6–1.5 extruded, scale 0–15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods. PMID:26480040

  8. Resistant starch prevents colonic DNA damage induced by high dietary cooked red meat or casein in rats.

    PubMed

    Toden, Shusuke; Bird, Anthony R; Topping, David L; Conlon, Michael A

    2006-03-01

    In a previous study we have shown that high levels of dietary protein (as casein) result in increased levels of colonic DNA damage, measured by the comet assay, and thinning of the colonic mucus layer in rats when dietary resistant starch (RS) is negligible. Feeding RS abolishes these effects. This study aimed to establish whether a diet high in protein as cooked red meat would have similar effects and whether RS was protective. Rats were fed a diet containing 15% or 25% casein or 25% cooked lean red beef, each with or without the addition of 48% high amylose maize starch (a rich source of RS) for four weeks. As expected, high dietary casein caused a 2-fold increase in colonic DNA damage compared with a low casein diet and reduced the thickness of the colonic mucus layer by 41%. High levels of cooked meat caused 26% greater DNA damage than the high casein diet but reduced mucus thickness to a similar degree to casein. Addition of RS to the diet abolished the increase in DNA damage and the loss of colonic mucus thickness induced by either high protein diet. Cecal and fecal short chain fatty acid pools were also increased by inclusion of RS in the diet. Because DNA damage is an early step in the initiation of cancer, these findings suggest that increased DNA damage due to high dietary protein as cooked red meat or casein could increase colorectal cancer risk but inclusion of resistant starch in the diet could significantly reduce that risk.

  9. Effects of vitamin E and organic selenium on oxidative stability of omega-3 enriched dark chicken meat during cooking.

    PubMed

    Perez, T I; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A; Curtis, J M; Ren, Y; Betti, M

    2010-03-01

    The influence of vitamin E and selenomethionine (SeMet) on lipid oxidation in frozen-raw and cooked omega-3 enriched dark chicken meat was evaluated. Feed was supplemented with 2 levels of vitamin E (250 and 50 IU/kg of feed) and selenium (0.1 mg of sodium selenite/kg of feed and 0.3 mg of SeMet/kg of feed). An extruded linseed product was used as the alpha-linolenic acid source. Fatty acid (FA) profile, oxysterols, and thiobarbituric reactive acid substances (TBARs) were analyzed in frozen-raw, boiled, pan-fried, and roasted meat. After 6 mo of storage, oxysterols in frozen-raw meat remained stable with either high or low levels of dietary antioxidants. During cooking, high levels of vitamin E reduced oxysterol formation, whereas high levels of SeMet were inconsistent and even increased oxysterols during roasting. TBARs in frozen-raw meat stored for 6 mo were inhibited by high levels of either antioxidant. Conversely, no protective effect during cooking was observed at this time of storage. After 12 mo at -30 degrees C no antioxidant protection was observed.

  10. Meat consumption, cooking methods, mutagens, and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Boffetta, Paolo; Correa, Pelayo; Aune, Dagfinn; Mendilaharsu, María; Acosta, Gisele; Silva, Cecilia; Landó, Gabriel; Luaces, María E

    2012-01-01

    The role of meat in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (ESCC) has been considered conflictive. For this reason, we decided to conduct a case-control study on meat consumption and ESCC. Data included 234 newly diagnosed and microscopically examined ESCC and 2,020 controls with conditions not related to tobacco smoking nor alcohol drinking and without changes in their diets. We studied total meat, red meat, beef, lamb, processed meat, poultry, fish, total white meat, liver, fried meat, barbecued meat, boiled meat, heterocyclic amines, nitrosodimethylamine, and benzo[a]pyrene in relation with the risk of ESCC. Red meat, lamb, and boiled meat were directly associated with the risk of ESCC, whereas total white meat, poultry, fish, and liver were mainly protective against this malignancy.

  11. Sakacin Q produced by Lactobacillus curvatus ACU-1: functionality characterization and antilisterial activity on cooked meat surface.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Franco P; Castro, Marcela P; Vallejo, Marisol; Marguet, Emilio; Campos, Carmen A

    2014-08-01

    This work was conducted to evaluate the antilisterial activity of sakacin Q produced by Lactobacillus curvatus ACU-1 on the surface of cooked pork meat. A genetic re-characterization of the producer strain and a study of the structural genes involved in bacteriocin production were carried out as complementary data. Studies indicated that the bacteriocin was not attached to the producer cells favoring pre-purifications steps. Bacteriocin effectiveness was not compromised by adsorption to meat and fat tissues. Several ways of dispensing the bacteriocin onto the meat surface, namely cell culture, cell free supernatant (CFS), a mixture of both and freeze-dried reconstituted CFS, were investigated. The use of the latter was the most effective one to control Listeria growth within studied systems. L. curvatus ACU-1 and its bacteriocin presented promising technological characteristics that made them suitable for meat biopreservation.

  12. Use of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa ethanolic leaf extract for the bio-control of Listeria monocytogenes post-cooking contamination in cooked chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Odedina, Grace Fiyinfoluwa; Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2016-12-01

    Controlling foodborne pathogen in ready-to-eat food is important in food safety. The present study accessed the potential use of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa ethanolic leaf extract as a bio-control agent against Listeria monocytogenes in cooked chicken meat model system. The antilisterial activity of the plant extract was better under microwave condition and enhanced as storage temperature increased from 4 to 37 °C. The extract could reduce L. monocytogenes numbers at low (10(4) CFU/g) and high (10(6) CFU/g) inoculum levels in cooked chicken by both rinse and injection application methods. A 5 min rinse in 8% w/v R. tomentosa extract reduced the bacterial number by ≥2-log before storage and ≥3-log after storage at 4 °C for 5 days. Injection with 0.4% w/w R. tomentosa extract resulted in approximately 2-log reduction in the cell numbers both before and after storage at 4 °C for 5 days. Five minutes rinse in the extract bath demonstrated better sensory preferences which were not significantly different from the control. Addition of black pepper powder to the extract rinsed samples improved odour but not appearance, colour, and texture preferences. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa extract was significantly effective for the bio-control of L. monocytogenes contaminations in cooked chicken meat model. The extract was observed as a potent bio-additive agent to control contaminations from L. monocytogenes and ensure safety in ready-to-eat meat.

  13. Red meat and poultry, cooking practices, genetic susceptibility and risk of prostate cancer: results from a multiethnic case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Mariana C.

    2012-01-01

    Red meat, processed and unprocessed, has been considered a potential prostate cancer (PCA) risk factor; epidemiological evidence, however, is inconclusive. An association between meat intake and PCA may be due to potent chemical carcinogens that are generated when meats are cooked at high temperatures. We investigated the association between red meat and poultry intake and localized and advanced PCA taking into account cooking practices and polymorphisms in enzymes that metabolize carcinogens that accumulate in cooked meats. We analyzed data for 1096 controls, 717 localized and 1140 advanced cases from the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study, a multiethnic, population-based case–control study. We examined nutrient density-adjusted intake of red meat and poultry and tested for effect modification by 12 SNPs and 2 copy number variants in 10 carcinogen metabolism genes: GSTP1, PTGS2, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, EPHX1, CYP1B1, UGT1A6, NAT2, GSTM1 and GSTT1. We observed a positive association between risk of advanced PCA and high intake of red meat cooked at high temperatures (trend P = 0.026), cooked by pan-frying (trend P = 0.035), and cooked until well-done (trend P = 0.013). An inverse association was observed for baked poultry and advanced PCA risk (trend P = 0.023). A gene-by-diet interaction was observed between an SNP in the PTGS2 gene and the estimated levels of meat mutagens (interaction P = 0.008). Our results support a role for carcinogens that accumulate in meats cooked at high temperatures as potential PCA risk factors, and may support a role for heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in PCA etiology. PMID:22822096

  14. Red meat and poultry, cooking practices, genetic susceptibility and risk of prostate cancer: results from a multiethnic case-control study.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Amit D; Corral, Román; Catsburg, Chelsea; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Koo, Jocelyn; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue A; Stern, Mariana C

    2012-11-01

    Red meat, processed and unprocessed, has been considered a potential prostate cancer (PCA) risk factor; epidemiological evidence, however, is inconclusive. An association between meat intake and PCA may be due to potent chemical carcinogens that are generated when meats are cooked at high temperatures. We investigated the association between red meat and poultry intake and localized and advanced PCA taking into account cooking practices and polymorphisms in enzymes that metabolize carcinogens that accumulate in cooked meats. We analyzed data for 1096 controls, 717 localized and 1140 advanced cases from the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study, a multiethnic, population-based case-control study. We examined nutrient density-adjusted intake of red meat and poultry and tested for effect modification by 12 SNPs and 2 copy number variants in 10 carcinogen metabolism genes: GSTP1, PTGS2, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, EPHX1, CYP1B1, UGT1A6, NAT2, GSTM1 and GSTT1. We observed a positive association between risk of advanced PCA and high intake of red meat cooked at high temperatures (trend P = 0.026), cooked by pan-frying (trend P = 0.035), and cooked until well-done (trend P = 0.013). An inverse association was observed for baked poultry and advanced PCA risk (trend P = 0.023). A gene-by-diet interaction was observed between an SNP in the PTGS2 gene and the estimated levels of meat mutagens (interaction P = 0.008). Our results support a role for carcinogens that accumulate in meats cooked at high temperatures as potential PCA risk factors, and may support a role for heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in PCA etiology.

  15. Effect of cooking temperature on the percentage colour formation, nitrite decomposition and sarcoplasmic protein denaturation in processed meat products.

    PubMed

    Okayama, T; Fujii, M; Yamanoue, M

    1991-01-01

    The effect of cooking temperature and time on the percentage colour formation, nitrite decomposition and denaturation of sarcoplasmic proteins in processed meat products was investigated in detail. The colour forming percentage increased with a rise in temperature of heating, especially at 50-60°C (P < 0·05). The percentage nitrite decomposition was promoted by the retention time of cooking rather than by the cooking temperature (P < 0·05). The percentage of sarcoplasmic proteins denatured was enhanced by heating temperature in the range 50-80°C (especially at 50-60°C) (P < 0·05). The relationship between the percentage colour formation and the percentage of sarcoplasmic proteins denatured is discussed. The SDS-PAGE patterns of the heat-treated samples revealed the components of the sarcoplasmic proteins which had been denatured.

  16. Contribution of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol to the cooked meat-like aroma of fermented soy sauce.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qi; Kitagawa, Riho; Imamura, Miho; Katayama, Hiroshi; Obata, Akio; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2017-01-01

    The cooked meat-like aroma compound, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (2M3F), was detected in fermented soy sauce (FSS) by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS. 2M3F was present in FSS at a concentration considerably greater than the perception threshold, and the 2M3F concentration increased with heating temperature. Sensory analysis indicated that with the addition of only 0.2 μg/L of 2M3F to the soy sauce sample, the cooked meat-like aroma is significantly stronger than that of sample without the addition of 2M3F. Hence, 2M3F contributes to the cooked meat-like aroma of FSS, which constitutes the key aroma component of FSS. In addition, 2M3F was generated from the addition of ribose and cysteine in FSS by heating at 120 °C, but it was not detected in a phosphate buffer under the same condition. Furthermore, 2M3F was not detected in acid-hydrolyzed vegetable-protein-mixed soy sauce (ASS) and heated ASS. These results indicated that fermentation by micro-organisms facilitates the generation of 2M3F in FSS.

  17. Probabilistic framework for assessing the arsenic exposure risk from cooked fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Ling, Min-Pei; Wu, Chiu-Hua; Chen, Szu-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Yu; Chio, Chia-Pin; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Liao, Chung-Min

    2014-12-01

    Geogenic arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater is a major ecological and human health problem in southwestern and northeastern coastal areas of Taiwan. Here, we present a probabilistic framework for assessing the human health risks from consuming raw and cooked fish that were cultured in groundwater As-contaminated ponds in Taiwan by linking a physiologically based pharmacokinetics model and a Weibull dose-response model. Results indicate that As levels in baked, fried, and grilled fish were higher than those of raw fish. Frying resulted in the greatest increase in As concentration, followed by grilling, with baking affecting the As concentration the least. Simulation results show that, following consumption of baked As-contaminated fish, the health risk to humans is <10(-6) excess bladder cancer risk level for lifetime exposure; as the incidence ratios of liver and lung cancers are generally acceptable at risk ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-4), the consumption of baked As-contaminated fish is unlikely to pose a significant risk to human health. However, contaminated fish cooked by frying resulted in significant health risks, showing the highest cumulative incidence ratios of liver cancer. We also show that males have higher cumulative incidence ratio of liver cancer than females. We found that although cooking resulted in an increase for As levels in As-contaminated fish, the risk to human health of consuming baked fish is nevertheless acceptable. We suggest the adoption of baking as a cooking method and warn against frying As-contaminated fish. We conclude that the concentration of contaminants after cooking should be taken into consideration when assessing the risk to human health.

  18. An in vitro model system to predict the bioaccessibility of heterocyclic amines from a cooked meat matrix.

    PubMed

    Kulp, Kristen S; Fortson, Susan L; Knize, Mark G; Felton, James S

    2003-12-01

    To understand the impact of variation in digestion parameters on the release of heterocyclic amines naturally formed during cooking, we developed and characterized a model system to assess the effect of amylase, pepsin, and pancreatin on digestion of well-done chicken. The amounts of MeIQx, DiMeIQx, IFP, and PhIP in the liquid portion of the digestate were compared to levels in the undigested meat to determine the percentage released (accessible fraction). Incubating the meat with amylase and pepsin did not change the accessibility of HAs when compared to incubation with water alone. In contrast, increasing amounts of pancreatin increased the accessibility up to 6.4-fold. Comparing the amounts of the HAs in the liquid to the solid fraction showed that there was more MeIQx, DiMeIQx, and IFP in the liquid fraction. In contrast, PhIP was equally divided between the solid and liquid fractions. For all four compounds, increasing the doneness of the meat decreased the amount of the compound accessible from the meat matrix. Our data suggest that bioaccessability of HAs may vary according to the polarity of the individual HAs and also may depend upon the doneness of the meat. These results may have important ramifications for human feeding studies, which assume that the total amount of each HA in the meat matrix is equally bioavailable.

  19. EFFECTS OF COMMONLY USED COOKING PRACTICES ON TOTAL MERCURY CONCENTRATION IN FISH AND THEIR IMPACT ON EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of cooking practices commonly used by Native Americans on total mercury concentrations in fish were investigated. A preparation factor relating mercury concentrations in fish as prepared for consumption to mercury concentration data as measured in typical environmenta...

  20. Species-specific identification of adulteration in cooked mutton Rista (a Kashmiri Wazwan cuisine product) with beef and buffalo meat through multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, M. Mansoor; Salahuddin, Mir; Mantoo, Imtiyaz A.; Adil, Sheikh; Jalal, Henna; Pal, M. Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Meat adulteration is a serious problem in the meat industry and needs to be tackled to ensure the authenticity of meat products and protect the consumers from being the victims. In view of such likely problem in indigenous meat products of Kashmiri cuisine (Wazwan), the present work was performed to study the detection of beef and buffalo meat in cooked mutton Rista by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) based multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method under laboratory conditions. Materials and Methods: Three experimental trials were conducted wherein the products were prepared from pure mutton, beef and buffalo meat, and their admixtures in the ratios of 60:20:20, 80:10:10, 90:05:05 and 98:01:01, respectively. Results: The primers used in the study amplified the cyt b gene fragments of sizes 124 bp, 472 bp and 585 bp for buffalo, cattle and sheep, respectively. It was possible to detect cattle and buffalo meat at the level of 1% in the mixed meat cooked Rista. The multiplex PCR successfully amplified cyt b gene fragments of mtDNA of the target species and thus produced characteristic band pattern for each species. The band intensities of cattle and buffalo in the mixed meat Rista progressively decreased corresponding to their decreasing level from 20% to 1%. Processing, cooking (moist heating) and non-meat formulation ingredients had no effect on detection of meat species adulteration. Conclusion: The multiplex PCR procedure standardized and developed in this study is simple, efficient, sensitive, reliable and highly specific for detecting falsification of cooked mutton product with beef and buffalo meat up to 1% level. PMID:27057103

  1. Discrimination of in vitro and in vivo digestion products of meat proteins from pork, beef, chicken, and fish

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Siying; Zhou, Guanghong; Song, Shangxin; Xu, Xinglian; Voglmeir, Josef; Liu, Li; Zhao, Fan; Li, Mengjie; Li, Li; Yu, Xiaobo; Bai, Yun

    2015-01-01

    In vitro digestion products of proteins were compared among beef, pork, chicken, and fish. Gastric and jejunal contents from the rats fed these meat proteins were also compared. Cooked pork, beef, chicken, and fish were homogenized and incubated with pepsin alone or followed by trypsin. The digestion products with molecular weights of less than 3000 Da were identified with MALDI‐TOF‐MS and nano‐LC‐MS/MS. Gastric and jejunal contents obtained from the rats fed the four meat proteins for 7 days were also analyzed. After pepsin digestion, pork, and beef samples had a greater number of fragments in similarity than chicken and fish samples, but the in vitro digestibility was the greatest (p < 0.05) for pork and the smallest for beef samples. After trypsin digestion, the species differences were less pronounced (p > 0.05). A total of 822 and 659 peptides were identified from the in vitro and in vivo digestion products, respectively. Our results could interpret for the differences in physiological functions after the ingestion of different species of meat. PMID:26227428

  2. Discrimination of in vitro and in vivo digestion products of meat proteins from pork, beef, chicken, and fish.

    PubMed

    Wen, Siying; Zhou, Guanghong; Song, Shangxin; Xu, Xinglian; Voglmeir, Josef; Liu, Li; Zhao, Fan; Li, Mengjie; Li, Li; Yu, Xiaobo; Bai, Yun; Li, Chunbao

    2015-11-01

    In vitro digestion products of proteins were compared among beef, pork, chicken, and fish. Gastric and jejunal contents from the rats fed these meat proteins were also compared. Cooked pork, beef, chicken, and fish were homogenized and incubated with pepsin alone or followed by trypsin. The digestion products with molecular weights of less than 3000 Da were identified with MALDI-TOF-MS and nano-LC-MS/MS. Gastric and jejunal contents obtained from the rats fed the four meat proteins for 7 days were also analyzed. After pepsin digestion, pork, and beef samples had a greater number of fragments in similarity than chicken and fish samples, but the in vitro digestibility was the greatest (p < 0.05) for pork and the smallest for beef samples. After trypsin digestion, the species differences were less pronounced (p > 0.05). A total of 822 and 659 peptides were identified from the in vitro and in vivo digestion products, respectively. Our results could interpret for the differences in physiological functions after the ingestion of different species of meat.

  3. Rapid detection of peptide markers for authentication purposes in raw and cooked meat using ambient liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Montowska, Magdalena; Alexander, Morgan R; Tucker, Gregory A; Barrett, David A

    2014-10-21

    In this Article, our previously developed ambient LESA-MS methodology is implemented to analyze five types of thermally treated meat species, namely, beef, pork, horse, chicken, and turkey meat, to select and identify heat-stable and species-specific peptide markers. In-solution tryptic digests of cooked meats were deposited onto a polymer surface, followed by LESA-MS analysis and evaluation using multivariate data analysis and tandem electrospray MS. The five types of cooked meat were clearly discriminated using principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. 23 heat stable peptide markers unique to species and muscle protein were identified following data-dependent tandem LESA-MS analysis. Surface extraction and direct ambient MS analysis of mixtures of cooked meat species was performed for the first time and enabled detection of 10% (w/w) of pork, horse, and turkey meat and 5% (w/w) of chicken meat in beef, using the developed LESA-MS/MS analysis. The study shows, for the first time, that ambient LESA-MS methodology displays specificity sufficient to be implemented effectively for the analysis of processed and complex peptide digests. The proposed approach is much faster and simpler than other measurement tools for meat speciation; it has potential for application in other areas of meat science or food production.

  4. Genetic Variation of an Odorant Receptor OR7D4 and Sensory Perception of Cooked Meat Containing Androstenone

    PubMed Central

    Lunde, Kathrine; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Skuterud, Ellen; Mainland, Joel D.; Lea, Tor; Hersleth, Margrethe; Matsunami, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Although odour perception impacts food preferences, the effect of genotypic variation of odorant receptors (ORs) on the sensory perception of food is unclear. Human OR7D4 responds to androstenone, and genotypic variation in OR7D4 predicts variation in the perception of androstenone. Since androstenone is naturally present in meat derived from male pigs, we asked whether OR7D4 genotype correlates with either the ability to detect androstenone or the evaluation of cooked pork tainted with varying levels of androstenone within the naturally-occurring range. Consistent with previous findings, subjects with two copies of the functional OR7D4 RT variant were more sensitive to androstenone than subjects carrying a non-functional OR7D4 WM variant. When pork containing varying levels of androstenone was cooked and tested by sniffing and tasting, subjects with two copies of the RT variant tended to rate the androstenone-containing meat as less favourable than subjects carrying the WM variant. Our data is consistent with the idea that OR7D4 genotype predicts the sensory perception of meat containing androstenone and that genetic variation in an odorant receptor can alter food preferences. PMID:22567099

  5. 21 CFR Appendix D to Part 101 - Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish D Appendix D to Part 101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Pt. 101, App. D Appendix D to Part 101—Nutrition...

  6. 21 CFR Appendix D to Part 101 - Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish D Appendix D to Part 101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Pt. 101, App. D Appendix D to Part 101—Nutrition...

  7. 21 CFR Appendix D to Part 101 - Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish D Appendix D to Part 101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Pt. 101, App. D Appendix D to Part 101—Nutrition...

  8. 21 CFR Appendix D to Part 101 - Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish D Appendix D to Part 101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Pt. 101, App. D Appendix D to Part 101—Nutrition...

  9. 21 CFR Appendix D to Part 101 - Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish D Appendix D to Part 101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Pt. 101, App. D Appendix D to Part 101—Nutrition...

  10. Fate of Salmonella enterica in a mixed ingredient salad containing lettuce, cheddar cheese, and cooked chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Bovo, Federica; De Cesare, Alessandra; Manfreda, Gerardo; Bach, Susan; Delaquis, Pascal

    2015-03-01

    Food service and retail sectors offer consumers a variety of mixed ingredient salads that contain fresh-cut vegetables and other ingredients such as fruits, nuts, cereals, dairy products, cooked seafood, cooked meat, cured meats, or dairy products obtained from external suppliers. Little is known about the behavior of enteric bacterial pathogens in mixed ingredient salads. A model system was developed to examine the fate of Salmonella enterica (inoculum consisting of S. enterica serovars Agona, Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Brandenberg, and Kentucky) on the surface of romaine lettuce tissues incubated alone and in direct contact with Cheddar cheese or cooked chicken. S. enterica survived but did not grow on lettuce tissues incubated alone or in contact with Cheddar cheese for 6 days at either 6 or 14°C. In contrast, populations increased from 2.01 ± 0.22 to 9.26 ± 0.22 CFU/cm(2) when lettuce washed in water was incubated in contact with cooked chicken at 14°C. Populations on lettuce leaves were reduced to 1.28 ± 0.14 CFU/cm(2) by washing with a chlorine solution (70 ppm of free chlorine) but increased to 8.45 ± 0.22 CFU/cm(2) after 6 days at 14°C. Experimentation with a commercial product in which one third of the fresh-cut romaine lettuce was replaced with inoculated lettuce revealed that S. enterica populations increased by 4 log CFU/g during storage for 3 days at 14°C. These findings indicate that rapid growth of bacterial enteric pathogens may occur in mixed ingredient salads; therefore, strict temperature control during the manufacture, distribution, handling, and storage of these products is critical.

  11. Sensory quality of broiler breast meat influenced by low atmospheric pressure stunning, deboning time and cooking methods.

    PubMed

    Schilling, M W; Radhakrishnan, V; Vizzier-Thaxton, Y; Christensen, K; Williams, J B; Joseph, P

    2015-06-01

    Stunning method (low atmospheric pressure stunning, LAPS and electrical stunning, ES), deboning time (0.75 h and 4 h), and cooking method (baking, frying, and sous vide) were evaluated for their impact on the descriptive sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of breast meat (n=576, 144 birds per stunning × deboning time combination). Sensory evaluation was conducted by trained descriptive (n=8) and consumer (n=185) panels. On average, no differences (P>0.05) existed in the sensory acceptability of fried and sous vide cooked broiler breast treatment combinations. However, for oven-baking, the LAPS treatment that was deboned at 4 h was more acceptable (P<0.05) than other treatments and the ES and LAPS 4 h samples had greater (P<0.05) acceptability for texture than their ES and LAPS 0.75 h counterparts. Since consumers were highly variable in their liking of chicken breast treatments, consumers were grouped into clusters for each cooking method based on liking and preference. Cluster analysis data revealed that the largest groups of consumers liked (score≥6.0) all chicken breast treatments, but a larger proportion of consumers liked the 4 h LAPS and ES treatments when compared to the 0.75 h LAPS and ES treatments for all cooking methods. In addition, the consumers who indicated that baked chicken breast was highly acceptable preferred (P<0.05) 4 h LAPS over the 4 h ES samples. Based on sensory results, chicken breast meat from all stunning and deboning method combinations was highly acceptable to the majority of consumers, but the LAPS 4 h treatment had enhanced sensory characteristics when baked.

  12. Effects of dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin E on the lipid oxidation stability of cooked chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Avila-Ramos, F; Pro-Martínez, A; Sosa-Montes, E; Cuca-García, J M; Becerril-Pérez, C M; Figueroa-Velasco, J L; Narciso-Gaytán, C

    2012-02-01

    The antioxidant effect of oregano essential oil and vitamin E was evaluated in cooked chicken breast meat. In total, 480 broilers were randomly assigned to 6 treatments and 4 replications. Broilers were raised with a corn-soybean meal diet including either crude soybean oil or acidulated soybean oil soapstock, each supplemented with vitamin E at 10 or 100 mg or oregano essential oil at 100 mg/kg of feed. At 42 d, broilers were slaughtered and their breast meat was prepared into strips (1.5 × 10 cm) or patties (150 g). Fatty acid composition of the muscle was determined. For lipid oxidation stability, both meat strips and patties were cooked to an internal temperature of 74°C and malonaldehyde contents were assessed during 0, 3, 6, and 9 d of storage at 4°C. Each storage day had 4 replications per treatment. The meat lipid oxidative stability was estimated by content of malonaldehyde values. Results showed that feed consumption, weight gain, and feed conversion were not affected by the dietary oils or antioxidants, except for the mortality in acidulated soybean oil soapstock with the 10-mg vitamin E treatment. The fatty acid composition of the meat was similar between the 2 diets given the same antioxidant supplement. The oxidation stability of meat lipids in both types of meats showed a significant (P < 0.05) interaction between oils, antioxidants, and storage time. In the crude soybean oil oil diet, the malonaldehyde value in the 10-mg vitamin E treatment was the highest, followed by oregano essential oil, and then the 100-mg vitamin E treatment at 9 d of storage, whereas the value of oregano essential oil in the acidulated soybean oil soapstock diet was the highest, followed by the 10-mg vitamin E, and then the 100-mg vitamin E treatment during the 9 d of storage. In conclusion, the dietary oils and antioxidants used can be included in broiler diets without negative effects on their productivity. The antioxidant effect of vitamin E was higher with a higher

  13. Restriction of meat, fish, and poultry in omnivores improves mood: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Omnivorous diets are high in arachidonic acid (AA) compared to vegetarian diets. Research shows that high intakes of AA promote changes in brain that can disturb mood. Omnivores who eat fish regularly increase their intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), fats that oppose the negative effects of AA in vivo. In a recent cross-sectional study, omnivores reported significantly worse mood than vegetarians despite higher intakes of EPA and DHA. This study investigated the impact of restricting meat, fish, and poultry on mood. Findings Thirty-nine omnivores were randomly assigned to a control group consuming meat, fish, and poultry daily (OMN); a group consuming fish 3-4 times weekly but avoiding meat and poultry (FISH), or a vegetarian group avoiding meat, fish, and poultry (VEG). At baseline and after two weeks, participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, the Profile of Mood States questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales. After the diet intervention, VEG participants reduced their EPA, DHA, and AA intakes, while FISH participants increased their EPA and DHA intakes. Mood scores were unchanged for OMN or FISH participants, but several mood scores for VEG participants improved significantly after two weeks. Conclusions Restricting meat, fish, and poultry improved some domains of short-term mood state in modern omnivores. To our knowledge, this is the first trial to examine the impact of restricting meat, fish, and poultry on mood state in omnivores. PMID:22333737

  14. Towards models for the prediction of beef meat quality during cooking.

    PubMed

    Kondjoyan, Alain; Kohler, Achim; Realini, Carolina Eva; Portanguen, Stéphane; Kowalski, Ryszard; Clerjon, Sylvie; Gatellier, Philippe; Chevolleau, Sylvie; Bonny, Jean-Marie; Debrauwer, Laurent

    2014-07-01

    Heating of beef muscles modifies the water content, the micronutrient content and the colour of beef meat. Juice expelling and loss of water soluble micronutrients were predicted by combined transfer-kinetics models. Kinetics modeling and crust formation are needed to progress toward a reliable prediction of HAAs formation. HAAs formation in uniformly heated beef meat slices was compared with the values issued from the kinetic models developed in literature in liquid systems. The models of literature were adapted to meat slices but the parameter values were different from those determined in liquid systems. Results in meat slices were confronted to the HAAs formation at the surface of bigger meat pieces subjected to air roasting conditions. The transposition of the results from the meat slices towards the bigger meat pieces was not direct because the formation of HAAs was affected by the thickening of the crust and the migration of precursors.

  15. Low Temperature Storage of Red-Meat Fish-III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takeo; Inaba, Minoru

    In order to find out a suitable method for freezing and storage of chub mackerel, a kind of fatty fish, the round fish were frozen experimentally by liquid nitrogen spraying metho d (LN2-freezing) and usual contact freezing as a control experiment, and stored at -10, - 20 and -40°C for 6 months. Quality change of the fish meat during frozen storage was checked using indices such as pH, POV and VBN. The quality was also evaluated by histological observation and sensory score. Results are as follows : (l)The present data did not always show the superiority of ultra-rapid freezing with LN2 in quality of frozen-stored chub mackerel as compared with contact freezing, regardless of storage temperature. (2) It seemd to be necessary to store fatty chub mackerel at a temperature below -20°C, such as -25 - -30°C being advisable. (3) Quality of chub mackerel was observed to change more markedly than that of sardine tested already during frozen storage.

  16. Particular applications of food irradiation: Meat, fish and others

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlermann, Dieter A. E.

    2016-12-01

    It is surprising what all can be achieved by radiation processing of food; this chapter narrates a number of less obvious applications mostly hidden to the consumer. Also the labelling regulations differing world-wide are responsible for leaving the consumer uninformed. Several of the early proposals could not reach technological maturity or are commercially not competitive. Still considerable energy is spent in research for such applications. Other applications are serving a certain niche, companies mostly are reluctant to release reliable information about their activities. Labelling regulation vary world-wide significantly. Hence, the market place does not really give the full picture of irradiated food available to the consumer. Despite those restrictions, this report intends to give a full picture of the actual situation for meat, fish and others and of unique uses.

  17. Comparison of algal and fish sources on the oxidative stability of poultry meat and its enrichment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Rymer, C; Gibbs, R A; Givens, D I

    2010-01-01

    Human consumption of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) is below recommendations, and enriching chicken meat (by incorporating LC n-3 PUFA into broiler diets) is a viable means of increasing consumption. Fish oil is the most common LC n-3 PUFA supplement used but is unsustainable and reduces the oxidative stability of the mat. The objective of this experiment was to compare fresh fish oil (FFO) with fish oil encapsulated (EFO) in a gelatin matrix (to maintain its oxidative stability) and algal biomass at a low (LAG, 11), medium (MAG, 22), or high (HAG, 33 g/kg of diet) level of inclusion. The C22:6n-3 contents of the FFO, EFO, and MAG diets were equal. A control (CON) diet using blended vegetable oil was also made. As-hatched 1-d-old Ross 308 broilers (144) were reared (21 d) on a common starter diet then allocated to treatment pens (4 pens per treatment, 6 birds per pen) and fed treatment diets for 21 d before being slaughtered. Breast and leg meat was analyzed (per pen) for fatty acids, and cooked samples (2 pens per treatment) were analyzed for volatile aldehydes. Concentrations (mg/100 g of meat) of C20:5n-3, C22:5n-3, and C22:6n-3 were (respectively) CON: 4, 15, 24; FFO: 31, 46, 129; EFO: 18, 27, 122; LAG: 9, 19, 111; MAG: 6, 16, 147; and HAG: 9, 14, 187 (SEM: 2.4, 3.6, 13.1) in breast meat and CON: 4, 12, 9; FFO: 58, 56, 132; EFO: 63, 49, 153; LAG: 13, 14, 101; MAG: 11, 15, 102; HAG: 37, 37, 203 (SEM: 7.8, 6.7, 14.4) in leg meat. Cooked EFO and HAG leg meat was more oxidized (5.2 mg of hexanal/kg of meat) than the other meats (mean 2.2 mg/kg, SEM 0.63). It is concluded that algal biomass is as effective as fish oil at enriching broiler diets with C22:6 LC n-3 PUFA, and at equal C22:6n-3 contents, there is no significant difference between these 2 supplements on the oxidative stability of the meat that is produced.

  18. Quality changes during storage of cooked and sliced meat products measured with PTR-MS and HS-GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Holm, E S; Adamsen, A P S; Feilberg, A; Schäfer, A; Løkke, M M; Petersen, M A

    2013-10-01

    The changes in the VOC composition of industrially produced saveloy were measured with Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and HeadSpace Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) during a six weeks storage period. A decrease in the volatile organic compounds contributing to the fresh aroma of saveloy was the main change observed with both PTR-MS and HS-GC-MS. Samples of four other types of cooked and sliced meat product were measured with PTR-MS in the middle and at the end of the four week shelf-life period. These measurements showed an increase in m/z 69, 71, 87 and 89 for the pork loin and in m/z 61 for the herbal saveloy samples. These ions were assigned to the microbial spoilage markers: acetic acid, 2- and 3-methylbutanol, 2- and 3-methylbutanal, diacetyl and acetoin. Overall, this study shows that PTR-MS has potential for quality control of cooked and sliced meat products.

  19. Initially unrecognized distribution of a commercially cooked meat product contaminated over several months with Salmonella serotype Infantis.

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, K. S.; Farley, T. A.

    2000-01-01

    An outbreak of salmonellosis occurred among 63 wedding participants. The outbreak was investigated through cohort, laboratory, and environmental studies. Consumption of rice-dressing made from a commercially cooked, meat-based, rice-dressing mix was strongly associated with illness. Nineteen patient isolates, six company/grocery store isolates cultured from the rice-dressing mix, and one environmental isolate from a pump in the production line were of an identical outbreak strain of Salmonella Infantis characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. In the production line, cooked rice-dressing mix tested negative for S. Infantis before and positive after contact with the contaminated pump. The dressing-mix had an estimated 200 colony-forming units of salmonella per gram of product, and > 180,000 pounds were distributed in 9 states for > or = 2 months before contamination was recognized. Food manufacturers should be required to use systematic, hazard analysis critical control point risk management practices for all processed meat products, validated by periodic microbiologic monitoring of the end product. PMID:11218199

  20. Changes in Meat/Poultry/Fish Consumption in Australia: From 1995 to 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Zhixian; Raubenheimer, David; Cunningham, Judy; Rangan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine temporal changes in meat/poultry/fish consumption patterns between 1995 and 2011–2012 in the Australian population. Meat/poultry/fish consumption from all food sources, including recipes, was analysed by gender, age group, and socio-economic status using 24-h recall data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (n = 13,858) and the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n = 12,153). The overall proportion of people consuming meat/poultry/fish remained stable (91.7% versus 91.3%, p = 0.55), but a shift in the type of meat consumed was observed. Red meat, including beef and lamb, was consumed by fewer people over the time period (from 56% to 49%), whereas poultry consumption increased (from 29% to 38%). Amounts of all meat/poultry/fish consumed were reportedly higher in 2011–2012 compared with 1995. This resulted in similar (red meat, and processed meat) or slightly higher (poultry, and fish) per-capita intakes in 2011–2012. The magnitude of change of consumption varied between children and adults, and by gender. Monitoring trends in consumption is particularly relevant to policy makers, researchers and other health professionals for the formulation of dietary recommendations and estimation of potential health outcomes. PMID:27886131

  1. Changes in Meat/Poultry/Fish Consumption in Australia: From 1995 to 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Sui, Zhixian; Raubenheimer, David; Cunningham, Judy; Rangan, Anna

    2016-11-24

    The purpose of the study was to examine temporal changes in meat/poultry/fish consumption patterns between 1995 and 2011-2012 in the Australian population. Meat/poultry/fish consumption from all food sources, including recipes, was analysed by gender, age group, and socio-economic status using 24-h recall data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (n = 13,858) and the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n = 12,153). The overall proportion of people consuming meat/poultry/fish remained stable (91.7% versus 91.3%, p = 0.55), but a shift in the type of meat consumed was observed. Red meat, including beef and lamb, was consumed by fewer people over the time period (from 56% to 49%), whereas poultry consumption increased (from 29% to 38%). Amounts of all meat/poultry/fish consumed were reportedly higher in 2011-2012 compared with 1995. This resulted in similar (red meat, and processed meat) or slightly higher (poultry, and fish) per-capita intakes in 2011-2012. The magnitude of change of consumption varied between children and adults, and by gender. Monitoring trends in consumption is particularly relevant to policy makers, researchers and other health professionals for the formulation of dietary recommendations and estimation of potential health outcomes.

  2. Fat and fatty acid composition of cooked meat from UK retail chickens labelled as from organic and non-organic production systems.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, Courtney J; Kliem, Kirsty E; Givens, D Ian

    2015-07-15

    This study compared fat and fatty acids in cooked retail chicken meat from conventional and organic systems. Fat contents were 1.7, 5.2, 7.1 and 12.9 g/100 g cooked weight in skinless breast, breast with skin, skinless leg and leg with skin respectively, with organic meat containing less fat overall (P<0.01). Meat was rich in cis-monounsaturated fatty acids, although organic meat contained less than did conventional meat (1850 vs. 2538 mg/100 g; P<0.001). Organic meat was also lower (P<0.001) in 18:3 n-3 (115 vs. 180 mg/100 g) and, whilst it contained more (P<0.001) docosahexaenoic acid (30.9 vs. 13.7 mg/100 g), this was due to the large effect of one supermarket. This system by supermarket interaction suggests that poultry meat labelled as organic is not a guarantee of higher long chain n-3 fatty acids. Overall there were few major differences in fatty acid contents/profiles between organic and conventional meat that were consistent across all supermarkets.

  3. A comparison of Oregon pellet and fish-meat diets for administration of sulfamethazine to Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, D.F.; Fryer, J.L.; Pilcher, K.S.

    1967-01-01

    The absorption of sulfamethazine by yearling spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was compared when administered in the Oregon Pellet and a fish-meat diet. The pelleted diet delivered the drug to the fish approximately twice as efficiently as the fish-meat diet. Dosage levels are recommended for both diets, and the efficacy of administering drugs in fish feed is discussed.

  4. Effect of cooking and cold storage on biologically active antibiotic residues in meat.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, J. J.; Campbell, N.; Conaghan, T.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to see if cooking or cold storage would destroy or decrease the level of biologically active antibiotic in tissues from animals given therapeutic doses of antibiotic on three occasions prior to slaughter. The effects of cooking and cold storage on the biological activity of the residues of ampicillin, chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline, streptomycin and sulphadimidine were varied; in some instances the effects were minimal, in others nil. PMID:7310129

  5. Effect of irradiation on Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine and Nε-carboxyethyl-lysine formation in cooked meat products during storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ligang; He, Zhiyong; Zeng, Maomao; Zheng, Zongping; Chen, Jie

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of irradiation on Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and Nε-carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL) formation in cooked red and white meats during storage. The results showed that irradiation did not affect CML/CEL formation (0 weeks). After 6 weeks, CML/CEL contents in the irradiated samples exhibited a higher growth rate than the non-irradiated samples, especially the red meat. The results of electron spin resonance spectrometry and 2-Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances suggested irradiation had induced free-radical reactions and accelerated lipid oxidation during storage. A linear correlation (r=0.810-0.906, p<0.01) was found between the loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids content and increase of CML/CEL content in the irradiated samples after 0 and 6 weeks of storage. The results indicate that irradiation-induced lipid oxidation promotes CML/CEL formation, and CML/CEL formation by the lipid oxidation pathways may be an important pathway for CML/CEL accumulation in irradiated meat products during storage.

  6. Quantification of Anisakis simplex allergens in fresh, long-term frozen, and cooked fish muscle.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Mahillo, Ana Isabel; González-Muñoz, Miguel; de las Heras, Cristina; Tejada, Margarita; Moneo, Ignacio

    2010-08-01

    Fish-borne parasitic zoonoses such as Anisakiasis were once limited to people living in countries where raw or undercooked fish is traditionally consumed. Nowadays, several factors, such as the growing international markets, the improved transportation systems, the population movements, and the expansion of ethnic ways of cooking in developed countries, have increased the population exposed to these parasites. Improved diagnosis technology and a better knowledge of the symptoms by clinicians have increased the Anisakiasis cases worldwide. Dietary recommendations to Anisakis-sensitized patients include the consumption of frozen or well-cooked fish, but these probably do not defend sensitized patients from allergen exposure. The aim of our work was to develop a sensitive and specific method to detect and quantify Anisakis simplex allergens in fish muscle and its derivatives. Protein extraction was made in saline buffer followed by preparation under acid conditions. A. simplex antigens were detected by IgG immunoblot and quantified by dot blot. The allergenic properties of the extracts were assessed by IgE immunoblotting and basophil activation test. We were able to detect less than 1 ppm of A. simplex antigens, among them the allergen Ani s 4, in fish muscle with no cross-reactions and with a recovery rate of 82.5%. A. simplex antigens were detected in hakes and anchovies but not in sardines, red mullets, or shellfish. We detected A. simplex allergens in cooked hakes and also in hake stock. We proved that A. simplex allergens are preserved in long-term frozen storage (-20 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C for 11 months) of parasitized hakes. Basophil activation tests have proven the capability of the A. simplex-positive fish extracts to induce allergic symptoms.

  7. Effect of dietary meat and fish on endogenous nitrosation, inflammation and genotoxicity of faecal water.

    PubMed

    Joosen, Annemiek M C P; Lecommandeur, Emmanuelle; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Aspinall, Sue M; Kap, Lisanne; Rodwell, Sheila A

    2010-05-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been associated with reduced colon tumorigenesis. However, their association with colorectal cancer incidence is not conclusive. We investigated the influence of isocaloric replacement of red meat with fatty fish on endogenous nitrosation, inflammation and genotoxicity of faecal water in apparently healthy human volunteers on controlled diets. Fourteen volunteers consumed a high red meat, a combined red meat/fish and a high fish diet for 8 days each. Faecal homogenates were analysed for haem, nitroso compounds (NOC) and calprotectin and associated supernatants for genotoxicity. Both faecal NOC and haem excretion decreased with more fish and less meat in the diet. Nitrosyl iron (FeNO) was the main contributor to total NOC on all diets. The proportion of other NOC increased with more fish and less meat in the diet (P = 0.01), resulting in a non-statistically significant decrease in the proportion of FeNO on the fish diet. There was no statistically significant difference in faecal calprotectin (P = 0.54) and faecal water-induced DNA strand breaks and oxidized purines and pyrimidines between the diets (P > 0.36). Increasing fish intake and reducing the intake of red meat does not seem to have an effect on inflammation and faecal water-induced (oxidative) DNA damage; however, it does reduce the formation of mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic NOC and may as such beneficially affect colorectal risk.

  8. Bioaccumulation of metals in fish of Salmonidae family and the impact on fish meat quality.

    PubMed

    Alibabić, Vildana; Vahcić, Nada; Bajramović, Melisa

    2007-08-01

    The study was aimed at determining the levels of metals in water samples and muscles of the fish caught in the Una River basin, located in the northwestern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. For that purpose, three fish species: Brown Trout (Salmo trutta m. fario), Grayling (Thymallus thymallus) and Californian Trout (Salmo gairdneri), together with stem water samples, were analyzed for metal concentrations (Pb, Hg, Cd, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cr, Se, Co, Sn, Zn, Fe, Ca, P) during a 2-year period. The fish was captured using electric fishing, nets or fishing equipment. The capture was undertaken on three sites (the river source, the middle flow and the river mouth) of each of the five biggest rivers belonging to the Una River basin (Unac, Krusnica, Sana, Klokot, and Una). The concentrations of metals in each sample were determined via atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In the tested waters, the presence of Mn in concentrations higher than permitted (0.07 mg/l) had been detected. In the tested meat, the following average concentrations of metals (mg/kg) had been found: Pb (0.67), Cd (0.06), Mn (0.65), Ni (0.15), Cu (0.79), Cr (1.05), Se (0.03), Zn (8.92), Fe (5.40), Ca (14.68), and P (10.85). The correlation between Mn concentrations identified in the tested waters and those identified in the meat of Brown Trout was revealed to be statistically significant, which confirms that, over time, bioaccumulation of metals took place. Even though the results were not indicative of contamination, they strongly suggest that constant monitoring of the ecosystems in reference should be implemented.

  9. Inter-household and intra-household patterns of fish and meat consumption in fishing communities in two states in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Gomna, Ahmed; Rana, Krishen

    2007-01-01

    Fish is generally regarded as a primary source of protein for many poor African fishing communities. The present study compared the relative importance of fish as a high-quality dietary protein source with meat in fishing communities in two states in Nigeria. Fifty fishing households in which active fishing was the primary activity and fifty non-fishing households (agriculture being stated as primary activity) in traditional fishing communities were randomly selected in the coastal state of Lagos and the inland state of Niger. A simple weighing balance was designed and given to each household to measure fish or meat entering the household for consumption. A comparison of consumption using this method against the 24h recall method revealed that the recall method accounted for only one third of actual fish consumed. Overall, the price of fish was higher and consumption lower in Lagos compared with Niger State. At the household level in both states, the consumption of fish in fishing households was twice that of non-fishing households, whereas meat consumption was similar. A total of thirty-nine different fish species were consumed, with Tilapia contributing 24% by weight of the fish consumed. In both states, beef was the most frequently consumed meat, followed by goat meat. The study revealed a high preference for fresh fish. The highest fish consumption occurred in March, corresponding to the period of lowest meat consumption. On a unit weight basis, heads of households consumed 59% more fish than their wives or children.

  10. Evaluating the performance of a new model for predicting the growth of Clostridium perfringens in cooked, uncured meat and poultry products under isothermal, heating, and dynamically cooling conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridium perfringens Type A is a significant public health threat and may germinate, outgrow, and multiply during cooling of cooked meats. This study evaluates a new C. perfringens growth model in IPMP Dynamic Prediction using the same criteria and cooling data in Mohr and others (2015), but inc...

  11. Low-fat meat sausages with fish oil: optimization of milk proteins and carrageenan contents using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, L; Andrés, S C; Califano, A N

    2014-03-01

    Response surface methodology was used to analyze the effect of milk proteins and 2:1 κ:ι-carrageenans on cooking loss (CL), weight lost by centrifugation (WLC) and texture attributes of low-fat meat sausages with pre-emulsified fish oil. A central-composite design was used to develop models for the objective responses. Changes in carrageenans affected more the responses than milk proteins levels. Convenience functions were calculated for CL, WLC, hardness, and springiness of the product. Responses were optimized simultaneously minimizing CL and WLC; ranges for hardness and springiness corresponded to commercial products (20 g of pork fat/100 g). The optimum corresponded to 0.593 g of carrageenans/100 g and 0.320 g of milk proteins and its total lipid content was 6.3 g/100 g. This formulation was prepared and evaluated showing a good agreement between predicted and experimental responses. These additives could produce low-fat meat sausages with pre-emulsified fish oil with good nutritional quality and similar characteristics than traditional ones.

