Science.gov

Sample records for cool ideas hot

  1. "Hot" for Warm Water Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    IBM Corporation; Energy Efficient HPC Working Group; Hewlett Packard Corporation; SGI; Cray Inc.; Intel Corporation; U.S. Army Engineer Research Development Center; Coles, Henry; Ellsworth, Michael; Martinez, David J.; Bailey, Anna-Maria; Banisadr, Farhad; Bates, Natalie; Coghlan, Susan; Cowley, David E.; Dube, Nicholas; Fields, Parks; Greenberg, Steve; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Kulesza, Peter R.; Loncaric, Josip; McCann, Tim; Pautsch, Greg; Patterson, Michael K.; Rivera, Richard G.; Rottman, Greg K.; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William; Vinson, Wade; Wescott, Ralph

    2011-08-26

    Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and remains on the roadmap for the foreseeable future. This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders of magnitude larger than that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transition from air to liquid cooling is an inflection point providing an opportunity to work collectively to set guidelines for facilitating the energy efficiency of liquid-cooled High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities and systems. The vision is to use non-compressor-based cooling, to facilitate heat re-use, and thereby build solutions that are more energy-efficient, less carbon intensive and more cost effective than their air-cooled predecessors. The Energy Efficient HPC Working Group is developing guidelines for warmer liquid-cooling temperatures in order to standardize facility and HPC equipment, and provide more opportunity for reuse of waste heat. This report describes the development of those guidelines.

  2. PBF Cooling Tower. Hot deck of Cooling Tower with fan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower. Hot deck of Cooling Tower with fan motors in place. Fan's propeller blades (not in view) rotate within lower portion of vents. Inlet pipe is a left of view. Contractor's construction buildings in view to right. Photographer: Larry Page. Date: June 30, 1969. INEEL negative no. 69-3781 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Hot gas path component cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Bunker, Ronald Scott; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2014-02-18

    A cooling system for a hot gas path component is disclosed. The cooling system may include a component layer and a cover layer. The component layer may include a first inner surface and a second outer surface. The second outer surface may define a plurality of channels. The component layer may further define a plurality of passages extending generally between the first inner surface and the second outer surface. Each of the plurality of channels may be fluidly connected to at least one of the plurality of passages. The cover layer may be situated adjacent the second outer surface of the component layer. The plurality of passages may be configured to flow a cooling medium to the plurality of channels and provide impingement cooling to the cover layer. The plurality of channels may be configured to flow cooling medium therethrough, cooling the cover layer.

  4. Cooling of hot electrons in amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderhaghen, R.; Hulin, D.; Cuzeau, S.; White, J.O.

    1997-07-01

    Measurements of the cooling rate of hot carriers in amorphous silicon are made with a two-pump, one-probe technique. The experiment is simulated with a rate-equation model describing the energy transfer between a population of hot carriers and the lattice. An energy transfer rate proportional to the temperature difference is found to be consistent with the experimental data while an energy transfer independent of the temperature difference is not. This contrasts with the situation in crystalline silicon. The measured cooling rates are sufficient to explain the difficulty in observing avalanche effects in amorphous silicon.

  5. Cool and hot flux ropes, their helicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nindos, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    We will review recent indirect and direct evidence for the existence of magnetic flux ropes in the solar atmosphere. Magnetic flux ropes may appear as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped (sigmoidal) structures in regions that are likely to erupt, and may also show in nonlinear force-free field extrapolations that use data from photospheric vector magnetograms as boundary condition. The availability of high sensitivity data recorded with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution in hot EUV wavelengths by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has revealed the existence of coherent structures identified as hot flux ropes. In this presentation, we will review the properties of both cool and hot flux ropes with an emphasis on the frequency of their occurrence in large flares and on their magnetic helicity content.

  6. Coma Cluster: Hot and Cool Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizaka, Chiharu; Mineshige, Shin

    1996-06-01

    ASCA has revealed a rather complex temperature structure in the intraclus ter medium (ICM) around the Coma cluster. Significantly, hot parts (with kT g eq 10 keV) are located far ( ~ 1 Mpc) distant from both the center of the Coma cluster and the galaxy group NGC 4839. There also exist relatively cool re gions (with kT <~ 5 keV). Using N-body + Hydrodynamic simulations, w e have demonstrated that such an observed temperature distribution is naturally accounted for if the subgroup NGC 4839 passed through the center of the Coma c luster about 1 Gyr ago, which was first proposed by Burns et al. When the subc luster passed through the Coma cluster, the ICM in the subcluster was compresse d due to the ram pressure by the ICM in the Coma, and there formed a bow shock with an arc shape just between the two centers. The ICM has thus been heated th ere, emitting hard radiation. A part of the ICM is reflected by the shock front , and flows backward (with respect to the! direction of the subcluster motio n) around the Coma cluster center, being cooled due to an adiabatic expansion. After detouring the center, cooled gas collides with each other at the opposit e side of the Coma cluster (to the place of the subcluster), producing another hot region. These simulate d features are in good agreement with what ASCA found. Further, we present rath er unique features in the temperature profiles that can be caused by a merger ( or an encounter) with a subgroup of galaxies.

  7. 10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN COOLING ROOM. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN COOLING ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  8. 7. COOLING TOWER FROM ROOF. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. COOLING TOWER FROM ROOF. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Quapaw Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  9. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems, including potable hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, D.; Oonk, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Progress made in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is reported. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition. A comparison of the proposed Solaron Heat Pump and Solar Desiccant Heating and Cooling Systems, installation drawings, data on the Akron House at Akron, Ohio, and other program activities are included.

  10. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consisted of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  11. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    These combined quarterly reports summarize the activities from November 1977 through September 1978, and over the progress made in the development, delivery and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  12. Post-exercise cooling techniques in hot, humid conditions.

    PubMed

    Barwood, Martin James; Davey, Sarah; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J

    2009-11-01

    Major sporting events are often held in hot and humid environmental conditions. Cooling techniques have been used to reduce the risk of heat illness following exercise. This study compared the efficacy of five cooling techniques, hand immersion (HI), whole body fanning (WBF), an air cooled garment (ACG), a liquid cooled garment (LCG) and a phase change garment (PCG), against a natural cooling control condition (CON) over two periods between and following exercise bouts in 31 degrees C, 70%RH air. Nine males [age 22 (3) years; height 1.80 (0.04) m; mass 69.80 (7.10) kg] exercised on a treadmill at a maximal sustainable work intensity until rectal temperature (T (re)) reached 38.5 degrees C following which they underwent a resting recovery (0-15 min; COOL 1). They then recommenced exercise until T (re) again reached 38.5 degrees C and then undertook 30 min of cooling with (0-15 min; COOL 2A), and without face fanning (15-30 min; COOL 2B). Based on mean body temperature changes (COOL 1), WBF was most effective in extracting heat: CON 99 W; WBF: 235 W; PCG: 141 W; HI: 162 W; ACG: 101 W; LCG: 49 W) as a consequence of evaporating more sweat. Therefore, WBF represents a cheap and practical means of post-exercise cooling in hot, humid conditions in a sporting setting.

  13. Cooling scheme for turbine hot parts

    DOEpatents

    Hultgren, Kent Goran; Owen, Brian Charles; Dowman, Steven Wayne; Nordlund, Raymond Scott; Smith, Ricky Lee

    2000-01-01

    A closed-loop cooling scheme for cooling stationary combustion turbine components, such as vanes, ring segments and transitions, is provided. The cooling scheme comprises: (1) an annular coolant inlet chamber, situated between the cylinder and blade ring of a turbine, for housing coolant before being distributed to the turbine components; (2) an annular coolant exhaust chamber, situated between the cylinder and the blade ring and proximate the annular coolant inlet chamber, for collecting coolant exhaust from the turbine components; (3) a coolant inlet conduit for supplying the coolant to said coolant inlet chamber; (4) a coolant exhaust conduit for directing coolant from said coolant exhaust chamber; and (5) a piping arrangement for distributing the coolant to and directing coolant exhaust from the turbine components. In preferred embodiments of the invention, the cooling scheme further comprises static seals for sealing the blade ring to the cylinder and flexible joints for attaching the blade ring to the turbine components.

  14. Cooling system optimization analysis for hot forming processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoo, Bonyoung; Umezu, Yasuyoshi; Watanabe, Yuko

    2013-12-01

    Hot forming technology was developed to produce automotive panels having ultra-high tensile stress over 1500MPa. The elevated temperature corresponds with decreased flow stress and increased ductility. Furthermore, hot forming products have almost zero springback amounts. This advanced forming technology accelerates the needs for numerical simulations coupling with thermal-mechanical formulations. In the present study, 3-dimensional finite element analyses for hot forming processes are conducted using JSTAMP/NV and LS-DYNA considering cooling system. Special attention is paid to the optimization of cooling system using thermo-mechanical finite element analysis through the influence of various cooling parameters. The presented work shows an adequate cooling system functions and microstructural phase transformation material model together with a proper set of numerical parameters can give both efficient and accurate design insight in hot forming manufacturing process. JSTAMP/NV and LS-DYNA can become a robust combination set for complex hot forming analysis which needs thermo-mechanical and microstructural material modeling and various process modeling. The use of the new JSTAMP/NV function for multishot manufacturing process is shown good capabilities in cooling system evaluation. And the use of the advanced LS-DYNA microstructural phase transformation model is shown good evaluation results in martensite amount and Vickers hardness after quenching.

  15. Plasmas are Hot and Fusion is Cool

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Plasmas are Hot and Fusion is Cold. The DOE Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) collaborates to develop fusion as a safe, clean and abundant energy source for the future. This video discusses PPPL's research and development on plasma, the fourth state of matter.

  16. Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-02-07

    A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

  17. Keeping one's cool when things hot up.

    PubMed

    Spolnik, Adam; Metcalfe, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Hospitals and healthcare facilities use a variety of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment for a wide range of applications. Here, in our latest technical guidance article, presented in a 'Question and Answer'-type format, Adam Spolnik, director, and Richard Metcalfe, sales director, of temperature control specialist, ICS Cool Energy, focus on some of the key priorities, maintenance-wise, to get the optimum performance from chillers and HVAC components, and identify the units that perform best for particular healthcare applications. They also consider how careful stewardship and proper maintenance of such equipment can help cut carbon footprint, and highlight some of the key regulations that estates teams operating such plant need to ensure they are familiar with. PMID:24137991

  18. Keeping one's cool when things hot up.

    PubMed

    Spolnik, Adam; Metcalfe, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Hospitals and healthcare facilities use a variety of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment for a wide range of applications. Here, in our latest technical guidance article, presented in a 'Question and Answer'-type format, Adam Spolnik, director, and Richard Metcalfe, sales director, of temperature control specialist, ICS Cool Energy, focus on some of the key priorities, maintenance-wise, to get the optimum performance from chillers and HVAC components, and identify the units that perform best for particular healthcare applications. They also consider how careful stewardship and proper maintenance of such equipment can help cut carbon footprint, and highlight some of the key regulations that estates teams operating such plant need to ensure they are familiar with.

  19. Who's bringing you hot ideas and how are you responding?

    PubMed

    Davenport, Thomas H; Prusak, Laurence; Wilson, H James

    2003-02-01

    There's an unsung hero in your organization. It's the person who's bringing in new ideas from the outside about how to manage better. These aren't your product and service innovators--those people are celebrated loudly and often. This is the manager who, for instance, first uttered the phrase "balance scorecard" in your hallways, or "real options," or "intellectual capital." Managerial innovation is an increasingly important source of competitive advantage--especially given the speed with which product innovations are copied--but it doesn't happen automatically. It takes a certain kind of person to welcome new management ideas and usher them into an organization. The authors recently studied 100 such people to find out how they translate new ideas into action in their organizations. They discovered that they are a distinct type of practitioner; that is to say, they resemble their counterparts in other organizations more than they resemble their own colleagues, and they share a common way of working. "Idea practitioners," as the authors call them, begin by scouting for ideas. All of them are avid readers of management literature and enthusiastic participants in business conferences; many are friendly with business gurus. Once they've identified an idea that seems to hold promise, they tailor it to fit their organizations' specific needs. Next, they actively sell the idea--to senior executives, to the rank and file, to middle managers. And finally, they get the ball rolling by participating in small-scale experiments. But when those take off, they get out of the way and let others execute. In this article, the authors identify the characteristics of idea practitioners and offer strategies for managing them wisely. PMID:12577653

  20. Who's bringing you hot ideas and how are you responding?

    PubMed

    Davenport, Thomas H; Prusak, Laurence; Wilson, H James

    2003-02-01

    There's an unsung hero in your organization. It's the person who's bringing in new ideas from the outside about how to manage better. These aren't your product and service innovators--those people are celebrated loudly and often. This is the manager who, for instance, first uttered the phrase "balance scorecard" in your hallways, or "real options," or "intellectual capital." Managerial innovation is an increasingly important source of competitive advantage--especially given the speed with which product innovations are copied--but it doesn't happen automatically. It takes a certain kind of person to welcome new management ideas and usher them into an organization. The authors recently studied 100 such people to find out how they translate new ideas into action in their organizations. They discovered that they are a distinct type of practitioner; that is to say, they resemble their counterparts in other organizations more than they resemble their own colleagues, and they share a common way of working. "Idea practitioners," as the authors call them, begin by scouting for ideas. All of them are avid readers of management literature and enthusiastic participants in business conferences; many are friendly with business gurus. Once they've identified an idea that seems to hold promise, they tailor it to fit their organizations' specific needs. Next, they actively sell the idea--to senior executives, to the rank and file, to middle managers. And finally, they get the ball rolling by participating in small-scale experiments. But when those take off, they get out of the way and let others execute. In this article, the authors identify the characteristics of idea practitioners and offer strategies for managing them wisely.

  1. A ventilation cooling shirt worn during office work in a hot climate: cool or not?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mengmeng; Kuklane, Kalev; Lundgren, Karin; Gao, Chuansi; Wang, Faming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify whether a ventilation cooling shirt was effective in reducing heat strain in a hot climate. Eight female volunteers were exposed to heat (38 °C, 45% relative humidity) for 2 h with simulated office work. In the first hour they were in normal summer clothes (total thermal insulation 0.8 clo); in the second hour a ventilation cooling shirt was worn on top. After the shirt was introduced for 1 h, the skin temperatures at the scapula and the chest were significantly reduced (p < 0.05). The mean skin and core temperatures were not reduced. The subjects felt cooler and more comfortable by wearing the shirt, but the cooling effect was most conspicuous only during the initial 10 min. The cooling efficiency of the ventilation shirt was not very effective under the low physical activity in this hot climate.

  2. A ventilation cooling shirt worn during office work in a hot climate: cool or not?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mengmeng; Kuklane, Kalev; Lundgren, Karin; Gao, Chuansi; Wang, Faming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify whether a ventilation cooling shirt was effective in reducing heat strain in a hot climate. Eight female volunteers were exposed to heat (38 °C, 45% relative humidity) for 2 h with simulated office work. In the first hour they were in normal summer clothes (total thermal insulation 0.8 clo); in the second hour a ventilation cooling shirt was worn on top. After the shirt was introduced for 1 h, the skin temperatures at the scapula and the chest were significantly reduced (p < 0.05). The mean skin and core temperatures were not reduced. The subjects felt cooler and more comfortable by wearing the shirt, but the cooling effect was most conspicuous only during the initial 10 min. The cooling efficiency of the ventilation shirt was not very effective under the low physical activity in this hot climate. PMID:26693998

  3. Children's Ideas about Hot and Cold. Learning in Science Project (Primary). Working Paper No. 127.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleton, Ken

    The Learning in Science Project (Primary)--LISP(P)--investigated the ideas and interests children have about hot and cold. Data were obtained from 25 children (12 boys and 13 girls), ages 8 to 11, using the "interview-about-instances" (IAI) procedure. Areas investigated included: (1) the meanings of the words "hot,""cold,""colder,""hotter," and…

  4. Preferential cooling of hot extremes from cropland albedo management

    PubMed Central

    Davin, Edouard L.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Ciais, Philippe; Olioso, Albert; Wang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Changes in agricultural practices are considered a possible option to mitigate climate change. In particular, reducing or suppressing tillage (no-till) may have the potential to sequester carbon in soils, which could help slow global warming. On the other hand, such practices also have a direct effect on regional climate by altering the physical properties of the land surface. These biogeophysical effects, however, are still poorly known. Here we show that no-till management increases the surface albedo of croplands in summer and that the resulting cooling effect is amplified during hot extremes, thus attenuating peak temperatures reached during heat waves. Using a regional climate model accounting for the observed effects of no-till farming on surface albedo, as well as possible reductions in soil evaporation, we investigate the potential consequences of a full conversion to no-till agriculture in Europe. We find that the summer cooling from cropland albedo increase is strongly amplified during hot summer days, when surface albedo has more impact on the Earth’s radiative balance due to clear-sky conditions. The reduced evaporation associated with the crop residue cover tends to counteract the albedo-induced cooling, but during hot days the albedo effect is the dominating factor. For heatwave summer days the local cooling effect gained from no-till practice is of the order of 2 °C. The identified asymmetric impact of surface albedo change on summer temperature opens new avenues for climate-engineering measures targeting high-impact events rather than mean climate properties. PMID:24958872

  5. Preferential cooling of hot extremes from cropland albedo management.

    PubMed

    Davin, Edouard L; Seneviratne, Sonia I; Ciais, Philippe; Olioso, Albert; Wang, Tao

    2014-07-01

    Changes in agricultural practices are considered a possible option to mitigate climate change. In particular, reducing or suppressing tillage (no-till) may have the potential to sequester carbon in soils, which could help slow global warming. On the other hand, such practices also have a direct effect on regional climate by altering the physical properties of the land surface. These biogeophysical effects, however, are still poorly known. Here we show that no-till management increases the surface albedo of croplands in summer and that the resulting cooling effect is amplified during hot extremes, thus attenuating peak temperatures reached during heat waves. Using a regional climate model accounting for the observed effects of no-till farming on surface albedo, as well as possible reductions in soil evaporation, we investigate the potential consequences of a full conversion to no-till agriculture in Europe. We find that the summer cooling from cropland albedo increase is strongly amplified during hot summer days, when surface albedo has more impact on the Earth's radiative balance due to clear-sky conditions. The reduced evaporation associated with the crop residue cover tends to counteract the albedo-induced cooling, but during hot days the albedo effect is the dominating factor. For heatwave summer days the local cooling effect gained from no-till practice is of the order of 2 °C. The identified asymmetric impact of surface albedo change on summer temperature opens new avenues for climate-engineering measures targeting high-impact events rather than mean climate properties. PMID:24958872

  6. AGN-stimulated cooling of hot gas in elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentini, Milena; Brighenti, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    We study the impact of relatively weak active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback on the interstellar medium (ISM) of intermediate and massive elliptical galaxies. We find that the AGN activity, while globally heating the ISM, naturally stimulates some degree of hot gas cooling on scales of several kpc. This process generates the persistent presence of a cold ISM phase, with mass ranging between 104 and ≳ 5 × 107 M⊙, where the latter value is appropriate for group centred, massive galaxies. Widespread cooling occurs where the ratio of cooling to free-fall time before the activation of the AGN feedback satisfies tcool/tff ≲ 70, that is we find a less restrictive threshold than commonly quoted in the literature. This process helps explaining the body of observations of cold gas (both ionized and neutral/molecular) in Ellipticals and, perhaps, the residual star formation detected in many early-type galaxies. The amount and distribution of the off-centre cold gas vary irregularly with time. The cold ISM velocity field is irregular, initially sharing the (outflowing) turbulent hot gas motion. Typical velocity dispersions of the cold gas lie in the range 100-200 km s-1. Freshly generated cold gas often forms a cold outflow and can appear kinematically misaligned with respect to the stars. We also follow the dust evolution in the hot and cold gas. We find that the internally generated cold ISM has a very low dust content, with representative values of the dust-to-gas ratio of 10-4-10-5. Therefore, this cold gas can escape detection in the traditional dust-absorption maps.

  7. Diffusion-Cooled Tantalum Hot-Electron Bolometer Mixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skalare, Anders; McGrath, William; Bumble, Bruce; LeDuc, Henry

    2004-01-01

    A batch of experimental diffusion-cooled hot-electron bolometers (HEBs), suitable for use as mixers having input frequencies in the terahertz range and output frequencies up to about a gigahertz, exploit the superconducting/normal-conducting transition in a thin strip of tantalum. The design and operation of these HEB mixers are based on mostly the same principles as those of a prior HEB mixer that exploited the superconducting/normal- conducting transition in a thin strip of niobium and that was described elsewhere.

  8. Spanish courtyards: High mass cooling in hot weather

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.S.

    1995-11-01

    Several courtyards (patios) in Andalucia were monitored for air temperature, relative humidity and daylight in July-august of 1994. Two patios are described here. Locations above and within these patios as well as adjacent rooms were included. The patios are from one to two stories deep, with rather small floor areas, so relatively little direct sun falls on these patio floors, in a season mid-way between the summer solstice and the fall equinox. Neither patio had a toldo, or movable canvas cover, that would provide shade by day, but exposure to the night sky. The cooling strategy here is mostly a reliance on high mass, with no evidence (exhaust fans or stacks) of deliberate night ventilation. Occasional evaporative cooling is likely, due to the watering of the plants within these patios. There is potential for considerable evaporative cooling, due to relative humidities averaging about 32%. The temperatures within the adjacent spaces were quite stable, just above the summer comfort zone for still air. Night ventilation might provide somewhat more cooling than high mass. Measured temperatures at sunny locations in and above the patios were higher than the official readings, at both maximum and minimum times. Sky conditions were generally clear, and almost no rain fell. The strategy of high mass cooling, typical of indigenous housing in hot arid areas, was demonstrated to be effective in these case. Although the highest interior temperatures pushed the upper limits of the summer comfort zone for still air, they were well below the exterior maximum. With a slight increase in air motion (the well-known hand held fans of Spain, for example), comfort is readily attained. An even greater degree of psychological cooling is attained through visual, audial and olfactory stimuli associated with shading plants and water.

  9. Hot Technology, Cool Science (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema

    None available

    2016-07-12

    Great innovations start with bold ideas. Learn how Berkeley Lab scientists are devising practical solutions to everything from global warming to how you get to work. On May 11, 2009, five Berkeley Lab scientists participated in a roundtable dicussion ? moderated by KTVU's John Fowler ? on their leading-edge research. This "Science at the Theater" event, held at the Berkeley Repertory Theatre, featured technologies such as cool roofs, battery-driven transportation, a pocket-sized DNA probe, green supercomputing, and a noncontact method for restoring damaged and fragile mechanical recordings.

  10. Hot Technology, Cool Science (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    SciTech Connect

    None available

    2009-05-11

    Great innovations start with bold ideas. Learn how Berkeley Lab scientists are devising practical solutions to everything from global warming to how you get to work. On May 11, 2009, five Berkeley Lab scientists participated in a roundtable dicussion ? moderated by KTVU's John Fowler ? on their leading-edge research. This "Science at the Theater" event, held at the Berkeley Repertory Theatre, featured technologies such as cool roofs, battery-driven transportation, a pocket-sized DNA probe, green supercomputing, and a noncontact method for restoring damaged and fragile mechanical recordings.

  11. Floating loop method for cooling integrated motors and inverters using hot liquid refrigerant

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester; Marlino, Laura D.

    2007-03-20

    A method for cooling vehicle components using the vehicle air conditioning system comprising the steps of: tapping the hot liquid refrigerant of said air conditioning system, flooding a heat exchanger in the vehicle component with said hot liquid refrigerant, evaporating said hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant using the heat from said vehicle component, and returning said hot vapor refrigerant to the hot vapor refrigerant line in said vehicle air conditioning system.

  12. Hot explosions in the cool atmosphere of the Sun.

    PubMed

    Peter, H; Tian, H; Curdt, W; Schmit, D; Innes, D; De Pontieu, B; Lemen, J; Title, A; Boerner, P; Hurlburt, N; Tarbell, T D; Wuelser, J P; Martínez-Sykora, Juan; Kleint, L; Golub, L; McKillop, S; Reeves, K K; Saar, S; Testa, P; Kankelborg, C; Jaeggli, S; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V

    2014-10-17

    The solar atmosphere was traditionally represented with a simple one-dimensional model. Over the past few decades, this paradigm shifted for the chromosphere and corona that constitute the outer atmosphere, which is now considered a dynamic structured envelope. Recent observations by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) reveal that it is difficult to determine what is up and down, even in the cool 6000-kelvin photosphere just above the solar surface: This region hosts pockets of hot plasma transiently heated to almost 100,000 kelvin. The energy to heat and accelerate the plasma requires a considerable fraction of the energy from flares, the largest solar disruptions. These IRIS observations not only confirm that the photosphere is more complex than conventionally thought, but also provide insight into the energy conversion in the process of magnetic reconnection. PMID:25324397

  13. Hot explosions in the cool atmosphere of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, H.; Tian, H.; Curdt, W.; Schmit, D.; Innes, D.; De Pontieu, B.; Lemen, J.; Title, A.; Boerner, P.; Hurlburt, N.; Tarbell, T. D.; Wuelser, J. P.; Martínez-Sykora, Juan; Kleint, L.; Golub, L.; McKillop, S.; Reeves, K. K.; Saar, S.; Testa, P.; Kankelborg, C.; Jaeggli, S.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V.

    2014-10-01

    The solar atmosphere was traditionally represented with a simple one-dimensional model. Over the past few decades, this paradigm shifted for the chromosphere and corona that constitute the outer atmosphere, which is now considered a dynamic structured envelope. Recent observations by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) reveal that it is difficult to determine what is up and down, even in the cool 6000-kelvin photosphere just above the solar surface: This region hosts pockets of hot plasma transiently heated to almost 100,000 kelvin. The energy to heat and accelerate the plasma requires a considerable fraction of the energy from flares, the largest solar disruptions. These IRIS observations not only confirm that the photosphere is more complex than conventionally thought, but also provide insight into the energy conversion in the process of magnetic reconnection.

  14. Hot explosions in the cool atmosphere of the Sun.

    PubMed

    Peter, H; Tian, H; Curdt, W; Schmit, D; Innes, D; De Pontieu, B; Lemen, J; Title, A; Boerner, P; Hurlburt, N; Tarbell, T D; Wuelser, J P; Martínez-Sykora, Juan; Kleint, L; Golub, L; McKillop, S; Reeves, K K; Saar, S; Testa, P; Kankelborg, C; Jaeggli, S; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V

    2014-10-17

    The solar atmosphere was traditionally represented with a simple one-dimensional model. Over the past few decades, this paradigm shifted for the chromosphere and corona that constitute the outer atmosphere, which is now considered a dynamic structured envelope. Recent observations by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) reveal that it is difficult to determine what is up and down, even in the cool 6000-kelvin photosphere just above the solar surface: This region hosts pockets of hot plasma transiently heated to almost 100,000 kelvin. The energy to heat and accelerate the plasma requires a considerable fraction of the energy from flares, the largest solar disruptions. These IRIS observations not only confirm that the photosphere is more complex than conventionally thought, but also provide insight into the energy conversion in the process of magnetic reconnection.

  15. Optimum hot water temperature for absorption solar cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lecuona, A.; Ventas, R.; Venegas, M.; Salgado, R.; Zacarias, A.

    2009-10-15

    The hot water temperature that maximizes the overall instantaneous efficiency of a solar cooling facility is determined. A modified characteristic equation model is used and applied to single-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chillers. This model is based on the characteristic temperature difference and serves to empirically calculate the performance of real chillers. This paper provides an explicit equation for the optimum temperature of vapor generation, in terms of only the external temperatures of the chiller. The additional data required are the four performance parameters of the chiller and essentially a modified stagnation temperature from the detailed model of the thermal collector operation. This paper presents and discusses the results for small capacity machines for air conditioning of homes and small buildings. The discussion highlights the influence of the relevant parameters. (author)

  16. Determination of hot and cool burning residential wood combustion source strengths using chemical mass balance modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, J.A.; Huntzicker, J.J.; Khalil, M.A.K. )

    1987-01-01

    This paper compares CMB results using separate hot and cool RWC source composition profiles, a composite of hot and cool composition profiles weighted according reported stove usage patterns, and the conventional EPA RWC source composition profile. These profiles are shown. Since the composition of hot and cool burn particles is dramatically different, hot and cool burn composition profiles can be used as separate sources in the same CMB model. Hot burning RWC particles are black, have a mild acrid smell and contain from 20 to 60% carbon (up to 80% of the carbon can be in the form of elemental carbon) and high levels of trace elements (5-25%K, 2-5% S and 2-4% Cl). In contrast, cool or smoldering burn smoke particles are tan, have a strong pleasant wood smoke smell, and contain 55-60% carbon which is mostly in the form of organic carbon with only a few percent of elemental carbon. The concentrations of trace elements in cool burning emissions are generally less than 0.1%. During hot burning the RWC smoke plume is practically invisible, while during cool burning the plume is very visible and has the typical blue-gray color associated with wood burning. For similar amounts of fuel burning in a stove, emission levels for cool burning are an average of 4.8 times higher than for hot burning.

  17. Pan-Planets: Searching for hot Jupiters around cool dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermeier, C.; Koppenhoefer, J.; Saglia, R. P.; Henning, Th.; Bender, R.; Kodric, M.; Deacon, N.; Riffeser, A.; Burgett, W.; Chambers, K. C.; Draper, P. W.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Price, P. A.; Sweeney, W.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2016-03-01

    The Pan-Planets survey observed an area of 42 sq deg. in the galactic disk for about 165 h. The main scientific goal of the project is the detection of transiting planets around M dwarfs. We establish an efficient procedure for determining the stellar parameters Teff and log g of all sources using a method based on SED fitting, utilizing a three-dimensional dust map and proper motion information. In this way we identify more than 60 000 M dwarfs, which is by far the largest sample of low-mass stars observed in a transit survey to date. We present several planet candidates around M dwarfs and hotter stars that are currently being followed up. Using Monte Carlo simulations we calculate the detection efficiency of the Pan-Planets survey for different stellar and planetary populations. We expect to find 3.0+3.3-1.6 hot Jupiters around F, G, and K dwarfs with periods lower than 10 days based on the planet occurrence rates derived in previous surveys. For M dwarfs, the percentage of stars with a hot Jupiter is under debate. Theoretical models expect a lower occurrence rate than for larger main sequence stars. However, radial velocity surveys find upper limits of about 1% due to their small sample, while the Kepler survey finds a occurrence rate that we estimate to be at least 0.17b(+0.67-0.04) %, making it even higher than the determined fraction from OGLE-III for F, G and K stellar types, 0.14 (+0.15-0.076) %. With the large sample size of Pan-Planets, we are able to determine an occurrence rate of 0.11 (+0.37-0.02) % in case one of our candidates turns out to be a real detection. If, however, none of our candidates turn out to be true planets, we are able to put an upper limit of 0.34% with a 95% confidence on the hot Jupiter occurrence rate of M dwarfs. This limit is a significant improvement over previous estimates where the lowest limit published so far is 1.1% found in the WFCAM Transit Survey. Therefore we cannot yet confirm the theoretical prediction of a lower

  18. The Contributions of "Hot" and "Cool" Executive Function to Children's Academic Achievement, Learning-Related Behaviors, and Engagement in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Laura L.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Nathanson, Lori; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Executive functioning (EF) refers to higher order thought processes considered foundational for problem-solving. EF has both "cool" cognitive and "hot" emotional components. This study asks: (a) what are the relative contributions of "hot" and "cool" EF to children's academic achievement? (b) What are the relative contributions of "hot" and "cool"…

  19. Exploring Dimensionality of Effortful Control Using Hot and Cool Tasks in a Sample of Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Nicholas P.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Effortful control (EC) is an important developmental construct associated with academic performance, socioemotional growth, and psychopathology. EC, defined as the ability to inhibit or delay a prepotent response typically in favor of a subdominant response, undergoes rapid development during children’s preschool years. Research involving EC in preschool children can be aided by ensuring that the measured model of EC matches the latent structure of EC. Extant research indicates that EC may be multidimensional, consisting of hot (affectively salient) and cool (affectively neutral) dimensions. However, there are several untested assumptions regarding the defining features of hot EC. Confirmatory factor analysis was used in a sample of 281 preschool children (Mage = 55.92 - months, SD = 4.16; 46.6% male and 53.4% female) to compare a multidimensional model composed of hot and cool EC factors with a unidimensional model. Hot tasks were created by adding affective salience to cool tasks so that hot and cool tasks varied only by this aspect of the tasks. Tasks measuring EC were best described by a single factor and not distinct hot and cool factors, indicating that affective salience alone does not differentiate between hot and cool EC. EC shared gender-invariant associations with academic skills and externalizing behavior problems. PMID:24518050

  20. Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Francis (Skip); And Others

    1982-01-01

    A variety of ideas for working with money are presented. Activities provide experience in counting nickels and dimes, counting money and making change, determining sale prices by computing the percentage off a base or regular price, and keeping a record of current balances in checking and savings accounts. (MP)

  1. Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immerzeel, George; Wiederanders, Don

    1974-01-01

    Four ideas are presented, each a variation of the tic-tac-toe game. Recognizing three addends is the goal of the primary level game; experiences with basic facts and fractions are objectives for upper levels. Each worksheet includes objectives, directions, and comments. (LS)

  2. Cool in the Kitchen: Radiation, Conduction, and the Newton "Hot Block" Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Mark P.; Silverman, Christopher R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history of the development of Newton's Law of Cooling. Describes an experiment conducted in the kitchen that is designed to test the rate of cooling of a hot block of iron. Finds that Newton's law does not represent very well the mechanism of heat loss. (Contains over 10 references.) (WRM)

  3. Perspectives in microclimate cooling involving protective clothing in hot environments

    SciTech Connect

    Speckman, K.L.; Allan, A.E.; Sawka, M.N.; Young, A.J.; Muza, S.R.

    1987-09-01

    The effectiveness of microclimate cooling systems in alleviating the thermal burden imposed upon soldiers by the wearing of chemical protective clothing under varying environmental conditions was examined in a series of studies conducted by the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine on the copper manikin, in the climatic chambers and in the field. Liquid-cooled undergarments (LCU) and air-cooled vests (ACV) were tested under environmental conditions from 29 C, 85% rh to 52 C, 25% rh. These parameters were chosen to stimulate conditions that may be encountered in either armored vehicles or in desert or tropic climates. The authors reviewed seven studies using LCU (including two ice-cooled vests) and six studies using ACV. LXU tests investigated the effect on cooling when the proportion of total skin surface covered by the LCU was varied. ACV tests examined the effects on cooling during different combinations of air temperature, humidity, and air-flow rates. Additionally, these combinations were tested at low and moderate metabolic rates. The findings from these LCU and ACV studies demonstrate that a) cooling can be increased with a greater body-surface coverage by an LCU, and b) evaporative cooling with an ACV is enhanced at low metabolic rates with optimal combinations of air-flow rates and dry bulb/dew point temperatures, resulting in the extension of tolerance time. The application of these findings to industrial work situations is apparent.

  4. In Hot Water: A Cooling Tower Case Study. Instructor's Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Justin; Raju, P. K.; Sankar, Chetan

    2005-01-01

    Vogtle Electric Generating Plant operated by Southern Nuclear Operating Company, a subsidiary of Southern Company, has found itself at a decision point. Vogtle depends on their natural draft cooling towers to remove heat from the power cycle. Depending on the efficiency of the towers, the cycle can realize more or less power output. The efficiency…

  5. In Hot Water: A Cooling Tower Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Justin; Raju, P. K.; Sankar, Chetan

    2005-01-01

    Problem Statement: Vogtle Electric Generating Plant operated by Southern Nuclear Operating Company, a subsidiary of Southern Company, has found itself at a decision point. Vogtle depends on their natural draft cooling towers to remove heat from the power cycle. Depending on the efficiency of the towers, the cycle can realize more or less power…

  6. Stochastic behavior of cooling processes in hot nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    de Oliveira, P.M.; Sa Martins, J.S.

    1997-06-01

    The collapse of structure effects observed in hot nuclei is interpreted in terms of a dynamic lattice model which describes the process of nucleon (clusters) evaporation from a hot nucleus, predicting the final mass distribution. Results are compared with experimental data for the {sup 10}B+{sup 9}Be and {sup 10}B+{sup 10}B reactions, and indicate that the structures observed in the low-energy mass distributions in both simulation and experiment are a consequence of the competition between the residual interactions and the thermalization dissipative process. As a characteristic feature of complex evolving systems, this competition leads to long term memory during the dissipative path, the observables becoming thus insensitive to the actual microscopic interactions. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Rewetting of hot vertical rod during jet impingement surface cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Chitranjan; Kumar, Ravi; Gupta, Akhilesh; Chatterjee, Barun

    2016-06-01

    A stainless steel (SS-316) vertical rod of 12 mm diameter at 800 ± 10 °C initial temperature was cooled by normal impinging round water jet. The surface rewetting phenomenon was investigated for a range of jet diameter 2.5-4.8 mm and jet Reynolds number 5000-24,000 using a straight tube type nozzle. The investigation were made from the stagnation point to maximum 40 mm downstream locations, simultaneously for both upside and downside directions. The cooling performance of the vertical rod was evaluated on the basis of rewetting parameters i.e. rewetting temperature, wetting delay, rewetting velocity and the maximum surface heat flux. Two separate Correlations have been proposed for the dimensionless rewetting velocity in terms of rewetting number and the maximum surface heat flux that predicts the experimental data within an error band of ±20 and ±15 % respectively.

  8. Use of cooling air heat exchangers as replacements for hot section strategic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauntner, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Because of financial and political constraints, strategic aerospace materials required for the hot section of future engines might be in short supply. As an alternative to these strategic materials, this study examines the use of a cooling air heat exchanger in combination with less advanced hot section materials. Cycle calculations are presented for future turbofan systems with overall pressure ratios to 65, bypass ratios near 13, and combustor exit temperatures to 3260 R. These calculations quantify the effect on TSFC of using a decreased materials technology in a turbofan system. The calculations show that the cooling air heat exchanger enables the feasibility of these engines.

  9. Supercollision cooling effects on the hot photoluminescence emission of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alencar, Thonimar V.; Malard, Leandro M.; de Paula, Ana M.

    2016-11-01

    We report on hot photoluminescence measurements that show the effects of acoustic phonon supercollision processes in the intensity of graphene light emission. We use a simple optical method to induce defects on single layer graphene in a controlled manner to study in detail the light emission dependence on the sample defect density. It is now well accepted that the graphene photoluminescence is due to black-body thermal emission from the quasi-equilibrium electrons at a temperature well above the lattice temperature. Our results show that as the sample defect density is increased the electrons relax energy more efficiently via acoustic phonon supercollision processes leading to lower electron temperatures and thus lower emission intensities. The calculated intensity decrease due to supercollision energy relaxation agrees well with the experimental data.

  10. Investigation of Cool and Hot Executive Function in ODD/CD Independently of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Christopher W.; Scott, Stephen; Rubia, Katya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) have shown deficits in "cool" abstract-cognitive, and "hot" reward-related executive function (EF) tasks. However, it is currently unclear to what extent ODD/CD is associated with neuropsychological deficits, independently of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder…

  11. A Hot/Cool-System Analysis of Delay of Gratification: Dynamics of Willpower.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Janet; Mischel, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Proposes a two-system framework for understanding the processes that enable self-control as exemplified in the delay of gratification paradigm. A cool, cognitive "know" system and a hot, emotional "go" system are postulated. The interactions between these two systems allow explanation of findings on willpower from three decades of research.…

  12. What happens when a hot star shines on a cool one?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exter, Katrina; Barman, Travis; Pollacco, Don; Pustynski, Vladislav; Bell, Steve; Pustylnik, Izold

    2005-10-01

    In this, we discuss our on-going work observing the effects, and modeling the physical processes, of the irradiation of a cool star by its hot companion in close-binary systems. In particular, we present here some data and results on the post common-envelope systems EC 11575-1845 and UU Sge.

  13. Assessment of an active liquid cooling garment intended for use in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Bartkowiak, Grazyna; Dabrowska, Anna; Marszalek, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the construction of a designed active liquid cooling garment (LCG) that has been developed in order to reduce thermal discomfort of persons working in hot environments. It consists of clothing with a tube system distributing a cooling liquid, a sensor measuring the microclimate under the clothing, and a portable cooling unit with a module controlling the temperature of the cooling liquid depending on the microclimate temperature under the clothing. The LCG was validated through tests on volunteers in a climatic chamber at 30 °C, a relative humidity of 40%, and an air movement rate of 0.4 m/s. The obtained test results confirmed the beneficial effects of the cooling system used on mean weighted skin temperature, the physical parameters of the microclimate under the clothing, and the participants' subjective assessments, as well as confirmed that the functioning of the control system regulating liquid temperature in the LCG was correct. PMID:27633212

  14. The Contribution of "Cool" and "Hot" Components of Decision-Making in Adolescence: Implications for Developmental Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seguin, Jean R.; Arseneault, Louise; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    Impairments in either "cool" or "hot" processes may represent two pathways to deficient decision-making. Whereas cool processes are associated with cognitive and rational decisions, hot processes are associated with emotional, affective, and visceral processes. In this study, 168 boys were administered a card-playing task at ages 13 and 14 years…

  15. Femtosecond cooling of hot electrons in CdSe quantum-well platelets.

    PubMed

    Sippel, Philipp; Albrecht, Wiebke; van der Bok, Johanna C; Van Dijk-Moes, Relinde J A; Hannappel, Thomas; Eichberger, Rainer; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Semiconductor quantum wells are ubiquitous in high-performance optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and lasers. Understanding and controlling of the (hot) carrier dynamics is essential to optimize their performance. Here, we study hot electron cooling in colloidal CdSe quantum-well nanoplatelets using ultrafast two-photon photoemission spectroscopy at low excitation intensities, resulting typically in 1-5 hot electrons per platelet. We observe initial electron cooling in the femtosecond time domain that slows down with decreasing electron energy and is finished within 2 ps. The cooling is considerably faster at cryogenic temperatures than at room temperature, and at least for the systems that we studied, independent of the thickness of the platelets (here 3-5 CdSe units) and the presence of a CdS shell. The cooling rates that we observe are orders of magnitude faster than reported for similar CdSe platelets under strong excitation. Our results are understood by a classic cooling mechanism with emission of longitudinal optical phonons without a significant influence of the surface. PMID:25764379

  16. Numerical Validation of an Optimized Cooling System for Hot Stamping Die

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, A.; Abidin, M. A.; Ibrahim, M. S. N.; Senin, A.

    2016-08-01

    Numerical analysis of hot stamping process is very complex mainly due to thermomechanical processes involved. Many variables such as heat transfer coefficient, density, young modulus and other thermal parameters are temperature and pressure dependent. The paper presents results of CFD analysis on the near optimized cooling system of hot stamping die for automotive structural part. By using actual parameters obtained from the industry production line, this research is aimed at comparing the performance of actual cooling system with the results obtained by CFD simulation using commercial software. The die and blank were modelled as 3D volume mesh in a closed position thus ignoring blank history data prior to stamping operation. Temperature distribution representing hardness of the simulated final part is an agreement with the QA data of the actual part thus showing viability of this method to be used in cooling system design

  17. Ultra fast cooling of hot steel plate by air atomized spray with salt solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Soumya S.; Ravikumar, Satya V.; Jha, Jay M.; Singh, Akhilendra K.; Bhattacharya, Chandrima; Pal, Surjya K.; Chakraborty, Sudipto

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, the applicability of air atomized spray with the salt added water has been studied for ultra fast cooling (UFC) of a 6 mm thick AISI-304 hot steel plate. The investigation includes the effect of salt (NaCl and MgSO4) concentration and spray mass flux on the cooling rate. The initial temperature of the steel plate before the commencement of cooling is kept at 900 °C or above, which is usually observed as the "finish rolling temperature" in the hot strip mill of a steel plant. The heat transfer analysis shows that air atomized spray with the MgSO4 salt produces 1.5 times higher cooling rate than atomized spray with the pure water, whereas air atomized spray with NaCl produces only 1.2 times higher cooling rate. In transition boiling regime, the salt deposition occurs which causes enhancement in heat transfer rate by conduction. Moreover, surface tension is the governing parameter behind the vapour film instability and this length scale increases with increase in surface tension of coolant. Overall, the achieved cooling rates produced by both types of salt added air atomized spray are found to be in the UFC regime.

  18. IR grisms: cross check sensitivity function of hot and cool stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deustua, Susana

    2013-10-01

    Goals: To provide a cross check on the sensitivity functions of the -1st and +1st grism spectral orders.Scanned observations of a G type star, P330E, in the -1st and +1st grism orders show 5%-10% discrepancy in the sensitivity function derived from this star when compared to that of the sensitivity function determined from the WD standards, GD71 & GD153. We propose to obtain scanned spectra of at hot WD at the same locations on the IR array as for P330E {and Vega} to investigate the source of this discrepancy: scan vs. stare mode, hot star vs. cool star.

  19. Evaluation of a carbon dioxide personal cooling device for workers in hot environments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Bishop, Phillip A; Green, James Matthew; Richardson, Mark T; Schumacker, Randall E

    2010-07-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of a carbon dioxide cooling device in reducing heat strain for workers in a hot and humid environment. Ten participants completed two trials in an environment of 30 degrees C WBGT (75% relative humidity) with a novel liquid carbon dioxide cooling shirt (CC) or no cooling (NC) in a randomized order. Mean time-weighted workload for each individual equaled 465 W (400 Kcals. h(-1)). In the CC condition, the work time was significantly increased by 32% (97 +/- 36 min) compared with NC (74 +/- 26 min) (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in mean skin temperature over the trials. Rectal temperature (T(re)) was significantly different after 50 min (p < 0.05). Mean heart rate, the delta T(re) increase rate, and heat storage at 55 min (last point with n = 8) were significantly lower in CC (p < 0.05). Overall heat storage was 54 +/- 41 W and 72 +/- 40 W for CC and NC, respectively (p < 0.05). Participants also indicated favorable subjective responses for CC vs. NC (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that this novel cooling device would effectively attenuate heat strain and increase work productivity for personnel working in a hot and humid environment. Practical aspects of use such as cost, convenience, weight, cooling duration, and rise in ambient CO(2) concentration in confined spaces must also be considered.

