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Sample records for cooling time

  1. Time-dependent Cooling in Photoionized Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnat, Orly

    2017-02-01

    I explore the thermal evolution and ionization states in gas cooling from an initially hot state in the presence of external photoionizing radiation. I compute the equilibrium and nonequilibrium cooling efficiencies, heating rates, and ion fractions for low-density gas cooling while exposed to the ionizing metagalactic background radiation at various redshifts (z = 0 ‑ 3), for a range of temperatures (108–104 K), densities (10‑7–103 cm‑3), and metallicities (10‑3–2 times solar). The results indicate the existence of a threshold ionization parameter, above which the cooling efficiencies are very close to those in photoionization equilibrium (so that departures from equilibrium may be neglected), and below which the cooling efficiencies resemble those in collisional time-dependent gas cooling with no external radiation (and are thus independent of density).

  2. The cooling time scales of growing sunspots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Dean-Yi

    1987-01-01

    The evolution of brightness and magnetic fields of growing sunspots is studied. Growing sunspots are found to be brighter (or less dark) than stable sunspots with the same magnetic field strength. From comparison of brightness and magnetic fields of a growing sunspot with those of stable sunspots, a dynamical parameter, the cooling time, of the growing sunspot is obtained. Ten growing sunspots are studied, and cooling times of 0.5 to 9 hr are found. Two models, the inhibition model and the Alfven wave model, give cooling times of about 0.05 hr, based on linear theory. The discrepancy between theory and observation may be due to the fact that the observed sunspots are in the nonlinear regime.

  3. Exercise and Quadriceps Muscle Cooling Time

    PubMed Central

    Long, Blaine C; Cordova, Mitchell L; Brucker, Jody B; Demchak, Timothy J; Stone, Marcus B

    2005-01-01

    Context: Cryotherapy is commonly used for a variety of purposes; however, the body's response to cryotherapy immediately postexercise is unknown. Objective: To investigate the effect of prior exercise on crushed-ice–bag treatment of a large muscle group. Design: 2 × 3 repeated-measures design on depth (1 cm and 2 cm below adipose tissue) and treatment (exercise followed by ice, exercise followed by no ice, and no exercise followed by ice). Setting: Sports Injury Research Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Six physically active, uninjured male volunteers. Intervention(s): For the 2 exercise conditions, subjects rode a stationary cycle ergometer at 70% to 80% of their age-predicted maximum heart rate, as calculated by the Karvonen method. For the no-exercise condition, subjects lay supine on a treatment table. The cryotherapy treatment consisted of a 1-kg ice bag applied to the anterior mid thigh. For the no-ice condition, subjects lay supine on a treatment table. Main Outcome Measure(s): Time required for the intramuscular temperatures at the 1-cm and 2-cm depths below adipose tissue to return to pre-exercise baseline and time required to cool the 1-cm and 2-cm depths to 10°C below the pre-exercise temperature. Results: The time to cool the rectus femoris to the pre-exercise temperature using a crushed-ice–bag treatment was reduced by approximately 40 minutes (P < .001). The ice bag cooled the 1-cm and 2-cm depths to the pre-exercise temperature within 7 minutes (P = .38), but the 2-cm tissue depth took nearly 13.5 minutes longer to cool than the 1-cm depth when no ice was applied (P = .001). The 1-cm depth cooled to 10°C below the pre-exercise temperature about 8 minutes sooner than the 2-cm depth, regardless of whether the tissue was exercised or not (P < .001). Exercise shortened the cooling time to 10°C below the pre-exercise temperature by approximately 13 minutes (P = .05). Conclusions: Exercise before cooling with a crushed-ice bag enhanced

  4. Cool Roofs Through Time and Space

    ScienceCinema

    Levinson, Ronnen

    2016-07-12

    Ronnen Levinson, from the Lab's Heat Island Group, presents his research on cool roofs and introduces the California Cities Albedo Map at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California

  5. Cool Roofs Through Time and Space

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen

    2014-10-17

    Ronnen Levinson, from the Lab's Heat Island Group, presents his research on cool roofs and introduces the California Cities Albedo Map at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California

  6. Time to Cooling Is Associated with Resuscitation Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Janata, Andreas; Peacock, W. Frank; Deal, Nathan S.; Kalra, Sarathi; Sterz, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    Our purpose was to analyze evidence related to timing of cooling from studies of targeted temperature management (TTM) after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after cardiac arrest and to recommend directions for future therapy optimization. We conducted a preliminary review of studies of both animals and patients treated with post-ROSC TTM and hypothesized that a more rapid cooling strategy in the absence of volume-adding cold infusions would provide improved outcomes in comparison with slower cooling. We defined rapid cooling as the achievement of 34°C within 3.5 hours of ROSC without the use of volume-adding cold infusions, with a ≥3.0°C/hour rate of cooling. Using the PubMed database and a previously published systematic review, we identified clinical studies published from 2002 through 2014 related to TTM. Analysis included studies with time from collapse to ROSC of 20–30 minutes, reporting of time from ROSC to target temperature and rate of patients in ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation, and hypothermia maintained for 20–24 hours. The use of cardiopulmonary bypass as a cooling method was an exclusion criterion for this analysis. We compared all rapid cooling studies with all slower cooling studies of ≥100 patients. Eleven studies were initially identified for analysis, comprising 4091 patients. Two additional studies totaling 609 patients were added based on availability of unpublished data, bringing the total to 13 studies of 4700 patients. Outcomes for patients, dichotomized into faster and slower cooling approaches, were determined using weighted linear regression using IBM SPSS Statistics software. Rapid cooling without volume-adding cold infusions yielded a higher rate of good neurological recovery than slower cooling methods. Attainment of a temperature below 34°C within 3.5 hours of ROSC and using a cooling rate of more than 3°C/hour appear to be beneficial. PMID:27906641

  7. Subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness alters cooling time during cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Otte, Jeffrey W; Merrick, Mark A; Ingersoll, Christopher D; Cordova, Mitchell L

    2002-11-01

    To determine if differing subcutaneous adipose thickness alters the treatment duration required to produce a standard cooling effect during cryotherapy. A 4-group, between-groups comparison in which the independent variable was skinfold thickness (0-10mm, 11-20mm, 21-30mm, 31-40mm) and the dependent variable was cooling time, defined as the treatment duration required to decrease intramuscular (IM) temperature 7 degrees C from baseline. A sports injury research laboratory. Forty-seven volunteers with anterior thigh skinfold measurement of less than 40mm. Topical cryotherapy (750g crushed-ice bag) to the anterior thigh to produce a typical cooling effect, defined as IM temperature at 1cm subadipose declining by 7 degrees C. Cryotherapy treatment duration required to produce a standardized cooling effect in subjects with differing subcutaneous adipose thickness. Analysis of variance revealed that mean time to cool IM tissues by 7 degrees C differed across all groups, with cooling time increasing as adipose thickness increased. The mean +/- standard deviation cooling times were as follows: 31-40mm (58.6+/-11.7min), 21-30mm (37.8+/-9.6min), 11-20mm (23.3+/-6.7min), and 0-10mm (8.0+/-3.4min). During cold application, there is a clinically important direct relationship between adipose thickness and required cooling time. This relationship necessitates dramatic adjustments to cryotherapy duration to produce similar IM temperature changes. A 25-minute treatment may be adequate for a patient with a skinfold of 20mm or less; however, a 40-minute application is required to produce similar results in a patients with skinfolds between 21 and 30mm, whereas a 60-minute application is required for patients with skinfolds of 30 to 40mm. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  8. Beyond Newton's law of cooling - estimation of time since death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinbach, Carl

    2011-09-01

    The estimate of the time since death and, thus, the time of death is strictly that, an estimate. However, the time of death can be an important piece of information in some coroner's cases, especially those that involve criminal or insurance investigations. It has been known almost from the beginning of time that bodies cool after the internal mechanisms such as circulation of the blood stop. A first attempt to link this phenomenon to the determination of the time of death used a crude linear relationship. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, Newton's law of cooling using body temperature data obtained by the coroner was used to make a more accurate estimate. While based on scientific principles and resulting in a better estimate, Newton's law does not really describe the cooling of a non-homogeneous human body. This article will discuss a more accurate model of the cooling process based on the theoretical work of Marshall and Hoare and the laboratory-based statistical work of Claus Henssge. Using DERIVE®6.10 and the statistical work of Henssge, the double exponential cooling formula developed by Marshall and Hoare will be explored. The end result is a tool that can be used in the field by coroner's scene investigators to determine a 95% confidence interval for the time since death and, thus, the time of death.

  9. Real-Time Closed Loop Modulated Turbine Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyam, Vikram; Culley, Dennis E.; Eldridge, Jeffrey; Jones, Scott; Woike, Mark; Cuy, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It has been noted by industry that in addition to dramatic variations of temperature over a given blade surface, blade-to-blade variations also exist despite identical design. These variations result from manufacturing variations, uneven wear and deposition over the life of the part as well as limitations in the uniformity of coolant distribution in the baseline cooling design. It is proposed to combine recent advances in optical sensing, actuation, and film cooling concepts to develop a workable active, closed-loop modulated turbine cooling system to improve by 10 to 20 the turbine thermal state over the flight mission, to improve engine life and to dramatically reduce turbine cooling air usage and aircraft fuel burn. A reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) can also be achieved by using the excess coolant to improve mixing in the combustor especially for rotorcraft engines. Recent patents filed by industry and universities relate to modulating endwall cooling using valves. These schemes are complex, add weight and are limited to the endwalls. The novelty of the proposed approach is twofold 1) Fluidic diverters that have no moving parts are used to modulate cooling and can operate under a wide range of conditions and environments. 2) Real-time optical sensing to map the thermal state of the turbine has never been attempted in realistic engine conditions.