  12. Effects of regular and modified starches on cooked pale, soft, and exudative; normal; and dry, firm, and dark breast meat batters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Barbut, S

    2005-05-01

    The effects of potato and tapioca starches (regular and modified) on the texture, yield, and microstructure of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE); normal; and dark, firm, and dry (DFD) chicken breast meats were studied. Cook yield and fracture force were higher in DFD than in normal and PSE meat. All starches significantly improved yield with modified tapioca showing the best results. Light microscopy showed even distribution and gelatinization of large potato starch granules and small tapioca granules. Addition of starches to the normal meat (46 < L* < 53, 5.9 < pH < 6.1) resulted in higher modulus of rigidity (G') values above 60 degrees C. During cooling, this trend continued as all starches provided significantly higher G' values compared with the control; regular and modified potato resulted in higher G' values than the tapioca starches. Overall, starch addition can compensate for part of the meat protein functionality lost in PSE meat.

  13. Effects of different cooking methods on fatty acid profiles in four freshwater fishes from the Laurentian Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Neff, Margaret R; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Braekevelt, Eric; Arts, Michael T

    2014-12-01

    Fish is often promoted as a healthy part of the human diet due its high content of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Previous studies have shown that cooked fish can have different fatty acid profiles than raw fillets, depending on the cooking method and fish species. In this study, the fatty acid content of broiled, baked or fried skinless, boneless fillets of four fish species from the tributaries of the Great Lakes, or connecting rivers, was compared to fatty acid profiles in raw sections from the same fillet. Cooking treatments had little effect on n-3 fatty acid content; however, fried treatments generally had higher n-6 and MUFA content, which is likely a result of the cooking oil used (canola). Broiling or baking is generally the most healthy option presented in this study, as these methods result in lower levels of less-favourable fatty acids; however, the choice of cooking oil may also influence the overall fatty acid content in cooked fish.

  14. Use of histidine dipeptides and myoglobin to monitor adulteration of cooked beef with meat from other species.

    PubMed

    Carnegie, P R; Ilic, M Z; Etheridge, M O; Stuart, S

    1985-08-01

    A new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to monitor the adulteration of cooked beef products with meat from other species. The ratio of the histidine dipeptides anserine and carnosine which are present in skeletal muscle, are so different between sheep, cattle, horse and kangaroo that detection of adulteration can be rapidly achieved by chromatography on a Partisil-10 SCX column with 0.2 M lithium formate, pH 2.9. To obtain a definitive identification of the adulterant it was necessary to also examine the electrophoretic mobility of myoglobin in sodium dodecylsulphate gels. One brand of "beefsteak" pie was found to actually be a mixture of mutton and beef.

  15. Differences in nutrient composition and choice of side dishes between red meat and fish dinners in Norwegian adults

    PubMed Central

    Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Løken, Elin Bjørge; Wandel, Margareta; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-based dietary guidelines often recommend increased consumption of fish and reduced intake of red and processed meat. However, little is known about how changing the main protein source from red meat to fish may influence the choice of side dishes. Objective To investigate whether side dish choices differed between red meat and fish dinners. Moreover, to compare intakes of macronutrients and selected micronutrients in red meat and fish dinners and to see whether whole-day intakes of these nutrients differed between days with red meat dinners and days with fish dinners. Design Data were collected in a cross-sectional nationwide Norwegian dietary survey using two non-consecutive telephone-administered 24-h recalls. The recalls were conducted approximately 4 weeks apart. In total, 2,277 dinners from 1,517 participants aged 18–70 were included in the analyses. Results Fish dinners were more likely to include potatoes and carrots than red meat dinners, whereas red meat dinners more often contained bread, tomato sauce, and cheese. Red meat dinners contained more energy and iron; had higher percentages of energy (E%) from fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat; and a lower E% from protein and polyunsaturated fat than fish dinners. Fish dinners contained more vitamin D, β-carotene, and folate than red meat dinners. Similar differences were found when comparing whole-day intakes of the same nutrients on days with red meat versus fish dinners. Conclusion Fish dinners were accompanied by different side dishes than red meat dinners. With regard to nutrient content, fish dinners generally had a healthier profile than red meat dinners. However, iron intake was higher for red meat dinners. Information about associated foods will be useful both for developing public health guidelines and when studying associations between dietary factors and health outcomes. PMID:26781818

  16. Effect of Acacia karroo Supplementation on Growth, Ultimate pH, Colour and Cooking Losses of Meat from Indigenous Xhosa Lop-eared Goats

    PubMed Central

    Ngambu, S.; Muchenje, V.; Marume, U.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of Acacia karroo supplementation on growth, ultimate pH, colour and cooking losses of meat from indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goats. Eighteen castrated 4-month-old kids were used in the study until slaughter. The kids were subdivided in two treatment groups A. karroo supplemented (AK) and non-supplemented (NS). The supplemented goats were given 200 g per head per d of fresh A. karroo leaves. The kids were slaughtered on d 60 and sample cuttings for meat quality assessment were taken from the Longistimus dorsi muscle. The supplemented kids had higher (p<0.05) growth rates than the non-supplemented ones. The meat from the A. karroo supplemented goats had lower (p<0.05) ultimate pH and cooking loss than the meat from the non-supplemented goats. Acacia karroo supplemented goats produced higher (p<0.05) b* (yellowness) value, but supplementation had no significant effect on L* (lightness) and a* (redness) of the meat. Therefore, A. karroo supplementation improved growth performance and the quality of meat from goats. PMID:25049715

  17. Substitutions of red meat, poultry and fish and risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Würtz, Anne M L; Hansen, Mette D; Tjønneland, Anne; Rimm, Eric B; Schmidt, Erik B; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne U

    2016-05-01

    Red meat has been suggested to be adversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI), but previous studies have rarely taken replacement foods into consideration. We aimed to investigate optimal substitutions between and within the food groups of red meat, poultry and fish for MI prevention. We followed up 55 171 women and men aged 50-64 years with no known history of MI at recruitment. Diet was assessed by a validated 192-item FFQ at baseline. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for specified food substitutions of 150 g/week. During a median follow-up time of 13·6 years, we identified 656 female and 1694 male cases. Among women, the HR for replacing red meat with fatty fish was 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·89), whereas the HR for replacing red meat with lean fish was 1·00 (95 % CI 0·89, 1·14). Similarly, replacing poultry with fatty but not lean fish was inversely associated with MI: the HR was 0·81 (95 % CI 0·67, 0·98) for fatty fish and was 1·08 (95 % CI 0·92, 1·27) for lean fish. The HR for replacing lean with fatty fish was 0·75 (95 % CI 0·60, 0·94). Replacing processed with unprocessed red meat was not associated with MI. Among men, a similar pattern was found, although the associations were not statistically significant. This study suggests that replacing red meat, poultry or lean fish with fatty fish is associated with a lower risk of MI.

  18. Iron status biomarkers in iron deficient women consuming oily fish versus red meat diet.

    PubMed

    Navas-Carretero, S; Pérez-Granados, A M; Schoppen, S; Sarria, B; Carbajal, A; Vaquero, M P

    2009-06-01

    Specific recommendations for anemic individuals consist in increasing red meat intake, but the population at large is advised to reduce consumption of red meat and increase that of fish, in order to prevent the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to determine the effects of consuming an oily fish compared to a red meat diet on iron status in women with low iron stores. The study was designed attending the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement guidelines. It was a randomised crossover dietary intervention study of two 8-week periods. Twenty-five young women with low iron stores completed the study. Two diets containing a total of 8 portions of fish, meat and poultry per week were designed differing only in their oily fish or red meat content (5 portions per week). At the beginning and the end of each period blood samples were taken and hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum ferritin, serum iron, serum transferrin, serum transferrin receptor-2 and the Zn-protoporphyrin/free-protoporphyrin ratio were determined. Food intake and body weight were monitored. During the oily fish diet, PUFA intake was significantly higher (p=0.010) and iron intake lower (mean+/-SD, 11.5+/-3.4 mg/day vs. 13.9+/-0.1 mg/day, p=0.008), both diets providing lower mean daily iron intake than recommended for menstruating women. Although there were no significant differences after 16 weeks, serum ferritin moderately decreased and soluble transferrin receptor increased with the oily fish, while changes with the red meat diet were the opposite. In conclusion, an oily fish diet compared to a red meat diet does not decrease iron status after 8 weeks in iron deficient women.

  19. Impact of Added Encapsulated Phosphate Level on Lipid Oxidation Inhibition during the Storage of Cooked Ground Meat.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, B; Şimşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E; Bilecen, D

    2016-02-01

    The effect of levels (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%) of added encapsulated (e) phosphate (sodium tripolyphosphate, STP; sodium hexametaphosphate, HMP; sodium pyrophosphate, SPP) on lipid oxidation inhibition during storage (0, 1, and 7 d) of ground meat (chicken, beef) was evaluated. The use of eSTP and eSPP resulted in lower and higher cooking loss (CL) compared to eHMP, respectively (P < 0.05). Increasing encapsulated phosphate level (PL) enhanced the impact of phosphates on CL in both chicken and beef samples (P < 0.05). Encapsulated STP increased pH, whereas eSPP decreased pH (P < 0.05). pH was not affected by PL. The highest orthophosphate (OP) was obtained with eSTP, followed by eSPP and eHMP (P < 0.05). The level of OP determined in both chicken and beef samples increased (P < 0.05) during storage. Increasing PL caused an increase in OP (P < 0.05). The highest reduction rate in the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and LPO for both meat species were obtained with eSPP, followed by eSTP and eHMP (P < 0.05). Increasing PL resulted in lower TBARS and LPO (P < 0.05). Findings suggest that encapsulated phosphates can be a strategy to inhibit lipid oxidation for the meat industry and the efficiency of encapsulated phosphates on lipid oxidation inhibition can be enhanced by increasing PL.

  20. Meat, fish, and esophageal cancer risk: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Maryam; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Salehi, Mohhamad Hossein; Nojomi, Marziyeh; Kolahdooz, Fariba

    2013-05-01

    Risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are well defined, while the role of diet in these conditions remains controversial. To help elucidate the role of particular dietary components, major bibliographic databases were searched for published studies (1990-2011) on associations between esophageal cancer risk (EC) and consumption of various types of meat and fish. Random-effects models and dose-response meta-analyses were used to pool study results. Subgroup analyses were conducted by histological subtype, study design, and nationality. Four cohorts and 31 case-control studies were identified. The overall pooled relative risk (RR) of EC and the confidence intervals (CIs) for the groups with the highest versus the lowest levels of intake were as follows: 0.99 (95% CI: 0.85-1.15) for total meat; 1.40 (95%CI: 1.09-1.81) for red meat; 1.41 (95%CI: 1.13-1.76) for processed meat; 0.87 (95%CI: 0.60-1.24) for poultry; and 0.80 (95%CI: 0.64-1.00) for fish. People with the highest levels of red meat intake had a significantly increased risk of ESCC. Processed meat intake was associated with increased risk of EAC. These results suggest that low levels of red and processed meat consumption and higher levels of fish intake might reduce EC risk.

  1. Effects of commonly used cooking practices on total mercury concentration in fish and their impact on exposure assessments.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J N; Berry, M R; Graves, R L

    1997-01-01

    The effects of cooking practices commonly used by Native Americans on total mercury concentrations in fish were investigated. A preparation factor relating mercury concentrations in fish as prepared for consumption to mercury concentration data as measured in typical environmental monitoring programs was calculated. Preparation factors are needed to provide risk assessors with a more accurate estimate of the actual amount of mercury ingested through consumption of contaminated fish. Data on fish preparation and consumption practices of two communities of Chippewa residing on the shores of Lake Superior in northern Wisconsin were used to select practices for study. The most commonly consumed species, walleye and lake trout, were selected. Whitefish livers were also selected for study. Commonly used cooking techniques including panfrying, deep-frying, baking, boiling, and smoking were duplicated in the laboratory. Total mercury concentrations were determined in fish portions before and after cooking and in a portion representative of that analyzed in programs to assess water quality (skin-on fillets). Total mercury was determined by microwave digestion-cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury concentrations (wet weight basis) in panfried, baked, and boiled walleye fillets and deep-fried and baked whitefish livers ranged from 1.1 to 1.5 times higher than in corresponding raw portions. In lake trout, mercury concentrations were 1.5 to 2.0 times higher in cooked portions than in the raw portion. However, total mercury levels were constant before and after cooking, indicating the concentration effect is caused by weight (moisture and fat) loss. The addition of lemon juice to potentially release mercury from its bound state and promote volatilization did not exert any measurable influence on mercury concentrations in cooked walleye. In some cases mercury concentrations were increased with increased cooking times due to further loss of moisture and fat

  2. Effect of a dietary supplementation with linseed oil and selenium to growing rabbits on their productive performances, carcass traits and fresh and cooked meat quality.

    PubMed

    Matics, Zs; Cullere, M; Szín, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Szabó, A; Fébel, H; Odermatt, M; Radnai, I; Dalle Zotte, A; Szendrő, Zs

    2016-08-23

    The present experiment tested a dietary supplementation with linseed oil and selenium to growing rabbits. The basal diet (B) contained 3% sunflower oil, while it was substituted with 3% linseed oil in the experimental feed (S). The selenium (Se) content of the two diets was 0.10 vs. 0.46 mg/kg. Rabbits were fed with B diet from the age of 18 days. One group was fed with the B diet until 11 weeks of age (group B), whereas the experimental groups were fed with S diet for 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks (groups S1, S2, S3 and S4, respectively), before slaughtering (11 weeks of age). Live performance and carcass traits of rabbits, fatty acid (FA) profile and selenium content of their hind leg (HL) and Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) meat were considered in this study. In addition, the effect of two different cooking methods on the nutritional value of the enriched HL meat was also assessed. The tested dietary supplementation only minimally affected the live performance and carcass traits of rabbits. The S supplementation significantly reduced the Σ n-6 FA and increased the Σ n-3 FA of the HL meat and LTL meat, compared to the B diet (p < 0.001); thus, n-6/n-3 ratio was improved (p < 0.001). In addition, HL meat and LTL meat of S fed rabbits were significantly enriched in Se reaching a twofold increase in both meat cuts (p < 0.01). Therefore, the S supplementation improved the functional value of the rabbit meat. The heat treatment affected cooking loss, Se and vitamin E contents as well as the oxidative status of the HL meat (p < 0.001), with the different cooking methods providing different results. In addition, even if the beneficial C20:5 n-3 and C22:6 n-3 decreased with cooking, the n-6/n-3 ratio remained unaffected.

  3. Impact of cooking and handling conditions on furanic compounds in breaded fish products.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Palacios, T; Petisca, C; Henriques, R; Ferreira, I M P L V O

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of cooking and handling conditions on the quantity of furanic compounds (furan, 2-furfural, furfuryl alcohol, 2-pentylfuran, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) in breaded fish products. Oven-baking and reheating in the microwave lead to low furanic compounds formation in comparison with deep-frying. The use of olive oil for deep-frying promoted higher levels of furanic compounds than sunflower oil. The amounts of these compounds diminished as the temperature and time of deep-frying decreased as well as after a delay after deep-frying. Thus, the generation of furanic compounds can be minimized by adjusting the cooking method and conditions, such as using an electric oven, deep-frying in sunflower oil at 160°C during 4min, or waiting 10min after cooking. However, these conditions that reduce furanic compounds levels also reduce the content of volatile compounds related to the aroma and flavour of fried foods. In this sense, new efforts should be done to reduce the formation of furanic compounds without being detrimental to the volatile profile.

  4. Meat intake, cooking methods and risk of proximal colon, distal colon and rectal cancer: the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) cohort study.

    PubMed

    Parr, Christine L; Hjartåker, Anette; Lund, Eiliv; Veierød, Marit B

    2013-09-01

    Red and processed meat intake is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), but epidemiological evidence by subsite and sex is still limited. In the population-based Norwegian Women and Cancer cohort, we examined associations of meat intake with incident proximal colon, distal colon and rectal cancer, in 84,538 women who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) during 1996-1998 or 2003-2005 (baseline or exposure update) at age 41-70 years, with follow-up by register linkages through 2009. We also examined the effect of meat cooking methods in a subsample (n = 43,636). Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox regression. There were 459 colon (242 proximal and 167 distal), and 215 rectal cancer cases with follow-up ≥ 1 (median 11.1) year. Processed meat intake ≥60 vs. <15 g/day was associated with significantly increased cancer risk in all subsites with HRs (95% confidence interval, CI) of 1.69 (1.05-2.72) for proximal colon, 2.13 (1.18-3.83) for distal colon and 1.71 (1.02-2.85) for rectal cancer. Regression calibration of continuous effects based on repeated 24-hr dietary recalls, indicated attenuation due to measurement errors in FFQ data, but corrected HRs were not statistically significant due to wider CIs. Our study did not support an association between CRC risk and intake of red meat, chicken, or meat cooking methods, but a high processed meat intake was associated with increased risk of proximal colon, distal colon and rectal cancer. The effect of processed meat was mainly driven by the intake of sausages.

  5. Identification and quantification of turkey meat adulteration in fresh, frozen-thawed and cooked minced beef by FT-NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Alamprese, Cristina; Amigo, José Manuel; Casiraghi, Ernestina; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-11-01

    This work aims at the development of a method based on FT-NIR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for the identification and quantification of minced beef meat adulteration with turkey meat. Samples were analyzed as raw, frozen-thawed and cooked. Different multivariate regression and class-modeling strategies were evaluated. PLS regression models with R(2) in prediction higher than 0.884 and RMSEP lower than 10.8% were developed. PLS-DA applied to discriminate each type of sample in two classes (adulteration threshold=20%) showed values of sensitivity and specificity in prediction higher than 0.84 and 0.76, respectively. Thus, the study demonstrates that FT-NIR spectroscopy coupled with suitable chemometric strategies is a reliable tool for the identification and quantification of minced beef adulteration with turkey meat not only in fresh products, but also in frozen-thawed and cooked samples. This achievement is of crucial importance in the meat industry due to the increasing number of processed meat products, in which technological treatments can mask a possible inter-species adulteration.

  6. Meat, Fish, Poultry, and Egg Intake at Diagnosis and Risk of Prostate Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kathryn M; Mucci, Lorelei A; Drake, Bettina F; Preston, Mark A; Stampfer, Meir J; Giovannucci, Edward; Kibel, Adam S

    2016-12-01

    Little information exists on diet and prostate cancer progression. We examined the association between intakes of total red meat, processed and unprocessed red meat, poultry, fish, and eggs and prostate cancer recurrence. We conducted a prospective study of 971 men treated with radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer between 2003 and 2010. Men completed a food frequency questionnaire at diagnosis. We used logistic regression to study the association between diet and high-grade or advanced-stage disease. We used Cox models to study the risk of progression [N = 94 events, mainly prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence]. Total red meat intake was marginally associated with risk of high-grade disease [Gleason ≥ 4+3; adjusted OR top vs. bottom quartile: 1.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.93-2.97; Ptrend = 0.05], as was very high intake of eggs (OR top decile vs. bottom quartile: 1.98; 95% CI, 1.08-3.63, Ptrend = 0.08). Well-done red meat was associated with advanced disease (≥pT3; OR top vs. bottom quartile: 1.74, 95% CI, 1.05-2.90; Ptrend = 0.01). Intakes of red meat, fish, and eggs were not associated with progression. Very high poultry intake was inversely associated with progression (HR top decile vs. bottom quartile: 0.19; 95% CI, 0.06-0.63; Ptrend = 0.02). Substituting 30 g/d of poultry or fish for total or unprocessed red meat was associated with significantly lower risk of recurrence. Lower intakes of red meat and well-done red meat and higher intakes of poultry and fish are associated with lower risk of high grade and advanced prostate cancer and reduced recurrence risk, independent of stage and grade. Cancer Prev Res; 9(12); 933-41. ©2016 AACR.

  7. CO2 Plant Extracts Reduce Cholesterol Oxidation in Fish Patties during Cooking and Storage.

    PubMed

    Tarvainen, Marko; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2016-12-28

    Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in foods may pose risks for human health. Suitable antioxidants can reduce the formation of COPs in industrial products. Consumer awareness of food additives has brought a need for more natural alternatives. This is the first study on the effects of supercritical CO2 extracts of rosemary, oregano, and an antimicrobial blend of seven herbs, tested at two levels (1 and 3 g/kg fish), against cholesterol oxidation in patties made of a widely consumed fish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), during baking and storage. Cholesterol oxidation was reduced by the extracts as indicated by lowered levels of 7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, and 7-ketocholesterol, which were quantified by GC-MS. The total amount of COPs was smaller in all of the cooked samples containing the plant extracts (<1 μg/g extracted fat) than in the cooked control (14 μg/g). Furthermore, the plant extracts exhibited protective effects also during cold storage for up to 14 days.

  8. Antilisterial properties of marinades during refrigerated storage and microwave oven reheating against post-cooking inoculated chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Fouladkhah, Aliyar; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Nychas, George-John; Sofos, John N

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated growth of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on cooked chicken meat with different marinades and survival of the pathogen as affected by microwave oven reheating. During aerobic storage at 7 °C, on days 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7, samples were reheated by microwave oven (1100 W) for 45 or 90 s and analyzed microbiologically. L. monocytogenes counts on nonmarinated (control) samples increased (P < 0.05) from 2.7 ± 0.1 (day-0) to 6.9 ± 0.1 (day-7) log CFU/g during storage. Initial (day-0) pathogen counts of marinated samples were <0.5 log CFU/g lower than those of the control, irrespective of marinating treatment. At 7 d of storage, pathogen levels on samples marinated with tomato juice were not different (P ≥ 0.05; 6.9 ± 0.1 log CFU/g) from those of the control, whereas for samples treated with the remaining marinades, pathogen counts were 0.7 (soy sauce) to 2.0 (lemon juice) log CFU/g lower (P < 0.05) than those of the control. Microwave oven reheating reduced L. monocytogenes counts by 1.9 to 4.1 (45 s) and >2.4 to 5.0 (90 s) log CFU/g. With similar trends across different marinates, the high levels of L. monocytogenes survivors found after microwave reheating, especially after storage for more than 2 d, indicate that length of storage and reheating time need to be considered for safe consumption of leftover cooked chicken.

  9. Antioxidative effects of glycosyl-ascorbic acids synthesized by maltogenic amylase to reduce lipid oxidation and volatiles production in cooked chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Bok; Nam, Ki-chang; Lee, Sung-Joon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Inouye, Kuniyo; Park, Kwan-Hwa

    2004-01-01

    Glycosylated ascorbic acids were synthesized by using the transglycosylation activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase with maltotriose to show effective antioxidative activity with enhanced oxidative stability. The modified ascorbic acids comprised mono- and di-glycosyl transfer products with an alpha-(1,6)-glycosidic linkage. The antioxidative effects of the glycosyl derivatives of ascorbic acid on the lipid oxidation of cooked chicken breast meat patties were compared, and the synergistic effect when combined with alpha-tocopherol was determined in terms of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and volatiles production during storage. The results indicate that the glycosylated ascorbic acids had very effective antioxidative activity in preventing lipid oxidation, and were better in their synergistic effect in comparison to authentic ascorbic acid, with maltosyl-ascorbic acid being the most effective. Volatiles production was highly correlated with the TBARS values in the lipid oxidation of cooked meat. The antioxidative effect preventing the production of volatiles was particularly strong on pentanal, fairly strong on propanal and butanal, and not at all on ethanal. Propanal, pentanal, and the total volatiles thus provided a good representation of the lipid oxidation status of cooked chicken meat.

  10. Urinary mutagenesis and fried red meat intake: influence of cooking temperature, phenotype, and genotype of metabolizing enzymes in a controlled feeding study.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ulrike; Sinha, Rashmi; Bell, Douglas A; Rothman, Nathaniel; Grant, Delores J; Watson, Mary A; Kulldorff, Martin; Brooks, Lance R; Warren, Sarah H; DeMarini, David M

    2004-01-01

    Meat cooked at high temperatures contains potential carcinogenic compounds, such as heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Samples from a 2-week controlled feeding study were used to examine the relationship between the intake of mutagenicity from meat fried at different temperatures and the levels of mutagenicity subsequently detected in urine, as well as the influence of the genotype of drug metabolizing enzymes on urinary mutagenicity. Sixty subjects consumed ground beef patties fried at low temperature (100 degrees C) for 1 week, followed by ground beef patties fried at high temperature (250 degrees C) the second week. Mutagenicity in the meat was assayed in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 (+S9), and urinary mutagenicity was determined using Salmonella YG1024 (+S9). Genotypes for NAT1, NAT2, GSTM1, and UGT1A1 were analyzed using blood samples from the subjects. Meat fried at 100 degrees C was not mutagenic, whereas meat fried at 250 degrees C was mutagenic (1023 rev/g). Unhydrolyzed and hydrolyzed urine samples were 22x and 131x more mutagenic, respectively, when subjects consumed red meat fried at 250 degrees C compared with red meat fried at 100 degrees C. We found that hydrolyzed urine was approximately 8x more mutagenic than unhydrolyzed urine, likely due to the deconjugation of mutagens from glucuronide. The intake of meat cooked at high temperature correlated with the mutagenicity of unhydrolyzed urine (r = 0.32, P = 0.01) and hydrolyzed urine (r = 0.34, P = 0.008). Mutagenicity in unhydrolyzed urine was not influenced by NAT1, NAT2, or GSTM1 genotypes. However, a UGT1A1*28 polymorphism that reduced UGT1A1 expression and conjugation modified the effect of intake of meat cooked at high temperature on mutagenicity of unhydrolyzed urine (P for interaction = 0.04). These mutagenicity data were also compared with previously determined levels of HCAs (measured as MeIQx, DiMeIQx, and PhIP) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

  11. Effect of cooking and in vitro digestion on the stability of co-enzyme Q10 in processed meat products.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Brian D; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Hamill, Ruth; Kerry, Joseph P

    2014-05-01

    The use of CoQ10 fortification in the production of a functional food has been demonstrated in the past but primarily for dairy products. This study aimed to determine the bio-accessibility of CoQ10 in processed meat products, beef patties and pork breakfast sausages, fortified with CoQ10. Both the patties and sausages were fortified with a micellarized form of CoQ10 to enhance solubility to a concentration of 1mg/g of sample (NovaSolQ®). An assay was developed combining in vitro digestion and HPLC analysis to quantify the CoQ10 present in fortified products (100mg/g). The cooking retention level of CoQ10 in the products was found to be 74±1.42% for patties and 79.69±0.75% for sausages. The digestibility for both products ranged between 93% and 95%, sausages did have a higher digestibility level than patties but this was not found to be significant (P<0.01).

  12. Maintenance of raw and cooked ready-to-eat product quality of infused poultry meats with selected plant extracts during electron beam irradiation and after storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rababah, Taha

    The purpose of this study included: preparing plant extracts and evaluating these extracts for total phenolics and antioxidant activities (AA); infusing extract/combination that demonstrates superior AA into chicken breast and irradiating at 3.0 kGy; evaluating the physicochemical properties of irradiated and non-irradiated raw and cooked chicken breast at 5°C for 12 days and -20°C for 9 months; and selecting the extracts that demonstrated desirable AA, infusing these extracts into chicken breast and evaluating head-space volatiles, and conducting sensory evaluation. The total phenolic content and AA of the plant extracts ranged from 24.8 to 92.5 mg/g dry material (conjugated diene of methyl linoleate) and 3.4 to 86.3%, respectively. The AA of plant extracts using oxidative stability instrument were 4.6 to 10.2 h (Induction time). Green tea and grape seed extracts had the highest AA within several plant extracts, and were selected to retard lipid oxidation in further studies. Fresh boneless and skinless chicken breast meats were vacuum infused with varying concentrations of antioxidants: Green tea and grape seed extracts alone/in combination and tert-butylhydroquinone. The results showed that irradiation had no significant effect on pH, water holding capacity, but increased the redness and carbonyls in raw meats (p < 0.05). Irradiation increased shear force, hardness, and chewiness of cooked meats. Infusion of plant extracts into meats increased lightness and decreased redness as well as hardness and shear force. Irradiation increased TBARS, hexanal, and pentanal values in raw and cooked meats. Addition of plant extracts decreased the amount of TBARS, hexanal, pentanal, and carbonyl values. Similar results were observed when the samples were stored at -20°C for 9 months. Descriptive sensory flavor results showed that irradiation did not affect the flavor attributes. Consumer, descriptive, and instrumental results showed that irradiation increased toughness

  13. Protein digestibility evaluations of meat and fish substrates using laboratory, avian and ileally cannulated dog assays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish and meat protein serves as important protein sources in the human and companion animal diets: however, limited information is available on differences in protein quality. Pollock fillet, and salmon fillet, beef loin, pork loin and chicken breast, were evaluated for protein quality and amino aci...

  14. [Determination of spiramycin and tilmicosin in meat and fish by LC/MS].

    PubMed

    Horie, Masakazu; Takegami, Harumi; Toya, Kazuo; Kikuchi, Yoshinori; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2003-06-01

    A simple and reliable method using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) has been developed for the determination of the macrolide antibiotics spiramycin and tilmicosin in meat and fish. The drugs were extracted from meat and fish with 0.2% metaphosphoric acid-methanol (6:4), and the extracts were cleaned up on an Oasis HLB cartridge (60 mg). Positive ionization produced the molecular related ions, (M + 2H)2+, at m/z 350.2, 422.3 and 435.3 for neospiramycin I, spiramycin I and tilmicosin, respectively. The LC separation was performed on a Capcell Pak MG-C18 column (150 x 2 mm i.d.) with a gradient system of 0.02% formic acid-acetonitrile as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The molecular-related ions of the drugs were very clear under this condition. The calibration graph for each drug was rectilinear from 0.05 to 5 ng with selected ion monitoring (SIM). The recoveries of the drugs from meat and fish fortified at the level of 0.2 microgram/g was 73.2-89.2%, with high precision. The limits of detection of the drugs in meat and fish were 0.01 microgram/g.

  15. Estimated intakes of meat and fish by children and adolescents in Australia and comparison with recommendations.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Edward H; Hanstock, Tanya L; Watson, Jane F

    2009-06-01

    Long-chain n-3 PUFA are considered important for cardiovascular health and brain development. Meat other than fish contributes significantly to total intakes of long-chain n-3 PUFA in adults; however, there are limited published data examining the intake of individual meat sources in children and adolescents in the Australian population. A review of literature was conducted using PubMed, Agricola and CAB Abstracts using the terms 'intake', 'beef', 'lamb', 'pork', 'poultry', 'fish', 'children' and 'adolescents' and using reference lists in published articles. Studies and surveys were identified that contained published values for intakes of meat or fish. Two national dietary surveys of children and adolescents were conducted in Australia in 1985 and 1995 and two regional surveys were conducted in Western Sydney and Western Australia in 1994 and 2003, respectively. Comprehensive data for the intake of individual meat sources were not reported from the 1995 survey, but estimations of intake were calculated from published values. Reported intakes of meat and fish are generally lower in females than males and tend to increase with age. Weighted mean intakes of red meat (beef plus lamb) across the three most recent studies were 67.3 and 52.2 g/d, respectively, for males and females aged between 7 and 12 years and 87.7 and 54.2 g/d, respectively, for males and females aged 12-18 years. These weighted intakes are within Australian guidelines and are likely to contribute significantly to total long-chain n-3 PUFA intake in children and adolescents in the Australian population.

  16. The Use of Tomato Powder Fermented with Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus sakei for the Ready-to-Cook Minced Meat Quality Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Juodeikiene, Grazina; Zadeike, Daiva; Viskelis, Pranas; Urbonaviciene, Dalia

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this study, the influence of lactic acid fermentation on the quality of tomato powder was evaluated. The effect of adding fermented tomato powder to ready-to-cook minced pork meat to improve its nutritional value and sensory characteristics was also analysed. The cell growth of Lactobacillus sakei (7.53 log CFU/g) was more intense in the medium containing tomato powder, compared to the growth of Pediococcus pentosaceus (6.35 log CFU/g) during 24 h of fermentation; however, higher acidity (pH=4.1) was observed in the tomato powder samples fermented with Pediococcus pentosaceus. The spontaneous fermentation of tomato powder reduced cell growth by 38% and pH values slightly increased to 4.17, compared to the fermentation with pure LAB. The lactofermentation of tomato powder increased the average β-carotene and lycopene mass fractions by 43.9 and 50.2%, respectively, compared with the nonfermented samples. Lycopene and β-carotene contents in the ready-to-cook minced pork meat were proportional to the added tomato powder (10 and 30%). After cooking, β-carotene and lycopene contents decreased, on average, by 24.2 and 41.2%, respectively. The highest loss (up to 49.2%) of carotenoids was found in samples with 30% nonfermented tomato powder. Tomato powder fermented with 10% Lactobacillus sakei KTU05-6 can be recommended as both a colouring agent and a source of lycopene in the preparation of ready-to-cook minced pork meat. PMID:27904345

  17. Characterization of Virulence Potential of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated from Bovine Meat, Fresh Fish, and Smoked Fish

    PubMed Central

    Benie, Comoé Koffi Donatien; Dadié, Adjéhi; Guessennd, Nathalie; N’gbesso-Kouadio, Nadège Ahou; Kouame, N’zebo Désiré; N’golo, David Coulibaly; Aka, Solange; Dako, Etienne; Dje, Koffi Marcellin; Dosso, Mireille

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa owns a variability of virulence factors. These factors can increase bacterial pathogenicity and infection severity. Despite the importance of knowledge about them, these factors are not more characterized at level of strains derived from local food products. This study aimed to characterize the virulence potential of P. aeruginosa isolated from various animal products. Several structural and virulence genes of P. aeruginosa including lasB, exoS, algD, plcH, pilB, exoU, and nan1 were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on 204 strains of P. aeruginosa. They were isolated from bovine meat (122), fresh fish (49), and smoked fish (33). The 16S rRNA gene was detected on 91.1% of the presumptive strains as Pseudomonas. The rpoB gene showed that 99.5% of the strains were P. aeruginosa. The lasB gene (89.2%) was the most frequently detected (p < 0.05). In decreasing importance order, exoS (86.8%), algD (72.1%), plcH (72.1%), pilB (40.2%), and exoU (2.5%) were detected. The lasB gene was detected in all strains of P. aeruginosa serogroups O11 and O16. The prevalence of algD, exoS, and exoU genes in these strains varied from 51.2% to 87.4%. The simultaneous determination of serogroups and virulence factors is of interest for the efficacy of surveillance of infections associated with P. aeruginosa. PMID:28386471

  18. SPME technique for analyzing headspace volatiles in fish miso, a Japanese fish meat-based fermented product.

    PubMed

    Giri, Anupam; Osako, Kazufumi; Ohshima, Toshiaki

    2010-01-01

    The optimized conditions were evaluated for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) to investigate the headspace volatiles in fish miso, a Japanese fish meat-based fermented product. The influence on the efficiency for microextraction of such parameters as the sample size, isolation time and temperature, sensitivity and selectivity of several SPME fibers of different liquid phases as well as several extraction techniques was evaluated. Suitable reproducibility and sensitivity of SPME were achieved by combining carbowax/divenylbenzene of 65 µm thickness as the liquid phase of SPME, 3 g of fish miso, 40 °C of isolation temperature and 40 min of isolation time. The headspace volatiles of fish miso prepared from spotted mackerel were analyzed under the optimized conditions. Although several volatiles contributed to fish miso, certain volatile esters might have played the greatest role in imparting the sweet-fruity aroma to the product.

  19. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued meats... cooking process. The weight of barbecued meat shall not exceed 70 percent of the weight of the...

  20. Development of farmed fish: a nutritionally necessary alternative to meat.

    PubMed

    Sargent, J R; Tacon, A G

    1999-05-01

    The projected stagnation in the catch from global fisheries and the continuing expansion of aquaculture is considered against the background that fishmeal and fish oil are major feed stocks for farmed salmon and trout, and also for marine fish. The dietary requirement of these farmed fish for high-quality protein, rich in essential amino acids, can be met by sources other than fishmeal. However, the highly-polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) present in high concentrations in fish oil are essential dietary constituents for marine fish and highly-desirable dietary constituents for salmonids. Currently, there is no feasible alternative source to fish oil for these nutrients in fish feeds. Vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid (18:2n-6) can partially substitute for 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in salmonid and marine-fish feeds. However, this is nutritionally undesirable for human nutrition because the health-promoting effects of fish-derived 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 reflect a very high intake of 18:2n-6 relative to linolenic acid (18:3n-3) in Western diets. If partial replacement of fish oils in fish feeds with vegetable oils becomes necessary in future, it is argued that 18:3n-3-rich oils, such as linseed oil, are the oils of choice because they are much more acceptable from a human nutritional perspective, especially given the innate ability of freshwater fish, including salmonids, to convert dietary 18:3n-3 to 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. In the meantime, a more judicious use of increasingly-expensive fish oil in aquaculture is recommended. High priorities in the future development of aquaculture are considered to be genetic improvement of farmed fish stocks with enhanced abilities to convert C18 to C20 and C22 n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, enhanced development of primary production of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 by single-cell marine organisms, and continuing development of new species.

  1. Effect of refrigerated and frozen storage on the survival of Campylobacter jejuni in cooked chicken meat breast.

    PubMed

    Eideh, Ala'a M F; Al-Qadiri, Hamzah M

    2011-01-01

    This experimental work aimed to examine the survivability of Campylobacter jejuni in cooked chicken breast under several conditions: storage for 1, 3, and 7 d at refrigerated temperatures (4 °C) and for 20 d at frozen temperatures (-18 °C). In addition, storage at ambient temperature (26 to 28 °C) was involved. Chicken samples were inoculated with a mixed culture of C. jejuni strains (ATCC: 29428 and 33219) of known concentrations (50 and 500 CFU/g). Bacterial cells were recovered and enumerated using standard procedure (Preston method). Bacteria were not detected in the majority of samples stored at ambient temperature. Refrigeration reduced survivals in 95, 90, and 77.5% for samples inoculated with 500 CFU/g and kept for 1, 3, and 7 d, respectively. The maximum reduction reached 1 log(10) cycle for all refrigeration durations. It was observed that bacteria died in 17.5% of samples kept for 7 d at 4 °C. However, survivors in samples inoculated with 50 CFU/g were not detected in 50, 65, and 55% of samples kept for 1, 3, and 7 d, respectively. Freezing rendered survivors not detectable in 70% of samples inoculated with 50 CFU/g, while survived viable counts were reduced in 92.5% of samples inoculated with 500 CFU/g. These findings suggested that C. jejuni could be killed or just sublethally injured with or without reduction in viable counts under the investigated storage temperatures, which may indicate the ability of this bacterium to survive in chicken meat stored under refrigerated and frozen conditions.

  2. Progress and recent advances in fabrication and utilization of hypoxanthine biosensors for meat and fish quality assessment: a review.

    PubMed

    Lawal, Abdulazeez T; Adeloju, Samuel B

    2012-10-15

    This review provides an update on the research conducted on the fabrication and utilization of hypoxanthine (Hx) biosensors published over the past four decades. In particular, the review focuses on progress made in the development and use of Hx biosensors for the assessment of fish and meat quality which has dominated research in this area. The various fish and meat freshness indexes that have been proposed over this period are highlighted. Furthermore, recent developments and future advances in the use of screen-printed electrodes and nanomaterials for achieving improved performances for the reliable determination of Hx in fish and meat are discussed.

  3. Heavy metals in marine fish meat and consumer health: a review.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Adina C; O'Neill, Bernadette; Sigge, Gunnar O; Kerwath, Sven E; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2016-01-15

    The numerous health benefits provided by fish consumption may be compromised by the presence of toxic metals and metalloids such as lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury, which can have harmful effects on the human body if consumed in toxic quantities. The monitoring of metal concentrations in fish meat is therefore important to ensure compliance with food safety regulations and consequent consumer protection. The toxicity of these metals may be dependent on their chemical forms, which requires metal speciation processes for direct measurement of toxic metal species or the identification of prediction models in order to determine toxic metal forms from measured total metal concentrations. This review addresses various shortcomings in current knowledge and research on the accumulation of metal contaminants in commercially consumed marine fish globally and particularly in South Africa, affecting both the fishing industry as well as fish consumers.

  4. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria from modified atmosphere packaged sliced cooked meat products at sell-by date assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Audenaert, Kris; D'Haene, Klaas; Messens, Kathy; Ruyssen, Tony; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2010-02-01

    The predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota associated with three types of modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) sliced cooked meat products (i.e. ham, turkey and chicken) was analyzed at sell-by date using a combination of culturing and molecular population fingerprinting. Likewise routine analyses during industrial MAP production, meat samples were plated on the general heterotrophic Plate Count Agar (PCA) and on the LAB-specific de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS) agar under different temperature and atmosphere conditions. Subsequently, community DNA extracts were prepared from culturable bacterial fractions harvested from both media and used for PCR targeting the V3 hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA gene followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR amplicons (PCR-DGGE). Irrespective of aerobic or anaerobic incubation conditions, V3-16S rDNA DGGE fingerprints of culturable fractions from PCA and MRS medium displayed a high level of similarity indicating that LAB constituted the most dominant group in the culturable bacterial community. Comparison of DGGE profiles of fractions grown at 20, 28 or 37 degrees C indicated that part of the culturable community consisted of psychrotrophs. Four DGGE bands were common among cooked ham, turkey and chicken products, suggesting that these represent the microbiota circulating in the plant where all three MAP product types were sliced and packaged. Based on band sequencing and band position analysis using LAB reference strains, these four bands could be assigned to Lactobacillus sakei and/or the closely related Lactobacillus fuchuensis, Lactobacillus curvatus, Carnobacterium divergens and Leuconostoc carnosum. In conclusion, the PCR-DGGE approach described in this study allows to discriminate, identify and monitor core and occasional LAB microbiota of MAP sliced cooked meat products and provides valuable complementary information to the current plating procedures routinely used in industrial plants.

  5. Effect of malva nut gum (purified and crude), sodium chloride and phosphate on cooking, texture, colour, rheology and microstructure of different chicken meat batters.

    PubMed

    Barbut, S; Somboonpanyakul, P; Quinton, M; Smith, A

    2009-01-01

    1. In the first experiment, the effect of adding purified malva nut gum (PMG) to comminuted poultry breast meat batters formulated with different contents of sodium chloride (NaCl; 10 to 30 g/kg) and tripolyphosphate (TPP; 0 and 5 g/kg) was studied. 2. Increasing salt (sodium chloride) content, along with the addition of 1 g/kg PMG, was beneficial in reducing cooking loss. At all salt contents, batters with PMG showed lower springiness than batters without PMG. Adding PMG to the batter with 20 g/kg salt and TPP decreased fracture force, springiness and chewiness. 3. In a second experiment, the effects of PMG (0.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g/kg), crude malva nut gum (CMG; 3.0 g/kg) and TPP (0.0 and 4.0 g/kg) on cooking loss, fat loss, colour, texture, rheology and microstructure of emulsified chicken meat batters were studied. 4. Increasing PMG reduced cooking and fat losses. Adding TPP increased hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness. The 1.0 g/kg PMG and TPP provided the greatest hardness. The batter with 3.0 g/kg PMG resulted in the lowest lightness (L*) and highest redness (a*). Adding PMG and TPP resulted in stable batters, as was evident by light microscopy results. The rheological evaluation showed the highest G' in the batter with 4.0 g/kg TPP followed in decreasing order by the batters containing TPP plus 3.0 g/kg PMG, TPP plus 1.0 g/kg PMG, 3.0 g/kg PMG, 1.0 g/kg PMG, 3.0 g/kg CMG and the control. 5. Overall, the results are important for developing new applications where malva nut gum can be used to improve yield and stability of meat products.

  6. Educational intervention enhances consumers' readiness to adopt food thermometer use when cooking small cuts of meat: an application of the transtheoretical model.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Masami T; Edlefsen, Miriam; McCurdy, Sandra M; Hillers, Virginia N

    2005-09-01

    An intervention to promote use of food thermometers when cooking small cuts of meat was conducted using the Transtheoretical Model. Objectives were to (i) increase use of food thermometers by home food preparers, (ii) improve consumers' attitudes regarding use of a food thermometer, and (iii) examine relationships between stages of change and decisional balance, self-efficacy, and processes of change. A randomly selected group of residents of Washington and Idaho (n = 2,500) were invited to participate in the research; 295 persons completed all phases of the multistep intervention. Following the intervention program, there was a significant increase in food thermometer use when cooking small cuts of meat (P < 0.01); those persons classified in action and maintenance stages increased from 9 to 34%. Ownership of thermometers also significantly increased (P < 0.05). The three constructs related to the Transtheoretical Model that were used in the study (decisional balance, self-efficacy, and processes of change) were very useful for examining differences among people at different stages of change because the responses for each set of questions differed positively and significantly (P < 0.01) as stages of change classifications advanced from precontemplation (no interest in thermometer use) to action and maintenance (individuals who use food thermometers). Additional educational campaigns designed to increase use of food thermometers are needed. Because most consumers are currently in the precontemplation stage, food thermometer campaigns will be most effective when they are focused on raising awareness of the food safety risks and the benefits of using food thermometers when cooking small cuts of meat.

  7. Evaluating the Performance of a New Model for Predicting the Growth of Clostridium perfringens in Cooked, Uncured Meat and Poultry Products under Isothermal, Heating, and Dynamically Cooling Conditions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lihan

    2016-07-01

    Clostridium perfringens type A is a significant public health threat and its spores may germinate, outgrow, and multiply during cooling of cooked meats. This study applies a new C. perfringens growth model in the USDA Integrated Pathogen Modeling Program-Dynamic Prediction (IPMP Dynamic Prediction) Dynamic Prediction to predict the growth from spores of C. perfringens in cooked uncured meat and poultry products using isothermal, dynamic heating, and cooling data reported in the literature. The residual errors of predictions (observation-prediction) are analyzed, and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) calculated. For isothermal and heating profiles, each data point in growth curves is compared. The mean residual errors (MRE) of predictions range from -0.40 to 0.02 Log colony forming units (CFU)/g, with a RMSE of approximately 0.6 Log CFU/g. For cooling, the end point predictions are conservative in nature, with an MRE of -1.16 Log CFU/g for single-rate cooling and -0.66 Log CFU/g for dual-rate cooling. The RMSE is between 0.6 and 0.7 Log CFU/g. Compared with other models reported in the literature, this model makes more accurate and fail-safe predictions. For cooling, the percentage for accurate and fail-safe predictions is between 97.6% and 100%. Under criterion 1, the percentage of accurate predictions is 47.5% for single-rate cooling and 66.7% for dual-rate cooling, while the fail-dangerous predictions are between 0% and 2.4%. This study demonstrates that IPMP Dynamic Prediction can be used by food processors and regulatory agencies as a tool to predict the growth of C. perfringens in uncured cooked meats and evaluate the safety of cooked or heat-treated uncured meat and poultry products exposed to cooling deviations or to develop customized cooling schedules. This study also demonstrates the need for more accurate data collection during cooling.

  8. Effects of fermentatively recovered fish waste lipids on the growth and composition of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Muhammed, M A; Domendra, D; Muthukumar, S P; Sakhare, P Z; Bhaskar, N

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of feeding fermentatively recovered fish oil (FFO) from fish processing waste (FPW), on the performance and carcass composition of broilers. A total of 60 one-d-old VenCobb broiler chicks randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups were studied. 2. The birds were randomly assigned to treatment groups and fed with a normal commercial diet (control, T1), a diet with 2% groundnut oil (positive control, T2), a diet with 1% FFO (T3), a diet with 1.5% FFO (T4) and a diet with 2% FFO (T5). Performance and growth parameters (feed intake and body weight) and fatty acid composition of serum, liver and meat were determined. 3. The performance characteristics of broiler meat did not differ among treatments. Feeding FFO reduced total cholesterol concentration in serum, meat and liver of the FFO-fed groups (T3 to T5) as compared to both the controls (T1 and T2), but there was no significant difference in triglyceride concentration between treatments. Increased concentrations of EPA and DHA in serum, liver and meat of FFO-fed groups, as compared to both controls, were observed as the FFO concentration increased. 4. The study clearly demonstrates the value of oil recovered from FPW in addition to addressing the environmental issues related to disposal of such biological waste.

  9. [Sick leave benefits for workers in the Brazilian meat and fish industries in 2008].