  20. Ohmic Heating Suspends, Not Reverses, the Cooling Contraction of Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yanqin; Lithwick, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    We study the radius evolution of close-in extra-solar Jupiters under Ohmic heating, a mechanism that was recently proposed to explain the large observed sizes of many of these planets. Planets are born with high entropy and they subsequently cool and contract. We focus on two cases: first, that Ohmic heating commences when the planet is hot (high entropy); and second, that it commences after the planet has cooled. In the former case, we use analytical scaling and numerical experiments to confirm that Ohmic heating is capable of suspending the cooling as long as a few percent of the stellar irradiation is converted into Ohmic heating and the planet has a surface wind that extends to pressures of ~10 bar or deeper. For these parameters, the radii at which cooling is stalled are consistent with (or larger than) the observed radii of most planets. The only two exceptions are WASP-17b and HAT-P-32b. In contrast to the high entropy case, we show that Ohmic heating cannot significantly re-inflate planets after they have already cooled. This leads us to suggest that the diversity of radii observed in hot Jupiters may be partially explained by the different epochs at which they are migrated to their current locations.

  1. Use of cooling air heat exchangers as replacements for hot section strategic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauntner, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Because of financial and political constraints, strategic aerospace materials required for the hot section of future engines might be in short supply. As an alternative to these strategic materials, this study examines the use of a cooling air heat exchanger in combination with less advanced hot section materials. Cycle calculations are presented for future turbofan systems with overall pressure ratios to 65, bypass ratios near 13, and combustor exit temperatures to 3260 R. These calculations quantify the effect on TSFC of using a decreased materials technology in a turbofan system. The calculations show that the cooling air heat exchanger enables the feasibility of these engines. Previously announced in STAR as N83-34946

  2. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Cool and Hot Cognitive Processes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Cobo, María José; Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Although emotion and cognition were considered to be separate aspects of the psyche in the past, researchers today have demonstrated the existence of an interplay between the two processes. Emotional intelligence (EI), or the ability to perceive, use, understand, and regulate emotions, is a relatively young concept that attempts to connect both emotion and cognition. While EI has been demonstrated to be positively related to well-being, mental and physical health, and non-aggressive behaviors, little is known about its underlying cognitive processes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review available evidence about the relationship between EI and cognitive processes as measured through "cool" (i.e., not emotionally laden) and "hot" (i.e., emotionally laden) laboratory tasks. We searched Scopus and Medline to find relevant articles in Spanish and English, and divided the studies following two variables: cognitive processes (hot vs. cool) and EI instruments used (performance-based ability test, self-report ability test, and self-report mixed test). We identified 26 eligible studies. The results provide a fair amount of evidence that performance-based ability EI (but not self-report EI tests) is positively related with efficiency in hot cognitive tasks. EI, however, does not appear to be related with cool cognitive tasks: neither through self-reporting nor through performance-based ability instruments. These findings suggest that performance-based ability EI could improve individuals' emotional information processing abilities. PMID:27303277

  3. [Cool/Hot target effect of the water fog infrared stealth].

    PubMed

    Du, Yong-cheng; Yang, Li; Zhang, Shi-cheng; Yang, Zhen; Hu, Shuang-xi

    2012-08-01

    Artificial spray fog will come into being cool target because of the strong evaporation and convection but weak radiation heat flux, when it is used for defence of infrared imaging guided missile. Also, when it is the contrary condition, the water fog will come into being hot target. In order to open out the phenomenon particularly, a math model which can account for the cool/hot effect produced by water fog shielding the thermal radiation is established by coupling the calculation of radiation transfer equation and energy conversation equation, based on the Mie theory. This model is proved to be accurate in comparison with the Monte-Carlo method and Lambert-Beer' law. The water fog is seemed as absorbing, emitting and anisotropic scattering medium, and the medium radiation, multiple scattering, target radiation flux, and environment influence such as the conductivity, convection turbulent heat diffusion and evaporation is calculated. The phenomenon of cool/hot target effect can be shown in detail with this model. PMID:23156782

  4. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  5. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  6. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  7. Cool in the kitchen: Radiation, conduction, and the Newton ``hot block'' experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Mark P.; Silverman, Christopher R.

    2000-02-01

    Despite frequent reference to Newton's law of cooling in physics and math books, the paper in which Newton reported this law is quite obscure and rarely cited. We have managed to acquire a copy of this paper and discuss the interesting experiment that Newton did in his kitchen. Surprisingly, the paper contains no procedural details or data of any experiments measuring the rate at which a hot object cools. We have performed our own kitchen experiments to investigate the cooling of (a) the burner of an electric range and (b) a block of Styrofoam. Newton's law provides a poor model for both systems, whose th! ! ermal energy loss we can much better understand by examining closely the effects of radiation and conduction.

  8. Some ideas on the choice of designs and materials for cooled mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, M.R.

    1994-12-01

    This paper expresses some views on the fabrication of future synchrotron beam-line optics; more particularly the metallurgical issues in high-quality metal mirrors. A simple mirror with uniform cooling channels is first analyzed theoretically, followed by the cullular-pin-post system with complex coolant flow path. Choice of mirror material is next considered. For the most challenging situations (need for intensive cooling), the present practice is to use nickel-plated glidcop or silicon; for less severe challenges, Si carbide may be used and cooling may be direct or indirect; and for the mildest heat loads, fused silica or ulf are popular. For the highest performance mirrors (extreme heat load), the glidcop developments should be continued perhaps to cellular-pin-post systems. For extreme distortion, Si is indicated and invar offers both improved performance and lower price. For less extreme challenges but still with cooling, Ni-plated metals have the cost advantage and SXA and other Al alloys can be added to glidcop and invar. For mirrors with mild cooling requirements, stainless steel would have many advantages. Once the internal cooling designs are established, they will be seen as more cost-effective and reliable than clamp-on schemes. Where no cooling is needed, Si, Si carbide, and the glasses can be used. For the future, the effect of electroless Ni layers on cooling design need study, and a way to finish nickel that is compatible with multilayers should be developed.

  9. Thermoregulatory, cardiovascular, and perceptual responses to intermittent cooling during exercise in a hot, humid outdoor environment.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Michelle A; Toy, Michelle G; Lopez, Rebecca M

    2014-03-01

    Decreasing core body temperature during exercise may improve exercise tolerance, facilitate acclimatization, and prevent heat illness during summer training. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of intermittent superficial cooling on thermoregulatory, cardiovascular, and perceptual responses during exercise in a hot humid environment. We used a randomized, counterbalanced, repeated measures investigation with 2 conditions (control and cooling) during exercise and recovery outdoors on artificial turf in a hot, humid tropical climate in the sun (wet bulb globe temperature outdoors [WBGTo], 27.0 ± 0.8° C; range, 25.8-28.1° C) and in the shade (WBGTo, 25.4 ± 0.9° C; range, 24.3-26.8° C). Participants were 10 healthy males (age, 22.6 ± 1.6 years; height, 176.0 ± 6.9 cm; mass, 76.5 ± 7.8 kg; body fat, 15.6 ± 5.4%) who wore shorts and T-shirt (control) or "phase change cooling" vest (cooling) during 5-minute rest breaks during 60 minutes of intense American football training and conditioning exercises in the heat and 30 minutes of recovery in the shade. Throughout, we measured core (Tgi) and skin (Tchest) temperature, heart rate (HR), thermal and thirst sensations, and rating of perceived exertion. We found significant (p ≤ 0.001) hypohydration (-2.1%); for Tgi, we found no significant differences between conditions (p = 0.674) during exercise and progressive decreases during recovery (p < 0.001). For [INCREMENT]Tg,i we found no significant (p = 0.090) differences. For Tchest, we found significantly (p < 0.001) decreased skin temperature in the cooling condition (Tchest, 31.85 ± 0.43° C) compared with the control condition (Tchest, 34.38 ± 0.43° C) during exercise and significantly (p < 0.001) lower skin temperature in the cooling condition (Tchest, 31.24 ± 0.47° C) compared with the control condition (Tchest, 33.48 ± 0.47° C) during recovery. For HR, we found no significant difference (p = 0.586) between the conditions during exercise; however, we

  10. Thermoregulatory, cardiovascular, and perceptual responses to intermittent cooling during exercise in a hot, humid outdoor environment.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Michelle A; Toy, Michelle G; Lopez, Rebecca M

    2014-03-01

    Decreasing core body temperature during exercise may improve exercise tolerance, facilitate acclimatization, and prevent heat illness during summer training. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of intermittent superficial cooling on thermoregulatory, cardiovascular, and perceptual responses during exercise in a hot humid environment. We used a randomized, counterbalanced, repeated measures investigation with 2 conditions (control and cooling) during exercise and recovery outdoors on artificial turf in a hot, humid tropical climate in the sun (wet bulb globe temperature outdoors [WBGTo], 27.0 ± 0.8° C; range, 25.8-28.1° C) and in the shade (WBGTo, 25.4 ± 0.9° C; range, 24.3-26.8° C). Participants were 10 healthy males (age, 22.6 ± 1.6 years; height, 176.0 ± 6.9 cm; mass, 76.5 ± 7.8 kg; body fat, 15.6 ± 5.4%) who wore shorts and T-shirt (control) or "phase change cooling" vest (cooling) during 5-minute rest breaks during 60 minutes of intense American football training and conditioning exercises in the heat and 30 minutes of recovery in the shade. Throughout, we measured core (Tgi) and skin (Tchest) temperature, heart rate (HR), thermal and thirst sensations, and rating of perceived exertion. We found significant (p ≤ 0.001) hypohydration (-2.1%); for Tgi, we found no significant differences between conditions (p = 0.674) during exercise and progressive decreases during recovery (p < 0.001). For [INCREMENT]Tg,i we found no significant (p = 0.090) differences. For Tchest, we found significantly (p < 0.001) decreased skin temperature in the cooling condition (Tchest, 31.85 ± 0.43° C) compared with the control condition (Tchest, 34.38 ± 0.43° C) during exercise and significantly (p < 0.001) lower skin temperature in the cooling condition (Tchest, 31.24 ± 0.47° C) compared with the control condition (Tchest, 33.48 ± 0.47° C) during recovery. For HR, we found no significant difference (p = 0.586) between the conditions during exercise; however, we

  11. Hot and Cool Executive Functions in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Tanya N; Becker, Stephen P; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2015-09-01

    While neuropsychological deficits in both "hot" and "cool" executive functions (EFs) have been documented among individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), these EF deficits are not universal across all individuals with this diagnosis. One potential moderator of executive dysfunction may be the presence of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). This study examined the association between "hot" and "cool" EFs and comorbid ODD in children with ADHD. Thirty-three children with ADHD and comorbid ODD (ADHD+ODD), 67 with ADHD without ODD (ADHD-ODD), and 30 typically developing controls participated. Children were 7-12 years of age. "Cool" EFs were assessed with a spatial span task and a card sorting test. "Hot" EFs were assessed using a delay discounting task and a gambling task. ADHD-ODD and ADHD+ODD groups performed more poorly on "cool" EF tasks than controls, but did not differ from each other. Furthermore, the number of ADHD symptoms, but not ODD symptoms, was associated with "cool" EF scores. The three groups did not differ on "hot" EF tasks and the number of ADHD or ODD symptoms was unrelated to "hot" EF scores. In sum, children with ADHD presented with "cool" EF deficits which appear to be unrelated to ODD comorbidity. However, "hot" EF deficits were not present among children with ADHD, irrespective of comorbid ODD status.

  12. Applicability of a ``shower`` passive cooling tower in a hot dry climate

    SciTech Connect

    Givoni, B.; Al-Hemiddi, N.

    1995-11-01

    This cooling system has originally been developed by Givoni for cooling outdoor rest areas for the EXPO`92 in Seville, Spain. However, it can also be applied, and has been tested, as a cooling system for building and enclosed and shaded courtyards. It consists of an open shaft with showers at the top and a collecting ``pond`` at the bottom. Water is recirculated by a pump. The falling water entrain a large volume of air, creating a flow of cooled air down the shaft and into a building. A wind catcher can be installed above the shaft to enhance the air flow rate. The paper presents data on the performance of the system, tested by Al Hemiddi, including experimental data obtained first in a ``patio`` test cell at UCLA in Los Angeles, and later in a full size room in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The testing in Riyadh has demonstrated that with outdoor air maximum temperature of about 45 C the indoor air maximum of the cooled room was bout 29 C. This system can use brackish and sea water, in addition to fresh water. Thus it is applicable and capable of providing indoor comfort even in very hot desert regions, where any kind of water, even sea water, is available.

  13. Basic ideas and concepts in hot wire anemometry: an experimental approach for introductory physics students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Abed, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of hot wire anemometry is to measure the speed of an air stream. The classical method is based on the measure of the value of a temperature dependant resistor inserted in a Wheatstone bridge (Lomas 1986 Fundamentals of Hot Wire Anemometry (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)). In this paper we exhibit the physics behind this method and show that by using a wire whose resistance does not vary on the field of temperature explored (from 20 °C to 200 °C), it is however possible to make accurate measurements. Finally, limitations of the method are discussed.

  14. Hot ion plasma production in HIP-1 using water-cooled hollow cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Lauver, M. R.; Patch, R. W.; Layman, R. W.; Snyder, A.

    1975-01-01

    The paper reports on hot-ion plasma experiments conducted in a magnetic mirror facility. A steady-state E x B plasma was formed by applying a strong radially inward dc electric field near the mirror throats. Most of the results were for hydrogen, but deuterium and helium plasmas were also studied. Three water-cooled hollow cathodes were operated in the hot-ion plasma mode with the following results: (1) thermally emitting cathodes were not required to achieve the hot-ion mode; (2) steady-state operation (several minutes) was attained; (3) input powers greater than 40 kW were achieved; (4) cathode outside diameters were increased from 1.2 cm (uncooled) to 4.4 cm (water-cooled); (5) steady-state hydrogen plasmas with ion temperatures from 185 to 770 eV and electron temperatures from 5 to 21 eV were produced. Scaling relations were empirically obtained for discharge current, ion temperature, electron temperature, and relative ion density as a function of hydrogen gas feed rate, magnetic field, and cathode voltage.

  15. Effect of physical training in cool and hot environments on +Gz acceleration tolerance in women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, P. J.; Sciaraffa, D.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Acceleration tolerance, plasma volume, and maximal oxygen uptake were measured in 15 healthy women before and after submaximal isotonic exercise training periods in cool and hot environments. The women were divided on the basis of age, maximal oxygen uptake, and +Gz tolerance into three groups: a group that exercised in heat (40.6 C), a group that exercised at a lower temperature (18.7 C), and a sedentary control group that functioned in the cool environment. There was no significant change in the +Gz tolerance in any group after training, and terminal heart rates were similar within each group. It is concluded that induction of moderate acclimation responses without increases in sweat rate or resting plasma volume has no influence on +Gz acceleration tolerance in women.

  16. Temperature distribution of a hot water storage tank in a simulated solar heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 2,300-liter hot water storage tank was studied under conditions simulating a solar heating and cooling system. The initial condition of the tank, ranging from 37 C at the bottom to 94 C at the top, represented a condition midway through the start-up period of the system. During the five-day test period, the water in the tank gradually rose in temperature but in a manner that diminished its temperature stratification. Stratification was found not to be an important factor in the operation of the particular solar system studied.

  17. Hot Gaseous Atmospheres in Galaxy Groups and Clusters Are Both Heated and Cooled by X-Ray Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.; Temi, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    Expanding X-ray cavities observed in hot gas atmospheres of many galaxy groups and clusters generate shock waves and turbulence that are primary heating mechanisms required to avoid uninhibited radiatively cooling flows which are not observed. However, we show here that the evolution of buoyant cavities also stimulates radiative cooling of observable masses of low-temperature gas. During their early evolution, radiative cooling occurs in the wakes of buoyant cavities in two locations: in thin radial filaments parallel to the buoyant velocity and more broadly in gas compressed beneath rising cavities. Radiation from these sustained compressions removes entropy from the hot gas. Gas experiencing the largest entropy loss cools first, followed by gas with progressively less entropy loss. Most cooling occurs at late times, ˜ 108-109 yr, long after the X-ray cavities have disrupted and are impossible to detect. During these late times, slightly denser low entropy gas sinks slowly toward the centers of the hot atmospheres where it cools intermittently, forming clouds near the cluster center. Single cavities of energy 1057-1058 ergs in the atmosphere of the NGC 5044 group create 108-109 M⊙ of cooled gas, exceeding the mass of extended molecular gas currently observed in that group. The cooled gas clouds we compute share many attributes with molecular clouds recently observed in NGC 5044 with ALMA: self-gravitationally unbound, dust-free, quasi-randomly distributed within a few kiloparsecs around the group center.

  18. Hot-carrier cooling and photoinduced refractive index changes in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Michael B.; Butkus, Justinas; Jellicoe, Tom C.; Sadhanala, Aditya; Briane, Anouk; Halpert, Jonathan E.; Broch, Katharina; Hodgkiss, Justin M.; Friend, Richard H.; Deschler, Felix

    2015-09-01

    Metal-halide perovskites are at the frontier of optoelectronic research due to solution processability and excellent semiconductor properties. Here we use transient absorption spectroscopy to study hot-carrier distributions in CH3NH3PbI3 and quantify key semiconductor parameters. Above bandgap, non-resonant excitation creates quasi-thermalized carrier distributions within 100 fs. During carrier cooling, a sub-bandgap transient absorption signal arises at ~1.6 eV, which is explained by the interplay of bandgap renormalization and hot-carrier distributions. At higher excitation densities, a `phonon bottleneck' substantially slows carrier cooling. This effect indicates a low contribution from inelastic carrier-impurity or phonon-impurity scattering in these polycrystalline materials, which supports high charge-carrier mobilities. Photoinduced reflectivity changes distort the shape of transient absorption spectra and must be included to extract physical constants. Using a simple band-filling model that accounts for these changes, we determine a small effective mass of mr=0.14 mo, which agrees with band structure calculations and high photovoltaic performance.

  19. Hot ion plasma production in HIP-1 using water-cooled hollow cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Lauver, M. R.; Patch, R. W.; Layman, R. W.; Snyder, A.

    1975-01-01

    A steady-state ExB plasma was formed by applying a strong radially inward dc electric field near the mirror throats. Most of the results were for hydrogen, but deuterium and helium plasmas were also studied. Three water-cooled hollow cathodes were operated in the hot-ion plasma mode with the following results: (1) thermally emitting cathodes were not required to achieve the hot-ion mode; (2) steady-state operation (several minutes) was attained; (3) input powers greater than 40 kW were achieved; (4) cathode outside diameters were increased from 1.2 cm (uncooled) to 4.4 cm (water-cooled); (5) steady-state hydrogen plasma with ion temperatures from 185 to 770 eV and electron temperatures from 5 to 21 eV were produced. Scaling relations were empirically obtained for discharge current, ion temperature, electron temperature, and relative ion density as a function of hydrogen gas feed rate, magnetic field, and cathode voltage. Neutrons were produced from deuterium plasma, but it was not established whether thay came from the plasma volume or from the electrode surfaces.

  20. Hot-carrier cooling and photoinduced refractive index changes in organic–inorganic lead halide perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Price, Michael B.; Butkus, Justinas; Jellicoe, Tom C.; Sadhanala, Aditya; Briane, Anouk; Halpert, Jonathan E.; Broch, Katharina; Hodgkiss, Justin M.; Friend, Richard H.; Deschler, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Metal-halide perovskites are at the frontier of optoelectronic research due to solution processability and excellent semiconductor properties. Here we use transient absorption spectroscopy to study hot-carrier distributions in CH3NH3PbI3 and quantify key semiconductor parameters. Above bandgap, non-resonant excitation creates quasi-thermalized carrier distributions within 100 fs. During carrier cooling, a sub-bandgap transient absorption signal arises at ∼1.6 eV, which is explained by the interplay of bandgap renormalization and hot-carrier distributions. At higher excitation densities, a ‘phonon bottleneck' substantially slows carrier cooling. This effect indicates a low contribution from inelastic carrier-impurity or phonon–impurity scattering in these polycrystalline materials, which supports high charge-carrier mobilities. Photoinduced reflectivity changes distort the shape of transient absorption spectra and must be included to extract physical constants. Using a simple band-filling model that accounts for these changes, we determine a small effective mass of mr=0.14 mo, which agrees with band structure calculations and high photovoltaic performance. PMID:26404048

  1. Hot-carrier cooling and photoinduced refractive index changes in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites.

    PubMed

    Price, Michael B; Butkus, Justinas; Jellicoe, Tom C; Sadhanala, Aditya; Briane, Anouk; Halpert, Jonathan E; Broch, Katharina; Hodgkiss, Justin M; Friend, Richard H; Deschler, Felix

    2015-09-25

    Metal-halide perovskites are at the frontier of optoelectronic research due to solution processability and excellent semiconductor properties. Here we use transient absorption spectroscopy to study hot-carrier distributions in CH3NH3PbI3 and quantify key semiconductor parameters. Above bandgap, non-resonant excitation creates quasi-thermalized carrier distributions within 100 fs. During carrier cooling, a sub-bandgap transient absorption signal arises at ∼ 1.6 eV, which is explained by the interplay of bandgap renormalization and hot-carrier distributions. At higher excitation densities, a 'phonon bottleneck' substantially slows carrier cooling. This effect indicates a low contribution from inelastic carrier-impurity or phonon-impurity scattering in these polycrystalline materials, which supports high charge-carrier mobilities. Photoinduced reflectivity changes distort the shape of transient absorption spectra and must be included to extract physical constants. Using a simple band-filling model that accounts for these changes, we determine a small effective mass of mr=0.14 mo, which agrees with band structure calculations and high photovoltaic performance.

  2. Hot-carrier cooling and photoinduced refractive index changes in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites.

    PubMed

    Price, Michael B; Butkus, Justinas; Jellicoe, Tom C; Sadhanala, Aditya; Briane, Anouk; Halpert, Jonathan E; Broch, Katharina; Hodgkiss, Justin M; Friend, Richard H; Deschler, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Metal-halide perovskites are at the frontier of optoelectronic research due to solution processability and excellent semiconductor properties. Here we use transient absorption spectroscopy to study hot-carrier distributions in CH3NH3PbI3 and quantify key semiconductor parameters. Above bandgap, non-resonant excitation creates quasi-thermalized carrier distributions within 100 fs. During carrier cooling, a sub-bandgap transient absorption signal arises at ∼ 1.6 eV, which is explained by the interplay of bandgap renormalization and hot-carrier distributions. At higher excitation densities, a 'phonon bottleneck' substantially slows carrier cooling. This effect indicates a low contribution from inelastic carrier-impurity or phonon-impurity scattering in these polycrystalline materials, which supports high charge-carrier mobilities. Photoinduced reflectivity changes distort the shape of transient absorption spectra and must be included to extract physical constants. Using a simple band-filling model that accounts for these changes, we determine a small effective mass of mr=0.14 mo, which agrees with band structure calculations and high photovoltaic performance. PMID:26404048

  3. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Cool and Hot Cognitive Processes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Cobo, María José; Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Although emotion and cognition were considered to be separate aspects of the psyche in the past, researchers today have demonstrated the existence of an interplay between the two processes. Emotional intelligence (EI), or the ability to perceive, use, understand, and regulate emotions, is a relatively young concept that attempts to connect both emotion and cognition. While EI has been demonstrated to be positively related to well-being, mental and physical health, and non-aggressive behaviors, little is known about its underlying cognitive processes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review available evidence about the relationship between EI and cognitive processes as measured through “cool” (i.e., not emotionally laden) and “hot” (i.e., emotionally laden) laboratory tasks. We searched Scopus and Medline to find relevant articles in Spanish and English, and divided the studies following two variables: cognitive processes (hot vs. cool) and EI instruments used (performance-based ability test, self-report ability test, and self-report mixed test). We identified 26 eligible studies. The results provide a fair amount of evidence that performance-based ability EI (but not self-report EI tests) is positively related with efficiency in hot cognitive tasks. EI, however, does not appear to be related with cool cognitive tasks: neither through self-reporting nor through performance-based ability instruments. These findings suggest that performance-based ability EI could improve individuals’ emotional information processing abilities. PMID:27303277

  4. Effects of cooling temperature and hot carcass weight on the quality of lamb.

    PubMed

    Muela, E; Sañudo, C; Campo, M M; Medel, I; Beltrán, J A

    2010-01-01

    The effects of cooling temperature (CT) (0-2, 2-4, or 4-6 degrees C) and hot carcass weight (HCW) (either or= 12.0 kg) on weight loss (WL) and meat quality were evaluated in 60 lamb carcasses of Rasa Aragonesa breed. Carcasses were exposed to CT throughout 90 h. WL was assessed at 18, 42, 66, and 90 h post-slaughter. pH, colour, instrumental measurement of texture, oxidation, and sensory parameters were evaluated in longissimus thoracis et lumborum aged for 96 h following standard methods. Sensory test involved a trained test panel. No significant interactive effects among the parameters evaluated were detected in the study. The lower the CT, the higher the WL after 90 h in storage (0.25% lost each 2 degrees C decrease), the higher final pH, and the lower lightness, the higher hue and chroma of the meat. Toughness was higher in meat cooled at 2-4 degrees C than in meat cooled at temperatures above or below this range. Neither oxidation nor sensory variables were affected by CT. Regarding on HCW, light carcasses exhibited higher WL (2.39% versus 2.04% after 90 h of cooling), higher final pH, and lower levels of oxidation than did heavier carcasses. Neither colour nor instrumental measurement of texture was affected by HCW. Lamb and fat odour and metallic and acid flavour intensities were significantly greater in the heavier carcasses, although it did not affect overall acceptability. Both CT and HCW should be considered as main effects on lamb quality, especially CT.

  5. Effects of cooling temperature and hot carcass weight on the quality of lamb.

    PubMed

    Muela, E; Sañudo, C; Campo, M M; Medel, I; Beltrán, J A

    2010-01-01

    The effects of cooling temperature (CT) (0-2, 2-4, or 4-6 degrees C) and hot carcass weight (HCW) (either or= 12.0 kg) on weight loss (WL) and meat quality were evaluated in 60 lamb carcasses of Rasa Aragonesa breed. Carcasses were exposed to CT throughout 90 h. WL was assessed at 18, 42, 66, and 90 h post-slaughter. pH, colour, instrumental measurement of texture, oxidation, and sensory parameters were evaluated in longissimus thoracis et lumborum aged for 96 h following standard methods. Sensory test involved a trained test panel. No significant interactive effects among the parameters evaluated were detected in the study. The lower the CT, the higher the WL after 90 h in storage (0.25% lost each 2 degrees C decrease), the higher final pH, and the lower lightness, the higher hue and chroma of the meat. Toughness was higher in meat cooled at 2-4 degrees C than in meat cooled at temperatures above or below this range. Neither oxidation nor sensory variables were affected by CT. Regarding on HCW, light carcasses exhibited higher WL (2.39% versus 2.04% after 90 h of cooling), higher final pH, and lower levels of oxidation than did heavier carcasses. Neither colour nor instrumental measurement of texture was affected by HCW. Lamb and fat odour and metallic and acid flavour intensities were significantly greater in the heavier carcasses, although it did not affect overall acceptability. Both CT and HCW should be considered as main effects on lamb quality, especially CT. PMID:20374760

  6. Some ideas on the choice of designs and materials for cooled mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, M.R.

    1995-02-01

    Here the author expresses some of his views on how the fabrication of future synchrotron beam-line optics ought to be approached. Many of the most interesting new ideas for beam-line mirrors, especially those with a promise of low costs, involve metals. Historically these materials had posed certain problems, but these have been overcome in recent times to the extent that the initial complement of Advanced-Light-Source (ALS) beam-line optics were made of metal and have met their specifications. To go furthere along that road one needs to get more interested in the metallurgical issues involved in making high-quality metal mirrors. The author recounts the results of some investigations into these materials questions and trys to draw on some of the experiences and achievements of these communities which have hitherto had only limited contact with synchrotron radiation researchers.

  7. Effect of a cooling gel on pain sensitivity and healing of hot-iron cattle brands.

    PubMed

    Tucker, C B; Mintline, E M; Banuelos, J; Walker, K A; Hoar, B; Drake, D; Weary, D M

    2014-12-01

    Hot-iron branding is painful for cattle, but little is known about how long this pain lasts or effective alleviation methods. Previous work with pigs indicated that cooling burns with a gel (active ingredient: tea tree oil) improved healing compared to untreated wounds. Steers (210±21 kg) were hot-iron branded and allocated to 1 of 3 treatments: control (n=24), 1 gel application immediately after branding (1X; n=12), or 2 gel applications, 1 immediately after branding and one 1 d later (2X; n=12). Pain sensitivity was assessed by applying a known and increasing force with a von Frey anesthesiometer in 5 locations (in the center, at the top of, and 5 and 10 cm above the brand and on the equivalent location on the nonbranded side of the body) until animals showed a behavioral response. Healing was measured with a 6-point scale (1=fresh brand and 6=no scabbing and fully repigmented). Both measures, along with weight gain and surface temperature of the wound, were recorded before and 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 56, and 70 d after branding. The gel cooled the brand, with the most obvious differences on the day it was applied (3.7 to 4.2°C cooler than control; day×gel interaction, P=0.004). All wounds were at least partially repigmented by 70 d, but only 46% of brands were fully healed at this time. The healing process was slowed when a gel was applied twice (e.g., at 21 d, healing score of 2.5±0.1 and 2.7±0.1 vs. 2.0±0.2 for control and 1X vs. 2X, respectively; P=0.001). Brands tended to remain painful throughout the 70 d (in the center of the brand; before vs. d 1-35, P≤0.001; d 56, P=0.058; and d 70, P=0.092). Overall, gel had little effect on pain sensitivity. Weight gain was reduced on d 1 after branding compared to all other time points (P<0.001) but was not affected by gel application (P=0.277). In conclusion, applying gel did not improve outcomes after branding. In addition, by 70 d after the procedure, hot-iron brands still tended to be more painful than

  8. Coiling Temperature Control Using Temperature Measurement Method for the Hot Rolled Strip in the Water Cooling Banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Shigemasa; Tachibana, Hisayoshi; Honda, Tatsuro; Uematsu, Chihiro

    In the hot strip mill, the quality of the strip greatly depends on the cooling process between the last stand in the finishing mill and the coilers. Therefore, it is important to carefully control the coiling temperature to regulate the mechanical properties of the strip. To realize high accuracy of coiling temperature, a new coiling temperature control using temperature measurement method for the hot rolled strip in the water cooling banks has been developed. The features of the new coiling temperature control are as follows: (i) New feedforward control adjusts ON/OFF swiching of cooling headers according to the strip temperature measured in the water cooling banks. (ii) New feedforward control is achieved by dynamic control function. This coiling temperature control has been in operation successfully since 2008 at Kashima Steel Works and improved the accuracy of coiling temperature of high strength steel considerably.

  9. Frequency-Domain Analysis of Diffusion-Cooled Hot-Electron Bolometer Mixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skalare, A.; McGrath, W. R.; Bumble, B.; LeDuc, H. G.

    1998-01-01

    A new theoretical model is introduced to describe heterodyne mixer conversion efficiency and noise (from thermal fluctuation effects) in diffusion-cooled superconducting hot-electron bolometers. The model takes into account the non-uniform internal electron temperature distribution generated by Wiedemann-Franz heat conduction, and accepts for input an arbitrary (analytical or experimental) superconducting resistance-versus- temperature curve. A non-linear large-signal solution is solved iteratively to calculate the temperature distribution, and a linear frequency-domain small-signal formulation is used to calculate conversion efficiency and noise. In the small-signal solution the device is discretized into segments, and matrix algebra is used to relate the heating modulation in the segments to temperature and resistance modulations. Matrix expressions are derived that allow single-sideband mixer conversion efficiency and coupled noise power to be directly calculated. The model accounts for self-heating and electrothermal feedback from the surrounding bias circuit.

  10. Performance evaluation of Iranian cooling vest on the physiological indices in hot climatic chamber

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Habibollah; Gharehbaei, Somayeh; Mahaki, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Heat stress is a threat to those who work in high temperatures. The purpose in this study was an examination of the cooling ability of Iranian phase change material (PCM) cold vest in hot and dry conditions in a climatic chamber. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was implemented on 12 male students (age 23.7 ± 2.8 years, weight 66.1 ± 11.4 kg, and VO2 max 2.53 L/min) in 2013. The heat strain score index (HSSI), skin temperature and oral temperature, and heartbeat in two phases with and without cooling vest was measured during 30 min in a climatic chamber (temperature 38.8 ± 1.3°C humidity ratio 32.9 ± 2.3%) and in two activity intensity of 2.4 and 4.8 km/h speed on the treadmill, and the data differences between groups “with” and “without” vest were tested by t-test and repeated measurement. The level of significance was considered as 0.05. Results: The change in heartbeat at two activities, the oral temperature and heat strain score at 4.8 km/h, did not differ significantly between groups (with and without vest), as expected (P > 0.05). However, the change in skin temperature at two activities, oral temperature and heat strain score at 2.4 km/h, was significant between groups, as expected (P < 0.05). The average of skin temperature at 15th and 30th min during the experiment at two activities of 2.4 and 4.8 km/h was significant. Conclusion: The findings of the study indicated that using the Iranian PCM cold vest in hot and dry climate can affect the reduction of skin temperature, oral temperature, and HSSI in light activities. PMID:27500168

  11. Hot accretion flow with radiative cooling: state transitions in black hole X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mao-Chun; Xie, Fu-Guo; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Gan, Zhaoming

    2016-06-01

    We investigate state transitions in black hole X-ray binaries through different parameters by using two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulation method. For radiative cooling in hot accretion flow, we take into account the bremsstrahlung, synchrotron and synchrotron self-Comptonization self-consistently in the dynamics. Our main result is that the state transitions occur when the accretion rate reaches a critical value dot{M} ˜ 3α dot{M}_Edd, above which cold and dense clumpy/filamentary structures are formed, embedded within the hot gas. We argued this mode likely corresponds to the proposed two-phase accretion model, which may be responsible for the intermediate state of black hole X-ray binaries. When the accretion rate becomes sufficiently high, the clumpy/filamentary structures gradually merge and settle down on to the mid-plane. Eventually the accretion geometry transforms to a disc-corona configuration. In summary, our results are consistent with the truncated accretion scenario for the state transition.

  12. Design and testing of a liquid cooled garment for hot environments.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tinghui; Shang, Bofeng; Duan, Bin; Luo, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Liquid cooled garments (LCGs) are considered a viable method to protect individuals from hyperthermia and heat-related illness when working in thermally stressful environments. While the concept of LCGs was proposed over 50 years ago, the design and testing of these systems is undeveloped and stands in need of further study. In this study, a detailed heat transfer model of LCG in a hot environment was built to analyze the effects of different factors on the LCG performance, and to identify the main limitations to achieve maximum performance. An LCG prototype was designed and fabricated. Series of tests were done by a modified thermal manikin method to validate the heat transfer model and to evaluate the thermal properties. Both experimental and predicted results show that the heat flux components match the heat balance equation with an error of less than 10% at different flowrate. Thermal resistance analysis also manifests that the thermal resistance between the cooling water and the ambient (R2) is more sensitive to the flowrate than to the one between the skin surface and the cooling water (R1). When the flowrate increased from 225 to 544 mL/min, R2 decreased from 0.5 to 0.3 °C m(2)/W while R1 almost remained constant. A specific duration time was proposed to assess the durability and an optimized value of 1.68 h/kg was found according to the heat transfer model. The present heat transfer model and specific duration time concept could be used to optimize and evaluate this kind of LCG respectively.

  13. The effect of cooled perches on immunological parameters of caged White Leghorn hens during the hot summer months

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if thermally cooled perches improved hen immunity during the hot summer months. White Leghorn pullets at 16 weeks of age were randomly assigned to 18 cages of 3 banks at 9 hens per cage. Each bank was assigned to 1 of the 3 treatments up to 32 weeks of ag...

  14. Hot and Cool Forms of Inhibitory Control and Externalizing Behavior in Children of Mothers Who Smoked during Pregnancy: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huijbregts, Stephan C. J.; Warren, Alison J.; de Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether children exposed to prenatal smoking show deficits in "hot" and/or "cool" executive functioning (EF). Hot EF is involved in regulation of affect and motivation, whereas cool EF is involved in handling abstract, decontextualized problems. Forty 7 to 9-year-old children (15 exposed to prenatal smoking, 25 non-exposed)…

  15. Effect of Water Vapor During Secondary Cooling on Hot Shortness in Fe-Cu-Ni-Sn-Si Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, Erica; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2014-10-01

    Residual Cu in recycled steel scrap can cause hot shortness when the iron matrix is oxidized. Hot shortness can occur directly after the solid steel is formed from continuous casting as the steel undergoes a cooling process known as secondary cooling where water is first sprayed on the surface to promote cooling. This is followed by a radiant cooling stage where the steel is cooled in air to room temperature. This investigation examines the roles of water vapor, Si content, temperature, and the presence of Sn in a Fe-0.2 wt pct Cu-0.05 wt pct Ni alloy on oxidation, separated Cu and Cu induced-hot shortness during simulations of the secondary cooling process. The secondary cooling from 1473 K (1200 °C) resulted in a slight increase in liquid quantity and grain boundary penetration as compared to the isothermal heating cycles at 1423 K (1150 °C) due to the higher temperatures experienced in the non-isothermal cycle. The addition of water vapor increased the sample oxidation as compared to samples processed in dry atmospheres due to increased scale adherence, scale plasticity, and inward transport of oxygen. The increase in weight gain of the wet atmosphere increased the liquid formation at the interface in the non-Si containing alloys. The secondary cooling cycle with water vapor and the effect of Sn lead to the formation of many small pools of Cu-rich liquid embedded within the surface of the metal due to the Sn allowing for increased grain boundary decohesion and the water vapor allowing for oxidation within liquid-penetrated grain boundaries. The presence of Si increased the amount of occlusion of Cu and Fe, significantly decreasing the quantity of liquid at the interface and the amount of grain boundary penetration.

  16. Thermal characteristics of air-water spray impingement cooling of hot metallic surface under controlled parametric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Santosh Kumar; Mishra, Purna Chandra

    2016-06-01

    Experimental results on the thermal characteristics of air-water spray impingement cooling of hot metallic surface are presented and discussed in this paper. The controlling input parameters investigated were the combined air and water pressures, plate thickness, water flow rate, nozzle height from the target surface and initial temperature of the hot surface. The effects of these input parameters on the important thermal characteristics such as heat transfer rate, heat transfer coefficient and wetting front movement were measured and examined. Hot flat plate samples of mild steel with dimension 120 mm in length, 120 mm breadth and thickness of 4 mm, 6 mm, and 8 mm respectively were tested. The air assisted water spray was found to be an effective cooling media and method to achieve very high heat transfer rate from the surface. Higher heat transfer rate and heat transfer coefficients were obtained for the lesser i.e, 4 mm thick plates. Increase in the nozzle height reduced the heat transfer efficiency of spray cooling. At an inlet water pressure of 4 bar and air pressure of 3 bar, maximum cooling rates 670°C/s and average cooling rate of 305.23°C/s were achieved for a temperature of 850°C of the steel plate.

  17. Hydrogen bond donors accelerate vibrational cooling of hot purine derivatives in heavy water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuyuan; Chen, Jinquan; Kohler, Bern

    2013-08-01

    Natural nucleobases and many of their derivatives have ultrashort excited state lifetimes that make them excellent model systems for studying intermolecular energy flow from a hot solute molecule to the solvent. UV-pump/broadband-mid-IR-probe transient absorption spectra of canonical purine nucleobases and several xanthine derivatives were acquired in D2O and acetonitrile in the probe frequency range of 1500-1750 cm(-1). The spectra reveal that vibrationally hot ground state molecules created by ultrafast internal conversion return to thermal equilibrium in several picoseconds by dissipating their excess energy to solvent molecules. In acetonitrile solution, where hydrogen bonding is minimal, vibrational cooling (VC) occurs with the same time constant of 10 ± 3 ps for paraxanthine, theophylline, and caffeine within experimental uncertainty. In D2O, VC by these molecules occurs more rapidly and at different rates that are correlated with the number of N-D bonds. Hypoxanthine has a VC time constant of 3 ± 1 ps, while similar lifetimes of 2.3 ± 0.8 ps and 3.1 ± 0.3 ps are seen for 5'-adenosine monophosphate and 5'-guanosine monophosphate, respectively. All three molecules have at least two N-D bonds. Slightly slower VC time constants are measured for paraxanthine (4 ± 1 ps) and theophylline (5.1 ± 0.8 ps), dimethylated xanthines that have only one N-D bond. Caffeine, a trimethylated xanthine with no N-D bonds, has a VC time constant of 7.7 ± 0.9 ps, the longest ever observed for any nucleobase in aqueous solution. Hydrogen bond donation by solute molecules is proposed to enable rapid energy disposal to water via direct coupling of high frequency solute-solvent modes.

  18. Effects of cool and hot humid environmental conditions on neuroendocrine responses of horses to treadmill exercise.

    PubMed

    Williams, R J; Marlin, D J; Smith, N; Harris, R C; Haresign, W; Davies Morel, M C

    2002-07-01

    To determine the effects of exercise, high heat and humidity and acclimation on plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, beta-endorphin and cortisol concentrations, five horses performed a competition exercise test (CET; designed to simulate the speed and endurance test of a three-day event) in cool dry (CD) (20 degrees C/40% RH) and hot humid (30 degrees C/80% RH) conditions before (pre-acclimation) and after (post-acclimation) a 15 day period of humid heat acclimation. Plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations pre-acclimation were significantly increased compared with exercise in the CD trial at the end of Phases C (P<0.05) and D (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively) and at 2 min recovery (P<0.01), with adrenaline concentrations still elevated after 5 min of recovery (P<0.001). Plasma beta-endorphin concentrations were increased at the end of Phases C (P<0.05) and X (P<0.01) and at 5 and 30 min recovery (P<0.05) in the pre-acclimation session. Plasma cortisol concentrations were elevated after the initial warm up period pre-acclimation (P<0.01) and at the end of Phase C (P<0.05), compared with the CD trial. A 15 day period of acclimation significantly increased plasma adrenaline concentrations at 2 min recovery (P<0.001) and plasma cortisol concentration at the end of Phase B (P<0.01) compared with pre-acclimation. Acclimation did not significantly influence noradrenaline or beta-endorphin responses to exercise, although there was a trend for plasma beta-endorphin to be lower at the end of Phases C and X and after 30 min recovery compared with pre-acclimation. Plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, beta-endorphin and cortisol concentrations were increased by exercise in cool dry conditions and were further increased by the same exercise in hot humid conditions. Exercise responses post-acclimation suggest that adrenaline and noradrenaline may play a role in the adaptation of horses to thermal stress and that changes in plasma beta-endorphin concentrations could be used

  19. Using Activated Transport in Parallel Nanowires for Energy Harvesting and Hot-Spot Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosisio, Riccardo; Gorini, Cosimo; Fleury, Geneviève; Pichard, Jean-Louis

    2015-05-01

    We study arrays of parallel doped semiconductor nanowires in a temperature range where the electrons propagate through the nanowires by phonon-assisted hops between localized states. By solving the random-resistor-network problem, we compute the thermopower S , the electrical conductance G , and the electronic thermal conductance Ke of the device. We investigate how those quantities depend on the position—which can be tuned with a back gate—of the nanowire impurity band with respect to the equilibrium electrochemical potential. We show that large power factors can be reached near the band edges, when S self-averages to large values while G is small but scales with the number of wires. Calculating the amount of heat exchanged locally between the electrons inside the nanowires and the phonons of the environment, we show that phonons are mainly absorbed near one electrode and emitted near the other when a charge current is driven through the nanowires near their band edges. This phenomenon could be exploited for a field control of the heat exchange between the phonons and the electrons at submicron scales in electronic circuits. It could be also used for cooling hot spots.

  20. Effects of evaporative cooling on reproductive performance and milk production of dairy cows in hot wet conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khongdee, S.; Chaiyabutr, N.; Hinch, G.; Markvichitr, K.; Vajrabukka, C.

    2006-05-01

    Fourteen animals of second and third lactation of Thai Friesian crossbred cows (87.5% Friesian × 12.5% Bos indicus) located at Sakol Nakhon Research and Breeding Centre, Department of Livestock Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, were divided randomly into two groups of seven each to evaluate the effects of evaporative cooling on reproductive and physiological traits under hot, humid conditions. Results indicated that installation of evaporating cooling in the open shed gave a further improvement in ameliorating heat stress in dairy cows in hot-wet environments by utilising the low humidity conditions that naturally occur during the day. The cows housed in an evaporatively cooled environment had both a rectal temperature and respiration rate (39.09°C, 61.39 breaths/min, respectively) significantly lower than that of the non-cooled cows (41.21°C; 86.87 breaths/min). The former group also had higher milk yield and more efficient reproductive performance (pregnancy rate and reduced days open) than the latter group. It is suggested that the non-evaporatively cooled cows did not gain benefit from the naturally lower heat stress during night time.