  10. Nuclear superfluidity and cooling time of neutron star crusts

    SciTech Connect

    Monrozeau, C.; Margueron, J.; Sandulescu, N.

    2007-06-15

    We analyze the effect of neutron superfluidity on the cooling time of inner crust matter in neutron stars, in the case of a rapid cooling of the core. The specific heat of the inner crust, which determines the thermal response of the crust, is calculated in the framework of HFB approach at finite temperature. The calculations are performed with two paring forces chosen to simulate the pairing properties of uniform neutron matter corresponding to the BCS approximation and to many-body techniques including polarization effects. Using a simple model for the heat transport across the inner crust, it is shown that the two pairing scenarios mentioned above give very different values for the cooling time, i.e., of about 12 and 25 yr.

  11. Thermal time constant estimation in warming and cooling ectotherms.

    PubMed

    Dzialowski, E M.; O'Connor, M P.

    2001-06-01

    (1) Measurement of physiological control of warming and cooling in reptiles requires calculating the thermal time constant (tau) of the animal. (2) Previously reported methods of estimating tau are sensitive to multiple problems including measurement error in operative environmental temperature and equilibrium body temperature, drift of environmental temperatures, requirements for extremely simple thermal environments, and ill conditioning of the estimation techniques themselves. (3) We propose a physiologically based heat transfer model which is less sensitive to common experimental errors, more numerically robust, and can provide physiologically meaningful estimates of time constants. (4) The method presented here allows time constants to be measured for animals subjected to the traditional step change experiment as well as to shorter periods of warming and cooling such as during shuttling.

  12. National Gas Cool Times, September/October 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natural Gas Cool Times, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Several articles are presented covering the development and use of gas/electric cooling solutions for public schools and colleges. Articles address financing issues; indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and solutions; and the analysis of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. Three examples of how schools solved their cooling problems…

  13. COOLING TIME, FREEFALL TIME, AND PRECIPITATION IN THE CORES OF ACCEPT GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Voit, G. Mark; Donahue, Megan

    2015-01-20

    Star formation in the universe's largest galaxies—the ones at the centers of galaxy clusters—depends critically on the thermodynamic state of their hot gaseous atmospheres. Central galaxies with low-entropy, high-density atmospheres frequently contain multiphase star-forming gas, while those with high-entropy, low-density atmospheres never do. The dividing line between these two populations in central entropy, and therefore central cooling time, is amazingly sharp. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the dichotomy. One points out that thermal conduction can prevent radiative cooling of cluster cores above the dividing line. The other holds that cores below the dividing line are subject to thermal instability that fuels the central active galactic nucleus (AGN) through a cold-feedback mechanism. Here we explore those hypotheses with an analysis of the Hα properties of ACCEPT galaxy clusters. We find that the two hypotheses are likely to be complementary. Our results support a picture in which cold clouds inevitably precipitate out of cluster cores in which cooling outcompetes thermal conduction and rain down on the central black hole, causing AGN feedback that stabilizes the cluster core. In particular, the observed distribution of the cooling-time to freefall-time ratio is nearly identical to that seen in simulations of this cold-feedback process, implying that cold-phase accretion, and not Bondi-like accretion of hot-phase gas, is responsible for the AGN feedback that regulates star formation in large galaxies.

  14. Gas cooling in hydrodynamic simulations with an exact time integration scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qirong; Smith, Britton; Hernquist, Lars

    2017-09-01

    We implement and test the exact time integration method proposed by Townsend for gas cooling in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. The errors using this time integrator for the internal energy are limited by the resolution of the cooling tables and are insensitive to the size of the time-step, improving accuracy relative to explicit or implicit schemes when the cooling time is short. We compare results with different time integrators for gas cooling in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We find that the temperature of the gas in filaments before accreting into dark matter haloes to form stars, obtained with the exact cooling integration, lies close to the equilibrium where radiative cooling balances heating from the ultraviolet background. For comparison, the gas temperature without the exact integrator shows substantial deviations from the equilibrium relation. Galaxy stellar masses with the exact cooling technique agree reasonably well, but are systematically lower than the results obtained by the other integration schemes, reducing the need for feedback to suppress star formation. Our implementation of the exact cooling technique is provided and can be easily incorporated into any hydrodynamic code.

  15. It Takes Time to Be Cool: On the Relationship between Hyperthermia and Body Cooling in a Migrating Seaduck

    PubMed Central

    Guillemette, Magella; Polymeropoulos, Elias T.; Portugal, Steven J.; Pelletier, David

    2017-01-01

    The large amount of energy expended during flapping flight is associated with heat generated through the increased work of the flight muscles. This increased muscle work rate can manifest itself in core body temperature (Tb) increase of 1–2°C in birds during flight. Therefore, episodic body cooling may be mandatory in migratory birds. To elucidate the thermoregulatory strategy of a short-distance migrant, common eiders (Somateria mollissima), we implanted data loggers in the body cavity of wild birds for 1 year, and report information on Tb during their entire migration for 19 individuals. We show that the mean body temperature during flight (TbMean) in the eiders was associated with rises in Tb ranging from 0.2 to 1.5°C, largely depending on flight duration. To understand how eiders are dealing with hyperthermia during migration, we first compare, at a daily scale, how Tb differs during migration using a before-after approach. Only a slight difference was found (0.05°C) between the after (40.30°C), the before (40.41°C) and the migration (40.36°C) periods, indicating that hyperthermia during flight had minimal impact at this time scale. Analyses at the scale of a flight cycle (flight plus stops on the water), however, clearly shows that eiders were closely regulating Tb during migration, as the relationship between the storage of heat during flight was highly correlated (slope = 1) with the level of heat dumping during stops, at both inter-individual and intra-individual levels. Because Tb at the start of a flight (TbStart) was significantly and positively related to Tb at the end of a flight (TbEnd), and the maximal attained Tb during a flight (TbMax), we conclude that in absence of sufficient body cooling during stopovers, eiders are likely to become increasingly hyperthermic during migration. Finally, we quantified the time spent cooling down during migration to be 36% of their daily (24 h) time budget, and conclude that behavioral body cooling in

  16. Beyond Newton's Law of Cooling--Estimation of Time since Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinbach, Carl

    2011-01-01

    The estimate of the time since death and, thus, the time of death is strictly that, an estimate. However, the time of death can be an important piece of information in some coroner's cases, especially those that involve criminal or insurance investigations. It has been known almost from the beginning of time that bodies cool after the internal…

  17. Beyond Newton's Law of Cooling--Estimation of Time since Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinbach, Carl

    2011-01-01

    The estimate of the time since death and, thus, the time of death is strictly that, an estimate. However, the time of death can be an important piece of information in some coroner's cases, especially those that involve criminal or insurance investigations. It has been known almost from the beginning of time that bodies cool after the internal…

  18. Sympathetic Ground State Cooling and Time-Dilation Shifts in an 27Al+ Optical Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.-S.; Brewer, S. M.; Chou, C. W.; Wineland, D. J.; Leibrandt, D. R.; Hume, D. B.

    2017-02-01

    We report on Raman sideband cooling of 25Mg+ to sympathetically cool the secular modes of motion in a 25Mg+-27Al+ two-ion pair to near the three-dimensional (3D) ground state. The evolution of the Fock-state distribution during the cooling process is studied using a rate-equation simulation, and various heating sources that limit the efficiency of 3D sideband cooling in our system are discussed. We characterize the residual energy and heating rates of all of the secular modes of motion and estimate a secular motion time-dilation shift of -(1.9 ±0.1 )×10-18 for an 27Al+ clock at a typical clock probe duration of 150 ms. This is a 50-fold reduction in the secular motion time-dilation shift uncertainty in comparison with previous 27Al+ clocks.

  19. Sympathetic Ground State Cooling and Time-Dilation Shifts in an ^{27}Al^{+} Optical Clock.

    PubMed

    Chen, J-S; Brewer, S M; Chou, C W; Wineland, D J; Leibrandt, D R; Hume, D B

    2017-02-03

    We report on Raman sideband cooling of ^{25}Mg^{+} to sympathetically cool the secular modes of motion in a ^{25}Mg^{+}-^{27}Al^{+} two-ion pair to near the three-dimensional (3D) ground state. The evolution of the Fock-state distribution during the cooling process is studied using a rate-equation simulation, and various heating sources that limit the efficiency of 3D sideband cooling in our system are discussed. We characterize the residual energy and heating rates of all of the secular modes of motion and estimate a secular motion time-dilation shift of -(1.9±0.1)×10^{-18} for an ^{27}Al^{+} clock at a typical clock probe duration of 150 ms. This is a 50-fold reduction in the secular motion time-dilation shift uncertainty in comparison with previous ^{27}Al^{+} clocks.