    PubMed

    Jakobi, Heinz Roland; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh; Bueno, Luis Fernando; Ferreira, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyze factors associated with sick leave rates among workers in the meat, fish, and seafood industries in Brazil. The study analyzed all sick leave benefits granted by the country's social security system to workers in these industries in 2008. Incidence of sick leave per 10 thousand jobs was stratified by sex, age, diagnosis, job position, State, and nature and length of benefits. The study analyzed 31,913 sick leaves, with an annual incidence of 788.7. Meat processing and packaging showed the highest incidence, and fish and seafood processing and packaging showed the longest mean length of sick leave. Women showed a higher sick leave incidence, while men received longer average sick leaves. Injuries, musculoskeletal disorders, and mental disorders accounted for 67.2% of sick leaves. The most common diagnoses were lower back pain, first-trimester bleeding in pregnancy, and depression. The data suggest poor job protection and adverse working conditions in these industries.

  10. Substitution of meat and fish with vegetables or potatoes and risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Würtz, Anne M L; Hansen, Mette D; Tjønneland, Anne; Rimm, Eric B; Schmidt, Erik B; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne U

    2016-11-01

    Red meat has been suggested to be adversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI), whereas vegetable consumption has been found to be protective. The aim of this study was to investigate substitutions of red meat, poultry and fish with vegetables or potatoes for MI prevention. We followed up 29 142 women and 26 029 men in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study aged 50-64 years with no known history of MI at baseline. Diet was assessed by a validated 192-item FFQ at baseline. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for MI associated with specified food substitutions of 150 g/week. During a median follow-up of 13·6 years, we identified 656 female and 1694 male cases. Among women, the HR for MI when replacing red meat with vegetables was 0·94 (95 % CI 0·90, 0·98). Replacing fatty fish with vegetables was associated with a higher risk of MI (HR 1·23; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·45), whereas an inverse, statistically non-significant association was found for lean fish (HR 0·93; 95 % CI 0·83, 1·05). Substituting poultry with vegetables was not associated with risk of MI (HR 1·00; 95 % CI 0·90, 1·11). Findings for substitution with potatoes were similar to findings for vegetables. Among men, a similar pattern was observed, but the associations were weak and mostly statistically non-significant. This study suggests that replacing red meat with vegetables or potatoes is associated with a lower risk of MI, whereas replacing fatty fish with vegetables or potatoes is associated with a higher risk of MI.

  11. Utilization of byproducts and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish processing industries: a review.

    PubMed

    Jayathilakan, K; Sultana, Khudsia; Radhakrishna, K; Bawa, A S

    2012-06-01

    India is bestowed with vast livestock wealth and it is growing at the rate of 6% per annum. The contribution of livestock industry including poultry and fish is increasing substantially in GDP of country which accounts for >40% of total agricultural sector and >12% of GDP. This contribution would have been much greater had the animal by-products been also efficiently utilized. Efficient utilization of by-products has direct impact on the economy and environmental pollution of the country. Non-utilization or under utilization of by-products not only lead to loss of potential revenues but also lead to the added and increasing cost of disposal of these products. Non-utilization of animal by-products in a proper way may create major aesthetic and catastrophic health problems. Besides pollution and hazard aspects, in many cases meat, poultry and fish processing wastes have a potential for recycling raw materials or for conversion into useful products of higher value. Traditions, culture and religion are often important when a meat by-product is being utilized for food. Regulatory requirements are also important because many countries restrict the use of meat by-products for reasons of food safety and quality. By-products such as blood, liver, lung, kidney, brains, spleen and tripe has good nutritive value. Medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of by-product are also highlighted in this review. Waste products from the poultry processing and egg production industries must be efficiently dealt with as the growth of these industries depends largely on waste management. Treated fish waste has found many applications among with which the most important are animal feed, biodiesel/biogas, dietectic products (chitosan), natural pigments (after extraction) and cosmetics (collagen). Available information pertaining to the utilization of by-products and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish and their processing industries has been reviewed here.

  12. Effects of dressing and cooking on DDT concentrations in certain fish from Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.; Stewart, Donald; Seagran, Harry L.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrations of DDT residues were highest in parts of the body with the highest oil content in four species of fish from Lake Michigan: yellow perch (Perca flavescens), bloater (Coregonus hoyi), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Dressing reduced the DDT residues and oil content by more than 90% in yellow perch but had little effect in the other three species. The concentration of DDT residues in bloaters was changed little by smoking but was reduced 64–72% by other methods of cooking: from 8.0 ppm (raw) to 2.2 ppm after frying in corn oil; from 10.7 to 3.9 ppm after frying in lard; and from 9.1 to 3.2 ppm after broiling. The concentration of DDT residues in fillets of yellow perch changed only from 0.3 ppm (raw) to 0.4 or 0.5 ppm after baking, frying, or broiling.

  13. Antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of pig meat before and after cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion: Comparison between Italian autochthonous pig Suino Nero Lucano and a modern crossbred pig.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio; Perna, Annamaria

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of Longissimus dorsi muscle from Suino Nero Lucano (SNL) and a modern crossbred (CG) pigs, before and after cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Pig meat showed antioxidative and antihypertensive activities, heat treatment decreased the thiols content but at the same time increased angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion enhanced the biological activity of meat. Autochthonous SNL meat showed a higher nutraceutical quality compared to CG meat, highlighting a greater potential beneficial physiological effect on human health. The results of this study indicate that the pig meat, in particular autochthonous pig meat, may be considered a functional food since it is a good source of antioxidative and antihypertensive peptides.

  14. The effect of two methods of cooking and cooling on Clostridium welchii and other bacteria in meat

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, R. G. A.; Kendall, Margaret; Hobbs, Betty C.

    1972-01-01

    A comparison was made of beef cooked in conventional and moist air (Rapidaire) ovens. In both large (ca. 4·5 kg.) and small (ca. 2·7 kg.) joints, spores of Clostridium welchii survived after cooking but vegetative cells, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, did not, regardless of the type of oven used. Cooling at room temperature after cooking permitted growth of Cl. welchii. Although some multiplication also occurred in the centre of large roasts cooled under refrigeration, the viable counts were considered too low to constitute a potential health risk. PMID:4341997

  15. Effects of Different End-Point Cooking Temperatures on the Efficiency of Encapsulated Phosphates on Lipid Oxidation Inhibition in Ground Meat.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, B; Şimşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E; Aktaş, N

    2015-10-01

    Effects of 0.5% encapsulated (e) phosphates (sodium tripolyphosphate, STP; sodium hexametaphosphate, HMP; sodium pyrophosphate, SPP) on lipid oxidation during storage (0, 1, and 7 d) of ground meat (chicken, beef) after being cooked to 3 end-point cooking temperatures (EPCT; 71, 74, and 77 °C) were evaluated. The use of STP or eSTP resulted in lower (P < 0.05) cooking loss (CL) compared to encapsulated or unencapsulated forms of HMP and SPP. Increasing EPCT led to a significant increase in CL (P < 0.05). Both STP and eSTP increased pH, whereas SPP and eSPP decreased pH (P < 0.05). The higher orthophosphate (OP) was obtained with STP or SPP compared to their encapsulated counterparts (P < 0.05). The lowest OP was determined in samples with HMP or eHMP (P < 0.05). A 77 °C EPCT resulted in lower OP in chicken compared to 74 and 71 °C (P < 0.05), dissimilar to beef, where EPCT did not affect OP. In encapsulated or unencapsulated form, using STP and SPP enhanced reduction in TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) compared with HMP (P < 0.05). Regardless of the phosphate type, more effective lipid oxidation inhibition was achieved by the use of encapsulated forms (P < 0.05). Increasing EPCT resulted in lower TBARS in beef and higher LPO values in both beef and chicken samples (P < 0.05). Findings suggest that encapsulated phosphates can be a strategy to inhibit lipid oxidation for meat industry and the efficiency of encapsulated phosphates on lipid oxidation inhibition can be enhanced by lowering EPCT.

  16. Influence of different dietary doses of n-3- or n-6-rich vegetable fats and alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on raw and cooked rabbit meat composition and oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Tres, Alba; Bou, Ricard; Codony, Rafael; Guardiola, Francesc

    2008-08-27

    This study evaluates the effects of replacing beef tallow added to rabbit feeds (3% w/w) by different doses (0%, 1.5% and 3% w/w) of n-6- or n-3-rich vegetable fat sources (sunflower and linseed oil, respectively) and alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation (0 and 100 mg/kg) on the fatty acid composition, alpha-tocopherol content, and oxidation levels [assessed by analyzing thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and lipid hydroperoxide values] in rabbit meat. We also measured these parameters after cooking and refrigerated storage of cooked rabbit meat. Both dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation and the dose and source of fat added to feeds influenced meat fatty acid composition, modifying the n-6/n-3 ratio, which was more nutritionally favorable when linseed oil was used. Furthermore, the addition of linseed oil and the supplementation with alpha-tocopheryl acetate enhanced long-chain PUFA biosynthesis. However, the addition of 3% linseed oil increased meat oxidation, and although it was reduced by dietary supplementation with alpha-tocopheryl acetate in raw meat, this reduction was not as effective after cooking. Therefore, dietary supplementation with 1.5% linseed oil plus 1.5% beef tallow and with alpha-tocopheryl acetate would be recommended to improve the nutritional quality of rabbit meat.

  17. Blood and tissue fatty acid compositions, lipoprotein levels, performance and meat flavor of broilers fed fish oil: changes in the pre- and post-withdrawal design.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, N; Safamehr, A; Mehmannavaz, Y; Chekaniazar, S

    2012-12-01

    Administration of fish oil (FO) in broiler diets can elevate α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) levels, which are protective against cardiovascular disease. However, optimization based solely on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enrichment in chicken meat could lead to lower meat quality, unless the withdrawal period (plan) is applied for 1 week. The present study investigated whether the incorporation of FO in the diet for 32 days followed by its withdrawal for 1 week affected blood lipid profiles, lipoprotein particles, performance and meat flavor in male broiler chickens. Two hundred and forty birds (1-day-old, Ross 308) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary groups: 0%, 1%, 2% or 3% FO with four replicates. Broilers were fed for 49 days according to a 4-phase feeding program. The experimental phase comprised day 11 to 42, and FO was removed on day 42. Blood samples were collected during the pre- and post-withdrawal period after the recordings before slaughter. The FO groups demonstrated decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increased high-density lipoprotein levels on day 42 (P < 0.01); however, these values were not significant after design withdrawal. Diet supplementation with FO elevated the blood levels of palmitic acid (C16:0) and n-3 PUFAs, especially long-chain (LC) PUFAs (EPA, C20:5n-3 and DHA, C22:6n-3), and caused a decline in the level of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6; P < 0.05). Application of a one-week withdrawal period resulted in a decrease in (P < 0.05) linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) and an increase in the level of AA, unlike their amounts on day 42. Although blood and tissue LC n-3 PUFA levels on day 49 were significantly higher in the FO groups compared with the control, they demonstrated a substantial decrease on day 49 compared with day 42. The best results, mainly the lowest n-6/n-3 fatty acids (FAs) and feed conversion ratio (FCRs), were observed for 3% FO (group T4), even after institution

  18. Selected organic compounds and trace elements in streambed sediments and fish tissues, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, Steven A.

    2000-01-01

    Organochlorines, semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and trace elements were investigated in streambed sediments and fish tissues at selected sites in the Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, during 1998. At most sites, SVOCs and organochlorine compounds were either not detected or detected at very low concentrations. Chester Creek at Arctic Boulevard at Anchorage, which was the only site sampled with a significant degree of development in the watershed, had elevated levels of many SVOCs in streambed sediment. Coring of sediments from two ponds on Chester Creek confirmed the presence of elevated concentrations of a variety of organic compounds. Moose Creek, a stream with extensive coal deposits in its watershed, had low concentrations of numerous SVOCs in streambed sediment. Three sites located in national parks or in a national wildlife refuge had no detectable concentrations of SVOCs. Trace elements were analyzed in both streambed sediments and tissues of slimy sculpin. The two media provided similar evidence for elevated concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc at Chester Creek. In this study, 'probable effect levels '(PELs) were determined from sediments finer than 0.063 millimeters, where concentrations tend to be greatest. Arsenic and chromium concentrations exceeded the PEL at eight and six sites respectively. Zinc exceeded the PEL at one site. Cadmium and copper concentrations were smaller than the PEL at all sites. Mercury concentrations in streambed sediments from the Deshka River were near the PEL, and selenium concentrations at that site also appear to be elevated above background levels. At half the sites where slimy sculpin were sampled, selenium concentrations were at levels that may cause adverse effects in some species.

  19. Identification of gadoid species in fish meat by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Hubalkova, Zora; Kralik, Petr; Kasalova, Janka; Rencova, Eva

    2008-05-28

    Identification of fish species is significant due to the increasing interest of consumers in the meat of sea fish. Methods focusing on fish species identification help to reveal fraudulent substitution among economically important gadoid species in commercial seafood products. The objective of this work was to develop a conventional PCR method for the differentiation of the following gadoid fish species in fish products: Alaska pollack ( Theragra chalcogramma), blue whiting ( Micromesistius poutassou), hake spp. ( Merluccius spp.), Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua), saithe ( Pollachius virens), and whiting ( Merlangius merlangus). The species-specific primer pairs for gadoid species determination were based on the partial pantophysin I ( PanI) genomic sequence. Sequence identification was confirmed by cloning and sequencing of the PCR products obtained from the species considered. For the simultaneous detection of Alaska pollack, blue whiting, and hake spp., a quadruplex PCR system was constructed. Other gadoid species were detected in separate PCR reactions. After optimization of the reactions, the developed PCR systems were used for the analysis of codfish samples obtained from the Czech market and the customs' laboratories. This method represents an alternative approach in the use of genomic DNA for the identification of fish species. This method is rapid, simple, and reliable without the need for further confirmative methods. Furthermore, the identification of a mixture of more than one species is possible. The PCR system has been optimized for routine diagnostic purposes.

  20. Microbial load, acidity, lipid oxidation and volatile basic nitrogen of irradiated fish and meat-bone meals.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M R; Al-Bachir, M

    2007-04-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of different doses of gamma irradiation (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kilo gray; kGy) on some nutritive components and chemical aspects pertaining to quality of fish meal and meat-bone meal. The radiation doses required to reduce the total microbial load and Salmonella sp. one log cycle (D(10)) in fish meal and meat-bone meal were determined. Results indicated that gamma irradiation of fish meal and meat-bone meal with 5-20 kGy doses had no effects on the total acidity values but increased the values of lipid oxidation and total volatile basic nitrogen. D(10) of total microbial load and Salmonella sp. were 833 and 313 Gy for fish meal and 526 Gy and 278 Gy for meat-bone meal, respectively. It can be concluded that radiation processing could be employed in the recycling of fish and meat-bone meals by using them as feedstuffs in poultry diets with no fear of losing their nutritive components.

  1. Meat and fish consumption and the risk of renal cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Overvad, Kim; Lund Würtz, Anne Mette; Roswall, Nina; Tjonneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Bastide, Nadia; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Weikert, Steffen; Steffen, Annika; Kühn, Tilman; Li, Kuanrong; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Peppa, Eleni; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Hjartåker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Jakszyn, Paula; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Santiuste de Pablos, Carmen; Molina-Montes, Esther; de la Torre, Ramón Alonso; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mattias; Ljungberg, Börje; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Riboli, Elio; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-03-01

    Renal cell cancer (RCC) incidence varies worldwide with a higher incidence in developed countries and lifestyle is likely to contribute to the development of this disease. We examined whether meat and fish consumption were related to the risk of RCC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The analysis included 493,179 EPIC participants, recruited between 1992 and 2000. Until December 2008, 691 RCC cases have been identified. Meat and fish consumption was assessed at baseline using country-specific dietary assessment instruments; 24-hour recalls were applied in an 8% subsample for calibration purposes. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Women with a high consumption of red meat (HR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.14-1.62; calibrated, per 50 g/day) and processed meat (HR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.05-3.03; calibrated, per 50 g/day) had a higher risk of RCC, while no association existed in men. For processed meat, the association with RCC incidence was prominent in premenopausal women and was lacking in postmenopausal women (p interaction = 0.02). Neither poultry nor fish consumption were statistically significantly associated with the risk of RCC. The results show a distinct association of red and processed meat consumption with incident RCC in women but not in men. A biological explanation for these findings remains unclear.

  2. A Combined Kinetic and Volatility Basis Set Approach to Model Secondary Organic Aerosol from Toluene and Diesel Exhaust/Meat Cooking Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikh, H. M.; Carlton, A. G.; Zhang, H.; Kamens, R.; Vizuete, W.

    2011-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is simulated for 6 outdoor smog chamber experiments using a SOA model based on a kinetic chemical mechanism in conjunction with a volatility basis set (VBS) approach. The experiments include toluene, a non-SOA-forming hydrocarbon mixture, diesel exhaust or meat cooking emissions and NOx, and are performed under varying conditions of relative humidity. SOA formation from toluene is modeled using a condensed kinetic aromatic mechanism that includes partitioning of lumped semi-volatile products in particle organic-phase and incorporates particle aqueous-phase chemistry to describe uptake of glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Modeling using the kinetic mechanism alone, along with primary organic aerosol (POA) from diesel exhaust (DE) /meat cooking (MC) fails to simulate the rapid SOA formation at the beginning hours of the experiments. Inclusion of a VBS approach with the kinetic mechanism to characterize the emissions and chemistry of complex mixture of intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) from DE/MC, substantially improves SOA predictions when compared with observed data. The VBS model includes photochemical aging of IVOCs and evaporation of POA after dilution. The relative contribution of SOA mass from DE/MC is as high as 95% in the morning, but substantially decreases after mid-afternoon. For high humidity experiments, aqueous-phase SOA fraction dominates the total SOA mass at the end of the day (approximately 50%). In summary, the combined kinetic and VBS approach provides a new and improved framework to semi-explicitly model SOA from VOC precursors in conjunction with a VBS approach that can be used on complex emission mixtures comprised with hundreds of individual chemical species.

  3. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... baskets for disposal, and changing rooms stocked with the clean clothing and rubber boots into which all... establishment must wash their hands and change into the clean clothing and boots provided in the changing rooms before entering the cooking facilities, and must leave this clothing for laundering and...

  4. Effect of six different cooking techniques in the nutritional composition of two fish species previously selected as optimal for renal patient's diet.

    PubMed

    Castro-González, Isabel; Maafs-Rodríguez, Ana Gabriela; Pérez-Gil Romo, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    Benefits of fish consumption are widely known, but there is little information about nutrient values of raw and cooked fish. The aim was to study the impact that six cooking techniques have on the nutritional composition of two fish species with low content of adverse nutrients in renal diet. Raw and steamed, foiled with aluminum, foiled with banana leaf, gas oven-baked, microwave oven-coked and fried lightly samples were chemically analyzed to determine their protein, phosphorus and lipid content. Crevalle jack: all methods increased lipid and protein content and fatty acids (FA) varied in all cooking methods. Phosphorus decreased in the steamed and microwave oven-cooked samples. Red drum: foiled and fried lightly increased lipid content compared to the raw sample. FA concentration changed in all cooking methods. Protein increased with every technique and phosphorus decreased in the steamed and gas oven-baked samples. Renal patients should preferably consume crevalle jack steamed or microwave oven-cooked and red drum steamed or gas oven-baked.

  5. Effect of modified atmosphere and temperature abuse on the growth from spores and cereulide production of Bacillus weihenstephanensis in a cooked chilled meat sausage.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Line; Budde, Birgitte Bjørn; Koch, Anette Granly; Klingberg, Trine Danø

    2009-04-15

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the germination and growth of toxin producing psychrotolerant Bacillus spp is not well described. A model agar system mimicking a cooked meat product was used in initial experiments. Incubation at refrigeration temperature of 8 degrees C for 5 weeks of 26 Bacillus weihenstephanensis including two emetic toxin (cereulide) producing strains showed that B. weihenstephanensis is sensitive to MAP containing CO2. The sensitivity to 20% CO2 was dependent on strain and oxygen level, being increased when oxygen was excluded from the MAP. Growth from spores was observed at the earliest within 2 weeks when 20% CO2 was combined with 2% O2 and in 3 weeks when combined with "0"% O2 (the remaining atmosphere was made up from N2). Results were validated in a cooked meat sausage model for two non-emetic and one emetic B. weihenstephanensis strain. The packaging film oxygen transfer rates (OTR) were 1.3 and 40 ml/m(2)/24 h and the atmospheres were 2% O2/20% CO2 and "0"% O2/20% CO2. Oxygen availability had a large impact on the growth from spores in the MAP meat sausage, only the most oxygen restricted condition (OTR of 1.3 ml/m(2)/24 h and "0"% O2/20 % CO2 inhibited growth of the three strains during 4 weeks storage at 8 degrees C. Cereulide production was undetectable during storage at 8 degrees C irrespective of choice of the MAP (quantified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry). MAP storage at 8 degrees C for 1 and 3 weeks followed by opening of packages and temperature abuse for 1.5 h daily at 20 degrees C during 1 week resulted in increased cell counts and variable cereulide production in the meat sausage. A pre-history at 8 degrees C for 1 week in MAP with OTR of 1.3 or 40 ml/m(2)/24 h and 2% O2 resulted in cereulide concentrations of 0.816-1.353 microg/g meat sausage, while a pre-history under the most oxygen restricted condition (OTR of 1.3 ml/m(2)/24 h, "0"% O2/20 % CO2 resulted in minimal

  6. The ratio of fish to meat in the diet is positively associated with favorable intake of food groups and nutrients among young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2011-03-01

    Although fish and meat may exert opposing influences on chronic disease, information on the balance of intake between fish and meat to overall diet quality is limited, particularly in Japanese, who have a much higher fish intake than Western populations. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that intake balance between fish and meat is associated with food and nutrient intakes in young Japanese women. The subjects were 3716 Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 20 years. Diet was assessed by a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. The dietary ratio of fish to meat was calculated from fish and meat intakes as a temporal indicator of overall intake balance. The ratio of fish to meat intake was associated positively with intakes of vegetables, fruits, pulses, dairy products, and alcohol, and negatively with those of energy-containing beverages and fat and oils. At the nutrient level, the ratio of fish to meat intake was associated negatively with intakes of energy, total fat, saturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin B(1), and zinc, and positively with those of protein, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, and key vitamins and minerals. After limiting analysis to nutrients derived from foods other than fish and meat, the ratio of fish to meat intake was positively associated with intakes of almost all vitamins and minerals examined. In conclusion, women who consumed more fish than meat (ratio >1) tended to choose more favorable food groups that included higher amounts of vegetables and fruits, resulting in a better profile of nutrient intake patterns.

  7. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists. 94.4 Section 94.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN...-mouth disease exists. (a) The importation of cured meats derived from ruminants or swine, originating...

  8. Use of Dual Electromagnetic Radiation Technology to Reduce Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes Risk on Cooked and Packaged Meat Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogenic bacteria including Salmonella and Listeria can potentially contaminate ready-to-eat meats. These bacteria compromise the safety of our food supply. The objective of this research was to develop and test new low temperature pasteurization technology for packaged or thermally sensitive food...

  9. Effects of various cooking processes on the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in foods.

    PubMed

    Perelló, Gemma; Martí-Cid, Roser; Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, José L

    2008-12-10

    The effects of cooking processes commonly used by the population of Catalonia (Spain) on total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) concentrations in various foodstuffs were investigated. All food samples were randomly acquired in local markets, big supermarkets, and grocery stores of Reus (Catalonia). Foods included fish (sardine, hake, and tuna), meat (veal steak, loin of pork, breast and thigh of chicken, and steak and rib of lamb), string bean, potato, rice, and olive oil. For each food item, two composite samples were prepared for metal analyses, whose levels in raw and cooked (fried, grilled, roasted, and boiled) samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As, Hg, and Pb (raw and cooked samples) were mainly found in fish, with a clear tendency, in general, to increase metal concentrations after cooking. However, in these samples, Cd levels were very close to their detection limit. In turn, the concentrations of metals in raw and cooked meat samples were detected in all samples (As) or only in a very few samples (Cd, Hg, and Pb). A similar finding corresponded to string beans, rice, and olive oil, while in potatoes, Hg could not be detected and Pb only was detected in the raw samples. In summary, the results of the present study show that, in general terms, the cooking process is only of a very limited value as a means of reducing metal concentrations. This hypothetical reduction depends upon cooking conditions (time, temperature, and medium of cooking).

  10. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... determined by a TID registering the target temperature at the cold spot, or by the pink juice test as follows... pink juice test to be performed (3.8 cm (1.5 in) or larger in each dimension after cooking) must have... sufficient size for a pink juice test to be performed (3.8 cm (1.5 in) or larger in each dimension...

  11. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... determined by a TID registering the target temperature at the cold spot, or by the pink juice test as follows... pink juice test to be performed (3.8 cm (1.5 in) or larger in each dimension after cooking) must have... sufficient size for a pink juice test to be performed (3.8 cm (1.5 in) or larger in each dimension...

  12. Consumption of meat and fish and risk of lung cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Büchner, Frederike L; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Agudo, Antonio; Gram, Inger Torhild; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjønneland, Anne; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Berrino, Franco; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, José-Maria; Rodríguez, Laudina; Sánchez, María-José; Rasmuson, Torgny; Hallmans, Göran; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Katsoulis, Michael; Oikonomou, Eleni; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Peeters, Petra H M; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Allen, Naomi; Key, Tim; Brennan, Paul; Romieu, Isabelle; Slimani, Nadia; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Xun, Wei W; Vineis, Paolo; Riboli, Elio

    2011-06-01

    Evidence from case-control studies, but less so from cohort studies, suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer. Therefore, this association was evaluated in the frame of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, EPIC. Data from 478,021 participants, recruited from 10 European countries, who completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-2000 were evaluated; 1,822 incident primary lung cancer cases were included in the present evaluation. Relative risk estimates were calculated for categories of meat intake using multi-variably adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. In addition, the continuous intake variables were calibrated by means of 24-h diet recall data to account for part of the measurement error. There were no consistent associations between meat consumption and the risk of lung cancer. Neither red meat (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.89-1.27 per 50 g intake/day; calibrated model) nor processed meat (RR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.95-1.34 per 50 g/day; calibrated model) was significantly related to an increased risk of lung cancer. Also, consumption of white meat and fish was not associated with the risk of lung cancer. These findings do not support the hypothesis that a high intake of red and processed meat is a risk factor for lung cancer.

  13. Reliability of meat, fish, dairy, and egg intake over a 33-year interval in Adventist Health Study 2.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pramil N; Batech, Michael; Faed, Pegah; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Martins, Marcia; Fraser, Gary E

    2014-01-01

    We studied Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) cohort members to determine the reliability of long-term recall of adult dietary intake that occurred 33 years ago. Establishing the reliability of these measures supports studies of how dietary exposure across the life course affects risk of cancer and other noncommunicable disease outcomes. Among 1816 AHS-2 cohort members, we conducted a statistical comparison of long-term recall of meat, fish, dairy, and eggs at AHS-2 baseline with their report of current diet 33 years before AHS-2 baseline at an age of 30-60 years. Major findings are as follows: 1) a high correlation for frequency of red meat (R = 0.71), poultry (R = 0.67), and fish (R = 0.60); lower correlations for dairy (R = 0.19) and eggs (R = 0.28); 2) good concordance for dichotomous measures of red meat [sensitivity: 0.70; specificity: 0.92; positive predictive value (PPV): 0.91], poultry (sensitivity: 0.76; specificity: 0.87; PPV: 0.83), fish (sensitivity: 0.61; specificity: 0.93; PPV: 0.89), dairy (sensitivity: 0.95; specificity: 0.57; PPV: 0.99), and eggs (sensitivity: 0.95; specificity: 0.41; PPV: 0.96); negative predictive value for dairy and eggs was poor. Among older AHS-2 cohort members, we found good reliability of recall of red meat, poultry, and fish intake that occurred 33 years earlier.

  14. Effects of thermal treatments during cooking, microwave oven and boiling, on the unconjugated microcystin concentration in muscle of fish (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Prieto, Ana I; Moreno, Isabel; Soria, Ma Eugenia; Cameán, Ana M

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to the risk from fish consumption is a relevant public health concern due to potential adverse effects of cyanobacterial toxins. The aim of this work was to study the influence of two usual cooking practices, microwave oven and boiling, on the microcystin (MCs) concentration in fish muscle (Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus) spiked with a stock solution (500 μL) containing a mixture of three toxins (MC-LR, MC-RR, and MC-YR) (1.5 μg/mL of each toxin). Two different variables were investigated: time of cooking in the microwaves treatment (1 or 5 min), and way of boiling, "boiled muscle" or "continuously heated muscle". All samples were then lyophilized and MCs were extracted and purified (Oasis HLB cartridge) and quantified by HPLC-MS. Furthermore, the waters in which the samples boiled were also analyzed after their purification. The results suggest a reduction on MC-LR (36%) and MC-YR (24.6%) in samples cooked in the microwave for 5 min. Major changes were found when the fish was cooked by the continuous boiling, with a decrease of 45.0% (MC-RR), 56.4% (MC-YR) and 59.3% (MC-LR). More studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved when aquatic food is submitted to usual cooking practices.

  15. Effect of protein on the detection of fluoroquinolone residues in fish meat.

    PubMed

    Li, Huifang; Yin, Jungang; Liu, Yongming; Shang, Jian

    2012-02-22

    Using fish serum albumin (FSA) as the model protein, molecular fluorescence spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were applied to study the effect of protein on the extraction of fluoroquinolone (FQ) residues in fish meat. There was a strong interaction between FQs and protein through hydrogen bonds, which could be broken as protein degenerated with 60-100% (v/v) acetonitrile acid solution, and FQs bound with protein were released in various degrees. On the basis of the results, a novel sample preparation procedure loosely based on QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) methodology was developed for the determination of FQ residues in fish muscle samples, using 90% (v/v) acetonitrile acid solution as the extractant, combined with a dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) cleanup step. Mean recoveries of four FQs from spiked samples at a concentration range of 50-200 ng g(-1) were 73.3-95.9% with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 10.7%.

  16. A 2-step cooking method of searing and hot water pasteurization to maximize the safety of refrigerated, vacuum packaged, chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Enns, D K; Crandall, P G; O'Bryan, C A; Griffis, C L; Martin, E M

    2007-05-01

    Americans consume almost 40 kg per capita of chicken each year. Increasing consumption of chicken surpassed pork in 1982 and beef in 1992. The objectives of this study were to examine the effectiveness of a novel, 2-step cooking method of grilling, slicing, vacuum packaging, and hot water pasteurization to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in chicken breast meat. Because this study required the use of pilot plant scale pasteurization equipment, Listeria innocua M1, a nonpathogen with slightly greater heat resistance than L. monocytogenes, was used as a surrogate. We first examined the lethal effects of grilling on a boneless skinless chicken breast to mimic cross-contaminated, surface-inoculated Listeria. Searing produced a mean reduction of 2.5 log CFU/g of Listeria and a moisture loss of only 7% (w/w). A 2nd experiment studied the lethal effect of pasteurization of the sliced seared chicken breast. L. innocua M1 inoculated between the slices mimicked contamination in deep muscle. Pasteurization in a 71 degrees C bath (final internal temperature of 66 degrees C) gave an additional 2.3 log CFU/g reduction. L. innocua M1 did not show significant regrowth during a wk of refrigerated storage. The combined 2-step cooking method of searing and pasteurization gave a combined 4.8 log reduction in LI M1. In parallel tests a non-Listeria indicator, Corynebacterium glutamicum, inoculated between sliced, seared chicken, showed a 3 log reduction after pasteurization for 10 min in a 71 degrees C bath compared to 2.3 log reduction of Listeria. Corynebacterium regrowth occurred much faster than did L. innocua M1.

  17. Meat Processing Plant Microbiome and Contamination Patterns of Cold-Tolerant Bacteria Causing Food Safety and Spoilage Risks in the Manufacture of Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Sausages.

    PubMed

    Hultman, Jenni; Rahkila, Riitta; Ali, Javeria; Rousu, Juho; Björkroth, K Johanna

    2015-10-01

    Refrigerated food processing facilities are specific man-made niches likely to harbor cold-tolerant bacteria. To characterize this type of microbiota and study the link between processing plant and product microbiomes, we followed and compared microbiota associated with the raw materials and processing stages of a vacuum-packaged, cooked sausage product affected by a prolonged quality fluctuation with occasional spoilage manifestations during shelf life. A total of 195 samples were subjected to culturing and amplicon sequence analyses. Abundant mesophilic psychrotrophs were detected within the microbiomes throughout the different compartments of the production plant environment. However, each of the main genera of food safety and quality interest, e.g., Leuconostoc, Brochothrix, and Yersinia, had their own characteristic patterns of contamination. Bacteria from the genus Leuconostoc, commonly causing spoilage of cold-stored, modified-atmosphere-packaged foods, were detected in high abundance (up to >98%) in the sausages studied. The same operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were, however, detected in lower abundances in raw meat and emulsion (average relative abundance of 2%±5%), as well as on the processing plant surfaces (<4%). A completely different abundance profile was found for OTUs phylogenetically close to the species Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. These OTUs were detected in high abundance (up to 28%) on the processing plant surfaces but to a lesser extent (<1%) in raw meat, sausage emulsion, and sausages. The fact that Yersinia-like OTUs were found on the surfaces of a high-hygiene packaging compartment raises food safety concerns related to their resilient existence on surfaces.

  18. Assessment of Enterotoxin Production and Cross-Contamination of Staphylococcus aureus between Food Processing Materials and Ready-To-Eat Cooked Fish Paste.

    PubMed

    Tango, Charles Nkufi; Hong, Sung-Sam; Wang, Jun; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated Staphylococcus aureus growth and subsequent staphylococcal enterotoxin A production in tryptone soy broth and on ready-to-eat cooked fish paste at 12 to 37 °C, as well as cross-contamination between stainless steel, polyethylene, and latex glove at room temperature. A model was developed using Barany and Roberts's growth model, which satisfactorily described the suitable growth of S. aureus with R(2)-adj from 0.94 to 0.99. Except at 12 °C, S. aureus cells in TSB presented a lag time lower (14.64 to 1.65 h), grew faster (0.08 to 0.31 log CFU/h) and produced SEA at lower cell density levels (5.65 to 6.44 log CFU/mL) compare to those inoculated on cooked fish paste with data of 16.920 to 1.985 h, 0.02 to 0.23 log CFU/h, and 6.19 to 7.11 log CFU/g, respectively. Staphylococcal enterotoxin type A (SEA) visual immunoassay test showed that primary SEA detection varied considerably among different storage temperature degrees and media. For example, it occurred only during exponential phase at 30 and 37 °C in TSB, but in cooked fish paste it took place at late exponential phase of S. aureus growth at 20 and 25 °C. The SEA detection test was negative on presence of S. aureus on cooked fish paste stored at 12 and 15 °C, although cell density reached level of 6.12 log CFU/g at 15 °C. Cross-contamination expressed as transfer rate of S. aureus from polyethylene surface to cooked fish paste surface was slower than that observed with steel surface to cooked fish paste under same conditions. These results provide helpful information for controlling S. aureus growth, SEA production and cross-contamination during processing of cooked fish paste.

  19. Concentration of biologically active polyamines in rabbit meat, liver and kidney after slaughter and their changes during meat storage and cooking.

    PubMed

    Dadáková, Eva; Pelikánová, Tamara; Kalač, Pavel

    2012-03-01

    The concentration of putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD) and spermine (SPM) was determined in chilled meat and kidneys of 18 rabbits and in liver of 12 animals 24h after slaughter. Very low PUT concentrations were detected only in kidneys. Mean SPD levels were 2.2, 2.2, 61.7 and 32.7mgkg(-1) in saddle, leg, liver and kidneys, respectively. The respective SPM concentrations were 14.7, 8.0, 115 and 88.4mgkg(-1). SPD and SPM losses of about one third of the initial levels were apparent in saddles stored at -18°C for 8months. Losses of both polyamines of about 15-20% of the initial concentrations were found in saddles stored aerobically at +2°C for up to 9days. Stewing of saddles caused significant SPD and SPM losses of about 20-25%, while upon roasting and pan-roasting without oil a decrease of about 50% of the initial concentration was observed.

  20. Development and validation of stages-of-change questions to assess consumers' readiness to use a food thermometer when cooking small cuts of meat.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Masami T; Edlefsen, Miriam; McCurdy, Sandra M; Hillers, Virginia N

    2006-02-01

    Consumers' readiness to use a food thermometer when cooking small cuts of meat was assessed using Prochaska's Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change. Face, content, and concurrent validity were assessed by peer review, cognitive interviews, and mail surveys. The self-administered mail survey was sent to two groups of Washington and Idaho residents: 1,000 randomly selected consumers (41% return rate), and 231 employees and volunteers of Cooperative Extension involved in food and nutrition education (60% return rate). Two-stage classification questions were compared with a behavior question about thermometer use, and validated using Cronbach's if-item-deleted option for alpha. Concurrent validity was assessed using cross-tabulation chi2 test. The detailed classification question more accurately classified respondents in both Consumer and Extension groups. Cronbach's alpha of the detailed question with the behavior question showed a consistency level of alpha=.73 compared to alpha=.35 for the simple question format. As expected, Consumer and Extension groups differed significantly in their stages of change (P<0.0001), verifying concurrent validity. We recommend use of the detailed classification question when staging persons related to food thermometer use. The process used for development and testing can be used to refine instruments for use in other types of interventions.

  1. An Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography – Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Biomonitoring Cooked Meat Carcinogens and Their Metabolites in Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Dan; Raymundo, Melissa M.; Kadlubar, Fred F.; Turesky, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The cooked meat carcinogens 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and their principal metabolites produced by cytochrome P450 and/or uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases were simultaneously measured at the parts per trillion level in urine of omnivores, by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with a Michrom Advance CaptiveSpray™, source and a triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometer. Quantitation was performed in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The UPLC method is much more rapid and sensitive than our earlier capillary HPLC method: the duty cycle of the UPLC method is 19 minutes compared to 57 minutes for capillary HPLC. The performance of the UPLC assay was evaluated with urine samples from three subjects over 4 different days. The intraday and interday precisions of the estimates of PhIP, MeIQx, and their metabolites, reported as the coefficients of variation, were ≤10%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) values for PhIP and MeIQx were about 5 pg/mL, whereas the LOQ values of their metabolites ranged from 10 to 40 pg/mL. Furthermore, the identities of the analytes were corroborated by acquisition of full scan product ion spectra, employing between 0.5 and 5 pg of analyte for assay. PMID:21194225

  2. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.2 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be used for the preparation of meat...

  3. Meat and fish consumption and risk of lung cancer: A case-control study in Galicia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Dosil-Díaz, O; Ruano-Ravina, A; Gestal-Otero, J J; Barros-Dios, J M

    2007-07-08

    Diet is one of the elements that may influence the development of lung cancer. To ascertain the relationship between meat and fish consumption and the appearance of this disease, a case-control study was conducted on a population in Galicia (NW Spain), with a sample of 295 cases and 322 controls. All cases had histologic confirmation, and controls were individuals who were attending the hospital to undergo trivial surgery. All subjects were over 35, and sampling was based on sex frequency. Frequent consumption of meat seemed to have a protective effect, with an OR of 0.24 (95% CI 0.11-0.50), an effect that was maintained for pork consumption (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.18-0.67). In contrast, consumption of fish showed an association with lung cancer, with an OR of 1.67 (95% CI 0.99-2.81), an association that extended to both white (OR 1.61 95% CI 0.93-2.79) and blue fish (OR 2.03 95% CI 1.23-3.34). Consumption of meat seems to reduce the risk of lung cancer, whereas consumption of fish could exert an influence by increasing the risk of this disease.

  4. An improved method for the extraction of mutagens from human urine and cooked meat using blue rayon.

    PubMed

    Yoxall, Victoria; Wilson, Judith; Ioannides, Costas

    2004-04-11

    A reproducible method has been developed and validated that allows the detection of mutagenic material in human urine following the intake of a meal containing pan-fried beef patties. The mutagens are extracted from the urine with blue rayon and eluted with methanol/ammonia (100:1). Using 14C-2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (14C-IQ) as a tracer, the extraction efficiency of heterocyclic amines was consistently found to exceed 90%. It was observed that the critical factor in attaining high extraction efficiencies was the concentration of blue rayon, which depended on the nature of the matrix. Constituents of human urine were demonstrated to compete with IQ for the binding sites on the blue rayon. For the determination of the mutagenic activity in the extracted urine, the O-acetylase over-expressing Salmonella typhimurium strain YG1024 was utilised, and the Ames test procedure was optimised with respect to S9 concentration and incorporation of a pre-incubation step. Using the developed procedure, a marked rise in mutagenic activity, determined both in the absence and presence of an activation system, was evident in human urine following the intake of a beef patty meal. Normal mutagenicity levels were restored within 24 h. Finally, a method is described, once again employing blue rayon, for the extraction of heterocyclic amines from cooked beef patties with a 92% efficiency, as exemplified by IQ.

  5. The effects of natural disturbances, reef state, and herbivorous fish densities on ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga, southern Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Rongo, Teina; van Woesik, Robert

    2013-03-15

    Ciguatera poisoning is a critical public-health issue among Pacific island nations. Accurately predicting ciguatera outbreaks has become a priority, particularly in Rarotonga in the southern Cook Islands, which has reported the highest incidence of ciguatera poisoning globally. Since 2006, however, cases of ciguatera poisoning have declined, and in 2011 ciguatera cases were the lowest in nearly 20 years. Here we examined the relationships between cases of ciguatera poisoning, from 1994 to 2011, and: (i) coral cover, used as a proxy of reef state, (ii) the densities of herbivorous fishes, and (iii) reef disturbances. We found that coral cover was not a good predictor of cases of ciguatera poisoning, but high densities of the herbivorous fish Ctenochaetus striatus and reef disturbances were both strong predictors of ciguatera poisoning. Yet these two predictors were correlated, because the densities of C. striatus increased only after major cyclones had disturbed the reefs. Since 2006, the number of cyclones has decreased considerably in Rarotonga, because of the climatic shift toward the negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We suggest that fewer cyclones have led to decreases in both the densities of C. striatus and of the number of reported cases of ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga.

  6. An oily fish diet increases insulin sensitivity compared to a red meat diet in young iron-deficient women.

    PubMed

    Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Schoppen, Stefanie; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2009-08-01

    Beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids on a variety of physiological functions have been reported, but information related to the effects of oily fish consumed within a varied diet on glucose metabolism and diabetes risk is scarce. The objective of the study was to compare the effects of a diet rich in oily fish to those of a diet rich in red meat on lipid profile, oxidative status, glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in young, iron-deficient women. The study was designed attending the CONSORT statement guidelines. It was a randomised crossover dietary intervention study with two 8-week periods. Two diets were designed differing only in their oily fish or red meat content (four portions per week). Twenty-five young iron-deficient women with normal lipid, glucose and insulin levels participated in the assay. Lipid profile (total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, TAG), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and oxidation (lipoperoxides) and inflammation (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) biomarkers were analysed. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI). Insulin levels significantly decreased and insulin sensitivity significantly increased with the oily fish diet. HDL-cholesterol significantly increased with the oily fish diet. Other parameters did not significantly differ between diets. An increase in oily fish consumption increases insulin sensitivity in young iron-deficient women. This outcome should be considered when giving dietary advice to this population.

  7. Meat and fish consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Nöthlings, Ute; Overvad, Kim; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Cottet, Vanessa; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Vineis, Paolo; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias; Grote, Verena; Teucher, Birigit; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Crowe, Francesca L; Goufa, Ioulia; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Jeurnink, Suzanne M; Siersema, Peter D; Peeters, Petra H M; Brustad, Magritt; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Duell, Eric J; Amiano, Pilar; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Rodríguez, Laudina; Tormo, María-José; Sund, Malin; Ye, Weimin; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansen, Dorthe; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Ward, Heather; Riboli, Elio; Norat, Teresa; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2013-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer death worldwide with large geographical variation, which implies the contribution of diet and lifestyle in its etiology. We examined the association of meat and fish consumption with risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). A total of 477,202 EPIC participants from 10 European countries recruited between 1992 and 2000 were included in our analysis. Until 2008, 865 nonendocrine pancreatic cancer cases have been observed. Calibrated relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using multivariable-adjusted Cox hazard regression models. The consumption of red meat (RR per 50 g increase per day = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.93-1.14) and processed meat (RR per 50 g increase per day = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.71-1.23) were not associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk. Poultry consumption tended to be associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk (RR per 50 g increase per day = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.04-2.84); however, there was no association with fish consumption (RR per 50 g increase per day = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.92-1.62). Our results do not support the conclusion of the World Cancer Research Fund that red or processed meat consumption may possibly increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. The positive association of poultry consumption with pancreatic cancer might be a chance finding as it contradicts most previous findings.

  8. Meat, fish and fat intake in relation to subsite-specific risk of colorectal cancer: The Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yasumi; Kono, Suminori; Toyomura, Kengo; Nagano, Jun; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Moore, Malcolm A; Mibu, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Masao; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Okamura, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Koji; Futami, Kitaroh; Yasunami, Yohichi; Maekawa, Takafumi; Takenaka, Kenji; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Imaizumi, Nobutoshi

    2007-04-01

    High intake of red meat has been associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer in Western countries. There has been much interest in the role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in colorectal cancer prevention, but epidemiological findings are limited and inconsistent. The objective of our study was to examine associations of meat, fish and fat intake with risk of colorectal cancer, paying particular attention to the subsite within the colorectum. Data were from the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study, covering 782 cases and 793 controls. Diet was assessed by interview, using newly developed personal-computer software for registering semiquantitative food frequencies. The intake of beef/pork, processed meat, total fat, saturated fat or n-6 PUFA showed no clear association with the overall or subsite-specific risk of colorectal cancer. There was an almost significant inverse association between n-3 PUFA and the risk of colorectal cancer; the covariate-adjusted odds ratio for the highest (median 3.94 g/day) versus lowest (median 1.99 g/day) quintile of energy-adjusted intake was 0.74 (95% confidence interval 0.52-1.06, trend P=0.050). The consumption of fish and fish products was similarly inversely related to the risk although the association was not statistically significant. These associations were more evident for distal colon cancer; adjusted odds ratio for the highest versus lowest quintile of n-3 PUFA intake was 0.56 (95% confidence interval 0.34-0.92, trend P=0.02). Our findings do not support the hypothesis that consumption of red meat increases colorectal cancer risk but do suggest that high intake of fish may decrease the risk, particularly of distal colon cancer.