  1. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy was used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system had an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water was the transfer medium that delivered solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivered solar heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy was insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provided auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

  2. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy was used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system had an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water was the transfer medium that delivered solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivered solar heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy was insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provided auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

  3. Caffeine lowers muscle pain during exercise in hot but not cool environments.

    PubMed

    Ganio, Matthew S; Johnson, Evan C; Lopez, Rebecca M; Stearns, Rebecca L; Emmanuel, Holly; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Casa, Douglas J; Maresh, Carl M; Volek, Jeff S; Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2011-03-01

    Caffeine (CAF) ingestion may enhance endurance exercise by lowering perceived exertion (RPE) and muscle pain. However, exercise in the heat may be detrimental to performance by increasing RPE and pain. The purpose of this study was to examine if caffeine affects pain and related perceptual responses differently in cool and hot ambient conditions. Eleven male cyclists (mean ± SD; age, 25 ± 6 years; mass, 72.6 ± 8.1 kg; VO(2max), 58.7 ± 2.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed four trials in a randomized, double blind design. While remaining euhydrated, subjects cycled for 90 min at 65 ± 7% VO(2max) followed by a 15-min performance trial. Subjects ingested 3 mg kg(-1) of encapsulated caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA) 60 min before and 45 after beginning exercise in 12°C and 33°C (i.e., 12-CAF, 33-CAF, 12-PLA, and 33-PLA trials). Central, local, and overall perceived exertion (C-, L-, and O-RPE) and pain were measured throughout exercise. Throughout submaximal exercise C-, L-, and O-RPE were significantly greater in 33°C (P<0.05) but were not affected by CAF (P>0.05). Using area-under-the-curve analysis, pain in 33-PLA was increased by 74% vs 12-PLA (P<0.05). CAF did not reduce pain in 12°C (P=0.542), but in 33°C, CAF reduced pain by 27% (P=0.032). Despite this apparent advantage, CAF improved performance independent of ambient temperature (i.e., non-significant interaction; P=0.662). This study found that, although caffeine improves exercise capacity, its effect on leg muscle pain is dependent on ambient temperature. Although exercise in the heat increases muscle pain compared to a cooler environment, caffeine reduces this pain.

  4. Thermal and economic assessment of hot side sensible heat and cold side phase change storage combination fo absorption solar cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M. K.; Morehouse, J. H.

    An analysis of a solar assisted absorption cooling system which employs a combination of phase change on the cold side and sensible heat storage on the hot side of the cooling machine for small commercial buildings is given. The year-round thermal performance of this system for space cooling were determined by simulation and compared against conventional cooling systems in three geographic locations: Phoenix, Arizona; Miami, Florida and Washington, D.C. The results indicate that the hot-cold storage combination has a considerable amount of energy and economical savings over hot side sensible heat storage. Using the hot-cold storage combination, the optimum collector areas for Washington, D.C., Phoenix and Miami are 355 m squared, 250 m squared and 495 m squared, respectively. Compared against conventional vapor compression chiller, the net solar fractions are 61, 67 and 69 percent, respectively.

  5. X-Ray Thermal Coronae of Galaxies in Hot Clusters: Ubiquity of Embedded Mini-Cooling Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, M.; Jones, C.; Forman, W.; Vikhlinin, A.; Donahue, M.; Voit, M.

    2007-03-01

    We present a systematic investigation of X-ray thermal coronae in 157 early-type and 22 late-type galaxies from a survey of 25 hot (kT>3 keV), nearby (z<0.05) clusters, based on Chandra archival data. Cool galactic coronae (kT=0.5-1.1 keV generally) have been found to be common, >60% in LKs>2L* galaxies. These embedded coronae in hot clusters are generally smaller, less luminous, and less massive than coronae in poor environments, demonstrating the negative effects of hot cluster environments on galactic coronae. Nevertheless, these coronae still manage to survive ICM stripping, evaporation, rapid cooling, and powerful AGN outflows, making them a rich source of information about gas stripping, microscopic transport, and feedback processes in the cluster environment. Heat conduction across the boundary of the coronae has to be suppressed by a factor of >~100, which implies that the X-ray gas in early-type galaxies is magnetized and the magnetic field plays an important role in energy transfer. The luminous, embedded coronae, with high central density (0.1-0.4 cm-3), are miniversions of group and cluster cooling cores. As the prevalence of coronae of massive galaxies implies a long lifetime (>~several Gyr), there must be a heat source inside coronae to offset cooling. While we argue that AGN heating may not generally be the heat source, we conclude that SN heating can be enough as long as the kinetic energy of SNe can be efficiently dissipated. Diffuse thermal coronae have also been detected in at least 8 of 22 late-type galaxies in our sample. The fraction of luminous X-ray AGNs (>1041 ergs s-1) is not small (~5%) in our sample.

  6. Flash Mixing on the White-Dwarf Cooling Curve: Understanding Hot Horizontal Branch Anomalies in NGC 2808

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas M.; Sweigart, Allen V.; Lanz, Thierry; Landsman, Wayne B.; Hubeny, Ivan; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present an ultraviolet color-magnitude diagram (CMD) spanning the hot horizontal branch (HB), blue straggler, and white dwarf populations of the globular cluster NGC 2808. These data, obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), demonstrate that NGC 2808 harbors a significant population of hot subluminous HB stars, an anomaly only previously reported for the globular cluster omega Cen. Our theoretical modeling indicates that the location of these subluminous stars in the CMD, as well as the high temperature gap along the HB of NGC 2808, can be explained if these stars underwent a late helium-core flash while descending the white dwarf cooling curve. We show that the convective zone produced by such a late helium flash will penetrate into the hydrogen envelope, thereby mixing hydrogen into the hot helium-burning interior, where it is rapidly consumed. This phenomenon is analogous to the "born again" scenario for producing hydrogen-deficient stars following a late helium-shell flash. The flash mixing of the envelope greatly enhances the envelope helium and carbon abundances that, in turn, leads to a discontinuous increase in the HB effective temperatures. We argue that the hot HB gap is associated with this theoretically predicted dichotomy in the HB properties. Moreover, the changes in the emergent spectral energy distribution caused by these abundance changes are primarily responsible for explaining the hot subluminous HB stars. Although further evidence is needed to confirm that a late helium-core flash can account for the subluminous HB stars and the hot HB gap, we demonstrate that an understanding of these stars requires the use of appropriate theoretical models for their evolution, atmospheres, and spectra.

  7. Cool Temperatures near the Homopause of the 8-μm North Polar Hot Spot of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang J.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Yung, Yuk; Miller, Steve; Orton, Glenn S.; minh, young

    2016-10-01

    We have observed the 8-μm north-polar hot spot (8NPHS) of Jupiter at 3 μm with GNIRS, the Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph at Gemini North on January 13, 2013(UT), and at 8 μm on Feburary 6, 2013(UT) with TEXES, the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph at the NASA IRTF. We have derived rather cool homopause temperatures of 180 - 250 K for the 8NPHS by fitting CH4 emission models to 3- and 8-μm spectra of the 8NPHS. From the fits, we also found that CH4 mixing ratios at the 8NPHS are consistent with those reported by Kim et al. (Icarus, 237, 42, 2014) in equatorial regions. We will discuss possible implications of the relatively cool 8NPHS homopause, which was unexpected.

  8. Egg production response of laying chickens to feather clipping, cool water and aspirin during hot weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Dei, Herbert Kwabla

    2014-12-01

    An 8-week trial was conducted between March and May (hot-dry season) to determine effects of water temperature, feather clipping and aspirin on egg production of chickens. The treatments tested were hens given ordinary drinking water (control), cool water (100 g ice block per L) and aspirin (0.3 mg per L of ordinary water) and hens whose feathers were clipped (about two thirds of body feathers clipped). At 32 weeks of age, 120 Lohmann brown layer chickens of similar live weights were randomly divided into 12 groups of ten hens each and assigned to the treatments in triplicate using a completely randomized design. Feed and water were given ad libitum. Data included feed intake, water consumption, hen-day egg production and egg weight. Ambient house temperature, hen's cloacal temperature and water temperature were monitored daily during the experimental period. Mean daily ambient temperature increased from 28.4 to 35.0 °C during the study period with consequent increase in cloacal temperatures (40.31 to 41.18 °C) of hens, ordinary drinking water and cool water. None of the treatments had any significant (P > 0.05) effects on feed intake and water consumption of the birds. Hens given cool water produced more (P < 0.05) eggs and better (P < 0.05) feed efficiency than hens assigned to other treatments. Mean egg weight of each treatment was similar (P > 0.05). It is concluded that the provision of cool water in a hot-dry climate had a beneficial effect on egg laying performance of chickens. PMID:25187029

  9. Egg production response of laying chickens to feather clipping, cool water and aspirin during hot weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Dei, Herbert Kwabla

    2014-12-01

    An 8-week trial was conducted between March and May (hot-dry season) to determine effects of water temperature, feather clipping and aspirin on egg production of chickens. The treatments tested were hens given ordinary drinking water (control), cool water (100 g ice block per L) and aspirin (0.3 mg per L of ordinary water) and hens whose feathers were clipped (about two thirds of body feathers clipped). At 32 weeks of age, 120 Lohmann brown layer chickens of similar live weights were randomly divided into 12 groups of ten hens each and assigned to the treatments in triplicate using a completely randomized design. Feed and water were given ad libitum. Data included feed intake, water consumption, hen-day egg production and egg weight. Ambient house temperature, hen's cloacal temperature and water temperature were monitored daily during the experimental period. Mean daily ambient temperature increased from 28.4 to 35.0 °C during the study period with consequent increase in cloacal temperatures (40.31 to 41.18 °C) of hens, ordinary drinking water and cool water. None of the treatments had any significant (P > 0.05) effects on feed intake and water consumption of the birds. Hens given cool water produced more (P < 0.05) eggs and better (P < 0.05) feed efficiency than hens assigned to other treatments. Mean egg weight of each treatment was similar (P > 0.05). It is concluded that the provision of cool water in a hot-dry climate had a beneficial effect on egg laying performance of chickens.

  10. Designing of the Cooling Vest from Paraffin Compounds and Evaluation of its Impact Under Laboratory Hot Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanirad, Saeid; Dehghan, Habibollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: The phase change materials (PCMs) have the appropriate properties for controlling heat strain. One of the well-known PCMs is paraffin. This study aimed to design the cooling vest from the cheap commercial paraffin compound and evaluation of its effectiveness under laboratory hot conditions. Methods: the cooling vest was made of the polyester fabric and it had 17 aluminum packs. The each of aluminum packs was filled by 135 g of prepared paraffin with a proper melting point in the range of 15–35°C. an experimental study was conducted on ten male students under warm conditions (air temperature = 40°C, relative humidity = 40%) in a climatic chamber. Each participant was tested without cooling vest and with cooling in two activities rate on treadmill to include: light (2.8 km/h) and moderate (4.8 km/h). The time of this test was 30 min in each stage. During the test, the heart rate, the oral temperature, the skin temperature were measured every 4 min. Finally, data were analyzed using the Kolmogrov–Smirnov and repeated measurement ANOVA test in SPSS 16. Results: The latent heat of the prepared paraffin compound and the peak of the melting point were 108 kJ/kg and 30°C, respectively. The mean and standard deviation of heart rate, oral temperature, and skin temperature with cooling vest in light activity were 103.9 (12.12) beat/min, 36.77 (0.32)°C, and 31.01 (1.96)°C and in moderate activity were 109.5 (12.57) beat/min, 36.79 (0.20)°C, and 29.69 (2.23)°C, respectively. There is a significant difference between parameters with a cooling vest and without cooling (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The designed cooling vest with low cost can be used to prevent thermal strain and to increase the physiological stability against the heat. However, the latent heat of this cooling vest was low. PMID:27076885

  11. A passive cooling system of residential and commercial buildings in summer or hot season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. M.; Mashud, M.; Chu, C. M.; Misaran, M. S. bin; Sarker, M.; Kumaresen, S.

    2015-12-01

    The increasing number of high rise buildings may contribute to lack of natural ventilation in modern buildings. Generally, fans and air conditioning are used in the modern building for cooling and air ventilation. Most of the energy in tropical regions are consumed by heating, cooling and ventilation appliances. Therefore, solar power appliances for cooling, heating and ventilation will be a suitable option for saving energy from the household sector. A modified-structure building is designed and constructed with solar chimney to enhance ventilation rate that increases cooling performance and ensure thermal comfort. An evaporative cooler is introduced with a newly designed room to enhance the temperature reduction capacity. The room temperature is compared with a non-modified room as well as with ambient temperature. The results show that passive cooling system with evaporative cooler was able to reduce temperature by 5°C compared to the ambient temperature and about 2°C to 3°C below the reference room temperature.

  12. Hot topic, warm loops, cooling plasma? Multithermal analysis of active region loops

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelz, J. T.; Pathak, S.; Christian, G. M.; Dhaliwal, R. S.; Brooks, D. H.

    2014-11-10

    We have found indications of a relationship between the differential emission measure (DEM) weighted temperature and the cross-field DEM width for coronal loops. The data come from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer, and the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. These data show that cooler loops tend to have narrower DEM widths. If most loops observed by these instruments are composed of bundles of unresolved magnetic strands and are only observed in their cooling phase, as some studies have suggested, then this relationship implies that the DEM of a coronal loop narrows as it cools. This could imply that fewer strands are seen emitting in the later cooling phase, potentially resolving the long standing controversy of whether the cross-field temperatures of coronal loops are multithermal or isothermal.

  13. Hot Topic, Warm Loops, Cooling Plasma? Multithermal Analysis of Active Region Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Pathak, S.; Brooks, D. H.; Christian, G. M.; Dhaliwal, R. S.

    2014-11-01

    We have found indications of a relationship between the differential emission measure (DEM) weighted temperature and the cross-field DEM width for coronal loops. The data come from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer, and the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. These data show that cooler loops tend to have narrower DEM widths. If most loops observed by these instruments are composed of bundles of unresolved magnetic strands and are only observed in their cooling phase, as some studies have suggested, then this relationship implies that the DEM of a coronal loop narrows as it cools. This could imply that fewer strands are seen emitting in the later cooling phase, potentially resolving the long standing controversy of whether the cross-field temperatures of coronal loops are multithermal or isothermal.

  14. Simulator test to study hot-flow problems related to a gas cooled reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, J. W.; Freeman, M. P.; Doak, K. W.; Thorpe, M. L.

    1973-01-01

    An advance study of materials, fuel injection, and hot flow problems related to the gas core nuclear rocket is reported. The first task was to test a previously constructed induction heated plasma GCNR simulator above 300 kW. A number of tests are reported operating in the range of 300 kW at 10,000 cps. A second simulator was designed but not constructed for cold-hot visualization studies using louvered walls. A third task was a paper investigation of practical uranium feed systems, including a detailed discussion of related problems. The last assignment resulted in two designs for plasma nozzle test devices that could be operated at 200 atm on hydrogen.

  15. Temperature Control of Hot Strip Finishing Mill with Inter Stand Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Kunio; Anbe, Yoshiharu; Imanari, Hiroyuki

    It is important for hot strip mill to keep finishing mill delivery temperature to it’s target value because of yield strength and tensile strength of rolled strip. We propose a new method for finishing mill delivery temperature control (FDTC) of a hot strip mill using inter stand strip coolant (ISC). FDTC consists of initial setting (before threading) values calculation of ISC flow rate and finishing mill speed, feed forward FDTC (FF-FDTC) and feedback FDTC (FB-FDTC). The mathematical strip temperature model of finishing mill was identified using normal operating data and some tests. Actual mill application with 7 stands finishing mill showed good FDTC results and also it made possible to increase rolling speed which increase production rate.

  16. The Effect of Cooled Perches on Immunological Parameters of Caged White Leghorn Hens during the Hot Summer Months

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Rebecca A.; Hester, Patricia Y.; Eicher, Susan D.; Hu, Jiaying; Cheng, Heng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if thermally cooled perches improve hen immunity during hot summer. White Leghorn pullets at 16 week of age were randomly assigned to 18 cages of 3 banks at 9 hens per cage. Each bank was assigned to 1 of the 3 treatments up to 32 week of age: 1) thermally cooled perches, 2) perches with ambient air, and 3) cages without perches. Hens were exposed to natural ambient temperatures from June through September 2013 in Indiana with a 4 h acute heat episode at 27.6 week of age. The packed cell volume, heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, plasma concentrations of total IgG, and cytokines of interleukin-1β and interleukin-6, plus lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α factor were measured at both 27.6 and 32 week of age. The mRNA expressions of these cytokines, toll-like receptor-4, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were also examined in the spleen of 32 week-old hens. Except for H/L ratio, thermally cooled perches did not significantly improve currently measured immunological indicators. These results indicated that the ambient temperature of 2013 summer in Indiana (24°C, 17.1 to 33.1°C) was not high enough and the 4 h heat episode at 33.3°C (32 to 34.6°C) was insufficient in length to evoke severe heat stress in hens. However, cooled perch hens had a lower H/L ratio than both air perch hens and control hens at 27.6 week of age and it was still lower compared to control hens (P < 0.05, respectively) at 32 week of age. The lowered H/L ratio of cooled perch hens may suggest that they were able to cope with acute heat stress more effectively than control hens. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of thermally cooled perches on hen health under higher ambient temperatures. PMID:26495988

  17. The Effect of Cooled Perches on Immunological Parameters of Caged White Leghorn Hens during the Hot Summer Months.

    PubMed

    Strong, Rebecca A; Hester, Patricia Y; Eicher, Susan D; Hu, Jiaying; Cheng, Heng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if thermally cooled perches improve hen immunity during hot summer. White Leghorn pullets at 16 week of age were randomly assigned to 18 cages of 3 banks at 9 hens per cage. Each bank was assigned to 1 of the 3 treatments up to 32 week of age: 1) thermally cooled perches, 2) perches with ambient air, and 3) cages without perches. Hens were exposed to natural ambient temperatures from June through September 2013 in Indiana with a 4 h acute heat episode at 27.6 week of age. The packed cell volume, heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, plasma concentrations of total IgG, and cytokines of interleukin-1β and interleukin-6, plus lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α factor were measured at both 27.6 and 32 week of age. The mRNA expressions of these cytokines, toll-like receptor-4, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were also examined in the spleen of 32 week-old hens. Except for H/L ratio, thermally cooled perches did not significantly improve currently measured immunological indicators. These results indicated that the ambient temperature of 2013 summer in Indiana (24°C, 17.1 to 33.1°C) was not high enough and the 4 h heat episode at 33.3°C (32 to 34.6°C) was insufficient in length to evoke severe heat stress in hens. However, cooled perch hens had a lower H/L ratio than both air perch hens and control hens at 27.6 week of age and it was still lower compared to control hens (P < 0.05, respectively) at 32 week of age. The lowered H/L ratio of cooled perch hens may suggest that they were able to cope with acute heat stress more effectively than control hens. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of thermally cooled perches on hen health under higher ambient temperatures. PMID:26495988

  18. The Effect of Cooled Perches on Immunological Parameters of Caged White Leghorn Hens during the Hot Summer Months.

    PubMed

    Strong, Rebecca A; Hester, Patricia Y; Eicher, Susan D; Hu, Jiaying; Cheng, Heng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if thermally cooled perches improve hen immunity during hot summer. White Leghorn pullets at 16 week of age were randomly assigned to 18 cages of 3 banks at 9 hens per cage. Each bank was assigned to 1 of the 3 treatments up to 32 week of age: 1) thermally cooled perches, 2) perches with ambient air, and 3) cages without perches. Hens were exposed to natural ambient temperatures from June through September 2013 in Indiana with a 4 h acute heat episode at 27.6 week of age. The packed cell volume, heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, plasma concentrations of total IgG, and cytokines of interleukin-1β and interleukin-6, plus lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α factor were measured at both 27.6 and 32 week of age. The mRNA expressions of these cytokines, toll-like receptor-4, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were also examined in the spleen of 32 week-old hens. Except for H/L ratio, thermally cooled perches did not significantly improve currently measured immunological indicators. These results indicated that the ambient temperature of 2013 summer in Indiana (24°C, 17.1 to 33.1°C) was not high enough and the 4 h heat episode at 33.3°C (32 to 34.6°C) was insufficient in length to evoke severe heat stress in hens. However, cooled perch hens had a lower H/L ratio than both air perch hens and control hens at 27.6 week of age and it was still lower compared to control hens (P < 0.05, respectively) at 32 week of age. The lowered H/L ratio of cooled perch hens may suggest that they were able to cope with acute heat stress more effectively than control hens. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of thermally cooled perches on hen health under higher ambient temperatures.

  19. Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The project described is part of the U. S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid-liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program was provided from the beginning of the program, and resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

  20. Ion acoustic solitons and supersolitons in a magnetized plasma with nonthermal hot electrons and Boltzmann cool electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Rufai, O. R. Bharuthram, R.; Singh, S. V. Lakhina, G. S.

    2014-08-15

    Arbitrary amplitude, ion acoustic solitons, and supersolitons are studied in a magnetized plasma with two distinct groups of electrons at different temperatures. The plasma consists of a cold ion fluid, cool Boltzmann electrons, and nonthermal energetic hot electrons. Using the Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique, the effect of nonthermal hot electrons on soliton structures with other plasma parameters is studied. Our numerical computation shows that negative potential ion-acoustic solitons and double layers can exist both in the subsonic and supersonic Mach number regimes, unlike the case of an unmagnetized plasma where they can only exist in the supersonic Mach number regime. For the first time, it is reported here that in addition to solitions and double layers, the ion-acoustic supersoliton solutions are also obtained for certain range of parameters in a magnetized three-component plasma model. The results show good agreement with Viking satellite observations of the solitary structures with density depletions in the auroral region of the Earth's magnetosphere.

  1. Plantar flexor neuromuscular adjustments following match-play football in hot and cool conditions.

    PubMed

    Girard, O; Nybo, L; Mohr, M; Racinais, S

    2015-06-01

    We assessed neuromuscular fatigue and recovery of the plantar flexors after playing football with or without severe heat stress. Neuromuscular characteristics of the plantar flexors were assessed in 17 male players at baseline and ∼30 min, 24, and 48 h after two 90-min football matches in temperate (∼20 °C and 55% rH) and hot (∼43 °C and 20% rH) environments. Measurements included maximal voluntary strength, muscle activation, twitch contractile properties, and rate of torque development and soleus EMG (i.e., root mean square activity) rise from 0 to 30, -50, -100, and -200 ms during maximal isometric contractions for plantar flexors. Voluntary activation and peak twitch torque were equally reduced (-1.5% and -16.5%, respectively; P < 0.05) post-matches relative to baseline in both conditions, the latter persisting for at least 48 h, whereas strength losses (∼5%) were not significant. Absolute explosive force production declined (P < 0.05) 30 ms after contraction onset independently of condition, with no change at any other epochs. Globally, normalized rate of force development and soleus EMG activity rise values remained unchanged. In football, match-induced alterations in maximal and rapid torque production capacities of the plantar flexors are moderate and do not differ after competing in temperate and hot environments.

  2. Dynamic analysis of moisture transport through walls and associated cooling loads in the hot/humid climate of Florianopolis, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Mendes, N.; Winkelmann, F.C.; Lamberts, R.; Philippi, P.C.; Da Cunha Neto, J.A.B.

    1996-04-01

    The authors describe the use of a dynamic model of combined heat and mass transfer to analyze the effects on cooling loads of transient moisture storage and transport through walls with porous building materials, under varying boundary conditions. The materials studied were brick, lime mortar and autoclaved cellular concrete. The physical properties of these materials, such as mass transport coefficients, thermal conductivity and specific heat, were taken to be functions of moisture content. The simulation results were compared to those obtained by pure conduction heat transfer without moisture effects. Also analyzed were the influence on cooling loads of high moisture content due to rain soaking of materials, and the influence of solar radiation on sunny and cloudy days. The weather used was a hot/humid summer period in Florianopolis (South Brazil). It is shown that neglecting moisture migration or assuming that the physical properties of wall materials do not depend on moisture content can result in large errors in sensible and latent heat transfer.

  3. Palm cooling does not reduce heat strain during exercise in a hot, dry environment.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Fabiano T; Yamada, Paulette M; Robergs, Robert A; Schneider, Suzanne M

    2010-08-01

    To compare the effectiveness of the rapid thermal exchange device (RTX) in slowing the development of hyperthermia and associated symptoms among hand immersed in water bath (WB), water-perfused vest (WPV), and no cooling condition (NC). Ten subjects performed 4 heat stress trials. The protocol consisted of 2 bouts of treadmill walking, separated by a cooling-rehydration period. The times to reach the predetermined rectal temperature in the first (38.5 degrees C) and second bouts (39 degrees C) were not different among RTX, NC, and WB, but was longer for the WPV in both bouts (p<0.05). Heat storage was significantly lower for WPV only in the first bout vs. the other conditions (p<0.05). Heart rate (HR) was not different at 10, 20, and 30 min during the first bout among RTX, NC, and WB, but was lower for WPV (p<0.05). HR was not different among conditions during the second bout. The RTX was not effective in slowing the development of hyperthermia.

  4. Distribution of sequence-based types of legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains isolated from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems in China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Tian; Zhou, Haijian; Ren, Hongyu; Guan, Hong; Li, Machao; Zhu, Bingqing; Shao, Zhujun

    2014-04-01

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 causes Legionnaires' disease. Water systems contaminated with Legionella are the implicated sources of Legionnaires' disease. This study analyzed L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains in China using sequence-based typing. Strains were isolated from cooling towers (n = 96), hot springs (n = 42), and potable water systems (n = 26). Isolates from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems were divided into 25 sequence types (STs; index of discrimination [IOD], 0.711), 19 STs (IOD, 0.934), and 3 STs (IOD, 0.151), respectively. The genetic variation among the potable water isolates was lower than that among cooling tower and hot spring isolates. ST1 was the predominant type, accounting for 49.4% of analyzed strains (n = 81), followed by ST154. With the exception of two strains, all potable water isolates (92.3%) belonged to ST1. In contrast, 53.1% (51/96) and only 14.3% (6/42) of cooling tower and hot spring, respectively, isolates belonged to ST1. There were differences in the distributions of clone groups among the water sources. The comparisons among L. pneumophila strains isolated in China, Japan, and South Korea revealed that similar clones (ST1 complex and ST154 complex) exist in these countries. In conclusion, in China, STs had several unique allelic profiles, and ST1 was the most prevalent sequence type of environmental L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates, similar to its prevalence in Japan and South Korea.

  5. Distribution of sequence-based types of legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains isolated from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems in China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Tian; Zhou, Haijian; Ren, Hongyu; Guan, Hong; Li, Machao; Zhu, Bingqing; Shao, Zhujun

    2014-04-01

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 causes Legionnaires' disease. Water systems contaminated with Legionella are the implicated sources of Legionnaires' disease. This study analyzed L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains in China using sequence-based typing. Strains were isolated from cooling towers (n = 96), hot springs (n = 42), and potable water systems (n = 26). Isolates from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems were divided into 25 sequence types (STs; index of discrimination [IOD], 0.711), 19 STs (IOD, 0.934), and 3 STs (IOD, 0.151), respectively. The genetic variation among the potable water isolates was lower than that among cooling tower and hot spring isolates. ST1 was the predominant type, accounting for 49.4% of analyzed strains (n = 81), followed by ST154. With the exception of two strains, all potable water isolates (92.3%) belonged to ST1. In contrast, 53.1% (51/96) and only 14.3% (6/42) of cooling tower and hot spring, respectively, isolates belonged to ST1. There were differences in the distributions of clone groups among the water sources. The comparisons among L. pneumophila strains isolated in China, Japan, and South Korea revealed that similar clones (ST1 complex and ST154 complex) exist in these countries. In conclusion, in China, STs had several unique allelic profiles, and ST1 was the most prevalent sequence type of environmental L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates, similar to its prevalence in Japan and South Korea. PMID:24463975

  6. Ambient air cooling for concealed soft body armor in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Greg A; Bishop, Stacy H; Herron, Robert L; Katica, Charles P; Elbon, Bre'anna L; Bosak, Andrew M; Bishop, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Concealed soft body armor inhibits convective and evaporative heat loss and increases heat storage, especially in hot environments. One option to potentially mitigate heat storage is to promote airflow under the soft body armor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ambient air induction (∼100 liters per minute) on heat strain while wearing concealed soft body armor in a hot environment (wet bulb globe temperature = 30°C). A counter-balanced, repeated measures protocol was performed with nine healthy male volunteers. Participants were fitted with either a traditional or modified Level II concealed soft body armor. Participants performed cycles of 12 min of walking (1.25 liters per minute) and 3 min of arm curls (0.6 liters per minute) for a total of 60 min. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to assess the mean differences in physiological measures (rectal temperature, heart rate, micro-environment [temperature and relative humidity]). Post hoc Bonferroni analysis and paired samples t-tests (alpha = 0.01) were conducted on omnibus significant findings. Perceptual measures (perceived exertion, thermal comfort) were analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Tests. Modification led to an improvement in perceived exertion at 45 min (MOD: 10 ± 1; CON: 11 ± 2; p ≤ 0.001) and 60 min (MOD: 10 ± 2; CON: 12 ± 2; p ≤ 0.001) and a reduction in micro-environment temperature in MOD (1.0 ± 0.2°C, p = 0.03) compared to CON. Modification did not attenuate change in rectal temperature or heart rate (p < 0.01) during 60-min work bout. Change in rectal temperature approached significance between MOD and CON at the end of the work bout (MOD: 0.4 ± 0.2°C; CON: 0.7 ± 0.3°C; p = 0.048). The slope of rectal temperature was significantly greater (p = 0.04) under CON compared to MOD. These data suggest that air induction may provide small benefits while wearing concealed soft body armor, though improvements are needed to lessen physiological strain.

  7. CHARACTERIZING THE COOL KOIs. II. THE M DWARF KOI-254 AND ITS HOT JUPITER

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, John Asher; Muirhead, Philip S.; Crepp, Justin R.; Morton, Timothy D.; Gazak, J. Zachary; Apps, Kevin; Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Tabetha Boyajian; Von Braun, Kaspar; Rojas-Ayala, Barbara; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Covey, Kevin R.; Schlawin, Everett; Lloyd, James P.; Hamren, Katherine

    2012-05-15

    We report the confirmation and characterization of a transiting gas giant planet orbiting the M dwarf KOI-254 every 2.455239 days, which was originally discovered by the Kepler mission. We use radial velocity measurements, adaptive optics imaging, and near-infrared spectroscopy to confirm the planetary nature of the transit events. KOI-254 b is the first hot Jupiter discovered around an M-type dwarf star. We also present a new model-independent method of using broadband photometry to estimate the mass and metallicity of an M dwarf without relying on a direct distance measurement. Included in this methodology is a new photometric metallicity calibration based on J - K colors. We use this technique to measure the physical properties of KOI-254 and its planet. We measure a planet mass of M{sub P} = 0.505 M{sub Jup}, radius R{sub P} = 0.96 R{sub Jup}, and semimajor axis a = 0.030 AU, based on our measured stellar mass M{sub *} = 0.59 M{sub Sun} and radius R{sub *} = 0.55 R{sub Sun }. We also find that the host star is metal-rich, which is consistent with the sample of M-type stars known to harbor giant planets.

  8. Doubling of sensitivity and bandwidth in phonon-cooled hot-electron bolometer mixers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baselmans, Jochem J. A.; Hajenius, Merlijn; Gao, Jianrong; Korte, Piet d.; Klapwijk, Teun M.; Voronov, Boris; Gol'tsman, Gregory

    2004-10-01

    NbN hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixers are at this moment the best heterodyne detectors for frequencies above 1 THz. However, the fabrication procedure of these devices is such that the quality of the interface between the NbN superconducting film and the contact structure is not under good control. This results in a contact resistance between the NbN bolometer and the contact pad. We compare identical bolometers, with different NbN - contact pad interfaces, coupled with a spiral antenna. We find that cleaning the NbN interface and adding a thin additional superconductor prior to the gold contact deposition improves the noise temperature and the bandwidth of the HEB mixers with more than a factor of 2. We obtain a DSB noise temperature of 950 K at 2.5 THz and a Gain bandwidth of 5-6 GHz. For use in real receiver systems we design small volume (0.15x1 micron) HEB mixers with a twin slot antenna. We find that these mixers combine good sensitivity (900 K at 1.6 THz) with low LO power requirement, which is 160 - 240 nW at the Si lens of the mixer. This value is larger than expected from the isothermal technique and the known losses in the lens by a factor of 3-3.5.

  9. Cooling water of power plant creates "hot spots" for tropical fishes and parasites.

    PubMed

    Emde, Sebastian; Kochmann, Judith; Kuhn, Thomas; Dörge, Dorian D; Plath, Martin; Miesen, Friedrich W; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Thermally altered water bodies can function as "hot spots" where non-native species are establishing self-sustaining populations beyond their tropical and subtropical native regions. Whereas many tropical fish species have been found in these habitats, the introduction of non-native parasites often remains undetected. Here, n = 77 convict cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata) were sampled by electro-fishing at two sites from a thermally altered stream in Germany and examined for parasite fauna and feeding ecology. Stomach content analysis suggests an opportunistic feeding strategy of A. nigrofasciata: while plant material dominated the diet at the warm water inlet (∼30 °C), relative contributions of insects, plants, and crustaceans were balanced 3 km downstream (∼27 °C). The most abundant non-native parasite species was the tropical nematode Camallanus cotti with P = 11.90 % and P = 80.00 % at the inlet and further downstream, respectively. Additionally, nematode larvae of Anguillicoloides crassus and one specimen of the subtropical species Bothriocephalus acheilognathi were isolated. A. nigrofasciata was also highly infected with the native parasite Acanthocephalus anguillae, which could be linked to high numbers of the parasite's intermediate host Asellus aquaticus. The aim of this study was to highlight the risk and consequences of the release and establishment of ornamental fish species for the introduction and spread of non-indigenous metazoan parasites using the convict cichlid as a model species. Furthermore, the spread of non-native parasites into adjacent fish communities needs to be addressed in the future as first evidence of Camallanus cotti in native fish species was also found. PMID:26374537

  10. Quenching of Carbon Monoxide and Methane in the Atmospheres of Cool Brown Dwarfs and Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visscher, Channon; Moses, Julianne I.

    2011-09-01

    We explore CO\\rightleftarrows CH_{4} quench kinetics in the atmospheres of substellar objects using updated timescale arguments, as suggested by a thermochemical kinetics and diffusion model that transitions from the thermochemical-equilibrium regime in the deep atmosphere to a quench-chemical regime at higher altitudes. More specifically, we examine CO quench chemistry on the T dwarf Gliese 229B and CH4 quench chemistry on the hot-Jupiter HD 189733b. We describe a method for correctly calculating reverse rate coefficients for chemical reactions, discuss the predominant pathways for CO\\rightleftarrows CH_{4} interconversion as indicated by the model, and demonstrate that a simple timescale approach can be used to accurately describe the behavior of quenched species when updated reaction kinetics and mixing-length-scale assumptions are used. Proper treatment of quench kinetics has important implications for estimates of molecular abundances and/or vertical mixing rates in the atmospheres of substellar objects. Our model results indicate significantly higher Kzz values than previously estimated near the CO quench level on Gliese 229B, whereas current-model-data comparisons using CH4 permit a wide range of Kzz values on HD 189733b. We also use updated reaction kinetics to revise previous estimates of the Jovian water abundance, based upon the observed abundance and chemical behavior of carbon monoxide. The CO chemical/observational constraint, along with Galileo entry probe data, suggests a water abundance of approximately 0.51-2.6 × solar (for a solar value of H2O/H2 = 9.61 × 10-4) in Jupiter's troposphere, assuming vertical mixing from the deep atmosphere is the only source of tropospheric CO.

  11. QUENCHING OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND METHANE IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF COOL BROWN DWARFS AND HOT JUPITERS

    SciTech Connect

    Visscher, Channon; Moses, Julianne I. E-mail: jmoses@spacescience.org

    2011-09-01

    We explore CO{r_reversible}CH{sub 4} quench kinetics in the atmospheres of substellar objects using updated timescale arguments, as suggested by a thermochemical kinetics and diffusion model that transitions from the thermochemical-equilibrium regime in the deep atmosphere to a quench-chemical regime at higher altitudes. More specifically, we examine CO quench chemistry on the T dwarf Gliese 229B and CH{sub 4} quench chemistry on the hot-Jupiter HD 189733b. We describe a method for correctly calculating reverse rate coefficients for chemical reactions, discuss the predominant pathways for CO{r_reversible}CH{sub 4} interconversion as indicated by the model, and demonstrate that a simple timescale approach can be used to accurately describe the behavior of quenched species when updated reaction kinetics and mixing-length-scale assumptions are used. Proper treatment of quench kinetics has important implications for estimates of molecular abundances and/or vertical mixing rates in the atmospheres of substellar objects. Our model results indicate significantly higher K{sub zz} values than previously estimated near the CO quench level on Gliese 229B, whereas current-model-data comparisons using CH{sub 4} permit a wide range of K{sub zz} values on HD 189733b. We also use updated reaction kinetics to revise previous estimates of the Jovian water abundance, based upon the observed abundance and chemical behavior of carbon monoxide. The CO chemical/observational constraint, along with Galileo entry probe data, suggests a water abundance of approximately 0.51-2.6 x solar (for a solar value of H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2} = 9.61 x 10{sup -4}) in Jupiter's troposphere, assuming vertical mixing from the deep atmosphere is the only source of tropospheric CO.

  12. Cooling water of power plant creates "hot spots" for tropical fishes and parasites.

    PubMed

    Emde, Sebastian; Kochmann, Judith; Kuhn, Thomas; Dörge, Dorian D; Plath, Martin; Miesen, Friedrich W; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Thermally altered water bodies can function as "hot spots" where non-native species are establishing self-sustaining populations beyond their tropical and subtropical native regions. Whereas many tropical fish species have been found in these habitats, the introduction of non-native parasites often remains undetected. Here, n = 77 convict cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata) were sampled by electro-fishing at two sites from a thermally altered stream in Germany and examined for parasite fauna and feeding ecology. Stomach content analysis suggests an opportunistic feeding strategy of A. nigrofasciata: while plant material dominated the diet at the warm water inlet (∼30 °C), relative contributions of insects, plants, and crustaceans were balanced 3 km downstream (∼27 °C). The most abundant non-native parasite species was the tropical nematode Camallanus cotti with P = 11.90 % and P = 80.00 % at the inlet and further downstream, respectively. Additionally, nematode larvae of Anguillicoloides crassus and one specimen of the subtropical species Bothriocephalus acheilognathi were isolated. A. nigrofasciata was also highly infected with the native parasite Acanthocephalus anguillae, which could be linked to high numbers of the parasite's intermediate host Asellus aquaticus. The aim of this study was to highlight the risk and consequences of the release and establishment of ornamental fish species for the introduction and spread of non-indigenous metazoan parasites using the convict cichlid as a model species. Furthermore, the spread of non-native parasites into adjacent fish communities needs to be addressed in the future as first evidence of Camallanus cotti in native fish species was also found.

  13. The Cosmic History of Hot Gas Cooling and Radio AGN Activity in Massive Early-Type Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, A. L. R.; Lehmer, B. D.; Alexander, D. M.; Brandt, W. M.; Luo, B.; Miller, N.; Xue, Y. Q.; Stott, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    We study the X-ray properties of 393 optically selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) over the redshift range of z approx equals 0.0-1.2 in the Chandra Deep Fields. To measure the average X-ray properties of the ETG population, we use X-ray stacking analyses with a subset of 158 passive ETGs (148 of which were individually undetected in X-ray). This ETG subset was constructed to span the redshift ranges of z = 0.1-1.2 in the approx equals 4 Ms CDF-S and approx equals 2 Ms CDF-N and z = 0.1-0.6 in the approx equals 250 ks E-CDF-S where the contribution from individually undetected AGNs is expected to be negligible in our stacking. We find that 55 of the ETGs are detected individually in the X-rays, and 12 of these galaxies have properties consistent with being passive hot-gas dominated systems (i.e., systems not dominated by an X-ray bright Active Galactic Nucleus; AGN). On the basis of our analyses, we find little evolution in the mean 0.5-2 keY to B-band luminosity ratio (L(sub x) /L(sub Beta) varies as [1 +z]) since z approx equals 1.2, implying that some heating mechanism prevents the gas from cooling in these systems. We consider that feedback from radio-mode AGN activity could be responsible for heating the gas. We select radio AGNs in the ETG population using their far-infrared/radio flux ratio. Our radio observations allow us to constrain the duty cycle history of radio AGN activity in our ETG sample. We estimate that if scaling relations between radio and mechanical power hold out to z approx equals 1.2 for the ETG population being studied here, the average mechanical power from AGN activity is a factor of approx equals1.4 -- 2.6 times larger than the average radiative cooling power from hot gas over the redshift range z approx equals 0-1.2. The excess of inferred AGN mechanical power from these ETGs is consistent with that found in the local Universe for similar types of galaxies.

  14. HST Hot-Jupiter Transmission Spectral Survey: Clear Skies for Cool Saturn WASP-39b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Patrick D.; Knutson, Heather A.; Sing, David K.; Henry, Gregory W.; Williamson, Michael W.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Burrows, Adam S.; Kataria, Tiffany; Nikolov, Nikolay; Showman, Adam P.; Ballester, Gilda E.; Désert, Jean-Michel; Aigrain, Suzanne; Deming, Drake; Lecavelier des Etangs, Alain; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred

    2016-08-01

    We present the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) optical transmission spectroscopy of the cool Saturn-mass exoplanet WASP-39b from 0.29-1.025 μm, along with complementary transit observations from Spitzer IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. The low density and large atmospheric pressure scale height of WASP-39b make it particularly amenable to atmospheric characterization using this technique. We detect a Rayleigh scattering slope as well as sodium and potassium absorption features; this is the first exoplanet in which both alkali features are clearly detected with the extended wings predicted by cloud-free atmosphere models. The full transmission spectrum is well matched by a clear H2-dominated atmosphere, or one containing a weak contribution from haze, in good agreement with the preliminary reduction of these data presented in Sing et al. WASP-39b is predicted to have a pressure-temperature profile comparable to that of HD 189733b and WASP-6b, making it one of the coolest transiting gas giants observed in our HST STIS survey. Despite this similarity, WASP-39b appears to be largely cloud-free, while the transmission spectra of HD 189733b and WASP-6b both indicate the presence of high altitude clouds or hazes. These observations further emphasize the surprising diversity of cloudy and cloud-free gas giant planets in short-period orbits and the corresponding challenges associated with developing predictive cloud models for these atmospheres.

  15. The hybrid personal cooling system (PCS) could effectively reduce the heat strain while exercising in a hot and moderate humid environment.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenfang; Wang, Faming

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a hybrid personal cooling system (PCS) in mitigating body heat stain while exercising in a hot environment. Eight subjects underwent two trials: PCS and CON (i.e. no cooling). All trials were conducted at an air temperature of 36 ± 0.5 °C and RH = 59 ± 5%. The key findings demonstrated that the PCS could significantly reduce the core temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate and physiological strain index during both exercise and recovery periods (p < 0.05). Subjective perceptions were also significantly alleviated in PCS at the end of the exercise and during the recovery (p < 0.05). Besides, the PCS could also bring remarkable benefits in lowering local skin temperatures and in improving perceptual sensations in both upper and lower body during both exercise and recovery periods (p < 0.05). It was thus concluded that the hybrid PCS is effective in mitigating body heat strain while exercising in a hot environment. Practitioner Summary: In hot and humid environments, body heat dissipation through sweating is greatly restricted. Our newly developed hybrid PCS could effectively alleviate heat strain while exercising in hot environments. The findings contribute to the body of knowledge in improving the health and well-being of sportsmen while exercising in hot environments. PMID:26457872

  16. The hybrid personal cooling system (PCS) could effectively reduce the heat strain while exercising in a hot and moderate humid environment.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenfang; Wang, Faming

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a hybrid personal cooling system (PCS) in mitigating body heat stain while exercising in a hot environment. Eight subjects underwent two trials: PCS and CON (i.e. no cooling). All trials were conducted at an air temperature of 36 ± 0.5 °C and RH = 59 ± 5%. The key findings demonstrated that the PCS could significantly reduce the core temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate and physiological strain index during both exercise and recovery periods (p < 0.05). Subjective perceptions were also significantly alleviated in PCS at the end of the exercise and during the recovery (p < 0.05). Besides, the PCS could also bring remarkable benefits in lowering local skin temperatures and in improving perceptual sensations in both upper and lower body during both exercise and recovery periods (p < 0.05). It was thus concluded that the hybrid PCS is effective in mitigating body heat strain while exercising in a hot environment. Practitioner Summary: In hot and humid environments, body heat dissipation through sweating is greatly restricted. Our newly developed hybrid PCS could effectively alleviate heat strain while exercising in hot environments. The findings contribute to the body of knowledge in improving the health and well-being of sportsmen while exercising in hot environments.

  17. A shirt containing multistage phase change material and active cooling components was associated with increased exercise capacity in a hot, humid environment.

    PubMed

    McFarlin, Brian K; Henning, Andrea L; Venable, Adam S; Williams, Randall R; Best Sampson, Jill N

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in clothing design include the incorporation of phase change materials (PCM) and other active cooling components (ACC) to provide better body heat dissipation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of wearing a shirt containing multistage PCM/ACC on exercise capacity at low (5.0), moderate-high (7.5) and extreme (9.0) levels of the physiological strain index (PSI). Fourteen individuals tested two shirts (control vs. cooling) during 45-min of interval running in a hot, humid (35 ± 1 °C; 55 ± 6% RH) environment. The cooling shirt resulted in an 8% improvement in exercise capacity at a PSI of 7.5 (p < 0.05). The observed increase in exercise capacity would likely translate to a significant improvement in exercise performance. More research is needed to determine a best practice approach for the use of cooling clothing as a counter to exercise-induced heat exposure. Practitioner Summary: In this report, we demonstrate that when forced to exercise in a hot, humid environment, an individual's exercise capacity may increase by as much as 8% when wearing a shirt composed of multistage phase change material and active cooling components.

  18. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivers solar-heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provides auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  19. Hot versus cold: The dichotomy in spherical accretion of cooling flows onto supermassive black holes in elliptical galaxies, galaxy groups, and clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Fulai; Mathews, William G.