  20. Cooled semen for fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Borges-Silva, Juliana C; Silva, Márcio R; Marinho, Daniel B; Nogueira, Eriklis; Sampaio, Deiler C; Oliveira, Luiz Orcírio F; Abreu, Urbano G P; Mourão, Gerson B; Sartori, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the use of cooled semen in a fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) program compared with frozen-thawed semen to improve pregnancy rates in beef cattle. Ejaculates of three bulls were collected and divided into two treatments: (1) frozen-thawed semen and (2) cooled semen. Egg-yolk extender without glycerol was used for the cooled semen treatment. Straws (25×10(6) spermatozoa) were submitted to cooling for preservation at 5°C for 24h, after which FTAI was performed. Nelore cows (n=838) submitted to FTAI were randomly inseminated using frozen-thawed semen or cooled semen. There was a 20% increase in the pregnancy per AI (P AI(-1)) using cooled semen compared with frozen-thawed semen (59.9±4.7 vs 49.4±5.0%; P<0.005). There was no difference in P AI(-1) among the bulls (P=0.40). The frozen-thawed semen had fewer functional spermatozoa than did the cooled semen when evaluated by sperm motility (61.7 vs 81.0%), slow thermoresistance test (41.7 vs 66.7%) and hypoosmotic swelling test (38.3 vs 53.7%; P<0.05). The percentage of sperm abnormalities did not differ between the freeze-thawing and cooling processes (18.6 vs 22.1%; P>0.05). Because there was less damage to spermatozoa and improvement in P AI(-1), the use of cooled semen instead of frozen-thawed semen is an interesting approach to increase reproductive efficiency in cattle submitted to a FTAI protocol.

  1. A Cool Business: Trapping Intermediates on the submillisecond time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Syun-Ru

    2004-03-01

    The freeze-quenching technique is extremely useful for trapping meta-stable intermediates populated during fast chemical or biochemical reactions. The application of this technique, however, is limited by the long mixing time of conventional solution mixers and the slow freezing time of cryogenic fluids. To overcome these problems, we have designed and tested a novel microfluidic silicon mixer equipped with a new freeze-quenching device, with which reactions can be followed down to 50 microseconds. In the microfluidic silicon mixer, seven vertical pillars with 10 micrometer diameter are arranged perpendicular to the flow direction and in a staggered fashion in the 450 picoliter mixing chamber to enhance turbulent mixing. The mixed solution jet, with a cross-section of 10 micrometer by 100 micrometer, exits from the microfluidic silicon mixer with a linear flow velocity of 20 m/sec. It instantaneously freezes on one of two rotating copper wheels maintained at 77 K and is subsequently ground into an ultra-fine powder. The ultra-fine frozen powder exhibits excellent spectral quality, high packing factor and can be readily transferred between spectroscopic observation cells. The microfluidic mixer was tested by the reaction between azide and myoglobin at pH 5.0. It was found that complete mixing was achieved within the mixing dead-time of the mixer (20 microseconds) and the first observable point for this coupled device was determined to be 50 microseconds, which is approximately two orders of magnitude faster than commercially available instruments. Several new applications of this device in ultra-fast biological reactions will be presented. Acknowledgements: This work is done in collaboration with Dr. Denis Rousseau and is supported by the NIH Grants HL65465 to S.-R.Y. and GM67814 to D.L.R.

  2. Time resolved cryogenic cooling analysis of the Cornell Injector Cryomodule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, R.; Markham, S.; Smith, E.; Quigley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Managing parallel cryogenic flows has become a key challenge in designing efficient and smart cryo-modules for particle accelerators. In analysing the heating dynamics of the Cornell high current injector module a computational tool has been set-up allowing time resolved analysis and optimization. We describe the computational methods and data sets we have used, report the results and compare them to measured data from the module being in good agreement. Mitigation strategies developed on basis of this model have helped us in pushing the operational limitations.

  3. Time resolved spectroscopy of the cool Ap star HD 213637*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkin, V. G.; Kurtz, D. W.; Mathys, G.

    2015-02-01

    We present an analysis of high time resolution spectra of the chemically peculiar Ap star HD 213637. The star shows rapid radial velocity variations with a period close to the photometric pulsation period. Radial velocity pulsation amplitudes vary significantly for different rare earth elements. The highest pulsation amplitudes belong to lines of Tb III (˜360 m s-1), Pr II (˜250 m s-1) and Pr III (˜230 m s-1). We did not detect any pulsations from spectral lines of Eu II and in Hα, in contrast to many other roAp stars. We also did not find radial velocity pulsations using spectral lines of other chemical elements, including Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, Ni, Y and Ba. There are phase shifts between the maxima of pulsation amplitudes of different rare earth elements and ions, which is evidence of an outwardly running magneto-acoustic wave propagating through the upper stellar atmosphere.

  4. Small quantum absorption refrigerator in the transient regime: Time scales, enhanced cooling, and entanglement.

    PubMed

    Brask, Jonatan Bohr; Brunner, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    A small quantum absorption refrigerator, consisting of three qubits, is discussed in the transient regime. We discuss time scales for coherent dynamics, damping, and approach to the steady state, and we study cooling and entanglement. We observe that cooling can be enhanced in the transient regime, in the sense that lower temperatures can be achieved compared to the steady-state regime. This is a consequence of coherent dynamics but can occur even when this dynamics is strongly damped by the dissipative thermal environment, and we note that precise control over couplings or timing is not needed to achieve enhanced cooling. We also show that the amount of entanglement present in the refrigerator can be much larger in the transient regime compared to the steady state. These results are of relevance to future implementations of quantum thermal machines.

  5. Effects of processing parameters on immersion vacuum cooling time and physico-chemical properties of pork hams.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chao-Hui; Drummond, Liana; Zhang, Zhi-Hang; Sun, Da-Wen

    2013-10-01

    The effects of agitation (1002 rpm), different pressure reduction rates (60 and 100 mbar/min), as well as employing cold water with different initial temperatures (IWT: 7 and 20°C) on immersion vacuum cooling (IVC) of cooked pork hams were experimentally investigated. Final pork ham core temperature, cooling time, cooling loss, texture properties, colour and chemical composition were evaluated. The application for the first time of agitation during IVC substantially reduced the cooling time (47.39%) to 4.6°C, compared to IVC without agitation. For the different pressure drop rates, there was a trend that shorter IVC cooling times were achieved with lower cooling rate, although results were not statistically significant (P>0.05). For both IWTs tested, the same trend was observed: shorter cooling time and lower cooling loss were obtained under lower linear pressure drop rate of 60 mbar/min (not statistically significant, P>0.05). Compared to the reference cooling method (air blast cooling), IVC achieved higher cooling rates and better meat quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Practical neck cooling and time-trial running performance in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Christopher James; Wild, Perry; Sunderland, Caroline

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this two-part experiment was to investigate the effect of cooling the neck on time-trial performance in hot conditions (~30°C; 50% RH). In Study A, nine participants completed a 75-min submaximal (~60% V(O₂(max)) pre-load phase followed by a 15-min self-paced time-trial (TT) on three occasions: one with a cooling collar (CC(90)), one without a collar (NC(90)) and one with the collar uncooled (C(90)). In Study B, eight participants completed a 15-min TT twice: once with (CC(15)) and once without (NC(15)) a cooling collar. Time-trial performance was significantly improved in Study A in CC(90) (3,030 ± 485 m) compared to C(90) (2,741 ± 537 m; P = 0.008) and NC(90) (2,884 ± 571 m; P = 0.041). Fifteen-minute TT performance was unaffected by the collar in Study B (CC(15) = 3,239 ± 267 m; NC(15) = 3,180 ± 271 m; P = 0.351). The collar had no effect on rectal temperature, heart rate or RPE. There was no effect of cooling the neck on S100β, cortisol, prolactin, adrenaline, noradrenaline or dopamine concentrations in Study A. Cooling the neck via a cooling collar can improve exercise performance in a hot environment but it appears that there may be a thermal strain threshold which must be breached to gain a performance benefit from the collar.

  7. Heating, cooling, and uplift during Tertiary time, northern Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsay, D.A.; Andriessen, P.A.M.; Wardlaw, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in a wide area of the northern Sangre de Cristo Range show effects of heating during Tertiary time. Heating is tentatively interpreted as a response to burial during Laramide folding and thrusting and also to high heat flow during Rio Grande rifting. Fission-track ages of apatite across a section of the range show that rocks cooled abruptly below 120oC, the blocking temperature for apatite, approx 19 Ma ago. Cooling was probably in response to rapid uplift and erosion of the northern Sangre de Cristo Range during early Rio Grande rifting.-from Authors

  8. Cooling a charged mechanical resonator with time-dependent bias gate voltages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Qi; Li, Yong; Feng, Mang

    2013-04-10

    We show a purely electronic cooling scheme to cool a charged mechanical resonator (MR) down to nearly the vibrational ground state by elaborately tuning bias gate voltages on the electrodes, which couple the MR by the Coulomb interaction. The key step is the modification of the time-dependent effective eigen-frequency of the MR based on the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant. With respect to a relevant idea proposed previously (Li et al 2011 Phys. Rev. A 83 043803), our scheme is simpler, more practical and completely within the reach of current technology.

  9. Geomagnetic superchrons and time variations in the cooling rate of the core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, P.