  9. Consumption of fish and meats and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    PubMed Central

    Fedirko, V.; Trichopolou, A.; Bamia, C.; Duarte-Salles, T.; Trepo, E.; Aleksandrova, K.; Nöthlings, U.; Lukanova, A.; Lagiou, P.; Boffetta, P.; Trichopoulos, D.; Katzke, V. A.; Overvad, K.; Tjønneland, A.; Hansen, L.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Fagherazzi, G.; Bastide, N.; Panico, S.; Grioni, S.; Vineis, P.; Palli, D.; Tumino, R.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, P. H.; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Parr, C. L.; Jakszyn, P.; Sánchez, M. J.; Barricarte, A.; Amiano, P.; Chirlaque, M.; Quirós, J. R.; Sund, M.; Werner, M.; Sonestedt, E.; Ericson, U.; Key, T. J.; Khaw, K. T.; Ferrari, P.; Romieu, I.; Riboli, E.; Jenab, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background While higher intake of fish and lower consumption of red/processed meats have been suggested to play a protective role in the etiology of several cancers, prospective evidence for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is limited, particularly in Western European populations. Methods The associations of fish and meats with HCC risk were analyzed in the EPIC cohort. Between 1992 and 2010, 191 incident HCC were identified among 477 206 participants. Baseline diet was assessed using validated dietary questionnaires. A single 24-h diet recall from a cohort subsample was used for calibration. Multivariable proportional hazard regression was utilized to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). In a nested case–control subset (HCC = 122), HBV/HCV status and liver function biomarkers were measured. Results HCC risk was inversely associated with intake of total fish (per 20 g/day increase, HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.74–0.95 and HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.69–0.97 before and after calibration, respectively). This inverse association was also suggested after adjusting for HBV/HCV status and liver function score (per 20-g/day increase, RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.66–1.11 and RR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.50–1.09, respectively) in a nested case–control subset. Intakes of total meats or subgroups of red/processed meats, and poultry were not associated with HCC risk. Conclusions In this large European cohort, total fish intake is associated with lower HCC risk. PMID:23670094

  10. Dietary greenhouse gas emissions of meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK.

    PubMed

    Scarborough, Peter; Appleby, Paul N; Mizdrak, Anja; Briggs, Adam D M; Travis, Ruth C; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Key, Timothy J

    The production of animal-based foods is associated with higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than plant-based foods. The objective of this study was to estimate the difference in dietary GHG emissions between self-selected meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK. Subjects were participants in the EPIC-Oxford cohort study. The diets of 2,041 vegans, 15,751 vegetarians, 8,123 fish-eaters and 29,589 meat-eaters aged 20-79 were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Comparable GHG emissions parameters were developed for the underlying food codes using a dataset of GHG emissions for 94 food commodities in the UK, with a weighting for the global warming potential of each component gas. The average GHG emissions associated with a standard 2,000 kcal diet were estimated for all subjects. ANOVA was used to estimate average dietary GHG emissions by diet group adjusted for sex and age. The age-and-sex-adjusted mean (95 % confidence interval) GHG emissions in kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents per day (kgCO2e/day) were 7.19 (7.16, 7.22) for high meat-eaters ( > = 100 g/d), 5.63 (5.61, 5.65) for medium meat-eaters (50-99 g/d), 4.67 (4.65, 4.70) for low meat-eaters ( < 50 g/d), 3.91 (3.88, 3.94) for fish-eaters, 3.81 (3.79, 3.83) for vegetarians and 2.89 (2.83, 2.94) for vegans. In conclusion, dietary GHG emissions in self-selected meat-eaters are approximately twice as high as those in vegans. It is likely that reductions in meat consumption would lead to reductions in dietary GHG emissions.

  11. The Electronic Nose: A Protocol To Evaluate Fresh Meat Flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isoppo, S.; Cornale, P.; Barbera, S.

    2009-05-01

    An Electronic Nose, comprising 10 MOS, was used to carry out meat aroma measurements in order to define an analytical protocol. Every meat sample (Longissimus Dorsi) was tested before, during and after cooking in oven (at 165° C for 600 seconds). Analysis took place in these three steps because consumers perceive odor when they buy (raw aroma), cook (cooking aroma) and eat meat (cooked aroma). Therefore these tests permitted to obtain a protocol useful to measure aroma daily perceived by meat eater.

  12. Effect of Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat Hydrolysates on the Physicochemical Properties of Imitation Fish Paste

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Go, Gwang-woong; Jung, Eun-Young; Lim, Hyun-Jung; Yang, Han-Sul; Park, Jae-Hong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated on the effects of adding mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) hydrolysates on the quality properties of imitation fish paste (IFP) during storage. IFP was prepared from Alaska Pollack, spent laying hens surimi and protein hydrolysates which were enzymatically extracted from MDCM. The study was designed as a 3×4 factorial design with three MDCM hydrolysate content groups (0%, 0.4%, and 0.8%) and four storage times (0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks). Addition of MDCM hydrolysates increased crude fat content but lowered water content (p<0.05). The breaking force of IFP, an indicator of gel formation, increased in treated groups compared to control (p<0.05). Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was inhibited and free radical scavenging activity increased with increasing MDCM hydrolysate content (p<0.05). In conclusion, the addition of MDCM to IFP improves gel characteristics. Additionally, protein hydrolysates from MDCM serve as a potential source of ACE inhibiting peptides. PMID:25049933

  13. Processed meat intake is unfavorably and fish intake favorably associated with semen quality indicators among men attending a fertility clinic.

    PubMed

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Gaskins, Audrey J; Williams, Paige L; Toth, Thomas L; Wright, Diane L; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2014-07-01

    Emerging literature suggests that men's diets may affect spermatogenesis as reflected in semen quality indicators, but literature on the relation between meat intake and semen quality is limited. Our objective was to prospectively examine the relation between meat intake and indicators of semen quality. Men in subfertile couples presenting for evaluation at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center were invited to participate in an ongoing study of environmental factors and fertility. A total of 155 men completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire and subsequently provided 338 semen samples over an 18-mo period from 2007-2012. We used linear mixed regression models to examine the relation between meat intake and semen quality indicators (total sperm count, sperm concentration, progressive motility, morphology, and semen volume) while adjusting for potential confounders and accounting for within-person variability across repeat semen samples. Among the 155 men (median age: 36.1 y; 83% white, non-Hispanic), processed meat intake was inversely related to sperm morphology. Men in the highest quartile of processed meat intake had, on average, 1.7 percentage units (95% CI: -3.3, -0.04) fewer morphologically normal sperm than men in the lowest quartile of intake (P-trend = 0.02). Fish intake was related to higher sperm count and percentage of morphologically normal sperm. The adjusted mean total sperm count increased from 102 million (95% CI: 80, 131) in the lowest quartile to 168 million (95% CI: 136, 207) sperm in the highest quartile of fish intake (P-trend = 0.005). Similarly, the adjusted mean percentages of morphologically normal sperm for men in increasing quartiles of fish intake were 5.9 (95% CI: 5.0, 6.8), 5.3 (95% CI: 4.4, 6.3), 6.3 (95% CI: 5.2, 7.4), and 7.5 (95% CI: 6.5, 8.5) (P-trend = 0.01). Consuming fish may have a positive impact on sperm counts and morphology, particularly when consumed instead of processed red meats.

  14. Improvement of turkey breast meat quality and cooked gel functionality using hot-boning, quarter sectioning, crust-freeze-air-chilling and cold-batter-mincing technologies.

    PubMed

    Lee, H C; Erasmus, M A; Swanson, J C; Hong, H G; Kang, I

    2016-01-01

    The effect of rapid carcass chilling on breast meat quality was evaluated using commercial (COMM) and random-bred (RB) turkeys. Immediately after slaughter, 48 turkeys from COMM or RB line were randomly subjected to one of four chilling methods: 1) water-immersion chilling (WIC) of the carcasses at 0°C ice slurry, 2) WIC after temperature abuse (TA) of the carcasses at 40°C for 30 min (TA-WIC), 3) hot-boning, quarter sectioning, and crust-freeze-air-chilling (HB-(1)/4CFAC) of breast fillets at -12°C, and 4) HB-(1)/4CFAC of fillets after TA of carcasses (TA-HB-(1)/4CFAC). The TA increased carcass and fillet temperatures by ∼1.3 and ∼4.1°C, respectively, regardless of turkey line, whereas HB-(1)/4CFAC of fillets required 28 and 33% of carcass chilling time for COMM and RB, respectively. During chilling, COMM breast pH rapidly reduced from 6.04 to 5.82, resulting in a significantly lower pH than RB after chilling (P < 0.05), whereas COMM R-value sharply increased from 1.17 to 1.43, causing no difference from RB (P > 0.05). Significantly higher L* value and cooking yield (P < 0.05) were seen in the samples of TA and WIC than those of no TA and HB-(1)/4CFAC, respectively, with no difference observed between COMM and RB fillets (P > 0.05). Higher values of hardness, gumminess, and chewiness were found for RB, no TA, and HB-(1)/4CFAC gels than COMM, TA, and WIC, respectively. These results generally indicated that protein quality and textural properties of turkey fillets were improved, regardless of strains or temperature abuse, using HB-(1)/4CFAC technology.

  15. Dietary fish and meat intake and dementia in Latin America, China, and India: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based study123

    PubMed Central

    Dangour, Alan D; Uauy, Ricardo; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Guerra, Sara S Gallardo; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, KS; Llibre de Rodriguez, Juan; Noriega, Lisseth Hernandex; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Sousa, Renata M; Williams, Joseph; Ferri, Cleusa P; Prince, Martin J

    2009-01-01

    Background: Evidence of an association between fish and meat consumption and risk of dementia is inconsistent and nonexistent in populations in developing countries. Objective: The objective was to investigate associations between fish and meat consumption with dementia in low- and middle-income countries. Design: One-phase cross-sectional surveys were conducted in all residents aged ≥65 y in 11 catchment areas in China, India, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, and Peru. A total of 14,960 residents were assessed by using the 10/66 standardized protocol, which includes face-to-face interviews for dietary habits and a cross-culturally validated dementia diagnosis. Results: Dietary intakes and the prevalence of dementia varied between sites. We combined site-specific Poisson regression prevalence ratios (PRs) for the association between fish and meat consumption and dementia in 2 fixed-effect model meta-analyses adjusted for sociodemographic and health characteristics and fish and meat consumption as appropriate. We found a dose-dependent inverse association between fish consumption and dementia (PR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.91) that was consistent across all sites except India and a less-consistent, dose-dependent, direct association between meat consumption and prevalence of dementia (PR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.31). Conclusions: Our results extend findings on the associations of fish and meat consumption with dementia risk to populations in low- and middle-income countries and are consistent with mechanistic data on the neuroprotective actions of omega-3 (n–3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids commonly found in fish. The inverse association between fish and prevalent dementia is unlikely to result from poorer dietary habits among demented individuals (reverse causality) because meat consumption was higher in those with a diagnosis of dementia. PMID:19553298

  16. Dietary intakes of red meat, poultry, and fish during high school and risk of colorectal adenomas in women.

    PubMed

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Bernstein, Adam M; Giovannucci, Edward; Fuchs, Charles S; Willett, Walter C; Wu, Kana

    2013-07-15

    Adolescent diet may be etiologically relevant for colorectal carcinogenesis. We examined the association between meat and fish intakes during adolescence and the risk of colorectal adenomas later in life among 19,771 women participating in the Nurses' Health Study II. Subjects had completed a validated food frequency questionnaire in 1998 (when aged 34-51 years) about their diets during high school and subsequently underwent at least 1 lower-bowel endoscopy during the study period (1998-2007). During this period, 1,494 subjects were diagnosed with colorectal adenomas. Intake of red meat during adolescence was not associated with colorectal adenoma risk when comparing those in the highest versus lowest category of intake (odds ratio (OR) = 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81, 1.35). Similarly, intake of fish during adolescence was not associated with colorectal adenoma risk (OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.78, 1.17). Intake of poultry during adolescence was associated with a lower risk of total colorectal (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.99), distal (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51, 0.99), rectal (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.90), and advanced (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.93) adenomas. Replacement of 1 serving per day of red meat with 1 serving per day of poultry or fish was associated with 41% and 35% decreased risks for rectal adenomas and advanced adenomas, respectively. Our findings do not suggest an association between red meat intake during adolescence and colorectal adenomas later in life, but higher poultry intake during this time was associated with a lower risk of colorectal adenomas.

  17. Dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from fish and meat by residents of Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Guanyong; Liu, Xiaohua; Gao, Zishen; Xian, Qimin; Feng, Jianfang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Giesy, John P; Wei, Si; Liu, Hongling; Yu, Hongxia

    2012-07-01

    Concentrations of 14 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) and 28 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congers were measured in 137 samples of fish and meat from Nanjing, a city in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Total concentrations of PBDEs were less in fish (mean of 180 pg/g ww; range 8.0-1100 pg/g ww), but more in non fish foods (mean of 180 pg/g ww; range 15-950 pg/g ww) than those reported from other countries. The total dietary intake of PBDEs and PCBs by humans were 9.9 ng PBDE/d and 870 ng PCB/d, respectively. The daily intake by a 60 kg adult of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQ(WHO)) from PCBs was estimated to be 49 pg (PCB)TEQ(WHO)/d (0.82 pg (PCB)TEQ(WHO)/kg bw), which is less than the tolerable daily intake suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO). The daily intake of meat and fish accounted for 57.2% and 42.8% of the total intake of (PCB)TEQ(WHO).

  18. Non-invasive analytical technology for the detection of contamination, adulteration, and authenticity of meat, poultry, and fish: a review.

    PubMed

    Kamruzzaman, Mohammed; Makino, Yoshio; Oshita, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    The requirement of real-time monitoring of food products has encouraged the development of non-destructive measurement systems. Hyperspectral imaging is a rapid, reagentless, non-destructive analytical technique that integrates traditional spectroscopic and imaging techniques into one system to attain both spectral and spatial information from an object that cannot be achieved with either digital imaging or conventional spectroscopic techniques. Recently, this technique has emerged as one of the most powerful and inspiring techniques for assessing different meat species and building chemical images to show the distribution maps of constituents in a direct and easy manner. After presenting a brief description of the fundamentals of hyperspectral imaging, this paper reviews the potential applications of hyperspectral imaging for detecting the adulteration, contamination, and authenticity of meat, poultry, and fish. These applications envisage that hyperspectral imaging can be considered as a promising non-invasive analytical technique for predicting the contamination, adulteration, and authenticity of meat, poultry, and fish in a real-time mode.

  19. Serum Uric Acid Concentrations in Meat Eaters, Fish Eaters, Vegetarians and Vegans: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in the EPIC-Oxford Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Julie A.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Appleby, Paul N.; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Circulating concentrations of uric acid may be affected by dietary components such as meat, fish and dairy products, but only a few studies have compared uric acid concentrations among individuals who exclude some or all of these foods from their diet. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in serum uric acid concentrations between meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans. Subjects and Methods A sample of 670 men and 1,023 women (424 meat eaters, 425 fish eaters, 422 vegetarians and 422 vegans, matched on age and sex) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Oxford cohort were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Diet was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and serum concentrations of uric acid were measured. Mean concentrations of uric acid by diet group were calculated after adjusting for age, body mass index, calcium and alcohol intake. Results In both men and women, serum uric acid concentrations differed significantly by diet group (p<0.0001 and p = 0.01, respectively). The differences between diet groups were most pronounced in men; vegans had the highest concentration (340, 95% confidence interval 329–351 µmol/l), followed by meat eaters (315, 306–324 µmol/l), fish eaters (309, 300–318 µmol/l) and vegetarians (303, 294–312 µmol/l). In women, serum uric acid concentrations were slightly higher in vegans (241, 234–247 µmol/l) than in meat eaters (237, 231–242 µmol/l) and lower in vegetarians (230, 224–236 µmol/l) and fish eaters (227, 221–233 µmol/l). Conclusion Individuals consuming a vegan diet had the highest serum concentrations of uric acid compared to meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians, especially in men. Vegetarians and individuals who eat fish but not meat had the lowest concentrations of serum uric acid. PMID:23418557

  20. Combined effects of marinating and γ-irradiation in ensuring safety, protection of nutritional value and increase in shelf-life of ready-to-cook meat for immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Ben Fadhel, Yosra; Leroy, Valentin; Dussault, Dominic; St-Yves, France; Lauzon, Martine; Salmieri, Stéphane; Jamshidian, Majid; Vu, Dang Khanh; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combining marinating and γ-irradiation at doses of 1, 1.5 and 3kGy on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium and Clostridium sporogenes in raw meat packed under vacuum and stored at 4°C and to estimate its safety and shelf-life. Further, the effect of combined treatments on sensorial, nutritional values (lipid oxidation, concentration of thiamin and riboflavin) and color was evaluated. The study demonstrated that the use of marinade in combination with a low dose of γ-irradiation (1.5kGy) could act in synergy to reduce to undetectable level of pathogenic bacteria and increase the shelf-life of ready-to-cook meat loin without affecting its sensorial and nutritional quality.

  1. Meat, dairy and plant proteins alter bacterial composition of rat gut bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Zhao, Fan; Shi, Xuebin; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Zhu, Weiyun; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Lu, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-10-14

    Long-term consumption of red meat has been considered a potential risk to gut health, but this is based on clinic investigations, excessive intake of fat, heme and some injurious compounds formed during cooking or additions to processed meat products. Whether intake of red meat protein affects gut bacteria and the health of the host remains unclear. In this work, we compared the composition of gut bacteria in the caecum, by sequencing the V4-V5 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene, obtained from rats fed with proteins from red meat (beef and pork), white meat (chicken and fish) and other sources (casein and soy). The results showed significant differences in profiles of gut bacteria between the six diet groups. Rats fed with meat proteins had a similar overall structure of caecal bacterial communities separated from those fed non-meat proteins. The beneficial genus Lactobacillus was higher in the white meat than in the red meat or non-meat protein groups. Also, rats fed with meat proteins and casein had significantly lower levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins, suggesting that the intake of meat proteins may maintain a more balanced composition of gut bacteria, thereby reducing the antigen load and inflammatory response in the host.

  2. Retail Meat Cutting I. Apprentice Meat Cutter Related Training. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale H., Ed.

    Intended as a first-year curriculum for apprentice meat cutters, this text focuses on retail meat cutting. Topics covered in the 24 chapters are background and purpose of apprenticeship, job preparation, general layout of the meat department, operational procedures, beef structure and evaluation, retail cuts and cooking methods, beef forequarter:…

  3. Carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in model systems and cooked foods: a review on formation, occurrence and intake.

    PubMed

    Skog, K I; Johansson, M A; Jägerstad, M I

    1998-01-01

    Frying or grilling of meat and fish products may generate low ppb levels of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HAs). Many heterocyclic amines are formed via the Maillard reaction from creatine, free amino acids and monosaccharides; compounds naturally occurring in protein-rich foods of animal origin. The formation and yield of HAs are dependent on physical parameters, such as cooking temperature and time, cooking technique and equipment, heat and mass transport, and on chemical parameters, especially the precursors to HAs. This paper reviews the current knowledge on the formation of HAs in cooked foods and model systems, and summarizes data on the content of HAs in various cooked foods, and estimates of the dietary intake of HAs. It should be noted that the presence of carcinogens of other types in food (e.g. nitrosamines, aromatic amines, cholesterol oxide products) and that their generation during frying and grilling are outside the scope of this review.

  4. Study of the effect of post-packaging pasteurization and argon modified atmosphere packaging on the sensory quality and growth of endogenous microflora of a sliced cooked meat product.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Zamorano, Arturo Rivera; Posada-Izquierdo, Guiomar Denisse; García-Gimeno, Rosa María

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of post-packaging pasteurization on the sensory quality and growth of natural microorganisms during refrigerated storage (6 °C) of a cooked meat product considering two packaging atmospheres based on mixture of typical gases (CO(2)/N(2) (22/78%) and novel gases (CO(2)/Ar (17/83%)). Growth of lactic acid bacteria was significantly different between samples with and without post-packaging pasteurization, showing a growth rate >0.44 and equal to 0.28 log cfu/day, respectively. For samples with post-packaging pasteurization, atmosphere CO(2)/Ar resulted in a lower growth of lactic acid bacteria and a better sensory quality. Overall, samples without post-packaging pasteurization did not show a significant reduction of sensory quality during storage time (121 days) while samples with post-packaging pasteurization showed deterioration in their sensory quality. Further investigation is needed to obtain more definitive conclusions about the effect of post-packaging pasteurization and argon-based packaging atmospheres on cooked meat products.

  5. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued meats... action of dry heat resulting from the burning of hard wood or the hot coals therefrom for a...

  6. Determination of macrolide antibiotics in meat and fish using pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Berrada, Houda; Borrull, Francesc; Font, Guillermina; Marcé, Rosa Maria

    2008-10-24

    We developed a method for determining the quantities of seven macrolide antibiotics in meat and fish by using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (LC-(ESI)MS). The PLE was optimized with regard to solvents, temperature, pressure, extraction time and number of cycles. The optimum conditions were: methanol as the extraction solvent; a temperature of 80 degrees C; a pressure of 1500psi; an extraction time of 15min; 2 cycles; a flush volume of 150% and a purge time of 300s. All recoveries for macrolide antibiotics were over 77% at 200mug/kg, except for erythromycin, which was 58%. The repeatability and reproducibility on days in between, expressed as %RSD (n=12), were lower than 10% and 12%, respectively. The quantification limits of all compounds were 25mug/kg of dry weight of animal muscle except for troleandomycin (50mug/kg). The method was applied to determine the pharmaceuticals in real samples taken from 18 meat and fish samples. The results showed that PLE is quantitative short time consuming technique, with use of smaller initial sample sizes. Greater specificity and selectivity in extraction and increased potential for automation were shown.

  7. Metabolic profiles of male meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans from the EPIC-Oxford cohort12

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Julie A; Rinaldi, Sabina; Ferrari, Pietro; Carayol, Marion; Achaintre, David; Scalbert, Augustin; Cross, Amanda J; Gunter, Marc J; Fensom, Georgina K; Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human metabolism is influenced by dietary factors and lifestyle, environmental, and genetic factors; thus, men who exclude some or all animal products from their diet might have different metabolic profiles than meat eaters. Objective: We aimed to investigate differences in concentrations of 118 circulating metabolites, including acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, glycerophospholipids, hexose, and sphingolipids related to lipid, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism between male meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans from the Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Design: In this cross-sectional study, concentrations of metabolites were measured by mass spectrometry in plasma from 379 men categorized according to their diet group. Differences in mean metabolite concentrations across diet groups were tested by using ANOVA, and a false discovery rate–controlling procedure was used to account for multiple testing. Principal component analysis was used to investigate patterns in metabolic profiles. Results: Concentrations of 79% of metabolites differed significantly by diet group. In the vast majority of these cases, vegans had the lowest concentration, whereas meat eaters most often had the highest concentrations of the acylcarnitines, glycerophospholipids, and sphingolipids, and fish eaters or vegetarians most often had the highest concentrations of the amino acids and a biogenic amine. A clear separation between patterns in the metabolic profiles of the 4 diet groups was seen, with vegans being noticeably different from the other groups because of lower concentrations of some glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Conclusions: Metabolic profiles in plasma could effectively differentiate between men from different habitual diet groups, especially vegan men compared with men who consume animal products. The difference in metabolic profiles was mainly explained by the lower concentrations of

  8. Determination of irradiation dose and distinguishing between irradiated and non irradiated fish meat by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Şakalar, Ergün; Mol, Sühendan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the effects of gamma irradiation on the DNA of fish (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by real-time PCR were studied. Fish (O. mykiss) were exposed to radiation doses of 0.250, 0.500, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 kGy in a gamma cell. Primers were designed for regions with different lengths of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, and each primer was used to amplify the DNA from irradiated samples. The amplicon curves for mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, and the correlations among the curves, were obtained. The Ct values for a 519 bp region of the 18S RNA gene on nuclear DNA correlated appropriately. Radiation doses applied to the fillets were estimated using the standard curve data obtained from the correlation values, and the DNA damage caused by each dose was calculated. As a consequence, a molecular methodology to analyze irradiated fish meat qualitatively and also for the estimation of administered dose was developed. This method allowed analysis of irradiated fish, which had been stored for up to 3 months with a dose limit of approximately 0.5 kGy.

  9. Myoglobin chemistry and meat color.

    PubMed

    Suman, Surendranath P; Joseph, Poulson

    2013-01-01

    Consumers rely heavily on fresh meat color as an indicator of wholesomeness at the point of sale, whereas cooked color is exploited as an indicator of doneness at the point of consumption. Deviations from the bright cherry-red color of fresh meat lead to product rejection and revenue loss. Myoglobin is the sarcoplasmic heme protein primarily responsible for the meat color, and the chemistry of myoglobin is species specific. The mechanistic interactions between myoglobin and multiple extrinsic and intrinsic factors govern the color of raw as well as cooked meats. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the current research in meat color and how the findings are applied in the meat industry. Characterizing the fundamental basis of myoglobin's interactions with biomolecules in postmortem skeletal muscles is necessary to interpret the chemistry of meat color phenomena and to engineer innovative processing strategies to minimize meat discoloration-induced revenue loss to the agricultural economy.

  10. Encapsulated phosphates reduce lipid oxidation in both ground chicken and ground beef during raw and cooked meat storage with some influence on color, pH, and cooking loss.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, B; Simşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E

    2014-05-01

    Effects of encapsulated sodium tripolyphosphate (STP), sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP) and sodium pyrophosphate (SPP) on lipid oxidation in uncooked (0, 2, 24h) and cooked (0, 1, 7 d) ground chicken and beef during storage were determined. Ten phosphate treatments included a control (no phosphate), three unencapsulated (u) at 0.5% and three encapsulated (e) phosphates (0.5%) each at a low (e-low) and high (e-high) coating level. Two heating rates (slow, fast) were investigated. Cooking loss (CL), pH, color, orthophosphate (OP), TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) were determined. A fast heating and uSTP resulted in lower CL (p<0.05). Orthophosphate increased with phosphate incorporation, slow heating and storage (p<0.05). Encapsulated phosphates and increased coating level reduced OP (p<0.05). Unencapsulated STP increased CIE a* and pH, whereas uSPP decreased CIE a* and pH (p<0.05). Encapsulated phosphates and the greater coating level had no effect on the pH in cooked samples. Not increased coating level but encapsulated phosphates decreased lipid oxidation in cooked samples (p<0.05).

  11. Mutagenic activity of heterocyclic amines in cooked foods

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J.S.; Knize, M.G.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1993-01-19

    Mutagenic heterocyclic amines are generated in foods when they are cooked at temperatures over 150[degrees]C. These compounds are present from 0.1 to 50 ppb depending on the food and the cooking conditions. These heterocyclic amines are not only present in cooked red meat, fish, chicken, and in baked and fried foods derived from grain. Mutagenicity of fried beef hamburgers cooked at 230[degrees]C is 800 [plus minus] 37 TA98 revertants per gram cooked weight. We measured 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-flquinoxaline (MelQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-flquinoxaline (DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-flquinoline (IQ) formation at this temperature and found 3.0 [plus minus] 2.0,1.0 [plus minus] 0.18, and 0.06 [plus minus] 0.03 ng/g, respectively. 2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was found at a higher concentration of 9.6 ng/g. We have shown these heterocyclic amines are capable of producing both reverse and forward mutations in Salmonella bacteria and forward mutations in Chinese Hamster Cells.

  12. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... can react to touching fish or breathing in vapors from cooking fish. A fish allergy can cause ... hives red spots swelling a drop in blood pressure , causing lightheadedness or loss of consciousness Your child ...

  13. The effect of supplementing organic diets with fish meal and premix on the performance of pigs and some meat and blood characteristics.

    PubMed

    Grela, E R; Matras, J; Pisarski, R K; Sobolewska, S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fish meal and mineral-vitamin premix, supplementing organic diets, on the performance of pigs and some meat and blood characteristics. The experiment was conducted on an organic pig fattening farm. The study involved 120 pigs with an approximate 25 kg body weight. Animals were divided into 3 groups, kept in pens, 10 animals each. Group I (control) animals were fed with plant feedstuffs of organic origin. Diets for group II and III were enriched with fish meal or fish meal and vitamin-mineral premix, respectively. The experiment was carried out till pigs reached a weight of 115 kg. Feed samples were subjected to laboratory analyses. Body weight (3 times) and feed intake were recorded. Blood samples were collected (2 times) to determine hematological and biochemical indices. Some parameters in meat samples were also determined. The fish meal addition improved (P < or = 0.05) the average daily gains as well as feed conversion ratio during fattening period and mineral-vitamin premix significantly (P < or = 0.05) fortified fish meal influence. Fish meal supplement improved (P < or = 0.05) also some carcass characteristics. Supplementation of the diet with premix additionally decreased (P < or = 0.05) backfat thickness and increased share of meat in carcass. Fish meal improved (P < or = 0.05) some meat characteristics and elevated content of some polyunsaturated fatty acids. An increase in hemoglobin, red blood cell, white blood cell and cholesterol level in blood of animals from both experimental groups were also found. The results obtained proved the usefulness of fish meal and mineral-vitamin premix in the fatteners nutrition based on organic diets.

  14. Final cook temperature monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, John; Matthews, Michael; Glasco, Marc

    2006-04-01

    Fully cooked, ready-to-eat products represent one of the fastest growing markets in the meat and poultry industries. Modern meat cooking facilities typically cook chicken strips and nuggets at rates of 6000 lbs per hour, and it is a critical food safety issue to ensure the products on these lines are indeed fully cooked. Common practice now employs oven technicians to constantly measure final cook temperature with insertion-type thermocouple probes. Prior research has demonstrated that thermal imagery of chicken breasts and other products can be used to predict core temperature of products leaving an oven. In practice, implementation of a system to monitor core temperature can be difficult for several reasons. First, a wide variety of products are typically produced on the same production line and the system must adapt to all products. Second, the products can be often hard to find because they often leave the process in random order and may be touching or even overlapping. Another issue is finite measurement time which is typically only a few seconds. Finally, the system is subjected to a rigorous sanitation cycle and must hold up under wash down conditions. To address these problems, a calibrated 320x240 micro-bolometer camera was used to monitor the temperature of formed, breaded poultry products on a fully cooked production line for a period of one year. The study addressed the installation and operation of the system as well as the development of algorithms used to identify the product on a cluttered conveyor belt. It also compared the oven tech insertion probe measurements to the non-contact monitoring system performance.

  15. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal b...

  16. A comparison of the extraction procedures and quantification methods for the chromatographic determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in charcoal grilled meat and fish.

    PubMed

    Viegas, O; Novo, P; Pinho, O; Ferreira, I M P L V O

    2012-01-15

    A method for analysis of 15 PAHs in charcoal-grilled meat/fish was established by high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Gradient elution was performed with methanol/water/ethyl acetate. Maxima excitation and emission wavelengths were selected for each PAH. Retention times were very stable with coefficients of variation below 0.24% within analytical day and below 0.60% across analytical days. Two different methods of cleanup and pre-concentration steps were compared. Solvent extraction assisted by sonication carried out with n-hexane on 2g of lyophilized meat or 1g of lyophilized fish allowed to obtain high sensitivity, reproducibility and better extraction efficiency. Limits of quantification (LOQs, s/n=10) were lower than 0.01ng/g of meat wet weight and lower than 0.02ng/g of fish wet weight for all PAHs (except for Na, Fl and IP that were lower than 0.1ng/g). Two different quantification methods were compared. Standard addition method compensated PAHs losses due to incomplete extraction and it is recommended for analyses of grilled meat and fish samples that usually contain very low amounts of the eight high molecular weight PAHs (BaA, Ch, BbF, BkF, BaP, IP, BgP, DhA).

  17. The cooked meat derived genotoxic carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine has potent hormone-like activity: mechanistic support for a role in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lauber, Sandra N; Gooderham, Nigel J

    2007-10-01

    The cooked meat-derived heterocyclic amine 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is activated by CYP1A2 to the N-hydroxy metabolite, then esterified by acetyl transferase and sulfur transferase into unstable DNA-reactive products that can lead to mutation. The genotoxicity of PhIP has been implicated in its carcinogenicity. Yet, CYP1A2-null mice are still prone to PhIP-mediated cancer, inferring that alternative mechanisms must be operative in tumor induction. PhIP induces tumors of the breast, prostate, and colon in rats and lymphoma in mice. This profile of carcinogenicity is indicative of hormonal involvement. We recently reported that PhIP has potent estrogenic activity inducing transcription of estrogen (E2)-regulated genes, proliferation of E(2)-dependent cells, up-regulation of progesterone receptor, and stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. In this report, we show for the first time that PhIP at doses as low as of 10(-11) mol/L has direct effects on a rat pituitary lactotroph model (GH3 cells) and is able to induce cell proliferation and the synthesis and secretion of prolactin. This PhIP-induced pituitary cell proliferation and synthesis and secretion of prolactin can be attenuated by an estrogen receptor (ER) inhibitor, implying that PhIP effects on lactotroph responses are ERalpha mediated. In view of the strong association between estrogen, progesterone, prolactin, and breast cancer, the PhIP repertoire of hormone-like activities provides further mechanistic support for the tissue-specific carcinogenicity of the chemical. Furthermore, the recent epidemiology studies that report an association between consumption of cooked red meat and premenopausal and postmenopausal human breast cancer are consonant with these observations.

  18. Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages

    PubMed Central

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Baghurst, Katrine; Meyer, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). The aim was (i) to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii) to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet the recommendations and (iii) to determine the cost of the models. Six n-3 LCPUFA enriched foods were identified. Fish was categorised by n-3 LCPUFA content (mg/100 g categories as “excellent” “good” and “moderate”). The four models to meet recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes were (i) fish only; (ii) moderate fish (with red meat and enriched foods); (iii) fish avoiders (red meat and enriched foods only); and (iv) lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (enriched foods only). Diets were modelled using the NUTTAB2010 database and n-3 LCPUFA were calculated and compared to the Suggested Dietary Targets (SDT). The cost of meeting these recommendations was calculated per 100 mg n-3 LCPUFA. The SDT were achieved for all life-stages with all four models. The weekly food intake in number of serves to meet the n-3 LCPUFA SDT for all life-stages for each dietary model were: (i) 2 “excellent” fish; (ii) 1 “excellent” and 1 “good” fish, and depending on life-stage, 3–4 lean red meat, 0–2 eggs and 3–26 enriched foods; (iii) 4 lean red meat, and 20–59 enriched foods; (iv) 37–66 enriched foods. Recommended intakes of n-3 LCPUFA were easily met by the consumption of fish, which was the cheapest source of n-3 LCPUFA. Other strategies may be required to achieve the recommendations including modifying the current food supply through feeding practices, novel plant sources and more enriched foods. PMID:26492269

  19. Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages.

    PubMed

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Baghurst, Katrine; Meyer, Barbara J

    2015-10-19

    Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). The aim was (i) to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii) to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet the recommendations and (iii) to determine the cost of the models. Six n-3 LCPUFA enriched foods were identified. Fish was categorised by n-3 LCPUFA content (mg/100 g categories as "excellent" "good" and "moderate"). The four models to meet recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes were (i) fish only; (ii) moderate fish (with red meat and enriched foods); (iii) fish avoiders (red meat and enriched foods only); and (iv) lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (enriched foods only). Diets were modelled using the NUTTAB2010 database and n-3 LCPUFA were calculated and compared to the Suggested Dietary Targets (SDT). The cost of meeting these recommendations was calculated per 100 mg n-3 LCPUFA. The SDT were achieved for all life-stages with all four models. The weekly food intake in number of serves to meet the n-3 LCPUFA SDT for all life-stages for each dietary model were: (i) 2 "excellent" fish; (ii) 1 "excellent" and 1 "good" fish, and depending on life-stage, 3-4 lean red meat, 0-2 eggs and 3-26 enriched foods; (iii) 4 lean red meat, and 20-59 enriched foods; (iv) 37-66 enriched foods. Recommended intakes of n-3 LCPUFA were easily met by the consumption of fish, which was the cheapest source of n-3 LCPUFA. Other strategies may be required to achieve the recommendations including modifying the current food supply through feeding practices, novel plant sources and more enriched foods.

  20. Chinese Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  1. Dietary Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) supplementation to growing rabbits: effects on raw and cooked meat quality, nutrient true retention and oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Cullere, Marco; Sartori, Alberto; Szendrő, Zsolt; Kovàcs, Melinda; Giaccone, Valerio; Dal Bosco, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    The study evaluated the effect of Spirulina and Thyme dietary supplementation on rabbit meat quality, nutrient true retention and protection against oxidative stress. Rabbits in the control group (C-C) received a non-supplemented pellet throughout the experiment (5-11weeks of age). In the other groups, the pellet contained 5% Spirulina (S), 3% Thyme (T), or both (ST) for either the entire (groups S-S, T-T, ST-ST) or only the final part of the growing period (8-11weeks: groups C-S, C-T, C-ST). Spirulina supplementation increased the γ-linolenic acid content of rabbit meat, whereas Thyme improved the oxidative stability of raw and freeze-dried meat.

  2. Effect of grilling and baking on physicochemical and textural properties of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burger.

    PubMed

    Bainy, Eduarda Molardi; Bertan, Larissa Canhadas; Corazza, Marcos Lucio; Lenzi, Marcelo Kaminski

    2015-08-01

    The influence of two common cooking methods, grilling and baking, on chemical composition, water retention, fat retention, cooking yield, diameter reduction, expressible water, color and mechanical texture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burgers was investigated. Texture analyses were performed using a Warner-Bratzler test. The fish burger had a softer texture with a lower shear force than other meat products reported in the literature. There were no significant differences in proximate composition, diameter reduction, fat retention and expressible water between the grilled and oven-baked fish burgers. Cooking methods did not affect the cooking times and cooking rates. Warner-Bratzler parameters and color were significantly influenced by the cooking method. Grilling contributed to a shear force and work of shearing increase due to the lower cooking yield and water retention. Raw burgers had the highest L* (69.13 ± 0.96) and lowest b* (17.50 ± 0.75) values. Results indicated that baking yielded a product with better cooking characteristics, such as a desired softer texture with lower shear values (4.01 ± 0.54) and increased water retention (95.82 ± 0.77). Additionally, the baked fish burgers were lighter (higher L*) and less red (lower a*) than the grilled ones.

  3. Red meat, poultry, and fish intake and breast cancer risk among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic white women: The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Andre; Lundgreen, Abbie; Wolff, Roger K.; Fejerman, Laura; John, Esther M.; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Ingles, Sue A.; Boone, Stephanie D.; Connor, Avonne E.; Hines, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Giuliano, Anna; Joshi, Amit D.; Slattery, Martha L.; Stern, Mariana C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There is suggestive but limited evidence for a relationship between meat intake and breast cancer (BC) risk. Few studies included Hispanic women. We investigated the association between meats and fish intake and BC risk among Hispanic and NHW women. Methods The study included NHW (1,982 cases and 2,218 controls) and US Hispanics (1,777 cases and 2,218 controls) from 2 population-based case-control studies. Analyses considered menopausal status and percent Native American ancestry. We estimated pooled ORs combining harmonized data from both studies, and study and race/ethnicity specific ORs that were combined using fixed or random effects models, depending on heterogeneity levels. Results When comparing highest versus lowest tertile of intake, among NHW we observed an association between tuna intake and BC risk (pooled OR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.05–1.50; trend p = 0.006),. Among Hispanics, we observed an association between BC risk and processed meat intake (pooled OR = 1.42; 95% CI 1.18–1.71; trend p < 0.001), and between white meat (OR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.67–0.95; trend p = 0.01) and BC risk, driven by poultry. All these findings were supported by meta-analysis using fixed or random effect models, and were restricted to estrogen receptor positive tumors. Processed meats and poultry were not associated with BC risk among NHW women; red meat and fish were not associated with BC risk in either race/ethnic groups. Conclusions Our results suggest the presence of ethnic differences in associations between meat and BC risk that may contribute to BC disparities. PMID:26898200

  4. Buying, Preparing, and Cooking Fish. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.13b. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with the market forms of fish, how to clean and portion them, and how to cook them. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these…

  5. The use of genetic engineering techniques to improve the lipid composition in meat, milk and fish products: a review.

    PubMed

    Świątkiewicz, S; Świątkiewicz, M; Arczewska-Włosek, A; Józefiak, D

    2015-04-01

    The health-promoting properties of dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) for humans are well-known. Products of animal-origin enriched with n-3 LCPUFAs can be a good example of functional food, that is food that besides traditionally understood nutritional value may have a beneficial influence on the metabolism and health of consumers, thus reducing the risk of various lifestyle diseases such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. The traditional method of enriching meat, milk or eggs with n-3 LCPUFA is the manipulation of the composition of animal diets. Huge progress in the development of genetic engineering techniques, for example transgenesis, has enabled the generation of many kinds of genetically modified animals. In recent years, one of the aims of animal transgenesis has been the modification of the lipid composition of meat and milk in order to improve the dietetic value of animal-origin products. This article reviews and discusses the data in the literature concerning studies where techniques of genetic engineering were used to create animal-origin products modified to contain health-promoting lipids. These studies are still at the laboratory stage, but their results have demonstrated that the transgenesis of pigs, cows, goats and fishes can be used in the future as efficient methods of production of healthy animal-origin food of high dietetic value. However, due to high costs and a low level of public acceptance, the introduction of this technology to commercial animal production and markets seems to be a distant prospect.

  6. Characterization of Cooking-Related Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedziela, R. F.; Blanc, L. E.

    2010-12-01

    The temperatures at which food is cooked are usually high enough to drive oils and other organic compounds out of materials which are being prepared for consumption. As these compounds move away from the hot cooking surface and into the atmosphere, they can participate in chemical reactions or condense to form particles. Given the high concentration of cooking in urban areas, cooking-related aerosols likely contribute to the overall amount of particulate matter on a local scale. Reported here are results for the mid-infrared optical characterization of aerosols formed during the cooking of several meat and vegetable samples in an inert atmosphere. The samples were heated in a novel aerosol generator that is designed to collect particles formed immediately above the cooking surface and inject them into a laminar aerosol flow cell. Preliminary results for the chemical processing of cooking-related aerosols in synthetic air will also be presented.

  7. Technological, physico-chemical and sensory properties of raw and cooked meat batter incorporated with various levels of cold milled flaxseed powder.

    PubMed

    Yogesh, K; Langoo, B A; Sharma, S K; Yadav, D N

    2015-03-01

    Flaxseed has been proven for its multidimensional health benefits and can be used for development of emulsion type functional meat products. In view of this the incorporation of cold milled flaxseed powder (FSP) in meat batter at level 1-5 % was investigated. The results revealed that incorporation significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the total fluid release (TFR), fat release (FR) and water release (WR) of raw meat batter. The surface and internal color values were differed significantly (P < 0.05) among treatments at initial as well as during refrigerated storage period. Texture values especially hardness and chewiness values were found less (P < 0.05) in FSP treated samples and textural properties in FSP treated samples were not deteriorated during storage as compared to control samples. Thus incorporation of FSP had some beneficial effects on physico-chemical properties and textural properties which were also stable during storage period. However the redness values and sensory scores were observed less in FSP treated samples.

  8. Effect of cooking methods on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in chicken and duck breast.

    PubMed

    Liao, G Z; Wang, G Y; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2010-05-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), potent mutagens/carcinogens, are pyrolysis formed during the cooking of meat and fish. In the present study, the effects of various cooking methods, pan-frying, deep-frying, charcoal grilling and roasting on the formation of HAAs in chicken breast and duck breast were studied. The various HAAs formed during cooking were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that chicken breast cooked by charcoal grilling contained the highest content of total HAAs, as high as 112 ng/g, followed by pan-fried duck breast (53.3 ng/g), charcoal grilled duck breast (32 ng/g), pan-fried chicken breast (27.4 ng/g), deep-fried chicken breast (21.3 ng/g), deep-fried duck breast (14 ng/g), roasted duck breast (7 ng/g) and roasted chicken breast (4 ng/g). For individual HAA, the most abundant HAA was 9H-pyrido-[4,3-b]indole (Norharman), which was detected in charcoal grilled chicken breast at content as high as 32.2 ng/g, followed by 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[4,3-b] indole (Harman) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]pyridine(PhIP) at 32 and 31.1 ng/g in charcoal grilled chicken breast, respectively. The content of PhIP in pan-fried duck and chicken breast were 22 and 18.3 ng/g, respectively. Generally, the type and content of HAAs in cooked poultry meat varies with cooking method and cooking conditions.

  9. Solvent microextraction-flame atomic absorption spectrometry (SME-FAAS) for determination of ultratrace amounts of cadmium in meat and fish samples.

    PubMed

    Goudarzi, Nasser

    2009-02-11

    A simple, low cost and highly sensitive method based on solvent microextraction (SME) for separation/preconcentration and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was proposed for the determination of ultratrace amounts of cadmium in meat and fish samples. The analytical procedure involved the formation of a hydrophobic complex by mixing the analyte solution with an ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) solution. In suitable conditions, the complex of cadmium-APDC entered the micro organic phase, and thus, separation of the analyte from the matrix was achieved. Under optimal chemical and instrumental conditions, a detection limit (3 sigma) of 0.8 ng L(-1) and an enrichment factor of 93 were achieved. The relative standard deviation for the method was found to be 2.2% for Cd. The interference effects of some anions and cations were also investigated. The developed method has been applied to the determination of trace Cd in meat and fish samples.

  10. Comparison of lipid content and Fatty Acid composition in the edible meat of wild and cultured freshwater and marine fish and shrimps from china.

    PubMed

    Li, Guipu; Sinclair, Andrew J; Li, Duo

    2011-03-09

    The lipid content and fatty acid composition in the edible meat of twenty-nine species of wild and cultured freshwater and marine fish and shrimps were investigated. Both the lipid content and fatty acid composition of the species were specified due to their unique food habits and trophic levels. Most of the marine fish demonstrated higher lipid content than the freshwater fish, whereas shrimps had the lowest lipid content. All the marine fish and shrimps had much higher total n-3 PUFA than n-6 PUFA, while most of the freshwater fish and shrimps demonstrated much lower total n-3 PUFA than n-6 PUFA. This may be the biggest difference in fatty acid composition between marine and freshwater species. The cultured freshwater fish demonstrated higher percentages of total PUFA, total n-3 PUFA, and EPA + DHA than the wild freshwater fish. Two freshwater fish, including bighead carp and silver carp, are comparable to the marine fish as sources of n-3 PUFA.

  11. Could Grilled, Smoked Meats Lower Survival After Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Could Grilled, Smoked Meats Lower Survival After Breast Cancer? Study can't prove cause and effect, but ... and smoked meats could increase the risk of breast cancer. Now, a new study finds these cooking methods ...

  12. Anti-rancidity effect of essential oils, application in the lipid stability of cooked turkey meat patties and potential implications for health.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Francesco; Duthie, Garry

    2015-02-01

    Twenty-three commercial essential oils were tested for their anti-rancidity effect and potential implications to prolong the induction time of corn oil and extend the shelf life of cooked turkey patties. Moreover, the potential health benefit was investigated through DPPH, ABTS, β-carotene bleaching, FRAP, and α-amylase inhibitory assays. Essential oils' composition was investigated by GC-MS. Cumin, thyme, clove, and cinnamon oils improved oxidative stability and increased the induction time of the corn oil 1.5-3 fold. Clove and cinnamon oils were particularly effective in delaying lipid oxidation of cooked turkey patties (time of induction 11.04 and 9.43 h) compared with the plain burger (5.04 h). Both oils are also characterized by a potent radical scavenging activity in ABTS test (IC(50) values of 1.43 and 2.05 μg/ml for cinnamon and clove, respectively). In the α-amylase inhibitory assay, cumin and grape fruits were the most potent with IC(50) values of 21.88 and 23.95 μg/ml, respectively.

  13. Perceptual attributes of poultry and other meat products: a repertory grid application.

    PubMed

    Michel, L Martínez; Punter, P H; Wismer, W V

    2011-04-01

    Increased demand for processed poultry products through the growth of home meal replacements and ready to eat products, present an opportunity for the development of new value-added poultry products. Repertory grid interviews were conducted to generate insight into consumer driven product development of these products. Procrustes analysis revealed that healthiness, nutrition, convenience, and processing attributes were most important parameters for discriminating amongst 24 meat and meat alternatives. "White meat", "healthier", "leaner", "good source of protein", "easy to cook" and "convenient", were found to positively influence consumer preferences for unprocessed chicken products, eggs and salmon while price did not appear to be important for differentiating the products. Traditional processed fish and poultry products, such as chicken nuggets, represented undesirable composition, processing and quality concerns. Identification of consumer attributes for discriminating poultry products among other meat alternatives can guide the development of competitive value-added poultry products.

  14. Performance, carcass traits, muscle fatty acid composition and meat sensory properties of male Mahabadi goat kids fed palm oil, soybean oil or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Najafi, M H; Zeinoaldini, S; Ganjkhanlou, M; Mohammadi, H; Hopkins, D L; Ponnampalam, E N

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the effect of palm, soybean or fish oils on the performance, muscle fatty acid composition and meat quality of goat kids. Twenty-four male Mahabadi kids (BW=19.4±1.2 kg) were divided into three groups according to liveweight and randomly allocated to one of three diets. Animals were fed ad libitum for 84 days. Different dietary fat sources had no effect on performance and/or carcass quality attributes. The soybean oil diet decreased 16:0 and 18:0 concentrations and increased 18:2 and 18:3 and the ratio of PUFA/SFA in the muscle compared with other treatments. Fish oil feeding increased 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 concentrations and decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 in the muscle. The results demonstrate that the use of fish oil is a nutritional strategy to improve the health claimable long-chain omega-3 fatty acid content and n-6/n-3 ratio in goat meat without changing the sensory properties or colour of meat.