    2014-01-10

    Feedback heating from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has been commonly invoked to suppress cooling flows predicted in hot gas in elliptical galaxies, galaxy groups, and clusters. Previous studies have focused on if and how AGN feedback heats the gas but have little paid attention to its triggering mechanism. Using spherically symmetric simulations, we investigate how large-scale cooling flows are accreted by central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in eight well-observed systems and find an interesting dichotomy. In massive clusters, the gas develops a central cooling catastrophe within about the cooling time (typically ∼100-300 Myr), resulting in cold-mode accretion onto SMBHs. However, in our four simulated systems on group and galaxy scales at a low metallicity Z = 0.3 Z {sub ☉}, the gas quickly settles into a long-term state that has a cuspy central temperature profile extending to several tens to about 100 pc. At the more realistic solar metallicity, two groups (with R {sub e} ∼ 4 kpc) still host the long-term, hot-mode accretion. Both accretion modes naturally appear in our idealized calculations where only cooling, gas inflow, and compressional heating are considered. The long-term, hot-mode accretion is maintained by the quickly established closeness between the timescales of these processes, preferably in systems with low gas densities, low gas metallicities, and importantly, compact central galaxies, which result in strong gravitational acceleration and compressional heating at the intermediate radii. Our calculations predict that central cuspy temperature profiles appear more often in smaller systems than galaxy clusters, which instead often host significant cold gas and star formation.

  20. Cooling Hot Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Marcia Renee

    This paper explores questions about why high school English teachers do and do not teach works that they consider to be controversial. It examines the barriers, both internal and external, that these teachers experience and how they perceive the barriers. The teachers were nine participants in a summer university seminar for teachers which focused…

  1. Cool School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Suzanne

    1980-01-01

    The design for Floyd Elementary School in Miami (Florida) seeks to harness solar energy to provide at least 70 percent of the annual energy for cooling needs and 90 percent for hot water. (Author/MLF)

  2. Effect of solar radiation on the performance of cross flow wet cooling tower in hot climate of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banooni, Salem; Chitsazan, Ali

    2016-11-01

    In some cities such as Ahvaz-Iran, the solar radiation is very high and the annual-mean-daily of the global solar radiation is about 17.33 MJ m2 d-1. Solar radiation as an external heat source seems to affect the thermal performance of the cooling towers. Usually, in modeling cooling tower, the effects of solar radiation are ignored. To investigate the effect of sunshade on the performance and modeling of the cooling tower, the experiments were conducted in two different states, cooling towers with and without sunshade. In this study, the Merkel's approach and finite difference technique are used to predict the thermal behavior of cross flow wet cooling tower without sunshade and the results are compared with the data obtained from the cooling towers with and without sunshade. Results showed that the sunshade is very efficient and it reduced the outlet water temperature, the approach and the water exergy of the cooling tower up to 1.2 °C, 15 and 1.1 %, respectively and increased the range and the efficiency of the cooling tower up to 29 and 37 %, respectively. Also, the sunshade decreased the error between the experimental data of the cooling tower with sunshade and the modeling results of the cooling tower without sunshade 1.85 % in average.

  3. Effect of solar radiation on the performance of cross flow wet cooling tower in hot climate of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banooni, Salem; Chitsazan, Ali

    2016-01-01

    In some cities such as Ahvaz-Iran, the solar radiation is very high and the annual-mean-daily of the global solar radiation is about 17.33 MJ m2 d-1. Solar radiation as an external heat source seems to affect the thermal performance of the cooling towers. Usually, in modeling cooling tower, the effects of solar radiation are ignored. To investigate the effect of sunshade on the performance and modeling of the cooling tower, the experiments were conducted in two different states, cooling towers with and without sunshade. In this study, the Merkel's approach and finite difference technique are used to predict the thermal behavior of cross flow wet cooling tower without sunshade and the results are compared with the data obtained from the cooling towers with and without sunshade. Results showed that the sunshade is very efficient and it reduced the outlet water temperature, the approach and the water exergy of the cooling tower up to 1.2 °C, 15 and 1.1 %, respectively and increased the range and the efficiency of the cooling tower up to 29 and 37 %, respectively. Also, the sunshade decreased the error between the experimental data of the cooling tower with sunshade and the modeling results of the cooling tower without sunshade 1.85 % in average.

  4. Hot Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Collaborators sparked by creative ideas and obsessed by a common task may not realize they're part of a "hot group"--a term coined by business professors Harold J. Leavitt and Jean Lipman-Blumen. Spawned by group decision making and employee empowerment, hot groups can flourish in education settings. They're typically small, short lived, and goal…

  5. Effect of cooling rate after hot rolling and of multistage strain aging on the drawability of low-carbon-steel wire rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, A. Karimi; Maccagno, T. M.; Jonas, J. J.

    1995-05-01

    Tensile testing was used to simulate the multistage strain aging occurring in low-C steel during the relatively short intervals between dies in a multiple-die wire-drawing machine. The effects were examined of three simulated post-hot-rolling cooling rates and three thermal treatments on the strain-aging susceptibility of a high- and a low-N steel. This was measured by applying a 6 pct tensile strain, followed by aging at either 65° or 100 °C for 20 seconds, and then pulling the specimen to failure at room temperature. Increases in flow stress and decreases in the elongation to fracture both indicated high susceptibility to strain aging. It was found that the nitrogen content, the cooling rate from the hot-rolling temperature to about 300 °C, as well as the cooling rate below 300 °C, all have dramatic effects on the strain-aging behavior. Moreover, multistage strain aging is more severe than single-stage strain aging. The implications of these observations on increasing the drawability of low-carbon-steel wire are discussed.

  6. Integrated solar heating, cooling, and hot-water system for University City High School, San Diego, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This active hydronic system for solar heating, absorption cooling, and water heating uses 17,532 square feet of concentrating collectors. The storage capacity is 88,800 gallons. The system schematics and operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  7. Cooling vests with phase change materials: the effects of melting temperature on heat strain alleviation in an extremely hot environment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar

    2011-06-01

    A previous study by the authors using a heated thermal manikin showed that the cooling rates of phase change material (PCM) are dependent on temperature gradient, mass, and covering area. The objective of this study was to investigate if the cooling effects of the temperature gradient observed on a thermal manikin could be validated on human subjects in extreme heat. The subjects wore cooling vests with PCMs at two melting temperatures (24 and 28°C) and fire-fighting clothing and equipment, thus forming three test groups (vest24, vest28 and control group without the vest). They walked on a treadmill at a speed of 5 km/h in a climatic chamber (air temperature = 55°C, relative humidity = 30%, vapour pressure = 4,725 Pa, and air velocity = 0.4 m/s). The results showed that the PCM vest with a lower melting temperature (24°C) has a stronger cooling effect on the torso and mean skin temperatures than that with a higher melting temperature (28°C). Both PCM vests mitigate peak core temperature increase during the resting recovery period. The two PCM vests tested, however, had no significant effect on the alleviation of core temperature increase during exercise in the heat. To study the possibility of effective cooling of core temperature, cooling garments with PCMs at even lower melting temperatures (e.g. 15°C) and a larger covering area should be investigated.

  8. Cool flame quench distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryason, P. R.; Hirsch, E.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a brief experimental investigation are presented which confirm the expectation that cool flame quenching distances should be larger than hot flame quenching distances. It is also discovered that whereas quenching distances for hot flames reach their minimum values near stoichiometric conditions, cool flame quenching distances are least under rich conditions. Rich conditions are well known to favor cool flame formation.

  9. Hot and Cool Forms of Inhibitory Control and Externalizing Behavior in Children of Mothers who Smoked during Pregnancy: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Alison J.; de Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether children exposed to prenatal smoking show deficits in “hot” and/or “cool” executive functioning (EF). Hot EF is involved in regulation of affect and motivation, whereas cool EF is involved in handling abstract, decontextualized problems. Forty 7 to 9-year-old children (15 exposed to prenatal smoking, 25 non-exposed) performed two computerized tasks. The Sustained Attention Dots (SA-Dots) Task (as a measure of “cool” inhibitory control) requires 400 non-dominant hand and 200 dominant hand responses. Inhibitory control of the prepotent response is required for dominant hand responses. The Delay Frustration Task (DeFT) (as a measure of “hot” inhibitory control) consists of 55 simple maths exercises. On a number of trials delays are introduced before the next question appears on the screen. The extent of response-button pressing during delays indicates frustration-induced inhibitory control. Prenatally exposed children showed poorer inhibitory control in the DeFT than non-exposed children. A dose–response relationship was also observed. In addition, prenatally exposed children had significantly higher (dose-dependent) conduct problem- and hyperactivity-inattention scores. There were no significant group differences in inhibitory control scores from the SA-Dots. These results indicate that children exposed to prenatal smoking are at higher risk of hot but not cool executive function deficits. PMID:17924184

  10. "Cool" inferior frontostriatal dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder versus "hot" ventromedial orbitofrontal-limbic dysfunction in conduct disorder: a review.

    PubMed

    Rubia, Katya

    2011-06-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder overlap behaviorally, clinically, and cognitively. An important question of potential future clinical relevance is whether these two overlapping disorders are mediated by similar or distinct underlying brain substrates. This article reviews the modern neuroimaging literature on brain structure, function, and connectivity in both disorders, shaping out commonalities and differences. Findings show that ADHD is characterized predominantly by abnormalities in inferior frontal, striatal, parietotemporal, and cerebellar regions and networks that mediate "cool"-cognitive, i.e., inhibitory, attention and timing functions associated with the disorder. Conduct disorder, by contrast, has consistently been associated with abnormalities of the "hot" paralimbic system that regulates motivation and affect, comprising lateral orbital and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, superior temporal lobes, and underlying limbic structures, most prominently the amygdala. Direct comparisons in functional imaging show that these associations of cool inferior fronto-striato-cerebellar dysfunction in ADHD and of hot orbitofrontal-paralimbic dysfunction in conduct disorder are disorder-specific. There is, hence, evidence for dissociated underlying pathophysiologies for these two disorders that may have implications for future anatomy-based differential diagnosis and prevention and intervention.

  11. Solar Heating And Cooling Of Buildings (SHACOB): Requirements definition and impact analysis-2. Volume 2: Domestic hot water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretcher, C. K.

    1980-11-01

    The various types of solar domestic hot water systems are discussed including their advantages and disadvantages. The problems that occur in hydronic solar heating systems are reviewed with emphasis on domestic hot water applicatons. System problems in retrofitting of residential buildings are also discussed including structural and space constraints for various components and subsystems. System design parameters include various collector sizing methods, collector orientation, storage capacity and heat loss from pipes and tanks. The installation costs are broken down by components and subsystems. The approach used for utility economic impact analysis is reviewed. The simulation is described, and the results of the economic impact analysis are given. A summary assessment is included.

  12. BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR MERGERS WITH A HOT NUCLEAR EQUATION OF STATE: OUTFLOW AND NEUTRINO-COOLED DISK FOR A LOW-MASS, HIGH-SPIN CASE

    SciTech Connect

    Deaton, M. Brett; Duez, Matthew D.; Foucart, Francois; O'Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Muhlberger, Curran D. E-mail: m.duez@wsu.edu

    2013-10-10

    Neutrino emission significantly affects the evolution of the accretion tori formed in black hole-neutron star mergers. It removes energy from the disk, alters its composition, and provides a potential power source for a gamma-ray burst. To study these effects, simulations in general relativity with a hot microphysical equation of state (EOS) and neutrino feedback are needed. We present the first such simulation, using a neutrino leakage scheme for cooling to capture the most essential effects and considering a moderate mass (1.4 M{sub ☉} neutron star, 5.6 M{sub ☉} black hole), high-spin (black hole J/M {sup 2} = 0.9) system with the K{sub 0} = 220 MeV Lattimer-Swesty EOS. We find that about 0.08 M{sub ☉} of nuclear matter is ejected from the system, while another 0.3 M{sub ☉} forms a hot, compact accretion disk. The primary effects of the escaping neutrinos are (1) to make the disk much denser and more compact, (2) to cause the average electron fraction Y{sub e} of the disk to rise to about 0.2 and then gradually decrease again, and (3) to gradually cool the disk. The disk is initially hot (T ∼ 6 MeV) and luminous in neutrinos (L{sub ν} ∼ 10{sup 54} erg s{sup –1}), but the neutrino luminosity decreases by an order of magnitude over 50 ms of post-merger evolution.

  13. Heat production and retained energy in lactating cows held under hot summer conditions with evaporative cooling and fed two rations differing in roughage content and in vitro digestibility.

    PubMed

    Miron, J; Adin, G; Solomon, R; Nikbachat, M; Zenou, A; Shamay, A; Brosh, A; Mabjeesh, S Y

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the effect of feeding two total mixed rations (TMRs), differing in their roughage content and in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility, on the physiological response and energy balance of lactating cows. The partitioning of metabolizable energy intake (MEI) between heat production (HP) and retained energy (RE) of cows held under hot weather conditions and external evaporative cooling was measured. In all, 42 lactating cows were divided into two similar sub-groups, each of 21 animals, and were fed either a control (CON) ration containing 18% roughage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) or an experimental (EXP) TMR containing 12% roughage NDF and used soy hulls as partial wheat silage replacer. The in vitro DM digestibility of the CON and EXP TMR was 75.3% and 78.6%, respectively (P < 0.05). All cows were cooled by evaporative cooling for 2 adaptation weeks plus 6 experimental weeks under hot weather conditions. The EXP diet reduced rectal temperature and respiratory rate of the cows while increasing their DM intake (DMI) from 23.1 to 24.7 kg/cow per day, milk yield from 41.9 to 44.2 kg and yield of energy-corrected milk from 38.7 to 39.7 kg, as compared with the CON group. Cows fed the EXP TMR had increased RE in milk and body tissue, as compared with the CON group, but the diets had no effect on the measured HP that was maintained constant (130.4 v. 130.8 MJ/cow per day) in the two groups. The measured MEI (MEI = RE + HP) and the efficiency of MEI utilization for RE production were also similar in the two dietary groups. PMID:22443663

  14. Low-frequency electrical stimulation combined with a cooling vest improves recovery of elite kayakers following a simulated 1000-m race in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Borne, R; Hausswirth, C; Costello, J T; Bieuzen, F

    2015-06-01

    This study compared the effects of a low-frequency electrical stimulation (LFES; Veinoplus(®) Sport, Ad Rem Technology, Paris, France), a low-frequency electrical stimulation combined with a cooling vest (LFESCR ) and an active recovery combined with a cooling vest (ACTCR ) as recovery strategies on performance (racing time and pacing strategies), physiologic and perceptual responses between two sprint kayak simulated races, in a hot environment (∼32 wet-bulb-globe temperature). Eight elite male kayakers performed two successive 1000-m kayak time trials (TT1 and TT2), separated by a short-term recovery period, including a 30-min of the respective recovery intervention protocol, in a randomized crossover design. Racing time, power output, and stroke rate were recorded for each time trial. Blood lactate concentration, pH, core, skin and body temperatures were measured before and after both TT1 and TT2 and at mid- and post-recovery intervention. Perceptual ratings of thermal sensation were also collected. LFESCR was associated with a very likely effect in performance restoration compared with ACTCR (99/0/1%) and LFES conditions (98/0/2%). LFESCR induced a significant decrease in body temperature and thermal sensation at post-recovery intervention, which is not observed in ACTCR condition. In conclusion, the combination of LFES and wearing a cooling vest (LFESCR ) improves performance restoration between two 1000-m kayak time trials achieved by elite athletes, in the heat. PMID:25943673

  15. Low-frequency electrical stimulation combined with a cooling vest improves recovery of elite kayakers following a simulated 1000-m race in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Borne, R; Hausswirth, C; Costello, J T; Bieuzen, F

    2015-06-01

    This study compared the effects of a low-frequency electrical stimulation (LFES; Veinoplus(®) Sport, Ad Rem Technology, Paris, France), a low-frequency electrical stimulation combined with a cooling vest (LFESCR ) and an active recovery combined with a cooling vest (ACTCR ) as recovery strategies on performance (racing time and pacing strategies), physiologic and perceptual responses between two sprint kayak simulated races, in a hot environment (∼32 wet-bulb-globe temperature). Eight elite male kayakers performed two successive 1000-m kayak time trials (TT1 and TT2), separated by a short-term recovery period, including a 30-min of the respective recovery intervention protocol, in a randomized crossover design. Racing time, power output, and stroke rate were recorded for each time trial. Blood lactate concentration, pH, core, skin and body temperatures were measured before and after both TT1 and TT2 and at mid- and post-recovery intervention. Perceptual ratings of thermal sensation were also collected. LFESCR was associated with a very likely effect in performance restoration compared with ACTCR (99/0/1%) and LFES conditions (98/0/2%). LFESCR induced a significant decrease in body temperature and thermal sensation at post-recovery intervention, which is not observed in ACTCR condition. In conclusion, the combination of LFES and wearing a cooling vest (LFESCR ) improves performance restoration between two 1000-m kayak time trials achieved by elite athletes, in the heat.

  16. Recommended requirements to code officials for solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems. Model document for code officials on solar heating and cooling of buildings

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    These recommended requirements include provisions for electrical, building, mechanical, and plumbing installations for active and passive solar energy systems used for space or process heating and cooling, and domestic water heating. The provisions in these recommended requirements are intended to be used in conjunction with the existing building codes in each jurisdiction. Where a solar relevant provision is adequately covered in an existing model code, the section is referenced in the Appendix. Where a provision has been drafted because there is no counterpart in the existing model code, it is found in the body of these recommended requirements. Commentaries are included in the text explaining the coverage and intent of present model code requirements and suggesting alternatives that may, at the discretion of the building official, be considered as providing reasonable protection to the public health and safety. Also included is an Appendix which is divided into a model code cross reference section and a reference standards section. The model code cross references are a compilation of the sections in the text and their equivalent requirements in the applicable model codes. (MHR)

  17. Effect of Hot Coiling Under Accelerated Cooling on Development of Non-equiaxed Ferrite in Low Carbon Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanjewar, H. A.; Tripathi, Pranavkumar

    2016-06-01

    Strengthening mechanisms dominant in non-equiaxed ferrite structures are not so familiar and well measured. In present study, non-equiaxed ferritic structures were generated and perceived to be strengthened by grain/crystal refinement, presence of varying substructures, solid solution strengthening, and textural hardening. A Nb-V microalloyed steel was modeled under various accelerated cooling and coiling temperature conditions in a thermo-mechanical simulator. Decrease in coiling temperature in conjunction with accelerated cooling resulted in non-equiaxed ferrite structures with array of phase morphologies. Intermediate transformation conditions produced increase in strength concurrent with observed smallness in crystallite size and high amount of microstrain in the matrix phase indicative of high dislocation densities and crystal imperfections. Increase in strength is partially attributed to solid solution and texture hardening owing to increase in (111) pole intensity in structure.

  18. Radial turbine cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelke, Richard J.

    The technology of high temperature cooled radial turbines is reviewed. Aerodynamic performance considerations are described. Heat transfer and structural analysis are addressed, and in doing so the following topics are covered: cooling considerations, hot side convection, coolant side convection, and rotor mechanical analysis. Cooled rotor concepts and fabrication are described, and the following are covered in this context: internally cooled rotor, hot isostatic pressure bonded rotor, laminated rotor, split blade rotor, and the NASA radial turbine program.

  19. Radial turbine cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    The technology of high temperature cooled radial turbines is reviewed. Aerodynamic performance considerations are described. Heat transfer and structural analysis are addressed, and in doing so the following topics are covered: cooling considerations, hot side convection, coolant side convection, and rotor mechanical analysis. Cooled rotor concepts and fabrication are described, and the following are covered in this context: internally cooled rotor, hot isostatic pressure bonded rotor, laminated rotor, split blade rotor, and the NASA radial turbine program.

  20. Idea Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Presents three teaching ideas entitled (1) Rearview Mirrors; (2) Chills and Fevers; and (3) Science Activities and the Learner. The second idea presents a poem to help students with the relationship between Centigrade and Fahrenheit. The third idea presents activities on evaporation. (PR)

  1. Tennis in hot and cool conditions decreases the rapid muscle torque production capacity of the knee extensors but not of the plantar flexors

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Olivier; Racinais, Sébastien; Périard, Julien D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the time course of changes in rapid muscle force/torque production capacity and neuromuscular activity of lower limb muscles in response to prolonged (∼2 h) match-play tennis under heat stress. Methods The rates of torque development (RTD) and electromyographic activity (EMG; ie, root mean square) rise were recorded from 0 to 30, –50, –100 and –200 ms during brief (3–5 s) explosive maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors (KE) and plantar flexors (PF), along with the peak RTD within the entirety of the torque-time curve. These values were recorded in 12 male tennis players before (prematch) and after (postmatch, 24 and 48 h) match-play in HOT (∼37°C) and COOL (∼22°C) conditions. Results The postmatch core temperature was greater in the HOT (∼39.4°C) vs COOL (∼38.7°C) condition (p<0.05). Reductions in KE RTD occurred within the 0–200 ms epoch after contraction onset postmatch and at 24 h, compared with prematch, independent of environmental conditions (p<0.05). A similar reduction in the KE peak RTD was also observed postmatch relative to prematch (p<0.05). No differences in KE RTD values were observed after normalisation to MVC torque. Furthermore, the rate of KE EMG activity rise remained unchanged. Conversely, the PF contractile RTD and rate of EMG activity rise were unaffected by the exercise or environmental conditions. Conclusions In the KE, a reduction in maximal torque production capacity following prolonged match-play tennis appears to account for the decrease in the rate of torque development, independent of environmental conditions, while remaining unchanged in the PF. PMID:24668381

  2. The mechanism of slow hot-hole cooling in lead-iodide perovskite: first-principles calculation on carrier lifetime from electron-phonon interaction.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Hiroki; Giorgi, Giacomo; Marini, Andrea; Yamashita, Koichi

    2015-05-13

    We report on an analysis of hot-carrier lifetimes from electron-phonon interaction in lead iodide perovskites using first-principles calculations. Our calculations show that the holes in CsPbI3 have very long lifetimes in the valence band region situated 0.6 eV below the top of the valence band. On the other hand, no long lifetime is predicted in PbI3(-). These different results reflect the different electronic density of states (DOSs) in the valence bands, that is, a small DOS for the former structure while a sharp DOS peak for the latter structure. We propose a reduction of the relaxation paths in the small valence DOS as being the origin of the slow hot-hole cooling. Analyzing the generalized Eliashberg functions, we predict that different perovskite A-site cations do not have an impact on the carrier decay mechanism. The similarity between the DOS structures of CsPbI3 and CH3NH3PbI3 enables us to extend the description of the decay mechanism of fully inorganic CsPbI3 to its organic-inorganic counterpart, CH3NH3PbI3. PMID:25807270

  3. Solution of boundary heat transfer coefficients between hot stamping die and cooling water based on FEM and optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huiping; He, Lianfang; Zhang, Chunzhi; Cui, Hongzhi

    2016-04-01

    The thermal physical parameters have significant effects on the calculation accuracy of physical fields, and the boundary heat transfer coefficient between the die and water is one of the most important thermal physical parameters in the hot stamping. In order to attain the boundary heat transfer coefficient, the testing devices and test procedures are designed according to the characteristic of heat transfer in the hot stamping die. A method of estimating the temperature-dependent boundary heat transfer coefficient is presented, and an inverse heat conduction software is developed based on finite element method, advance-retreat method and golden section method. The software is used to calculate the boundary heat transfer coefficient according to the temperatures measured by NiCr-NiSi thermocouples in the experiment. The research results show that, the convergence of the method given in the paper is well, the surface temperature of sample has a significant effect on the boundary heat transfer coefficient between the die and water. The boundary heat transfer coefficient increases as the surface temperature of sample reduces, and the variation is nonlinear.

  4. Development of Fine-Grained, Low-Carbon Bainitic Steels with High Strength and Toughness Produced Through the Conventional Hot-Rolling and Air-Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhua, Sanjay Kumar; Sarkar, Partha Pratim; Saxena, Atul; Jha, Bimal Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Low-carbon bainitic steels have created enormous interest among scientists across the world in the past few decades because of their high strength, toughness, and weldability replacing the conventional quenched and tempered medium-carbon steels. Three experimental steels with varying alloy additions were made in a 100-kg laboratory induction furnace and cast into 100-mm-diameter cylindrical ingots. These ingots were hot-rolled and air-cooled to 6-mm plates in an experimental rolling mill with selected thermomechanical parameters. Steels processed through this process provided an ultrafine low-carbon bainitic microstructure with maximum yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) 575 and 705 MPa, respectively. The Charpy impact toughness of the experimental steels was excellent, and at 253 K (-20 °C), it varied from 114 to 170 Joules. Cu-B-added steel was found to give an optimum combination of strength, YS-575 MPa, and toughness, 114 J at 253 K (-20 °C). Thus, fine-grained, low-carbon bainitic steels could be developed with a proper combination of alloying elements and thermomechanical parameters even by air-cooling.

  5. Cooled railplug

    DOEpatents

    Weldon, William F.

    1996-01-01

    The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers.

  6. Bright Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Presents ideas for teaching techniques and learning activities in areas such as: New Year's resolutions, bird feeding, typing to spell, using thermometers, and activities utilizing old calendars. (JMB)

  7. Energy and economic assessment of desiccant cooling systems coupled with single glazed air and hybrid PV/thermal solar collectors for applications in hot and humid climate

    SciTech Connect

    Beccali, Marco; Finocchiaro, Pietro; Nocke, Bettina

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the energy and economic performance of desiccant cooling systems (DEC) equipped with both single glazed standard air and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/t) collectors for applications in hot and humid climates. The use of 'solar cogeneration' by means of PV/t hybrid collectors enables the simultaneous production of electricity and heat, which can be directly used by desiccant air handling units, thereby making it possible to achieve very energy savings. The present work shows the results of detailed simulations conducted for a set of desiccant cooling systems operating without any heat storage. System performance was investigated through hourly simulations for different systems and load combinations. Three configurations of DEC systems were considered: standard DEC, DEC with an integrated heat pump and DEC with an enthalpy wheel. Two kinds of building occupations were considered: office and lecture room. Moreover, three configurations of solar-assisted air handling units (AHU) equipped with desiccant wheels were considered and compared with standard AHUs, focusing on achievable primary energy savings. The relationship between the solar collector's area and the specific primary energy consumption for different system configurations and building occupation patterns is described. For both occupation patterns, sensitivity analysis on system performance was performed for different solar collector areas. Also, this work presents an economic assessment of the systems. The cost of conserved energy and the payback time were calculated, with and without public incentives for solar cooling systems. It is worth noting that the use of photovoltaics, and thus the exploitation of related available incentives in many European countries, could positively influence the spread of solar air cooling technologies (SAC). An outcome of this work is that SAC systems equipped with PV/t collectors are shown to have better performance in terms of

  8. Staffing Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Presents business organization and child care center managers with ideas on how to deal with various staffing situations. Ideas include suggestions for handling informal staff networks; getting insight into what is important to people; motivating people in difficult situations; developing temporary employee services for child caregivers; and…

  9. Idea Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talesnick, Irwin, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Provides innovative ideas in biology, chemistry, and physics on the following topics: enzyme decomposition; chemical waste; time measurement; acid-base color magic; ball bouncing properties; heat; cell theory; and specimen boxes. Materials and procedures are listed when appropriate along with hints for expanding these ideas and investigations. (JM)

  10. Idea Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the need to retrieve ideas in addition to content retrieval by such means as classification, subject headings, and keywords. Three models for idea retrieval are described, and a new model is proposed which combines selection, a controlled vocabulary, and logical structure. (seven references) (CLB)

  11. Pre-cooling with intermittent ice ingestion lowers the core temperature in a hot environment as compared with the ingestion of a single bolus.

    PubMed

    Naito, Takashi; Ogaki, Tetsuro

    2016-07-01

    The timing in which ice is ingested may be important for optimizing its success. However, the effects of differences in the timing of ice ingestion has not been studied in resting participants. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of differences in the timing of ice ingestion on rectal temperature (Tre) and rating of perceptual sensation in a hot environment. Seven males ingested 1.25gkg(-1) of crushed ice (ICE1.25: 0.5°C) or cold water (CON: 4°C) every 5min for 30min, or were given 7.5gkgBM(-1) of crushed ice (ICE7.5) to consume for 30min in a hot environment (35°C, 30% relative humidity). The participants then remained at rest for 1h. As physiological indices, Tre, body mass and urine specific gravity were measured. Rating of thermal sensation was measured at 5-min intervals throughout the experiment. ICE1.25 continued to decrease Tre until approximately 50min, and resulted in a greater reduction in Tre (-0.56±0.20°C) than ICE7.5 (-0.41±0.14°C). Tre was reduced from 40 to 75min by ICE1.25, which is a significant reduction in comparison to ICE7.5 (p<.05). Mean RTS with ICE1.25 at 50-65min was significantly lower than that with ICE7.5 (p<.05). These results suggest that pre-cooling with intermittent ice ingestion is a more effective strategy both for lowering the Tre and for the rating of thermal sensation. PMID:27264882

  12. Noise and Bandwidth Measurements of Diffusion-Cooled Nb Hot-Electron Bolometer Mixers at Frequencies Above the Superconductive Energy Gap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyss, R. A.; Karasik, B. S.; McGrath, W. R.; Bumble, B.; LeDuc, H.

    1999-01-01

    Diffusion-cooled Nb hot-electron bolometer (HEB) mixers have the potential to simultaneously achieve high intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidths and low mixer noise temperatures for operation at THz frequencies (above the superconductive gap energy). We have measured the IF signal bandwidth at 630 GHz of Nb devices with lengths L = 0.3, 0.2, and 0.1 micrometer in a quasioptical mixer configuration employing twin-slot antennas. The 3-dB EF bandwidth increased from 1.2 GHz for the 0.3 gm long device to 9.2 GHz for the 0.1 gm long device. These results demonstrate the expected 1/L squared dependence of the IF bandwidth at submillimeter wave frequencies for the first time, as well as the largest EF bandwidth obtained to date. For the 0.1 gm device, which had the largest bandwidth, the double sideband (DSB) noise temperature of the receiver was 320-470 K at 630 GHz with an absorbed LO power of 35 nW, estimated using the isothermal method. A version of this mixer with the antenna length scaled for operation at 2.5 THz has also been tested. A DSB receiver noise temperature of 1800 plus or minus 100 K was achieved, which is about 1,000 K lower than our previously reported results. These results demonstrate that large EF bandwidth and low-noise operation of a diffusion-cooled HEB mixer is possible at THz frequencies with the same device geometry.

  13. Ideas: Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chessin, Debby A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents classroom ideas focusing on connections among mathematics, concern for the environment, and conservation of natural resources, including decomposition, water conservation, packaging materials, use of manufactured cans, and recycling. Includes reproducible student worksheets. (MKR)

  14. Idea Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlocker, Helen; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides information on motivational activities, demonstrations, experiments, software, lessons, field trips, and a game as ideas for instructional use. Includes topics on digestion in paramecium, diffusion, cells, interactive displays, slime molds, and the construction of an underwater viewing device. (RT)

  15. Heating and cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Imig, L.A.; Gardner, M.R.

    1982-08-01

    A heating and cooling apparatus capable of cyclic heating and cooling of a test specimen undergoing fatigue testing is discussed. Cryogenic fluid is passed through a block clamped to the speciment to cool the block and the specimen. Heating cartridges penetrate the block to heat the block and the specimen to very hot temperaures. Control apparatus is provided to alternatively activate the cooling and heating modes to effect cyclic heating and cooling between very hot and very cold temperatures. The block is constructed of minimal mass to facilitate the rapid temperature changes. Official Gazette of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

  16. Cool Vest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    ILC, Dover Division's lightweight cooling garment, called Cool Vest was designed to eliminate the harmful effects of heat stress; increases tolerance time in hot environments by almost 300 percent. Made of urethane-coated nylon used in Apollo, it works to keep the body cool, circulating chilled water throughout the lining by means of a small battery-powered pump. A pocket houses the pump, battery and the coolant which can be ice or a frozen gel, a valve control allows temperature regulation. One version is self-contained and portable for unrestrained movement, another has an umbilical line attached to an external source of coolant, such as standard tap water, when extended mobility is not required. It is reported from customers that the Cool Vest pays for itself in increased productivity in very high temperatures.

  17. Performance Evaluation of a 4.5 kW (1.3 Refrigeration Tons) Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide/Water Solar Powered (Hot-Water-Fired) Absorption Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Zaltash, Abdolreza; Petrov, Andrei Y; Linkous, Randall Lee; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2007-01-01

    During the summer months, air-conditioning (cooling) is the single largest use of electricity in both residential and commercial buildings with the major impact on peak electric demand. Improved air-conditioning technology has by far the greatest potential impact on the electric industry compared to any other technology that uses electricity. Thermally activated absorption air-conditioning (absorption chillers) can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. This innovative absorption technology is based on integrated rotating heat exchangers to enhance heat and mass transfer resulting in a potential reduction of size, cost, and weight of the "next generation" absorption units. Rotartica Absorption Chiller (RAC) is a 4.5 kW (1.3 refrigeration tons or RT) air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)/water unit powered by hot water generated using the solar energy and/or waste heat. Typically LiBr/water absorption chillers are water-cooled units which use a cooling tower to reject heat. Cooling towers require a large amount of space, increase start-up and maintenance costs. However, RAC is an air-cooled absorption chiller (no cooling tower). The purpose of this evaluation is to verify RAC performance by comparing the Coefficient of Performance (COP or ratio of cooling capacity to energy input) and the cooling capacity results with those of the manufacturer. The performance of the RAC was tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a controlled environment at various hot and chilled water flow rates, air handler flow rates, and ambient temperatures. Temperature probes, mass flow meters, rotational speed measuring device, pressure transducers, and a web camera mounted inside the unit were used to monitor the RAC via a web control-based data acquisition system using Automated Logic Controller (ALC). Results showed a COP and cooling capacity of approximately 0.58 and 3.7 kW respectively at 35 C (95 F) design condition for ambient

  18. Idea Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides descriptions of activities and programs that have been successful with secondary science students. Includes ideas related to repairing radio-controlled cars, cooperative science-library center, observation exercises, recordkeeping skills and peer grading, DC power supply, chemistry of poison ivy, spore science, and a tic-tac-toe review…

  19. Idea Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Presents a series of science teaching ideas with the following titles: When Demonstrations Are Misleading, Lasers and Refraction, An Improved Stair-Step Model, Correcting Your Compass, Seeing Is Not Believing, Food Coloring: From the Kitchen to the Lab, Punny Business, Portfolios in Science, Feathers or Gold: A Case for Using the Metric System,…

  20. Dry idea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    A century before the federal government established a council for “sustainable development,” John Wesley Powell was touting the idea as way to tame the American West. Powell's quiver of intellectual tools included one that modern environmentalists swear by: integrated assessment.

  1. Breakthrough Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Describes innovative strategies that schools and universities are using to save money and reshape operations. Focuses on ideas in energy efficiency and facilities improvement, direct purchasing, energy management, retrofitting buildings, ceiling insulation upgrades, automation systems, electric demand programs, facilities programs, warranty…

  2. Bright Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Phil

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how to upgrade lighting technology in schools to reduce energy consumption and cut operating costs. Explores fixture efficiency using ballast and lamp upgrades and compact fluorescent lights. Other ideas include changing exit signs to ones that use less wattage, improving luminary efficiency through use of reflectors and shielding…

  3. Teaching Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Kathleen, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Ideas to aid the classroom teacher include integration of emphasis on reading into health education; definitions pertinent to contemporary health education; teaching students to read food labels; identification of implications of scientific advances such as test tube reproduction; and a card game to teach food groups to middle school children.…

  4. Effect of chlorine and temperature on free-living protozoa in operational man-made water systems (cooling towers and hot sanitary water systems) in Catalonia.

    PubMed

    Canals, Oriol; Serrano-Suárez, Alejandra; Salvadó, Humbert; Méndez, Javier; Cervero-Aragó, Sílvia; Ruiz de Porras, Vicenç; Dellundé, Jordi; Araujo, Rosa

    2015-05-01

    In recent decades, free-living protozoa (FLP) have gained prominence as the focus of research studies due to their pathogenicity to humans and their close relationship with the survival and growth of pathogenic amoeba-resisting bacteria. In the present work, we studied the presence of FLP in operational man-made water systems, i.e. cooling towers (CT) and hot sanitary water systems (HSWS), related to a high risk of Legionella spp. outbreaks, as well as the effect of the biocides used, i.e. chlorine in CT and high temperature in HSWS, on FLP. In CT samples, high-chlorine concentrations (7.5 ± 1.5 mg chlorine L(-1)) reduced the presence of FLP by 63.8 % compared to samples with low-chlorine concentrations (0.04 ± 0.08 mg chlorine L(-1)). Flagellates and amoebae were observed in samples collected with a level of 8 mg chlorine L(-1), which would indicate that some FLP, including the free-living amoeba (FLA) Acanthamoeba spp., are resistant to the discontinuous chlorine disinfection method used in the CT studied. Regarding HSWS samples, the amount of FLP detected in high-temperatures samples (53.1 ± 5.7 °C) was 38 % lower than in low-temperature samples (27.8 ± 5.8 °C). The effect of high temperature on FLP was chiefly observed in the results obtained by the culture method, in which there was a clear reduction in the presence of FLP at temperatures higher than 50 °C, but not in those obtained by PCR. The findings presented here show that the presence of FLP in operational man-made water systems should be taken into account in future regulations.

  5. Effect of chlorine and temperature on free-living protozoa in operational man-made water systems (cooling towers and hot sanitary water systems) in Catalonia.

    PubMed

    Canals, Oriol; Serrano-Suárez, Alejandra; Salvadó, Humbert; Méndez, Javier; Cervero-Aragó, Sílvia; Ruiz de Porras, Vicenç; Dellundé, Jordi; Araujo, Rosa

    2015-05-01

    In recent decades, free-living protozoa (FLP) have gained prominence as the focus of research studies due to their pathogenicity to humans and their close relationship with the survival and growth of pathogenic amoeba-resisting bacteria. In the present work, we studied the presence of FLP in operational man-made water systems, i.e. cooling towers (CT) and hot sanitary water systems (HSWS), related to a high risk of Legionella spp. outbreaks, as well as the effect of the biocides used, i.e. chlorine in CT and high temperature in HSWS, on FLP. In CT samples, high-chlorine concentrations (7.5 ± 1.5 mg chlorine L(-1)) reduced the presence of FLP by 63.8 % compared to samples with low-chlorine concentrations (0.04 ± 0.08 mg chlorine L(-1)). Flagellates and amoebae were observed in samples collected with a level of 8 mg chlorine L(-1), which would indicate that some FLP, including the free-living amoeba (FLA) Acanthamoeba spp., are resistant to the discontinuous chlorine disinfection method used in the CT studied. Regarding HSWS samples, the amount of FLP detected in high-temperatures samples (53.1 ± 5.7 °C) was 38 % lower than in low-temperature samples (27.8 ± 5.8 °C). The effect of high temperature on FLP was chiefly observed in the results obtained by the culture method, in which there was a clear reduction in the presence of FLP at temperatures higher than 50 °C, but not in those obtained by PCR. The findings presented here show that the presence of FLP in operational man-made water systems should be taken into account in future regulations. PMID:25410311

  6. Hot Stars With Cool Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullikson, Kevin; Kraus, Adam; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Young intermediate-mass stars have become high-priority targets for direct-imaging planet searches following the recent discoveries of planets orbiting e.g. HR 8799 and Beta Pictoris Close stellar companions to these stars can affect the formation and orbital evolution of any planets, and so a census of the multiplicity properties of nearby intermediate mass stars is needed. Additionally, the multiplicity can help constrain the important binary star formation physics. We report initial results from a spectroscopic survey of 400 nearby A- and B-type stars. We search for companions by cross-correlating high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio echelle spectra of the targets stars against model spectra for F- to M-type stars. We have so far found 18 new candidate companions, and have detected the spectral lines of the secondary in 4 known spectroscopic binary systems. We present the distribution of mass-ratios for close companions, and find that it differs from the distribution for wide (a ≳ 100 AU) intermediate-mass binaries, which may indicate a different formation mechanism for the two populations.

  7. Hot Jupiters and cool stars

    SciTech Connect

    Villaver, Eva; Mustill, Alexander J.; Livio, Mario; Siess, Lionel

    2014-10-10

    Close-in planets are in jeopardy, as their host stars evolve off the main sequence (MS) to the subgiant and red giant phases. In this paper, we explore the influences of the stellar mass (in the range 1.5-2 M {sub ☉}), mass-loss prescription, planet mass (from Neptune up to 10 Jupiter masses), and eccentricity on the orbital evolution of planets as their parent stars evolve to become subgiants and red giants. We find that planet engulfment along the red giant branch is not very sensitive to the stellar mass or mass-loss rates adopted in the calculations, but quite sensitive to the planetary mass. The range of initial separations for planet engulfment increases with decreasing mass-loss rates or stellar masses and increasing planetary masses. Regarding the planet's orbital eccentricity, we find that as the star evolves into the red giant phase, stellar tides start to dominate over planetary tides. As a consequence, a transient population of moderately eccentric close-in Jovian planets is created that otherwise would have been expected to be absent from MS stars. We find that very eccentric and distant planets do not experience much eccentricity decay, and that planet engulfment is primarily determined by the pericenter distance and the maximum stellar radius.

  8. Cooled railplug

    DOEpatents

    Weldon, W.F.

    1996-05-07

    The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers. 10 figs.

  9. A study of a desuperheater heat recovery system complete with a reversibly used water cooling tower (RUWCT) for hot water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kunxiong

    Recovering heat rejected from the condenser in a refrigeration system to generate service hot water for buildings is commonly seen in both tropics and subtropics. This study included a critical literature review on heat recovery from air-conditioning/refrigeration systems, with particular emphasis on the direct condenser heat recovery and its related mathematical simulation models. The review identified many applications of desuperheaters to small-scaled residential air-conditioning or heat pump units. The heat and mass transfer characteristics of a RUWCT have been studied in detail, which is based on the theory of direct contact heat and mass transfer between moist air and water. The thesis reports on the differences in the heat and mass transfer process that takes place in a RUWCT, a standard water cooling tower and a spray room. A corrective factor that accounts for the change of chilled water mass flow rate is incorporated into the theoretical analysis of a RUWCT. The algorithms developed from the theoretical analysis are capable of predicting the heat exchange capacity of a RUWCT at any operating conditions. This theoretical analysis is the first of its kind. Extensive field experimental work on the heat and mass transfer characteristics of a RUWCT has been carried out in a hotel building in Haikou, Hainan province of China, where the RUWCT is installed. Results from the experimental work indicate that the theoretical analysis can represent the heat and mass transfer characteristics in a RUWCT with an acceptable accuracy. A numerical analysis for a RUWCT is undertaken to determine both air and water states at intermediate horizontal sections along the tower height. Field experimental data confirm that the predicted air and water conditions at the tower inlet and outlet are of acceptable accuracy. A steady-state mathematical model is developed to simulate the operational performance of a water chiller plant complete with a desuperheater heat recovery system and

  10. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  11. Too Cool for School? No Way! Using the TPACK Framework: You Can Have Your Hot Tools and Teach with Them, Too

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Punya; Koehler, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    This is the age of cool tools. Facebook, iPhone, Flickr, blogs, cloud computing, Smart Boards, YouTube, Google Earth, and GPS are just a few examples of new technologies that bombard people from all directions. As individuals people see a new technology and can appreciate its coolness, but as educators they wonder how these tools can be used for…

  12. Solar heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartera, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    To emphasize energy conservation and low cost energy, the systems of solar heating and cooling are analyzed and compared with fossil fuel systems. The application of solar heating and cooling systems for industrial and domestic use are discussed. Topics of discussion include: solar collectors; space heating; pools and spas; domestic hot water; industrial heat less than 200 F; space cooling; industrial steam; and initial systems cost. A question and answer period is generated which closes out the discussion.

  13. Cool Sportswear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    New athletic wear design based on the circulating liquid cooling system used in the astronaut's space suits, allows athletes to perform more strenuous activity without becoming overheated. Techni-Clothes gear incorporates packets containing a heat-absorbing gel that slips into an insulated pocket of the athletic garment and is positioned near parts of the body where heat transfer is most efficient. A gel packet is good for about one hour. Easily replaced from a supply of spares in an insulated container worn on the belt. The products, targeted primarily for runners and joggers and any other athlete whose performance may be affected by hot weather, include cooling headbands, wrist bands and running shorts with gel-pack pockets.

  14. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of a New As-Hot-Rolled High-Strength DP Steel Subjected to Different Cooling Schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jun; Du, Lin-Xiu; Wang, Jian-Jun; Gao, Cai-Ru; Yang, Tong-Zi; Wang, An-Yang; Misra, R. D. K.

    2013-11-01

    Controlled rolling followed by accelerated cooling was carried out in-house to study the microstructure and mechanical properties of a low carbon dual-phase steel. The objective of the study described here was to explore the effect of cooling schedule, such as air cooling temperature and coiling temperature, on the final microstructure and mechanical properties of dual-phase steels. Furthermore, the precipitation behavior and yield ratio are discussed. The study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain tensile strength and elongation of 780 MPa and 22 pct, respectively, at the two cooling schedules investigated. The microstructure consists of 90 pct ferrite and 10 pct martensite when subjected to moderate air cooling and low temperature coiling, such that the yield ratio is a low 0.69. The microstructure consists of 75 pct ferrite and 25 pct granular bainite with a high yield ratio of 0.84 when the steel is directly cooled to the coiling temperature. Compared to the conventional dual-phase steels, the high yield strength is attributed to precipitation hardening induced by nanoscale TiC particles and solid solution strengthening by high Si content. The interphase precipitates form at a suitable ledge mobility, and the row spacing changes with the rate of ferrite transformation. There are different orientations of the rows in the same grain because of the different growth directions of the ferrite grain boundaries, and the interface of the two colonies is devoid of precipitates because of the competitive mechanisms of the two orientations.