    2015-12-01

    Polarity reversal systematics from numerical dynamos are used to explore the relationship between geomagnetic reversal frequency, including geomagnetic superchrons, and time variations in the rate of the cooling of the core. We develop a parameterization of the average reversal frequency from numerical dynamos in terms of the core heat flux normalized by the difference between the present-day core heat flux and the core heat flux at geomagnetic superchron onset. A low-order polynomial fit of this parameterization to the 0-300 Ma Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) reveals that a decrease in core heat flux relative to present-day of approximately 30% can account for the Cretaceous Normal Polarity and Kiaman Reversed Polarity Superchrons, whereas the hyper-reversing periods in the Jurassic GPTS imply a core heat flux approximately 20% higher than at present-day. Low heat flux and slow cooling of the core inferred during the Kiaman Reversed Polarity Superchron is qualitatively consistent with predictions from mantle global circulation models (mantle GCMs) that show a reduction in mantle convective activity during the time of Pangea, whereas these same mantle GCMs and most plate motion reconstructions predict fast core cooling during the Cretaceous Normal Polarity Superchron, suggesting that the cooling rate of the core is not generally in phase with variations in plate motions.

  10. Tolerance of brown bear spermatozoa to conditions of pre-freezing cooling rate and equilibration time.

    PubMed

    López-Urueña, E; Alvarez, M; Gomes-Alves, S; Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Borragan, S; Anel-López, L; de Paz, P; Anel, L

    2014-06-01

    Specific protocols for the cryopreservation of endangered Cantabrian brown bear spermatozoa are critical to create a genetic resource bank. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cooling rates and equilibration time before freezing on post-thawed brown bear spermatozoa quality. Electroejaculates from 11 mature bears were extended to 100 × 10(6) spermatozoa/mL in a TES-Tris-Fructose-based extender, cryopreserved following performance of the respective cooling/equilibration protocol each sample was assigned to, and stored at -196 °C for further assessment. Before freezing, after thawing, and after 1 hour's incubation post-thawing at 37 °C (thermal stress test), the quality of the samples was assessed for motility by computer-assisted semen analysis, and for viability (SYBR-14/propidium iodide), acrosomal status (peanut agglutinin-fluorescein isothiocyanate /propidium iodide), and sperm chromatin stability (SCSA) by flow cytometry. In experiment 1, three cooling rates (0.25 °C/min, 1 °C/min, and 4 °C/min) to 5 °C were assessed. After thawing, total motility (%TM) was higher and percentage of damaged acrosomes (%dACR) was lower (P < 0.05) for 0.25 °C/min than for 4 °C/min. The thermal stress test data indicated equally poor quality (P < 0.05) for the 4 °C/min cooled samples in viability (%VIAB), %dACR, %TM, and progressive motility (%PM). In experiment 2, the effect of a pre-freezing equilibration period at 5 °C for 1 hour (cooling at 0.25 °C/min) was evaluated. Samples kept at 5 °C for 1 hour showed higher (P < 0.05) values than the nonequilibrated ones for both thawing (%dACR) and thermal stress test (%VIAB, %TM, and %PM). In experiment 3, samples stored without cooling and equilibration (direct freezing) were compared with the samples cooled at 0.25 °C/min and equilibrated for 1 hour (control freezing). Using thermal stress test, we observed that direct freezing causes damage in viability, acrosomal status, and motility of spermatozoa

  11. Multiple regimes of carrier cooling in photoexcited graphene probed by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenzel, A. J.; Gabor, N. M.; Herring, P. K.; Fang, W.; Kong, J.; Jarillo-Herrero, P.; Gedik, N.

    2013-03-01

    Energy relaxation and cooling of photoexcited charge carriers in graphene has recently attracted significant attention due to possible hot carrier effects, large quantum efficiencies, and photovoltaic applications. However, the details of these processes remain poorly understood, with many conflicting interpretations reported. Here we use time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy to explore multiple relaxation and cooling regimes in graphene in order to elucidate the fundamental physical processes which occur upon photoexcitation of charge carriers. We observe a novel negative terahertz photoconductivity that results from the unique linear dispersion and allows us to measure the electron temperature with ultrafast time resolution. Additionally, we present measurements of the relaxation dynamics over a wide range of excitation fluence. By varying the pump photon energy, we demonstrate that cooling dynamics of photoexcited carriers depend on the amount of energy deposited in the graphene system by the pump pulse, not the number of absorbed photons. The data suggest that fundamentally different regimes are encountered for different excitation fluences. These results may provide a unifying framework for reconciling various measurements of energy relaxation and cooling in graphene.

  12. Methodology for estimation of time-dependent surface heat flux due to cryogen spray cooling.

    PubMed

    Tunnell, James W; Torres, Jorge H; Anvari, Bahman

    2002-01-01

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is an effective technique to protect the epidermis during cutaneous laser therapies. Spraying a cryogen onto the skin surface creates a time-varying heat flux, effectively cooling the skin during and following the cryogen spurt. In previous studies mathematical models were developed to predict the human skin temperature profiles during the cryogen spraying time. However, no studies have accounted for the additional cooling due to residual cryogen left on the skin surface following the spurt termination. We formulate and solve an inverse heat conduction (IHC) problem to predict the time-varying surface heat flux both during and following a cryogen spurt. The IHC formulation uses measured temperature profiles from within a medium to estimate the surface heat flux. We implement a one-dimensional sequential function specification method (SFSM) to estimate the surface heat flux from internal temperatures measured within an in vitro model in response to a cryogen spurt. Solution accuracy and experimental errors are examined using simulated temperature data. Heat flux following spurt termination appears substantial; however, it is less than that during the spraying time. The estimated time-varying heat flux can subsequently be used in forward heat conduction models to estimate temperature profiles in skin during and following a cryogen spurt and predict appropriate timing for onset of the laser pulse.

  13. A study of cooling time reduction of interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors using a high-emissivity coating

    SciTech Connect

    Sakakibara, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Chen, D.; Tokoku, C.; Uchiyama, T.; Ohashi, M.; Kuroda, K.; Kimura, N.; Suzuki, T.; Koike, S.

    2014-01-29

    In interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors, there are plans to cool mirrors and their suspension systems (payloads) in order to reduce thermal noise, that is, one of the fundamental noise sources. Because of the large payload masses (several hundred kg in total) and their thermal isolation, a cooling time of several months is required. Our calculation shows that a high-emissivity coating (e.g. a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating) can reduce the cooling time effectively by enhancing radiation heat transfer. Here, we have experimentally verified the effect of the DLC coating on the reduction of the cooling time.

  14. Cook/chill foodservice systems. Predicting cooling time of a ground beef entrée chilled in bulk.

    PubMed

    Rollin, J L; Matthews, M E; Lung, D B

    1979-10-01

    Mathematical formulas which incorporate thermal properties of the food, geometry of the food mass, and process conditions during cooling were used to predict the time required for a cooked ground beef product chilled in bulk to cool to 45 degrees F. (7 degrees C.). Formulas predicted cooling time within 36 min. (11 per cent) of the actual cooling time. For widespread application, additional information on thermal properties of entrée products of the type served in foodservice operations needs to be obtained.

  15. Modeling Thermospheric Energetics: Implications of Cooling Rate Measurements by TIMED/SABER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, S. C.; Qian, L.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Infrared radiation from the lower thermosphere has a significant effect on thermospheric temperature throughout its altitude range. Energy deposited in the upper thermosphere is conducted downward to altitudes where collisional processes with heterogeneous molecules are effective in exciting radiative transitions. Thus, exospheric temperature is strongly influenced by the infrared cooling rates. Measurements from the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite have provided the global distribution and temporal variation of the two most important cooling rates, from the 15-micron band of carbon dioxide, and the 5.3-micron band of nitric oxide, both excited in the thermosphere primarily by collisions with atomic oxygen [e.g., Mlynczak et al., JGR, 2010]. Because these measurements are of the cooling rate itself, they are nearly independent of assumptions concerning carbon dioxide or nitric oxide density, atomic oxygen density, temperature, and rate coefficients, and so provide strong constraints on global models. Simulations using the NCAR Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIME-GCM) have obtained reasonable agreement with global nitric oxide cooling rates, on daily and solar-cycle time scales alike [c.f., Qian et al., JGR, 2010; Solomon et al., JGR, 2012]. This may be somewhat surprising, or serendipitous, considering the complexity of the production and chemistry of thermospheric nitric oxide, but is a hopeful indication of the model's ability to describe thermospheric temperature structure and variability. However, initial model simulations of 15-micron carbon dioxide emission have been significantly lower than the SABER measurements. This indicates that there may be issues with the carbon dioxide densities, with the atomic oxygen density, or with the rate coefficient for their interaction. Simply increasing any of these to bring the cooling rate into agreement with SABER measurements will have the additional effect of

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of Reprocessing Cooling Times on Light Water Reactor and Sodium Fast Reactor Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    R. M. Ferrer; S. Bays; M. Pope

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of variations of the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and fast reactor reprocessing cooling time on a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) assuming a single-tier fuel cycle scenario. The results from this study show the effects of different cooling times on the SFR’s transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio (CR) and transuranic fuel enrichment. Also, the decay heat, gamma heat and neutron emission of the SFR’s fresh fuel charge were evaluated. A 1000 MWth commercial-scale SFR design was selected as the baseline in this study. Both metal and oxide CR=0.50 SFR designs are investigated.