  15. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review

    PubMed Central

    Praveen, Praveen Kumar; Debnath, Chanchal; Shekhar, Shashank; Dalai, Nirupama; Ganguly, Subha

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat. PMID:27051177

  16. Plant essential oils and allied volatile fractions as multifunctional additives in meat and fish-based food products: a review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils are concentrated aromatic volatile compounds derived from botanicals by distillation or mechanical pressing. They play multiple, crucial roles as antioxidants, food pathogen inhibitors, shelf-life enhancers, texture promoters, organoleptic agents and toxicity-reducing agents. For their versatility, they appear promising as food preservatives. Several research findings in recent times have validated their potential as functional ingredients in meat and fish processing. Among the assortment of bioactive compounds in the essential oils, p-cymene, thymol, eugenol, carvacrol, isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, linalool, 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, α-terpineol, γ-terpinene, citral and methyl chavicol are most familiar. These terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and phenolics (alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones) have been extracted from culinary herbs such as oregano, rosemary, basil, coriander, cumin, cinnamon, mint, sage and lavender as well as from trees such as myrtle, fir and eucalyptus. This review presents essential oils as alternatives to conventional chemical additives. Their synergistic actions with modified air packaging, irradiation, edible films, bacteriocins and plant byproducts are discussed. The decisive roles of metabolic engineering, microwave technology and metabolomics in quality and quantity augmentation of essential oil are briefly mooted. The limitations encountered and strategies to overcome them have been illuminated to pave way for their enhanced popularisation. The literature has been mined from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Pubchem, Scopus and SciFinder.

  17. Arsenic concentration in rice, fish, meat and vegetables in Cambodia: a preliminary risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Sheng; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Man, Yu-Bon; Du, Jun; Xing, Guang-Hua; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2013-12-01

    To assess arsenic contaminations and its possible adverse health effects, food samples were collected from Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham in Cambodia. The highest and the lowest concentrations were observed in fish (mean 2,832 ng g(-1), ww) collected from Kandal province and cattle stomach (1.86 ± 1.10 ng g(-1), ww) collected from Kratie, respectively. The daily intake of arsenic via food consumption was 604, 9.70 and 136 μg day(-1) in Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham, respectively. The arsenic dietary intake in Kandal ranked No. 1 among all the 17 compared countries or regions. Fish consumption contributed the greatest proportion of total arsenic daily intake in Kandal (about 63.0 %) and Kampong Cham (about 69.8 %). It is revealed to be a much more important exposure pathway than drinking water for residents in Kampong Cham. The results of risk assessment suggested that the residents in Cambodia, particularly for people in Kandal province, suffer high public health risks due to consuming arsenic-contaminated food.

  18. Effect of dietary fat sources and zinc and selenium supplements on the composition and consumer acceptability of chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Bou, R; Guardiola, F; Barroeta, A C; Codony, R

    2005-07-01

    A factorial design was used to study the effect of changes in broiler feed on the composition and consumer acceptability of chicken meat. One week before slaughter, 1.25% dietary fish oil was removed from the feed and replaced by other fat sources (animal fat or linseed oil) or we continued with fish oil, and diets were supplemented with Zn (0, 300, or 600 mg/kg), and Se (0 or 1.2 mg/kg as sodium selenite or 0.2 mg/kg as Se-enriched yeast). The changes in dietary fat led to distinct fatty acid compositions of mixed raw dark and white chicken meat with skin. The fish oil diet produced meat with the highest eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) content, whereas the linseed oil diet led to meat with the highest content in total n-3 polyunsaturated acids (PUFA), especially linolenic acid. However, meat from animals on the animal fat diet was still rich in very long-chain n-3 PUFA. Se content was affected by Se and Zn supplements. Se content increased with Zn supplementation. However, only Se from the organic source led to a significant increase in this mineral in meat compared with the control. Consumer acceptability scores and TBA values of cooked dark chicken meat after 74 d or after 18 mo of frozen storage were not affected by any of the dietary factors studied.

  19. Application of quantitative microbial risk assessments for estimation of risk management metrics: Clostridium perfringens in ready-to-eat and partially cooked meat and poultry products as an example.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Edmund A; Labarre, David; Golden, Neal J; Kause, Janell R; Dearfield, Kerry L

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service is exploring quantitative risk assessment methodologies to incorporate the use of the Codex Alimentarius' newly adopted risk management metrics (e.g., food safety objectives and performance objectives). It is suggested that use of these metrics would more closely tie the results of quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRAs) to public health outcomes. By estimating the food safety objective (the maximum frequency and/or concentration of a hazard in a food at the time of consumption) and the performance objective (the maximum frequency and/or concentration of a hazard in a food at a specified step in the food chain before the time of consumption), risk managers will have a better understanding of the appropriate level of protection (ALOP) from microbial hazards for public health protection. We here demonstrate a general methodology that allows identification of an ALOP and evaluation of corresponding metrics at appropriate points in the food chain. It requires a two-dimensional probabilistic risk assessment, the example used being the Monte Carlo QMRA for Clostridium perfringens in ready-to eat and partially cooked meat and poultry products, with minor modifications to evaluate and abstract required measures. For demonstration purposes, the QMRA model was applied specifically to hot dogs produced and consumed in the United States. Evaluation of the cumulative uncertainty distribution for illness rate allows a specification of an ALOP that, with defined confidence, corresponds to current industry practices.

  20. Concentration of biologically active polyamines in meat and liver of sheep and lambs after slaughter and their changes in mutton during storage and cooking.

    PubMed

    Dadáková, Eva; Pelikánová, Tamara; Kalač, Pavel

    2011-02-01

    Putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD) and spermine (SPM) concentrations using a UPLC method, in chilled mutton, lamb and livers 24 h after slaughter were determined. PUT concentrations were quantifiable only in some samples. Mean SPD concentrations were 4-6, 13.5 and 16.8 mg kg-1 in the meats, sheep and lamb livers, respectively. The respective SPM concentrations were 17-25, 128 and 79 mg kg-1. SPD and SPM losses of about one fifth and half of the initial level, respectively, were apparent in mutton loins stored at -18°C for 6 months. Significant losses of SPD and SPM were found in mutton loins stored aerobically, vacuum-packaged or in a modified atmosphere at +2°C. Boiling and stewing of mutton legs caused SPD and SPM losses of about 40% and roasting of about 60% of the initial content.

  1. Formation of Malondialdehyde, 4-Hydroxynonenal, and 4-Hydroxyhexenal during in Vitro Digestion of Cooked Beef, Pork, Chicken, and Salmon.

    PubMed

    Steppeler, Christina; Haugen, John-Erik; Rødbotten, Rune; Kirkhus, Bente

    2016-01-20

    Red meat high in heme iron may promote the formation of potentially genotoxic aldehydes during lipid peroxidation in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) equivalents measured by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method was determined during in vitro digestion of cooked red meat (beef and pork), as well as white meat (chicken) and fish (salmon), whereas analysis of 4-hydroxyhexenal (HHE) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) was performed during in vitro digestion of cooked beef and salmon. Comparing products with similar fat contents indicated that the amount of unsaturated fat and not total iron content was the dominating factor influencing the formation of aldehydes. It was also shown that increasing fat content in beef products caused increasing concentrations of MDA equivalents. The highest levels, however, were found in minced beef with added fish oil high in unsaturated fat. This study indicates that when ingested alone, red meat products low in unsaturated fat and low in total fat content contribute to relatively low levels of potentially genotoxic aldehydes in the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. The effect of the change from a herbage- to a concentrate-based diet on the oxidative stability of raw and cooked lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Luciano, G; Biondi, L; Scerra, M; Serra, A; Mele, M; Lanza, M; Priolo, A

    2013-10-01

    Over 89 days, 10 lambs (S) were fed concentrates and hay in stall, while 9 lambs (P) grazed at pasture. Two groups of 9 animals grazed at pasture until switching to a concentrate-based diet for 14 or 37 days before slaughter (P-S14 and P-S37). The fat content of longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) increased with increasing duration of concentrate feeding (P=0.05). As a consequence, the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and of the highly peroxidisable (HP) PUFA in the polar lipids was similar between treatments. Lipid oxidation in fresh LM over 8 days of storage was affected by the diet (P<0.0005) with the P-S37 and P treatments producing, respectively, the highest and the lowest TBARS values. The P treatment reduced TBARS in cooked minced LM over 2 days of storage and no difference was found between the P-S14, P-S37 and S treatments. Colour stability of fresh LM was not noticeably affected by the dietary treatment.

  3. Effect of thawing methods on cook yield of frozen broiler breast fillets deboned at different postmortem times

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of thawing conditions on weight loss or cook yield of frozen red meat has been intensively studied and results varied with meat types. There is a lack of information about the effect of thawing methods on cook yield of frozen white meat. The objective of the present study was to invest...

  4. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Naveen, Z; Naik, B R; Subramanyam, B V; Reddy, P M

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C). Duck meat sausages were prepared by utilizing raw and partially cooked duck meat with addition of soy flour at 10% level as a binder. Different quality characteristics like physical and chemical characteristics, proximate composition, and organoleptic characteristics were evaluated. Cooking loss of partially cooked meat sausages was lower than raw duck meat sausages, whereas emulsion stability and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of raw duck meat sausages were lesser than partially cooked meat sausages. Cooking loss and emulsion stability decreased in both types of meat sausages, while, 2-TBA values increased as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent moisture content of raw duck meat sausages was higher than partially cooked meat sausages, which decreased in both types of meat sausages as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent crude protein (CP) and percent ether extract (EE) content of partially cooked duck meat sausages were higher than raw duck meat sausages. Regardless of type of meat used, refrigerated storage of sausages increased CP and EE up to 10th day but decreased upon further storage up to 14th day. Organoleptic scores for raw duck meat sausages were higher than partially cooked duck meat sausages and all the scores decreased with an increase in the storage period. However the scores were within the acceptable limits. The findings prove that, duck meat can be effectively acclaimed as an alternative avenue to meet the escalating

  5. A study on the meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal as protein substitutes of fish meal in practical diets for Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Baigang; Wang, Fuzhen; Yu, Yu

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) as the replacement of fish meal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of Litopenaeus vannamei. The basal diets were formulated with 22% fish meal and other ingredients which provided about 40% protein and 9% lipid in the diet. The experimental diets included MBM or PBM to replace 0, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of total fish meal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric in gross terms. The results showed that there were no significant differences (Pτ;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 60% fish meal had been replaced with MBM, while the percent weight gain (WG, %), body length gain (BLG, %) and ADC significantly decreased when the MBM was up to 80% of the fish meal. There were no significant differences (Pτ;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among all the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 80% fish meal had been replaced with PBM.

  6. Comparison of cook loss, shear force, and sensory descriptive profiles of broiler breast fillets cooked from a frozen state and cooked after freeze/thaw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four replications were conducted to compare quality measurements, cook loss, shear force, and sensory quality profiles of cooked broiler breast meat (pectoralis major) prepared directly from a frozen state and prepared after freeze/thaw. In each replication, fresh broiler fillets (removed from carca...

  7. Effect of ohmic treatment on quality characteristic of meat: a review.

    PubMed

    Yildiz-Turp, G; Sengun, I Y; Kendirci, P; Icier, F

    2013-03-01

    Ohmic cooking, a well-known electro-heating technique, provides an alternative method for cooking meat products due to its ability for rapid heat generation. Ohmic heating uses the resistance of meat products to convert the electric energy into heat. The rate of heat generation depends on the voltage gradient applied and the electrical conductivity of the meat product. The advantages of ohmic cooking over conventional heating include shorter processing times, higher yields, and less power consumption while still maintaining the colour and nutritional value of meat products. In recent years, ohmic cooking has increasingly drawn interest from the meat industry as a method to ensure the quality and the safety of meat products. The present paper reviews the effects of ohmic cooking on the physical, chemical, sensory, and microbiological quality characteristics and toxicological properties of meat and meat products.

  8. Evaluation of Escherichia coli biotype 1 as a surrogate for Escherichia coli O157:H7 for cooking, fermentation, freezing, and refrigerated storage in meat processes.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Carisa; Niebuhr, Steven E; Acuff, Gary R; Dickson, James S

    2009-04-01

    Five Escherichia coli biotype I isolates were compared with E. coli O157:H7 under four common meat processing conditions. The processes that were evaluated were freezing, refrigerating, fermentation, and thermal inactivation. For each study, at least one surrogate organism was not statistically different when compared with E. coli O157:H7. However, the four studies did not consistently show the same isolate as having this agreement. The three studies that involved temperature as a method of controlling or reducing the E. coli population all had at least one possible surrogate in common. In the fermentation study, only one isolate (BAA-1429) showed no statistical difference when compared with E. coli O157:H7. However, the population reductions that were observed indicated the isolates BAA-1427 and BAA-1431 would overestimate the surviving E. coli O157:H7 population in a fermented summer sausage. When all of the data from all of the surrogates were examined, it was found that isolates BAA-1427, BAA-1429, and BAA-1430 would be good surrogates for all four of the processes that were examined in this study. There was no statistical difference noted between these three isolates and E. coli O157:H7 in the refrigeration study. These isolates resulted in smaller population reductions than did E. coli O157:H7 in the frozen, fermentation, and thermal inactivation studies. This would indicate that these isolates would overpredict the E. coli O157:H7 population in these three instances. This overprediction results in an additional margin of safety when using E. coli biotype 1 as a surrogate.

  9. PCDD/F and DL-PCB levels in meat from broilers and rabbits fed with fish-oil enriched feeds.

    PubMed

    Abalos, Manuela; Parera, Jordi; Rivera, Josep; Abad, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect on the final levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in meat when fats, in particular fish oils, are included as ingredients in feeds. Two types of animals (broilers and rabbits) were fed with three different experimental feeds containing varying amounts of two selected fish oils. PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were determined in the fish oils, the feeds and in the animals' meat. For broilers, PCDD/F and DL-PCB profiles in meat samples were similar to those found in the corresponding feeds, even though bioaccumulation of the highest chlorinated PCDD/F congeners seemed to decrease. Depending on the treatment, PCDD/F and the sum of PCDD/F and DL-PCB levels were 1.11-4.60 and 6.03-16.71 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat, respectively. For most of the cases, these values exceeded the maximum established by the Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006. In contrast, the levels of these contaminants in the corresponding feeds ranged from 0.11 to 0.54 pg WHO-TEQ/g, in the case of PCDD/Fs, and from 0.59 to 1.75 pg WHO-TEQ/g, when DL-PCBs were also included. These levels were, in general, below the maximum allowed by the Commission Directive 2006/13/EC. The results of the experiments with rabbits were not as conclusive as those for broilers although bioaccumulation appeared to be slower.

  10. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the control. When the concentration of pork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p<0.05) hardness and gumminess. The hardness and gumminess of frankfurters in other treatments were not significantly different (p>0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  11. Peptides reproducibly released by in vivo digestion of beef meat and trout flesh in pigs.

    PubMed

    Bauchart, Caroline; Morzel, Martine; Chambon, Christophe; Mirand, Philippe Patureau; Reynès, Christelle; Buffière, Caroline; Rémond, Didier

    2007-12-01

    Characterisation and identification of peptides (800 to 5000 Da) generated by intestinal digestion of fish or meat were performed using MS analyses (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight and nano-liquid chromatography electrospray-ionisation ion trap MS/MS). Four pigs fitted with cannulas at the duodenum and jejunum received a meal exclusively made of cooked Pectoralis profundus beef meat or cooked trout fillets. A protein-free meal, made of free amino acids, starch and fat, was used to identify peptides of endogenous origin. Peptides reproducibly detected in digesta (i.e. from at least three pigs) were evidenced predominantly in the first 3 h after the meal. In the duodenum, most of the fish- and meat-derived peptides were characteristic of a peptic digestion. In the jejunum, the majority of peptides appeared to result from digestion by chymotrypsin and trypsin. Despite slight differences in gastric emptying kinetics and overall peptide production, possibly in relation to food structure and texture, six and four similar peptides were released after ingestion of fish or meat in the duodenum and jejunum. A total of twenty-six different peptides were identified in digesta. All were fragments of major structural (actin, myosin) or sarcoplasmic (creatine kinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and myoglobin) muscle proteins. Peptides were short ( < 2000 Da) and particularly rich in proline residues. Nineteen of them contained bioactive sequences corresponding mainly to an antihypertensive activity. The present work showed that after fish or meat ingestion, among the wide variety of peptides produced by enzymic digestion, some of them can be reproducibly observed in intestinal digesta.

  12. Changes in Moisture, Protein, and Fat Content of Fish and Rice Flour Coextrudates during Single-Screw Extrusion Cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Sukumar Bandyopadhyay; A. S. Bawa

    2013-02-01

    Changes in proximate composition of fish and rice flour coextrudates like moisture, protein, and fat content were studied with respect to extrusion process v ariables like barrel temperature, x1 (100–200 degrees C); screw speed, x2 (70–110 rpm); fish content of the feed, x3 (5–45 percent); and feed moisture content, x4 (20–60 percent). Experiments were conducted at five levels of the process variables based on rotatable experimental design. Response surface models (RSM) were developed that adequately described the changes in moisture, protein, and fat content of the extrudates based on the coeff icient of determination (R2) values of 0.95, 0.99, and 0.94. ANOVA analysis indicated that extrudate moisture content was influenced by x4, protein content by x1 and x3, and fat content by x3 and x4 at P < 0.001. Trends based on response surf ace plots indicated that the x1 of about 200 degrees C, x2 of about 90 rpm, x3 of about 25%, and x4 of about 20% minimized the moisture in the extrudates. Protein content was maximized at x1 of 100 degrees C, x2 > 80 rpm, x3 of about 45 percent, and x4 > 50 percent, and fat content was minimized at x1 of about 200 degrees C, x2 of about 85–95 rpm, x3 < 15 percent, and x4 of about >50 percent. Optimized process variables based on a genetic algorithm (GA) for minimum moisture and fat content and maximum protein content were x1 = 199.86, x2 = 109.86, x3 = 32.45, x4 = 20.03; x1 = 199.71, x2 = 90.09, x3 = 15.27, x4 = 58.47; and x1 = 102.97, x2 = 107.67, x3 = 44.56, x4 = 59.54. The predicted values were 17.52 percent, 0.57 percent, and 46.65 percent. Based on the RSM and GA analy sis, extrudate moisture and protein content was influenced by x1, x3, and x4 and fat content by x2, x3, and x4.

  13. Method to Biomonitor the Cooked Meat Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in Dyed Hair by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Orbitrap High Resolution Multistage Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingshu; Yonemori, Kim; Le Marchand, Loïc; Turesky, Robert J

    2015-06-16

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meat. The use of naturally colored hair containing PhIP can serve as a long-term biomarker of exposure to this carcinogen. However, the measurement of PhIP in dyed hair, a cosmetic treatment commonly used by the adult population, is challenging because the dye process introduces into the hair matrix a complex mixture of chemicals that interferes with the measurement of PhIP. The high-resolution scanning features of the Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer were employed to biomonitor PhIP in dyed hair. Because of the complexity of chemicals in the hair dye, the consecutive reaction monitoring of PhIP at the MS(3) scan stage was employed to selectively remove the isobaric interferences. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of PhIP was 84 parts-per-trillion (ppt) employing 50 mg of hair. Calibration curves were generated in dyed hair matrixes and showed good linearity (40-1000 pg PhIP/g hair) with a goodness-of-fit regression value of r(2) > 0.9978. The within-day (between-day) coefficients of variation were 7.7% (17%) and 5.4% (6.1%), respectively, with dyed hair samples spiked with PhIP at 200 and 600 ppt. The levels of PhIP accrued in dyed hair from volunteers on a semicontrolled feeding study who ingested known levels of PhIP were comparable to the levels of PhIP accrued in hair of subjects with natural hair color. The method was successfully employed to measure PhIP in nondyed and dyed hair biospecimens of participants in a case-control study of colorectal adenoma on their regular diet.

  14. Meat flavor precursors and factors influencing flavor precursors--A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Issa; Jo, Cheorun; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-12-01

    Flavor is the sensory impression sensed by taste and smell buds and is a leading factor determining the meat quality and purchasing decision of the consumer. Meat flavor is characteristic of volatiles produced as a result of reactions of non-volatile components that are induced thermally. The water soluble compounds having low molecular weight and meat lipids are important precursors of cooked meat flavor. The Maillard reaction, lipid oxidation, and vitamin degradation are leading reactions during cooking which develop meat flavor from uncooked meat with little aroma and bloody taste. The pre-slaughter and postmortem factors like animal breed, sex, age, feed, aging and cooking conditions contribute to flavor development of cooked meat. The objective of this review is to highlight the flavor chemistry, meat flavor precursors and factors affecting meat flavor precursors.

  15. 9 CFR 381.150 - Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry breakfast strips. 381.150 Section 381.150... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Entry of Articles Into Official Establishments;...

  16. 9 CFR 381.150 - Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry breakfast strips. 381.150 Section 381.150... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Entry of Articles Into Official Establishments;...

  17. 9 CFR 381.150 - Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry breakfast strips. 381.150 Section 381.150... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Entry of Articles Into Official Establishments;...

  18. 9 CFR 381.150 - Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry breakfast strips. 381.150 Section 381.150... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Entry of Articles Into Official Establishments;...

  19. 9 CFR 381.150 - Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry breakfast strips. 381.150 Section 381.150... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Entry of Articles Into Official Establishments;...

  20. Organoarsenical species contents in cooked seafood.

    PubMed

    Devesa, V; Súñer, M A; Algora, S; Vélez, D; Montoro, R; Jalón, M; Urieta, I; Macho, M L

    2005-11-02

    The organoarsenical species arsenobetaine (AB), arsenocholine (AC), tetramethylarsonium ion (TMA+), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were determined in 64 cooked seafood products (fish, bivalves, squid, crustaceans) included in a Total Diet Study carried out in the Basque Country (Spain). For cooking, various treatments were employed (grilling, roasting, baking, stewing, boiling, steaming, microwaving). The results obtained show that in cooked seafood AB is the major species, followed by DMA and TMA+. AC and MMA are minor species. The results in cooked seafood were compared with the arsenic species contents obtained for the same product raw. After cooking there was an increase in DMA for sardines and bivalves and an increase or appearance of TMA+ for meagrim, anchovy, Atlantic horse mackerel, and sardine. The data provided add to the very scant information available about organoarsenical species contents in cooked seafood.

  1. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal broiler assay (PFC). For the PFR, cecectomized roosters were precision-fed approximately 30 g of feed sample, and excreta were collected 48 h postfeeding. For the SIAAD, 16-d-old broilers were fed a semipurified diet containing the feed samples as the only source of protein from 17 to 21 d, with ileal digesta collected at 21 d. For the PFC, 22-d-old broilers were precision-fed 10 g of feed sample mixed with chromic oxide, and ileal digesta were collected at 4 h postfeeding. Digestibility coefficients were standardized using a nitrogen-free diet for the SIAAD and PFC and using fasted roosters for the PFR. There were generally no consistent differences in standardized amino acid digestibility values among assays, and values were in general agreement among assays, particularly for SBM and MBM. Differences did occur among methods for amino acid digestibility in fish meal; however, these differences were not consistent among methods or amino acids. The results of the study indicated that all 3 bioassays are acceptable for determining the amino acid digestibility of SBM, canola meal, MBM, and fish meal for poultry.

  2. Carcinogens formed when Meat is Cooked

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J S; Salmon, C P; Knize, M G

    2003-05-30

    Diet has been associated with varying cancer rates in human populations for many years, yet the causes of the observed variation in cancer patterns have not been adequately explained (Wynder et al. 1977). Along with the effect of diet on human cancer incidence is the strong evidence that mutations are the initiating events in the cancer process (Vogelstein et al. 1992). Foods, when heated, are a good source of genotoxic carcinogens that very likely are a cause for some of these events(Doll et al. 1981). These carcinogens fall into two chemical classes: heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). There is ample evidence that many of these compounds are complete carcinogens in rodents(El-Bayoumy et al. 1995; Ohgaki et al. 1991). Heterocyclic aromatic amines are among the most potent mutagenic substances ever tested in the Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity test (Wakabayashi et al. 1992). Both classes of carcinogen cause tumors in rodents at multiple sites, (El-Bayoumy et al. 1995; Ohgaki et al. 1991) many of which are common tumor sites in people on a Western diet. An HAA, PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), and a PAH, B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene), of comparable carcinogenic potency caused mammary gland tumors in a feeding study in female rats (El-Bayoumy et al. 1995). In addition, PhIP has recently been shown to cause carcinomas in the prostate of the male rat (Shirai et al. 1997). Complementing the rodent cancer studies are numerous human case-control and prospective studies suggesting a relationship between overheated beef, chicken, and lamb, and cancer of the colon, breast, prostate, and stomach (Sinha et al. 1999; Ward et al. 1997; Zheng et al. 1998).

  3. Power ultrasound in meat processing.

    PubMed

    Alarcon-Rojo, A D; Janacua, H; Rodriguez, J C; Paniwnyk, L; Mason, T J

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound has a wide range of applications in various agricultural sectors. In food processing, it is considered to be an emerging technology with the potential to speed up processes without damaging the quality of foodstuffs. Here we review the reports on the applications of ultrasound specifically with a view to its use in meat processing. Emphasis is placed on the effects on quality and technological properties such as texture, water retention, colour, curing, marinating, cooking yield, freezing, thawing and microbial inhibition. After the literature review it is concluded that ultrasound is a useful tool for the meat industry as it helps in tenderisation, accelerates maturation and mass transfer, reduces cooking energy, increases shelf life of meat without affecting other quality properties, improves functional properties of emulsified products, eases mould cleaning and improves the sterilisation of equipment surfaces.

  4. Arctic trichinosis: two Alaskan outbreaks from walrus meat.

    PubMed

    Margolis, H S; Middaugh, J P; Burgess, R D

    1979-01-01

    The arctic form of Trichinella spiralis that infects terrestrial and marine mammals is of importance in public health because persons living in arctic regions still depend on wild animals for economic subsistence. In 1975, an extended common-source epidemic of trichinosis attributed to consumption of walrus meat involved 29 persons in Barrow, Alaska. Of those persons eating this meat, 64% became ill, and the rate of infection of persons eating meat prepared with little or no cooking was four times as great as that of persons eating cooked meat. One year later a second outbreak occurred when a family ate partially cooked meat from an infected walrus. Clinical illness differed little from the disease acquired in temperature climates; however, only 70% had a positive bentonite flocculation titer, whereas 96% had eosinophilia. These epidemics of trichinosis are the first reported in Alaska to be associated with the consumption of walrus meat.

  5. Effect of sample preparation method on sensory quality of cooked chicken breast fillets processed for food service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken fillets (Pectoralis major) are one of popular items for food service. In the store, especially in fast food service stores, ready-to-cook meat products are commonly stored in freezers before use. The frozen meat can be cooked either directly from a frozen stage or after thawing. However, the...

  6. Effect of radiation processing on meat tenderisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Chawla, S. P.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-01

    The effect of radiation processing (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on the tenderness of three types of popularly consumed meat in India namely chicken, lamb and buffalo was investigated. In irradiated meat samples dose dependant reduction in water holding capacity, cooking yield and shear force was observed. Reduction in shear force upon radiation processing was more pronounced in buffalo meat. Protein and collagen solubility as well as TCA soluble protein content increased on irradiation. Radiation processing of meat samples resulted in some change in colour of meat. Results suggested that irradiation leads to dose dependant tenderization of meat. Radiation processing of meat at a dose of 2.5 kGy improved its texture and had acceptable odour.

  7. Mutagenicity of modelled-heat-treated meat extracts: Mutagenicity assay, analysis and mechanism of mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-11-01

    Cooking of meat usually aims in producing microbiologically safe food suitable for human consumption. However, doing so at such high temperatures may produce some cooking toxicants or mutagens. The objectives of this study were to investigate the mutagenicity of modelled-heat-treated meat after different cooking methods (boiling, pan-frying and charcoal grilling) using Ames Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay. In addition, the content of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in the meat extracts prepared under different cooking methods were measured using HPLC. In a trial to investigate the causes behind the mutagenicity of different meat extracts, HepG2 cell line was exposed to different modelled-heat-treated meat extracts. mRNA expression levels of various phase I and II xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) were examined using real time PCR. The results obtained declared that pan-fried and charcoal grilled-meat extracts significantly induced production of histidine+ revertants in the Ames mutagenicity assay. Grilled-meat extracts had the highest residual concentrations of B[a]P followed by pan-fried-meat, boiled meat and raw meat extracts, respectively. Induction of XMEs especially CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and NQO1 may contribute to the mutagenic ability of these extracts. It is highly advisable to control cooking temperature, time and method in order to reduce cooked-meat mutagens.

  8. Determination of pentachlorophenol residue in meat and fish by gas chromatography-electron capture detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dongmei

    2014-01-01

    A novel analytical method, using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) and GC-mass spectrometry detection (MS), was developed for the qualitative and quantitative measurement of pentachlorophenol in meat and fish. The analyte was extracted by methanol-2% trichloroacetic acid (3/1, v/v) with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The eluted fraction was evaporated and derivatized with acetic anhydride-pyridine (1/1, v/v) for GC-ECD analysis and GC-MS confirmation. The parameters for extraction pressure, temperature and cycle of ASE, cleanup, derivatization and analysis procedure were optimized. The averaged decision limits and detection capability of the method were in the ranges of 0.25-0.41 and 0.49-1.01 µg/kg in the muscle and liver of swine and bovine and in the muscle of carp and finless eel, respectively. Spiked recoveries from levels of 0.5-2.0 µg/kg were found to be more than 71.1%, with relative standard deviation less than 14.7% in GC-ECD and GC-MS. This rapid and reliable method can be used for the characterization and quantification of residues of pentachlorophenol in animal and fish tissues.

  9. Consumers' sensitivity to androstenone and the evaluation of different cooking methods to mask boar taint.

    PubMed

    Borrisser-Pairó, F; Panella-Riera, N; Gil, M; Kallas, Z; Linares, M B; Egea, M; Garrido, M D; Oliver, M A

    2017-01-01

    Boar taint is an unpleasant odour and flavour present in some entire male pigs that is due to the presence of androstenone and skatole. The aim of the study was to assess the sensitivity of 150 consumers to androstenone and to compare the acceptability and liking of meat from castrated and entire pigs, cooked with different cooking methods. Meat samples consisted of loins from castrated (CM) and entire male pigs (EM) with high levels of androstenone cooked by two cooking methods: sous-vide and fried/breaded with garlic and parsley. Consumers evaluated smell and flavour acceptability, and overall liking of CM and EM for each cooking method. The results of the study showed that dislike of androstenone odour increased significantly with sensitivity. The results of acceptability and overall liking were similar in CM and EM for both cooking methods. Therefore, the two cooking methods used in the study may be useful to mask boar taint.

  10. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable;...

  11. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable;...

  12. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable;...

  13. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable;...

  14. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable;...

  15. Control of Thermal Meat Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffis, Carl L.; Osaili, Tareq M.

    The recent growth of the market for ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products has led to serious concern over foodborne illnesses due to the presence of pathogens, particularly Salmonella spp, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat and poultry products. Emphasis has been placed on thermal processing since heat treatment is still considered the primary means of eliminating foodborne pathogens from raw meat and poultry products (Juneja, Eblen, & Ransom, 2001). Inadequate time/temperature exposure during cooking is a contributing factor in food poisoning outbreaks. Optimal heat treatment is required not only to destroy pathogenic microorganisms in meat and poultry products but also to maintain desirable food quality and product yield.

  16. Human risk of diseases associated with red meat intake: Analysis of current theories and proposed role for metabolic incorporation of a non-human sialic acid.

    PubMed

    Alisson-Silva, Frederico; Kawanishi, Kunio; Varki, Ajit

    2016-10-01

    One of the most consistent epidemiological associations between diet and human disease risk is the impact of red meat consumption (beef, pork, and lamb, particularly in processed forms). While risk estimates vary, associations are reported with all-cause mortality, colorectal and other carcinomas, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and possibly other inflammatory processes. There are many proposed explanations for these associations, some long discussed in the literature. Attempts to explain the effects of red meat consumption have invoked various red meat-associated agents, including saturated fat, high salt intake, Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) generation by microbiota, and environmental pollutants contaminating red meat, none of which are specific for red meat. Even the frequently mentioned polycyclic aromatic carcinogens arising from high temperature cooking methods are not red meat specific, as these are also generated by grilling poultry or fish, as well as by other forms of cooking. The traditional explanations that appear to be more red meat specific invoke the impact of N-nitroso compounds, heme iron, and the potential of heme to catalyze endogenous nitrosation. However, heme can be denatured by cooking, high levels of plasma hemopexin will block its tissue delivery, and much higher amounts of heme likely originate from red blood cell breakdown in vivo. Therefore, red meat-derived heme could only contribute to colorectal carcinoma risk, via direct local effects. Also, none of these mechanisms explain the apparent human propensity i.e., other carnivores have not been reported at high risk for all these diseases. A more recently proposed hypothesis involves infectious agents in beef from specific dairy cattle as agents of colorectal cancer. We have also described another mechanistic explanation for the human propensity for risk of red-meat associated diseases that is consistent with most observations: metabolic incorporation of a non

  17. Food control by applied biochemistry of marine organisms: Comparison of proteins and metabolites from fish and invertebrate muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehbein, H.

    1995-03-01

    Most fishery products consist of muscle tissue from fish and invertebrates. Differences in the molecular structure and in metabolism of muscles can be utilized to characterize and identify various seafood. Creatine and arginine were found to be useful for the differentiation between imitation crab/shrimp meat and real crustacean meat. Octopine served as an indicator for the meat of cephalopods and mussels. In order to identify the animal species of a fishery product, several electrophoretic methods were used. It depended on the type of product, whether sarcoplasmic or myofibrillar proteins were better suited. Raw products were best analysed by isoelectric focusing of sarcoplasmic proteins. Two types of sarcoplasmic calcium-binding proteins, parvalbumins of fish and soluble calcium-binding proteins of invertebrates, were especially useful for species identification. Due to their thermal stability, these proteins gave species-specific patterns for cooked products, too. Two other techniques were also investigated: urea gel isoelectric focusing, and sodium dodecyl sulphate — polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These methods were applied in the analysis of products where the sarcoplasmic proteins had been removed by washing steps, i.e. imitation crab meat made from surimi, and of other raw and cooked products. The myosin light chains gave protein patterns that were characteristic for many species. Paramyosin, which is absent from vertebrate muscle, indicated the presence of mollusc muscle. It was shown that the determination, of arginine kinase activity enabled differentiation between raw fish muscle and invertebrate muscles.

  18. Slow cooker vs. oven preparation of meat loaves and chicken.

    PubMed

    Peters, C R; Sinwell, D D; Van Duyne, F O

    1983-10-01

    Meat loaves and chickens prepared by recommended methods for a slow electric cooker were not in the hazardous temperature zone long enough to allow appreciable growth of bacteria that might cause food-borne illness. Total plate counts were reduced to a greater extent than they were when meat loaves and chickens were prepared by conventional methods in a gas oven. Presumptive coliforms, C. perfringens, and coagulase positive staphylococci were not detected after either method of cooking. Other parameters of quality indicated that conventional methods of baking meat loaves and roasting chickens were superior to preparation in a slow electric cooker. Drip losses were significantly greater, as were total cooking losses (except for total losses for chickens in Experiment 2), when a slow electric cooker was used. All mean palatability scores except for interior color in meat loaves and tenderness in chickens were significantly higher after preparation in an oven. Significantly more thiamin was retained in oven-cooked meat loaves and chickens.

  19. Effect of Pre-cooking and Addition of Phosphate on the Quality of Catfish Fillets Cooked in Pouch in Boiling Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cooking or reheating food in a vacuum sealed bag has been a common method of preparing vegetables, meat and poultry products. There are very few examples of vacuum sealed bags designed for cooking or reheating catfish fillets. The objective of the present study was to examine the properties of raw f...

  20. Multi-residue screening of veterinary drugs in egg, fish and meat using high-resolution liquid chromatography accurate mass time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Peters, R J B; Bolck, Y J C; Rutgers, P; Stolker, A A M; Nielen, M W F

    2009-11-13

    The last 2 years multi-compound methods are gaining ground as screening methods. In this study a high-resolution liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HRLC-ToF-MS) is tested for the screening of about 100 veterinary drugs in three matrices, meat, fish and egg. While the results are satisfactory for 70-90% of the veterinary drugs, a more efficient sample preparation or extract purification is required for quantitative analysis of all analytes in more difficult matrices like egg. The average mass measurement error of the ToF-MS for the veterinary drugs spiked at concentrations ranging from 4 to 400 microg/kg, is 3.0 ppm (median 2.5 ppm) with little difference between the three matrices, but slightly decreases with increasing concentration. The SigmaFit value, a new feature for isotope pattern matching, also decreases with increasing concentration and, in addition, shows an increase with increasing matrix complexity. While the average SigmaFit value is 0.04, the median is 0.01 indicating some high individual deviations. As with the mass measurement error, the highest deviations are found in those regions of the chromatogram where most compounds elute from the column, be it analytes or matrix compounds. The median repeatability of the method ranges from 8% to 15%, decreasing with increasing concentration, while the median reproducibility ranges from 15% to 20% with little difference between matrices and concentrations. The median accuracy is in between 70% and 100% with a few compounds showing higher values due to matrix interference. The squared regression coefficient is >0.99 for 92% of the compounds showing a good overall linearity for most compounds. The detection capability, CCbeta, is within 2 times the associated validation level for >90% of the compounds studied. By changing a few conditions in the analyses protocol and analysing a number of blank samples, it was determined that the method is robust as well as specific. Finally

  1. Intakes of red meat, processed meat, and meat mutagens increase lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tram Kim; Cross, Amanda J; Consonni, Dario; Randi, Giorgia; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Caporaso, Neil E; Sinha, Rashmi; Subar, Amy F; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2009-02-01

    Red and processed meat intake may increase lung cancer risk. However, the epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent and few studies have evaluated the role of meat mutagens formed during high cooking temperatures. We investigated the association of red meat, processed meat, and meat mutagen intake with lung cancer risk in Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology, a population-based case-control study. Primary lung cancer cases (n = 2,101) were recruited from 13 hospitals within the Lombardy region of Italy examining approximately 80% of the cases from the area. Noncancer population controls (n = 2,120), matched to cases on gender, residence, and age, were randomly selected from the same catchment area. Diet was assessed in 1,903 cases and 2,073 controls and used in conjunction with a meat mutagen database to estimate intake of heterocyclic amines (HCA) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Multivariable odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for sex-specific tertiles of intake were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Red and processed meat were positively associated with lung cancer risk (highest-versus-lowest tertile: OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.5-2.2; P trend < 0.001 and OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4-2.1; P trend < 0.001, respectively); the risks were strongest among never smokers (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4-4.0; P trend = 0.001 and OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5-4.2; P trend = 0.001, respectively). HCAs and BaP were significantly associated with increased risk of lung cancer. When separated by histology, significant positive associations for both meat groups were restricted to adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma but not small cell carcinoma of the lung. In summary, red meat, processed meat, and meat mutagens were independently associated with increased risk of lung cancer.

  2. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Sobiecki, Jakub G.; Appleby, Paul N.; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Key, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30 251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have significantly different intakes of many nutrients, with possible implications for dietary adequacy and compliance with population dietary goals. Nutrient intakes were estimated including fortification in foods, but excluding dietary supplements. Dietary supplementation practices were also evaluated. Highly significant differences were found in estimated nutrient intakes between meat eaters and vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Meat eaters had the highest energy intakes, followed by fish eaters and vegetarians, whereas vegans had the lowest intakes. Vegans had the highest intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins C and E, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper. Meat eaters had the highest intake of saturated fatty acids, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and iodine. Fish eaters had the highest intakes of calcium and selenium. There were no statistically significant differences in sodium and potassium intakes between dietary groups. With the exception of sodium intake, compliance with population dietary goals was high across diet groups. The results suggested a high prevalence of inadequacy for dietary vitamin B12 and iodine in vegans. The diet groups under study showed striking differences in dietary intakes, with possible implications for compliance with dietary recommendations, as well as cardiometabolic diseases risk. PMID:27101764

  3. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study.

    PubMed

    Sobiecki, Jakub G; Appleby, Paul N; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Key, Timothy J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have significantly different intakes of many nutrients, with possible implications for dietary adequacy and compliance with population dietary goals. Nutrient intakes were estimated including fortification in foods, but excluding dietary supplements. Dietary supplementation practices were also evaluated. Highly significant differences were found in estimated nutrient intakes between meat eaters and vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Meat eaters had the highest energy intakes, followed by fish eaters and vegetarians, whereas vegans had the lowest intakes. Vegans had the highest intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins C and E, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper. Meat eaters had the highest intake of saturated fatty acids, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and iodine. Fish eaters had the highest intakes of calcium and selenium. There were no statistically significant differences in sodium and potassium intakes between dietary groups. With the exception of sodium intake, compliance with population dietary goals was high across diet groups. The results suggested a high prevalence of inadequacy for dietary vitamin B12 and iodine in vegans. The diet groups under study showed striking differences in dietary intakes, with possible implications for compliance with dietary recommendations, as well as cardiometabolic diseases risk.

  4. Lipid oxidation stability of omega-3- and conjugated linoleic acid-enriched sous vide chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Narciso-Gaytán, C; Shin, D; Sams, A R; Keeton, J T; Miller, R K; Smith, S B; Sánchez-Plata, M X

    2011-02-01

    Lipid oxidation is known to occur rather rapidly in cooked chicken meat containing relatively high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. To assess the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat enriched with n-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fatty acids, 624 Cobb × Ross broilers were raised during a 6-wk feeding period. The birds were fed diets containing CLA (50% cis-9, trans-11 and 50% trans-10, cis-12 isomers), flaxseed oil (FSO), or menhaden fish oil (MFO), each supplemented with 42 or 200 mg/kg of vitamin E (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate). Breast or thigh meat was vacuum-packed, cooked (74°C), cooled in ice water, and stored at 4.4°C for 0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 d. The lipid oxidation development of the meat was estimated by quantification of malonaldehyde (MDA) values, using the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances analysis. Fatty acid, nonheme iron, moisture, and fat analyses were performed as well. Results showed that dietary CLA induced deposition of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers, increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids, and decreased the proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed oil induced higher deposition of C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, and C20:4 fatty acids, whereas MFO induced higher deposition of n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; P < 0.05). Meat lipid oxidation stability was affected by the interaction of either dietary oil or vitamin E with storage day. Lower (P < 0.05) MDA values were found in the CLA treatment than in the MFO and FSO treatments. Lower (P < 0.05) MDA values were detected in meat samples from the 200 mg/kg of vitamin E than in meat samples from the 42 mg/kg of vitamin E. Nonheme iron values did not affect (P > 0.05) lipid oxidation development. In conclusion, dietary CLA, FSO, and MFO influenced the fatty acid composition of chicken muscle and the lipid oxidation stability of meat over the storage time. Supranutritional

  5. Cancer in British vegetarians: updated analyses of 4998 incident cancers in a cohort of 32,491 meat eaters, 8612 fish eaters, 18,298 vegetarians, and 2246 vegans1234

    PubMed Central

    Key, Timothy J; Appleby, Paul N; Crowe, Francesca L; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Schmidt, Julie A; Travis, Ruth C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vegetarian diets might affect the risk of cancer. Objective: The objective was to describe cancer incidence in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in a large sample in the United Kingdom. Design: This was a pooled analysis of 2 prospective studies including 61,647 British men and women comprising 32,491 meat eaters, 8612 fish eaters, and 20,544 vegetarians (including 2246 vegans). Cancer incidence was followed through nationwide cancer registries. Cancer risk by vegetarian status was estimated by using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results: After an average follow-up of 14.9 y, there were 4998 incident cancers: 3275 in meat eaters (10.1%), 520 in fish eaters (6.0%), and 1203 in vegetarians (5.9%). There was significant heterogeneity between dietary groups in risks of the following cancers: stomach cancer [RRs (95% CIs) compared with meat eaters: 0.62 (0.27, 1.43) in fish eaters and 0.37 (0.19, 0.69) in vegetarians; P-heterogeneity = 0.006], colorectal cancer [RRs (95% CIs): 0.66 (0.48, 0.92) in fish eaters and 1.03 (0.84, 1.26) in vegetarians; P-heterogeneity = 0.033], cancers of the lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue [RRs (95% CIs): 0.96 (0.70, 1.32) in fish eaters and 0.64 (0.49, 0.84) in vegetarians; P-heterogeneity = 0.005], multiple myeloma [RRs (95% CIs): 0.77 (0.34, 1.76) in fish eaters and 0.23 (0.09, 0.59) in vegetarians; P-heterogeneity = 0.010], and all sites combined [RRs (95% CIs): 0.88 (0.80, 0.97) in fish eaters and 0.88 (0.82, 0.95) in vegetarians; P-heterogeneity = 0.0007]. Conclusion: In this British population, the risk of some cancers is lower in fish eaters and vegetarians than in meat eaters. PMID:24898235

  6. Meat quality and sensory attributes of a conventional and a Label Rouge-type broiler strain obtained at retail.

    PubMed

    Smith, D P; Northcutt, J K; Steinberg, E L

    2012-06-01

    Some consumers have reported preferences for meat from alternative broiler strains as compared with meat from conventional broiler strains relative to taste and texture, but relatively few objective measurements have been conducted on these particular strains. To directly compare meat quality from a Label Rouge-type alternative and a conventional broiler strain available at retail, 4 ready-to-cook conventional and 6 alternative strain carcasses were obtained from retail or a processing plant on each of 6 d. Boneless skinless breast fillets and boneless thighs were taken from each carcass and weighed. Raw meat was then assigned to different testing lots for cooking to evaluate yield, objective texture, meat color, sensory profile, and proximate composition (percentage protein, moisture, fat, and ash). Analyses of data revealed no significant difference (P < 0.05) due to broiler strain for percentage protein, moisture, fat, and ash, for either breast or thigh meat. Conventional breast (raw and cooked) weights were significantly higher than the alternative strain, but there was no difference in cooked yield. There were no differences between strain for thigh weights or yield. Both thigh and breast meat from the conventional broilers was more tender than meat from alternative broilers. Cooked conventional breast meat was darker and yellower, whereas cooked thigh was lighter, less red, and more yellow than alternative meat. Sensory analysis found no difference between strains for breast meat attributes. Conventional thigh meat scored higher than alternative for appearance, tenderness, juiciness, and how well the panelist liked the appearance, but there was no difference in aftertaste or overall liking. Although minimal differences were observed for cooked breast meat due to strain, conventional cooked thigh meat scored higher than the thigh meat from the Label Rouge-type alternative for most of the sensory attributes.

  7. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  8. Rapid determination of benzo(a)pyrene in processed meat and fish samples by second-derivative constant-energy synchronous fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, N; Luo, H D; Jia, Y Z; Zhou, N; Li, Y Q

    2011-02-01

    A simple, rapid and cost-effective method has been established for the determination of the quantity of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), one of the most carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in roasted, smoked and charcoal grilled foods. Second-derivative constant-energy synchronous fluorescence spectrometry (DCESFS) improves the spectral resolution and selectivity of the fluorescence method. By using this method, processed meat, fish and some other food samples were analysed without resorting to complex pre-separation and purification procedures. The method was found to have a recovery of 97.7% ± 4.3%. The limit of detection (LOD) for BaP was 0.14 µg kg⁻¹, far below the regulatory limit (1.0 µg kg⁻¹) for BaP in food samples specified by the European Union. A certified reference material (Coconut oil, BCR®-458) was used to confirm the validity of the proposed method. The results suggest that the measurements are in a good agreement with the certified BaP concentrations (5.4% deviation). The results obtained by the proposed method for analysing BaP in food samples correlated well with those obtained by GC/MS.