  15. Hot Accretion Disks Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjoernsson, Gunnlaugur; Abramowicz, Marek A.; Chen, Xingming; Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    1996-08-01

    All previous studies of hot (Tp 1010-1012 K), optically thin accretion disks have neglected either the presence of e+ e- pairs or advective cooling. Thus all hot disk models constructed previously have not been self-consistent. In this paper we calculate local disk models including pair physics, relevant radiative processes in the hot plasma, and the effect of advective cooling. We use a modification of the Björnsson & Svensson mapping method. We find that the role of e+ e- pairs in the structure of hot, optically thin accretion disks is far less significant than was previously thought. The improved description of the radiation-matter interactions provided in the present paper modify the previously obtained values of the critical parameters characterizing advectively dominated flows.

  16. High energy electron cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very close to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.

  17. Gas turbine cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Bancalari, Eduardo E.

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

  18. Determining of the Effect of Lysine:calorie Ratio on Growth Performance and Blood Urea Nitrogen of Growing Barrows and Gilts in Hot Season and Cool Season in a Commercial Environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z F; Kim, I H

    2013-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine an optimum Lys:calorie ratio (g of total dietary Lys/Mcal of DE) for growing barrows and gilts in cool and hot seasons in a commercial environment. In Exp. 1, 96 barrows and 96 gilts were randomly allocated in 1 of 4 dietary treatments (2.7, 3.0, 3.3, 3.6 g of Lys/Mcal of DE). Each treatment had 12 replicate pens with 4 pigs per pen. The experiment lasted for 34 d in the cool season (March 12th to April 15th). Diets were based on corn-wheat-soybean meal. Lys:calorie ratio were attained by adjusting the amount of corn and soybean and supplementation of crystalline Lys. Total Lys intake and available Lys intake were increased (p<.05) as dietary Lys:calorie ratio increased. The BUN concentration on d 34 for barrows, and BUN change for barrows and gilts linearly increased (p<0.05) in response to increasing dietary Lys:calorie ratio. For gilts, back fat was decreased and then increased (Quadratically, p<0.05) as increasing dietary lys:calorie ratio. Exp. 2 had a similar design as Exp. 1 with the exception that Exp. 2 was conducted in hot season (June 30th to September 11th) for 42 d. Diet of Exp. 2 was the same as Exp. 1. Total Lys intake and available Lys intake increased (p<0.05) as dietary Lys:calorie increased. On d 42, the BUN concentration increased (p<0.05) in response to the increasing dietary Lys:calorie ratio. In conclusion, dietary Lys:calorie ratio of 2.7 g of Lys/Mcal of DE could satisfy the requirement of 25 to 50 kg growing pigs. Increasing dietary Lys:calorie ratio could increase BUN concentration in growing pigs.

  19. Influence of the hot-fill water-spray-cooling process after continuous pasteurization on the number of decimal reductions and on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris CRA 7152 growth in orange juice stored at 35 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Ana Cláudia N F; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Pacheco-Sanchez, Cristiana P; Massaguer, Pilar R

    2010-02-28

    In this study, the influence of the hot-fill water-spray-cooling process after continuous pasteurization on the number of decimal reductions (gamma) and growth parameters (lag time; lambda, ratio N(f)/N(o); kappa, maximum growth rate; mu) of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris CRA 7152 in orange juice stored at 35 degrees C were investigated. Two different inoculum levels of A. acidoterrestris CRA 7152 (10(2) and 10(3) spores/mL) in orange juice (11(0)Brix, pH 3.7) and a Microthermics UHT-HTST pilot plant were used to simulate industrial conditions. Results have shown that regardless of the inoculum level (10(2) or 10(3) spores/mL), the pasteurization processes were unable to cause even 1 gamma. Predictive modeling using the Baranyi model showed that only kappa and time to reach 10(4)spores/mL (t10(4) - time to juice spoilage) were affected by the spore inoculum used (p<0.05). It has been concluded that A. acidoterrestris was able to survive the hot-fill process and to grow and spoil orange juice in 5-6 days when the final storage temperature was 35 degrees C.

  20. Laser cooling of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, Richard I; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  1. Recent Advance in Thermoelectric Devices for Electronics Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng

    Thermal management of on-chip hot spot, with a heat flux of around 1000 W/cm2, has become one of the major challenges in the development of next-generation microprocessors. Solid state thermoelectric cooler (TEC) offers great promise for hot spot thermal management because of their compact structure, fast response, high reliability, localized cooling, and high flux removal capability. To date TEC has received great attentions in electronics cooling community as one of the potential hot spot cooling solutions. In this paper, recent development and application of hot spot cooling strategies based on micro thermoelectric technologies will be reviewed and discussed, three hot spot cooling concepts, including thinfilm thermoelectric cooling, mini-contact cooling, and semiconductor selfcooling in silicon substrate and germanium substrate will be discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of these on-chip cooling solutions for high flux hot spots will be evaluated.

  2. Hot off the Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisco, Nicole D.

    2007-01-01

    In the past, the newspaper was one of the world's most used sources of information. Recently, however, its use has declined due to the popularity of cable television and the Internet. Yet the idea of reading the morning paper with a hot cup of coffee holds many warm memories for children who watched their parents in this daily ritual. In this…

  3. Air cooled absorption chillers for solar cooling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermann, W. J.; Reimann, R. C.

    1982-03-01

    The chemical composition of a 'best' absorption refrigerant system is identified, and those properties of the system necessary to design hot water operated, air cooled chilling equipment are determined. Air cooled chillers from single family residential sizes into the commercial rooftop size range are designed and operated.

  4. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  5. Charged-current weak interaction processes in hot and dense matter and its impact on the spectra of neutrinos emitted from protoneutron star cooling.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pinedo, G; Fischer, T; Lohs, A; Huther, L

    2012-12-21

    We perform three-flavor Boltzmann neutrino transport radiation hydrodynamics simulations covering a period of 3 s after the formation of a protoneutron star in a core-collapse supernova explosion. Our results show that a treatment of charged-current neutrino interactions in hot and dense matter as suggested by Reddy et al. [Phys. Rev. D 58, 013009 (1998)] has a strong impact on the luminosities and spectra of the emitted neutrinos. When compared with simulations that neglect mean-field effects on the neutrino opacities, we find that the luminosities of all neutrino flavors are reduced while the spectral differences between electron neutrinos and antineutrinos are increased. Their magnitude depends on the equation of state and in particular on the symmetry energy at subnuclear densities. These modifications reduce the proton-to-nucleon ratio of the outflow, increasing slightly their entropy. They are expected to have a substantial impact on nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds, even though they do not result in conditions that favor an r process. Contrary to previous findings, our results show that the spectra of electron neutrinos remain substantially different from those of other (anti)neutrino flavors during the entire deleptonization phase of the protoneutron star. The obtained luminosity and spectral changes are also expected to have important consequences for neutrino flavor oscillations and neutrino detection on Earth.

  6. Charged-current weak interaction processes in hot and dense matter and its impact on the spectra of neutrinos emitted from protoneutron star cooling.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pinedo, G; Fischer, T; Lohs, A; Huther, L

    2012-12-21

    We perform three-flavor Boltzmann neutrino transport radiation hydrodynamics simulations covering a period of 3 s after the formation of a protoneutron star in a core-collapse supernova explosion. Our results show that a treatment of charged-current neutrino interactions in hot and dense matter as suggested by Reddy et al. [Phys. Rev. D 58, 013009 (1998)] has a strong impact on the luminosities and spectra of the emitted neutrinos. When compared with simulations that neglect mean-field effects on the neutrino opacities, we find that the luminosities of all neutrino flavors are reduced while the spectral differences between electron neutrinos and antineutrinos are increased. Their magnitude depends on the equation of state and in particular on the symmetry energy at subnuclear densities. These modifications reduce the proton-to-nucleon ratio of the outflow, increasing slightly their entropy. They are expected to have a substantial impact on nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds, even though they do not result in conditions that favor an r process. Contrary to previous findings, our results show that the spectra of electron neutrinos remain substantially different from those of other (anti)neutrino flavors during the entire deleptonization phase of the protoneutron star. The obtained luminosity and spectral changes are also expected to have important consequences for neutrino flavor oscillations and neutrino detection on Earth. PMID:23368446

  7. Modeling of thermomechanical and metallurgical phenomena in steel strip during hot direct rolling and runout table cooling of thin-cast slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muojekwu, Cornelius Anaedu

    The present research was directed at adequate prediction of the temperature, deformation behavior (roll force, flow stress, strain and strain rate) and microstructural evolution (recovery, recrystallization, grain growth, austenite and ferrite grain sizes) during rolling in the Compact Strip Production (CSP) process, as well as the final mechanical properties of the hot rolled strips. This was accomplished with the aid of integrated process modeling, involving mathematical simulation, laboratory experiments and industrial campaigns. The study covered two conventional plain carbon steel grades, the A36 (AISI 1018, 0.17C-0.74Mn) and DQSK (AISI 1005, 0.038C-0.3Mn), and a range of plain carbon steel grades (0.06-0.09 C, 0.16-0.9 Mn) produced at HYLSA's CSP mill at Monterrey, Mexico. In the laboratory, compression tests (both single and double-hits) were carried out on the Gleeble 1500 thermomechanical simulator in order to elucidate the effect of coarse austenite grain size on the flow stress and recrystallization behavior of the plain carbon steels. It was found that coarse grain size not only decreased the flow stress at a given strain but also substantially reduced the tendency toward dynamic recrystallization. An increase in grain size from 244 to 1110 mum which is typical of the first stands of a conventional finishing mill and CSP hot-strip mill respectively, resulted in up to a 30 MPa decrease in the flow stress of both A36 and DQSK steel grades at similar operating conditions of temperature, strain and strain rate. In order to validate the model and laboratory results with mill measurements from an operating CSP plant, an industrial trial was carried out at HYLSA's CSP mill in Monterrey, Mexico. During the industrial campaign, intermediate temperature measurements were made, CSP slab and coil samples were acquired, and all measured and recorded mill data and practices were obtained. Comprehensive mathematical modeling of the rolling process was carried out

  8. Research on cooling effectiveness in stepped slot film cooling vane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yulong; Wu, Hong; Zhou, Feng; Rong, Chengjun

    2016-06-01

    As one of the most important developments in air cooling technology for hot parts of the aero-engine, film cooling technology has been widely used. Film cooling hole structure exists mainly in areas that have high temperature, uneven cooling effectiveness issues when in actual use. The first stage turbine vanes of the aero-engine consume the largest portion of cooling air, thereby the research on reducing the amount of cooling air has the greatest potential. A new stepped slot film cooling vane with a high cooling effectiveness and a high cooling uniformity was researched initially. Through numerical methods, the affecting factors of the cooling effectiveness of a vane with the stepped slot film cooling structure were researched. This paper focuses on the cooling effectiveness and the pressure loss in different blowing ratio conditions, then the most reasonable and scientific structure parameter can be obtained by analyzing the results. The results show that 1.0 mm is the optimum slot width and 10.0 is the most reasonable blowing ratio. Under this condition, the vane achieved the best cooling result and the highest cooling effectiveness, and also retained a low pressure loss.

  9. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

    1998-07-21

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

  10. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, David John; Briesch, Michael Scot

    1998-01-01

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

  11. Remelting of cumulates as a process for producing chemical zoning in silicic tuffs: A comparison of cool, wet and hot, dry rhyolitic magma systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, J. A.; Ellis, B. S.; Ramos, F. C.; Starkel, W. A.; Boroughs, S.; Olin, P. H.; Bachmann, O.

    2015-11-01

    produced with little mass contribution from the invading magma. This model reconciles evidence for thermal rejuvenation, preserved in crystals, with evidence for the production of zoning by crystallization-differentiation, apparent in whole-rock chemistry. Fusibility of the cumulate is key to the process; high-temperature 'Snake River'-type rhyolites are not zoned because their cumulates are dominated by a refractory assemblage of pyroxene, plagioclase, and Fe-Ti oxides. Previous models of compositional zoning have envisaged a pot of silicic magma undergoing slow cooling towards thermal senescence. In contrast, we contend that zoning records a history of thermal rejuvenation in which any one recharge event has the potential to trigger a caldera-forming eruption.

  12. District cooling in Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, B.

    1996-11-01

    This paper will present the status of the development of district cooling systems in Scandinavia over the last 5 years. It will describe the technologies used in the systems that have been constructed as well as the options considered in different locations. It will identify the drivers for the development of the cooling business to-date, and what future drivers for a continuing development of district cooling in Sweden. To-date, approximately 25 different cities of varying sizes have completed feasibility studies to determine if district cooling is an attractive option. In a survey, that was conducted by the Swedish District Heating Association, some 25 cities expected to have district cooling systems in place by the year 2000. In Sweden, district heating systems with hot water is very common. In many cases, it is simply an addition to the current service for the district heating company to also supply district cooling to the building owners. A parallel from this can be drawn to North America where district cooling systems now are developing rapidly. I am convinced that in these cities a district heating service will be added as a natural expansion of the district cooling company`s service.

  13. Creative Teaching Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Patricia H., Comp.; And Others

    This book contains 172 creative teaching ideas pertaining to various subject areas and aspects of business education. Most of the ideas included are intended for use in secondary and postsecondary classrooms; however, a few are applicable at all grade levels. The teaching ideas are organized according to the following subject areas/topics:…

  14. Five Big Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    Designing quality continuing professional development (CPD) for those teaching mathematics in primary schools is a challenge. If the CPD is to be built on the scaffold of five big ideas in mathematics, what might be these five big ideas? Might it just be a case of, if you tell me your five big ideas, then I'll tell you mine? Here, there is…

  15. Is cooling still cool?

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Ashwin; Tiruvoipati, Ravindranath; Botha, John

    2015-03-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH), where patients are cooled to between 32°C and 36°C for a period of 12-24 hours and then gradually rewarmed, may reduce the risk of ischemic injury to cerebral tissue following a period of insufficient blood flow. This strategy of TH could improve mortality and neurological function in patients who have experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA). The necessity of TH in OOHCA was challenged in late 2013 by a fascinating and potentially practice changing publication, which found that targeting a temperature of 36°C had similar outcomes to cooling patients to 33°C. This article reviews the current literature and summarizes the uncertainties and questions raised when considering cooling of patients at risk of hypoxic brain injury. Irrespective of whether TH or targeted temperature management is deployed in patients at risk of hypoxic brain injury, it would seem that avoiding hyperpyrexia is important and that a more rigorous approach to neurological evaluation is mandated. PMID:25423577

  16. Electron cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  17. Stochastic Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

  18. 5. HORIZONTAL COOLEDWATER STORAGE TANKS. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. HORIZONTAL COOLED-WATER STORAGE TANKS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  19. Postexercise Cooling Rates in 2 Cooling Jackets

    PubMed Central

    Brade, Carly; Dawson, Brian; Wallman, Karen; Polglaze, Ted

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Cooling jackets are a common method for removing stored heat accumulated during exercise. To date, the efficiency and practicality of different types of cooling jackets have received minimal investigation. Objective: To examine whether a cooling jacket containing a phase-change material (PC17) results in more rapid postexercise cooling than a gel cooling jacket and a no-jacket (control) condition. Design: Randomized, counterbalanced design with 3 experimental conditions. Setting: Participants exercised at 75% V̇o2max workload in a hot climate chamber (temperature  =  35.0 ± 1.4°C, relative humidity  =  52 ± 4%) for 30 minutes, followed by postexercise cooling for 30 minutes in cool laboratory conditions (ambient temperature  =  24.9 ± 1.8°C, relative humidity  =  39% ± 10%). Patients or Other Participants: Twelve physically active men (age  =  21.3 ± 1.1 years, height  =  182.7 ± 7.1 cm, body mass  =  76.2 ± 9.5 kg, sum of 6 skinfolds  =  50.5 ± 6.9 mm, body surface area  =  1.98 ± 0.14 m2, V̇o2max  =  49.0 ± 7.0 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated. Intervention(s): Three experimental conditions, consisting of a PC17 jacket, a gel jacket, and no jacket. Main Outcome Measure(s): Core temperature (TC), mean skin temperature (TSk), and TC cooling rate (°C/min). Results: Mean peak TC postexercise was 38.49 ± 0.42°C, 38.57 ± 0.41°C, and 38.55 ± 0.40°C for the PC17 jacket, gel jacket, and control conditions, respectively. No differences were observed in peak TC cooling rates among the PC17 jacket (0.038 ± 0.007°C/min), gel jacket (0.040 ± 0.009°C/min), and control (0.034 ± 0.010°C/min, P > .05) conditions. Between trials, no differences were calculated for mean TSk cooling. Conclusions: Similar cooling rates for all 3 conditions indicate that there is no benefit associated with wearing the PC17 or gel jacket. PMID:20210620

  20. Turning Green Ideas into Great Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Melanie; Nyquist, Angie

    2001-01-01

    Discusses thinking about thinking and the generation of ideas. Makes the case that people are naturally creative and that consciously applying some key elements of creative thinking to their jobs every day can elevate their interpretive tools to a new level. (MM)

  1. Cooling Floor AC Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Lu; Hao, Ding; Hong, Zhang; Ce, Gao Dian

    The present HVAC equipments for the residential buildings in the Hot-summer-and-Cold-winter climate region are still at a high energy consuming level. So that the high efficiency HVAC system is an urgently need for achieving the preset government energy saving goal. With its advantage of highly sanitary, highly comfortable and uniform of temperature field, the hot-water resource floor radiation heating system has been widely accepted. This paper has put forward a new way in air-conditioning, which combines the fresh-air supply unit and such floor radiation system for the dehumidification and cooling in summer or heating in winter. By analyze its advantages and limitations, we found that this so called Cooling/ Heating Floor AC System can improve the IAQ of residential building while keep high efficiency quality. We also recommend a methodology for the HVAC system designing, which will ensure the reduction of energy cost of users.

  2. IR Hot Wave

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01

    The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace is a breakthrough heat treatment system for manufacturing metal components. Near-infrared (IR) radiant energy combines with IR convective heating for heat treating. Heat treatment is an essential process in the manufacture of most components. The controlled heating and cooling of a metal or metal alloy alters its physical, mechanical, and sometimes chemical properties without changing the object's shape. The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace offers the simplest, quickest, most efficient, and cost-effective heat treatment option for metals and metal alloys. Compared with other heat treatment alternatives, the IR Hot Wave{trademark} system: (1) is 3 to 15 times faster; (2) is 2 to 3 times more energy efficient; (3) is 20% to 50% more cost-effective; (4) has a {+-}1 C thermal profile compared to a {+-}10 C thermal profile for conventional gas furnaces; and (5) has a 25% to 50% smaller footprint.

  3. Seven durable ideas.

    PubMed

    Glaser, John P

    2008-01-01

    Partners Healthcare, and its affiliated hospitals, have a long track record of accomplishments in clinical information systems implementations and research. Seven ideas have shaped the information systems strategies and tactics at Partners; centrality of processes, organizational partnerships, progressive incrementalism, agility, architecture, embedded research, and engage the field. This article reviews the ideas and discusses the rationale and steps taken to put the ideas into practice.

  4. Seven Durable Ideas

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Partners Healthcare, and its affiliated hospitals, have a long track record of accomplishments in clinical information systems implementations and research. Seven ideas have shaped the information systems strategies and tactics at Partners; centrality of processes, organizational partnerships, progressive incrementalism, agility, architecture, embedded research, and engage the field. This article reviews the ideas and discusses the rationale and steps taken to put the ideas into practice. PMID:18308978

  5. Radiations from hot nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, F. Bary

    1993-01-01

    The investigation indicates that nuclei with excitation energy of a few hundred MeV to BeV are more likely to radiate hot nuclear clusters than neutrons. These daughter clusters could, furthermore, de-excite emitting other hot nuclei, and the chain continues until these nuclei cool off sufficiently to evaporate primarily neutrons. A few GeV excited nuclei could radiate elementary particles preferentially over neutrons. Impact of space radiation with materials (for example, spacecraft) produces highly excited nuclei which cool down emitting electromagnetic and particle radiations. At a few MeV excitation energy, neutron emission becomes more dominant than gamma-ray emission and one often attributes the cooling to take place by successive neutron decay. However, a recent experiment studying the cooling process of 396 MeV excited Hg-190 casts some doubt on this thinking, and the purpose of this investigation is to explore the possibility of other types of nuclear emission which might out-compete with neutron evaporation.

  6. The problem of cooling an air-cooled cylinder on an aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brevoort, M J; Joyner, U T

    1941-01-01

    An analysis of the cooling problem has been to show by what means the cooling of an air-cooled aircraft engine may be improved. Each means of improving cooling is analyzed on the basis of effectiveness in cooling with respect to power for cooling. The altitude problem is analyzed for both supercharged and unsupercharged engines. The case of ground cooling is also discussed. The heat-transfer process from the hot gases to the cylinder wall is discussed on the basis of the fundamentals of heat transfer and thermodynamics. Adiabatic air-temperature rise at a stagnation point in compressible flow is shown to depend only on the velocity of flow.

  7. Sharing Teaching Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teacher, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The first idea presented is an activity aimed at teaching students to reduce a fraction to lowest terms by looking for the greatest common factor (GCF) of the numerator and denominator. The second idea looks at ways to construct solution problems that are challenging but which do not bog pupils down. (MP)

  8. Putting Ideas on Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jared; Rogers, Meredith Park

    2015-01-01

    Many students find it easier to express their ideas about science through talking rather than writing. However, writing in science promotes new learning, helps students consolidate and review their scientific ideas, and aids in reformulating and extending their scientific knowledge. These practices lead to formulating and defending scientific…

  9. Teaching Ideas Notebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Presents teaching ideas for topics in aerospace education including: commemorating Robert Goddard Day on March 16th, commemorating Wright Brothers Day on December 17, utilizing newspaper clippings, and aerospace displays. Ideas are presented in notebook form for removal from the journal. (SL)

  10. Teaching Main Idea Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F., Ed.

    Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important Information in…

  11. Sharing Teaching Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teacher, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The first idea discusses the use of Pascal's triangle to discover the total number of gifts presented during the 12 days of Christmas. The second idea looks at an approach to viewing L'Hospital's rule that is geared toward helping beginning calculus students develop a feeling as to why it works. (MP)

  12. ERM Ideas and Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Lenore

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the new "Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship" column entitled "ERM Ideas and Innovations," which will appear in each issue of JERL for the next 2 years, and possibly more, beginning with this issue. The overall focus of each column will be to introduce and expand ideas, discuss innovations, and ultimately encourage and foster…

  13. Electronic cooling using thermoelectric devices

    SciTech Connect

    Zebarjadi, M.

    2015-05-18

    Thermoelectric coolers or Peltier coolers are used to pump heat in the opposite direction of the natural heat flux. These coolers have also been proposed for electronic cooling, wherein the aim is to pump heat in the natural heat flux direction and from hot spots to the colder ambient temperature. In this manuscript, we show that for such applications, one needs to use thermoelectric materials with large thermal conductivity and large power factor, instead of the traditionally used high ZT thermoelectric materials. We further show that with the known thermoelectric materials, the active cooling cannot compete with passive cooling, and one needs to explore a new set of materials to provide a cooling solution better than a regular copper heat sink. We propose a set of materials and directions for exploring possible materials candidates suitable for electronic cooling. Finally, to achieve maximum cooling, we propose to use thermoelectric elements as fins attached to copper blocks.

  14. Electronic cooling using thermoelectric devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebarjadi, M.

    2015-05-01

    Thermoelectric coolers or Peltier coolers are used to pump heat in the opposite direction of the natural heat flux. These coolers have also been proposed for electronic cooling, wherein the aim is to pump heat in the natural heat flux direction and from hot spots to the colder ambient temperature. In this manuscript, we show that for such applications, one needs to use thermoelectric materials with large thermal conductivity and large power factor, instead of the traditionally used high ZT thermoelectric materials. We further show that with the known thermoelectric materials, the active cooling cannot compete with passive cooling, and one needs to explore a new set of materials to provide a cooling solution better than a regular copper heat sink. We propose a set of materials and directions for exploring possible materials candidates suitable for electronic cooling. Finally, to achieve maximum cooling, we propose to use thermoelectric elements as fins attached to copper blocks.

  15. Solar-Cooled Hotel in the Virgin Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harber, H.

    1982-01-01

    Performance of solar cooling system is described in 21-page report. System provides cooling for public areas including ball rooms, restaurant, lounge, lobby and shops. Chilled water from solar-cooling system is also used to cool hot water from hotel's desalinization plant.

  16. Kiln for hot-pressing compacts in a continuous manner

    DOEpatents

    Reynolds, C.D Jr.

    1983-08-08

    The invention is directed to a hot pressing furnace or kiln which is capable of preheating, hot pressing, and cooling a plurality of articles in a sequential and continuous manner. The hot pressing furnace of the present invention comprises an elongated, horizontally disposed furnace capable of holding a plurality of displaceable pusher plates each supporting a die body loaded with refractory or ceramic material to be hot pressed. Each of these plates and the die body supported thereby is sequentially pushed through the preheating zone, a temperature stabilizing and a hot pressing zone, and a cooling zone so as to provide a continuous hot-pressing operation of a plurality of articles.

  17. Kiln for hot-pressing compacts in a continuous manner

    DOEpatents

    Reynolds, Jr., Carl D.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a hot pressing furnace or kiln which is capable of preheating, hot pressing, and cooling a plurality of articles in a sequential and continuous manner. The hot pressing furnace of the present invention comprises an elongated, horizontally disposed furnace capable of holding a plurality of displaceable pusher plates each supporting a die body loaded with refractory or ceramic material to be hot pressed. Each of these plates and the die body supported thereby is sequentially pushed through the preheating zone, a temperature stabilizing and a hot pressing zone, and a cooling zone so as to provide a continuous hot-pressing operation of a plurality of articles.

  18. Hot dry rock reservoir engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, H.

    1987-01-01

    The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept is a simple one. Two nearly parallel wells are drilled, and hydraulic fractures are then formed to hydraulically connect the wells. Water pumped down the injection well and through the fracture system is heated by contact with the hot rock and rises to the production well. This hot fluid is passed through a heat exchanger at the surface and the extracted heat is used for direct heating or electricity generation. The cooled production fluid is then reinjected, thereby setting up a circulation loop. This paper describes the development and execution of the HDR project at Fenton Hill, New Mexico.

  19. Acoustic cooling engine

    DOEpatents

    Hofler, Thomas J.; Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1988-01-01

    An acoustic cooling engine with improved thermal performance and reduced internal losses comprises a compressible fluid contained in a resonant pressure vessel. The fluid has a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and is capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave. A thermodynamic element has first and second ends and is located in the resonant pressure vessel in thermal communication with the fluid. The thermal response of the thermodynamic element to the acoustic standing wave pumps heat from the second end to the first end. The thermodynamic element permits substantial flow of the fluid through the thermodynamic element. An acoustic driver cyclically drives the fluid with an acoustic standing wave. The driver is at a location of maximum acoustic impedance in the resonant pressure vessel and proximate the first end of the thermodynamic element. A hot heat exchanger is adjacent to and in thermal communication with the first end of the thermodynamic element. The hot heat exchanger conducts heat from the first end to portions of the resonant pressure vessel proximate the hot heat exchanger. The hot heat exchanger permits substantial flow of the fluid through the hot heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one quarter wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. The frequency of the acoustic driver can be continuously controlled so as to maintain resonance.

  20. The Main Idea Organizer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Presents the Main Idea Organizer (MIO) to help students who may struggle with writing, reading, and thinking--though in different ways and for different reasons. Describes many different ways the author uses the MIO. (SG)

  1. Ideas by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Describes two new design ideas -- a combination study carrel-locker for use in high schools and a geodesic dome made of transparent vinyl for housing ping pong games in densely populated activity area on a college campus. (DN)

  2. Cles pedagogiques (Teaching Ideas).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertocchini, Paola; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Three ideas for class activities are described: comprehension of newspaper and magazine headlines and titles; the pronunciation, formation, and use of acronyms; and the extraction and elaboration of a story from a popular song. (MSE)

  3. Ideas from Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents few ideas and tips on demonstrations for secondary school teachers; the concept of one part per billion, the running flame tests, models of atoms and molecules. Supplies the names of some useful high school science books. (GA)

  4. Smarter snack ideas

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk, 100% orange or pineapple juice, and sliced bananas or strawberries Frozen fruit bars (without added sugar) ... slices topped with cinnamon Frozen chunks of melons, bananas, or other fruit Check out more snack ideas . ...

  5. Jupiter's Hot, Mushy Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Jupiter's moon Io is the most volcanically active body in the Solar System. Observations by instruments on the Galileo spacecraft and on telescopes atop Mauna Kea in Hawai'i indicate that lava flows on Io are surprisingly hot, over 1200 oC and possibly as much as 1300 oC; a few areas might have lava flows as hot as 1500 oC. Such high temperatures imply that the lava flows are composed of rock that formed by a very large amount of melting of Io's mantle. This has led Laszlo Keszthelyi and Alfred S. McEwen of the University of Arizona and me to reawaken an old hypothesis that suggests that the interior of Io is a partially-molten mush of crystals and magma. The idea, which had fallen out of favor for a decade or two, explains high-temperature hot spots, mountains, calderas, and volcanic plains on Io. If correct, Io gives us an opportunity to study processes that operate in huge, global magma systems, which scientists believe were important during the early history of the Moon and Earth, and possibly other planetary bodies as well. Though far from proven, the idea that Io has a ocean of mushy magma beneath its crust can be tested with measurements by future spacecraft.

  6. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Robert

    2013-09-30

    /feasibility tool for these types of community energy projects. The Excel based tool incorporates hourly climate based building loads data to arrive at the composite energy demand for the district and compares the Net Present Value (NPV) of the costs of CHP/DE alternatives. This tool has been used to provide assistance to several projects in the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, Intermountain and Pacific Regions. The tool was disseminated to the CEACs and supplemented by a Training Webinar and a How to Guide IDEA produced a US Community Energy Development Guide to support mayors, planners, community leaders, real estate developers and economic development officials who are interested in planning more sustainable urban energy infrastructure, creating community energy master plans and implementing CHP/ District Energy systems in cities, communities and towns. IDEA has collected industry data and provided a comprehensive data set containing information on District Energy installations in the US. District energy systems are present in 49 states and the District of Columbia. Of the 597 systems 55% were DE alone while the remainder was some combination of CHP, district heating, and district cooling. District energy systems that do not currently involve electric generation are strong near-term candidates for the adoption of CHP due to the magnitude of their aggregated thermal load. This data has helped inform specific and targeted initiatives including technical assistance provided by the CEAC’s for EPA’s Boiler MACT Compliance by large District Heating System boilers. These outcomes have been greatly enabled by the close coordination and collaboration with DOE CEAC leadership and with the eight regional US DOE Clean Energy Application Centers and the award’s incremental funding has allowed IDEA to leverage our resources to be an effective champion for Clean Energy.

  7. Cab Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Damman, Dennis

    2005-10-31

    Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

  8. Cooling wall

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenko, V.I.

    1995-07-01

    Protecting the shells of blast furnaces is being resolved by installing cast iron cooling plates. The cooling plates become non-operational in three to five years. The problem is that defects occur in manufacturing the cooling plates. With increased volume and intensity of work placed on blast furnaces, heat on the cast iron cooling plates reduces their reliability that limits the interim repair period of blast furnaces. Scientists and engineers from the Ukraine studied this problem for several years, developing a new method of cooling the blast furnace shaft called the cooling wall. Traditional cast iron plates were replaced by a screen of steel tubes, with the area between the tubes filled with fireproof concrete. Before placing the newly developed furnace shaft into operation, considerable work was completed such as theoretical calculations, design, research of temperature fields and tension. Continual testing over many years confirms the value of this research in operating blast furnaces. The cooling wall works with water cooling as well as vapor cooling and is operating in 14 blast furnaces in the Ukraine and two in Russia, and has operated for as long as 14 years.

  9. Effect of neck warming and cooling on thermal comfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. A.; Chambers, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    The potential use of local neck cooling in an area superficial to the cerebral arteries was evaluated by circulating cold or hot water through two copper disks held firmly against the neck. Subjective responses indicated that neck cooling improves the thermal comfort in a hot environment.

  10. Regeneratively cooled transition duct with transversely buffered impingement nozzles

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Jay A; Lee, Ching-Pang; Crawford, Michael E

    2015-04-21

    A cooling arrangement (56) having: a duct (30) configured to receive hot gases (16) from a combustor; and a flow sleeve (50) surrounding the duct and defining a cooling plenum (52) there between, wherein the flow sleeve is configured to form impingement cooling jets (70) emanating from dimples (82) in the flow sleeve effective to predominately cool the duct in an impingement cooling zone (60), and wherein the flow sleeve defines a convection cooling zone (64) effective to cool the duct solely via a cross-flow (76), the cross-flow comprising cooling fluid (72) exhausting from the impingement cooling zone. In the impingement cooling zone an undimpled portion (84) of the flow sleeve tapers away from the duct as the undimpled portion nears the convection cooling zone. The flow sleeve is configured to effect a greater velocity of the cross-flow in the convection cooling zone than in the impingement cooling zone.

  11. Liquid Cooling Technology Increases Exercise Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    To keep astronauts' airtight spacesuits from becoming hot and humid, Ames Research Center developed liquid cooling garments that were integrated into each suit's long underwear. Vasper Systems, in San Jose, California, is using the technology in its liquid-cooled compression cuffs, which help people exercise more efficiently by concentrating lactic acid in their muscles.

  12. Cool Roofs Through Time and Space

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen

    2014-10-17

    Ronnen Levinson, from the Lab's Heat Island Group, presents his research on cool roofs and introduces the California Cities Albedo Map at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California

  13. Ideas from Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas D.

    1980-01-01

    Indicates that at least 50 percent carbon monoxide is produced during the dehydration of sugar by sulfuric acid to a hot, black, expanded solid. Consequently, students should not be allowed to smell this product. Also lists six other findings related to this reaction. (Author/JN)

  14. Significant Ideas and Progressive Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gwen; Mitchell, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Ideas are not one-time "Eureka" moments, but are parts of concepts progressing forward. Sometimes years pass before ideas are implemented. They then resurface, connect with other ideas, and move policies ahead. Meanwhile, the idea remains alive in the field, influencing decisions and goals. Ideas build on one another when implemented. The field of…

  15. Cool Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praeger, Charles E.

    2005-01-01

    Amid climbing energy costs and tightening budgets, administrators at school districts, colleges and universities are looking for all avenues of potential savings while promoting sustainable communities. Cool metal roofing can save schools money and promote sustainable design at the same time. Cool metal roofing keeps the sun's heat from collecting…

  16. A Stirling Idea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Stirling Technology Company developed the components for its BeCOOL line of Cryocoolers with the help of a series of NASA SBIRs (Small Business Innovative Research), through Goddard Space Flight Center and Marshall Space Flight Center. Features include a hermetically sealed design, compact size, and silent operation. The company has already placed several units with commercial customers for computer applications and laboratory use.

  17. Hole Cooling Is Much Faster than Electron Cooling in PbSe Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Spoor, Frank C M; Kunneman, Lucas T; Evers, Wiel H; Renaud, Nicolas; Grozema, Ferdinand C; Houtepen, Arjan J; Siebbeles, Laurens D A

    2016-01-26

    In semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), charge carrier cooling is in direct competition with processes such as carrier multiplication or hot charge extraction that may improve the light conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices. Understanding charge carrier cooling is therefore of great interest. We investigate high-energy optical transitions in PbSe QDs using hyperspectral transient absorption spectroscopy. We observe bleaching of optical transitions involving higher valence and conduction bands upon band edge excitation. The kinetics of rise of the bleach of these transitions after a pump laser pulse allow us to monitor, for the first time, cooling of hot electrons and hot holes separately. Our results show that holes cool significantly faster than electrons in PbSe QDs. This is in contrast to the common assumption that electrons and holes behave similarly in Pb chalcogenide QDs and has important implications for the utilization of hot charge carriers in photovoltaic devices.

  18. Hole Cooling Is Much Faster than Electron Cooling in PbSe Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Spoor, Frank C M; Kunneman, Lucas T; Evers, Wiel H; Renaud, Nicolas; Grozema, Ferdinand C; Houtepen, Arjan J; Siebbeles, Laurens D A

    2016-01-26

    In semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), charge carrier cooling is in direct competition with processes such as carrier multiplication or hot charge extraction that may improve the light conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices. Understanding charge carrier cooling is therefore of great interest. We investigate high-energy optical transitions in PbSe QDs using hyperspectral transient absorption spectroscopy. We observe bleaching of optical transitions involving higher valence and conduction bands upon band edge excitation. The kinetics of rise of the bleach of these transitions after a pump laser pulse allow us to monitor, for the first time, cooling of hot electrons and hot holes separately. Our results show that holes cool significantly faster than electrons in PbSe QDs. This is in contrast to the common assumption that electrons and holes behave similarly in Pb chalcogenide QDs and has important implications for the utilization of hot charge carriers in photovoltaic devices. PMID:26654878

  19. Hot Ideas. A Mathematical Response to a Piece of Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Melinda

    2005-01-01

    Children's literature can enhance mathematics lessons by providing a meaningful context, demonstrating that mathematics develops from human experiences and contributes an aesthetic dimension to learning mathematics. Written as a series of real life inspired snapshots of mathematical thinking, "Counting on Frank" (Rod Clement, 1990) provides a…

  20. A Sobering Big Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineburg, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Since Susan Adler, Alberta Dougan, and Jesus Garcia like "big ideas," the author offers one to ponder: young people in this country can not read with comprehension. The saddest thing about this crisis is that it is no secret. The 2001 results of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) for reading, published in every major newspaper,…

  1. The Force of Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Carol

    2005-01-01

    "The Force of Ideas" describes a little-known aspect of both educational history and Viennese psychoanalysis during the interwar years: the movement for psychoanalytic pedagogy. The author traces her father's own story, beginning with his application to the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society for training as a psychoanalytic pedagogue, as a way to…

  2. Teaching Ideas. Potpourri 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Marilyn, Ed.

    This publication contains a collection of teaching ideas and class activities for organization, journals, dictation, creative writing, outlines, poetry, vocabulary, film review word cards, paragraphing, career research and much more. Some of the materials, listed with their authors, include: (1) "Magazine Board" (Frieda Owen); (2) "Survival"…

  3. Sharing Teaching Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouse, Richard J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The first idea concerns a board game similar to tic-tac-toe in which the strategy involves the knowledge of the factorization of quadratic polynomials. The second game uses the calculation of the surface areas of solid figures applying the specific examples of cigar boxes and cylindrical tin cans. (JJK)

  4. Seeing Children's Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Deb

    2012-01-01

    A group of toddlers was offered long, colorful, translucent tubes to enjoy and explore. As always, they amazed adults with the many ideas they used to investigate and learn with them. The tubes are long and the children marveled at how they could easily lift these objects up taller than their bodies. At the center of the children's explorations…

  5. Bad Ideas Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2000-01-01

    Supplements a previous column's laundry list of bad technology ideas with further provisos: fixating on processor speed; relying on user support; developing non-visionary long-range technology plans; leaving people out of long-range planning; and concentrating technology at the center of a network. (MLH)

  6. Handwriting Ideas Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beloit Public Schools, WI.

    The activities and teaching suggestions contained in this guide are intended for use by teachers who wish to assist students with handwriting difficulties. The first five sections of the guide provide ideas for the following areas: (1) reading readiness, (2) manuscript letters, (3) manuscript numbers, (4) cursive letters, and (5) cursive numbers.…

  7. Sharing Teaching Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Presented are two ideas to improve instruction. The first celebrates the Christmas birthday of Isaac Newton with an essay assignment related to Newton and a party. The second suggests a more appropriate moment to introduce the technique of completing the square to promote greater flexibility in factoring problems. (MDH)

  8. Upper Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Suggestions for five activities are presented. They include: ideas for several student problem-solving projects; preparing a flowsheet and program for 10 coin and dice games; using word processor formatting commands to create word designs; creating sounds; and writing a program to print out sums indefinitely. (JN)

  9. Rethinking the Microworld Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyles, Celia; Noss, Richard; Adamson, Ross

    2002-01-01

    Reflects on the meaning and evaluation of the microworld idea. Distinguishes between user manipulation and modification at three levels: the interface, superstructural, and platform levels; presents a case study of two eight-year-old girls playing a video game based on Logo; and discusses mathematical learning. (Author/LRW)

  10. Brainstorming for Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogahed, Mogahed M.

    2011-01-01

    Learners occasionally complain that they lack ideas when sitting down to write a composition. Teachers complain that they do not want to spend half the class time telling students what to write. There is an answer. Teachers brainstorm words connected with the topic in class before setting the composition for homework. The question remains: how to…

  11. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Activities for middle/junior high school students are presented, including use of string variables, science lesson ideas, computer scavenger hunt, and guidelines for interviewing people who own/use computers. Includes "I'll Write...Just Lead Me to My Computer" by Robert Engberg, discussing word processing instruction. (JN)

  12. Classroom Idea-Sparkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieff, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This article presents four Idea-Sparkers that were submitted by Jason McKinney, a graduate student at Southern Mississippi University and a 1st-grade teacher at Pisgah Elementary in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. First is entitled, "Raceway in the Classroom." This activity can help increase children's fluency and ability to identify numerous sight…

  13. Teaching an IDEA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Walter C.

    1991-01-01

    Presents five essential strands that should be spiraled through social studies curriculum. Argues these strands suggest concepts that need to be developed. Lists key concepts and presents a way to teach ideas and concepts to intermediate-grade students. Outlines a teaching/learning sequence for concept development and illustrates how the concepts…

  14. To Sell An Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Alan J.

    1986-01-01

    The experiences of Aurora University, a small university that not only raised money but established new links with donors, are described. The key to fund raising is selling an idea. As donors become more sophisticated, sentiment and traditional patterns play a less significant role in motivating donors. (MLW)

  15. Sharing Teaching Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Rosabel; Geyer, John R.

    1982-01-01

    The following ideas are included: (1) solving a quadratic equation geometrically by completing the square, which helped a class of secondary physics students understand the formulas; and (2) a way of teaching factoring of quadratic trinomials that is based on the behavior of odd and even numerals under addition and multiplication. (MP)

  16. Idea Exchange: Volunteerism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Jamice, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    This issue of "Idea Exchange" which focuses on the volunteer in education programs includes a variety of materials related to volunteer experiences and viewpoints: (1) a handbook for volunteer coordinators which discusses the coordinator's role, the recruiting and interviewing of volunteers, and the essentials of volunteer placement and…

  17. Pouring 'Cold Water' on Hot Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, A. E.

    1995-09-01

    was concluded that the textures must have formed during cooling after hot accretion. However, because spinodal decomposition textures develop over the temperature range 1400-1100 K [14,15] and type-4 and -5 OC were probably not heated above 1000 K and 1050 K, respectively [16], these textures are probably relicts of chondrule formation. It was also suggested [14] that compositional zoning in pyroxenes indicates that type-3 OC cooled more rapidly than type-4 to -5 OC. However, OC metallographic cooling rates are not correlated with petrologic type [17]. Furthermore, experimental data [13] show that rare thick opx lamellae in H4 Conquista could not have formed during single stage cooling as expected in autometamorphism; a two-stage cooling history involving rapid cooling during chondrule formation followed by parent-body annealing is more plausible. Polycrystalline taenite. Polycrystalline taenite in H/L3 Tieschitz was interpreted as a relict solidification structure that failed to anneal into monocrystalline taenite because of rapid cooling (1700 to 1000 K within days to weeks) [18]; by analogy, it was proposed that all H3-6 chondrites containing polycrystalline taenite cooled rapidly from 1700 K [4], an idea inconsistent with prograde metamorphism. However, cooling rates in equilibrated chondrites that were slow enough to permit significant growth of kamacite would erase prior solidification zoning in taenite by solid-state diffusion [19,20]. This hypothesis, confirmed by computer modeling [21], invalidates the assumption that equilibrated OC containing polycrystalline taenite cooled rapidly. Polycrystalline taenite is most likely a pre-metamorphic relict. Heterogeneous metal grains. Compositionally and texturally heterogeneous metal grains in L6 Bruderheim are unlikely to have survived solid-state diffusion during prograde metamorphism [22]; these authors favored hot accretion followed by low-temperature annealing. However, Bruderheim is a fragmental breccia of shock

  18. Solar thermal heating and cooling. A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arenson, M.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliographic series cites and abstracts the literature and technical papers on the heating and cooling of buildings with solar thermal energy. Over 650 citations are arranged in the following categories: space heating and cooling systems; space heating and cooling models; building energy conservation; architectural considerations, thermal load computations; thermal load measurements, domestic hot water, solar and atmospheric radiation, swimming pools; and economics.

  19. Passive cooling systems in residential buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingersoll, John G.; Givoni, Baruch

    1985-11-01

    The performance of four passive cooling systems, nocturnal convective cooling, nocturnal radiative cooling, direct evaporative cooling and conductive earth-coupled cooling, is evaluated for representative environmental conditions in the temperate, hot-humid and hot-arid climatic zones of the United States. The analysis indicates that substantial portion of the cooling load of a typical energy-efficient single family residential building can be eliminated with any of these passive systems. Depending on system type and climatic zone, the building cooling load can be reduced by 1/3 to over 4/5 of its original value. The corresponding energy savings would amount to a minimum of 25 TWh/yr and could potentially exceed 50 TWh/yr, if proper passive cooling systems were to be employed throughout the country. Incorporation of passive cooling models in building energy analysis codes will be necessary to determine more precisely the potential of each system. Field testing will also be required to further evaluate this potential. Moreover, the extension of analytical modeling to include additional passive cooling systems and the research of advanced building—natural environment coupling systems and materials constitute tasks requiring further effort.

  20. Hot Canyon

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot Canyon."