  17. Cost benefit analysis of the night-time ventilative cooling in office building

    SciTech Connect

    Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David

    2003-06-01

    The indoor temperature can be controlled with different levels of accuracy depending on the building and its HVAC system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential productivity benefits of improved temperature control, and to apply the information for a cost-benefit analyses of night-time ventilative cooling, which is a very energy efficient method of reducing indoor daytime temperatures. We analyzed the literature relating work performance with temperature, and found a general decrement in work performance when temperatures exceeded those associated with thermal neutrality. These studies included physiological modelling, performance of various tasks in laboratory experiments and measured productivity at work in real buildings. The studies indicate an average 2% decrement in work performance per degree C temperature rise, when the temperature is above 25 C. When we use this relationship to evaluate night-time ventilative cooling, the resulting benefit to cost ratio varies from 32 to 120.

  18. Paleobotanical evidence for cool north polar climates in middle Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) time

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, R.A.; Parrish, J.T.

    1986-08-01

    Mid-Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) floras are abundant and diverse on the North Slope of Alaska. The older floras consist of conifers, cycadophytes, ferns, ginkgophytes, and sphenophytes (horsetails). Angiosperms appeared in latest Albian time and rapidly diversified. The preserved floras consist entirely of deciduous plants, with the exception of a microphyllous conifer, ferns, and sphenophytes. Deciduousness is evidence for strong seasonality, which for these floras might be variations in either light or temperature or both. Cool temperatures are suggested by the prevalence of toothed leaves among the angiosperms and the presence of large-leaved conifers. The paleobotanical evidence points to a mid-Cretaceous climate that was no warmer than cool temperate on the North Slope of Alaska.

  19. A Nonlinear Least Squares Approach to Time of Death Estimation Via Body Cooling.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Marianito R

    2016-01-01

    The problem of time of death (TOD) estimation by body cooling is revisited by proposing a nonlinear least squares approach that takes as input a series of temperature readings only. Using a reformulation of the Marshall-Hoare double exponential formula and a technique for reducing the dimension of the state space, an error function that depends on the two cooling rates is constructed, with the aim of minimizing this function. Standard nonlinear optimization methods that are used to minimize the bivariate error function require an initial guess for these unknown rates. Hence, a systematic procedure based on the given temperature data is also proposed to determine an initial estimate for the rates. Then, an explicit formula for the TOD is given. Results of numerical simulations using both theoretical and experimental data are presented, both yielding reasonable estimates. The proposed procedure does not require knowledge of the temperature at death nor the body mass. In fact, the method allows the estimation of the temperature at death once the cooling rates and the TOD have been calculated. The procedure requires at least three temperature readings, although more measured readings could improve the estimates. With the aid of computerized recording and thermocouple detectors, temperature readings spaced 10-15 min apart, for example, can be taken. The formulas can be straightforwardly programmed and installed on a hand-held device for field use.

  20. Effect of cooling rate on timing and dynamics of crystallization within a man-made magma body

    SciTech Connect

    Dunbar, N.W.; Jacobs, G.K.; Naney, M.T. )

    1992-01-01

    A 1.3 [times] 10[sup 7] g, 3 m diameter, hemispheric-shaped, man-made mafic melt produced by inductance heating was allowed to cool naturally, dropping from a maximum temperature of 1,500 C to 500 C in 6 days. The cooled melt was found to be almost completely crystalline, and is composed dominantly of unzoned pyroxene and plagioclase. A thermal arrest, a 20 hr period of constant temperature (1,140 C) observed during cooling resulted from the release of latent heat during crystallization. However, crystallization within the central part of the melt probably began at a higher temperature, as indicated by thermal perturbations between 1,300 C and 1,140 C. Comparison of results from simple conductive cooling models with the observed cooling curves influenced by latent heat input allows estimates of the timing of crystalline growth. Growth rates for plagioclase and pyroxene are estimated to range between 10[sup [minus]5] and 10[sup [minus]6] cm/sec. Although the melt was physically, chemically, and thermally homogeneous at the time that cooling was initiated, the crystal morphology and composition varies systematically with distance from the edge of the melt, presumably as a function of cooling rate and degree of undercooling at the time that crystallization was initiated. Crystals near the edge of the melt, where cooling was most rapid are characterized by disequilibrium skeletal or spherulitic morphologies. With increased proximity to the interior, and progressively slower cooling rates, crystal morphology grade from chain-like to lath-like, and finally to tabular in the slowest-cooled areas. The chemical composition of the diopsidic pyroxene also varies as function of growth rate. Crystals that grew near the edge of the melt are enriched with respect to Al, and depleted with respect to Mg as compared to crystals from the central area.

  1. The cooling time of fertile chicken eggs at different stages of incubation.

    PubMed

    Mortola, Jacopo P; Gaonac'h-Lovejoy, Vanda

    2016-01-01

    We asked whether or not the thermal characteristics of fertile avian eggs changed throughout incubation. The cooling and warming times, expressed by the time constant τ of the egg temperature response to a rapid change in ambient temperature, were measured in fertile chicken eggs at early (E7), intermediate (E11) and late (E20) stages of embryonic development. Same measurements were conducted on eggs emptied of their content and refilled with water by various amounts. The results indicated that (1) the τ of a freshly laid egg was ~50 min; (2) τ decreased linearly with the drop in egg water volume; (3) the dry eggshell had almost no thermal resistance but its wet inner membrane contributed about one-third to the stability of egg temperature; (4) the egg constituents (yolk, albumen and embryonic tissues) and the chorioallantoic circulation had no measurable effect on τ; (5) the presence of an air pocket equivalent in volume to the air cell of fertile eggs reduced τ by about 3 min (E7), 5 min (E11) and 11 min (E20). Hence, in response to warming the egg τ at E20 was slightly shorter than at E7. In response to cooling, the egg τ at E20 was similar to, or longer than, E7 because embryonic thermogenesis (evaluated by measurements of oxygen consumption during cold) offset the reduction in τ introduced by the air cell. In conclusion, until the onset of thermogenesis the thermal behavior of a fertile egg is closely approximated by that of a water-filled egg with an air volume equivalent to the air cell. It is possible to estimate the cooling τ of avian eggs of different species from their weight and incubation time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A long pollen record from lowland Amazonia: Forest and cooling in glacial times

    SciTech Connect

    Colinvaux, P.A.; Moreno, J.E.; Bush, M.B.

    1996-10-04

    A continuous pollen history of more than 40,000 years was obtained from a lake in the lowland Amazon rain forest. Pollen spectra demonstrate that tropical rain forest occupied the region continuously and that savannas or grasslands were not present during the last glacial maximum. The data suggest that the western Amazon forest was not fragmented into refugia in glacial times and that the lowlands were not a source of dust. Glacial age forests were comparable to modern forests but also included species now restricted to higher evaluations by temperature, suggesting a cooling of the order of 5{degrees} to 6{degrees}C. 23 refs., 22 tabs.

  3. Time-dependent insulin oligomer reaction pathway prior to fibril formation: Cooling and seeding

    PubMed Central

    Sorci, Mirco; Grassucci, Robert A.; Hahn, Ingrid; Frank, Joachim; Belfort, Georges

    2009-01-01

    The difficulty in identifying the toxic agents in all amyloid-related diseases is likely due to the complicated kinetics and thermodynamics of the nucleation process and subsequent fibril formation. The slow progression of these diseases suggests that the formation, incorporation and/or action of toxic agents is possibly rate limiting. Candidate toxic agents include precursors (some at very low concentrations), also called oligomers and protofibrils, and the fibrils. Here, we investigate the kinetic and thermodynamic behavior of human insulin oligomers (imaged by cryo-EM) under fibril forming conditions (pH 1.6 and 65°C) by probing the reaction pathway to insulin fibril formation using two different types of experiments – cooling and seeding – and confirm the validity of the nucleation model and its effect on fibril growth. The results from both the cooling and seeding studies confirm the existence of a time-changing oligomer reaction process prior to fibril formation that likely involves a rate-limiting nucleation process followed by structural rearrangements of intermediates (into β-sheet rich entities) to form oligomers that then form fibrils. The latter structural rearrangement step occurs even in the absence of nuclei (i.e. with added heterologous seeds). Nuclei are formed at the fibrillation conditions (pH 1.6 and 65°C) but are also continuously formed during cooling at pH 1.6 and 25°C. Within the time-scale of the experiments, only after increasing the temperature to 65°C are the trapped insulin nuclei and resultant structures able to induce the structural rearrangement step and overcome the energy barrier to form fibrils. This delay in fibrillation and accumulation of nuclei at low temperature (25°C), result in a decrease in the mean length of the fibers when placed at 65°C. Fits of an empirical model to the data provide quantitative measures of the delay in the lag-time during the nucleation process and subsequent reduction in fibril growth rate

  4. Time-dependent insulin oligomer reaction pathway prior to fibril formation: cooling and seeding.

    PubMed

    Sorci, Mirco; Grassucci, Robert A; Hahn, Ingrid; Frank, Joachim; Belfort, Georges