  9. Consumption of red meat, white meat and processed meat in Irish adults in relation to dietary quality.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Meadhbh; Flynn, Albert; Kiely, Máiréad

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association of red meat, white meat and processed meat consumption in Irish adults with dietary quality. A cross-sectional study of subjects, randomly selected using the electoral register, estimated habitual food intakes using a 7 d food diary in a nationally representative sample of 662 men and 717 women (not pregnant or lactating) aged 18-64 years. Consumers were classified into thirds, based on the distribution of mean daily intakes for red meat, white meat and processed meat. The mean intakes of red meat, white meat and processed meat were 51, 33 and 26 g/d respectively, and men consumed significantly more (P<0.001) than women for all meat types. In men, red meat consumption was associated with lower (P<0.001) prevalence of inadequacy for Zn, riboflavin and vitamin C intakes. Increasing processed meat intake was associated with a lower (P<0.01) level of compliance with dietary recommendations for fat, carbohydrate and fibre in men. Increasing processed meat consumption was associated with lower (P<0.01) wholemeal bread, vegetables, fruit and fish intakes in men and women. Managerial occupations were associated with lower processed meat intakes. It is important to distinguish between meat groups, as there was a large variation between the dietary quality in consumers of red meat, white meat and processed meat. Processed meat consumption is negatively associated with dietary quality and might therefore be a dietary indicator of poor dietary quality. This has important implications in nutritional epidemiological studies and for the development of food-based dietary guidelines.

  10. Research gaps in evaluating the relationship of meat and health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans evolved as omnivores and it has been proposed that cooking meat allowed for evolution of larger brains that has led to our success as a species. Meat is one of the most nutrient dense foods, providing high-quality protein, heme iron, zinc, and vitamins B6 and B12. Despite these advantages, ep...

  11. Association of meat intake and meat-derived mutagen exposure with the risk of colorectal polyps by histologic type.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J; Smalley, Walter E; Wu, Huiyun; Chen, Zhi; Shyr, Yu; Ness, Reid M; Zheng, Wei

    2011-10-01

    The association of meat intake and meat-derived mutagens with colorectal tumor risk remains unclear. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Included in the study were 2,543 patients with polyp [(1,881 with adenomas and 622 with hyperplastic polyp (HPP)] and 3,764 polyp-free controls. Surveys obtained information about meat intake by cooking methods and doneness levels plus other suspected or known risk factors for colorectal tumors. Unconditional logistic regression was used to derive ORs after adjusting for potential confounders. High intake of red meat and processed meat (P(trend) < 0.05), particularly red meat cooked using high-temperature cooking methods (P(trend) ≤ 0.01), was associated with an elevated risk for colorectal polyps. A significant positive association between exposures to meat-derived heterocyclic amines (HCA) and risk of polyps was found for both adenomas and HPPs. Furthermore, the positive association with red meat intake and HCA exposure was stronger for multiple adenomas than for single adenoma as well as for serrated than for nonserrated adenomas. This study supports a role for red meat and meat-derived mutagen exposure in the development of colorectal tumor.

  12. Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Domestically Prepared Chicken and Fish from Singapore Chinese Households

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, C P; Knize, M G; Felton, J S; Zhao, B; Seow, A

    2005-05-16

    Chicken and fish samples prepared by 42 Singapore Chinese in their homes were obtained. Researchers were present to collect data on raw meat weight, cooking time, maximum cooking surface temperature, and cooked meat weight. Each participant prepared one pan-fried fish sample and two pan-fried chicken samples, one marinated, one not marinated. The cooked samples were analyzed for five heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) mutagens, including MeIQx (2-amino 3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); 7,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), and IFP (2-amino-(1,6-dimethylfuro[3,2-e]imidazo [4,5-b])pyridine). A paired Student's t-test showed that marinated chicken had lower concentrations of PhIP (p<0.05), but higher concentrations of MeIQx (p<0.05) and 4,8-DiMeIQx (p<0.001) than non-marinated chicken, and also that weight loss due to cooking was less in marinated chicken than in non-marinated chicken (p<0.001). Interestingly, the maximum cooking surface temperature was higher for fish than for either marinated or non-marinated chicken (P<0.001), yet fish was lower in 4,8-DiMeIQx per gram than marinated or non-marinated chicken (p<0.001), lower in PhIP than non-marinated chicken (P<0.05), and lost less weight due to cooking than either marinated or non-marinated chicken (P<0.001). Fish was also lower in MeIQx and 7,8-DiMeIQx than marinated chicken (P<0.05). This study provides new information on HAA content in the Singapore Chinese diet.

  13. Ciguatera poisoning in the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Stephanie; Withers, Tristan

    2014-06-25

    This case report presents two British medical students who contracted ciguatera poisoning while on elective in the Cook Islands. Thirty-six hours after consuming two reef fish they developed paraesthesia of the mouth, hands and feet, myalgia, pruritis and cold allodynia. Neurological examination was normal. Diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning was made on history of reef fish consumption and classical clinical presentation. Management was symptomatic (antihistamines) and both students made a full recovery within 10 weeks.

  14. Ciguatera poisoning in the Cook Islands

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Stephanie; Withers, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents two British medical students who contracted ciguatera poisoning while on elective in the Cook Islands. Thirty-six hours after consuming two reef fish they developed paraesthesia of the mouth, hands and feet, myalgia, pruritis and cold allodynia. Neurological examination was normal. Diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning was made on history of reef fish consumption and classical clinical presentation. Management was symptomatic (antihistamines) and both students made a full recovery within 10 weeks. PMID:24966268

  15. Relationship of Consumption of Meals Including Grain, Fish and Meat, and Vegetable Dishes to the Prevention of Nutrient Deficiency: The INTERMAP Toyama Study.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Tatsuya; Yoshita, Katsushi; Sakurai, Masaru; Miura, Katsuyuki; Naruse, Yuchi; Okuda, Nagako; Okayama, Akira; Stamler, Jeremiah; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    A Japanese-style diet consists of meals that include grain (shushoku), fish and meat (shusai), and vegetable dishes (fukusai). Little is known about the association of such meals (designated well-balanced meals hereafter) with nutrient intake. We therefore examined the frequency of well-balanced meals required to prevent nutrient deficiency. Participants were Japanese people, ages 40 to 59 y, from Toyama, recruited for INTERMAP, in an international population-based study. Each person provided 4 in-depth 24-h dietary recalls (149 men, 150 women). The prevalence of risk ratios of not meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2015) was calculated. Well-balanced diets were assessed by the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top. We counted the frequencies of meals in which participants consumed 1.0 or more servings of all 3 dishes categories. We divided the frequency of consumption of well-balanced meals into the following 4 groups: <1.00 time/d, 1.00-1.49 times/d, 1.50-1.74 times/d, and ≥1.75 times/d. Compared with participants in the highest frequency group for well-balanced meals, those who consumed well-balanced meals less than once a day had a higher risk of not meeting the adequate intake for potassium and the recommended dietary allowance for vitamin A. Those who consumed well-balanced meals on average less than 1.50 times per day had a higher risk of not meeting the recommended dietary allowance for calcium and vitamin C. Our results suggest that individuals should on average consume well-balanced meals more than 1.5 times per day to prevent calcium and vitamin C deficiencies.

  16. Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in different types of meat products on the Belgian retail market.

    PubMed

    Uyttendaele, M; De Troy, P; Debevere, J

    1999-12-01

    A survey was undertaken to determine the incidence and numbers of L. monocytogenes in a variety of meat products (cooked meat products, raw cured meat products (dried or not), mayonnaise based salads and prepared meals). As expected, raw cured meat products were significantly higher contaminated with L. monocytogenes than cooked meat products, 13.71% (113/824) and 4.90% (167/3405), respectively. Also a larger proportion of raw cured meat product samples contained a high initial level of the pathogen ( > 10 cfu/g). Higher incidence rates were obtained for whole cooked meat products (e.g. cooked ham, bacon) after slicing than before slicing, 6.65 and 1.56%, respectively, indicating cross-contamination. Due to multiple handling and processing steps, the incidence rate of the pathogen was higher for cooked minced meat products than for whole cooked meat products, 6.14 and 3.96%, respectively. No significant differences were obtained in the incidence of L. monocytogenes in whole cured meat products (e.g., raw ham) and minced cured meat products (e.g., dry fermented sausage), 14.92 and 11.69%, respectively. Lower incidence rates of L. monocytogenes were obtained for raw, cured meat products using beef or horse meat, 4.65 and 5.88%, respectively, A high incidence rate of L. monocytogenes was noted for the mayonnaise based salads (21.28% (186/874)) as well as for prepared meals (11.70% (92/786)), the latter especially due to contamination of vegetarian meals.

  17. Rheological characteristics of fresh and frozen PSE, normal and DFD chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Barbut, S

    2005-12-01

    1. Textural and rheological differences among broiler breast meat ranging from pale, soft and exudative (PSE) to dark, firm and dry (DFD) in their fresh and frozen (and thawed) forms were investigated. 2. The PSE meat showed significantly higher lightness values and lower pH and water holding capacity values than normal and DFD meats; DFD meat was also significantly different from normal meat. 3. During cooking, PSE meat lost significantly more liquid and produced a softer gel than normal or DFD meats; texture profile analysis parameters were lower for the PSE meat. 4. The storage modulus values (G', rigidity of elastic response of the gelling material) showed that DFD meat produced a more rigid gel during cooking (especially above 54 degrees C) and later during cooling (back to 30 degrees C) compared with the PSE meat. 5. Freezing resulted in a trend of lower G' values before, during and after cooking. The results indicated that meat proteins were damaged during freezing and PSE meat was more severely affected, or that more protein denaturation occurred in the PSE meat.

  18. Acid phosphatase activity and color changes in consumer-style griddle-cooked ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Lyon, B G; Davis, C E; Windham, W R; Lyon, C E

    2001-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Food and Drug Administration have issued temperature requirements to help consumers cook beef patty products that are free of pathogens. Verification of end-point temperature (EPT) is needed in cooked meat products due to concerns over outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Acid phosphatase (ACP) activity was studied as a potential method for determination of EPT in ground beef patties cooked nonfrozen, patties frozen 7 days and thawed at room temperature 4 h in a refrigerator or by microwave, and patties made from ground beef frozen in store packages, then thawed in a refrigerator overnight. Pressed-out meat juices were analyzed from patties (n = 314) cooked to 57.2 degrees C (135 degrees F). 65.6 degrees C (150 degrees F), 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F), and 79.4 degrees C (175 degrees F) target EPTs. Expressed meat juice and internal meat patty color decreased in redness as EPT increased. Freezing whole packs with slow refrigerator or room temperature thawing caused significantly greater loss of redness in expressed cooked meat juice than did other handling methods. Log10 ACP had a significant linear (R2 = 0.99) response to EPT. Results show that the 3- to 5-min ACP test could be used to verify EPT in griddle-cooked hamburger patties.

  19. Colour and sarcoplasmic protein evaluation of pork following water bath and ohmic cooking.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yan; Miao, Jing; Yuan, Shan-Zhen; Liu, Yi; Li, Xing-Min; Dai, Rui-Tong

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ohmic (OH) and waterbath (WB) cooking on colour attributes and sarcoplasmic changes of porcine longissimus dorsi muscle at the same endpoint temperatures (EPTs; range 10°C-80°C). The OH treatment was carried out at 10 Vcm(-1), and the WB temperature at 85°C. The colour parameters, deoxymyoglobin% (DeoMb) and metmyoglobin% (MetMb) of the OH-cooked meat were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those obtained by WB-cooking at the same EPTs (range 60°C-80°C). SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the meat treated with WB-cooking had a lower sarcoplasmic protein solubility (5.97 mg/g vs.14.89 mg/g, P<0.05) and fainter protein bands than that of OH-cooking thus, indicating paler colour, and lower water-holding capacity especially in WB-cooked meat at EPTs above 40°C. Strong correlations among lightness, browness, metmyoglobin% and soluble proteins were observed in meat following OH-cooking.

  20. Effects of cooking methods and temperatures on nutritional and quality characteristics of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus).

    PubMed

    Uran, Harun; Gokoglu, Nalan

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional and quality characteristics of anchovy after cooking. The fish were cooked by different methods (frying, baking and grilling) at two different temperatures (160 °C, 180 °C). Crude ash, crude protein and crude fat contents of cooked fish increased due to rise in dry matter contents. While cooking methods affected mineral content of anchovy, cooking temperature did not affect. The highest values of monounsaturated fatty acids were found in baked samples. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in baked samples were also high and similar in fried samples. Fried samples, which were the most preferred, lost its nutritional characteristics more than baked and grilled samples. Grilled and baked fish samples can be recommended for healthy consumption. However, grilled fish samples had hard texture due to more moisture loss than other methods. Therefore, it is concluded that baking is the best cooking method for anchovy.

  1. Effects of a dietary mixture of meat and bone meal, feather meal, blood meal, and fish meal on nitrogen utilization in finishing Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Knaus, W F; Beermann, D H; Robinson, T F; Fox, D G; Finnerty, K D

    1998-05-01

    Our objective was to determine to what extent rate and efficiency of protein gain in finishing cattle can be enhanced by feeding an amino acid-balanced mixture of undegraded intake proteins. The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) model was used to formulate a corn-based diet that would meet the rumen requirements for 410-kg large-framed steers with an estrogen implant and fed an ionophore. The CNCPS model was also used to formulate a highly undegradable intake protein (UIP) mixture from meat and bone meal, blood meal, fish meal, and hydrolyzed feather meal to provide the amino acids needed to supplement those derived from microbial protein to better meet amino acid requirements for growth. Four Holstein steers weighing 407 kg were offered a 90:10 concentrate-forage diet at hourly intervals at 95% of ad libitum intake. The steers were injected with 500 microg of estradiol-17beta at 12-h intervals to mimic the effects of an estrogenic implant. Treatments planned consisted of inclusion of the UIP mixture at 0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5% of the diet DM. Dry matter intake was fixed at 6.4 kg/d, and DM digestibility was not significantly affected by varying the amount of UIP addition. Apparent digestibility of N increased (P = .011) from 63.8 to 65.8, 70.7, and 71.5%, the amount of N absorbed increased (P = .001) from 73 to 84, 100, and 106 g/d, and N balance increased (P = .003) from 20 to 30, 33, and 39 g/d when UIP was fed at 0, 2.6, 5.2, and 7.8% of diet DM, respectively. The efficiency of N use increased 39.7%, and biological value increased 31.6% when the UIP mixture was added to the diet. Circulating concentrations of plasma urea N (PUN) were increased (P = .017) from 4.5 for the control diet to 5.7, 6.2, and 6.1 mg/dL when the UIP mixture was added at 2.6, 5.2, and 7.8%, respectively. Corresponding IGF-I concentrations were also increased from 491 to 558 and 624 ng/mL with 2.6 and 5.2% levels of UIP addition. Plasma glucose, NEFA, and insulin

  2. Factors influencing the flavour of game meat: A review.

    PubMed

    Neethling, J; Hoffman, L C; Muller, M

    2016-03-01

    Flavour is a very important attribute contributing to the sensory quality of meat and meat products. Although the sensory quality of meat includes orthonasal and retronasal aroma, taste, as well as appearance, juiciness and other textural attributes, the focus of this review is primarily on flavour. The influence of species, age, gender, muscle anatomical location, diet, harvesting conditions, ageing of meat, packaging and storage, as well as cooking method on the flavour of game meat are discussed. Very little research is available on the factors influencing the flavour of the meat derived from wild and free-living game species. The aim of this literature review is thus to discuss the key ante- and post-mortem factors that influence the flavour of game meat, with specific focus on wild and free-living South African game species.

  3. Formation and Human Risk of Carcinogenic Heterocyclic Amines Formed from Natural Precursors in Meat

    SciTech Connect

    Knize, M G; Felton, J S

    2004-11-22

    A group of heterocyclic amines that are mutagens and rodent carcinogens form when meat is cooked to medium and well-done states. The precursors of these compounds are natural meat components: creatinine, amino acids and sugars. Defined model systems of dry-heated precursors mimic the amounts and proportions of heterocyclic amines found in meat. Results from model systems and cooking experiments suggest ways to reduce their formation and, thus, to reduce human intake. Human cancer epidemiology studies related to consumption of well-done meat products are listed and compared.

  4. Healthy Cooking Techniques

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cooking spray for this cooking method. Using herbs and spices Creating meals with herbs, spices and other natural flavorings is one of ... salt or fat. Healthy flavor boosts include: Fresh herbs. Choose herbs that look bright and aren't ...

  5. Evaluation of standardized ileal digestible valine:lysine, total lysine:crude protein, and replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline amino acids on growth performance of nursery pigs from seven to twelve kilograms.

    PubMed

    Nemechek, J E; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M

    2014-04-01

    Five experiments were conducted to evaluate replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline AA for 7- to 12-kg pigs. In all experiments, pigs (PIC TR4 × 1050) were fed a common diet for 3 d postweaning, treatment diets for 14 d (d 0 to 14), and, again, a common diet for 14 d (d 14 to 28). Treatment diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.30% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys. Experiment 1 evaluated replacing dietary fish meal with crystalline AA. For the 6 treatments, crystalline Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Ile, Val, Gln, and Gly all increased to maintain minimum AA ratios as fish meal decreased (4.50, 3.60, 2.70, 1.80, and 0.90 to 0.00%). There was no difference in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among treatments, validating a low-CP, AA-fortified diet for subsequent experiments. Experiment 2 evaluated deleting crystalline AA from a low-CP, AA-fortified diet with 6 treatments: 1) a positive control similar to the diet validated in Exp. 1, 2) positive control with l-Ile deleted, 3) positive control with l-Trp deleted, 4) positive control with l-Val deleted, 5) positive control with l-Gln and l-Gly deleted, and 6) positive control with l-Ile, l-Trp, l-Val, l-Gln, and l-Gly deleted (NC). Pigs fed the positive control or Ile deleted diet had improved (P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI during d 0 to 14 compared with pigs fed diets with l-Trp or l-Val deleted or NC. Experiment 3 evaluated 6 treatments with total Lys:CP of 6.79, 6.92, 7.06, 7.20, 7.35, and 7.51%. Fish meal was adjusted as a source of dispensable N to achieve the target Lys:CP. There were no differences in growth performance among pigs fed different Lys:CP diets. Experiment 4 evaluated increasing SID Val:Lys with Val at 57.4, 59.9, 62.3, 64.7, 67.2, and 69.6% of Lys. Average daily gain and ADFI increased (quadratic, P < 0.01) and G:F improved (linear, P = 0.02) during d 0 to 14 as Val:Lys increased from 57.4 to 64.7%. Experiment 5 was a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of

  6. Robotic equipment in the meat industry.

    PubMed

    Purnell, G

    1998-01-01

    Robotic technology is beginning to find uses in the meat processing industry. This paper attempts to describe the potential benefits and some of the problems in implementing robots for meat processing. An overview of some of the robotic equipment available and in development for beef, pork, lamb, poultry, fish and seafood processing is given. Standard industrial robots already perform meat industry tasks involving regular and uniform products and processes. Robotic automation is emerging for more skilled tasks but is not yet fully accepted or implemented in the meat industry.

  7. Color Developing Capacity of Plasma-treated Water as a Source of Nitrite for Meat Curing

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Jun Ho; Jeon, Hee-Joon; Choe, Wonho

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of plasma with liquid generates nitrogen species including nitrite (NO−2). Therefore, the color developing capacity of plasma-treated water (PTW) as a nitrite source for meat curing was investigated in this study. PTW, which is generated by surface dielectric barrier discharge in air, and the increase of plasma treatment time resulted in increase of nitrite concentration in PTW. The PTW used in this study contains 46 ppm nitrite after plasma treatment for 30 min. To evaluate the effect of PTW on the cured meat color, meat batters were prepared under three different conditions (control, non-cured meat batter; PTW, meat batter cured with PTW; Sodium nitrite, meat batter cured with sodium nitrite). The meat batters were vacuum-packaged and cooked in a water-bath at 80℃ for 30 min. The typical color of cured meat developed in cooked meat batter treated with sodium nitrite or PTW. The lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) values were similar in all conditions, whereas, the redness (a*) values of cooked meat batter with PTW and sodium nitrite (p<0.05) were significantly higher than the control. These data indicate that PTW can be used as a nitrite source in the curing process of meat without addition of other nitrite sources. PMID:26761900

  8. Heterocyclic aromatic amine formation in grilled bacon, beef and fish and in grill scrapings.

    PubMed

    Gross, G A; Turesky, R J; Fay, L B; Stillwell, W G; Skipper, P L; Tannenbaum, S R

    1993-11-01

    The heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx) and 2-amino alpha carboline (A alpha C) were quantitated in grilled bacon and beef. The levels of PhIP in bacon ranged from < 0.1 to 52 p.p.b., MeIQx was detected at levels ranging from 0.9 to 18 p.p.b. Both 4,8-DiMeIQx and A alpha C were found at < 1 p.p.b. In grilled meat patties, MeIQx and PhIP were detected at levels ranging from 0.8 to 3.2 p.p.b., while 4,8-DiMeIQx and A alpha C were below the limit of detection (approximately 0.5 p.p.b.). HAAs were below the limit of detection in grilled fish. The bacon fat drippings and the pan scrapings obtained from grilled meat and fish also contained significant amounts of HAAs and indicated that either these carcinogens are released with the fat during grilling or that HAAs are formed directly in the released fat and juices. Several of these carcinogens were detected in the pan scrapings at concentrations 10- to 100-fold higher than in cooked meats. PhIP was detected at 144 p.p.b. in combined grilled meat and fish scrapings, followed by A alpha C at 77 p.p.b., MeIQx at 29 p.p.b. and 4,8-DiMeIQx at 4 p.p.b. The co-mutagens harman and norharman were also detected in cooked meats and fish at amounts ranging from 5 to 30 p.p.b. Fat drippings and grill residue scrapings are often used as a base for gravies and sauces. Thus, cooking practices and dietary habits have a strong impact on HAA exposure.

  9. Managing meat tenderness.

    PubMed

    Thompson, John

    2002-11-01

    This paper discusses the management of meat tenderness using a carcass grading scheme which utilizes the concept of total quality management of those factors which impact on beef palatability. The scheme called Meat Standards Australia (MSA) has identified the Critical Control Points (CCPs) from the production, pre-slaughter, processing and value adding sectors of the beef supply chain and quantified their relative importance using large-scale consumer testing. These CCPs have been used to manage beef palatability in two ways. Firstly, CCPs from the pre-slaughter and processing sectors have been used as mandatory criteria for carcasses to be graded. Secondly, other CCPs from the production and processing sectors have been incorporated into a model to predict palatability for individual muscles. The evidence for the importance of CCPs from the production (breed, growth path and HGP implants), pre-slaughter and processing (pH/temperature window, alternative carcass suspension, marbling and ageing) sectors are reviewed and the accuracy of the model to predict palatability for specific muscle×cooking techniques is presented.

  10. Science and Cooking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Many chefs are developing new approaches to prepare and present their cuisine using materials common to many physics labs, such as liquid nitrogen, foams, emulsions and hydrogels. In fact, the ingredients and methods of modern cooking can provide a wonderful inspiration to the teaching of introductory science. This talk will explore the physics of cooking and will include demonstrations. The science of several innovative techniques in cooking, including foams and the use of gelation, as well as more common processes, will be explored. The talk is inspired by a course taught at Harvard University through a collaboration of professors and well-known chefs. Presented by David Weitz, Harvard University.

  11. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  12. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    MedlinePlus

    ... contaminated waters. Scombroid poisoning usually occurs from large, dark meat fish such as tuna, mackerel, mahi mahi, and albacore. Because this poison develops after a fish is caught and dies, it does not matter where the fish is caught. The main factor ...

  13. Future trends and consumer lifestyles with regard to meat consumption.

    PubMed

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2006-09-01

    Using the food-related lifestyle model as a conceptual framework, one possible trend each is discussed for the following four components of food-related lifestyle: quality aspects, ways of shopping, cooking methods, and purchase motives. These trends refer to the increasing use of extrinsic cues in quality perception, shopping fast and easy vs. shopping in specialized outlets, the role of convenience and meat avoidance in cooking, and the role of concerns about the meat production process in purchasing. Indicators for each of these trends are discussed.

  14. 21 CFR 133.180 - Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or... properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried...

  15. 21 CFR 133.180 - Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or... properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried...

  16. 21 CFR 133.180 - Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or... properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried...

  17. 21 CFR 133.180 - Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or... properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried...

  18. 21 CFR 133.180 - Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or... properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried...

  19. Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat: What about environmental contaminants?

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L; Nadal, Martí

    2016-02-01

    In October 26, 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) issued a press release informing of the recent evaluation of the carcinogenicity of red and processed meat consumption. The consumption of red meat and processed meat was classified as "probably carcinogenic to humans", and as "carcinogenic to humans", respectively. The substances responsible of this potential carcinogenicity would be generated during meat processing, such as curing and smoking, or when meat is heated at high temperatures (N-nitroso-compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic aromatic amines). However, in its assessments, the IARC did not make any reference to the role that may pose some carcinogenic environmental pollutants, which are already present in raw or unprocessed meat. The potential role of a number of environmental chemical contaminants (toxic trace elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated naphthalenes and perfluoroalkyl substances) on the carcinogenicity of consumption of meat and meat products is discussed in this paper. A case-study, Catalonia (Spain), is specifically assessed, while the influence of cooking on the concentrations of environmental pollutants is also reviewed. It is concluded that although certain cooking processes could modify the levels of chemical contaminants in food, the influence of cooking on the pollutant concentrations depends not only on the particular cooking process, but even more on their original contents in each specific food item. As most of these environmental pollutants are organic, cooking procedures that release or remove fat from the meat should tend to reduce the total concentrations of these contaminants in the cooked meat.

  20. Susceptibility to Exposure to Heterocyclic Amines from Cooked Food: Role of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Malfatti, M A; Felton, J S

    2005-08-22

    A number of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (PhIP, MeIQx, and DiMeIQx) are produced from the condensation of creatinine, hexoses and amino acids during the cooking of meat (1). There are many variables that impact the production and subsequent ingestion of these compounds in our diet. Temperature, type of meat product, cooking method, doneness, and other factors affect the quantity of these carcinogens consumed by humans. Estimates of ingestion of these carcinogens are 1-20 ng/kg body weight per day (2). Human case control studies that correlate meat consumption from well-done cooking practices with cancer incidence indicate excess tumors for breast, colon, stomach, esophagus, and possibly prostate (3-5).

  1. Resting of MAP (modified atmosphere packed) beef steaks prior to cooking and effects on consumer quality.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Le Floch, Sandrine; Kerry, Joseph P

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the meat preparation effects prior to cooking on the sensory consumer quality of modified atmosphere (MA) packed (100ml CO2/100ml pack gas, 50ml O2:20ml CO2:30ml N2/100ml pack gas, 70ml O2:30ml CO2/100ml pack gas and 80ml O2:20ml CO2/100ml pack gas) striploin beef steak. Beef steaks were stored at 4°C for 7days (616lx) to simulate retail display conditions and tested by consumers (n=40) for appearance, liking of flavour, overall acceptability, juiciness, tenderness, oxidation flavour, off-flavour, and sourness of the resulting cooked meat. Additionally, TVC, pH, colour, drip loss, and cooking loss were measured. One steak from each of the experimental treatments was taken immediately from the respective MA packs and cooked before serving straight to consumers. A second steak from each pack was treated similarly, but left in ambient air for 30min prior to cooking and serving. Consumers perceived cooked steak from samples left for 30min prior to cooking as significantly (P<0.05) less sour tasting than those cooked immediately.

  2. Influences of end-point heating temperature on the quality attributes of chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Chumngoen, W; Chen, C F; Chen, H Y; Tan, F J

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the changes in physicochemical, textural and sensory characteristics of broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) pectoralis muscle heated at temperatures of 50-95°C. With increasing temperature, cooking loss, collagen solubility, shear force value and hardness, of samples increased in both chicken breeds. Rapid decreases in protein solubility were observed when the meat was heated to 50°C and gradually decreased thereafter. Meat from BRs and native chickens performed differently upon heating in certain characteristics. TNC meat had longer cooking time and lower myofibrillar fragmentation index than BR meat did. TNC meat had higher collagen content, shear force values and springiness but lower collagen solubility than BR meat did. BR meat had significantly higher onset and end transition temperatures than TNC meat did. In BR meat, a sensory analysis revealed that moisture release decreased and chicken flavour increased with increasing temperature. Protein solubility, cooking loss and the texture of heated meat were highly correlated. This study scientifically assessed the performances of the two breeds of chickens with different thermal treatments; producers could utilise the information to produce poultry products with more desirable qualities.

  3. Effect of aging on volatile compounds in cooked beef.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, A; Kamada, G; Imanari, M; Shiba, N; Yonai, M; Muramoto, T

    2015-09-01

    Volatiles in the headspace of beef cooked at 180 °C were analyzed using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the effects of aging were evaluated. Seventy volatile substances including non-aromatic, homocyclic, and heterocyclic compounds were identified. A significant positive regression model for storage could be adopted for toluene, benzeneacetaldehyde, 2-formylfuran, pyrazine, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, 2-acetylthiazole, and 2-formyl-3-methylthiophene. Increases in the quantity of these compounds, with the exception of toluene, suggest the importance of the Strecker and Maillard reactions in cooked meat previously aged under vacuum conditions. As such, the aging process may lead to an increase not only in the amount of compounds related to the taste of meat, but also in the quantity of odor-active compounds. The increased quantity of toluene during storage seemed to be influenced by lipid oxidation.

  4. Retort pouch processing of Chettinad style goat meat curry - a heritage meat product.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, V; Dushyanthan, K; Das, Arun K

    2010-08-01

    Chettinad style goat meat curry, a heritage meat product, was thermal processed in retort pouches having 4 layer configurations. Physical properties of retort pouches indicated that they are suitable for processing. Pouches filled with 150 g of goat meat and 100 g of curry medium were retorted to a F O value of 12.1 min. Retort cooked products were tested for sterility and quality characteristics. Retorting decreased the product pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and shear force values. Retort processed products had significantly lower L*, a*, b* and chroma values. Product was superior in all sensory attributes. It is concluded that Chettinad style goat meat product retorted to a F O value of 12.1 min, had acceptable sensory quality characteristics.

  5. Cooking utensils and nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... pots and pans to wear out faster. Use wood, bamboo or silicone instead. Never use cookware if ... pyroceramic. These materials are easier to clean than wood. Avoid contaminating vegetables with meat bacteria. Try using ...

  6. The red meat allergy syndrome in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Apostolovic, Danijela; Tran, Thi Anh Thu; Starkhammar, Maria; Sánchez-Vidaurre, Sara; Hamsten, Carl; Van Hage, Marianne

    In the last decade, a novel type of food allergy presenting with severe allergic reactions several hours after consumption of red meat has been recognized. The allergic responses are due to IgE antibodies directed against the carbohydrate epitope galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) found in mammalian meat. This review presents the red meat allergy syndrome in Sweden, discusses the features of the immune response to carbohydrates, and highlights the presence of heat stable α-Gal-containing proteins in meat. The number of diagnosed red meat allergy cases in Sweden has increased significantly over the past few years. All patients have been tick bitten. Our recent work has shown that α-Gal is present in the European tick Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus), thus potentially explaining the strong association between anti-α-Gal IgE and tick bites, with development of red meat allergy as a secondary phenomenon. Further studies using immunoproteomics have identified novel α-Gal-containing meat proteins that bound IgE from red meat allergic patients. Four of these proteins were stable to thermal processing pointing to the fact that the allergenicity of red meat proteins is preserved in cooked meat. In keeping with the fact that the α-Gal epitope is structurally related to the blood group B antigen, a positive association with the B-negative blood groups among our red meat allergic patients was noted. A selective IgE reactivity to the pure carbohydrate moiety was observed when investigating the specificity of the α-Gal immune response. IgE from red meat allergic patients does not recognize the other major mammalian carbohydrate, N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), also present in high amounts in red meat. Furthermore, neither common cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) from plants nor venoms are targets of the IgE response in these patients. Taken together, the α-Gal carbohydrate has shown to be a potentially clinically relevant allergen that should be taken into

  7. Effect of Oregano Essential Oil (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) on the Storage Stability and Quality Parameters of Ground Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of oregano essential oil on the oxidative stability and color of raw and cooked chicken breast meats. Five treatments, including (1) control (none added); (2) 100 ppm oregano essential oil; (3) 300 ppm oregano essential oil; (4) 400 ppm oregano essential oil; and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), were prepared with ground boneless, skinless chicken breast meat and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For raw meat study, samples were individually packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored in a cold room (4 °C) for 7 days. For cooked meat study, the raw meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags and then cooked in-bag to an internal temperature of 75 °C. After cooling to room temperature, the cooked meats were repackaged in new oxygen-permeable bags and then stored at 4 °C for 7 days. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, volatiles, and color at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Oregano essential oil significantly reduced (p < 0.05) lipid and protein oxidation, and improved color stability of raw and cooked meat. However, oregano oil at 400 ppm showed the strongest effect for all these parameters. Hexanal was the major aldehyde, which was decreased significantly (p < 0.05) by oregano oil treatment, in cooked meat. Overall, oregano essential oil at 100–400 ppm levels could be a good preservative that can replace the synthetic antioxidant in chicken meat. PMID:27338486

  8. Effect of Oregano Essential Oil (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) on the Storage Stability and Quality Parameters of Ground Chicken Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-06-07

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of oregano essential oil on the oxidative stability and color of raw and cooked chicken breast meats. Five treatments, including (1) control (none added); (2) 100 ppm oregano essential oil; (3) 300 ppm oregano essential oil; (4) 400 ppm oregano essential oil; and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), were prepared with ground boneless, skinless chicken breast meat and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For raw meat study, samples were individually packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored in a cold room (4 °C) for 7 days. For cooked meat study, the raw meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags and then cooked in-bag to an internal temperature of 75 °C. After cooling to room temperature, the cooked meats were repackaged in new oxygen-permeable bags and then stored at 4 °C for 7 days. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, volatiles, and color at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Oregano essential oil significantly reduced (p < 0.05) lipid and protein oxidation, and improved color stability of raw and cooked meat. However, oregano oil at 400 ppm showed the strongest effect for all these parameters. Hexanal was the major aldehyde, which was decreased significantly (p < 0.05) by oregano oil treatment, in cooked meat. Overall, oregano essential oil at 100-400 ppm levels could be a good preservative that can replace the synthetic antioxidant in chicken meat.

  9. Irradiation and additive combinations on the pathogen reduction and quality of poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dong U; Kim, Il Suk; Lee, Eun Joo

    2013-02-01

    Reduction of foodborne illnesses and deaths by improving the safety of poultry products is one of the priority areas in the United States, and developing and implementing effective food processing technologies can be very effective to accomplish that goal. Irradiation is an effective processing technology for eliminating pathogens in poultry meat. Addition of antimicrobial agents during processing can be another approach to control pathogens in poultry products. However, the adoption of irradiation technology by the meat industry is limited because of quality and health concerns about irradiated meat products. Irradiation produces a characteristic aroma as well as alters meat flavor and color that significantly affect consumer acceptance. The generation of a pink color in cooked poultry and off-odor in poultry by irradiation is a critical issue because consumers associate the presence of a pink color in cooked poultry breast meat as contaminated or undercooked, and off-odor in raw meat and off-flavor in cooked meat with undesirable chemical reactions. As a result, the meat industry has difficulties in using irradiation to achieve its food safety benefits. Antimicrobials such as sodium lactate, sodium diacetate, and potassium benzoate are extensively used to extend the shelf-life and ensure the safety of meat products. However, the use of these antimicrobial agents alone cannot guarantee the safety of poultry products. It is known that some of the herbs, spices, and antimicrobials commonly used in meat processing can have synergistic effects with irradiation in controlling pathogens in meat. Also, the addition of spices or herbs in irradiated meat improves the quality of irradiated poultry by reducing lipid oxidation and production of off-odor volatiles or masking off-flavor. Therefore, combinations of irradiation with these additives can accomplish better pathogen reduction in meat products than using them alone even at lower levels of antimicrobials/herbs and

  10. General outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease linked with red meat, England and Wales, 1992-1999.

    PubMed

    Smerdon, W J; Adak, G K; O'Brien, S J; Gillespie, I A; Reacher, M

    2001-12-01

    Between 1992 and 1999, 1,426 foodborne general outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease (IID) were reported to the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre (CDSC). Sixteen percent were linked with the consumption of red meat. Over 5,000 people were affected, with 186 hospital admissions and nine deaths. Beef (34%) and pig meat (32%) were the most frequently implicated meat types, with lamb implicated in 11% of outbreaks. The organisms most frequently reported were Clostridium perfringens (43.4%) and salmonellas (34.3%). During the summer, outbreaks were mainly of Salmonella spp. and attributed to the consumption of pig meat. In December, outbreaks of C. perfringens linked with beef predominated. Most outbreaks occurred as a result of food cooked on commercial catering premises (46%). The highlight of this surveillance period is a fall in the number of outbreaks linked with foods containing red meat. This corresponds with a steady decline in red meat consumption over the last two decades, as well as a transient though marked decline in the purchase and consumption of red meat in the UK during the BSE crisis in the early to mid 1990s. As cited in the Pennington Report, further reducing the morbidity and mortality from red meat outbreaks means targeting meat production at various points along the food chain from abattoir and butchering, to cooking and holding of cooked food, especially on commercial catering premises.

  11. Well-done Meat Intake, Heterocyclic Amine Exposure, and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Lee, Sang-Ah

    2009-01-01

    High intake of meat, particularly red and processed meat, has been associated with an increased risk of a number of common cancers, such as breast, colorectum, and prostate in many epidemiological studies. Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are a group of mutagenic compounds found in cooked meats, particularly well-done meats. HCAs are some of most potent mutagens detected using the Ames/salmonella tests and have been clearly shown to induce tumors in experimental animal models. Over the past 10 years, an increasing number of epidemiological studies have evaluated the association of well-done meat intake and meat carcinogen exposure with cancer risk. The results from these epidemiologic studies were evaluated and summarized in this review. The majority of these studies have shown that high intake of well-done meat and high exposure to meat carcinogens, particularly HCAs, may increase the risk of human cancer. PMID:19838915

  12. Effect of dietary iron and copper on performance and oxidative stability in broiler leg meat.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J A; Pérez-Vendrell, A M; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2000-05-01

    1. An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of removal of supplemental iron and copper from broiler diets during the last 3 weeks before slaughter on broiler performance, tissue vitamin E concentrations and oxidation values in raw; cooked and stored broiler leg meat. 2. Removal of supplemental iron and copper from the diet slightly decreased food efficiency; the differences were significant only when both minerals were removed simultaneously 3. Effect of iron withdrawal on iron concentration in tissue was low. However, total copper concentration in tissue was reduced in animals deprived of iron or both minerals simultaneously. 4. Removal of dietary iron and copper did not affect vitamin E concentration in raw and cooked meat, while stored meat showed lower concentrations in animals deprived of iron and copper simultaneously. 5. The removal of iron and copper from the diet reduced oxidation values in cooked broiler leg meat as measured by the thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances method (TBARS).

  13. The effects of domestic cooking on the levels of 3-monochloropropanediol in foods.

    PubMed

    Crews, C; Brereton, P; Davies, A

    2001-04-01

    The results are reported of a study to determine the effect of domestic cooking procedures on the level of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in selected foods. Samples of 23 foods comprising stock cubes, gravies, a cake mix, batters, breads, cheese and meats were subjected to a range of cooking procedures including grilling, toasting and microwaving. The resulting levels of 3-MCPD were compared with those present in the foods before cooking. Grilling and toasting produced substantial increases in the 3-MCPD content of bread, forming up to 0.3 mg/kg, and of most cheeses, resulting in levels of up to about 0.1 mg/kg. Microwave cooking produced elevated 3-MCPD levels in some cheeses. Frying laboratory-produced batters increased 3-MCPD levels to about 0.1 mg/kg whereas a retail batter contained no detectable 3-MCPD when fried. The remaining foods showed little or no discernible increase on cooking.

  14. Applying Creativity Research to Cooking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.; Kaufman, James C.; Hatcher, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    What, if any, benefit might there be to applying creativity research to cooking? The purpose of this paper was to address this question. Specifically, we draw on concepts and theories from creativity research to help clarify what is meant by creative cooking. This includes exploring creative cooking through the lens of the 4-C and Propulsion…

  15. Photopyroelectric measurement of thermal diffusivity of meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadarlat, D.; Frandas, A.; Surducan, V.; Nagy, G.; Bicanic, D.

    1999-03-01

    The thermal diffusivity of various meat samples (pork, fish), and its temperature dependence, in the -5 to +70 °C temperature range, was measured using the photopyroelectric calorimetry in the back configuration (with thermally thick sample and sensor, and optically opaque sample). An almost temperature independent behavior of the thermal diffusivity, for temperatures higher than melting point of ice was confirmed. The results can be used to optimize the meat sterilisation process.

  16. Meat Quality and Physicochemical Trait Assessments of Berkshire and Commercial 3-way Crossbred Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Young-Chul; Choi, Yang-Il

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we compared qualities and physiochemical traits of meat from Berkshire (black color) pigs with those of meat from 3-way Landrace (white color) × Yorkshire (white color) × Duroc (red color) crossbred pigs (LYD). Meat quality characteristics, including pH, color, drip loss, cooking loss, and free amino acid, fatty acid, vitamin, and mineral contents of longissimus dorsi muscles, were compared. Meat from Berkshire pigs had deeper meat color (redness), higher pH, and lower drip loss and cooking loss than meat from LYD pigs. Moreover, meat from Berkshire pigs had higher levels of phosphoserine, aspartic acid, threonine, serine, asparagine, α-aminoadipic acid, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, histidine, tryptophan, and carnosine and lower levels of glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, and ammonia than did meat from LYD pigs. The fatty acids oleic acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were present in significantly higher concentrations in Berkshire muscles than they were in LYD muscles. Additionally, Berkshire muscles were significantly enriched with nucleotide components (inosine), minerals (Mg and K), and antioxidant vitamins such as ascorbic acid (C) in comparison with LYD muscles. In conclusion, our results show that in comparison with LYD meat, Berkshire meat has better meat quality traits and is a superior nutritional source of all essential amino acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, vitamin C, and minerals (Mg and K). PMID:27857540

  17. Cooking for Lower Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cooking for Lower Cholesterol Updated:Oct 28,2016 A heart-healthy eating ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  18. Chemistry Cook-Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    For this activity, high school chemistry students compete in a cooking contest. They must determine the chemical and physical changes that occur in the food they prepare, present their recipe as a step-by-step procedure similar to a lab procedure, identify chemicals in the food, and present all measurements in both metric and English units. The…

  19. Outdoorsman: Outdoor Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…

  20. Extrusion cooking: Legume pulses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion is used commercially to produce high value breakfast and snack foods based on cereals such as wheat or corn. However, this processing method is not being commercially used for legume pulses seeds due to the perception that they do not expand well in extrusion. Extrusion cooking of pulses (...

  1. Detection of horse meat contamination in raw and heat-processed meat products.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P; Ofori, Jack A

    2014-12-31

    Europe's recent problems with the adulteration of beef products with horse meat highlight the need for a reliable method for detecting horse meat in food for human consumption. The objective of this study was therefore to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (mAb) based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for horse meat detection. Two mAbs, H3E3 (IgG2b) and H4E7 (IgG2a), were characterized as horse-selective, and competitive ELISAs (cELISAs) employing these mAbs were developed. The cELISAs were found to be capable of detecting levels as low as 1% of horse meat in raw, cooked, and autoclaved ground beef or pork, being useful analytical tools for addressing the health, economic, and ethical concerns associated with adulterating meat products with horse meat. However, due to cross-reaction with raw poultry meat, it is recommended that samples be heated (100 °C for 15 min) prior to analysis to eliminate possible false-positive results.

  2. A procedure for sensory detection of androstenone in meat and meat products from entire male pigs: Development of a panel training.

    PubMed

    Garrido, M Dolores; Egea, Macarena; Linares, M Belén; Martínez, Beatriz; Viera, Ceferina; Rubio, Begoña; Borrisser-Pairó, Francesc

    2016-12-01

    This study represents a proposal for training sensory panels in androstenone (AND) perception in meat and meat products. The procedure consists of four main parts: (1) selection and training of a sensory panel (11 panelists) using standards with Vaseline oil media as carriers of AND and skatole (SKA); (2) developing a training method AND detection in meat; (3) dry cured meat product and (4) cooked meat product. All candidates were able to distinguish between AND, SKA and AND+SKA in Vaseline oil, order AND solutions with different concentrations and classify them in the three categories: low, medium and high. The panel was able to differentiate the meat in the three categories, but only the high level in meat products. Due to the individual features in AND perception, specific training for each type of product is required.

  3. Genetic Evidence of Human Adaptation to a Cooked Diet

    PubMed Central

    Carmody, Rachel N.; Dannemann, Michael; Briggs, Adrian W.; Nickel, Birgit; Groopman, Emily E.; Wrangham, Richard W.; Kelso, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Humans have been argued to be biologically adapted to a cooked diet, but this hypothesis has not been tested at the molecular level. Here, we combine controlled feeding experiments in mice with comparative primate genomics to show that consumption of a cooked diet influences gene expression and that affected genes bear signals of positive selection in the human lineage. Liver gene expression profiles in mice fed standardized diets of meat or tuber were affected by food type and cooking, but not by caloric intake or consumer energy balance. Genes affected by cooking were highly correlated with genes known to be differentially expressed in liver between humans and other primates, and more genes in this overlap set show signals of positive selection in humans than would be expected by chance. Sequence changes in the genes under selection appear before the split between modern humans and two archaic human groups, Neandertals and Denisovans, supporting the idea that human adaptation to a cooked diet had begun by at least 275,000 years ago. PMID:26979798

  4. Genetic Evidence of Human Adaptation to a Cooked Diet.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Rachel N; Dannemann, Michael; Briggs, Adrian W; Nickel, Birgit; Groopman, Emily E; Wrangham, Richard W; Kelso, Janet

    2016-04-13

    Humans have been argued to be biologically adapted to a cooked diet, but this hypothesis has not been tested at the molecular level. Here, we combine controlled feeding experiments in mice with comparative primate genomics to show that consumption of a cooked diet influences gene expression and that affected genes bear signals of positive selection in the human lineage. Liver gene expression profiles in mice fed standardized diets of meat or tuber were affected by food type and cooking, but not by caloric intake or consumer energy balance. Genes affected by cooking were highly correlated with genes known to be differentially expressed in liver between humans and other primates, and more genes in this overlap set show signals of positive selection in humans than would be expected by chance. Sequence changes in the genes under selection appear before the split between modern humans and two archaic human groups, Neandertals and Denisovans, supporting the idea that human adaptation to a cooked diet had begun by at least 275,000 years ago.

  5. Fishing. Unit 1, Colorado Division of Wildlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzel, George K.; Smith, Dwight R.

    This booklet on fishing is part of a series developed to encourage youth to pursue outdoor projects. Fish anatomy, equipment, casting techniques, knot and leader tying, hooks, fishing areas, cleaning and cooking fish, types of bait, lures, and regulations are discussed and illustrated. Suggested activities and field trips are listed. (MR)

  6. Meat and components of meat and the risk of bladder cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrucci, Leah M.; Sinha, Rashmi; Ward, Mary H.; Graubard, Barry I.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Kilfoy, Briseis A.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Michaud, Dominique S.; Cross, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Meat could be involved in bladder carcinogenesis via multiple potentially carcinogenic meat-related compounds related to cooking and processing, including nitrate, nitrite, heterocyclic amines (HCAs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We comprehensively investigated the association between meat and meat components and bladder cancer. Methods During 7 years of follow-up, 854 transitional cell bladder cancer cases were identified among 300,933 men and women who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire in the large prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. We estimated intake of nitrate and nitrite from processed meat and HCAs and PAHs from cooked meat using quantitative databases of measured values. We calculated total dietary nitrate and nitrite based on literature values. Results The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for red meat (HR for fifth compared to first quintile=1.22, 95% CI=0.96–1.54, p-trend=0.07) and the HCA 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (HR=1.19, 95% CI=0.95–1.48, p-trend=0.06) conferred a borderline statistically significant increased risk of bladder cancer. We observed positive associations in the top quintile for total dietary nitrite (HR=1.28, 95% CI=1.02–1.61, p-trend= 0.06) and nitrate plus nitrite intake from processed meat (HR=1.29 95% CI=1.00–1.67, p-trend= 0.11). Conclusions These findings provide modest support for a role for total dietary nitrite and nitrate plus nitrite from processed meat in bladder cancer. Our results also suggest a positive association between red meat and PhIP and bladder carcinogenesis. PMID:20681011

  7. Analysis of nitrosamines in cooked bacon by QuEChERS sample preparation and gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry with backflushing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrites are added as a preservative to a variety of cured meats, including bacon, to kill bacteria, extend shelf-life, and improve quality. During cooking, nitrites in the meat can be converted to carcinogenic nitrosamines (NAs), the formation of which are mitigated by the addition of anti-oxidant...