  1. Hot Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot Canyon."

  2. Hot Tickets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Bette-Lee; Hoffert, Barbara; Kuzyk, Raya; McCormack, Heather; Williams, Wilda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the highlights of this year's BookExpo America (BEA) held at the Los Angeles Convention Center. The attendees at BEA had not minded that the air was recycled, the lighting was fluorescent, and the food was bad. The first hot book sighting came courtesy of Anne Rice. Michelle Moran, author of newly published novel, "The…

  3. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannotti, Maurizio; Irastorza, Igor; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a mild preference for a non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP or a massless HP represent the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO and the massless HP requires a multi TeV energy scale of new physics that might be accessible at the LHC.

  4. Adopting Employees' Ideas: Moderators of the Idea Generation-Idea Implementation Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Silva, Nancy; Oldham, Greg R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the possibility that the relationship between the number of ideas an employee generated and the number of those ideas that were adopted by the organization was moderated by the general radicalness of the employee's ideas (i.e., the extent to which the ideas were breakthrough or groundbreaking), the employee's intention to stay,…

  5. Mechanics: Ideas, problems, applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishlinskii, A. Iu.

    The book contains the published articles and reports by academician Ishlinskii which deal with the concepts and ideas of modern mechanics, its role in providing a general understanding of the natural phenomena, and its applications to various problems in science and engineering. Attention is given to the methodological aspects of mechanics, to the history of the theories of plasticity, friction, gyroscopic and inertial systems, and inertial navigation, and to mathematical methods in mechanics. The book also contains essays on some famous scientists and engineers.

  6. The alchemy of ideas.

    PubMed

    Apuzzo, Michael L J; Elder, James B; Faccio, Rodrick; Liu, Charles Y

    2008-12-01

    This article presents an assessment of the power of ideas and their role in initiating change and progress. The enormous potential cascade effect is illustrated by examining the movement of Modernism in the arts. Next, the immense scope and capabilities of the modern scientific endeavor-with robotic space exploration at the scale of 10 meters at one extreme and the wonders of nanoscience at the scale of 10 m at the other-are examined. The attitudes and philosophies of neurological surgery are related to those involved in the Modernist movement and placed on the defined scale of contemporary scientific activity. PMID:19057316

  7. Cooling performance of solar cell-driven, thermoelectric cooling prototype headgear

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, T.; Obora, H.; Sato, S.

    1998-07-01

    Cooling performance of solar cell driven, thermoelectric cooling prototype headgear was examined experimentally. Three types of prototype headgear were made and examined. They were cooled by thermoelectric elements and driven by solar cells. The authors are always able to be cooled anytime and anywhere inside the house in hot season. However, they were not able to be cooled when they worked outside the house. Especially, a personal air-conditioning system is required for the people working outside. Some cooling caps with an electric fan driven by solar cells can be often seen now. However, the fan only blows hot air to the face. They cannot cool down the face below the ambient temperature. The authors tried to cool down the face to the lower temperature below the ambient by a refrigeration system. A thermoelectric element was set at the front of a headgear such as baseball cap or straw hat to cool a forehead. Some pieces of solar cells were mounted on the top and the brim of the headgear to work the thermoelectric element. Hot side of thermoelectric element was cooled by a plate fin an electric fan. The electric fan was also driven by a solar cell. Two types of baseball caps with solar cells and a thermoelectric element and a type of straw hat with them were made and tested. Solar cells were connected to optimize the electric power for the thermoelectric element. An electric fan and its power input were selected to cool maximum the thermoelectric element. Cooling performance and thermal comfort of the headgear were examined by testers in case of sitting, walking and bicycling. The temperature difference between ambient and cooling temperature was required only about 4 degree Celsius. Required power by solar cells was up to about 1.5 watt for a personal cooling.

  8. Hot tearing evaluation for aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brůna, Marek

    2016-06-01

    Hot tearing during solidification of aluminium alloys castings can be a serious problem. This phenomenon is well known but still insufficiently investigated. Hot tearing occurs in form of irregular cracks in metal castings that develop during solidification and cooling. The cause of hot tearing is generally attributed to the development of thermally induced tensile stresses and strains in a casting as the molten metal contracts during solidification and solid state shrinkage. Submited paper consists of two parts. The first part introduces the reader to the phenomenon of hot tearing. The second part describes newly developed method for assessing hot tearing susceptibility of aluminium alloys, and also gives the results on hot tearing for various aluminium alloys.

  9. Cool Cosmology: ``WHISPER" better than ``BANG"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Paul

    2007-10-01

    Cosmologist Fred Hoyle coined ``big bang'' as a term of derision for Belgian priest George Lemaitre's prediction that the universe had originated from the expansion of a ``primeval atom'' in space-time. Hoyle referred to Lamaitre's hypothesis sarcastically as ``this big bang idea'' during a program broadcast on March 28, 1949 on the BBC. Hoyle's continuous creation or steady state theory can not explain the microwave background radiation or cosmic whisper discovered by Penzias and Wilson in 1964. The expansion and subsequent cooling of Lemaitre's hot ``primeval atom'' explains the whisper. ``Big bang'' makes no physical sense, as there was no matter (or space) to carry the sound that Hoyle's term implies. The ``big bang'' is a conjecture. New discoveries may be able to predict the observed ``whispering cosmos'' as well as dark matter and the nature of dark energy. The ``whispering universe'' is cooler cosmology than the big bang. Reference: Carr, Paul H. 2006. ``From the 'Music of the Spheres' to the 'Whispering Cosmos.' '' Chapter 3 of Beauty in Science and Spirit. Beech River Books. Center Ossipee, NH, http://www.MirrorOfNature.org.

  10. IDEAS at Lowell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millis, R.

    1998-12-01

    About seven years ago, Lowell Observatory initiated an effort to greatly expand its educational facilities and programs. Since that time, a 6500- sq. ft. visitor center has been built, 2200 sq. ft. of interactive exhibits have been developed and installed, and a 16-in Boller and Chivens telescope has been erected for education. As a result of this progress, many new educational activities are now available both on and off the Observatory campus. Development of new offerings for K--12 students has been particularly aided by IDEAS grants. These grants have supported teacher workshops, creation of pre- and post-visit materials for classroom use, and monthly visits by Lowell astronomers to schools on the Navajo and Hopi Indian reservations. In this talk, I will discuss our motivations and experiences in seeking to develop a high-quality, self-sustaining program of informal and K--12 education at a research observatory. The specific ways in which IDEAS grants have fostered this development will be highlighted.

  11. Cooling Vest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Because quadriplegics are unable to perspire below the level of spinal injury, they cannot tolerate heat stress. A cooling vest developed by Ames Research Center and Upjohn Company allows them to participate in outdoor activities. The vest is an adaptation of Ames technology for thermal control garments used to remove excess body heat of astronauts. The vest consists of a series of corrugated channels through which cooled water circulates. Its two outer layers are urethane coated nylon, and there is an inner layer which incorporates the corrugated channels. It can be worn as a backpack or affixed to a wheelchair. The unit includes a rechargeable battery, mini-pump, two quart reservoir and heat sink to cool the water.

  12. Liquid-metal atomization for hot working preforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, N. J.; Pelloux, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Rapid quenching of a liquid metal by atomization or splat cooling overcomes the major limitation of most solidification processes, namely, the segregation of alloying elements, impurities, and constituent phases. The cooling rates of different atomizing processes are related to the dendrite arm spacings and to the microstructure of the atomized powders. The increased solubility limits and the formation of metastable compounds in splat-cooled alloys are discussed. Consolidation of the powders by hot isostatic compaction, hot extrusion, or hot forging and rolling processes yields billets with properties equivalent to or better than those of the wrought alloys. The application of this powder processing technology to high-performance alloys is reviewed.

  13. Hot outflows in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, C. C.; McNamara, B. R.

    2015-10-01

    The gas-phase metallicity distribution has been analysed for the hot atmospheres of 29 galaxy clusters using Chandra X-ray Observatory observations. All host brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with X-ray cavity systems produced by radio AGN. We find high elemental abundances projected preferentially along the cavities of 16 clusters. The metal-rich plasma was apparently lifted out of the BCGs with the rising X-ray cavities (bubbles) to altitudes between twenty and several hundred kiloparsecs. A relationship between the maximum projected altitude of the uplifted gas (the `iron radius') and jet power is found with the form R_Fe ∝ P_jet^{0.45}. The estimated outflow rates are typically tens of solar masses per year but exceed 100 M⊙ yr- 1 in the most powerful AGN. The outflow rates are 10-20 per cent of the cooling rates, and thus alone are unable to offset a cooling inflow. Nevertheless, hot outflows effectively redistribute the cooling gas and may play a significant role at regulating star formation and AGN activity in BCGs and presumably in giant elliptical galaxies. The metallicity distribution overall can be complex, perhaps due to metal-rich gas returning in circulation flows or being blown around in the hot atmospheres. Roughly 15 per cent of the work done by the cavities is expended lifting the metal-enriched gas, implying their nuclear black holes have increased in mass by at least ˜107-109 M⊙. Finally, we show that hot outflows can account for the broad, gas-phase metallicity distribution compared to the stellar light profiles of BCGs, and we consider a possible connection between hot outflows and cold molecular gas flows discovered in recent Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations.

  14. Transitional Boundary Layers Under the Influence of High Free Stream Turbulence, Intensive Wall Cooling and High Pressure Gradients in Hot Gas Circulation. Ph.D. Thesis - Technische Hochschule, Karlsruhe, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rued, Klaus

    1987-01-01

    The requirements for fundamental experimental studies of the influence of free stream turbulence, pressure gradients and wall cooling are discussed. Under turbine-like free stream conditions, comprehensive tests of transitional boundary layers with laminar, reversing and turbulent flow increments were performed to decouple the effects of the parameters and to determine the effects during mutual interaction.

  15. Idea Generation Techniques: Quantities and Ad Ideas in Minimum Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, James L.

    One of the major problems in advertising courses is that students are expected to generate original, exciting advertising ideas, but often are not taught how to go about the process. Idea generation techniques can help students generate quantities of creative ideas more quickly and fluently. By looking at ads and recreating the workings of the…

  16. Idea Generation Techniques for Sparking Creative Advertising Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, James L.

    In advertising, a creative idea can be defined as being right or on strategy in a unique way. For a copywriter, it is not easy to create an ad that has the "Big Idea" in it. Some helpful techniques that advertising students can use to generate creative ideas are (1) analogy, (2) forced relationships, (3) doing the opposite of what everyone else is…

  17. Prometheus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Gribik, Anastasia M.; DiLorenzo, Peter A.

    2007-01-30

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  18. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    SciTech Connect

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  19. Project S'COOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Carolyn J.; Chambers, Lin H.

    1998-01-01

    The Students Clouds Observations On-Line or S'COOL project was piloted in 1997. It was created with the idea of using students to serve as one component of the validation for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument which was launched with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) in November, 1997. As part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise CERES is interested in the role clouds play in regulating our climate. Over thirty schools became involved in the initial thrust of the project. The CERES instrument detects the location of clouds and identifies their physical properties. S'COOL students coordinate their ground truth observations with the exact overpass of the satellite at their location. Their findings regarding cloud type, height, fraction and opacity as well as surface conditions are then reported to the NASA Langley Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data is then accessible to both the CERES team for validation and to schools for educational application via the Internet. By March of 1998 ninety-three schools, in nine countries had enrolled in the S'COOL project. Joining the United States participants were from schools in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. The project is gradually becoming the global project envisioned by the project s creators. As students obtain the requested data useful for the scientists, it was hoped that students with guidance from their instructors would have opportunity and motivation to learn more about clouds and atmospheric science as well.

  20. Guiding New Product Idea Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The creation of innovative ideas is the initial step in entrepreneurial practice and venture management. As the management of technology is now on the priority agenda of higher education institutions, there is a need to develop pedagogic schemes for idea generation. Despite its importance, the idea generation process is hard to systematize or to…

  1. Growing Ideas, 1990-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pranis, Eve, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This series of journals includes volumes 1-4 of "Growing Ideas," a journal of garden-based learning. Each issue provides instructional ideas, horticultural information and a forum for exchange among teachers using classroom gardening to stimulate learning. Ideas in each issue are separated into three sections. The "Green Tips" section presents…

  2. Full coverage discrete hole film cooling - Cooling effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, G. E.; Gupta, M. L.; Mkpadi, M. C.

    1985-09-01

    The development of a test facility for investigating full coverage discrete hole wall cooling for gas turbine combustion chamber wall cooling is described. A low temperature test condition of 750 K mainstream temperature and 300 K coolant temperature was used to investigate the influence of coolant flow rate at a constant cross flow Mach number. Practical combustion conditions of 2100 K combustor temperature and 700 K coolant temperature are investigated to establish the validity of applying the low temperature results to practical conditions. For both situations a heat balance program taking into account the heat transfer within the wall, was used to compute the film heat transfer coefficients. The mixing of the coolant air with the mainstream gases was studied through boundary layer temperature and CO2 profiles. It is shown that entrainment of hot flame gases between the injection holes results in a very low 'adiabatic' film cooling effectiveness.

  3. Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

  4. U. S. cities checking cogeneration potential for district heating, cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    A recently approved DOE grant program provides the impetus for cities to assess the potential for using district heating and cooling systems in communities and to enlist local bankers, industrial firms, businesses and utilities in the assessment effort. Projected community benefits under locally owned district heating and cooling systems include enhanced urban development potential, increased job opportunities, stability of energy costs, and maintenance of environmental quality. The district heating and cooling systems will take hot water or steam derived from coal, gas or waste energy from factories, from burning trash and deliver it through a network of underground pipes to heat or cool buildings and supply hot water.

  5. The state of the art in hadron beam cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, L.R.; Derwent, P.; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    Cooling of hadron beams (including heavy-ions) is a powerful technique by which accelerator facilities around the world achieve the necessary beam brightness for their physics research. In this paper, we will give an overview of the latest developments in hadron beam cooling, for which high energy electron cooling at Fermilab's Recycler ring and bunched beam stochastic cooling at Brookhaven National Laboratory's RHIC facility represent two recent major accomplishments. Novel ideas in the field will also be introduced.

  6. Global cooling?

    PubMed

    Damon, P E; Kunen, S M

    1976-08-01

    The world's inhabitants, including Scientists, live primarily in the Northern Hemisphere. It is quite natural to be concerned about events that occur close to home and neglect faraway events. Hence, it is not surprising that so little attention has been given to the Southern Hemisphere. Evidence for global cooling has been based, in large part, on a severe cooling trend at high northern latitudes. This article points out that the Northern Hemisphere cooling trend appears to be out of phase with a warming trend at high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. The data are scanty. We cannot be sure that these temperature fluctuations are be not the result of natural causes. How it seems most likely that human activity has already significantly perturbed the atmospheric weather system. The effect of particulate matter pollution should be most severe in the highly populated and industrialized Northern Hemisphere. Because of the rapid diffusion of CO(2) molecules within the atmosphere, both hemispheres will be subject to warming due to the atmospheric (greenhouse) effect as the CO(2) content of the atmosphere builds up from the combustion of fossil fuels. Because of the differential effects of the two major sources of atmospheric pollution, the CO(2) greenhouse effect warming trend should first become evident in the Southern Hemisphere. The socioeconomic and political consequences of climate change are profound. We need an early warning system such as would be provided by a more intensive international world weather watch, particularly at high northern and southern latitudes.

  7. Water-Cooled Total-Temperature Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas T.; Reece, Garland D.

    1992-01-01

    Water-cooled supersonic total-pressure, static-pressure, and total-temperature probes developed to study high-temperature jet plumes. Total-temperature probe tested up to 2,000 degrees F incorporates annular cooling system up to thermocouple lead. Lead extends into test chamber to sense temperature of supersonic external flow. Design novel and significant. Applicable in development of jet engines and in research on fast flows of hot gases.

  8. Hot Meetings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Mary

    2002-01-01

    A colleague walked by my office one time as I was conducting a meeting. There were about five or six members of my team present. The colleague, a man who had been with our institution (The Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab, a.k.a. APL) for many years, could not help eavesdropping. He said later it sounded like we we re having a raucous argument, and he wondered whether he should stand by the door in case things got out of hand and someone threw a punch. Our Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) team was a hot group, to invoke the language that is fashionable today, although we never thought of ourselves in those terms. It was just our modus operandi. The tenor of the discussion got loud and volatile at times, but I prefer to think of it as animated, robust, or just plain collaborative. Mary Chiu and her "hot" team from the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory built the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft for NASA. Instruments on the spacecraft continue to collect data that inform us about what's happening on our most important star, the Sun.

  9. Hybrid Cooling Systems for Low-Temperature Geothermal Power Production

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, A.; Bharathan, D.

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the identification and evaluation of methods by which the net power output of an air-cooled geothermal power plant can be enhanced during hot ambient conditions with a minimal amount of water use.

  10. REACTOR COOLING

    DOEpatents

    Quackenbush, C.F.

    1959-09-29

    A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

  11. The IDEAS**2 computing environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racheli, Ugo

    1990-01-01

    This document presents block diagrams of the IDEAS**2 computing environment. IDEAS**2 is the computing environment selected for system engineering (design and analysis) by the Center for Space Construction (CSC) at the University of Colorado (UCB). It is intended to support integration and analysis of any engineering system and at any level of development, from Pre-Phase A conceptual studies to fully mature Phase C/D projects. The University of Colorado (through the Center for Space Construction) has joined the Structural Dynamics Research Corporation (SDRC) University Consortium which makes available unlimited software licenses for instructional purposes. In addition to providing the backbone for the implementation of the IDEAS**2 computing environment, I-DEAS can be used as a stand-alone product for undergraduate CAD/CAE instruction. Presently, SDRC is in the process of releasing I-DEAS level 5.0 which represents a substantial improvement in both the user interface and graphic processing capabilities. IDEAS**2 will be immediately useful for a number of current programs within CSC (such as DYCAM and the 'interruptability problem'). In the future, the following expansions of the basic IDEAS**2 program will be pursued, consistent with the overall objectives of the Center and of the College: upgrade I-DEAS and IDEAS**2 to level 5.0; create new analytical programs for applications not limited to orbital platforms; research the semantic organization of engineering databases; and create an 'interoperability' testbed.

  12. Turbine stator vane segment having internal cooling circuits

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Raymond Joseph; Burns, James Lee; Bojappa, Parvangada Ganapathy; Jones, Schotsch Margaret

    2003-01-01

    A turbine stator vane includes outer and inner walls each having outer and inner chambers and a vane extending between the outer and inner walls. The vane includes first, second, third, fourth and fifth cavities for flowing a cooling medium. The cooling medium enters the outer chamber of the outer wall, flows through an impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer band wall defining in part the hot gas path and through openings in the first, second and fourth cavities for flow radially inwardly, cooling the vane. The spent cooling medium flows into the inner wall and inner chamber for flow through an impingement plate radially outwardly to cool the inner wall. The spent cooling medium flows through the third cavity for egress from the turbine vane segment from the outer wall. The first, second or third cavities contain inserts having impingement openings for impingement cooling of the vane walls. The fifth cavity provides air cooling for the trailing edge.

  13. The Boldest New Idea? An End to Bold Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The past two decades have proven that bold, single-factor reform ideas have little power to change the face of education. Pundits and policymakers would have schools and school systems make grand changes to accommodate the reform idea du jour--and then profess the incompetence of schools and teachers when those changes prove less than effective.…

  14. Beyond Idea Generation: The Power of Groups in Developing Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Kibby; Ruggeri, Azzurra; Kämmer, Juliane E.; Katsikopoulos, Konstantinos V.

    2016-01-01

    Brainstorming research has claimed that individuals are more creative than groups. However, these conclusions are largely based on measuring creativity by the number of ideas generated, and researchers have tended to neglect other important components of creativity, such as the quality of developed ideas. These studies aim to address this gap in…

  15. Education's Three Old Ideas, and a Better Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Kieran

    1999-01-01

    Discusses three educational ideas, demonstrating their incompatibility: (1) a focus on socialization; (2) Plato's notion that education is the process of seeking truth about reality; and (3) Jean-Jacques Rousseau's idea that the mind undergoes a developmental process and education furthers its development. Argues that education is learning to use…

  16. Ideas Plus: A Collection of Practical Teaching Ideas. Book 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Felice, Comp.; Kent, Jeannette, Ed.

    Culled from ideas contributed by people attending conferences of the National Council of Teachers of English and by readers of "NOTES Plus" and "IDEAS Plus," the activities contained in this booklet are intended to promote the effective teaching of writing and literature. Teaching strategies offered in the first section of the booklet involve…

  17. Adaptive gauge cooling for complex Langevin dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiovanni, L.; Aarts, G.; Seiler, E.; Sexty, D.; Stamatescu, I. O.

    In the case of nonabelian gauge theories with a complex weight, a controlled exploration of the complexified configuration space during a complex Langevin process requires the use of SL(N,C) gauge cooling, in order to minimize the distance from SU(N). Here we show that adaptive gauge cooling can lead to an efficient implementation of this idea. First results for SU(3) Yang-Mills theory in the presence of a nonzero theta-term are presented as well.

  18. Effect of adding a gonadotropin-releasing-hormone treatment at the beginning and a second prostaglandin F2α treatment at the end of an estradiol-based protocol for timed artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows during cool or hot seasons of the year.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M H C; Wiltbank, M C; Barbosa, L F S P; Costa, W M; Carvalho, M A P; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2015-02-01

    Our hypothesis was that fertility could be increased in a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol based on estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) by combining GnRH with E2-benzoate at the start of the protocol to increase circulating P4 during preovulatory follicle development and by using 2 prostaglandin F2α (PGF) treatments at the end to decrease P4 near TAI. Lactating Holstein cows (n=1,808) were randomly assigned during the cool or hot season of the year to receive TAI (d 0) following 1 of 3 treatments: (1) control: controlled internal drug-release insert + 2mg of E2-benzoate on d -11, PGF on d -4, controlled internal drug-release insert withdrawal + 1.0mg of E2-cypionate on d -2, and TAI on d 0; (2) 2PGF: identical to control protocol with addition of a second PGF treatment on d -2; (3) GnRH: identical to 2PGF protocol with addition of a 100-μg GnRH treatment on d -11. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed on d 32 and 60 after TAI. Season had major effects on many reproductive measures, with cool season greater than hot season in percentage of cows with corpus luteum (CL) at PGF (62.9 vs. 56.2%), ovulatory follicle diameter (15.7 vs. 14.8mm), expression of estrus (86.7 vs. 79.9%), ovulation following the protocol (89.7 vs. 84.3%), and pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI; 45.4 vs. 21.4%). The GnRH protocol increased percentage of cows with CL (control=56.9%; 2PGF=55.8%; GnRH=70.5%) and P4 at PGF (control=3.28±0.22; 2PGF=3.35±0.22; GnRH=3.70±0.21ng/mL), compared with control and 2PGF protocols. The GnRH protocol increased P/AI at the pregnancy diagnosis at 32d [37.3% (219/595)] and 60d [31% (179/595)] after TAI, compared with control [30.0% (177/604); 25.1% (145/604)], with intermediate results with 2PGF protocol [33.2% (196/609); 28.0% (164/609)]. The positive effects of GnRH treatment on P/AI were only detected during the cool season (GnRH=50.9%; 2PGF=44.2%; control=41.0%) and not during the hot season. In addition, the effect of GnRH was only

  19. Measurement and Empirical Correlation of Transpiration-Cooling Parameters on a 25 degree Cone in a Turbulent Boundary Layer in Both Free Flight and a Hot-Gas Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Thomas E., Jr.; Rashis, Bernard

    1961-01-01

    Transpiration-cooling parameters are presented for a turbulent boundary layer on a cone configuration with a total angle of 250 which was tested in both free flight and in an ethylene-heated high-temperature jet at a Mach number of 2.0. The flight-tested cone was flown to a maximum Mach number of 4.08 and the jet tests were conducted at stagnation temperatures ranging from 937 R to 1,850 R. In general, the experimental heat transfer was in good agreement with the theoretical values. Inclusion of the ratio of local stream temperature to wall temperature in the nondimensional flow rate parameter enabled good correlation of both sets of transpiration data. The measured pressure at the forward station coincided with the theoretical pressure over a sharp cone; however, the measured pressure increased with distance from the nose tip.

  20. Students' Ideas and Radical Constructivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez Gómez, Pedro J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I study, from the point of view of the analytic philosophy of mind, the compatibility of students' ideas studies (SIS) with radical constructivism (RC). I demonstrate that RC is based on a psychology of "narrow mental states"; that is, the idea that the mental content of an individual can be fully characterised without…

  1. Essential Ideas for Healthy Childhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine Since 1978, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents essential ideas from various people on how to cultivate healthy childhood. Amelia Gambetti says that in terms of young children, the element of complexity offers to them the possibility to have an opportunity to learn how to think and to generate ideas. Diane Levin shares how a three-year-old kid taught her that children do…

  2. Structuring Ideas through Calligraphic Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldo, John W.

    1979-01-01

    Teaching strategies for using calligraphic images are presented. Included are the pictograph, the calligram, pen ideas, the ideograph, expressive language, and calligraphic imagery. Ideas are appropriate for all age and grade levels, from elementary grades through college. Useful reference books are listed. (KC)

  3. Optimation of cooled shields in insulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, J. C.; Khodadadi, J. M.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J.

    1984-01-01

    A method to optimize the location, temperature, and heat dissipation rate of each cooled shield inside an insulation layer was developed. The method is based on the minimization of the entropy production rate which is proportional to the heat leak across the insulation. It is shown that the maximum number of shields to be used in most practical applications is three. However, cooled shields are useful only at low values of the overall, cold wall to hot wall absolute temperature ratio. The performance of the insulation system is relatively insensitive to deviations from the optimum values of the temperature and location of the cooling shields. Design curves for rapid estimates of the locations and temperatures of cooling shields in various types of insulations, and an equation for calculating the cooling loads for the shields are presented.

  4. Ideas in Context and the Idea of Renaissance Philosophy.

    PubMed

    Celenza, Christopher S

    2014-10-01

    This contribution to the symposium marking the publication of the 100th volume in the series Ideas in Context (Cambridge University Press) assesses the significance of the series for work on Renaissance philosophy.

  5. Are hot Neptunes partially evaporated hot Jupiters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boué, G.; Figueira, P.; Correia, A. C. M.; Santos, N. C.

    2011-10-01

    The detection of short period planets (hot Jupiters and their lower mass counterparts, hot Neptunes and super-Earths) still defies the models of planet formation and evolution. Several possibilities have been proposed to explain the nature and formation process of the lower mass population, including in situ formation, disk migration, planet-planet scattering and kozai evolution, and the evaporation of a higher mass hot Jupiter. Using dynamical models and the best estimates for evaporation velocities, we show that under reasonable (and observed) physical conditions, hot Jupiter evaporation may explain the observed population of hot Neptunes/super-Earths.

  6. Are Hot Neptunes Partialy Evaporated Hot Jupiters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Nuno; Boue, G.; Figueira, P.; Correia, A.

    2011-09-01

    The detection of short period planets (hot Jupiters and their lower mass counterparts, hot neptunes and super-earths) still defies the models of planet formation and evolution. Several possibilities have been proposed to explain the nature and formation process of the lower mass population, including in situ formation, disk migration, planet-planet scattering and kozai evolution, and the evaporation of a higher mass hot Jupiter. Using dynamical models and the best estimates for evaporation velocities, we show that under reasonable (and observed) physical conditions, hot Jupiter evaporation can explain the observed population of hot Neptunes/super-Earths.

  7. HOT AND COLD DUST NEAR H II REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenilayam, Gopika; Fich, Michel

    2011-07-15

    We estimate the mass, temperature, and luminosity of the hot ({>=}100 K), cool (20-40 K), and cold ({<=}20 K) dust in the environs of Galactic H II regions using Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and Submillimeter Common User Bolometric Array (SCUBA) data. A total of 83 clouds have been examined using IRAS data. A two-component model spectral energy distribution (SED) of hot and cool dust is used to fit the IRAS data. All of the SEDs use a graphite/silicate mix of grains in an MRN distribution. A three-component model SED is fitted to combined SCUBA and IRAS data for 15 clouds near H II regions to measure the cold dust component. Surprisingly, the ratio of the bolometric luminosity of the cool dust to the hot dust appears to be the same (2.8) in virtually all objects. The cool dust has typically four-five orders of magnitude greater mass than the hot dust. However, the mass in cold dust is much greater than the mass in cool and hot dust. We also find some evidence for a relationship between the cool and cold dust masses. These results may prove useful for using IR observations for estimating gas masses in extragalactic systems with active high-mass star formation.

  8. Dynamic Visualizations of Calculus Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embse, Charles Vonder

    2001-01-01

    Presents three fundamental ideas of calculus and explains using the coordinate plane geometrically. Uses Cabri Geometry II to show how computer geometry systems can facilitate student understanding of general conic objects and its dynamic algebraic equations. (KHR)

  9. Stata Hybrids: Updates and Ideas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fieldler, James

    2014-01-01

    At last year's Stata conference I presented two projects for using Python with Stata: a plugin that embeds the Python programming language within Stata and code for using Stata data sets in Python. In this talk I will describe some small improvements being made to these projects, and I will present other ideas for combining tools with Stata. Some of these ideas use Python, some use JavaScript and a web browser.

  10. Hot-Jupiter Breakfasts Realign Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    Two researchers at the University of Chicago have recently developed a new theory to explain an apparent dichotomy in the orbits of planets around cool vs. hot stars. Their model proposes that the spins of cool stars are affected when they ingest hot Jupiters (HJs) early in their stellar lifetimes. A Puzzling Dichotomy: In exoplanet studies, there is a puzzling difference observed between planet orbits around cool and hot (those with Teff ≥ 6250 K) stars: the orbital planes of planets around cool stars are primarily aligned with the host star's spin, whereas the orbital planes of planets around hot stars seem to be randomly distributed. Previous attempts to explain this dichotomy have focused on tidal interactions between the host star and the planets observed in the system. Now Titos Matsakos and Arieh Königl have taken these models a step further — by including in their calculations not only the effects of observed planets, but also those of HJs that may have been swallowed by the star long before we observed the systems. Modeling Meals: Plots of the distribution of the obliquity λ for hot Jupiters around cool hosts (upper plot) and hot hosts (lower plot). The dashed line shows the initial distribution, the bins show the model prediction for the final distribution after the systems evolve, and the black dots show the current observational data. [Matsakos & Königl, 2015]" class="size-thumbnail wp-image-223" height="386" src="http://aasnova.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/fig22-260x386.png" width="260" /> Plots of the distribution of the obliquity λ for hot Jupiters around cool hosts (upper plot) and hot hosts (lower plot). The dashed line shows the initial distribution, the bins show the model prediction for the final distribution after the systems evolve, and the black dots show the current observational data. [Matsakos & Königl, 2015] The authors' model assumes that as HJs are formed and migrate inward through the protoplanetary disk, they stall out near

  11. The Quantitative Ideas and Methods in Assessment of Four Properties of Chinese Medicinal Herbs.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jialei; Pang, Jingxiang; Zhao, Xiaolei; Han, Jinxiang

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize and reflect on the current status and problems of the research on the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs. Hot, warm, cold, and cool are the four properties/natures of Chinese medicinal herbs. They are defined based on the interaction between the herbs with human body. How to quantitatively assess the therapeutic effect of Chinese medicinal herbs based on the theoretical system of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remains to be a challenge. Previous studies on the topic from several perspectives have been presented. Results and problems were discussed. New ideas based on the technology of biophoton radiation detection are proposed. With the development of biophoton detection technology, detection and characterization of human biophoton emission has led to its potential applications in TCM. The possibility of using the biophoton analysis system to study the interaction of Chinese medicinal herbs with human body and to quantitatively determine the effect of the Chinese medicinal herbal is entirely consistent with the holistic concept of TCM theory. The statistical entropy of electromagnetic radiations from the biological systems can characterize the four properties of Chinese medicinal herbs, and the spectrum can characterize the meridian tropism of it. Therefore, we hypothesize that by the use of biophoton analysis system, the four properties and meridian tropism of Chinese medicinal herbs can be quantitatively expressed.

  12. Alternatives to compressor cooling in California climates

    SciTech Connect

    Feustel, H. ); de Almeida, A. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Blumstein, C. . Universitywide Energy Research Group)

    1991-01-01

    This review and discussion has been prepared for the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE) to examine research on alternatives to compressor cooling. The report focuses on strategies for eliminating compressors in California's transition climates -- moderately warm areas located between the cool coastal regions and the hot central regions. Many of these strategies could also help reduce compressor use in hotter climates. Compressor-driven cooling of residences in California's transition climate regions is an undesirable load for California's electric utilities because load factor is poor and usage is typically high during periods of system peak demand. We review a number of alternatives to compressors, including low-energy strategies: evaporative cooling, natural and induced ventilation, reflective coatings, shading with vegetation and improved glazing, thermal storage, and radiative cooling. Also included are two energy-intensive strategies: absorption cooling and desiccant cooling. Our literature survey leads us to conclude that many of these strategies, used either singly or in combination, are technically and economically feasible alternatives to compressor-driven cooling. 78 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Solutions for Hot Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    From the company that brought the world an integral heating and cooling food service system after originally developing it for NASA's Apollo Program, comes yet another orbital offshoot: a product that can be as thin as paper and as strong as steel. Nextel Ceramic Textiles and Composites from 3M Company offer space-age protection and innovative solutions for hot situations, ranging from NASA to NASCAR. With superior thermal protection, Nextel fabrics, tape, and sleevings outperform other high temperature textiles such as aramids, carbon, glass, and quartz, permitting engineers and manufacturers to handle applications up to 2,500 F (1,371 C). The stiffness and strength of Nextel Continuous Ceramic Fibers make them a great match for improving the rigidity of aluminum in metal matrix composites. Moreover, the fibers demonstrate low shrinkage at operating temperatures, which allow for the manufacturing of a dimensionally stable product. These novel fibers also offer excellent chemical resistance, low thermal conductivity, thermal shock resistance, low porosity, and unique electrical properties.

  14. Saturn's Hot Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This is the sharpest image of Saturn's temperature emissions taken from the ground; it is a mosaic of 35 individual exposures made at the W.M. Keck I Observatory, Mauna Kea, Hawaii on Feb. 4, 2004.

    The images to create this mosaic were taken with infrared radiation. The mosaic was taken at a wavelength near 17.65 microns and is sensitive to temperatures in Saturn's upper troposphere. The prominent hot spot at the bottom of the image is right at Saturn's south pole. The warming of the southern hemisphere was expected, as Saturn was just past southern summer solstice, but the abrupt changes in temperature with latitude were not expected. The tropospheric temperature increases toward the pole abruptly near 70 degrees latitude from 88 to 89 Kelvin (-301 to -299 degrees Fahrenheit) and then to 91 Kelvin (-296 degrees Fahrenheit) right at the pole.

    Ring particles are not at a uniform temperature everywhere in their orbit around Saturn. The ring particles are orbiting clockwise in this image. Particles are coldest just after having cooled down in Saturn's shadow (lower left). As they orbit Saturn, the particles increase in temperature up to a maximum (lower right) just before passing behind Saturn again in shadow.

    A small section of the ring image is missing because of incomplete mosaic coverage during the observing sequence.

  15. Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passarello, Lisa M.; Fennell, Francis

    1992-01-01

    Connections between science and mathematics are emphasized in a series of activities related to the heart. Worksheets designed for multiple grade levels investigate (1) How Big Is Your Heart? (levels K-2); (2) Every Beat of Your Heart (levels 3-4); (3) What's the Beat? (level 5-6), and Heartifacts (level 7-8). Extensions of the activities are…

  16. Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arithmetic Teacher, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Activities are presented that focus on attributes of numbers. The activities highlight such attributes as more than, equal to, greater than, less than, LCM, prime and factor. The activities provide practice in motivational game-oriented situations. (RH)

  17. Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Marilyn

    1975-01-01

    The letters of the alphabet can be classified according to their geometric and topological characteristics on these worksheets. An additional worksheet provides for tallying the frequency of usage of the letters in three sentences. (SD)

  18. Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Francis (Skip); And Others

    1982-01-01

    Activities are presented to provide experience in (1) comparing lengths of pictured toys; (2) estimating and measuring lengths in centimeters and using a centimeter ruler; (3) measuring to the nearest millimeter while using measurement to scale; and (4) measuring in centimeters and using scale drawings. (MP)

  19. Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Marcy

    1993-01-01

    Presents 5 activities for the K-1, 2-3, 4-5, 6-8 grade levels and for in the home in which students explore the concept of combinations. Each activity includes a lesson plan to investigate a combinatorics problem appropriate for that grade level. Provides reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  20. Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jean M.

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on connections between mathematics and environmental concerns. Activities were designed to make students aware of, and increase their knowledge of, the various materials people ordinarily use and discard and ways to use materials more conservatively. Each activity includes data gathering, graphing, and interpreting data. Activity sheets…

  1. IDEAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Carne S.

    1991-01-01

    Four activities are described which focus on consumer awareness and judgment using data collection and judgment skills involving data from footwear. Worksheets for data collection and activities at home and at school are included. A set of ratings of sneakers from "Consumer Reports" magazine is provided. (CW)

  2. IDEAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Mikki

    1990-01-01

    Presents four activities for the exploration of a balance, mass, the length of the balance arm, and the position of the fulcrum. Provides objectives, directions, extensions, answers, and worksheets for each activity. (YP)

  3. Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Martha H.; Gard, Diane M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes 4 activities for levels K-2, 3-5, 4-6, and 6-8 and a family activity that asks students to describe their community; use coordinates to represent the 4 voyages of Columbus; write a story based on a line graph of Lewis and Clark's expedition; determine serving sizes for astronauts in space; and investigate different modes of…

  4. Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Marcy

    1989-01-01

    Provided are four activities focusing on the application of mathematics to real-world situations: (1) Baby Weight; (2) High Temperature; (3) Skin Weight; and (4) Whale Weight. Each activity contains the objective, directions, extensions, and answers with worksheet. The activities required include the skills of making charts and graphs. (YP)

  5. IDEAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Sharon L.

    1991-01-01

    Presented are four activities that focus on gathering and interpreting data about pizza as a basis for integrating mathematics, health, and social studies. Reproducible sheets for parents to use with their children, class-activity sheets, and a data sheet are provided. Each activity includes the objective, needed materials, directions, extensions,…

  6. IDEAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Sharon L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Included are five activities which focus on using and interpreting data about popcorn. The integration of mathematics with science, health and social studies is stressed. Each activity includes procedures, a reproducible activity sheet, and several suggestions for extension activities. (CW)

  7. IDEAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Sharon L.

    1991-01-01

    Presented are activities that focus on gathering, using, and interpreting data about fingerprints as a basis for integrating mathematics and science. Patterns, classification, logical reasoning, and mathematical relationships are explored by making graphs, classifying fingerprints, and matching identical fingerprints. A parent-involvement activity…

  8. Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, J. David

    1993-01-01

    Presents five activities for multiple grade levels and family use that connect mathematics and football by using the Super Bowl. Mathematical concepts involved in the activities include number sense, geometry, measurement, statistics, estimation, and problem solving. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  9. Restaurant food cooling practices.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Blade, Henry; Reimann, Dave; Everstine, Karen; Nicholas, Dave; Egan, Jessica; Koktavy, Nicole; Quilliam, Daniela N

    2012-12-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study.

  10. Subsolidus convective cooling histories of terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Cassen, P.; Young, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The subsolidus convective cooling histories of terrestrial planets evolving from hot initial states are investigated quantitatively. A simple analytic model simulating average heat flux from a vigorously convecting mantle and incorporating a mantle viscosity proportional to mantle temperature and a lithosphere which thickens as the planet cools is employed. Heat flux from the convecting mantle is calculated on the basis of a power law relation between Nusselt number and Rayleigh number. The temperature distribution in the lithosphere is assumed to be linear throughout the cooling history of the planet. Cooling histories have been determined for the earth, Mars, Mercury and the moon and the mantle temperature decreases, mantle viscosity increases and decreases of heat flux to the surface and to the base of the lithosphere and of Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers are illustrated for each planet. It is found that primordial heat can contribute substantially to the present surface heat flux of a planet.

  11. Innovative Ideas in Elementary Schools: A Compilation. Agates and Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armitage, Jim, Ed.; Denham, Harvey, Ed.

    The first part of the document presents a collection of workable ideas, organized by topic, which were submitted by principals who used them to improve the programs in their schools. Some areas of interest covered include community involvement, student-choice electives, parent reporting, career education, and counseling and changing behavior. Also…

  12. Idea Swap: The Best Ideas Come from Teachers Like You!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents several activities and teaching ideas shared by teachers. One teacher shared how an Egyptian mummy-making activity can be a great hands-on learning through time. Another teacher shared how a bowl filled with popcorn kernels has made it easy for her to get the attention of her students.

  13. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    1998-12-22

    Advanced, coal-based power plants will require durable and reliable hot gas filtration systems to remove particulate contaminants from the gas streams to protect downstream components such as turbine blades from erosion damage. It is expected that the filter elements in these systems will have to be made of ceramic materials to withstand goal service temperatures of 1600 F or higher. Recent demonstration projects and pilot plant tests have indicated that the current generation of ceramic hot gas filters (cross-flow and candle configurations) are failing prematurely. Two of the most promising materials that have been extensively evaluated are clay-bonded silicon carbide and alumina-mullite porous monoliths. These candidates, however, have been found to suffer progressive thermal shock fatigue damage, as a result of rapid cooling/heating cycles. Such temperature changes occur when the hot filters are back-pulsed with cooler gas to clean them, or in process upset conditions, where even larger gas temperature changes may occur quickly and unpredictably. In addition, the clay-bonded silicon carbide materials are susceptible to chemical attack of the glassy binder phase that holds the SiC particles together, resulting in softening, strength loss, creep, and eventual failure.

  14. Performance evaluation of an active solar cooling system utilizing low cost plastic collectors and an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lof, G. O.; Westhoff, M. A.; Karaki, S.

    1984-02-01

    During the summer of 1982, air conditioning in Solar House 3 at Colorado State University was provided by an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. The single-effect lithium bromide chiller is an experimental three-ton unit from which heat is rejected by direct evaporative cooling of the condenser and absorber walls, thereby eliminating the need for a separate cooling tower. Domestic hot water was also provided by use of a double-walled heat exchanger and 80-gal hot water tank. A schematic of the system is given. Objectives of the project were: (1) evaluation of system performance over the course of one cooling season in Fort Collins, Colorado; (2) optimization of system operation and control; (3) development of a TRNSYS compatible model of the chiller; and (4) determination of cooling system performance in several U.S. climates by use of the model.

  15. Analysis and comparison of wall cooling schemes for advanced gas turbine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colladay, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    The relative performance of (1) counterflow film cooling, (2) parallel-flow film cooling, (3) convection cooling, (4) adiabatic film cooling, (5) transpiration cooling, and (6) full-coverage film cooling was investigated for heat loading conditions expected in future gas turbine engines. Assumed in the analysis were hot-gas conditions of 2200 K (3500 F) recovery temperature, 5 to 40 atmospheres total pressure, and 0.6 gas Mach number and a cooling air supply temperature of 811 K (1000 F). The first three cooling methods involve film cooling from slots. Counterflow and parallel flow describe the direction of convection cooling air along the inside surface of the wall relative to the main gas flow direction. The importance of utilizing the heat sink available in the coolant for convection cooling prior to film injection is illustrated.

  16. Cooling power of transverse thermoelectrics for cryogenic cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yang; Ma, Ming; Grayson, M.

    2016-05-01

    Transverse Peltier coolers have been experimentally and theoretically studied since 1960s due to their capability of achieving cooling in a single-leg geometry. Recently proposed pxn-type transverse thermoelectrics reveal the possibility of intrinsic or undoped transverse coolers that can, in principle, function at cryogenic temperatures, which has drawn more attention to the performance of such transverse coolers. However, unlike longitudinal thermoelectrics, the equations for transverse thermoelectrics cannot be solved analytically. In this study, we therefore calculate the thermoelectric transport in transverse coolers numerically, and introduce a normalized notation, which reduces the independent parameters in the governing equations to a normalized electric field E* and a hot-side transverse figure of merit zTh, only. A numerical study of the maximum cooling temperature difference and cooling power reveals the superior performance of transverse thermoelectric coolers compared to longitudinal coolers with the same figure of merit, providing another motivation in the search for new transverse thermoelectric materials with large figure of merit.

  17. Radical Ideas in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohliger, John

    The outline for an adult education colloquim states 17 discussion questions. Under each question, the outline refers to appropriate items on an eight page, 81-item, annotated bibliography. The first of three topical areas, ideas about people, considers: all people's desire to learn and their rough equality in intelligence; common people's ability…

  18. New Ideas for School Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Producers' Council, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Present educators, architects, engineers, and building product manufacturers with a medium of common interest for discussion of mutual school construction problems, objectives, needs, ideas, capabilities and limitations. Contents include--(1) modern wood construction, (2) school room in a steel mill, (3) masonry in new school design, (4) the…

  19. Bicentennial Booklet of Teaching Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    Ideas for celebrating the U.S. Constitution in the classroom, on a schoolwide basis, or in the community are presented in this guide. Classroom activities are categorized into art, research and writing, and miscellaneous. Designing a class mural and a class seal are examples of suggested art activities. In carrying out research activities,…

  20. Eight Great Community Relations Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bete, Tim

    1998-01-01

    Presents eight winners of School Planning & Management's Community Relations Contest that produced ideas that other school districts can use to strengthen community/school coexistence. Papers cover such topics as improving communication between stakeholders, connecting with parents, and keeping the community informed during construction projects.…

  1. Sparking Old and New Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Rossi, Dara; Campbell, Laurie O.

    2012-01-01

    In the past, teachers have used chalkboards for "chalk talks," a strategy where a teacher wrote words and drew images to demonstrate reflecting, document generating ideas, and explore knowledge. Out with the old-school version and in with the "Marker Sparker" method, which uses whiteboards or poster paper and colorful markers to achieve the same…

  2. Scholarship can help ideas flourish.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2016-03-01

    Scholarships from the Florence Nightingale Foundation are providing nurses with the financial means to put innovative ideas into practice. Nurses from all four countries of the UK can apply for leadership, travel and research scholarships to support their career development and help improve patient care. PMID:26959448

  3. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  4. 115 Years of Teaching Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanko, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    This article presents some of the best, most surprising and funniest advice from the longest running teacher magazine, "Instructor." Included are snippets from issues of "Instructor" published between 1891 and 2005 such as: "5 Tips from Our First Issue" (1891); Advice for "Teacher Ladies" (1894, 1941); Teacher-to-Teacher (Idea Swapping) (1905,…

  5. 30 Ideas for Teaching Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Art, Comp.