    2009-10-01

    The difficulty in identifying the toxic agents in all amyloid-related diseases is likely due to the complicated kinetics and thermodynamics of the nucleation process and subsequent fibril formation. The slow progression of these diseases suggests that the formation, incorporation, and/or action of toxic agents are possibly rate limiting. Candidate toxic agents include precursors (some at very low concentrations), also called oligomers and protofibrils, and the fibrils. Here, we investigate the kinetic and thermodynamic behavior of human insulin oligomers (imaged by cryo-EM) under fibril-forming conditions (pH 1.6 and 65 degrees C) by probing the reaction pathway to insulin fibril formation using two different types of experiments-cooling and seeding-and confirm the validity of the nucleation model and its effect on fibril growth. The results from both the cooling and seeding studies confirm the existence of a time-changing oligomer reaction process prior to fibril formation that likely involves a rate-limiting nucleation process followed by structural rearrangements of intermediates (into beta-sheet rich entities) to form oligomers that then form fibrils. The latter structural rearrangement step occurs even in the absence of nuclei (i.e., with added heterologous seeds). Nuclei are formed at the fibrillation conditions (pH 1.6 and 65 degrees C) but are also continuously formed during cooling at pH 1.6 and 25 degrees C. Within the time-scale of the experiments, only after increasing the temperature to 65 degrees C are the trapped insulin nuclei and resultant structures able to induce the structural rearrangement step and overcome the energy barrier to form fibrils. This delay in fibrillation and accumulation of nuclei at low temperature (25 degrees C) result in a decrease in the mean length of the fibers when placed at 65 degrees C. Fits of an empirical model to the data provide quantitative measures of the delay in the lag-time during the nucleation process and

  5. Spray cooling simulation implementing time scale analysis and the Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreitzer, Paul Joseph

    Spray cooling research is advancing the field of heat transfer and heat rejection in high power electronics. Smaller and more capable electronics packages are producing higher amounts of waste heat, along with smaller external surface areas, and the use of active cooling is becoming a necessity. Spray cooling has shown extremely high levels of heat rejection, of up to 1000 W/cm 2 using water. Simulations of spray cooling are becoming more realistic, but this comes at a price. A previous researcher has used CFD to successfully model a single 3D droplet impact into a liquid film using the level set method. However, the complicated multiphysics occurring during spray impingement and surface interactions increases computation time to more than 30 days. Parallel processing on a 32 processor system has reduced this time tremendously, but still requires more than a day. The present work uses experimental and computational results in addition to numerical correlations representing the physics occurring on a heated impingement surface. The current model represents the spray behavior of a Spraying Systems FullJet 1/8-g spray nozzle. Typical spray characteristics are indicated as follows: flow rate of 1.05x10-5 m3/s, normal droplet velocity of 12 m/s, droplet Sauter mean diameter of 48 microm, and heat flux values ranging from approximately 50--100 W/cm2 . This produces non-dimensional numbers of: We 300--1350, Re 750--3500, Oh 0.01--0.025. Numerical and experimental correlations have been identified representing crater formation, splashing, film thickness, droplet size, and spatial flux distributions. A combination of these methods has resulted in a Monte Carlo spray impingement simulation model capable of simulating hundreds of thousands of droplet impingements or approximately one millisecond. A random sequence of droplet impingement locations and diameters is generated, with the proper radial spatial distribution and diameter distribution. Hence the impingement, lifetime

  6. Quantum cooling and squeezing of a levitating nanosphere via time-continuous measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genoni, Marco G.; Zhang, Jinglei; Millen, James; Barker, Peter F.; Serafini, Alessio

    2015-07-01

    With the purpose of controlling the steady state of a dielectric nanosphere levitated within an optical cavity, we study its conditional dynamics under simultaneous sideband cooling and additional time-continuous measurement of either the output cavity mode or the nanosphere’s position. We find that the average phonon number, purity and quantum squeezing of the steady-states can all be made more non-classical through the addition of time-continuous measurement. We predict that the continuous monitoring of the system, together with Markovian feedback, allows one to stabilize the dynamics for any value of the laser frequency driving the cavity. By considering state of the art values of the experimental parameters, we prove that one can in principle obtain a non-classical (squeezed) steady-state with an average phonon number {n}{ph}≈ 0.5.

  7. Frequency thermal response and cooling performance in a microscopic system with a time-dependent perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraha, N.; Soba, A.; Carusela, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    Following the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism we study the thermal transport in a composite chain subject to a time-dependent perturbation. The system is formed by two finite linear asymmetric harmonic chains subject to an on-site potential connected together by a time-modulated coupling. The ends of the chains are coupled to two phononic reservoirs at different temperatures. We present the relevant equations used to calculate the heat current along each segment. We find that the system presents different transport regimes according the driving frequency and temperature gradients. One of the regimes corresponds to a heat pump against thermal gradient, thus a characterization of the cooling performance of the device is presented.

  8. The effect of mass recovery adsorption cooling cycle to optimize the collector number and time allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, K. M. Ariful; Alam, K. C. Amanul; Rouf, Rifat A.; Sarker, M. M. A.

    2016-07-01

    The performance of mass recovery for solar adsorption cooling system has been investigated numerically. Solar adsorption cooling appears to have a prospect in tropical region. Though it has a huge installation cost, its long term payback could be a considerable fact. Mass recovery scheme increases Average Cooling Capacity (ACC) and Coefficient of Performance (COP) values of the adsorption cooling system. In intension to reduce cost and maximize system performance, a two bed solar driven conventional cooling system run by silica gel and water along with mass recovery process has been investigated mathematically.

  9. CONVERGENCE STUDIES OF MASS TRANSPORT IN DISKS WITH GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITIES. I. THE CONSTANT COOLING TIME CASE

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, Scott; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Durisen, Richard H.; Boley, Aaron C. E-mail: tomsc@astro.indiana.edu E-mail: aaron.boley@gmail.com

    2012-02-10

    We conduct a convergence study of a protostellar disk, subject to a constant global cooling time and susceptible to gravitational instabilities (GIs), at a time when heating and cooling are roughly balanced. Our goal is to determine the gravitational torques produced by GIs, the level to which transport can be represented by a simple {alpha}-disk formulation, and to examine fragmentation criteria. Four simulations are conducted, identical except for the number of azimuthal computational grid points used. A Fourier decomposition of non-axisymmetric density structures in cos (m{phi}), sin (m{phi}) is performed to evaluate the amplitudes A{sub m} of these structures. The A{sub m} , gravitational torques, and the effective Shakura and Sunyaev {alpha} arising from gravitational stresses are determined for each resolution. We find nonzero A{sub m} for all m-values and that A{sub m} summed over all m is essentially independent of resolution. Because the number of measurable m-values is limited to half the number of azimuthal grid points, higher-resolution simulations have a larger fraction of their total amplitude in higher-order structures. These structures act more locally than lower-order structures. Therefore, as the resolution increases the total gravitational stress decreases as well, leading higher-resolution simulations to experience weaker average gravitational torques than lower-resolution simulations. The effective {alpha} also depends upon the magnitude of the stresses, thus {alpha}{sub eff} also decreases with increasing resolution. Our converged {alpha}{sub eff} is consistent with predictions from an analytic local theory for thin disks by Gammie, but only over many dynamic times when averaged over a substantial volume of the disk.

  10. Data Mining Techniques to Estimate Plutonium, Initial Enrichment, Burnup, and Cooling Time in Spent Fuel Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Trellue, Holly Renee; Fugate, Michael Lynn; Tobin, Stephen Joesph

    2015-03-19

    The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), Office of Nonproliferation and Arms Control (NPAC), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored a multi-laboratory, university, international partner collaboration to (1) detect replaced or missing pins from spent fuel assemblies (SFA) to confirm item integrity and deter diversion, (2) determine plutonium mass and related plutonium and uranium fissile mass parameters in SFAs, and (3) verify initial enrichment (IE), burnup (BU), and cooling time (CT) of facility declaration for SFAs. A wide variety of nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques were researched to achieve these goals [Veal, 2010 and Humphrey, 2012]. In addition, the project includes two related activities with facility-specific benefits: (1) determination of heat content and (2) determination of reactivity (multiplication). In this research, a subset of 11 integrated NDA techniques was researched using data mining solutions at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for their ability to achieve the above goals.

  11. Novel Controls for Time-Dependent Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling Heating and Power (CCHP)

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelsen, Scott; Brouwer, Jack

    2013-08-31

    The research and development effort detailed in this report directly addresses the challenge of reducing U.S. industrial energy and carbon intensity by contributing to an increased understanding of potential CCHP technology, the CCHP market and the challenges of widespread adoption. This study developed a number of new tools, models, and approaches for the design, control, and optimal dispatch of various CCHP technologies. The UC Irvine campus served as a ‘living laboratory’ of new CCHP technologies and enabled the design and demonstration of several novel control methods. In particular, the integration of large scale thermal energy storage capable of shifting an entire day of cooling demand required a novel approach to the CCHP dispatch optimization. The thermal energy storage proved an economically viable resource which reduced both costs and emissions by enabling generators and chillers to operate under steady high efficiency conditions at all times of the day.

  12. Observations of infrared radiative cooling in the thermosphere on daily to multiyear timescales from the TIMED/SABER instrument (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, M. G.