  8. Qualitative Assessment for Toxoplasma gondii Exposure Risk Associated with Meat Products in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guo, Miao; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Ying, Yuqing; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a global protozoan parasite capable of infecting most warm-blooded animals. Although healthy adult humans generally have no symptoms, severe illness does occur in certain groups, including congenitally infected fetuses and newborns, immunocompromised individuals including transplant patients. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of raw or undercooked meat products is one of the major sources of infection with T. gondii. The goal of this study was to develop a framework to qualitatively estimate the exposure risk to T. gondii from various meat products consumed in the United States. Risk estimates of various meats were analyzed by a farm-to-retail qualitative assessment that included evaluation of farm, abattoir, storage and transportation, meat processing, packaging, and retail modules. It was found that exposure risks associated with meats from free-range chickens, nonconfinement-raised pigs, goats, and lamb are higher than those from confinement-raised pigs, cattle, and caged chickens. For fresh meat products, risk at the retail level was similar to that at the farm level unless meats had been frozen or moisture enhanced. Our results showed that meat processing, such as salting, freezing, commercial hot air drying, long fermentation times, hot smoking, and cooking, are able to reduce T. gondii levels in meat products. whereas nitrite and/or nitrate, spice, low pH, and cold storage have no effect on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. Raw-fermented sausage, cured raw meat, meat that is not hot-air dried, and fresh processed meat were associated with higher exposure risks compared with cooked meat and frozen meat. This study provides a reference for meat management control programs to determine critical control points and serves as the foundation for future quantitative risk assessments.

  9. Hot-boning enhances cook yield of boneless skinless chicken thighs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of postmortem deboning time on cook yield of boneless skinless chicken thighs. In Experiment 1 (3 replications), chicken thigh meat was separated from bones at 0.45 (hot-bone), 2, and 24 h and trimmed to obtain iliotibialis muscle. The iliotibiali...

  10. 9 CFR 381.169 - Ready-to-cook poultry products to which solutions are added.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry products to... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  11. 9 CFR 381.169 - Ready-to-cook poultry products to which solutions are added.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry products to... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  12. 9 CFR 381.169 - Ready-to-cook poultry products to which solutions are added.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry products to... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  13. 9 CFR 381.169 - Ready-to-cook poultry products to which solutions are added.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry products to... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  14. 9 CFR 381.169 - Ready-to-cook poultry products to which solutions are added.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry products to... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  15. Hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for visualization of moisture distribution in cooked chicken breast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spectroscopy has proven to be an efficient tool for measuring the properties of meat. In this article, the hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique is investigated for the determination of moisture content in cooked chicken breast over the VIS/NIR (400–1000 nm) spectral ranges. Moisture measurements we...

  16. Changes in fatty acid composition in sardines (Sardinops melanosticta) with cooking and refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Imose, K

    1989-02-01

    The influence of cooking and later storage in a refrigerator for 7 days on the fatty acid composition of lipids in sardines (Sardinops melanosticta) was studied. The total lipid and triacylglycerol (TG) levels did not change and the phospholipid (PL) level decreased somewhat with cooking or during storage. The fatty acid composition of the total lipids and TG fractions was little changed and that in the PL fractions was somewhat changed by the cooking. The composition of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in lipids of sardine precooked at 100 or 170 degrees C for 30 min changed from 42.7 to 38.3 or 33.5%, respectively, for total lipids and from 51.5 to 38.4 or 37.6%, respectively, for PL fractions during storage. The fatty acids in lipids from the ordinary meat of sardine was stable and those in the dark meat were extremely unstable during storage after cooking. We concluded that the PUFA in the lipids of sardines were stable to cooking, but unstable to oxidation during storage in a refrigerator. The PUFA of lipids in the dark meat of sardine were extremely unstable to oxidation.

  17. Effect of Pre-cooking and Addition of Phosphate on the Quality of Microwave Cooked Catfish Fillets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the US market place there are many examples of precooked poultry products designed to be reheated in a microwave oven and to a lesser extent fish products such as tilapia. However, there are few US catfish products designed to be microwave cooked or reheated in the market place. The first objecti...

  18. Changes in the amounts of water-soluble umami-related substances in porcine longissimus and biceps femoris muscles during moist heat cooking.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Motoyama, Michiyo; Mitsumoto, Mitsuru

    2007-10-01

    Time course changes in amounts of glutamic acid, total free amino acid, inosine monophosphate (IMP), and 2%-trichloroacetic acid-soluble oligopeptides in whole, muscle only, and cooking juice during wet-heat cooking in pork longissimus and biceps femoris muscles were investigated because the movements of umami-relevant substances during cooking treatment had not previously been clarified in detail. The amounts of glutamic acid, total free amino acid, and IMP significantly (P<.05) decreased and increased in muscle and cooking juice during 180min of cooking, respectively. The whole amounts of glutamic acid and total free amino acid remained unchanged during cooking treatment. The whole amount of IMP, however, increased significantly at 10min of cooking (P<.05) and was maintained after the 10-min period. The extramuscular oligopeptides amount increased significantly in response to the cooking treatment (P<.05). The intramuscular amount of oligopeptides decreased at 30min of cooking but increased significantly (P<.05) after 60min. The whole meat oligopeptides amount increased significantly during a 180-min cooking treatment (P<.05). These results indicate that glutamate, total free amino acid, and IMP were released from the muscle during cooking, and that IMP levels increased in the initial phase of cooking. In addition, oligopeptides increased during wet-heat cooking of pork muscles.

  19. Associations between red meat and risks for colon and rectal cancer depend on the type of red meat consumed.

    PubMed

    Egeberg, Rikke; Olsen, Anja; Christensen, Jane; Halkjær, Jytte; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2013-04-01

    Cancer prevention guidelines recommend limiting intake of red meat and avoiding processed meat; however, few studies have been conducted on the effects of specific red meat subtypes on colon cancer or rectal cancer risk. The study aim was to evaluate associations between intake of red meat and its subtypes, processed meat, fish, and poultry and risk for colon cancer or rectal cancer in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study. We also evaluated whether fish or poultry should replace red meat intake to prevent colon cancer or rectal cancer. During follow-up (13.4 y), 644 cases of colon cancer and 345 cases of rectal cancer occurred among 53,988 participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute incidence rate ratio (IRRs) and 95% CIs. No associations were found between intake of red meat, processed meat, fish, or poultry and risk for colon cancer or rectal cancer. The risk associated with specific red meat subtypes depended on the animal of origin and cancer subsite; thus, the risk for colon cancer was significantly elevated for higher intake of lamb [IRR(per 5g/d) = 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02-1.13)], whereas the risk for rectal cancer was elevated for higher intake of pork [IRR(per 25g/d) = 1.18 (95% CI: 1.02-1.36)]. Substitution of fish for red meat was associated with a significantly lower risk for colon cancer [IRR(per 25g/d) = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80-0.99)] but not rectal cancer. Substitution of poultry for red meat did not reduce either risk. This study suggests that the risks for colon cancer and potentially for rectal cancer differ according to the specific red meat subtype consumed.

  20. Effect of thermal treatment on meat proteins with special reference to heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs).

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Muhammad Asim; Raza, Ali; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Khan, Moazzam Rafiq; Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul

    2015-01-01

    Meat is one of the most imperative protein sources available with respect to its production and consumption. It is the richest source of some valuable nutrients like proteins, essential amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals like iron, zinc, and selenium. Thermal treatment produces conformational changes in protein structure as well as flavor, texture, and appearance, and chemical properties of the ingredients are also changed. Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), potent mutagens/carcinogens, are formed during the cooking of meat at high temperature. The review paper highlights the effects of various cooking methods, i.e., pan-frying, deep-frying, charcoal grilling, and roasting, on the formation of HAAs. The levels of HAAs produced in cooked meats vary depending upon the cooking method, time of cooking, and the type of meat being cooked. Metabolic behavior of HAAs is very unique, they interfere in the activity of many enzymes, modify the metabolic pathways, and lead to the adduct formation of DNA. The application of black pepper and several other spices during processing may reduce the formation of these (HAAs) mutagenic compounds.

  1. Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... pan frying or grilling directly over an open flame ( 1 ). In laboratory experiments, HCAs and PAHs have ... an open fire drip onto the fire, causing flames. These flames contain PAHs that then adhere to ...

  2. Relation between crust development and heterocyclic aromatic amine formation when air-roasting a meat cylinder.

    PubMed

    Kondjoyan, Alain; Chevolleau, Sylvie; Portanguen, Stéphane; Molina, Jérôme; Ikonic, Predrag; Clerjon, Sylvie; Debrauwer, Laurent

    2016-12-15

    The meat crust that develops during cooking is desired by consumers for its organoleptic properties, but it is also where heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) are formed. Here we measured HAs formation during the development of a colored crust on the surface of a beef meat piece. HAs formation was lower in the crust than previously measured in meat slices subjected to the same air jet conditions. This difference is explained by a lower average temperature in the colored crust than in the meat slices. Temperature effects can also explain why colored crust failed to reproduce the plateauing and decrease in HAs content observed in meat slices. We observed a decrease in creatine content from the center of the meat piece to the crust area. In terms of the implications for practice, specific heating conditions can be found to maintain a roast beef meat aspect while dramatically reducing HAs content.

  3. Determination of the causes of tendency toward red meat and meat products in the west of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Falahi, Ebrahim; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Anbari, Khatere

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although meat constitutes an important part of many consumers’ diet, its consumption has become a quiet controversial issue. Several factors are effective on tendency to red meat consumption. The 2007's report of the world Cancer Research Fund makes the recommendation to limit the consumption of red meat to less than 500 g per week. The aim of this study is to determine meat and meat products consumption and causes of tendency to red meat among people of Khorramabad city, Iran. Methods: This cross- sectional study was carried out on 300 adults (178 women and 122 men; aged 19-70 years) of Khorramabad city, Iran. Red meat and processed meat intake (from a FFQ), demographic and causes of tendencies to red meat consumption (from a self-reported questionnaire) were evaluated. Statistical methods included independent t- test and one-way ANOVA. Results: Consumption of red meat and meat products was 531.8 ± 543.5 g/w and 132.5 ± 251.1 g/w, respectively. The most important factors of tendencies toward red meat consumption were delectability, palatability, accessibility, cultural and traditional beliefs, and lack of food diversity in Lorestan province, animal husbandry, nomadic life, and hospitality. Red meat consumption was more common among men and lower in the income levels of $300. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that red meat consumption in adult people of the west of Iran was high. Since consumption of meat and meat products may create health concerns for people, it is necessary for policymakers to adopt effective strategies to advocate the use of fish and poultry. PMID:23267400

  4. Emissions from street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling). Final report, January 1998--March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.

    1999-06-01

    The report discusses a joint US/Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in the streets of Mexicali, Mexico, were investigated experimentally by measuring levels of particulate matter, particle size distributions, volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, aldehydes, and oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, emitted when meat is cooked on a grill over a charcoal fire. To investigate the emission rate, both beef and chicken were tested. Furthermore, both meats were marinated with a mixture similar to that used by the street vendors. Some tests were conducted with non-marinated beef for comparison. Two blank runs were performed sampling charcoal fires without meat. Finally, a simple control device, normally used in an exhaust fan to trap grease over a kitchen stove, was evaluated for its effectiveness in reducing emissions.

  5. Effects of cooking method, cooking oil, and food type on aldehyde emissions in cooking oil fumes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Lin, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Yi-Chun

    2017-02-15

    Cooking oil fumes (COFs) contain a mixture of chemicals. Of all chemicals, aldehydes draw a great attention since several of them are considered carcinogenic and formation of long-chain aldehydes is related to fatty acids in cooking oils. The objectives of this research were to compare aldehyde compositions and concentrations in COFs produced by different cooking oils, cooking methods, and food types and to suggest better cooking practices. This study compared aldehydes in COFs produced using four cooking oils (palm oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil), three cooking methods (stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying), and two foods (potato and pork loin) in a typical kitchen. Results showed the highest total aldehyde emissions in cooking methods were produced by deep frying, followed by pan frying then by stir frying. Sunflower oil had the highest emissions of total aldehydes, regardless of cooking method and food type whereas rapeseed oil and palm oil had relatively lower emissions. This study suggests that using gentle cooking methods (e.g., stir frying) and using oils low in unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., palm oil or rapeseed oil) can reduce the production of aldehydes in COFs, especially long-chain aldehydes such as hexanal and t,t-2,4-DDE.

  6. Assessment of different dietary fibers (tomato fiber, beet root fiber, and inulin) for the manufacture of chopped cooked chicken products.

    PubMed

    Cava, Ramón; Ladero, Luis; Cantero, V; Rosario Ramírez, M

    2012-04-01

    Three dietary fibers (tomato fiber [TF], beet root fiber [BRF], and inulin) at 3 levels of addition (1%, 2%, and 3%) were assessed for the manufacture of chopped, cooked chicken products and compared with a control product without fiber added. The effect of fiber incorporation on (i) batters, (ii) cooked (30 min at 70 °C), and (iii) cooked and stored (for 10 d at 4 °C) chicken products were studied. The addition of the fiber to chicken meat products reduced the pH of chicken batters in proportional to the level of fiber addition. Fiber incorporation increased water-holding capacity but only the addition of TF reduced cook losses. The color of batters and cooked products was significantly modified by the type and level of fiber added. These changes were more noticeable when TF was added. Texture parameters were affected by the incorporation of TF and BRF; they increased the hardness in proportional to the level of addition. The addition of tomato and BRF to chicken meat products reduced lipid oxidation processes. These changes were dependent on the level of fiber added. The reduction of lipid oxidation processes was more marked in TF meat products than in products with other types of fibers. In contrast, the addition level of inulin increased TBA-RS numbers in chicken meat products. Although the addition of TF increased the redness of the meat products, the use of this fiber was more suitable as it reduced the extent of lipid oxidation processes. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION: Nowadays, the reduction of fat and the increase of fiber content in meat products is one of the main goals of meat industry. Numerous sources of fiber can be added to the meat products; however, before that it is necessary to study their technological effect on raw and cooked meat products in order to evaluate their suitability for meat products manufacture. In addition, some of them could have beneficial effect on meat products conservation that could also increase their shelf life.

  7. Effect of cooking or handling conditions on the furan levels of processed foods.

    PubMed

    Kim, T-K; Lee, Y-K; Park, Y S; Lee, K-G

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of cooking or handling conditions on the concentration of furan in processed foods. The analytical method used to analyse furan levels in foods was optimized based on solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). In baby soups, the concentration of furan decreased by up to 22% after opening a lid for 10 min. In the baby food in retort packaging, the level of furan was reduced by 15-33% after heating the foods at 50 degrees C without a lid. Furan in rice seasonings was evaporated completely after heating the foods at 60 degrees C. Regarding powered milk, the levels of furan were too low to be compared under various conditions. The levels of furan decreased to 58% in beverage products for babies, after storing them at 4 degrees C for 1 day without a lid. The levels of furan in canned foods such as cereal and vegetable were reduced by zero to 52% when they were stored without stirring in a refrigerator at 4 degrees C for 1 day. When we boiled canned fish, the furan present was almost completely evaporated. It is recommended that canned meats be heated up to 50-70 degrees C for the reduction (26-46%) of furan levels. The levels of furan in instant and brewed coffee samples were significantly reduced after storing for 11 to 20 min at room temperature without a lid (p < 0.05).

  8. The retention and recovery of amino acids from pork longissimus muscle following cooking to either 60°C or 75°C.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, B H P; Lee, E; Purchas, R W; Morel, P C H

    2014-01-01

    Samples of pork longissimus muscle (n=16) cooked to either 60°C or 75°C in a water bath for 90 min were assessed for amino acid composition. Recovery of protein in the cooked meat plus the cooking juice was >93% and was slightly higher at 60°C (P=0.031), but retention in the meat was only 89% and 82% for the lower and higher temperatures (P<0.0001). Individual amino acids varied in recovery and retention with retention being particularly low for taurine and histidine. The balance of indispensable amino acids was less than ideal, with leucine and valine being the limiting amino acids by about 30% for both raw and cooked pork. Cooking had no detrimental effect on amino acid balance. Some examples of small effects of genotype and sex on amino acid composition of pork were shown.

  9. Methylmercury concentrations in broiler's meat and hen's meat and eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Kambamanoli-Dimou, A. ); Kilikidis, S.; Kamarianos, A. )

    1989-05-01

    The concentration of mercury in food has been considered to present the greatest toxicological danger to the average citizen. The presence of mercury in foods has been reported in several studies. Much of the research has been carried out on total mercury concentration in foods and not on methylmercury concentration and as it is known methylmercury is the most dangerous form of mercury. Methylmercury, which is highly resistant to biodegradation, can be synthesized from any other form of mercury in the aquatic biosphere, can be bioconcentrated in the aquatic food chain and through fish-meals can be transported and concentrated in animals and their products. Such food chains, together with the various terrestrial food chains would represent a serious risk for man. This study was undertaken to determine the methylmercury levels in broiler's meat, hen's meat and eggs.

  10. [Microwave effect on survival of sporulated bacteria inoculated in minced meat].

    PubMed

    Arias, M L; Jiménez, M; Antillón, F

    1998-06-01

    Due to the current tendency of cooking and heating meat prepared foods in microwave ovens and the possibility that they transmit bacterial diseases, the survival rate of spore-forming bacteria was evaluated in minced meat samples. Meat was innoculated with a known number of Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens spores, and laterly thawed and cooked in an Amana microwave oven (2450 Hz). Survival rate was determined according to the methodology described by Vanderzant & Splittstoesser, and the activity of the enzyme acid phosphatase was determined as cooking parameter. B. cereus spore showed a decrease in its number as the time of exposition increased, but without fully disappearing. C. perfringens spores also decreased in number, but showed a later increase, associated with the germination of survival spores.

  11. Visual color and doneness indicators and the incidence of premature brown color in beef patties cooked to four end point temperatures.

    PubMed

    Lyon, B G; Berry, B W; Soderberg, D; Clinch, N

    2000-10-01

    An interlaboratory study was undertaken to assess the frequency that cooked color of ground beef patties appeared brown at internal temperatures of 52.7 degrees C (135 degrees F), 65.6 degrees C (150 degrees F), 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F), and 79.4 degrees C (175 degrees F). In general, as internal cooked temperature of the patties increased, the following results were observed in the patties: (i) more brown meat color, (ii) less pink or red juice color, and (iii) more cooked texture. However, brown meat color occurred prematurely at the two lower internal temperatures (57.2 degrees C/135 degrees F and 65.6 degrees C/150 degrees F) that are insufficient to eliminate foodborne pathogens without holding times. The common consumer practice of freezing bulk ground beef, followed by overnight thawing in a refrigerator, led to substantial premature brown color in patties cooked from this product. In addition, at 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F), recognized to be the lowest temperature for cooking ground beef safely in the home, meat color, juice color, and texture appearance were not fully apparent as doneness indicators. In fact, at no temperature studied did 100% of the patties appear done when evaluated by the criteria of no red or pink in the meat, no red or pink in the juices, or by texture appearance. Patties in this study were evaluated under a set protocol for forming the products, cooking, and viewing under the same lighting conditions. Other preparation conditions are possible and may produce different results. Thus, temperature to which patties have been cooked cannot be judged by color and appearance. This study provided the evidence to support the message to consumers regarding cooking of beef patties of "use an accurate food thermometer and cook beef patties to 160 degrees F (71.1 degrees C)" in place of messages based on consumer judgment of cooked color.

  12. Vocational Cooking Class. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Kathy M.

    A project was conducted to develop a course in cooking skills for high school students interested in preparing for jobs or seeking advanced vocational training in the food service occupations. During the first phase of the project, the course instructor, who is also the head cook at the high school, completed courses in cardiopulmonary…

  13. Effects of process variables on some quality properties of meatballs semi-cooked in a continuous type ohmic cooking system.

    PubMed

    Icier, Filiz; Sengun, Ilkin Yucel; Yildiz Turp, Gulen; Arserim, Ender Hikmet

    2014-03-01

    Ohmic cooking of meatballs was conducted in a continuous type ohmic cooker using different voltage gradients (15, 20 and 25 V/cm) and holding times (0, 15 and 30 s). The color and textural properties and log reductions in total microbial count of the meatballs were assessed. The effects of process variables on these responses were evaluated by linear and quadratic mathematical models. Desirability function was used to determine the optimum ohmic pre-cooking condition by considering the criteria of minimizing hardness ratio, and maximizing chewiness ratio, resilience ratio, log reduction in microbial load, outside chroma ratio, inside chroma ratio and in range of springiness, gumminess and inside L ratios. The optimum ohmic pre-cooking condition was found to be a 15.26 V/cm voltage gradient with no holding time. It is concluded that application of the optimum condition in the related ohmic system offers potential for the production of high quality and safe semi-cooked meat products.

  14. Implications of white striping and wooden breast abnormalities on quality traits of raw and marinated chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Mudalal, S; Lorenzi, M; Soglia, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2015-04-01

    One of the consequences of intense genetic selection for growth of poultry is the recent appearance of abnormalities in chicken breast muscles, such as white striping (characterised by superficial white striations) and wooden breast (characterised by pale and bulged areas with substantial hardness). The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality traits of chicken fillets affected by white striping and wooden breast abnormalities. In two replications, 192 fillets were divided into the following four classes: normal (n=48; absence of any visual defects), white striping (n=48, presence of white striations), wooden breast (n=48; diffusely presence of hardened areas) and white striping/wooden breast (n=48; fillets affected by both abnormalities). Morphology, raw meat texture and technological properties were assessed in both unprocessed (pH, colour, drip loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force) and marinated meat (marinade uptake, purge loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force). Fillets affected by white striping, wooden breast or both abnormalities exhibited higher breast weights compared with normal fillets (305.5, 298.7, 318.3 and 244.7 g, respectively; P<0.001). Wooden breast, either alone or in combination with white striping, was associated with a significant (P<0.001) increase of fillet thickness in the caudal area and raw meat hardness compared with both normal and the white striping abnormality, for which there was no difference. Overall, the occurrence of the individual and combined white striping and wooden breast abnormalities resulted in substantial reduction in the quality of breast meat, although these abnormalities are associated with distinct characteristics. Wooden breast fillets showed lower marinade uptake and higher cooking losses than white-striped fillets for both unprocessed and marinated meats. On the other hand, white-striped fillets showed a moderate decline in marinade and cooking yield. Fillets affected by both abnormalities

  15. Formation of mutagens in cooked foods. I. Beef.

    PubMed

    Spingarn, N E; Weisburger, J H

    1979-09-01

    Mutagens detectable by Salmonella typhimurium TA98, after activation by liver S-9 fraction, are formed when meat is cooked by frying, broiling and boiling. High levels of mutagenic activity are formed rapidly when frying, or more slowly during broiling. Formation of mutagens in boiled beef stock requires several days under reflux, but shows a strong concentration dependence. Time curves suggest that a period exists during which mutagens are not readily formed; however, after this period mutagen production is rapid. Hamburgers from commercial franchises were frequently mutagenically active.

  16. Quantifying trace elements in the emitted particulate matter during cooking and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gorjinezhad, Soudabeh; Kerimray, Aiymgul; Amouei Torkmahalleh, Mehdi; Keleş, Melek; Ozturk, Fatma; Hopke, Philip K

    2017-02-25

    Particulate matter (PM) measurements were conducted during heating corn oil, heating corn oil mixed with the table salt and heating low fat ground beef meat using a PTFE-coated aluminum pan on an electric stove with low ventilation. The main objectives of this study were to measure the size segregated mass concentrations, emission rates, and fluxes of 24 trace elements emitted during heating cooking oil or oil with salt and cooking meat. Health risk assessments were performed based on the resulting exposure to trace elements from such cooking activities. The most abundant elements (significantly different from zero) were Ba (24.4 ug m(-3)) during grilling meat and Ti during heating oil with salt (24.4 ug m(-3)). The health assessment indicates that the cooking with an electric stove with poor ventilation leading to chronic exposures may pose the risk of significant adverse health effects. Carcinogenic risk exceeded the acceptable level (target cancer risk 1 × 10(-6), US EPA 2015) by four orders of magnitude, while non-carcinogenic risk exceeded the safe level (target HQ = 1, US EPA 2015) by a factor of 5-20. Cr and Co were the primary contributors to the highest carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks, respectively.

  17. Composition and physicochemical characteristics of restructured beef steaks containing walnuts as affected by cooking method.

    PubMed

    Serrano, A; Librelotto, J; Cofrades, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2007-11-01

    The study was conducted to determine the influence of various cooking methods - conventional oven, microwave oven, electric grill and pan-frying on the composition and physicochemical characteristics of restructured beef steaks formulated as low fat (L, 2.0% fat), medium fat (M, 13.0% fat) and 20% added walnut (W, 12.6% fat). Composition, retention coefficients for different compounds, cooking loss (CL) and texture were affected by both formulation and cooking. There was considerable retention of moisture, fat and minerals (as ash) in W samples after cooking. CL was highest (P<0.05) in M sample and lowest (P<0.05) in W samples. Microwaved restructured steaks had higher (P<0.05) kramer shear force (KSF) and bind strength (BS), while pan-fried and conventionally oven-cooked steaks had lower (P<0.05) KSF. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content was low in all restructured steaks but was affected by both cooking and formulation. Although cooking can change the proximal composition of steaks, lipid retention (>90%) was greatest in the case of the W sample, thus assuring that the ultimate objective of these restructured meats, namely to provide a source of walnut and walnut fat, would be successful.

  18. An Outline of Meat Consumption in the Indian Population - A Pilot Review.

    PubMed

    Devi, Subramaniam Mohana; Balachandar, Vellingiri; Lee, Sang In; Kim, In Ho

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of meat is increasing in India and agriculture is considered as the backbone of a majority of people. Livestock plays a significant role, and poultry and dairy are the major sectors contributing to economic development. The majority of meats consumed in India are fish, bovine, mutton, goat, pig, and poultry. In Indian context, culture, traditions, customs, and taboos influence meat consumption to a great extent. However, studies show that urbanization has been causing a rise in demand for meat products. India is the world's second largest exporter of beef. In India, 95% of goat meat produced is consumed locally. Meat consumption, in particular, is determined by the religions where pork is forbidden to Muslims and beef is prohibited to Hindus. The preference and consumption of chicken meat can be considered as a universal phenomenon and chicken meat is greatly accepted by consumers in India as compared to the other meat consumption. The increase of chicken meat consumption is due to the versatility of the meat, relatively low cost in comparison to other meat, and the acceptance of the chicken meat to all religions. There has been a great rise in the production of livestock products and this is expected to continue in the future. The pattern of meat consumption depends considerably on culture, tradition and urbanization. This review was formulated with the objective of identifying the meat consumption patterns in a typical Indian society.

  19. An Outline of Meat Consumption in the Indian Population - A Pilot Review

    PubMed Central

    Balachandar, Vellingiri; Lee, Sang In

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of meat is increasing in India and agriculture is considered as the backbone of a majority of people. Livestock plays a significant role, and poultry and dairy are the major sectors contributing to economic development. The majority of meats consumed in India are fish, bovine, mutton, goat, pig, and poultry. In Indian context, culture, traditions, customs, and taboos influence meat consumption to a great extent. However, studies show that urbanization has been causing a rise in demand for meat products. India is the world’s second largest exporter of beef. In India, 95% of goat meat produced is consumed locally. Meat consumption, in particular, is determined by the religions where pork is forbidden to Muslims and beef is prohibited to Hindus. The preference and consumption of chicken meat can be considered as a universal phenomenon and chicken meat is greatly accepted by consumers in India as compared to the other meat consumption. The increase of chicken meat consumption is due to the versatility of the meat, relatively low cost in comparison to other meat, and the acceptance of the chicken meat to all religions. There has been a great rise in the production of livestock products and this is expected to continue in the future. The pattern of meat consumption depends considerably on culture, tradition and urbanization. This review was formulated with the objective of identifying the meat consumption patterns in a typical Indian society. PMID:26761289

  20. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-07-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat's unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods.

  1. Effect of processing on turkey meat quality and proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Obanor, F; Morton, J D; Geesink, G H; Bickerstaffe, R

    2005-07-01

    Modern processing techniques for turkey involve rapid chilling to slow microbial growth and early deboning of the economically important breast meat. This paper shows that these 2 processes lead to significantly tougher meat with higher cooking losses. The toughening appears to be due to less extensive proteolysis and shortening of the sarcomeres. Calpains I and II and their inhibitor, calpastatin, were quantified in turkey breast. Calpain II was the more common isoform but showed no evidence of activation during aging. In contrast, calpain I and calpastatin activities declined rapidly and were no longer detected 24 h postslaughter. There was no evidence of an association between calpain activity and processing conditions.

  2. Cooking Up Creative Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2012-05-31

    There comes a time in every scientist’s career when one's mind seems to hit a wall. You can’t think of a new experiment that hasn’t been done before or figure out how to crack a problem that is blocking your progress. The easy questions have been answered. You go back to the wellspring of your creativity and find it dry. What to do? Collaborating with investigators who are investigating problems from a different data or analytical perspective is the best way I know to kick-start research creativity. They not only can provide new data, but they can also bring an expertise on how to get the most “flavor” out of the ingredient that they bring to your problem. As the complexity of the important biological problems continues to grow, too many cooks will never spoil the broth, but become a hallmark of the most creative research.

  3. Cook stove assembly

    SciTech Connect

    DeFoort, Morgan W; Willson, Bryan D; Lorenz, Nathan; Brady, Michael P; Marchese, Anthony; Miller-Lionberg, Daniel D

    2014-12-02

    A combustion chamber, having an upper part and a lower part, may include an annular constriction, in combination with the combustion chamber, to aid in directing partially combusted gases such as carbon monoxide away from the periphery of the combustion chamber back toward its center, and into the flame front. The annular constriction may also impede the flow of partially combusted gases located at the periphery, thus increasing the time these gases spend within the combustion chamber and increasing the likelihood that any products of incomplete combustion will undergo combustion. The combustion chamber may further comprise a dual burner cooktop for directing combustion gases and exhaust to multiple cooking vessels. In further embodiments, the combustion chamber may be made of, lined, or clad with a metal alloy comprising iron, chromium, and aluminum.

  4. Smart Packaging Technologies and Their Application in Conventional Meat Packaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Grady, Michael N.; Kerry, Joseph P.

    Preservative packaging of meat and meat products should maintain acceptable appearance, odour and flavour and should delay the onset of microbial spoilage. Typically fresh red meats are placed on trays and over-wrapped with an oxygen permeable film or alternatively, meats are stored in modified atmosphere packages (MAP) containing high levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide (80% O2:20% CO2) (Georgala & Davidson, 1970). Cooked meats are usually stored in 70% N2:30% CO2 (Smiddy, Papkovsky, & Kerry, 2002). The function of oxygen in MAP is to maintain acceptable fresh meat colour and carbon dioxide inhibits the growth of spoilage bacteria (Seideman & Durland, 1984). Nitrogen is used as an inert filler gas either to reduce the proportions of the other gases or to maintain the pack shape (Bell & Bourke, 1996).

  5. Carcass measurements and meat quality characteristics of dairy suckling kids compared to an indigenous genotype.

    PubMed

    Ekiz, Bulent; Ozcan, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Alper; Tölü, Cemil; Savaş, Türker

    2010-06-01

    Effects of genotype on carcass measurements and meat quality were investigated by using 24 suckling kids from Turkish Saanen, Gokceada and Maltese breeds. Carcass quality characteristics of indigenous kids (Gokceada) were lower than those of dairy type (Turkish Saanen and Maltese) kids. Breed effect on ultimate meat pH, cooking loss, drip loss and Warner Bratzler shear force values were not significant. Meat samples from Turkish Saanen kids had higher redness (at 0, 1 and 24h) and yellowness (at 24h) values than Gokceada kids (P<0.05). Breed had no significant effect on sensory characteristics except flavour intensity. Flavour intensity scores given to meat samples of Maltese kids were higher than those of Turkish Saanen and Gokceada kids (P<0.01). In conclusion, dairy type breeds should be considered for meat production as well, with meat from Maltese kids potentially offering better colour and flavour intensity than that of Turkish Saanen kids.

  6. [Consumption of fish and fishery products in Poland--analysis of benefits and risks].

    PubMed

    Kołodziejczyk, Monika

    2007-01-01

    Fish meat content high nutritive value and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, while low consumption of fish and fishery products in Poland. Fat meat of Baltic sea fish can also contain higher levels of dioxins and organochlorinated contaminants. Consumption of fish and fishery products in Poland ought to include different species from various catch areas.

  7. Food mutagens: The role of cooked food in genetic changes

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Of all the toxic substances producing during cooking, the most important are likely to be the heterocyclic amines. For 17 years, LLNL researchers have been identifying these food mutagens, measuring their abundance in cooked foods typical of the Western diet, working to understand how they can trigger malignant tumors in laboratory animals that have been exposed to high mutagen doses, and estimating the importance of human exposures. Our success is largely a function of the interdisciplinary approach we have taken to quantify food mutagens and to study their biological effects. LLNL investigators were the first to identify five of the most important mutagens in heated food, including PhIP and DiMeIQx. We have shown that fried beef may be the most important single source of heterocyclic amines in the human diet and the PhIP accounts for most of the combined mass of mutagens in fried beef cooked well-done. Most nonmeat foods contain low or undetectable levels of these types of compounds, but some cooked protein-containing foods, such as those high in wheat gluten, have significant levels of unknown aromatic amine mutagens. Cooking time and temperature significantly affect the amounts of mutagens generated. For example, reducing the frying temperature of ground beef from 250 to 200{degrees}C lowers the mutagenic activity by six- to sevenfold. Microwave pretreatment of meat and discarding the liquid that is formed also greatly reduces the formation of heterocyclic amines. Our related work on dose and risk assessment will be described in a forthcoming article.

  8. Evaluation of a Teaching Kit for Family and Consumer Science Classrooms: Motivating Students to Use a Food Thermometer with Small Cuts of Meat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Zena; Edlefsen, Miriam; Hillers, Virginia; McCurdy, Sandra M.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture recommends use of food thermometers to safely cook small cuts of meat, yet most consumers do not use them. Consumers lack knowledge about how and why to use food thermometers with small cuts of meat. Opportunities exist for family and consumer science classes to provide education about thermometers to adolescents, who…

  9. [Hygienic quality of meat used in institutional food services: university cafeterias in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Ilboudo, A J; Savadogo, A; Barro, N; Ouedraogo, M; Traore, A S

    2009-01-01

    This present study was conducted to assess the hygienic quality of meals served in three cafeterias at the national university in Ouagadougou and the compliance of kitchen staff with good hygiene practices. Microbiological analyses assessed the hygienic quality of the raw meat and of meat-based meals. The results showed poor hygiene practices by food handlers along the food chain. These observations were confirmed by the identification of salmonella, coliform and staphylococcal bacteria in raw meat and cooked meals. Overall, 60% of the raw meat samples were unsatisfactory for aerobic mesophilic flora and 6.6% for salmonella. For the cooked meat meals, on the other hand, 45% of the samples were satisfactory for aerobic mesophilic flora, 100% for salmonella, 93.3% for fecal thermotolerant coliforms and 96.6% for staphylococci. These results showed poor hygiene in the handling of raw meat, but a clear improvement in hygienic quality after cooking. Raising the awareness of cafeteria staff about compliance with hygiene rules appears primordial. Moreover improvement of the food environment, the kitchen equipment, and organization as well as the introduction of a cleaning-disinfection programme would make it possible to provide more hygienic meals in these institutional facilities.

  10. Impact of meat and Lower Palaeolithic food processing techniques on chewing in humans.

    PubMed

    Zink, Katherine D; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2016-03-24

    The origins of the genus Homo are murky, but by H. erectus, bigger brains and bodies had evolved that, along with larger foraging ranges, would have increased the daily energetic requirements of hominins. Yet H. erectus differs from earlier hominins in having relatively smaller teeth, reduced chewing muscles, weaker maximum bite force capabilities, and a relatively smaller gut. This paradoxical combination of increased energy demands along with decreased masticatory and digestive capacities is hypothesized to have been made possible by adding meat to the diet, by mechanically processing food using stone tools, or by cooking. Cooking, however, was apparently uncommon until 500,000 years ago, and the effects of carnivory and Palaeolithic processing techniques on mastication are unknown. Here we report experiments that tested how Lower Palaeolithic processing technologies affect chewing force production and efficacy in humans consuming meat and underground storage organs (USOs). We find that if meat comprised one-third of the diet, the number of chewing cycles per year would have declined by nearly 2 million (a 13% reduction) and total masticatory force required would have declined by 15%. Furthermore, by simply slicing meat and pounding USOs, hominins would have improved their ability to chew meat into smaller particles by 41%, reduced the number of chews per year by another 5%, and decreased masticatory force requirements by an additional 12%. Although cooking has important benefits, it appears that selection for smaller masticatory features in Homo would have been initially made possible by the combination of using stone tools and eating meat.

  11. Meat analog: a review.

    PubMed

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers.

  12. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-01-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat’s unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods. PMID:26104409

  13. Effect of commercial rosemary oleoresin preparations on ground chicken thigh meat quality packaged in a high-oxygen atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Keokamnerd, T; Acton, J C; Han, I Y; Dawson, P L

    2008-01-01

    Four commercial rosemary oleoresin preparations were added to ground chicken thigh meat at the recommended levels of the manufacturer then packaged in 80% O(2)-20% CO(2) modified atmosphere trays. The rosemary preparations differed in oil and water solubility, dispersion properties, or both. Addition of rosemary to ground chicken had an overall positive effect on raw meat appearance during storage and cooked meat flavor. No effect on bacterial growth was observed due to rosemary addition. However, oxidation was slowed in meat with added rosemary as indicated by lower TBA values, lower hexanal concentrations, and sensory scores. Color (redness) was more stable in meat with added rosemary compared with meat without rosemary, as reflected in redness (a*) values, hue angles, and visual scores. Of the 4 rosemary preparations tested, the oil-soluble, most concentrated preparation (HT-O) was most effective in maintaining meat quality compared with the other 3 types tested.

  14. Natural antioxidants as food and feed additives to promote health benefits and quality of meat products: A review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiang; Xiong, Youling L

    2016-10-01

    Fresh and processed meats offer numerous nutritional and health benefits and provide unique eating satisfaction in the lifestyle of the modern society. However, consumption of red meat including processed products is subjected to increasing scrutiny due to the health risks associated with cytotoxins that potentially could be generated during meat preparation. Evidence from recent studies suggests free radical pathways as a plausible mechanism for toxin formation, and antioxidants have shown promise to mitigate process-generated chemical hazards. The present review discusses the involvements of lipid and protein oxidation in meat quality, nutrition, safety, and organoleptic properties; animal production and meat processing strategies which incorporate natural antioxidants to enhance the nutritional and health benefits of meat; and the application of mixed or purified natural antioxidants to eliminate or minimize the formation of carcinogens for chemical safety of cooked and processed meats.

  15. Direct dynamic kinetic analysis and computer simulation of growth of Clostridium perfringens in cooked turkey during cooling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research applied a new one-step methodology to directly construct a tertiary model for describing the growth of C. perfringens in cooked turkey meat under dynamically cooling conditions. The kinetic parameters of the growth models were determined by numerical analysis and optimization using mu...

  16. Effect of postmortem deboning time on sensory descriptive flavor and texture profiles of cooked boneless skinless chicken thighs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three replicate trials were conducted to investigate the effect of deboning time on sensory descriptive profiles of cooked boneless skinless thigh meat (iliotibialis, iliofibularis and the femoritibialis). Carcasses (42-d old birds) were obtained from a commercial processing plant. Thighs were hot-b...

  17. Proteome Profiles of Digested Products of Commercial Meat Sources

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Liu, Yuan; Zhou, Guanghong; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize in vitro-digested products of proteins from four commercial meat products, including dry-cured ham, cooked ham, emulsion-type sausage, and dry-cured sausage. The samples were homogenized and incubated with pepsin and trypsin. The digestibility and particle sizes of digested products were measured. Nano-LC–MS/MS was applied to characterize peptides. The results showed the highest digestibility and the lowest particle size in dry-cured ham (P < 0.05), while the opposite was for cooked ham (P < 0.05). Nano-LC–MS/MS analysis revealed that dry-cured ham samples had the greatest number of 750–3,500 Da Mw peptides in pepsin-digested products. In the digested products of cooked ham and emulsion-type sausage, a lot of peptides were matched with soy protein that was added in the formulations. In addition, protein oxidation was also observed in different meat products. Our findings give an insight into nutritional values of different meat products.

  18. Comparison and Correlation Analysis of Different Swine Breeds Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y. X.; Cabling, M. M.; Kang, H. S.; Kim, T. S.; Yeom, S. C.; Sohn, Y. G.; Kim, S. H; Nam, K. C.; Seo, K. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the influence of pig breed and gender on the ultimate pH and physicochemical properties of pork. The correlations between pH and pork quality traits directly related to carcass grade, and consumer’s preference were also evaluated. The pH and meat grading scores for cold carcasses of 215 purebred pigs (Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire) from four different farms were obtained. Meat quality parameters of the pork loin were analyzed. Duroc and female animals were more affected compared to other breeds and male pigs. Duroc animals had the highest ultimate pH, carcass back fat thickness, marbling scores, yellowness, and fat content (p<0.05). Landrace pigs had the highest color lightness and cooking loss values (p<0.05). Among all trait parameters, marbling scores showed the highest significant differences when evaluating the impact of breed and gender on meat quality characteristics (p<0.001). Ultimate pH was positively correlated with carcass weight (0.20), back fat thickness (0.19), marbling score (0.17), and color score (0.16) while negatively correlated with cooking loss (−0.24) and shear force (−0.20). Therefore, pork samples with lower ultimate pH had lower cooking loss, higher lightness, and higher shear force values irrespective of breed. PMID:25049866

  19. Sensory and rapid instrumental methods as a combined tool for quality control of cooked ham.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Sara; Soglia, Francesca; Palagano, Rosa; Tesini, Federica; Bendini, Alessandra; Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio; Gallina Toschi, Tullia

    2016-11-01

    In this preliminary investigation, different commercial categories of Italian cooked pork hams have been characterized using an integrated approach based on both sensory and fast instrumental measurements. For these purposes, Italian products belonging to different categories (cooked ham, "selected" cooked ham and "high quality" cooked ham) were evaluated by sensory descriptive analysis and by the application of rapid tools such as image analysis by an "electronic eye" and texture analyzer. The panel of trained assessors identified and evaluated 10 sensory descriptors able to define the quality of the products. Statistical analysis highlighted that sensory characteristics related to appearance and texture were the most significant in discriminating samples belonged to the highest (high quality cooked hams) and the lowest (cooked hams) quality of the product whereas the selected cooked hams, showed intermediate characteristics. In particular, high quality samples were characterized, above all, by the highest intensity of pink intensity, typical appearance and cohesiveness, and, at the same time, by the lowest intensity of juiciness; standard cooked ham samples showed the lowest intensity of all visual attributes and the highest value of juiciness, whereas the intermediate category (selected cooked ham) was not discriminated from the other. Also physical-rheological parameters measured by electronic eye and texture analyzer were effective in classifying samples. In particular, the PLS model built with data obtained from the electronic eye showed a satisfactory performance in terms of prediction of the pink intensity and presence of fat attributes evaluated during the sensory visual phase. This study can be considered a first application of this combined approach that could represent a suitable and fast method to verify if the meat product purchased by consumer match its description in terms of compliance with the claimed quality.

  20. Meat and meat-mutagen intake, doneness preference and the risk of colorectal polyps: the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Aesun; Shrubsole, Martha J; Ness, Reid M; Wu, Huiyun; Sinha, Rashmi; Smalley, Walter E; Shyr, Yu; Zheng, Wei

    2007-07-01

    Although meat intake has been fairly consistently linked to the risk of colorectal cancer, only a few studies have evaluated meat intake by doneness level and the heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced by high temperature cooking of meat in relation to colorectal adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps. We evaluated these associations in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Included in this study were participants with adenomatous polyp only (n = 573), hyperplastic polyp only (n = 256), or both adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps (n = 199), and 1,544 polyp-free controls. In addition to information related to demographic and other lifestyle factors, meat intake by cooking method and doneness preference were obtained through telephone interviews. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for the association between exposures and colorectal polyp risks. Presence of hyperplastic polyp was found to be positively associated with high consumption of total meat (p(trend) = 0.076) or red meat (p(trend) = 0.060), with an approximate 50-60% elevated risk observed in the highest vs. the lowest intake group. High intake of 2-amino-I-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo [4,5]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) were associated with increased risk for hyperplastic polyp (p(trend) = 0.036 and 0.038, respectively). With a possible exception of the intake of total well-done meats (p(trend) = 0.055) or well-done red meats (p(trend) = 0.074) with the risk of large adenomas, no other positive association was found specifically for the risk of adenomas with any of the exposure variables aforementioned. This study provides additional support for a positive association of high intake of red meat with colorectal adenomas, and suggests that high intake of meats and meat carcinogens may also be associated with hyperplastic polyps.

  1. Meat standards and grading: a world view.

    PubMed

    Polkinghorne, R J; Thompson, J M

    2010-09-01

    This paper addresses the principles relating to meat standards and grading of beef and advances the concept that potential exists to achieve significant desirable change from adopting more consumer focused systems within accurate value-based payment frameworks. The paper uses the definitions that classification is a set of descriptive terms describing features of the carcass that are useful to those involved in the trading of carcasses, whereas grading is the placing of different values on carcasses for pricing purposes, depending on the market and requirements of traders. A third definition is consumer grading, which refers to grading systems that seek to define or predict consumer satisfaction with a cooked meal. The development of carcass classification and grading schemes evolved from a necessity to describe the carcass using standard terms to facilitate trading. The growth in world trade of meat and meat products and the transition from trading carcasses to marketing individual meal portions raises the need for an international language that can service contemporary needs. This has in part been addressed by the United Nations promoting standard languages on carcasses, cuts, trim levels and cutting lines. Currently no standards exist for describing consumer satisfaction. Recent Meat Standards Australia (MSA) research in Australia, Korea, Ireland, USA, Japan and South Africa showed that consumers across diverse cultures and nationalities have a remarkably similar view of beef eating quality, which could be used to underpin an international language on palatability. Consumer research on the willingness to pay for eating quality shows that consumers will pay higher prices for better eating quality grades and generally this was not affected by demographic or meat preference traits of the consumer. In Australia the MSA eating quality grading system has generated substantial premiums to retailers, wholesalers and to the producer. Future grading schemes which measure

  2. Meat analogues: Health promising sustainable meat substitutes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pavan; Chatli, M K; Mehta, Nitin; Singh, Parminder; Malav, O P; Verma, Akhilesh K

    2017-03-24

    There is a scarcity of protein of high biological value due to rapid increase in the world population and limited natural resources. Meat is a good source of protein of high biological value but converting the vegetable protein into animal protein is not economical. There is a trend of production of healthy and delicious meat free food for satisfaction of vegetarian and personal well beings. This resulted in increasing use of low cost vegetable protein such as textured soy protein, mushroom, wheat gluten, pulses etc as a substitute for animal-protein. These simulated meat-like products, with similar texture, flavor, color, and nutritive value can be substituted directly for meat to all sections of the society.

  3. Effects of Short-Term Presalting and Salt Level on the Development of Pink Color in Cooked Chicken Breasts.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jong Youn

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of short-term presalting on pink color and pigment characteristics in ground chicken breasts after cooking. Four salt levels (0%, 1%, 2%, and 3%) were presalted and stored for 0 and 3 d prior to cooking. Cooking yield was increased as salt level was increased. However, no significant differences in pH values or oxidation reduction potential (ORP) of cooked chicken breasts were observed. Cooked products with more than 2% of salt level had less redder (lower CIE a* value) on day 3 than on those on day 0. As salt level was increased to 2%, myoglobin was denatured greatly. Myoglobin denaturation was leveled off when samples had 3% of salt. With increasing salt levels, residual nitrite contents were increased while nitrosyl hemochrome contents were decreased. These results demonstrate that salt addition to a level of more than 2% to ground meat may reduce the redness of cooked products and that presalting storage longer than 3 d should be employed to develop a natural pink color of ground chicken products when less than 1% salt is added to ground chicken meat.