    2003-01-01

    The National Writing Project's (NWP) "30 Ideas for Teaching Writing" discusses making grammar lessons dynamic, using casual student conversation as a source for writing, home language as an assisting tool to attain standard English and other topics by presenting strategies contributed by experienced writing project teachers. NWP does not promote a…

  6. School Leadership: Some Key Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Highlights some key ideas and several perspectives on leadership, including: situational leadership; a leadership framework suggested by T.E. Deal and L.G. Bolman; leadership of the chief executive/leading professional; moral leadership; and curricular leadership. Identifies leadership by its contribution to outcomes and its influence on…

  7. Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen

    2005-01-01

    Today it is commonplace that computers and technology permeate almost every aspect of education. In the late 1960s, though, the idea that computers could serve as a catalyst for thinking about the way children learn was a radical concept. In the early 1960s, Seymour Papert joined the faculty of MIT and founded the Artificial Intelligence Lab with…

  8. Children's Ideas on Solar Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, W. P.; Wilks, Jamie

    1996-01-01

    The main author of this paper (J.W.) wrote the original as two separate essays for a Bachelor of Education unit at Northern Territory University (The Teaching of Science: EBE 483) for the second author (B.P.). This unit contains as a major component student/teacher research on children's ideas (misconceptions) in science. This paper seems very…

  9. Idea Building through Thumbnail Sketches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisco, Nicole D.

    2011-01-01

    Many educators would say that pencils, paint, and paper are the most important tools in the artroom, but are they really? If they look deeply at how students create art, it is their beginning ideas and concepts that gauge the success of a work of art. Without proper planning and guidance, even the most talented students will struggle through their…

  10. I Can; Ideas for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clukey, Ronald

    Intended for Maine teachers working with disadvantaged high school students in programs emphasizing vocational education, the booklet suggests alternative classroom ideas in the areas of finding a job, filling out forms, choosing an occupation, gaining confidence, job skills, managing money, mathematics, consumer education, communication, science,…

  11. ATHENA X-IFU detector cooling chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branco, M. B. C.; Charles, I.; Butterworth, J.

    2014-07-01

    The TES (Transition Edge Sensors) micro-calorimeter detector technology in the X-IFU instrument for ATHENA (Astrophyics of the Hot and Energetic universe - Europe's next generation X-ray observatory ATHENA) will require cooling down to 50 mK, and a stable and quiet Electro-Magnetic and micro-vibrations environment. In order to achieve this temperature and environment, a cooling chain integrated in a compact cryostat with an optimized electromagnetic environment has to be developed. Critical technology developments are covered, such as mechanical cryocoolers, support structures, radiative and EMC shields, micro-vibrations reduction, and others.

  12. Liquid metal reactor air cooling baffle

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein

    1994-01-01

    A baffle is provided between a relatively hot containment vessel and a relatively cold silo for enhancing air cooling performance. The baffle includes a perforate inner wall positionable outside the containment vessel to define an inner flow riser therebetween, and an imperforate outer wall positionable outside the inner wall to define an outer flow riser therebetween. Apertures in the inner wall allow thermal radiation to pass laterally therethrough to the outer wall, with cooling air flowing upwardly through the inner and outer risers for removing heat.

  13. Religious ideas and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Beit-Hallahmi, B; Argyle, M

    1977-01-01

    The evidence presented above points to the need for considering factors other than purely religious ones in determining the role of religious ideas in psychiatric disorders. The occurrence of religious ideas as part of the content of individual delusional systems in psychiatric patients can be explained on the basis of exposure to religious ideas through the social environment. It may be also related to the prominence of religion, vis-a-vis other belief systems, in the social envirnment. When considering psychopathological explanations for intense religious experiences, one has to be conscious again of the social factors involved. When an unusual experience having religious content becomes normative in a certain group (for whatever reasons), trying to explain its appearance on the basis of individual psychodynamics or psychopathology becomes very difficult. There seems to be an inverse relationship between the social nature of a religious experience and its psychopathological nature, i.e., there is more psychopathology in individuals reporting solitary religious experiences, or individual religious ideas. Thus the solitary experience seems to be more influenced by disturbed individual dynamics, but in other cases social factors seem to be crucial. Our overall conclusion is that a psychiatric analysis of the role of religious factors in psychopathology has to be first a social-psychiatric analysis. An individual presenting psychiatric symptoms and religious ideas has to be evaluated in light of his social background, since the specific content of psychiatric symptoms seems to be determined by social background factors. Individual psychodynamics determine the appearance of symptoms, but their particular form will be the result of these background factors, one of which is religion. PMID:863602

  14. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    DOEpatents

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  15. The Idea of Patents vs. the Idea of University.

    PubMed

    de Campos, Thana Cristina

    2015-01-01

    It is generally accepted that patents are a driving force for innovation through research and development. But the university's involvement in patenting is problematic as well. In particular, it is in tension with the idea of a university itself. If patents entail a restriction on the accessibility of the scientific knowledge that has been patented, and if the main purpose of universities is to produce and disseminate knowledge to the public, then, there is a tension: when universities patent their research innovations, they are making the scientific knowledge they produce less accessible to the public. The paper argues that university patenting contradicts the very idea of a university as an institution whose mission is fundamentally to disseminate the knowledge it produces to the public. The practice of university patenting involves an un-academic attitude thus: by inciting an attitude towards knowledge that is not consistent with the proper attitudes and goals of a university, university patenting hurts university's integrity.

  16. Hot-Carrier Seebeck Effect: Diffusion and Remote Detection of Hot Carriers in Graphene.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Juan F; Neumann, Ingmar; Costache, Marius V; Valenzuela, Sergio O

    2015-06-10

    We investigate hot carrier propagation across graphene using an electrical nonlocal injection/detection method. The device consists of a monolayer graphene flake contacted by multiple metal leads. Using two remote leads for electrical heating, we generate a carrier temperature gradient that results in a measurable thermoelectric voltage V(NL) across the remaining (detector) leads. Due to the nonlocal character of the measurement, V(NL) is exclusively due to the Seebeck effect. Remarkably, a departure from the ordinary relationship between Joule power P and V(NL), V(NL) ∼ P, becomes readily apparent at low temperatures, representing a fingerprint of hot-carrier dominated thermoelectricity. By studying V(NL) as a function of bias, we directly determine the carrier temperature and the characteristic cooling length for hot-carrier propagation, which are key parameters for a variety of new applications that rely on hot-carrier transport. PMID:25950746

  17. Red-Hot Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    These side-by-side false-color images show Saturn's heat emission. The data were taken on Feb. 4, 2004, from the W. M. Keck I Observatory, Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Both images were taken with infrared radiation. The image on the left was taken at a wavelength near 17.65 microns and is sensitive to temperatures in Saturn's upper troposphere. The image on the right was taken at a wavelength of 8 microns and is sensitive to temperatures in Saturn's stratosphere. The prominent hot spot at the bottom of each image is at Saturn's south pole. The warming of the southern hemisphere was expected, as Saturn was just past southern summer solstice, but the abrupt changes in temperature with latitude were not expected.

    The troposphere temperature increases toward the pole abruptly near 70 degrees latitude from 88 to 89 Kelvin (-301 to -299 degrees Fahrenheit) and then to 91 Kelvin (-296 degrees Fahrenheit) right at the pole. Near 70 degrees latitude, the stratospheric temperature increases even more abruptly from 146 to 150 Kelvin (-197 to -189 degrees Fahrenheit) and then again to 151 Kelvin (-188 degrees Fahrenheit) right at the pole.

    While the rings are too faint to be detected at 8 microns (right), they show up at 17.65 microns. The ring particles are orbiting Saturn to the left on the bottom and to the right on the top. The lower left ring is colder than the lower right ring, because the particles are just moving out of Saturn's shadow where they have cooled off. As they orbit Saturn, they warm up to a maximum just before passing behind Saturn again in shadow.

  18. Ionization Cooling Using a Parametric Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Y.S. Derbenev; R.P. Johnson

    2005-05-16

    Muon collider luminosity depends on the number of muons in the storage ring and on the transverse size of the beams in collision. Ionization cooling as it is presently envisioned will not cool the beam sizes sufficiently well to provide adequate luminosity without large muon intensities. A new idea to combine ionization cooling with parametric resonances has been developed that will lead to beams with much smaller sizes so that high luminosity in a muon collider can be achieved with fewer muons. In the linear channel described here, a half integer resonance is induced such that the normal elliptical motion of particles in x-x' phase space becomes hyperbolic, with particles moving to smaller x and larger x' as they pass down the channel. Thin absorbers placed at the focal points of the channel then cool the angular divergence of the beam by the usual ionization cooling mechanism where each absorber is followed by RF cavities. We discuss the theory of Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling, including the sensitivity to aberrations and the need to start with a beam that has already been cooled adequately.

  19. Annual DOE active solar heating and cooling contractors' review meeting. Premeeting proceedings and project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1981-09-01

    Ninety-three project summaries are presented which discuss the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology. (LEW)

  20. COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, TRA606. THREE OF SIX SECTIONS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-606. THREE OF SIX SECTIONS OF COOLING TOWER ARE VISIBLE ABOVE RAILING. PUMP HOUSE IN FOREGROUND IS ON SOUTH SIDE OF COOLING TOWER. NOTE THREE PIPES TAKING WATER FROM PUMP HOUSE TO HOT DECK OF COOLING TOWER. EMERGENCY WATER SUPPLY TOWER IS ALSO IN VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6197. Unknown Photographer, 6/27/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Preferences for hypnotic imagery for hot-flash reduction: a brief communication.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Gary; Marcus, Joel; Bunn, Jennifer; Perfect, Michelle; Palamara, Lynn; Stearns, Vered; Dove, Jacqueline

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this brief report is to identify imagery preferences of women receiving hypnotherapy to alleviate hot flashes. As part of a larger study, 51 breast cancer survivors were asked to identify their own personal preferences for imagery for reducing hot flashes. Most of the participants identified personal imagery associated with coolness; none of the participants selected imagery for warmth or heat. The most widely used was imagery involving water associated with coolness (27.0%). It is recommended that clinicians using hypnosis for reduction of hot flashes attend to patients' preferences as specific imagery may moderate the effectiveness of hypnosis for hot flashes. PMID:20509073

  2. Hot electron plasmon-protected solar cell.

    PubMed

    Kong, J; Rose, A H; Yang, C; Wu, X; Merlo, J M; Burns, M J; Naughton, M J; Kempa, K

    2015-09-21

    A solar cell based on a hot electron plasmon protection effect is proposed and made plausible by simulations, non-local modeling of the response, and quantum mechanical calculations. In this cell, a thin-film, plasmonic metamaterial structure acts as both an efficient photon absorber in the visible frequency range and a plasmonic resonator in the IR range, the latter of which absorbs and protects against phonon emission the free energy of the hot electrons in an adjacent semiconductor junction. We show that in this structure, electron-plasmon scattering is much more efficient than electron-phonon scattering in cooling-off hot electrons, and the plasmon-stored energy is recoverable as an additional cell voltage. The proposed structure could become a prototype of a new generation of high efficiency solar cells. PMID:26406739

  3. Students' Ideas and Radical Constructivism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Gómez, Pedro J.

    2016-08-01

    In this article, I study, from the point of view of the analytic philosophy of mind, the compatibility of students' ideas studies (SIS) with radical constructivism (RC). I demonstrate that RC is based on a psychology of narrow mental states; that is, the idea that the mental content of an individual can be fully characterised without any reference external to her or him. I show that this fact imposes some severe restrictions to SIS to be incorporated into RC. In particular, I argue that only qualitative studies can comply with the requirement of narrowness. Nevertheless, I propose that quantitative works can be employed as sources of types in order to study token actual students. I use this type-token dichotomy to put forward an outline of a theory of the relation between school contents and mental contents. In this view, token mental contents regarding a given topic can be defined, and probed, only by resorting to typical school contents.

  4. Restaurant food cooling practices.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Blade, Henry; Reimann, Dave; Everstine, Karen; Nicholas, Dave; Egan, Jessica; Koktavy, Nicole; Quilliam, Daniela N

    2012-12-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study. PMID:23212014

  5. Unconventional Reservoirs: Ideas to Commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinker, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    There is no shortage of coal, oil, and natural gas in the world. What are sometimes in short supply are fresh ideas. Scientific innovation combined with continued advances in drilling and completion technology revitalized the natural gas industry in North America by making production from shale economic. Similar advances are now happening in shale oil. The convergence of ideas and technology has created a commercial environment in which unconventional reservoirs could supply natural gas to the North American consumer for 50 years or more. And, although not as far along in terms of resource development, oil from the Eagle Ford and Bakken Shales and the oil sands in Alberta could have a similar impact. Without advanced horizontal drilling, geosteering, staged hydraulic-fracture stimulation, synthetic and natural proppants, evolution of hydraulic fluid chemistry, and high-end monitoring and simulation, many of these plays would not exist. Yet drilling and completion technology cannot stand alone. Also required for success are creative thinking, favorable economics, and a tolerance for risk by operators. Current understanding and completion practices will leave upwards of 80% of oil and natural gas in the shale reservoirs. The opportunity to enhance recovery through advanced reservoir understanding and imaging, as well as through recompletions and infill drilling, is considerable. The path from ideas to commercialization will continue to provide economic results in unconventional reservoirs.

  6. The idea of philosophical sociology.

    PubMed

    Chernilo, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    This article introduces the idea of philosophical sociology as an enquiry into the relationships between implicit notions of human nature and explicit conceptualizations of social life within sociology. Philosophical sociology is also an invitation to reflect on the role of the normative in social life by looking at it sociologically and philosophically at the same: normative self-reflection is a fundamental aspect of sociology's scientific tasks because key sociological questions are, in the last instance, also philosophical ones. For the normative to emerge, we need to move away from the reductionism of hedonistic, essentialist or cynical conceptions of human nature and be able to grasp the conceptions of the good life, justice, democracy or freedom whose normative contents depend on more or less articulated conceptions of our shared humanity. The idea of philosophical sociology is then sustained on three main pillars and I use them to structure this article: (1) a revalorization of the relationships between sociology and philosophy; (2) a universalistic principle of humanity that works as a major regulative idea of sociological research, and; (3) an argument on the social (immanent) and pre-social (transcendental) sources of the normative in social life. As invitations to embrace posthuman cyborgs, non-human actants and material cultures proliferate, philosophical sociology offers the reminder that we still have to understand more fully who are the human beings that populate the social world.

  7. Hot compression process for making edge seals for fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Dunyak, Thomas J.; Granata, Jr., Samuel J.

    1994-01-01

    A hot compression process for forming integral edge seals in anode and cade assemblies wherein the assemblies are made to a nominal size larger than a finished size, beads of AFLAS are applied to a band adjacent the peripheral margins on both sides of the assemblies, the assemblies are placed in a hot press and compressed for about five minutes with a force sufficient to permeate the peripheral margins with the AFLAS, cooled and cut to finished size.

  8. Towards Modifying Children's Ideas about Electric Current.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Roger

    1983-01-01

    Investigated ideas used/favored by 40 California students (ages 8-12) who received little/no formal teaching about electric currents. Also investigated whether they were interested in or could discuss other childrens' ideas and whether they would change their ideas following exposure to experimental evidence that was at variance with these ideas.…

  9. Method for drying coal and cooling coke

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, V.; Jokisch, F.; Rotthaus, H.; Schmid, K.

    1984-09-11

    In a coking process, coal to be coked is preheated in a cascaded whirling bed drier into which the coal is charged from above and exposed to an indirect heat transfer while whirling in a coal-stream mixture. Hot gas applied to the heating pipes in respective cascades of the drier is branched off from the total amount of hot gases discharged from a dry cooler in which hot coke from the coke oven is cooled by recirculating cooler gas constituted by a partial gas stream discharged from the cascades of the drier and reunited with the other partial stream subject to a heat exchange for generating steam. Steam from the whirling beds is discharged from the cascaded drier, separated from the entrained dust particles, and then the excessive steam is drained in a branch conduit and the remaining steam is compressed and reintroduced into the lowermost whirling bed in the drier.

  10. Gas-cooled nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peinado, Charles O.; Koutz, Stanley L.

    1985-01-01

    A gas-cooled nuclear reactor includes a central core located in the lower portion of a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Primary coolant gas flows upward through the core and into four overlying heat-exchangers wherein stream is generated. During normal operation, the return flow of coolant is between the core and the vessel sidewall to a pair of motor-driven circulators located at about the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel. The circulators repressurize the gas coolant and return it back to the core through passageways in the underlying core structure. If during emergency conditions the primary circulators are no longer functioning, the decay heat is effectively removed from the core by means of natural convection circulation. The hot gas rising through the core exits the top of the shroud of the heat-exchangers and flows radially outward to the sidewall of the concrete pressure vessel. A metal liner covers the entire inside concrete surfaces of the concrete pressure vessel, and cooling tubes are welded to the exterior or concrete side of the metal liner. The gas coolant is in direct contact with the interior surface of the metal liner and transfers its heat through the metal liner to the liquid coolant flowing through the cooling tubes. The cooler gas is more dense and creates a downward convection flow in the region between the core and the sidewall until it reaches the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel when it flows radially inward and up into the core for another pass. Water is forced to flow through the cooling tubes to absorb heat from the core at a sufficient rate to remove enough of the decay heat created in the core to prevent overheating of the core or the vessel.

  11. Are Spicules the Primary Source of Hot Coronal Plasma?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2011-01-01

    The recent discovery of Type II spicules has generated considerable excitement. It has even been suggested that these ejections can account for a majority of the hot plasma observed in the corona, thus obviating the need for "coronal" heating. If this is the case, however, then there should be observational consequences. We have begun to examine some of these consequences and find reason to question the idea that spicules are the primary source of hot coronal plasma.

  12. Hot Stars and Cool Clouds: The Photodissociation Region M16.

    PubMed

    Levenson; Graham; McLean; Becklin; Figer; Gilbert; Larkin; Teplitz; Wilcox

    2000-04-10

    We present high-resolution spectroscopy and images of a photodissociation region (PDR) in M16 obtained during commissioning of the near-infrared spectrometer (NIRSPEC) on the Keck II telescope. PDRs play a significant role in regulating star formation, and M16 offers the opportunity to examine the physical processes of a PDR in detail. We simultaneously observe both the molecular and ionized phases of the PDR and resolve the spatial and kinematic differences between them. The most prominent regions of the PDR are viewed edge-on. Fluorescent emission from nearby stars is the primary excitation source, although collisions also preferentially populate the lowest vibrational levels of H2. Variations in density-sensitive emission-line ratios demonstrate that the molecular cloud is clumpy, with an average density n=3x105 cm-3. We measure the kinetic temperature of the molecular region directly and find that TH2=930 K. The observed density, temperature, and UV flux imply a photoelectric heating efficiency of 4%. In the ionized region, ni=5x103 cm-3 and THii=9500 K. In the brightest regions of the PDR, the recombination line widths include a nonthermal component, which we attribute to viewing geometry.

  13. Hot Companions and Warm Disks Around Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra

    Almost all stars in the Universe end their lives quietly, evolving through the Red Giant Branch (RGB), Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB), and planetary nebula (PN) evolutionary phases. Single-star evolutionary models tell us that most stars that leave the main sequence in less than a Hubble time will end their lives in this way, but will induce profound effects on their environment. The heavy mass loss which they experience at the end of their lives fundamentally affect their evolution, and makes them the main suppliers of dust and gas enriched by nucleosynthesis to the general interstellar medium (ISM). But our overall understanding of the late evolution of these stars are based on single-star models, when it is well-known that most stars begin their lives in binary systems, and binarity can drastically affect both mass-loss and late stellar evolution. The study of binarity in systems with low and intermediate-mass evolved stars can yield crucial information regarding the initial mass function near the bottom of the main-sequence and below, and the long-term stability and suvivability of low-mass objects in orbit around post-AGB stars.We propose a 3-year study which investigates binarity in two important classes of stars: AGB stars and dwarf carbon (dC) stars (and CH star: the immediate post-main sequence counterparts of dC stars), primarily using the GALEX and WISE databases. Direct observational evidence for binarity in AGB stars is of fundamental importance, but a huge challenge because of their high luminosities compared to their companions; only in the UV bands (observed with GALEX) there is a strong potential for finding the companions. The existence of dC stars has long been a mystery as carbon can only be produced in AGB stars -- it is believed that dC stars are normal dwarfs stars that became C-rich due to mass-transfer from a companion when it was a C-rich AGB star (but is now a white dwarf). The detection of a statistical sample of such objects in the UV (with GALEX) providing evidence for the white dwarf is needed to test the mass-transfer model. Since the mass transfer should produce a dusty disk, detection of dC & CH stars in the mid-IR bands observed with WISE will add further support to this model. In summary, our proposed study of binaries involving evolved stars will help us understand the affects of binarity on mass-loss and late stellar evolution, and provide much-needed constraints for binary population-synthesis modelling. Specific deliverables include comprehensive catalogs of AGB stars with UV emission, dC and CH stars with UV and mid-IR emission, constraints on different physical models for producing UV emission in AGB stars, robust establishment of the binary hypothesis for dC and CH stars emission, and color-color plots for separating dC stars from giant carbon stars (usually requiring much more difficult parallax/ proper motion measurements). In addition, two by-products of this study will be of great utility to the astrophysics community utilizing GALEX data, namely quantifying (or setting sensitive upper limits on) red leaks in, and non-linearity as a function of position on, the GALEX FUV and NUV detectors.

  14. Potential of hafnium nitride for the hot carrier solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Simon; Shrestha, Santosh; Xia, Hongze; Gupta, Neeti; Conibeer, Gavin

    2013-12-01

    The Hot Carrier solar cell is a third generation photovoltaic concept which has the potential to achieve high efficiencies, exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit for a conventional p-n junction solar cell. The theoretical efficiencies achievable for the Hot Carrier solar cell is 65% for non-concentrated solar radiation and 85% for maximally concentrated light, very close to the limits of an infinite tandem solar cell. The approach of the Hot Carrier solar cell is to extract carriers generated before thermalisation to the bandgap edge occurs when their excess energy is lost to the environment as heat. To achieve this, the rate of carrier cooling in the absorber must be slowed down sufficiently enough to allow carriers to be collected while they are hot. This work investigates using hafnium nitride as such an absorber to restrict mechanisms of carrier cooling. Hafnium nitride's phononic properties, where a large `phononic band gap' exist can reduce the carrier cooling rate by means of a phonon bottleneck such that optical phonons cannot decay into acoustic phonons by means of the Klemens' mechanism. Optical phonon-electron scattering can maintain a hot electron population while acoustic phonons are irrecoverable and lost as heat. The electronic and phononic properties of hafnium nitride are evaluated for their suitability to be used in a Hot Carrier solar cell absorber. Recent work on the fabrication of hafnium nitride at UNSW is presented.

  15. ON THE TIDAL ORIGIN OF HOT JUPITER STELLAR OBLIQUITY TRENDS

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Rebekah I.

    2014-08-01

    It is debated whether the two hot Jupiter populations—those on orbits misaligned from their host star's spin axis and those well-aligned—result from two migration channels or from two tidal realignment regimes. Here I demonstrate that equilibrium tides raised by a planet on its star can account for three observed spin-orbit alignment trends: the aligned orbits of hot Jupiters orbiting cool stars, the planetary mass cut-off for retrograde planets, and the stratification by planet mass of cool host stars' rotation frequencies. The first trend can be caused by strong versus weak magnetic braking (the Kraft break), rather than realignment of the star's convective envelope versus the entire star. The second trend can result from a small effective stellar moment of inertia participating in the tidal realignment in hot stars, enabling massive retrograde planets to partially realign to become prograde. The third trend is attributable to higher-mass planets more effectively counteracting braking to spin up their stars. Both hot and cool stars require a small effective stellar moment of inertia participating in the tidal realignment, e.g., an outer layer weakly coupled to the interior. I demonstrate via Monte Carlo that this model can match the observed trends and distributions of sky-projected misalignments and stellar rotation frequencies. I discuss implications for inferring hot Jupiter migration mechanisms from obliquities, emphasizing that even hot stars do not constitute a pristine sample.

  16. Analysis of Regen Cooling in Rocket Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Brent (Technical Monitor); Merkle, C. L.; Li, D.; Sankaran, V.

    2004-01-01

    The use of detailed CFD modeling for the description of cooling in rocket chambers is discussed. The overall analysis includes a complete three-dimensional analysis of the flow in the regenerative cooling passages, conjugate heat transfer in the combustor walls, and the effects of film cooling on the inside chamber. The results in the present paper omit the effects of film cooling and include only regen cooling and the companion conjugate heat transfer. The hot combustion gases are replaced by a constant temperature wall boundary condition. Load balancing for parallel cluster computations is ensured by using single-block unstructured grids for both fluids and solids, and by using a 'multiple physical zones' to account for differences in the number of equations. Validation of the method is achieved by comparing simple two-dimensional solutions with analytical results. Representative results for cooling passages are presents showing the effects of heat conduction in the copper walls with tube aspect ratios of 1.5:l.

  17. Near term application of water cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, M. W.; Caruvana, A.; Cohn, A.; Smith, D. P.

    1980-03-01

    The paper presents studies of combined gas and steam-turbine cycles related to the near term application of water cooling technology to the commercial gas turbine operating on heavy residual oil or coal derived liquid fuels. Water cooling promises significant reduction of hot corrosion and ash deposition at the turbine first-stage nozzle. It was found that: (1) corrosion of some alloys in the presence of alkali contaminant was less as metal temperatures were lowered to the 800-1000 F range, (2) the rate of ash deposition is increased for air-cooled and water-cooled nozzles at the 2060 F turbine firing temperature compared to 1850 F, (3) the ash deposit for the water cooled nozzle was lighter and more easily removed at both 1850 and 2050 F, (4) on-line nutshelling was effective on the water-cooled nozzles even at 2050 F, and (5) the data indicates that the rate of ash deposition may be sensitive to surface wall temperatures.

  18. PCM Passive Cooling System Containing Active Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanding, David E.; Bass, David I.

    2005-01-01

    A multistage system has been proposed for cooling a circulating fluid that is subject to intermittent intense heating. The system would be both flexible and redundant in that it could operate in a basic passive mode, either sequentially or simultaneously with operation of a first, active cooling subsystem, and either sequentially or simultaneously with a second cooling subsystem that could be active, passive, or a combination of both. This flexibility and redundancy, in combination with the passive nature of at least one of the modes of operation, would make the system more reliable, relative to a conventional cooling system. The system would include a tube-in-shell heat exchanger, within which the space between the tubes would be filled with a phase-change material (PCM). The circulating hot fluid would flow along the tubes in the heat exchanger. In the basic passive mode of operation, heat would be conducted from the hot fluid into the PCM, wherein the heat would be stored temporarily by virtue of the phase change.

  19. Liquid-Cooled Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A liquid-cooled bra, offshoot of Apollo moon suit technology, aids the cancer-detection technique known as infrared thermography. Water flowing through tubes in the bra cools the skin surface to improve resolution of thermograph image.

  20. Liquid cooled garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Liquid cooled garments employed in several applications in which severe heat is encountered are discussed. In particular, the use of the garments to replace air line cooling units in a variety of industrial processing situations is discussed.

  1. Transpiration cooling using air as a coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Kikkawa, Shinzo; Senda, Mamoru; Sakagushi, Katsuji; Shibutani, Hideki )

    1993-02-01

    Transpiration cooling is one of the most effective techniques for protecting a surface exposed to a high-temperature gas stream. In the present paper, the transpiration cooling effectiveness was measured under steady state. Air as a coolant was transpired from the surface of a porous plate exposed to hot gas stream, and the transpiration rate was varied in the range of 0.001 [approximately] 0.006. The transpiration cooling effectiveness was evaluated by measuring the temperature of the upper surface of the plate. Also, a theoretical study was performed and it was clarified that the effectiveness increases with increasing transpiration rate and heat-transfer coefficient of the upper surface. Further, the effectiveness was expressed as a function of the blowing parameter only. The agreement between the experimental results and theoretical ones was satisfactory.

  2. Large Diameter Lasing Tube Cooling Arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jerome P.; Alger, Terry W.; Anderson, Andrew T.; Arnold, Philip A.

    2004-05-18

    A cooling structure (16) for use inside a ceramic cylindrical tube (11) of a metal vapor laser (10) to cool the plasma in the tube (11), the cooling structure (16) comprising a plurality of circular metal members (17,31) and mounting members (18, 34) that position the metal members (17,31) coaxially in the tube (11) to form an annular lasing volume, with the metal members (17, 31) being axially spaced from each other along the length of the tube (11) to prevent the metal members from shorting out the current flow through the plasma in the tube (11) and to provide spaces through which the heat from localized hot spots in the plasma may radiate to the other side of the tube (11).

  3. Large diameter lasing tube cooling arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jerome P.; Alger, Terry W.; Anderson, Andrew T.; Arnold, Phillip A.

    2004-05-18

    A cooling structure (16) for use inside a ceramic cylindrical tube (11) of a metal vapor laser (10) to cool the plasma in the tube (11), the cooling structure (16) comprising a plurality of circular metal members (17, 31) and mounting members (18, 34) that position the metal members (17, 31) coaxially in the tube (11) to form an annular lasing volume, with the metal members (17, 31) being axially spaced from each other along the length of the tube (11) to prevent the metal members from shorting out the current flow through the plasma in the tube (11) and to provide spaces through which the heat from localized hot spots in the plasma may radiate to the other side of the tube (11).

  4. Data center cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J; Dang, Hien P; Parida, Pritish R; Schultz, Mark D; Sharma, Arun

    2015-03-17

    A data center cooling system may include heat transfer equipment to cool a liquid coolant without vapor compression refrigeration, and the liquid coolant is used on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack housed in the data center. The system may also include a controller-apparatus to regulate the liquid coolant flow to the liquid cooled information technology equipment rack through a range of liquid coolant flow values based upon information technology equipment temperature thresholds.

  5. Research on the Compatibility of the Cooling Unit in an Automotive Exhaust-based Thermoelectric Generator and Engine Cooling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y. D.; Liu, X.; Chen, S.; Xing, H. B.; Su, C. Q.

    2014-06-01

    The temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of thermoelectric modules is a key factor affecting the conversion efficiency of an automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator (TEG). In the work discussed in this paper the compatibility of TEG cooling unit and engine cooling system was studied on the basis of the heat transfer characteristics of the TEG. A new engine-cooling system in which a TEG cooling unit was inserted was simulated at high power and high vehicle speed, and at high power and low vehicle speed, to obtain temperatures and flow rates of critical inlets and outlets. The results show that coolant temperature exceeds its boiling point at high power and low vehicle speed, so the new system cannot meet cooling requirements under these conditions. Measures for improvement to optimize the cooling system are proposed, and provide a basis for future research.

  6. Cool pool development. Quarterly technical report No. 2, June-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Crowther, K.

    1980-01-05

    The Cool Pool is a variation of the evaporating roof pond idea. The pool is isolated from the living space and the cooled pond water thermosiphons into the water columns located within the building. A computer model of the Cool Pool and the various heat and mass transfer mechanisms involved in the system are discussed. Theory will be compared to experimental data collected from a Cool Pool test building.

  7. New Ideas for Teaching Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsler, Karen Jo; Restivo, Evelyn

    2010-03-01

    If you are teaching physics for the first time or even if you are a veteran teacher, it is always good to look at new activities or renew ideas to inspire your students. As it is late in October, we are half way through first semester and it is time to look past Newton's Laws. Activities presented in this workshop will include methods for figuring physics, gaining just a little momentum, collisions, toying around with impulse and inverse square relationships. Each activity will be presented in a lesson cycle format, which can be easily transitioned into your classroom. Limited to 24 participants - 2 hours - Cost 5.00

  8. Multi-stage circulating fluidized bed syngas cooling

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Guan, Xiaofeng; Peng, WanWang

    2016-10-11

    A method and apparatus for cooling hot gas streams in the temperature range 800.degree. C. to 1600.degree. C. using multi-stage circulating fluid bed (CFB) coolers is disclosed. The invention relates to cooling the hot syngas from coal gasifiers in which the hot syngas entrains substances that foul, erode and corrode heat transfer surfaces upon contact in conventional coolers. The hot syngas is cooled by extracting and indirectly transferring heat to heat transfer surfaces with circulating inert solid particles in CFB syngas coolers. The CFB syngas coolers are staged to facilitate generation of steam at multiple conditions and hot boiler feed water that are necessary for power generation in an IGCC process. The multi-stage syngas cooler can include internally circulating fluid bed coolers, externally circulating fluid bed coolers and hybrid coolers that incorporate features of both internally and externally circulating fluid bed coolers. Higher process efficiencies can be realized as the invention can handle hot syngas from various types of gasifiers without the need for a less efficient precooling step.

  9. Cooling of stored beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, F.E.

    1986-10-15

    Beam cooling methods developed for the accumulation of antiprotons are being employed to assist in the performance of experiments in Nuclear and Particle Physics with ion beams stored in storage rings. The physics of beam cooling, and the ranges of utility of stochastic and electron cooling are discussed in this paper.

  10. Stochastic cooling in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan,J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M. M.; Severino, F.

    2009-05-04

    After the success of longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched heavy ion beam in RHIC, transverse stochastic cooling in the vertical plane of Yellow ring was installed and is being commissioned with proton beam. This report presents the status of the effort and gives an estimate, based on simulation, of the RHIC luminosity with stochastic cooling in all planes.

  11. Fighting Fire with Fire: Superlattice Cooling of Silicon Hotspots to Reduce Global Cooling Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, S; Tiwari, M; Sherwood, T; Theogarajan, L; Chong, F T

    2010-10-05

    The running costs of data centers are dominated by the need to dissipate heat generated by thousands of server machines. Higher temperatures are undesirable as they lead to premature silicon wear-out; in fact, mean time to failure has been shown to decrease exponentially with temperature (Black's law). Although other server components also generate heat, microprocessors still dominate in most server configurations and are also the most vulnerable to wearout as the feature sizes shrink. Even as processor complexity and technology scaling have increased the average energy density inside a processor to maximally tolerable levels, modern microprocessors make extensive use of hardware structures such as the load-store queue and other CAM-based units, and the peak temperatures on chip can be much worse than even the average temperature of the chip. In recent studies, it has been shown that hot-spots inside a processor can generate {approx} 800W/cm{sup 2} heat flux whereas the average heat flux is only 10-50W/cm{sup 2}, and due to this disparity in heat generation, the temperature in hot spots may be up to 30 C more than average chip temperature. The key problem processor hot-spots create is that in order to prevent some critical hardware structures from wearing out faster, the air conditioners in a data center have to be provisioned for worst case requirements. Worse yet, air conditioner efficiencies decrease exponentially as the desired ambient temperature decreases relative to the air outside. As a result, the global cooling costs in data centers, which nearly equals the IT equipment power consumption, are directly correlated with the maximum hot spot temperatures of processors, and there is a distinct requirement for a cooling technique to mitigate hot-spots selectively so that the global air conditioners can operate at higher, more efficient, temperatures. We observe that localized cooling via superlattice microrefrigeration presents exactly this opportunity whereby

  12. THERMAL PROCESSES GOVERNING HOT-JUPITER RADII

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, David S.; Burrows, Adam E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu

    2013-07-20

    There have been many proposed explanations for the larger-than-expected radii of some transiting hot Jupiters, including either stellar or orbital energy deposition deep in the atmosphere or deep in the interior. In this paper, we explore the important influences on hot-Jupiter radius evolution of (1) additional heat sources in the high atmosphere, the deep atmosphere, and deep in the convective interior; (2) consistent cooling of the deep interior through the planetary dayside, nightside, and poles; (3) the degree of heat redistribution to the nightside; and (4) the presence of an upper atmosphere absorber inferred to produce anomalously hot upper atmospheres and inversions in some close-in giant planets. In particular, we compare the radius expansion effects of atmospheric and deep-interior heating at the same power levels and derive the power required to achieve a given radius increase when night-side cooling is incorporated. We find that models that include consistent day/night cooling are more similar to isotropically irradiated models when there is more heat redistributed from the dayside to the nightside. In addition, we consider the efficacy of ohmic heating in the atmosphere and/or convective interior in inflating hot Jupiters. Among our conclusions are that (1) the most highly irradiated planets cannot stably have uB {approx}> 10 km s{sup -1} G over a large fraction of their daysides, where u is the zonal wind speed and B is the dipolar magnetic field strength in the atmosphere, and (2) that ohmic heating cannot in and of itself lead to a runaway in planet radius.

  13. The long journey from idea to industrial success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüter, Holger

    2008-02-01

    It is astonishing how long it can take from the first idea to the industrial success of a laser technology product. Three laser technologies in which TRUMPF participated will be investigated from conception to realization. The first case study focuses on the diffusion cooled coaxial CO II laser geometry with diffraction limited resonators. The second case study highlights some of the stages along the very successful route to implementation of the thin disk laser; from the conception at the IFSW1 and the ITP2, both in Stuttgart, to the successful industrial installations in automotive applications. Finally the development of high power diodes for diode pumped solid state lasers is also discussed.

  14. Helping Students Revise Disruptive Experientially Supported Ideas about Thermodynamics: Computer Visualizations and Tactile Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Douglas; Jorde, Doris

    2004-01-01

    This study analyzes the impact of an integrated sensory model within a thermal equilibrium visualization. We hypothesized that this intervention would not only help students revise their disruptive experientially supported ideas about why objects feel hot or cold, but also increase their understanding of thermal equilibrium. The analysis…

  15. Cooling water distribution system

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  16. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Additive Manufactured Hot Fire Planning and Testing in GRC Cell 32 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project is to hot fire test an additively manufactured thrust chamber assembly TCA (injector and thrust chamber). GRC will install the additively manufactured Inconel 625 injector, two additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber barrels and one additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber nozzle on the test stand in Cell 32 and perform hot fire testing of the integrated TCA.

  17. Bursty star formation feedback and cooling outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Teresita; Pontzen, Andrew; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Slyz, Adrianne; Devriendt, Julien

    2016-10-01

    We study how outflows of gas launched from a central galaxy undergoing repeated starbursts propagate through the circum-galactic medium (CGM), using the simulation code RAMSES. We assume that the outflow from the disc can be modelled as a rapidly moving bubble of hot gas at ˜1 kpc above disc, then ask what happens as it moves out further into the halo around the galaxy on ˜100 kpc scales. To do this, we run 60 two-dimensional simulations scanning over parameters of the outflow. Each of these is repeated with and without radiative cooling, assuming a primordial gas composition to give a lower bound on the importance of cooling. In a large fraction of radiative-cooling cases we are able to form rapidly outflowing cool gas from in situ cooling of the flow. We show that the amount of cool gas formed depends strongly on the `burstiness' of energy injection; sharper, stronger bursts typically lead to a larger fraction of cool gas forming in the outflow. The abundance ratio of ions in the CGM may therefore change in response to the detailed historical pattern of star formation. For instance, outflows generated by star formation with short, intense bursts contain up to 60 per cent of their gas mass at temperatures <5 × 104 K; for near-continuous star formation, the figure is ≲5 per cent. Further study of cosmological simulations, and of idealized simulations with e.g. metal-cooling, magnetic fields and/or thermal conduction, will help to understand the precise signature of bursty outflows on observed ion abundances.

  18. Enhanced heat transfer surface for cast-in-bump-covered cooling surfaces and methods of enhancing heat transfer

    DOEpatents

    Chiu, Rong-Shi Paul; Hasz, Wayne Charles; Johnson, Robert Alan; Lee, Ching-Pang; Abuaf, Nesim

    2002-01-01

    An annular turbine shroud separates a hot gas path from a cooling plenum containing a cooling medium. Bumps are cast in the surface on the cooling side of the shroud. A surface coating overlies the cooling side surface of the shroud, including the bumps, and contains cooling enhancement material. The surface area ratio of the cooling side of the shroud with the bumps and coating is in excess of a surface area ratio of the cooling side surface with bumps without the coating to afford increased heat transfer across the element relative to the heat transfer across the element without the coating.

  19. A cool disk in the Galactic Center?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B. F.; Meyer, F.; Meyer-Hofmeister, E.

    2004-07-01

    We study the possibility of a cool disk existing in the Galactic Center in the framework of the disk-corona evaporation/condensation model. Assuming an inactive disk near the gravitational capture distance left over from an earlier evolutionary stage, a hot corona should form above the disk since there is a continuous supply of hot gas from stellar winds of the close-by massive stars. We study the interaction between the disk and the corona. Whether the cool disk can survive depends on the mass exchange between disk and corona which is determined by the energy and pressure balance. If evaporation is the dominant process and the rate is larger than the Bondi accretion rate in the Galactic Center, the disk will be depleted within a certain time and no persistent disk will exist. On the other hand, if the interaction results in hot gas steadily condensing into the disk, an inactive cool disk with little gas accreting towards the central black hole might survive in the Galactic Center. For this case we further investigate the Bremsstrahlung radiation from the hot corona and compare it with the observed X-ray luminosity. Our model shows that, for standard viscosity in the corona (α=0.3), the mass evaporation rate is much higher than the Bondi accretion rate and the coronal density is much larger than that inferred from Chandra observations. An inactive disk can not survive such strong evaporation. For small viscosity (α ⪉ 0.07) we find condensation solutions. But detailed coronal structure computations show that in this case there is too much X-ray radiation from the corona to be in agreement with the observations. From this modeling we conclude that there should be no thin/inactive disk presently in the Galactic Center. However we do not exclude that the alternative non-radiative model of Nayakshin (\\cite{Nayakshin04}) might instead be realized in nature and shortly discuss this question.}

  20. On analog simulation of ionization cooling of muons

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Ming

    2001-06-18

    Analog simulation, proposed here as an alternative approach for the study of ionization cooling of muons, is a scaled cooling experiment, using protons instead of muons as simulation particles. It is intended to be an effective and flexible, quick and inexpensive experiment for the understanding and validation of unprecedentedly complicated cooling physics, for the demonstration and optimization of various elaborated techniques for beam manipulation in 6D phase space. It can be done and perhaps should be done before the costly and time-consuming development of extremely challenging, muon-specific cooling technology. In a nutshell, the idea here is to build a toy machine in a playground of ideas, before staking the Imperial Guard of Napoleon into the bloody battlefield of Waterloo.

  1. Heat pipe cooling of an aerospace foam mold manufacturing process

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, D.R.; Feldman, K.T.; Marjon, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    A passive heat pipe cooling system was developed to cool a Bendix foam mold used to manufacture aerospace foam parts. The cooling system consists of ten copper-water heat pipes with cooling fins implanted into the aluminum mold and cooled by a domestic size fan blowing ambient air. The number and location of the heat pipes was determined to provide the most effective cooling and mold isothermalization based on experimental measurements of mold temperatures during the exothermic foaming process and from practical considerations of the mold geometry and use. Performance tests were cnducted on an individual heat pipe and on the ten heat pipes implanted in the mold. Both exothermic foam heating and internal electrical heat input were used in the experiments. The experimental test results indicate that the heat pipe cooling system with a fan is four to six times faster than free convection cooling of the mold with no heat pipes or fan and nearly twice as fast as cooling by the fan only. Similarly fast increases in mold heating time in the cure furnace could be realized if the heat pipes are used during this part of the production process. The heat pipes also cool hot spots in the mold and help isothermalize the mold so that better quality foam parts should be produced.

  2. IDEAS: Blazing the Innovation Trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhamer, B.

    1999-12-01

    Over the years, IDEAS has pioneered the education and public outreach arena in astronomy and space science. As a result, a collection of innovative education and public outreach programs has emerged across the United States. These programs have taken astronomy and space science information and, through new, sometimes unusual, but mostly creative processes, transformed it into engaging activities and lessons that not only grab the interest of the students but helps them understand concepts and principals in astronomy and space science. This poster session will bring some of these innovative programs to the AAS community to show some of the things being done in education and public outreach. We will also present some techniques on developing program evaluations.

  3. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A.

    1995-12-31

    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and a uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  4. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A.

    1995-10-01

    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and an uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  5. Enabling Technologies for Ceramic Hot Section Components

    SciTech Connect

    Venkat Vedula; Tania Bhatia

    2009-04-30

    Silicon-based ceramics are attractive materials for use in gas turbine engine hot sections due to their high temperature mechanical and physical properties as well as lower density than metals. The advantages of utilizing ceramic hot section components include weight reduction, and improved efficiency as well as enhanced power output and lower emissions as a result of reducing or eliminating cooling. Potential gas turbine ceramic components for industrial, commercial and/or military high temperature turbine applications include combustor liners, vanes, rotors, and shrouds. These components require materials that can withstand high temperatures and pressures for long duration under steam-rich environments. For Navy applications, ceramic hot section components have the potential to increase the operation range. The amount of weight reduced by utilizing a lighter gas turbine can be used to increase fuel storage capacity while a more efficient gas turbine consumes less fuel. Both improvements enable a longer operation range for Navy ships and aircraft. Ceramic hot section components will also be beneficial to the Navy's Growth Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) and VAATE (Versatile Affordable Advanced Turbine Engines) initiatives in terms of reduced weight, cooling air savings, and capability/cost index (CCI). For DOE applications, ceramic hot section components provide an avenue to achieve low emissions while improving efficiency. Combustors made of ceramic material can withstand higher wall temperatures and require less cooling air. Ability of the ceramics to withstand high temperatures enables novel combustor designs that have reduced NO{sub x}, smoke and CO levels. In the turbine section, ceramic vanes and blades do not require sophisticated cooling schemes currently used for metal components. The saved cooling air could be used to further improve efficiency and power output. The objectives of this contract were to develop technologies critical for ceramic hot section

  6. Laser cooling of a high-temperature oscillator by a three-level system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Plenio, Martin B.