    2009-12-01

    We present observations of the infrared radiative cooling by carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO) in Earth’s thermosphere. These data have been taken over a period of 7 years by the SABER instrument on the NASA TIMED satellite and are the dominant radiative cooling mechanisms for the thermosphere. From the SABER observations we derive vertical profiles of radiative cooling rates (W m-3), radiative fluxes (W m-2), and radiated power (W). In the period from January 2002 through January 2009 we observe a large decrease in the cooling rates, fluxes, and power consistent with the declining phase of solar cycle 23. The power radiated by NO during 2008 when the Sun exhibited few sunspots was nearly one order of magnitude smaller than the peak power observed shortly after the mission began. Substantial short-term variability in the infrared emissions is also observed throughout the entire mission duration. Radiative cooling rates and radiative fluxes from NO exhibit fundamentally different latitude dependence than do those from CO2, with the NO fluxes and cooling rates being largest at high latitudes and polar regions. The cooling rates are shown to be derived relatively independent of the collisional and radiative processes that drive the departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in the CO2 15 μm and the NO 5.3 μm vibration-rotation bands. The observed NO and CO2 cooling rates have been compiled into a separate dataset and represent a climate data record that is available for use in assessments of radiative cooling in upper atmosphere general circulation models.

  13. Observations of Infrared Radiative Cooling in the Thermosphere on Daily to Multiyear Timescales from the TIMED/SABER Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Hunt, Linda A.; Marshall, B. Thomas; Martin-Torres, F. Javier; Mertens, Christopher J.; Russell, James M., III; Remsberg, Ellis E.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Picard, Richard; Winick, Jeremy; Wintersteiner, Peter; Thompson, R. Earl; Gordley, Larry L.

    2009-01-01

    We present observations of the infrared radiative cooling by carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO) in Earth s thermosphere. These data have been taken over a period of 7 years by the SABER instrument on the NASA TIMED satellite and are the dominant radiative cooling mechanisms for the thermosphere. From the SABER observations we derive vertical profiles of radiative cooling rates (W/cu m), radiative fluxes (W/sq m), and radiated power (W). In the period from January 2002 through January 2009 we observe a large decrease in the cooling rates, fluxes, and power consistent with the declining phase of solar cycle. The power radiated by NO during 2008 when the Sun exhibited few sunspots was nearly one order of magnitude smaller than the peak power observed shortly after the mission began. Substantial short-term variability in the infrared emissions is also observed throughout the entire mission duration. Radiative cooling rates and radiative fluxes from NO exhibit fundamentally different latitude dependence than do those from CO2, with the NO fluxes and cooling rates being largest at high latitudes and polar regions. The cooling rates are shown to be derived relatively independent of the collisional and radiative processes that drive the departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in the CO2 15 m and the NO 5.3 m vibration-rotation bands. The observed NO and CO2 cooling rates have been compiled into a separate dataset and represent a climate data record that is available for use in assessments of radiative cooling in upper atmosphere general circulation models.

  14. Analysis of Time-Dependent Tritium Breeding Capability of Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fangfang; Zhang, Xiaokang; Pu, Yong; Zhu, Qingjun; Liu, Songlin

    2016-08-01

    Attaining tritium self-sufficiency is an important mission for the Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR) operating on a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) fuel cycle. It is necessary to study the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and breeding tritium inventory variation with operation time so as to provide an accurate data for dynamic modeling and analysis of the tritium fuel cycle. A water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) blanket is one candidate of blanket concepts for the CFETR. Based on the detailed 3D neutronics model of CFETR with the WCCB blanket, the time-dependent TBR and tritium surplus were evaluated by a coupling calculation of the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) and the fusion activation code FISPACT-2007. The results indicated that the TBR and tritium surplus of the WCCB blanket were a function of operation time and fusion power due to the Li consumption in breeder and material activation. In addition, by comparison with the results calculated by using the 3D neutronics model and employing the transfer factor constant from 1D to 3D, it is noted that 1D analysis leads to an over-estimation for the time-dependent tritium breeding capability when fusion power is larger than 1000 MW. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2015GB108002, and 2014GB119000), and by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  15. Cool Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praeger, Charles E.

    2005-01-01

    Amid climbing energy costs and tightening budgets, administrators at school districts, colleges and universities are looking for all avenues of potential savings while promoting sustainable communities. Cool metal roofing can save schools money and promote sustainable design at the same time. Cool metal roofing keeps the sun's heat from collecting…

  16. Cool Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praeger, Charles E.

    2005-01-01

    Amid climbing energy costs and tightening budgets, administrators at school districts, colleges and universities are looking for all avenues of potential savings while promoting sustainable communities. Cool metal roofing can save schools money and promote sustainable design at the same time. Cool metal roofing keeps the sun's heat from collecting…

  17. The effect of heating and cooling on time course of voluntary and electrically induced muscle force variation.

    PubMed

    Brazaitis, Marius; Skurvydas, Albertas; Vadopalas, Kazys; Daniusevičiūtė, Laura; Senikienė, Zibuoklė

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heating and cooling on time course of voluntary and electrically induced muscle force variation. Ten volunteers performed 50 maximal voluntary and electrically induced contractions of the knee extensors at an angle of 120 degrees under the control conditions and after passive lower body heating and cooling in the control, heating, and cooling experiments. Peak torque, torque variation, and half-relaxation time were assessed during the exercise. Passive lower body heating increased muscle and core temperatures, while cooling lowered muscle temperature, but did not affect core temperature. We observed significantly lower muscle fatigue during voluntary contraction compared with electrically induced contractions. Body heating (opposite to cooling) increased involuntarily induced muscle force, but caused greater electrically induced muscle fatigue. In the middle of the exercise, the coefficient of correlation for electrically induced muscle torque decreased significantly as compared with the beginning of the exercise, while during maximal voluntary contractions, this relation for torque remained significant until the end of the exercise. It was shown that time course of voluntary contraction was more stable than in electrically induced contractions.

  18. Real-Time, Model-Based Spray-Cooling Control System for Steel Continuous Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrus, Bryan; Zheng, Kai; Zhou, X.; Thomas, Brian G.; Bentsman, Joseph

    2011-02-01

    This article presents a new system to control secondary cooling water sprays in continuous casting of thin steel slabs (CONONLINE). It uses real-time numerical simulation of heat transfer and solidification within the strand as a software sensor in place of unreliable temperature measurements. The one-dimensional finite-difference model, CON1D, is adapted to create the real-time predictor of the slab temperature and solidification state. During operation, the model is updated with data collected by the caster automation systems. A decentralized controller configuration based on a bank of proportional-integral controllers with antiwindup is developed to maintain the shell surface-temperature profile at a desired set point. A new method of set-point generation is proposed to account for measured mold heat flux variations. A user-friendly monitor visualizes the results and accepts set-point changes from the caster operator. Example simulations demonstrate how a significantly better shell surface-temperature control is achieved.

  19. Structural relaxation time and cooling rate of a melt in the glass transition region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanditov, D. S.; Sydykov, B. S.

    2015-03-01

    The nature of the parameter involved in the Bartenev equation qτg = C relating the cooling rate of a glass-forming melt to its structural relaxation time in the glass transition region is discussed on the basis of the Volkenshtein-Ptitsyn theory using a number of known relationships. It is established that parameter C for amorphous substances with the same fragility is linearly temperature dependent. This parameter is shown to equal the narrow temperature range δ T g characterizing the liquid-glass transition region (by Nemilov); i.e., C = δ T g. It is concluded that δ T g for most glassy systems is only ˜0.7% of the glass transition temperature T g. The narrowness of temperature range δ T g is explained by the small fluctuation volume fraction f g "frozen" at the glass transition temperature. The concept of a close relationship between constant C and the structural order at T g (i.e., the characteristic of the inner state of a nonequilibrium "frozen" amorphous system) is developed.

  20. Multi-stage pulse tube cryocooler with acoustic impedance constructed to reduce transient cool down time and thermal loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedeon, David R. (Inventor); Wilson, Kyle B. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The cool down time for a multi-stage, pulse tube cryocooler is reduced by configuring at least a portion of the acoustic impedance of a selected stage, higher than the first stage, so that it surrounds the cold head of the selected stage. The surrounding acoustic impedance of the selected stage is mounted in thermally conductive connection to the warm region of the selected stage for cooling the acoustic impedance and is fabricated of a high thermal diffusivity, low thermal radiation emissivity material, preferably aluminum.

  1. Effects of liquid cooling garments on recovery and performance time in individuals performing strenuous work wearing a firefighter ensemble.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Coca, Aitor; Williams, W Jon; Roberge, Raymond J

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of body cooling using liquid cooling garments (LCG) on performance time (PT) and recovery in individuals wearing a fully equipped prototype firefighter ensemble (PFE) incorporating a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Six healthy male participants (three firefighters and three non-firefighters) completed six experimental sessions in an environmental chamber (35°C, 50% relative humidity), consisting of three stages of 15 min exercise at 75% VO2max, and 10 min rest following each exercise stage. During each session, one of the following six conditions was administered in a randomized order: control (no cooling, CON); air ventilation of exhaust SCBA gases rerouted into the PFE (AV); top cooling garment (TCG); TCG combined with AV (TCG+AV); a shortened whole body cooling garment (SCG), and SCG combined with AV (SCG+AV). Results showed that total PT completed was longer under SCG and SCG+AV compared with CON, AV, TCG, and TCG+AV (p<0.01). Magnitude of core temperature (Tc) elevation was significantly decreased when SCG was utilized (p<0.01), and heart rate recovery rate (10 min) was enhanced under SCG, SCG+AV, TCG, and TCG+AV compared with CON (p<0.05). Estimated Esw rate (kg·h(-1)) was the greatest in CON, 1.62 (0.37), and the least in SCG+AV 0.98 (0.44): (descending order: CON>AV>TCG=TCG+AV>SCG>SCG+AV) without a statistical difference between the conditions (p<0.05). Results of the present study suggest that the application of LCG underneath the PFE significantly improves the recovery during a short period of rest and prolongs performance time in subsequent bouts of exercise. LCG also appears to be an effective method for body cooling that promotes heat dissipation during uncompensable heat stress.