  4. Effects of Short-Term Presalting and Salt Level on the Development of Pink Color in Cooked Chicken Breasts

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of short-term presalting on pink color and pigment characteristics in ground chicken breasts after cooking. Four salt levels (0%, 1%, 2%, and 3%) were presalted and stored for 0 and 3 d prior to cooking. Cooking yield was increased as salt level was increased. However, no significant differences in pH values or oxidation reduction potential (ORP) of cooked chicken breasts were observed. Cooked products with more than 2% of salt level had less redder (lower CIE a* value) on day 3 than on those on day 0. As salt level was increased to 2%, myoglobin was denatured greatly. Myoglobin denaturation was leveled off when samples had 3% of salt. With increasing salt levels, residual nitrite contents were increased while nitrosyl hemochrome contents were decreased. These results demonstrate that salt addition to a level of more than 2% to ground meat may reduce the redness of cooked products and that presalting storage longer than 3 d should be employed to develop a natural pink color of ground chicken products when less than 1% salt is added to ground chicken meat. PMID:28316476

  5. Lactic acid bacteria and their controversial role in fresh meat spoilage.

    PubMed

    Pothakos, Vasileios; Devlieghere, Frank; Villani, Francesco; Björkroth, Johanna; Ercolini, Danilo

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitute a heterogeneous group that has been widely associated with fresh meat and cooked meat products. They represent a controversial cohort of microbial species that either contribute to spoilage through generation of offensive metabolites and the subsequent organoleptic downgrading of meat or serve as bioprotective agents with strains of certain species causing unperceivable or no alterations. Therefore, significant distinction among biotypes is substantiated by studies determining spoilage potential as a strain-specific trait corroborating the need to revisit the concept of spoilage.

  6. Influence of home cooking conditions on Maillard reaction products in beef.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Aurea Juliana Bombo; de Almeida Lima, Daniele; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Soares, Rosana Aparecida Manólio; Markowicz Bastos, Deborah Helena

    2016-04-01

    The influence of home cooking methods on the generation of Maillard reaction products (MRP) in beef was investigated. Grilling and frying hamburgers to an internal temperature below 90 °C mainly generated furosine. When the temperature reached 90 °C and 100 °C, furosine content decreased by 36% and fluorescent compounds increased by up to 98%. Baking meat at 300 °C, the most severe heat treatment studied, resulted in the formation of carboxymethyllysine. Boiling in water caused very low MRP formation. Acrylamide concentrations in grilled, fried or baked meat were extremely low. Home cooking conditions leading to low MRP generation and pleasant colours were obtained and could be used to guide diabetic and chronic renal patients on how to reduce their carboxymethyllysine intake.

  7. The effect of muscle, cooking method and final internal temperature on quality parameters of beef roast.

    PubMed

    Modzelewska-Kapituła, Monika; Dąbrowska, Ewa; Jankowska, Barbara; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Cierach, Marek

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of cooking conditions (dry air and steam) and final internal temperature (75, 85, 95°C) on the physico-chemical properties of beef infraspinatus (INF) and semimembranosus (SEM) muscles as well as their tenderness and juiciness. Cooking method and temperature influenced moisture, total collagen content in cooked meat and cooking loss, whereas muscle type affected fat, total collagen content and cooking loss. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were affected by cooking method, which also influenced juiciness of roasts. Temperature affected tenderness and juiciness, whereas muscle type influenced juiciness. The most desirable tenderness had INF heated in steam and dry air to 95°C. Processing SEM in dry air to 85 and 95°C lowered the juiciness of the roasts. There were significant correlations between physico-chemical, sensorial and image attributes, however high accuracy of prediction (r(2)>0.8) was achieved only for SEM muscle.

  8. Frequency of inadequate chicken cross-contamination prevention and cooking practices in restaurants.

    PubMed

    Green Brown, Laura; Khargonekar, Shivangi; Bushnell, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted by the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The purpose was to examine restaurant chicken preparation and cooking practices and kitchen managers' food safety knowledge concerning chicken. EHS-Net members interviewed managers about chicken preparation practices in 448 restaurants. The study revealed that many restaurants were not following U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code guidance concerning cross-contamination prevention and proper cooking and that managers lacked basic food safety knowledge about chicken. Forty percent of managers said that they never, rarely, or only sometimes designated certain cutting boards for raw meat (including chicken). One-third of managers said that they did not wash and rinse surfaces before sanitizing them. Over half of managers said that thermometers were not used to determine the final cook temperature of chicken. Only 43% of managers knew the temperature to which raw chicken needed to be cooked for it to be safe to eat. These findings indicate that restaurant chicken preparation and cooking practices and manager food safety knowledge need improvement. Findings from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts to improve chicken preparation and cooking practices and knowledge concerning safe chicken preparation.

  9. Food Safety for Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... lettuce. previous continue Preparing and Cooking Raw Meat, Poultry, Fish, and Egg Products Wash your hands with ... before preparing foods and after handling raw meat, poultry, fish, or egg products. Keep raw meats and ...

  10. Increased collagen III in culled chicken meat after feeding dietary wood charcoal and vinegar contributes to palatability and tenderness.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Kohsyo; Manabe, Noboru; Matsumoto, Yoshiki; Takenoyama, Shin-ichi; Yamauchi, Koh-en

    2014-04-01

    We comprehensively evaluated meat quality in chickens fed a diet consisting of wood charcoal and vinegar (WCV) using food scientific and histological approaches. In culled hens, lipid and fatty acid in Musculus semimembranosus, cooking loss and sensory tests of whole thigh meat, and meat texture of breast meat were observed. In male broilers, cross section of M. semimembranosus was used for observations on muscle area, perimysium, non-collagen total protein and total collagen content, and anti-collagen I and III reactions. In frozen male broilers, conventional morphology of M. semimembranosus as well as chicken anti-collagen III reaction to selected muscles of thigh meat and breast meat were compared between the control and WCV-fed birds. Increased lipid and fatty acids, decreased cooking loss, high score in total evaluation for sensory test of thigh meat, and decreased meat texture values were observed for culled hens fed WCV. The higher values of muscle area, total collagen and collagen III were observed for broilers fed WCV. No perimysium collapse for M. semitendinosus or increased collagen III reactions of M. tensor fasciae latae, the flexor muscle group and M. pectoralis superficialis were observed for frozen muscles in the WCV group. These total results suggest that WCV produces palatable and tender meat by increasing collagen III.

  11. Impact of further processing on dielectric properties of broiler poultry meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently in the U.S. more than 90% of the turkeys and more than 70% of the broilers are processed beyond the normal ready-to-cook stage. Up to 50% of raw poultry meat is marinated with mixtures of water, salts, and phosphates. Physical properties of foods provide essential data to the food industr...

  12. Use of germicidal UV light to reduce low numbers of Listeria monocytogenes on raw chicken meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a common constituent of the microbiological community in poultry processing plants and as such can be found in low numbers on raw poultry. Raw meat has been shown to be the most important source of this pathogen to commercial cooking facilities. Germicidal ultra violet (U...

  13. Antioxidant Efficacy of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Pericarp Extract in Sheep Meat Nuggets

    PubMed Central

    Das, Arun K.; Rajkumar, Vincent; Nanda, Pramod K.; Chauhan, Pranav; Pradhan, Soubhagya R.; Biswas, Subhasish

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of litchi fruit pericarp (LFP) extract (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% concentration) in retarding lipid oxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets was evaluated and compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 100 ppm). The total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of LFP extracts were determined. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values were evaluated to assess the potential of LFP extracts as natural antioxidants for oxidative stability of cooked nuggets during 12 days of refrigerated storage. Results show that total phenolics content in 10 mg LFP powder was comparable to 100 ppm BHT, but 15 mg LFP powder had significantly higher (p < 0.05) total phenolics content and reducing power than the synthetic antioxidant. LFP extract did not affect pH, cooking yield and the sensory attributes of cooked nuggets. Non-treated control and nuggets with 1.0% LFP extract had significantly lower total phenolics than nuggets with 1.5% extract and BHT. TBARS values were significantly lower (p < 0.05) throughout the storage period in cooked meat nuggets containing either LFP extract or BHT than in non-treated control. Results indicate that LFP extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional food additives in meat products at 1.5% without affecting products’ acceptability. PMID:27213457

  14. Polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing genes, intakes of heterocyclic amines and red meat, and postmenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Jeung; Wu, Kana; Cox, David G; Hunter, David; Hankinson, Susan E; Willett, Walter C; Sinha, Rashmi; Cho, Eunyoung

    2013-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are mutagenic compounds generated when meats are cooked at high temperature and for long duration. The findings from previous studies on the relation between HCAs and breast cancer are inconsistent, possibly because of genetic variations in the enzymes metabolizing HCAs. To evaluate whether the associations of intakes of estimated HCAs, meat-derived mutagenicity (MDM), and red meat with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer were modified by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) acetylator genotype or cytochrome P450 1A2-164 A/C (CYP1A2) polymorphism, we conducted a nested case-control study with 579 cases and 981 controls within a prospective cohort, the Nurses' Health Study. HCAs and MDM intakes were derived using a cooking method questionnaire administered in 1996. NAT2acetylator genotype, the CYP1A2 polymorphism, and intakes of HCAs, MDM, and red meat were not associated with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. There was also no interaction between NAT2 acetylator genotype or CYP1A2 polymorphism and HCAs and MDM and red meat intake in relation to breast cancer. These results do not support the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic enzymes involved in the metabolism of HCAs may modify the associations between intakes of red meat or meat-related mutagens and breast cancer risk.

  15. Acoustoconvection Drying of Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of moisture extraction from meat samples by the acoustoconvection and thermoconvection methods has been investigated. To describe the dynamics of moisture extraction from meat, we propose a simple relaxation model with a relaxation time of 8-10 min in satisfactorily describing experimental data on acoustoconvection drying of meat. For thermoconvection drying the relaxation time is thereby 30 and 45 min for the longitudinal and transverse positions of fibers, respectively.

  16. Development and validation of methodologies for the quantification of phytosterols and phytosterol oxidation products in cooked and baked food products.

    PubMed

    Menéndez-Carreño, María; Knol, Diny; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2016-01-08

    Chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodologies for the analysis of the main phytosterols (PS) and phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) present in 19 different foodstuffs cooked or baked using margarines with or without added plant sterols are presented. Various methods for fat extraction were evaluated to allow the GC-MS analysis of large numbers of prepared vegetable, fish and meat products, egg and bakery items in a practically feasible manner. The optimized methods resulted in a good sensitivity and allowed the analysis of both PS and POPs in the broad selection of foods at a wide range of concentrations. Calibration curves for both PS and POPs showed correlation coefficients (R(2)) better than 0.99. Detection limits were below 0.24mgkg(-1) for PS and 0.02mgkg(-1) for POPs, respectively. Average recovery data were between 81% and 105.1% for PS and between 65.5 and 121.8% for POPs. Good results were obtained for within- and between-day repeatability, with most values being below 10%. Entire sample servings were analyzed, avoiding problems with inhomogeneity and making the method an exact representation of the typical use of the food by the consumer.

  17. Update on meat irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.

    1997-12-01

    The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

  18. Fish allergy: in review.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  19. Shelf life of cooked goat blood sausage prepared with the addition of heart and kidney.

    PubMed

    Silva, F A P; Amaral, D S; Guerra, I C D; Arcanjo, N M O; Bezerra, T K A; Ferreira, V C S; Araújo, I B S; Dalmás, P S; Madruga, M S

    2014-08-01

    This study focused on the effect of two packaging formats (vacuum packaging and over-wrap packaging) on the shelf life of cooked sausage prepared with blood, heart, kidney and goat meat fragments under storage at 4±1°C for a period of 90 days. The storage time and type of packaging significantly affected the chemical (pH, moisture, protein and TBARS number), physical (shear force) and microbial (mould and yeast) parameters of cooked sausage. Vacuum packaging maintained the microbiological and chemical qualities of cooked goat blood sausage for a longer period of time (63 days) compared to over-wrap packaging (41 days) and could be a viable alternative to refrigerated storage of the product for quality maintenance.

  20. Biofunctional Properties of Enzymatic Squid Meat Hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Sang Moo

    2015-01-01

    Squid is one of the most important commercial fishes in the world and is mainly utilized or consumed as sliced raw fish or as processed products. The biofunctional activities of enzymatic squid meat hydrolysate were determined to develop value-added products. Enzymatic squid hydrolysate manufactured by Alcalase effectively quenched 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide radical with IC50 values of 311, 3,410, and 111.5 μg/mL, respectively. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of squid hydrolysate was strong with an IC50 value of 145.1 μg/mL, while tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.72 mg/mL was moderately low. Overall, squid meat hydrolysate can be used in food or cosmetic industries as a bioactive ingredient and possibly be used in the manufacture of seasoning, bread, noodle, or cosmetics. PMID:25866752

  1. Use of meatpacking by-products in fish diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since fish meal is of limited supply and more expensive than most other protein sources, reducing its use in fish feeds will increase profits and improve sustainability of the aquaculture industry. Meat meal, meat and bone meal, and blood meal are by-products of the animal rendering industry and ar...

  2. The effect of quercetin dietary supplementation on meat oxidation processes and texture of fattening lambs.

    PubMed

    Andrés, S; Huerga, L; Mateo, J; Tejido, M L; Bodas, R; Morán, L; Prieto, N; Rotolo, L; Giráldez, F J

    2014-02-01

    Thirty two lambs were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) formulated either with palm oil (CTRL; 34 g palm oil kg(-1) TMR) or whole flaxseed (+FS, 85 g flaxseed kg(-1) TMR) alone or enriched with quercetin (+QCT, 34 g palm oil plus 2 g quercetin kg(-1) TMR; +FS+QCT, 85 g flaxseed plus 2 g quercetin kg(-1) TMR). Dietary flaxseed did not affect, in a significant manner, the lipid peroxidation of meat samples. Quercetin treatment reduced oxysterol content (P<0.05) after 7 days of refrigerated storage of fresh meat, but did not affect significantly (P>0.05) the level of lipid-derived volatiles in the headspace of the light-exposed stored cooked meat. Sensory evaluation showed flaxseed as being responsible for a negative effect on meat flavour, probably associated with a modification of the fatty acid profile whereas, unexpectedly, quercetin seemed to worsen meat tenderisation.

  3. Effects of meat addition on pasta structure, nutrition and in vitro digestibility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingting; Hamid, Nazimah; Kantono, Kevin; Pereira, Loveena; Farouk, Mustafa M; Knowles, Scott O

    2016-12-15

    In our study, semolina flour was substituted with beef emulsion (EM) at three different levels of 15, 30 and 45% (w/w) to develop a pasta with enhanced nutritional profile. The protein, fat, and water content significantly increased with addition of meat. The addition of meat enhanced the pasta gluten network. The redness and yellowness of cooked pasta increased with meat addition. Tensile strength increased from 0.018N/mm(2) in the control sample to 0.046N/mm(2) in 45% beef emulsion (45EM) sample. All meat-containing samples had significantly higher elasticity than control (0.039N/mm(2)). GI significantly decreased and IVPD value increased in 45EM sample. Five essential amino acids (leucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan) in pasta digesta increased significantly with increasing meat addition.

  4. Rapid visual detection of eight meat species using optical thin-film biosensor chips.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhu, Yepei; Chen, Ying; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-01-01

    Adulteration of meat products has become a very serious issue nowadays. To protect consumer rights, food labeling is required in many countries, and efficient and accurate detection methods are essential as well. This paper reports an innovative method for the rapid detection and identification of meat species based on a silicon-based optical thin-film biosensor chip with which color change results can be perceived by the naked eye without any expensive instruments. This biosensor system can simultaneously and specifically detect eight meat species, including deer, rabbit, duck, chicken, beef, horse, sheep, and pork. The absolute detection limit of this method was 0.5 pg of deer/beef DNA, and the practical detection limit was 0.001%. The biosensor detection can be completed within 30 min after PCR amplification. Therefore, this assay permits specific, sensitive, rapid, and simple detection of meat species in raw or cooked meat products.

  5. Development of chicken meat caruncles on the basis of sensory attributes: process optimization using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parminder; Sahoo, Jhari; Talwar, Gopika; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K

    2015-03-01

    A three factor Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology was employed to optimize spent hen meat level (600-700 g kg(-1)), oil level (25-75 g kg(-1)) and cooking time (3-5 min) for development of ready-to-eat chicken meat caruncles on the basis of sensory attributes - colour/appearance, flavour, crispiness, after-taste, meat flavour intensity and overall acceptability. The analysis of variance showed that meat and cooking time interaction showed significant effect (p < 0.01; p < 0.05; p < 0.1) on colour/appearance and crispiness of chicken meat caruncles. Quadratically meat level showed significantly higher effect (p < 0.01; p < 0.05; p < 0.1) on crispiness; and oil level and cooking time (p < 0.05; p < 0.1) on after-taste of chicken meat caruncles. Linearly meat level showed significantly higher (p < 0.05; p < 0.1) effect on colour/appearance, after-taste, meat flavour intensity and overall acceptability of chicken meat caruncles. The optimized conditions were: 650 g kg(-1) meat level, 50 g kg(-1) oil level and cooking time as 4 min. Among all sensory parameters, crispiness is one of the most important sensory parameters for meat snacks, which was highest (6.68) at the optimized conditions in the final product. The other sensory parameters ranged from 6.33 to 6.68 on an eight point scale. Box-Behnken design of RSM performed well in the optimization process of development of chicken meat caruncles to produce product with very high degree of acceptability. 650 g kg(-1) of spent hen meat level produced the most acceptable product in terms of sensory profile.

  6. Meat Science Made Practical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Marjorie P.

    1973-01-01

    A group of Extension specialists at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, adapted meat science courses for the particular needs of meat packing middle management, home economists, and families. Participant involvement in choosing the topics, timing, format, and scheduling contributed to the success of the program. (AG)

  7. The impact of red and processed meat consumption on cancer and other health outcomes: Epidemiological evidences.

    PubMed

    Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, L A; Luzardo, O P

    2016-06-01

    Meat is one of the staples of the human diet, which provides high-quality nutrients, but that also constitutes a relevant source of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids. Epidemiologic studies have linked consumption of red or processed meat with obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. Most epidemiological studies suggest that a high intake of meat, especially processed meat, is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. Potential reasons for the association between high meat intake and colorectal cancer risk include some chemicals naturally contained in meat, or generated by the processing and cooking. From the literature it can be concluded that there is enough epidemiological evidence linking processed meat intake and colorectal cancer risk, but there is limited evidence regarding unprocessed red meat intake and the disease. On the contrary, there is only limited evidence linking meat intake with other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes or other cancers. Nevertheless, the literature suggest that dietary intervention may be a promising approach for prevention of cancers of the colon, esophagus, liver, stomach and bladder, and type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which still need to be confirmed by further well designed prospective studies and experimental research.

  8. Processed meat and colorectal cancer: a review of epidemiologic and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Santarelli, Raphaëlle L; Pierre, Fabrice; Corpet, Denis E

    2008-01-01

    Processed meat intake may be involved in the etiology of colorectal cancer, a major cause of death in affluent countries. The epidemiologic studies published to date conclude that the excess risk in the highest category of processed meat-eaters is comprised between 20% and 50% compared with non-eaters. In addition, the excess risk per gram of intake is clearly higher than that of fresh red meat. Several hypotheses, which are mainly based on studies carried out on red meat, may explain why processed meat intake is linked to cancer risk. Those that have been tested experimentally are (i) that high-fat diets could promote carcinogenesis via insulin resistance or fecal bile acids; (ii) that cooking meat at a high temperature forms carcinogenic heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; (iii) that carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds are formed in meat and endogenously; (iv) that heme iron in red meat can promote carcinogenesis because it increases cell proliferation in the mucosa, through lipoperoxidation and/or cytotoxicity of fecal water. Nitrosation might increase the toxicity of heme in cured products. Solving this puzzle is a challenge that would permit to reduce cancer load by changing the processes rather than by banning processed meat.

  9. CARCINOGEN METABOLISM GENES, RED MEAT AND POULTRY INTAKE, AND COLORECTAL CANCER RISK

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Joshi, Amit D.; Corral, Román; Siegmund, Kimberly D.; Le Marchand, Loïc; Martinez, Maria Elena; Haile, Robert W.; Ahnen, Dennis J.; Sandler, Robert S.; Lance, Peter; Stern, Mariana C.

    2011-01-01

    Diets high in red meat are established risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). Carcinogenic compounds generated during meat cooking have been implicated as causal agents. We conducted a family-based case-control study to investigate the association between polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism genes (CYP1A2 -154A>C, CYP1B1 Leu432Val, CYP2E1 -1054C>T, GSTP1 Ile105Val, PTGS2 5UTR -765, EPHX1 Tyr113His, NAT2 Ile114Thr, NAT2 Arg197Gln and NAT2 Gly286Glu) and CRC risk. We tested for gene-environment interactions using case-only analyses (N = 577) and compared statistically significant results to those obtained using case-unaffected sibling comparisons (N = 307 sibships). Our results suggested that CYP1A2 -154A>C might modify the association between intake of red meat cooked using high temperature methods and well done on the inside and CRC risk (case-only interaction OR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.19-1.97; p = 0.0008) and the association between intake of red meat heavily browned on the outside and rectal cancer risk (case-only interaction OR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.48-0.86; p = 0.003). We also found that GSTP1 Ile105Val might modify the association between intake of poultry cooked with high temperature methods and CRC risk (p = 0.0035), a finding that was stronger among rectal cancer cases. Our results support a role for heterocyclic amines that form in red meat as a potential explanation for the observed association between diets high in red meat and CRC. Our findings also suggest a possible role for diets high in poultry cooked at high temperatures in CRC risk. PMID:21618522

  10. Effects of cooking on levels of PCBs in the fillets of winter flounder

    SciTech Connect

    Posten, T.M.; Durell, G.S.; Moya, J.; Garrahan, K.G.

    1994-12-31

    The consumption of contaminated fish has been shown to be a significant, pathway for human exposure. Risk assessors often assume that humans are exposed to the levels of contaminants in edible tissue of fish measured prior to preparation and cooking. This assumption may lead to overestimation or underestimation of risk since a particular cooking method may remove or transform toxic constituents in the flesh by thermal denaturation, vaporization, dissolution in aqueous tissue fluids or lipids that drip off the flesh, or extraction into cooling oil during deep fat frying. This paper presents and discusses the results of a study conducted to quantify the effect of preparation and cooking on PCB concentrations in the edible portion of winter flounder. The effects of broiling, pan frying, and deep frying in oil were tested on fillets from 21 fish. The change in total PCB concentrations and 18 specific PCB congeners was estimated using a mass-balance approach using the precooked PCB concentration on a wet-weight basis and the cooked concentration taking into account any change in fillet weight resulting from cooking. Deep frying in oil resulted in a 47% reduction in total PCB levels in fillet tissue, while pan frying and broiling did not result in a statistically significant difference in total PCB levels.

  11. 46 CFR 184.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 184.220 Section 184.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.220 Cooking...

  12. 46 CFR 184.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 184.220 Section 184.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.220 Cooking...

  13. 46 CFR 184.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 184.220 Section 184.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.220 Cooking...

  14. 46 CFR 184.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 184.220 Section 184.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.220 Cooking...

  15. 46 CFR 184.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 184.220 Section 184.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.220 Cooking...

  16. Haff Disease: Rhabdomyolysis After Eating Buffalo Fish

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Linda L.; Bies, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Haff disease, rhabdomyolysis after ingesting certain types of fish, was first reported in 1924 in Europe. There have been a limited number of cases reported in the United States. We present the case of a patient who presents with symptoms of rhabdomyolysis after eating cooked buffalo fish purchased at a suburban grocery market. PMID:25247039

  17. How do you want your steak prepared? The impact of meat consumption and preparation on prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Figg, William D

    2012-10-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have suggested dietary factors may alter the risk of prostate cancer. Punnen and colleagues have conducted a case-control study focused on aggressive prostate cancer (N = 982), where not only details on meat consumption were collected, but also meat preparation was captured. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the association between meat consumption, grilled meat consumption, doneness level, mutagens and aggressive prostate cancer. High consumption of processed meat, including ground beef, was associated with aggressive prostate cancer. Ground beef showed the strongest association (overall risk, OR = 2.30, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.39-3.81; P-trend = 0.002). Well-done meat conferred a higher risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Interestingly, the consumption of rare or less cooked meat was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. When the investigators evaluated the estimated meat mutagens produced by cooking at high temperatures, they identified an increased risk with MelQx and DiMelQx, OR = 1.69 95% CI: 1.08-2.64, P-trend = 0.02 and OR = 1.53 95% CI: 1.00-2.35, P-trend = 0.005, respectively.

  18. Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y; Eliassen, A. Heather; Willett, Walter C

    2015-01-01

    The breast is particularly vulnerable to carcinogenic influences during adolescence due to rapid proliferation of mammary cells and lack of terminal differentiation. We investigated consumption of adolescent red meat and other protein sources in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. We followed prospectively 44,231 women aged 33-52 years who, in 1998, completed a detailed questionnaire about diet during adolescence. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. We documented 1132 breast cancer cases during 13-year follow-up. In multivariable Cox regression models with major breast cancer risk factors adjustment, greater consumption of adolescent total red meat was significantly associated with higher premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs lowest quintiles, RR, 1.42; 95%CI, 1.05-1.94; Ptrend=0.007), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. Adolescent poultry intake was associated with lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.75; 95%CI, 0.59-0.96; for each serving/day). Adolescent intakes of iron, heme iron, fish, eggs, legumes and nuts were not associated with breast cancer. Replacement of one serving/day of total red meat with one serving of combination of poultry, fish, legumes, and nuts was associated with a 16% lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.84; 95%CI, 0.74-0.96) and a 24% lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR, 0.76; 95%CI, 0.64-0.92). Higher consumption of red meat during adolescence was associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Substituting other dietary protein sources for red meat in adolescent diet may decrease premenopausal breast cancer risk. PMID:25220168

  19. Real-Time PCR Methods for Detection of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens in Meat and Meat Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Marta; Hansen, Flemming; Cook, Nigel; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    As a consequence of the potential hazards posed by the presence of microbial pathogens, microbiological quality control programmes are being increasingly applied throughout the meat production chain in order to minimize the risk of infection for the consumer. Classical microbiological methods to detect the presence of microorganisms, involving enrichment and isolation of presumptive colonies of bacteria on solid media, and final confirmation by biochemical and/or serological identification, although remaining the approach of choice in routine analytical laboratories, can be laborious and time consuming. The adoption of molecular techniques in microbial diagnostics has become a promising alternative approach, as they possess inherent advantages such as shorter time to results, excellent detection limits, specificity and potential for automation. Several molecular detection techniques have been devised in the last two decades, such as nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) (Cook, 2003; Rodriguez-Lazaro, Hernandez, D’Agostino, & Cook, 2006) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (Notomi et al., 2000), but the one which has undergone the most extensive development as a practical food analytical tool is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Hoorfar & Cook, 2003; Malorny, Tassios, et al., 2003).

  20. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-102) - Yakima Tributary Access and Habitat Program – Ellensburg Water Company/ Cooke Creek Diversion Project

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Shannon C.

    2003-01-17

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund a canal-stream crossing and fish screen improvement project on Cooke Creek in Kittitas County, Washington. The project proposes to place the Ellensburg Water Company’s (EWC) main canal into a siphon passing underneath Cooke Creek, to build a fish screen on the EWC diversion on Cooke Creek, and to restore the Cooke Creek channel to a more natural state. The goal of this project is to improve fish habitat conditions in the Yakima River Basin and to protect ESA listed Mid-Columbia steelhead and bull trout. This project is part of the Yakima Tributary Access and Habitat Program, which works with landowners, water purveyors, and municipalities to restore fish passage to Yakima River tributaries that historically supported salmonids and to improve habitat in areas where access is restored.

  1. Indoor terpene emissions from cooking with herbs and pepper and their secondary organic aerosol production potential.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Farren, Naomi J; Bozzetti, Carlo; Daellenbach, Kaspar R; Kilic, Dogushan; Kumar, Nivedita K; Pieber, Simone M; Slowik, Jay G; Tuthill, Rosemary N; Hamilton, Jacqueline F; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S H; El Haddad, Imad

    2016-11-10

    Cooking is widely recognized as an important source of indoor and outdoor particle and volatile organic compound emissions with potential deleterious effects on human health. Nevertheless, cooking emissions remain poorly characterized. Here the effect of herbs and pepper on cooking emissions was investigated for the first time to the best of our knowledge using state of the art mass spectrometric analysis of particle and gas-phase composition. Further, the secondary organic aerosol production potential of the gas-phase emissions was determined by smog chamber aging experiments. The emissions of frying meat with herbs and pepper include large amounts of mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes as well as various terpenoids and p-cymene. The average total terpene emission rate from the use of herbs and pepper during cooking is estimated to be 46 ± 5 gg(-1)Herbs min(-1). These compounds are highly reactive in the atmosphere and lead to significant amounts of secondary organic aerosol upon aging. In summary we demonstrate that cooking with condiments can constitute an important yet overlooked source of terpenes in indoor air.

  2. Indoor terpene emissions from cooking with herbs and pepper and their secondary organic aerosol production potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Felix; Farren, Naomi J.; Bozzetti, Carlo; Daellenbach, Kaspar R.; Kilic, Dogushan; Kumar, Nivedita K.; Pieber, Simone M.; Slowik, Jay G.; Tuthill, Rosemary N.; Hamilton, Jacqueline F.; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.; El Haddad, Imad

    2016-11-01

    Cooking is widely recognized as an important source of indoor and outdoor particle and volatile organic compound emissions with potential deleterious effects on human health. Nevertheless, cooking emissions remain poorly characterized. Here the effect of herbs and pepper on cooking emissions was investigated for the first time to the best of our knowledge using state of the art mass spectrometric analysis of particle and gas-phase composition. Further, the secondary organic aerosol production potential of the gas-phase emissions was determined by smog chamber aging experiments. The emissions of frying meat with herbs and pepper include large amounts of mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes as well as various terpenoids and p-cymene. The average total terpene emission rate from the use of herbs and pepper during cooking is estimated to be 46 ± 5 gg-1Herbs min-1. These compounds are highly reactive in the atmosphere and lead to significant amounts of secondary organic aerosol upon aging. In summary we demonstrate that cooking with condiments can constitute an important yet overlooked source of terpenes in indoor air.

  3. The effect of cooking on veterinary drug residues in food: 4. Oxytetracycline.

    PubMed

    Rose, M D; Bygrave, J; Farrington, W H; Shearer, G

    1996-04-01

    The heat stability of oxytetracycline (OTC) in water and vegetable oil was investigated. Results showed that the drug was unstable in water at 100 degrees C with a half-life of about 2 min, but more stable in oil at 180 degrees C where the half-life was about 8 min. The effect of a range of cooking processes including microwaving, boiling, roasting, grilling, braising and frying on OTC residues in incurred animal tissues was investigated. Substantial net reductions in OTC of 35-94% were observed, with temperature during cooking having the largest impact on the loss. Migration from the tissue into the surrounding liquid or meat juices was observed during the cooking processes. Diode-array analysis of heat-treated OTC standard solutions indicated that no individual closely related compound such as 4-epioxytetracycline, alpha- or beta-apooxytetracycline formed a significant proportion of the breakdown products. OTC was not evenly distributed throughout the tissue, but the effects of this were minimized by selecting adjacent samples for cooking and for the raw control. The findings of this investigation showed that the effect of cooking on residues of OTC should be considered before data obtained from measurements on raw tissue are used for consumer exposure estimates and dietary intake calculations.

  4. Indoor terpene emissions from cooking with herbs and pepper and their secondary organic aerosol production potential

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Felix; Farren, Naomi J.; Bozzetti, Carlo; Daellenbach, Kaspar R.; Kilic, Dogushan; Kumar, Nivedita K.; Pieber, Simone M.; Slowik, Jay G.; Tuthill, Rosemary N.; Hamilton, Jacqueline F.; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.; El Haddad, Imad

    2016-01-01

    Cooking is widely recognized as an important source of indoor and outdoor particle and volatile organic compound emissions with potential deleterious effects on human health. Nevertheless, cooking emissions remain poorly characterized. Here the effect of herbs and pepper on cooking emissions was investigated for the first time to the best of our knowledge using state of the art mass spectrometric analysis of particle and gas-phase composition. Further, the secondary organic aerosol production potential of the gas-phase emissions was determined by smog chamber aging experiments. The emissions of frying meat with herbs and pepper include large amounts of mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes as well as various terpenoids and p-cymene. The average total terpene emission rate from the use of herbs and pepper during cooking is estimated to be 46 ± 5 gg-1Herbs min-1. These compounds are highly reactive in the atmosphere and lead to significant amounts of secondary organic aerosol upon aging. In summary we demonstrate that cooking with condiments can constitute an important yet overlooked source of terpenes in indoor air. PMID:27830718

  5. High intake of heterocyclic amines from meat is associated with oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A M; Miranda, A M; Santos, F A; Loureiro, A P M; Fisberg, R M; Marchioni, D M

    2015-04-28

    High meat intake has been related to chronic diseases such as cancer and CVD. One hypothesis is that heterocyclic amines (HCA), which are formed during the cooking process of meat, can generate reactive species. These compounds can cause oxidation of lipids, proteins and DNA, resulting in oxidative stress, cell damage and loss of biological function. This association has been seen in vitro; however, it remains unclear in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between oxidative stress and HCA intake, and oxidative stress and meat intake. Data were from the Health Survey for Sao Paulo--ISA-Capital (561 adult and elderly). Food intake was estimated by one 24-h dietary recall (24HR) complemented by a detailed FFQ with preferences of cooking methods and level of doneness for meat. HCA intake was estimated linking the meat from the 24HR to a database of HCA. Oxidative stress was estimated by malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the plasma, after derivatisation with thiobarbituric acid and quantification by HPLC/diode array. Analyses were performed using multivariate logistic regressions adjusted for smoking, sex, age, BMI, skin colour, energy intake, fruit and vegetable intake, and physical activity. A positive association between HCA intake and MDA concentration (OR 1·17; 95% CI 1·01, 1·38) was observed, showing that HCA from meat may contribute to increase oxidative stress, and may consequently increase the risk of chronic diseases.

  6. The effect of curdlan on the rheological properties of restructured ribbonfish (Trichiurus spp.) meat gel.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunhua; Yuan, Chunhong; Chen, Shiguo; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian; Hu, Yaqin

    2015-07-15

    The influence of curdlan at different levels, as well as the method of addition, on the viscoelastic characteristics of ribbonfish meat gel was investigated. From a small amplitude oscillatory shear analysis (SAOA), a variety of viscoelastic parameters were established and identified to measure the intensity of the interactions between curdlan and protein in the fish meat gel network structure. The results of water holding capacity, texture, sensory property and microstructure analyses were strongly in agreement with the rheology data, suggesting that SAOA might be an appropriate method for the industrial assessment of the quality of fish meat gel. Additionally, the recombination mechanism of the complex system formed by the fish protein and curdlan was also clarified. Compared with the irreversible curdlan gel samples, the addition of reversible curdlan gel to the fish meat gel formed a much denser cross-linked interpenetrating structure, which led to a more stable and ordered three-dimensional gel complex.

  7. Meat quality of lamb frozen stored up to 21 months: instrumental analyses on thawed meat during display.

    PubMed

    Muela, E; Monge, P; Sañudo, C; Campo, M M; Beltrán, J A

    2015-04-01

    The study analysed the effect of frozen storage duration (FSD: 0, 1, 9, 15 or 21 months) and display duration (DD: 0-24 h post-slaughter-, 3 and 6 days) in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on lamb quality. pH, colour, lipid oxidation, water holding capacity and instrumental texture were performed on Longissimus muscle in displayed fresh and thawed meat. FSD affected all the variables showing lower differences between fresh and 1 month storage than among them and longer FSD. Only cooking losses were not affected by DD in thawed meats. It was observed a general decrease in quality (lower redness and water holding capacity; higher yellowness and lipid oxidation) as FSD or DD increased and only texture was improved over DD being thawed meat more tender. In conclusion, lamb storage at -18°C should not exceed 1 month if thawed meat would be later displayed in MAP while meat would have an acceptable quality up to 21 months without subsequent display.

  8. The effect of cooking on veterinary drug residues in food: 3. Sulphamethazine (sulphadimidine).

    PubMed

    Rose, M D; Farrington, W H; Shearer, G

    1995-01-01

    The heat stability of sulphamethazine was investigated. The drug was shown to be stable in boiling water at 100 degrees C. In cooking oil at 260 degrees C, losses were observed, indicating a half-life of about 5 min. At 180 degrees C in cooking oil, sulphamethazine was unstable with a half-life of about 2 h. The effect of a range of cooking processes (boiling, roasting, grilling, frying, pressure cooking and microwaving) on sulphamethazine residues in incurred animal tissue was studied. Once allowance for weight loss during cooking had been made no net unaccountable change in concentration of sulphamethazine was observed in any of the cooking processes investigated. During frozen storage, sulphamethazine residues were found to be stable over a period of 3 months. It was found during this investigation that the method used for analysis which involved acid extraction converted the N4-metabolites to parent sulphamethazine, and hence only sulphamethazine was measured. Sulphamethazine was found to be evenly distributed in the raw incurred tissue used for analysis. Migration from the tissue into the surrounding liquid or meat juices was observed during the cooking process. The findings of this investigation show that surveillance data obtained from measurements on raw tissue are applicable for use in consumer exposure and dietary intake calculations, but only if an acidic extraction method which converts the N4-metabolites to parent sulphamethazine is used for the surveillance. This may not however conform to current Maximum Residue Limit legislation which refers to total parent sulphonamides. Different methods of analysis for sulphonamides are likely to give rise to inter-laboratory variation.

  9. Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis during cooking of hamburger patties.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Philipp; Walte, Hans-Georg C; Matzen, Sönke; Hensel, Jann; Kiesner, Christian

    2013-07-01

    The role of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in Crohn's disease in humans has been debated for many years. Milk and milk products have been suggested as possible vectors for transmission since the beginning of this debate, whereas recent publications show that slaughtered cattle and their carcasses, meat, and organs can also serve as reservoirs for MAP transmission. The objective of this study was to generate heat-inactivation data for MAP during the cooking of hamburger patties. Hamburger patties of lean ground beef weighing 70 and 50 g were cooked for 6, 5, 4, 3, and 2 min, which were sterilized by irradiation and spiked with three different MAP strains at levels between 10² and 10⁶ CFU/ml. Single-sided cooking with one flip was applied, and the temperatures within the patties were recorded by seven thermocouples. Counting of the surviving bacteria was performed by direct plating onto Herrold's egg yolk medium and a three-vial most-probable-number method by using modified Dubos medium. There was considerable variability in temperature throughout the patties during frying. In addition, the log reduction in MAP numbers showed strong variations. In patties weighing 70 g, considerable bacterial reduction of 4 log or larger could only be achieved after 6 min of cooking. For all other cooking times, the bacterial reduction was less than 2 log. Patties weighing 50 g showed a 5-log or larger reduction after cooking times of 5 and 6 min. To determine the inactivation kinetics, a log-linear regression model was used, showing a constant decrease of MAP numbers over cooking time.

  10. Residual triose phosphate isomerase activity and color measurements to determine adequate cooking of ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Sair, A I; Booren, A M; Berry, B W; Smith, D M

    1999-02-01

    The objectives were to (i) compare the use of triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) activity and internal color scores for determination of cooking adequacy of beef patties and (ii) determine the effect of frozen storage and fat content on residual TPI activity in ground beef. Ground beef patties (24.4% fat) were cooked to five temperatures ranging from 60.0 to 82.2 degrees C. TPI activity decreased as beef patty cooking temperature was increased from 60.0 to 71.1 degrees C; however, no difference (P > 0.05) in activity (6.3 U/kg meat) was observed in patties cooked to 71.1 degrees C and above. Degree of doneness color scores, a* values and b* values, of ground beef patties decreased as internal temperature was increased from 60.0 to 71.1 degrees C; however, temperature had no effect on L* values. TPI activity in raw ground beef after five freeze-thaw cycles did not differ from the control. Three freeze-thaw cycles of raw ground beef resulted in a 57.2% decrease in TPI activity after cooking. TPI activity of cooked beef increased during 2 months of frozen storage, but TPI activity in ground beef stored for 3 months or longer did not differ from the unfrozen control. While past research has shown color to be a poor indicator of adequate thermal processing, our results suggest that undercooked ground beef patties could be distinguished from those that had been adequately cooked following U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines using residual TPI activity as a marker.

  11. Effect of precooking and polyphosphate treatment on the quality of microwave cooked catfish fillets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the US market place there are many examples of precooked poultry products designed to be reheated in a microwave oven and, to a lesser extent, fish products such as tilapia. However, few US catfish products are designed to be microwave cooked or reheated. The first objective of this study was t...

  12. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Powder

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. H.; Kang, S. N.; Shin, D.; Shim, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP) in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP), antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol), 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP), 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP), and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP). Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05). Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05). These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks. PMID:25557678

  13. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Powder.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Kang, S N; Shin, D; Shim, K S

    2015-01-01

    One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP) in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP), antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol), 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP), 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP), and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP). Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05). Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05). These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks.

  14. Influence of infrared final cooking on color, texture and cooking characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked meatball.

    PubMed

    Turp, Gulen Yildiz; Icier, Filiz; Kor, Gamze

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to improve the quality characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs via infrared cooking as a final stage. Samples were pre-cooked in a specially designed-continuous type ohmic cooker at a voltage gradient of 15.26 V/cm for 92 s. Infrared cooking was then applied to the pre-cooked samples at different combinations of heat fluxes (3.706, 5.678, and 8.475 kW/m(2)), application distances (10.5, 13.5, and 16.5 cm) and application durations (4, 8, and 12min). Effects of these parameters on color, texture and cooking characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs were investigated. The appearance of ohmically pre-cooked meatball samples was improved via infrared heating. A dark brown layer desired in cooked meatballs formed on the surface of the meatballs with lowest application distance (10.5 cm) and longest application duration (12 min). The texture of the samples was also improved with these parameters. However the cooking yield of the samples decreased at the longest application duration of infrared heating.

  15. Thermal inactivation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in cubed beef steaks following cooking on an electric skillet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cubed steak is an eye round steak that has been mechanically tenderized to make it more desirable for the consumer. Since it is a non-intact product, it should be cooked like ground beef due to possible translocation of bacteria into the deeper tissues of the meat as a result of the tenderization pr...

  16. Thermal Destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Sous-vide Cooked Ground Beef as affected by Tea Leaf and Apple Skin Powders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the heat resistance of a four-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in raw ground beef in both the absence and presence of white and green tea powders and an apple skin extract. Inoculated meat, packaged in bags, was completely immersed in a circulating water bath and cooked fo...

  17. Effect of Pre-cooking Conditions on the Quality Characteristics of Ready-To-Eat Samgyetang

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of pre-cooking conditions on the quality characteristics of ready-to-eat (RTE) Samgyetang. Raw chickens were steamed under the different conditions of 50℃/30 min (T1), 65℃/30 min (T2), 85℃/30 min (T3), and 90℃/10 min (T4) prior to retorting at 120℃ for 65 min. The results showed that pre-cooking conditions in all treated samples could reduce fat contents in breast and leg meats by 8.5-11.7% and 10.0-11.0% compared to the control, even though there were no significant differences among treatments (p>0.05). The L* and b* values of breast and leg meats treated with the higher temperature and longer time conditions were significantly higher than the control (p<0.05), while a* values tended to decrease despite of not to a significant extent (p>0.05). Moreover, apparent viscosity and water soluble protein showed insignificant differences (p>0.05) among the samples as a result of the retorting process, which might have more negative influences on the quality. T2 samples obtained significantly the highest average Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) score and transmittance value, representing the most clear broth among the samples, compared to the control. On the other hand, T3 showed the highest cooking loss among the treatments and the lowest QDA scores among the samples. In conclusion, pre-cooking treatment prior to retorting in manufacturing Samgyetang is a plausible way to reduce its fat content. A pre-cooking condition at either 65℃ for 30 min, or 90℃ for 10 min are recommended for producing Samgyetang with optimum quality. PMID:26761871

  18. [Fatty acid variation in yellowfin tuna, spotted weakfish and Florida pompano when submitted to six cooking techniques].

    PubMed

    Castro-González, María Isabel; Maafs-Rodríguez, Ana Gabriela; Romo Pérez-Gil, Fernando

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of six cooking techniques (steamed, foiled, foiled with banana leaf, baked, microwave-cooked and light frying) in the fatty acid content of Thunnus albacore (yellowfin tuna), Cynoscionnebulosus (spotted weakfish) and Trachinotuscarolinus (Florida pompano). After cooking the fish fillets, fatty acid analyses were performed using gas chromatography. Total lipids increased in all cooking techniques in tunaand spotted weakfish. Saturated fatty acids of tuna and spotted weakfish increased in three cooking techniques, while in Florida pompano only gas oven raised their content. Lightly frying generated the highest content of n-3 in tuna and spotted weakfish, and the lowest in Florida pompano, specie that presented less variation. In tuna fish, the most recommended cooking techniques are foiled with aluminum and microwave oven; for spotted weakfish, foiled with banana leaf; while Florida pompano can be prepared using all cooking methods except gas oven. This information is useful to enrich data from chemical composition tables, in which concentrations are usually presented in raw food.

  19. Differences between spent hens of different genotype in performance, meat yield and suitability of the meat for sausage production.

    PubMed

    Loetscher, Y; Albiker, D; Stephan, R; Kreuzer, M; Messikommer, R E

    2015-02-01

    The valorization of spent hens via the food chain has some major limitations, which include low meat yield and tough meat. The latter issue can be overcome by producing convenience foods; the first may be alleviated by employing a genotype with higher meatiness. To quantitatively compare two common layer genotypes in production performance, meat yield and sausage quality, 2200 57 weeks old Institut de Sélection Animale (ISA) Warren and Dekalb White hens each were investigated during the last 60 days of egg laying. The hens were housed in an aviary system in 2×10 compartments (10 compartments/each genotype). Measurements included feed intake, laying performance, egg weight and feed conversion ratio as measured per compartment. BW was determined twice on 10 animals per compartment. Finally, two sub-groups of five hens per compartment were slaughtered, meat yield was recorded and bratwurst-type sausages were produced (n=20 per genotype). Fat proportion, cooking loss, connective tissue properties and Kramer shear energy were measured. After 1, 4, 7 and 10 months of frozen storage, oxidative stability (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) and microbiological status were determined as shelf-life related criteria. ANOVA was performed considering genotype as the main effect. The ISA Warren hens were inferior in laying performance (-11%) and feed conversion ratio (+10%) compared with Dekalb White, but had the same feed intake. The ISA Warren had higher BW and carcass weight than the Dekalb White. Carcass yield was higher by 5.9%. There were 80 g (23%) more meat available for sausage production from ISA Warren compared with Dekalb White. Sausages prepared from meat of ISA Warren hens contained less fat than those from Dekalb White, but showed the same cooking loss. Although the collagen proportion of the sausages produced from ISA Warren was lower than from Dekalb White, collagen solubility was lower and shear energy was higher. During the 10 months of frozen

  20. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Smoked Meats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimko, Peter

    Meat smoking belongs to the oldest food technologies that has been used by mankind at minimum for 10,000 years. Probably a protection against canines led a man to hung a catch over the fire and from this time the smoking has started to be widely used not only for production of smoked products with a special organoleptic profile, but also for inactivating effects on enzymes and microorganisms. So far, techniques of smoking have been gradually improved and various procedures have been developed in different regions for treating meat and fish. Nowadays, the technology is used mainly for enrichment of foods with specific taste, odor, and appearance to be demanded widely on the market. On the other hand, the role of the preservative effects is going down gradually with regard to the latest trends in alternative preservation procedures. Today it is supposed that the technology is applied in many forms to treat 40-60% of the total amount of meat products (Sikorski, 2004) and 15% of fish (Stołyhwo & Sikorski, 2005).