    2016-08-01

    We study the laser cooling of a mechanical oscillator through the coupling with a dissipative three-level system. Under a background temperature beyond the Lamb-Dicke regime, we extend the standard cooling analysis by separately studying the classical motion and the quantum dynamics of the oscillator. In ladder-system cooling, the cooling rate degrades by orders of magnitude at large classical motion. This phenomenon causes a critical transition of the final temperature at a hot background. In stark contrast, electromagnetic-induced-transparency (EIT) cooling with a Λ system produces significant negative cooling rate at high motional excitation. At steady state, the oscillator could exhibit both cooling and lasing behaviors. We argue that a successful EIT cooling requires either a poor quality oscillator to suppress the lasing effect, or terminating the cooling process at a transient stage.

  7. Comparison of effectiveness of convection-, transpiration-, and film-cooling methods with air as coolant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R G; Livingood, N B

    1954-01-01

    Various parts of aircraft propulsion engines that are in contact with hot gases often require cooling. Transpiration and film cooling, new methods that supposedly utilize cooling air more effectively than conventional convection cooling, have already been proposed. This report presents material necessary for a comparison of the cooling requirements of these three methods. Correlations that are regarded by the authors as the most reliable today are employed in evaluating each of the cooling processes. Calculations for the special case in which the gas velocity is constant along the cooled wall (flat plate) are presented. The calculations reveal that a comparison of the three cooling processes can be made on quite a general basis. The superiority of transpiration cooling is clearly shown for both laminar and turbulent flow. This superiority is reduced when the effects of radiation are included; for gas-turbine blades, however, there is evidence indicating that radiation may be neglected.

  8. Thirty Simple Ideas for Interactive Whiteboards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee

    2011-01-01

    This article presents thirty simple ideas for interactive whiteboards and how IWB can make one's teaching life easier. These teaching ideas for the interactive whiteboard can be used by teachers every day. Tips for classroom management are also presented.

  9. Startup of air-cooled condensers and dry cooling towers at low temperatures of the cooling air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milman, O. O.; Ptakhin, A. V.; Kondratev, A. V.; Shifrin, B. A.; Yankov, G. G.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of startup and performance of air-cooled condensers (ACC) and dry cooling towers (DCT) at low cooling air temperatures are considered. Effects of the startup of the ACC at sub-zero temperatures are described. Different options of the ACC heating up are analyzed, and examples of existing technologies are presented (electric heating, heating up with hot air or steam, and internal and external heating). The use of additional heat exchanging sections, steam tracers, in the DCT design is described. The need for high power in cases of electric heating and heating up with hot air is noted. An experimental stand for research and testing of the ACC startup at low temperatures is described. The design of the three-pass ACC unit is given, and its advantages over classical single-pass design at low temperatures are listed. The formation of ice plugs inside the heat exchanging tubes during the start-up of ACC and DCT at low cooling air temperatures is analyzed. Experimental data on the effect of the steam flow rate, steam nozzle distance from the heat-exchange surface, and their orientation in space on the metal temperature were collected, and test results are analyzed. It is noted that the surface temperature at the end of the heat up is almost independent from its initial temperature. Recommendations for the safe start-up of ACCs and DCTs are given. The heating flow necessary to sufficiently heat up heat-exchange surfaces of ACCs and DCTs for the safe startup is estimated. The technology and the process of the heat up of the ACC with the heating steam external supply are described by the example of the startup of the full-scale section of the ACC at sub-zero temperatures of the cooling air, and the advantages of the proposed start-up technology are confirmed.

  10. The Earth's Hot Spots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vink, Gregory E.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Hot spots are isolated areas of geologic activity where volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and upwelling currents occur far from plate boundaries. These mantle plumes are relatively stable and crustal plates drift over them. The nature and location of hot spots (with particular attention to the Hawaiian Islands and Iceland) are discussed. (DH)

  11. Hot Spot at Yellowstone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dress, Abby

    2005-01-01

    Within this huge national park (over two million acres spread across Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho) are steaming geysers, hot springs, bubbling mudpots, and fumaroles, or steam vents. Drives on the main roads of Yellowstone take tourists through the major hot attractions, which also include Norris Geyser Basin, Upper and Lower Geyser Basin, West…

  12. Performance of a transpiration-regenerative cooled rocket thrust chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valler, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    The analysis, design, fabrication, and testing of a liquid rocket engine thrust chamber which is gas transpiration cooled in the high heat flux convergent portion of the chamber and water jacket cooled (simulated regenerative) in the barrel and divergent sections of the chamber are described. The engine burns LOX-hydrogen propellants at a chamber pressure of 600 psia. Various transpiration coolant flow rates were tested with resultant local hot gas wall temperatures in the 800 F to 1400 F range. The feasibility of transpiration cooling with hydrogen and helium, and the use of photo-etched copper platelets for heat transfer and coolant metering was successfully demonstrated.

  13. 6. HOT AIR PORTION OF DAMPERS. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. HOT AIR PORTION OF DAMPERS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  14. The Origin of Nonradiative Heating/momentum in Hot Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underhill, A. B. (Editor); Michalitsianos, A. G. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The origin of nonradiative heating and momentum in the atmospheres of stars is studied. The similarities and differences between what occurs in the hot stars and what occurs in cool stars are emphasized. Key points in the theory are reviewed. Areas requiring new study are indicated.

  15. The Hot Stars in Symbiotic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muerset, Urs

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic stars are interacting binaries, consisting of a late giant and a very hot companion, whose radiation ionizes the wind from the cool star. They strike the observers by their complex spectra and variability. A small subgroup, the symbiotic novae, undergo outbursts with an amplitude of several magnitudes and a duration of several decades. The ionizing binary component is usually too hot to be observed in the optical light. It emits mainly EUV photons, and in spectral regions better accessible to observers, nebula and cool star are much brighter than the hot star. Direct observations of hot components have therefore been restricted to special cases. Consequently, our knowledge about the hot components was poor. This thesis presents indirect methods allowing to extract crucial information on the ionizing star from the spectrum of the ionized nebula. Fundamental characteristics such as temperature, radius, and outburst energy are determined. They characterize the nature of the hot star, its outbursts, and the evolutionary status of the system. The IUE archive proved best suited as observational base. It contains thousands of far UV spectra of symbiotic stars. The UV continuum and the He II lambda-1640 recombination line turned out to be particularly sensitive to the hot star's parameters. For one object ROSAT observations of photospheric X-ray emission exist. They confirm the results obtained from IUE spectra. Unfortunately, only a subset of the symbiotics are bright enough to be observable in the UV, and moreover, the outburst of most symbiotic novae started long before the advent of space observatories. Possibilities to use optical spectroscopy are explored for these cases. T* can be derived from the observed ionization stages, and L* can be estimated from UBV magnitudes. The main result is displayed in Figure 1. Typically, the hot component of a symbiotic system has a radius ~0.1~R\\odot, a surface temperature ~100,000~K, and a luminosity ~1000~L\\odot. They

  16. Evaluation of three commercial microclimate cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadarette, Bruce S.; Decristofano, Barry S.; Speckman, Karen N.; Sawka, Michael N.

    1988-11-01

    Three commercially available microclimate cooling systems were evaluated for their ability to reduce heat stress in men exercising in a hot environment while wearing high insulative, low permeability clothing. The cooling systems were: (1) ILC Dover Model 19 Coolvest (ILC) (2) LSSI Coolhead(LSSI), and (3) Thermacor Cooling vest (THERM). Endurance Time (ET), Heart Rate (HR), rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (TSK), Sweating Rate (SR), Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) and Thermal Sensation (TS) were measured. The subjects self-terminated on all LSSI tests because of headaches. Statistical analyses were performed on data collected at 60 minutes to have values on all subjects. There were no differences in HR, Tre, SR or TS values among the cooling vests. The subjects' TSK was lower (P less than 0.05) for the LSSI than THERM: and RPE values were higher (P less than 0.05) for LSSI than the other two vests. These data suggest an improved physiological response to exercise heat stress with all three commercial systems with the greatest benefit in performance time provided by the ILC cooling system.

  17. Should We Use Colours as Symbolic Representations of Hot and Cold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Paulo Simeao; Sampaio e Sousa, Adriano

    2006-01-01

    People usually talk about "hot and cold" colours without really thinking of the impact these definitions may have on scientific understanding. These colours are associated with the human sensations of hot and cold, and this idea is consistent with commonsense and daily experience. Interacting with students, we detect conceptual conflicts when they…

  18. Innovating with HOTS for the ESL Reading Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoke, Soo Kum; Hasan, Nor Haniza; Jangga, Rohani; Kamal, Siti Nuur-Ila Mat

    2015-01-01

    The idea of integrating higher order thinking skills (HOTS) in language classrooms has been viewed negatively by language teachers. Students have been found to be passive and teachers have been found to lack creativity in innovating their lessons. The government's effort of introducing thinking skills in the Malaysian Education Blueprint (MEB)…

  19. Industrial and biomedical use of aerospace personal cooling garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. A.; Mcewen, G. N., Jr.; Montgomery, L. D.; Elkins, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Liquid-cooled garments (LCG) have been developed which utilize liquid-cooled modules rather than the network of tygon tubing typical of Apollo LCG's. The ultra-thin, heat-sealed, polyurethane modules are situated over the body to cover 50 percent of the body surface area with special emphasis on the 'working' muscles and the head-neck area. These garments are being designed specifically for industrial and biomedical uses, such as: a head-neck cooling system which is being tested for race-car drivers, tractor drivers, truck drivers, or a head-neck cooling system tested for the reduction of the scalp hair loss which normally accompanies cancer treatments. A combined head-neck and thorax unit is being developed for use during mine distaster rescue operations, and for other hazardous hot applications. Finally applications for head-neck and partitional cooling are anticipated for military pilots, tank drivers, and heavy equipment operations.

  20. Evaluation of thermal-storage concepts for solar cooling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, P. J.; Morehouse, J. H.; Choi, M. K.; White, N. M.; Scholten, W. B.

    1981-10-01

    Various configuration concepts for utilizing thermal energy storage to improve the thermal and economic performance of solar cooling systems for buildings were analyzed. The storge concepts evaluated provide short-term thermal storge via the bulk containment of water or salt hydrates. The evaluations were made for both residential-size cooling systems (3-ton) and small commercial-size cooling systems (25-ton). The residential analysis considers energy requirements for space heating, space cooling and water heating, while the commercial building analysis is based only on energy requirements for space cooling. The commercial building analysis considered a total of 10 different thermal storage/solar systems, 5 each for absorption and Rankine chiller concepts. The residential analysis considered 4 thermal storage/solar systems, all utilizing an absorption chiller. The trade-offs considered include: cold-side versus hot-side storage, single vs multiple stage storage, and phase-change vs sensible heat storage.

  1. The cooling of particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1994-10-01

    A review is given of the various methods which can be employed for cooling particle beams. These methods include radiation damping, stimulated radiation damping, ionization cooling, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, laser cooling, and laser cooling with beam coupling. Laser Cooling has provided beams of the lowest temperatures, namely 1 mK, but only for ions and only for the longitudinal temperature. Recent theoretical work has suggested how laser cooling, with the coupling of beam motion, can be used to reduce the ion beam temperature in all three directions. The majority of this paper is devoted to describing laser cooling and laser cooling with beam coupling.

  2. Semioptimal practicable algorithmic cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Yuval; Mor, Tal; Weinstein, Yossi

    2011-04-01

    Algorithmic cooling (AC) of spins applies entropy manipulation algorithms in open spin systems in order to cool spins far beyond Shannon’s entropy bound. Algorithmic cooling of nuclear spins was demonstrated experimentally and may contribute to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Several cooling algorithms were suggested in recent years, including practicable algorithmic cooling (PAC) and exhaustive AC. Practicable algorithms have simple implementations, yet their level of cooling is far from optimal; exhaustive algorithms, on the other hand, cool much better, and some even reach (asymptotically) an optimal level of cooling, but they are not practicable. We introduce here semioptimal practicable AC (SOPAC), wherein a few cycles (typically two to six) are performed at each recursive level. Two classes of SOPAC algorithms are proposed and analyzed. Both attain cooling levels significantly better than PAC and are much more efficient than the exhaustive algorithms. These algorithms are shown to bridge the gap between PAC and exhaustive AC. In addition, we calculated the number of spins required by SOPAC in order to purify qubits for quantum computation. As few as 12 and 7 spins are required (in an ideal scenario) to yield a mildly pure spin (60% polarized) from initial polarizations of 1% and 10%, respectively. In the latter case, about five more spins are sufficient to produce a highly pure spin (99.99% polarized), which could be relevant for fault-tolerant quantum computing.

  3. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Stewart, William A.

    1991-01-01

    A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

  4. Body cooling after death.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, L A; Tikuisis, P; Livingstone, S; Limmer, R

    1980-09-01

    In the analyses of cases of death in cold air environments, it is often of interest to determine the time required for the body of the individual to cool to ambient temperature. Usually such determinations have been based on Newton's law of cooling. This paper describes a case history in which this technique was experimentally tested and consequently abandoned in favour of a more complex biophysical model which more accurately described the thermo-physical events inherent in body cooling. This model is recommended for determination of the times required for various body parts to cool to ambient environmental temperatures.

  5. Power electronics cooling apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Sanger, Philip Albert; Lindberg, Frank A.; Garcen, Walter

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

  6. The Five Biggest Ideas in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn, Charles M.; Wiggins, Arthur W.

    1996-12-01

    In a thought-provoking and entertaining exploration of The Five Biggest Ideas in Science, authors Charles Wynn and Arthur Wiggins provide a panoramic view of the questions scientists seek to answer about the natural world: Do basic building blocks of matter exist, and if so, what do they look like? BIG IDEA #1: Physics' Model of the Atom What relationships, if any, exist among different kinds of atoms? BIG IDEA #2: Chemistry's Periodic Law Where did the atoms of the universe come from,and what is their destiny? BIG IDEA #3: Astronomy's Big Bang Theory How is the matter of the universe arranged in planet Earth? BIG IDEA #4: Geology's Plate Tectonics Model How did life on planet Earth originate and develop? BIG IDEA #5: Biology's Theory of Evolution Get set for a lively and informative discussion, as you also learn how to evaluate potential applications of these and other scientific ideas.

  7. Computer program calculates peripheral water injection cooling of axisymmetric subsonic diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grey, J.

    1968-01-01

    Digital computer program calculates the cooling effectiveness and flow characteristics resulting from the mixing of a cool liquid injectant /water/ with a hot sonic or subsonic gas stream /hydrogen/. The output of the program provides pressure, temperature, velocity, density, composition, and Mach number profiles at any location in the mixing duct.

  8. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: sizing, installation and operation of systems. 1980 edition

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared as a text for a training course on solar heating and cooling of residential buildings. The course and text are directed toward sizing, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar systems for space heating and hot water supply, and solar cooling is treated only briefly. (MHR)

  9. System design package for a solar heating and cooling system installed at Akron, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Information used to evaluate the design of a solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system is given. A conventional heat pump provides summer cooling items as the design data brochure, system performance specification, system hazard analysis, spare parts list, and detailed design drawings. A solar system is installed in a single-family dwelling at Akron, Ohio, and at Duffield, Virginia.

  10. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Sizing, Installation and Operation of Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This training course and a companion course titled "Design of Systems for Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings," are designed to train home designers and builders in the fundamentals of solar hydronic and air systems for space heating and cooling and domestic hot water heating for residential buildings. Each course, organized in 22…

  11. Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings (Phase O). Volume 1: Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TRW Systems Group, Redondo Beach, CA.

    The purpose of this study was to establish the technical and economic feasibility of using solar energy for the heating and cooling of buildings. Five selected building types in 14 selected cities were used to determine loads for space heating, space cooling and dehumidification, and domestic service hot water heating. Relying on existing and…

  12. Secular cooling of Earth as a source of intraplate stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.

    1987-01-01

    The once popular idea that changes in planetary volume play an important role in terrestrial orogeny and tectonics was generally discarded with the acceptance of plate tectonics. It is nonetheless likely that the Earth has been steadily cooling over the past 3-4 billion years, and the global contraction that accompanied such cooling would have led to a secular decrease in the radius of curvature of the plates. The implications of this global cooling and contraction are explored here for the intraplate stress field and the evolution of continental plates.

  13. Advances in open-cycle solid desiccant cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Penney, T R; Maclaine-cross, I

    1985-05-01

    Of the solar cooling options available open cycle solid desiccant cooling looks very promising. A brief review of the experimental and analytical efforts to date shows that within the last 10 years thermal performance has doubled. Research centers have been developed to explore new materials and geometry options and to improve and validate mathematical models that can be used by design engineers to develop new product lines. Typical results from the Solar Energy Research Institute's (SERI) Desiccant Cooling Research Program are shown. Innovative ideas for new cycles and spinoff benefits provide incentives to continue research in this promising field.

  14. Ab initio study of hot electrons in GaAs.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Marco; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Ong, Chin Shen; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Louie, Steven G

    2015-04-28

    Hot carrier dynamics critically impacts the performance of electronic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic, and plasmonic devices. Hot carriers lose energy over nanometer lengths and picosecond timescales and thus are challenging to study experimentally, whereas calculations of hot carrier dynamics are cumbersome and dominated by empirical approaches. In this work, we present ab initio calculations of hot electrons in gallium arsenide (GaAs) using density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory. Our computed electron-phonon relaxation times at the onset of the Γ, L, and X valleys are in excellent agreement with ultrafast optical experiments and show that the ultrafast (tens of femtoseconds) hot electron decay times observed experimentally arise from electron-phonon scattering. This result is an important advance to resolve a controversy on hot electron cooling in GaAs. We further find that, contrary to common notions, all optical and acoustic modes contribute substantially to electron-phonon scattering, with a dominant contribution from transverse acoustic modes. This work provides definitive microscopic insight into hot electrons in GaAs and enables accurate ab initio computation of hot carriers in advanced materials.

  15. Ab initio study of hot electrons in GaAs

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Marco; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Ong, Chin Shen; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Louie, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Hot carrier dynamics critically impacts the performance of electronic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic, and plasmonic devices. Hot carriers lose energy over nanometer lengths and picosecond timescales and thus are challenging to study experimentally, whereas calculations of hot carrier dynamics are cumbersome and dominated by empirical approaches. In this work, we present ab initio calculations of hot electrons in gallium arsenide (GaAs) using density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory. Our computed electron–phonon relaxation times at the onset of the Γ, L, and X valleys are in excellent agreement with ultrafast optical experiments and show that the ultrafast (tens of femtoseconds) hot electron decay times observed experimentally arise from electron–phonon scattering. This result is an important advance to resolve a controversy on hot electron cooling in GaAs. We further find that, contrary to common notions, all optical and acoustic modes contribute substantially to electron–phonon scattering, with a dominant contribution from transverse acoustic modes. This work provides definitive microscopic insight into hot electrons in GaAs and enables accurate ab initio computation of hot carriers in advanced materials. PMID:25870287

  16. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  17. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid

  18. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOEpatents

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-11-11

    A method is described for extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid inventory of the reservoir. 4 figs.

  19. Removal of glass adhered to sintered ceramics in hot isostatic pressing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    In the hot isostatic pressing of ceramic materials in molten glass using an inert gas as a pressing medium, glass adhered to the sintered ceramics is heated to convert it to a porous glass and removed. Thus, Si3N4 powder was compacted at 5000 kg/sq cm, coated with a 0.5 mm thick BN, embedded in Pyrex glass in a graphite crucible, put inside a hot isostatic press containing Argon, hot pressed at 1750 C and 100 kg/sq cm; cooled, taken out from the crucible, heated at 1100 C for 30 minutes, cooled, and then glass adhered to the sintered body was removed.

  20. An Alternative to Kirk's Idea of the Idea and a Future for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    In his book "Physical Education Futures" (Routledge, London) David Kirk (2010) introduces the notion of the idea of the idea of physical education, which challenges all physical educators to think more deeply and broadly about physical education as a school subject. The notion of the idea of the idea enables a "big picture" conceptualisation of…

  1. Editorial Comment: Virus-Like Ideas: The Role of Critical Thinking in the Ecology of Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Jay; Carey, John

    1987-01-01

    Suggests that critical thinking (the ideological immune system) can prevent or inactivate virus-like ideas (ideas that can invade a host, damage the host, and cause the host to replicate and transmit the ideas--infecting other hosts and propagating the ideas). Proposes that critical thinking alleviates many mental health problems. (SKC)

  2. Relativistic particle transport in hot accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Peter A.; Kafatos, Menas; Maisack, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Accretion disks around rapidly rotating black holes provide one of the few plausible models for the production of intense radiation in Acitve Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) above energies of several hundred MeV. The rapid rotation of the hole increases the binding energy per nucleon in the last stable orbit relative to the Schwarzschild case, and naturally leads to ion temperatures in the range 10(exp 12) - 10(exp 13) K for sub-Eddington accretion rates. The protons in the hot inner region of a steady, two-temperature disk form a reservoir of energy that is sufficient to power the observed Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) outbursts if the black hole mass is 10(exp 10) solar mass. Moreover, the accretion timescale for the inner region is comparable to the observed transient timescale of approximately 1 week. Hence EGRET outbursts may be driven by instabilities in hot, two-temperature disks around supermassive black holes. In this paper we discuss turbulent (stochastic) acceleration in hot disks as a possible source of GeV particles and radiation. We constrain the model by assuming the turbulence is powered by a collective instability that drains energy from the hot protons. We also provide some ideas concerning new, high-energy Penrose processes that produce GeV emission be directly tapping the rotational energy of Kerr black holes.

  3. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Fanning, Alan W.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

  4. Elastocaloric cooling: Stretch to actively cool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossmer, Hinnerk; Kohl, Manfred

    2016-10-01

    The elastocaloric effect can be exploited in solid-state cooling technologies as an alternative to conventional vapour compression. Now, an elastocaloric device based on the concept of active regeneration achieves a temperature lift of 15.3 K and efficiencies competitive with other caloric-based approaches.

  5. A Versatile Rocket Engine Hot Gas Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James M.

    1993-01-01

    The capabilities of a versatile rocket engine facility, located in the Rocket Laboratory at the NASA Lewis Research Center, are presented. The gaseous hydrogen/oxygen facility can be used for thermal shock and hot gas testing of materials and structures as well as rocket propulsion testing. Testing over a wide range of operating conditions in both fuel and oxygen rich regimes can be conducted, with cooled or uncooled test specimens. The size and location of the test cell provide the ability to conduct large amounts of testing in short time periods with rapid turnaround between programs.

  6. Reflection enhances creativity: Beneficial effects of idea evaluation on idea generation.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ning; Ku, Yixuan; Liu, Meigui; Hu, Yi; Bodner, Mark; Grabner, Roland H; Fink, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed to explore the neural correlates underlying the effects of idea evaluation on idea generation in creative thinking. Participants were required to generate original uses of conventional objects (alternative uses task) during EEG recording. A reflection task (mentally evaluating the generated ideas) or a distraction task (object characteristics task) was inserted into the course of idea generation. Behavioral results revealed that participants generated ideas with higher originality after evaluating the generated ideas than after performing the distraction task. The EEG results revealed that idea evaluation was accompanied with upper alpha (10-13 Hz) synchronization, most prominent at frontal cortical sites. Moreover, upper alpha activity in frontal cortices during idea generation was enhanced after idea evaluation. These findings indicate that idea evaluation may elicit a state of heightened internal attention or top-down activity that facilitates efficient retrieval and integration of internal memory representations.

  7. Reflection enhances creativity: Beneficial effects of idea evaluation on idea generation.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ning; Ku, Yixuan; Liu, Meigui; Hu, Yi; Bodner, Mark; Grabner, Roland H; Fink, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed to explore the neural correlates underlying the effects of idea evaluation on idea generation in creative thinking. Participants were required to generate original uses of conventional objects (alternative uses task) during EEG recording. A reflection task (mentally evaluating the generated ideas) or a distraction task (object characteristics task) was inserted into the course of idea generation. Behavioral results revealed that participants generated ideas with higher originality after evaluating the generated ideas than after performing the distraction task. The EEG results revealed that idea evaluation was accompanied with upper alpha (10-13 Hz) synchronization, most prominent at frontal cortical sites. Moreover, upper alpha activity in frontal cortices during idea generation was enhanced after idea evaluation. These findings indicate that idea evaluation may elicit a state of heightened internal attention or top-down activity that facilitates efficient retrieval and integration of internal memory representations. PMID:26808451

  8. Saturn's Hot Plasma Explosions

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation based on data obtained by NASA's Cassini Spacecraft shows how the "explosions" of hot plasma on the night side (orange and white) periodically inflate Saturn's magnetic field (white ...

  9. Cool Earth Solar

    ScienceCinema

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2016-07-12

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  10. Data center cooling method

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Dang, Hien P.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-08-11

    A method aspect for removing heat from a data center may use liquid coolant cooled without vapor compression refrigeration on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack. The method may also include regulating liquid coolant flow to the data center through a range of liquid coolant flow values with a controller-apparatus based upon information technology equipment temperature threshold of the data center.

  11. Cool Earth Solar

    SciTech Connect

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2013-04-22

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  12. S'COOL Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This article describes one fifth grade's participation in in NASA's S'COOL (Students' Cloud Observations On-Line) Project, making cloud observations, reporting them online, exploring weather concepts, and gleaning some of the things involved in authentic scientific research. S?COOL is part of a real scientific study of the effect of clouds on…

  13. Why Cool Roofs?

    ScienceCinema

    Chu, Steven

    2016-07-12

    By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

  14. DOAS, Radiant Cooling Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The article discusses dedicated outdoor air systems (DOAS) and radiant cooling technologies. Both of these topics were covered in previous ASHRAE Journal columns. This article reviews the technologies and their increasing acceptance. The two steps that ASHRAE is taking to disseminate DOAS information to the design community, available energy savings and the market potential of radiant cooling systems are addressed as well.

  15. Why Cool Roofs?

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Steven

    2010-01-01

    By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

  16. Hot Oiling Spreadsheet

    1993-10-22

    One of the most common oil-field treatments is hot oiling to remove paraffin from wells. Even though the practice is common, the thermal effectiveness of the process is not commonly understood. In order for producers to easily understand the thermodynamics of hot oiling, a simple tool is needed for estimating downhole temperatures. Such a tool has been developed that can be distributed as a compiled spreadsheet.

  17. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P.

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  18. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

    1999-07-20

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

  19. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, Fred Wolf; Willett, Fred Thomas

    2000-01-01

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

  20. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, Fred Wolf; Willett, Fred Thomas

    1999-07-20

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

  1. Hydronic rooftop cooling systems

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian Eric; Berman, Mark J.

    2008-01-29

    A roof top cooling unit has an evaporative cooling section that includes at least one evaporative module that pre-cools ventilation air and water; a condenser; a water reservoir and pump that captures and re-circulates water within the evaporative modules; a fan that exhausts air from the building and the evaporative modules and systems that refill and drain the water reservoir. The cooling unit also has a refrigerant section that includes a compressor, an expansion device, evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, and connecting refrigerant piping. Supply air components include a blower, an air filter, a cooling and/or heating coil to condition air for supply to the building, and optional dampers that, in designs that supply less than 100% outdoor air to the building, control the mixture of return and ventilation air.

  2. Stochastic cooling at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Marriner, J.

    1986-08-01

    The topics discussed are the stochastic cooling systems in use at Fermilab and some of the techniques that have been employed to meet the particular requirements of the anti-proton source. Stochastic cooling at Fermilab became of paramount importance about 5 years ago when the anti-proton source group at Fermilab abandoned the electron cooling ring in favor of a high flux anti-proton source which relied solely on stochastic cooling to achieve the phase space densities necessary for colliding proton and anti-proton beams. The Fermilab systems have constituted a substantial advance in the techniques of cooling including: large pickup arrays operating at microwave frequencies, extensive use of cryogenic techniques to reduce thermal noise, super-conducting notch filters, and the development of tools for controlling and for accurately phasing the system.

  3. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  4. Reasonable Temperature Schedules for Cold or Hot Charging of Continuously Cast Steel Slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Chen, Xin; Liu, Ke; Wang, Jing; Wen, Jin; Zhang, Jiaquan

    2013-12-01

    Some continuously cast steel slabs are sensitive to transverse fracture problems during transportation or handling away from their storage state, while some steel slabs are sensitive to surface transverse cracks during the following rolling process in a certain hot charging temperature range. It is revealed that the investigated steel slabs with high fracture tendency under room cooling condition always contain pearlite transformation delayed elements, which lead to the internal brittle bainitic structure formation, while some microalloyed steels exhibit high surface crack susceptibility to hot charging temperatures due to carbonitride precipitation. According to the calculated internal cooling rates and CCT diagrams, the slabs with high fracture tendency during cold charging should be slowly cooled after cutting to length from hot strand or charged to the reheating furnace directly above their bainite formation temperatures. Based on a thermodynamic calculation for carbonitride precipitation in austenite, the sensitive hot charging temperature range of related steels was revealed for the determination of reasonable temperature schedules.

  5. Geothermal hot water system

    SciTech Connect

    Dittell, E.W.

    1983-05-10

    Geothermal hot water system including a hot water tank and a warm water tank which are heated independently of each other by a close loop freon system. The closed loop freon system includes a main condenser which heats water for the warm water tank and a super-heated condenser which heats water for the hot water tank, and where the freon passes through a water evaporator which is heated by water such as from a well or other suitable source. The water evaporator in the closed loop freon system passes the water through but no environmental change to the water. An electrical circuit including aquastats in the warm water tank connected therethrough controls operation of the closed loop freon system including respective pumps on the super-heated condenser and main condenser for pumping water. Pumps pump water through the main condenser for the warm tank and through the super-heated condenser for the hot tank. The system provides for energy conservation in that the head pressure of the compressor is kept in the lower operating ranges as determined by the discharge flow of the main condenser which varies by the head pressure and temperature flow control which varies by temperature. The geothermal hot water system uses a least amount of energy in heating the water in the hot tank as well as the warm tank.

  6. Changing ideas of global limits.

    PubMed

    Goddy, D

    1984-03-01

    In this discussion of changing ideas of global limits, attention is directed to world trade, moral restraint, and the "green revolution." A fresh look at the work of those who first considered population problems, e.gg., Malthur, can help make some sense of the population problems the world faces today. Malthus, writing in the late 1700s, concluded that population multiplies with each generation. He saw that food production was limited by the amount of available cropland and that the more people there are, the less food they will have to eat -- assuming that all available cropland is planted. This grim view of the future led Malthus to oppose government aid to the poor maintaining that such assistance would only encourage poor people to have large families. His solution was "moral restratin," seeing it as the duty of each individual to refrain from marriage until he was able to support his children. At the time this advice seemed cruel and Malthus was bitterly attacked by writers everywhere in Europe. Karl Marx and other ctitics of Malthus believed that poverty was caused by unjust governments and the selfishness of the rich. Marx clamied that the problem was too few jobs rather than too many people. The dire predictions of Malthus were soon forgotten as manufacturing industries began to transform the economies of Western Europe in the 1800s. Along with soaring economic growth came a host of developments that improved people's lives, e.g., better transportation, better sanitiation and nutrition, and better medicine. New inventions helped farmers fo produce more food. Next came the "demographic transition." Population grew quickly in Europe and North America as people became healthier and lived longer. Gradually, people in the industrial nations began deciding to have smaller families to enable them to afford an even higher living standard. By the late 1920s birthrates in Europe and the US had dropped so low that mention of the "population problem" usually referred

  7. Changing ideas of global limits.

    PubMed

    Goddy, D

    1984-03-01

    In this discussion of changing ideas of global limits, attention is directed to world trade, moral restraint, and the "green revolution." A fresh look at the work of those who first considered population problems, e.gg., Malthur, can help make some sense of the population problems the world faces today. Malthus, writing in the late 1700s, concluded that population multiplies with each generation. He saw that food production was limited by the amount of available cropland and that the more people there are, the less food they will have to eat -- assuming that all available cropland is planted. This grim view of the future led Malthus to oppose government aid to the poor maintaining that such assistance would only encourage poor people to have large families. His solution was "moral restratin," seeing it as the duty of each individual to refrain from marriage until he was able to support his children. At the time this advice seemed cruel and Malthus was bitterly attacked by writers everywhere in Europe. Karl Marx and other ctitics of Malthus believed that poverty was caused by unjust governments and the selfishness of the rich. Marx clamied that the problem was too few jobs rather than too many people. The dire predictions of Malthus were soon forgotten as manufacturing industries began to transform the economies of Western Europe in the 1800s. Along with soaring economic growth came a host of developments that improved people's lives, e.g., better transportation, better sanitiation and nutrition, and better medicine. New inventions helped farmers fo produce more food. Next came the "demographic transition." Population grew quickly in Europe and North America as people became healthier and lived longer. Gradually, people in the industrial nations began deciding to have smaller families to enable them to afford an even higher living standard. By the late 1920s birthrates in Europe and the US had dropped so low that mention of the "population problem" usually referred

  8. Heat pipe cooled thermionic reactor core fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlan Horner, M.; Van Hagan, Thomas H.; Determan, William R.

    1992-01-01

    Thermionic and driver fuel elements in an in-core heat pipe cooled reactor will reject heat to a surrounding array of redundant heat pipes. Such structures present a formidable fabrication problem if approached conventionally through assembly of tubular structures. A reasonable method for fabrication of such reactor cores is described in this study. The technique selected involves the use of hot isostatic processing to minimize the amount of material in heat pipe walls, maximize available vapor flow cross sectional area and provide accurate location of fuel elements.

  9. Living in the WOW of Your Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, M. Parker

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the author got to thinking about some of the ideas that have crossed her mind in the last couple of weeks. The list made her smile. And as she went over it point by point in her head she tried to determine what, if any, reasonable or logical patterns were emerging in her myriad of ideas. The four divergent ideas presented in this article…

  10. Idea processing for creativity and management

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P E

    1988-01-01

    Tips and case histories on computer use for idea and outline processing: Productivity software to solve problems of idea hierarchy, transitions, and developments is matched to solutions for communicators. One case is text that ranges from methods and procedures to histories and legal definitions of classification for the US Department of Energy. Applications of value to writers, editors, and managers are for research; calendars; creativity; prioritization; idea discovery and manipulation; file and time management; and contents, indexes, and glossaries. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Solar absorption cooling plant in Seville

    SciTech Connect

    Bermejo, Pablo; Pino, Francisco Javier; Rosa, Felipe

    2010-08-15

    A solar/gas cooling plant at the Engineering School of Seville (Spain) was tested during the period 2008-2009. The system is composed of a double-effect LiBr + water absorption chiller of 174 kW nominal cooling capacity, powered by: (1) a pressurized hot water flow delivered by mean of a 352 m{sup 2} solar field of a linear concentrating Fresnel collector and (2) a direct-fired natural gas burner. The objective of the project is to indentify design improvements for future plants and to serve as a guideline. We focused our attention on the solar collector size and dirtiness, climatology, piping heat losses, operation control and coupling between solar collector and chiller. The daily average Fresnel collector efficiency was 0.35 with a maximum of 0.4. The absorption chiller operated with a daily average coefficient of performance of 1.1-1.25, where the solar energy represented the 75% of generator's total heat input, and the solar cooling ratio (quotient between useful cooling and insolation incident on the solar field) was 0.44. (author)

  12. Efficient thermoelectric cooling of concentrated heat loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershberger, Jeff; Smythe, Robert; Gu, Xiaoyi; Hill, Richard F.

    2013-02-01

    An efficiency improvement of 87% is demonstrated in cooling of concentrated heat loads when using thermoelectric coolers (TECs) constructed with thermally conductive printed circuit boards (TCPCBs) as compared to traditional ceramic-based TECs. Laser diodes and infrared detectors must be actively cooled but are smaller than typical TECs. As a result, heat spreading must occur between the optical component and the semiconductor pellets near the edge of the TEC. Typically, TECs based on aluminum nitride circuit boards are chosen and in some cases an AlN plate is added between the optical component and the TEC. To address this, TECs have been developed that replace the ceramic circuit boards with laminated TCPCBs containing a thick copper backing. The copper backing improves heat spreading within the TEC. A study was conducted to quantify differences in coefficient of performance (COP, heat pumped divided by electrical power consumed) when cooling concentrated heat loads. A heat source 3 mm wide was cooled by TECs ~12 mm wide, comparing ceramic-based and TCPCB-based TECs of otherwise identical design. With a fixed hot side temperature and heat load, each TEC was powered to achieve a desired temperature at the heat source. Ceramic-based and TCPCB-based TECs exhibited COPs of 0.235 and 0.440 respectively, an 87% improvement. Further improvements are achievable: adding a thick copper plate between the heat source and the TEC resulted in a COP of ~0.59 for both TEC types.

  13. MEIC electron cooling program

    SciTech Connect

    Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-12-01

    Cooling of proton and ion beams is essential for achieving high luminosities (up to above 1034 cm-2s-1) for MEIC, a Medium energy Electron-Ion Collider envisioned at JLab [1] for advanced nuclear science research. In the present conceptual design, we utilize the conventional election cooling method and adopted a multi-staged cooling scheme for reduction of and maintaining low beam emittances [2,3,4]. Two electron cooling facilities are required to support the scheme: one is a low energy (up to 2 MeV) DC cooler installed in the MEIC ion pre-booster (with the proton kinetic energy up to 3 GeV); the other is a high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) cooler in the collider ring (with the proton kinetic energy from 25 to 100 GeV). The high energy cooler, which is based on the ERL technology and a circulator ring, utilizes a bunched electron beam to cool bunched proton or ion beams. To complete the MEIC cooling concept and a technical design of the ERL cooler as well as to develop supporting technologies, an R&D program has been initiated at Jefferson Lab and significant progresses have been made since then. In this study, we present a brief description of the cooler design and a summary of the progress in this cooling R&D.

  14. MEIC electron cooling program

    DOE PAGES

    Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-12-01

    Cooling of proton and ion beams is essential for achieving high luminosities (up to above 1034 cm-2s-1) for MEIC, a Medium energy Electron-Ion Collider envisioned at JLab [1] for advanced nuclear science research. In the present conceptual design, we utilize the conventional election cooling method and adopted a multi-staged cooling scheme for reduction of and maintaining low beam emittances [2,3,4]. Two electron cooling facilities are required to support the scheme: one is a low energy (up to 2 MeV) DC cooler installed in the MEIC ion pre-booster (with the proton kinetic energy up to 3 GeV); the other is amore » high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) cooler in the collider ring (with the proton kinetic energy from 25 to 100 GeV). The high energy cooler, which is based on the ERL technology and a circulator ring, utilizes a bunched electron beam to cool bunched proton or ion beams. To complete the MEIC cooling concept and a technical design of the ERL cooler as well as to develop supporting technologies, an R&D program has been initiated at Jefferson Lab and significant progresses have been made since then. In this study, we present a brief description of the cooler design and a summary of the progress in this cooling R&D.« less

  15. Experimental Study of Ignition by Hot Spot in Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serruys, Max

    1938-01-01

    In order to carry out the contemplated study, it was first necessary to provide hot spots in the combustion chamber, which could be measured and whose temperature could be changed. It seemed difficult to realize both conditions working solely on the temperature of the cooling water in a way so as to produce hot spots on the cylinder wall capable of provoking autoignition. Moreover, in the majority of practical cases, autoignition is produced by the spark plug, one of the least cooled parts in the engine. The first procedure therefore did not resemble that which most generally occurs in actual engine operation. All of these considerations caused us to reproduce similar hot spots at the spark plugs. The hot spots produced were of two kinds and designated with the name of thermo-electric spark plug and of metallic hot spot.

  16. Heating and Cooling Protostellar Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, S.; Turner, N. J.

    2011-05-01

    We examine heating and cooling in protostellar disks using three-dimensional radiation-MHD calculations of a patch of the Solar nebula at 1 AU, employing the shearing-box and flux-limited radiation diffusion approximations. The disk atmosphere is ionized by stellar X-rays, well coupled to magnetic fields, and sustains a turbulent accretion flow driven by magnetorotational instability, while the interior is resistive and magnetically dead. The turbulent layers are heated by absorbing the light from the central star and by dissipating the magnetic fields. They are optically thin to their own radiation and cool inefficiently. The optically thick interior in contrast is heated only weakly, by re-emission from the atmosphere. The interior is colder than a classical viscous model and isothermal. The magnetic fields support an extended atmosphere that absorbs the starlight 1.5 times higher than the hydrostatic viscous model. The disk thickness thus measures not the internal temperature, but the magnetic field strength. Fluctuations in the fields move the starlight-absorbing surface up and down. The height ranges between 13% and 24% of the radius over timescales of several orbits, with implications for infrared variability. The fields are buoyant, so the accretion heating occurs higher in the atmosphere than the stresses. The heating is localized around current sheets, caused by magnetorotational instability at lower elevations and by Parker instability at higher elevations. Gas in the sheets is heated above the stellar irradiation temperature, even though accretion is much less than irradiation power when volume averaged. The hot optically thin current sheets might be detectable through their line emission.

  17. Cryogenic generator cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckels, P. W.; Fagan, T. J.; Parker, J. H., Jr.; Long, L. J.; Shestak, E. J.; Calfo, R. M.; Hannon, W. F.; Brown, D. B.; Barkell, J. W.; Patterson, A.

    The concept for a hydrogen cooled aluminum cryogenic generator was presented by Schlicher and Oberly in 1985. Following their lead, this paper describes the thermal design of a high voltage dc, multimegawatt generator of high power density. The rotor and stator are cooled by saturated liquid and supercritical hydrogen, respectively. The brushless exciter on the same shaft is also cooled by liquid hydrogen. Component development testing is well under way and some of the test results concerning the thermohydraulic performance of the conductors are reported. The aluminum cryogenic generator's characteristics are attractive for hydrogen economy applications.

  18. Porous Ceramic Coating for Transpiration Cooling of Gas Turbine Blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, M.; Suidzu, T.

    2013-06-01

    A transpiration cooling system for gas turbine applications has significant benefit for reducing the amount of cooling air and increasing cooling efficiency. In this paper, the porous ceramic coating, which can infiltrate cooling gas, is developed with plasma spraying process, and the properties of the porous coating material such as permeability of cooling gas, thermal conductivity, and adhesion strength are examined. The mixture of 8 wt.% yttria-stabilized zirconia and polyester powders was employed as the coating material, in order to deposit the porous ceramic coating onto Ni-based super alloy substrate. It was shown that the porous ceramic coating has superior permeability for cooling gas. The adhesion strength of the porous coating was low only 20% compared with the thermal barrier coating utilized in current gas turbine blades. Simulation test of hot gas flow around the gas turbine blade verified remarkable reduction of the coating surface temperature by the transpiration cooling mechanism. It was concluded that the transpiration cooling system for the gas turbine could be achieved using the porous ceramic coating developed in this study.

  19. Hot Jupiters: how rapidly are they evaporating?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Munoz, A.; McConnell, J. C.; Caldwell, J. J.

    2005-08-01

    The detection of an extended atmosphere on the exoplanet HD 209458 b containing H, C and O and reaching as far out as 3-4 planetary radii (Vidal-Madjar et al. 2004, Astrophys. J. 604, L69-L72 ) constitutes a unique case in the study of so-called hot Jupiters. At 0.045 AU from its host star, stellar EUV radiation supplies HD 209458 b with sufficient energy so as to heat up its upper atmosphere and, presumably, power its evaporation. The goal of this work is two-fold: estimate the evaporation rate from the atmosphere of hot Jupiters, of importance for the understanding of their evolution, and predict the composition of their thermosphere, giving support to future observations. For this purpose we have built an idealized one-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the thermosphere of hot Jupiters, of particular relevance for HD 209458 b. Concentrations of H-, C- and O-bearing constituents, as well as density, velocity and temperature of the whole plasma, are solved self-consistently. The evaporation rate is fluid-dynamically constrained by the occurrence of a sonic point in the expansion of the atmospheric gas. Rapid adiabatic cooling may place an additional constraint on the thermal structure near the transition between the lower and upper atmospheres of these planets. Evaporation rates and profiles of constituents will be given for various planet-star distances, appropriate to very hot Jupiters ( ˜ 0.02 AU), hot Jupiters ( ˜ 0.05 AU) and more temperate conditions (> 0.1 AU).

  20. Formation of Hot Tear Under Controlled Solidification Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subroto, Tungky; Miroux, Alexis; Bouffier, Lionel; Josserond, Charles; Salvo, Luc; Suéry, Michel; Eskin, Dmitry G.; Katgerman, Laurens

    2014-06-01

    Aluminum alloy 7050 is known for its superior mechanical properties, and thus finds its application in aerospace industry. Vertical direct-chill (DC) casting process is typically employed for producing such an alloy. Despite its advantages, AA7050 is considered as a "hard-to-cast" alloy because of its propensity to cold cracking. This type of cracks occurs catastrophically and is difficult to predict. Previous research suggested that such a crack could be initiated by undeveloped hot tears (microscopic hot tear) formed during the DC casting process if they reach a certain critical size. However, validation of such a hypothesis has not been done yet. Therefore, a method to produce a hot tear with a controlled size is needed as part of the verification studies. In the current study, we demonstrate a method that has a potential to control the size of the created hot tear in a small-scale solidification process. We found that by changing two variables, cooling rate and displacement compensation rate, the size of the hot tear during solidification can be modified in a controlled way. An X-ray microtomography characterization technique is utilized to quantify the created hot tear. We suggest that feeding and strain rate during DC casting are more important compared with the exerted force on the sample for the formation of a hot tear. In addition, we show that there are four different domains of hot-tear development in the explored experimental window—compression, microscopic hot tear, macroscopic hot tear, and failure. The samples produced in the current study will be used for subsequent experiments that simulate cold-cracking conditions to confirm the earlier proposed model.