  2. Storm time variation of radiative cooling of thermosphere by nitric oxide emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, M. V. Sunil; Bag, Tikemani; Bharti, Gaurav

    2016-07-01

    The fundamental vibration-rotation band emission (Δν=1, Δ j=0,± 1) by nitric oxide (NO) at 5.3 µm is one of the most important cooling mechanisms in thermosphere. The collisional vibrational excitation of NO(ν=0) by impact with atomic oxygen is the main source of vibrationally excited nitric oxide. The variation of NO density depends on latitude, longitude and season. The present study aims to understand how the radiative flux gets influenced by the severe geomagnetic storm conditions. The variation of Nitric Oxide (NO) radiative flux exiting thermosphere is studied during the superstorm event of 7-12 November, 2004. The observations of TIMED/SABER suggest a strong anti-correlation with the O/N_2 ratio observed by GUVI during the same period. On a global scale the NO radiative flux showed an enhancement during the main phase on 8 November, 2004, whereas maximum depletion in O/N_2 is observed on 10 November, 2004. Both O/N_2 and NO radiative flux were found to propagate equatorward due to the effect of meridional wind resulting from joule and particle heating in polar region. Larger penetrations is observed in western longitude sectors. These observed variations are effectively connected to the variations in neutral densities. In the equatorial sectors, O/N_2 shows enhancement but almost no variation in radiative flux is observed. The possible reasons for the observed variations in NO radiative emission and O/N_2 ratios are discussed in the light of equator ward increase in the densities and prompt penetration.

  3. Cool Vest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    ILC, Dover Division's lightweight cooling garment, called Cool Vest was designed to eliminate the harmful effects of heat stress; increases tolerance time in hot environments by almost 300 percent. Made of urethane-coated nylon used in Apollo, it works to keep the body cool, circulating chilled water throughout the lining by means of a small battery-powered pump. A pocket houses the pump, battery and the coolant which can be ice or a frozen gel, a valve control allows temperature regulation. One version is self-contained and portable for unrestrained movement, another has an umbilical line attached to an external source of coolant, such as standard tap water, when extended mobility is not required. It is reported from customers that the Cool Vest pays for itself in increased productivity in very high temperatures.

  4. Restaurant food cooling practices.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Blade, Henry; Reimann, Dave; Everstine, Karen; Nicholas, Dave; Egan, Jessica; Koktavy, Nicole; Quilliam, Daniela N

    2012-12-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study.

  5. Early to Middle Miocene cooling ages on Kea and Kythnos: timing constraints on crustal extension in the western Cyclades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, D. A.; Stockli, D.; Grasemann, B.; Iglseder, Ch.; Rice, A. H. N.; Heizler, M.

    2009-04-01

    metamorphic domes to represent the timing of extension and exhumation under moderate to rapid conditions. The structural style and metamorphic grade suggest these islands are exhumed portions of the Hellenic brittle-ductile transition zone. Except for the few younger Late Miocene ages on Kea, the bulk of our results are in marked contrast to the cooling pattern that has emerged on Serifos, a SSW-directed extensional dome directly adjacent to the south. Exhumation of the Cycladic metamorphic domes in general was accommodated along interfering and sequentially developed extensional detachment zones; the disparity in timing between the northern domes and Serifos may be a reflection of this detachment geometry and further indicates the relatively protracted nature of Attica-Cycladic extrusion since the Early Oligocene.

  6. Quality and fertility of cooled-shipped stallion semen at the time of insemination.

    PubMed

    Heckenbichler, Sabine; Deichsel, Katharina; Peters, Pamela; Aurich, Christine

    2011-03-15

    Stallion semen processing is far from standardized and differs substantially between AI centers. Suboptimal pregnancy rates in equine AI may primarily result from breeding with low quality semen not adequately processed for shipment. It was the aim of the study to evaluate quality and fertility of cooled-shipped equine semen provided for breeding of client mares by commercial semen collection centers in Europe. Cooled shipped semen (n = 201 doses) from 67 stallions and 36 different EU-approved semen collection centers was evaluated. At arrival, semen temperature was 9.8 ± 0.2 °C, mean sperm concentration of AI doses was 68 ± 3 x 10(6)/ml), mean total sperm count was 1.0 ± 0.1 x 10(9), total motility averaged 83 ± 1% and morphological defects 45 ± 2%. A total of 86 mares were inseminated, overall per season-pregnancy rate in these mares was 67%. Sperm concentration significantly influenced semen motility and morphology at arrival of the shipped semen. Significant effects of month of the year on volume, sperm concentration and total sperm count of the insemination dose were found. The collection center significantly influenced all semen parameters evaluated. Semen doses used to inseminate mares that became pregnant had significantly higher total and progressive motility of spermatozoa and a significantly lower percentage of morphological semen defects than insemination doses used for mares failing to get pregnant. Results demonstrate that insemination with semen of better quality provides a higher chance to achieve pregnancy. Besides the use of stallions with good semen quality, appropriate semen processing is an important factor for satisfying results in artificial insemination with cooled-shipped horse semen.

  7. Temperature-time distribution and thermal stresses on the RTG fins and shell during water cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) packages designed for space missions generally do not require active cooling. However, the heat they generate cannot remain inside of the launch vehicle bay and requires active removal. Therefore, before the Shuttle bay door is closed, the RTG coolant tubes attached to the heat rejection fins must be filled with water, which will circulate and remove most of the heat from the cargo bay. There is concern that charging a system at initial temperature around 200 C with water at 24 C can cause unacceptable thermal stresses in the RTG shell and fins. A computer model is developed to estimate the transient temperature distribution resulting from such charging. The thermal stresses resulting from the temperature gradients do not exceed the elastic deformation limit for the material. Since the simplified mathematical model for thermal stresses tends to overestimate stresses, it is concluded that the RTG can be cooled by introducing water at 24 C to the initially hot fin coolant tubes while the RTG is in the Shuttle cargo bay.

  8. Temperature-time distribution and thermal stresses on the RTG fins and shell during water cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) packages designed for space missions generally do not require active cooling. However, the heat they generate cannot remain inside of the launch vehicle bay and requires active removal. Therefore, before the Shuttle bay door is closed, the RTG coolant tubes attached to the heat rejection fins must be filled with water, which will circulate and remove most of the heat from the cargo bay. There is concern that charging a system at initial temperature around 200 C with water at 24 C can cause unacceptable thermal stresses in the RTG shell and fins. A computer model is developed to estimate the transient temperature distribution resulting from such charging. The thermal stresses resulting from the temperature gradients do not exceed the elastic deformation limit for the material. Since the simplified mathematical model for thermal stresses tends to overestimate stresses, it is concluded that the RTG can be cooled by introducing water at 24 C to the initially hot fin coolant tubes while the RTG is in the Shuttle cargo bay.

  9. Time-series investigation of anomalous thermocouple responses in a liquid-metal-cooled reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, K.C.; Planchon, H.P.; Poloncsik, J.

    1988-03-24

    A study was undertaken using SAS software to investigate the origin of anomalous temperature measurements recorded by thermocouples (TCs) in an instrumented fuel assembly in a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor. SAS macros that implement univariate and bivariate spectral decomposition techniques were employed to analyze data recorded during a series of experiments conducted at full reactor power. For each experiment, data from physical sensors in the tests assembly were digitized at a sampling rate of 2/s and recorded on magnetic tapes for subsequent interactive processing with CMS SAS. Results from spectral and cross-correlation analyses led to the identification of a flow rate-dependent electromotive force (EMF) phenomenon as the origin of the anomalous TC readings. Knowledge of the physical mechanism responsible for the discrepant TC signals enabled us to device and justify a simple correction factor to be applied to future readings.

  10. Cooled-Spool Piston Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Brian G.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed cooled-spool piston compressor driven by hydraulic power and features internal cooling of piston by flowing hydraulic fluid to limit temperature of compressed gas. Provides sufficient cooling for higher compression ratios or reactive gases. Unlike conventional piston compressors, all parts of compressed gas lie at all times within relatively short distance of cooled surface so that gas cooled more effectively.

  11. Real-time measurement of the average temperature profiles in liquid cooling using digital holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero-Mendez, Carlos; Anaya, Tonatiuh Saucedo; Araiza-Esquivel, M.; Balderas-Navarro, Raúl E.; Aranda-Espinoza, Said; López-Martínez, Alfonso; Olvera-Olvera, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    We present an alternative optical method to estimate the temperature during the cooling process of a liquid using digital holographic interferometry (DHI). We make use of phase variations that are linked to variations in the refractive index and the temperature property of a liquid. In DHI, a hologram is first recorded using an object beam scattered from a rectangular container with a liquid at a certain reference temperature. A second hologram is then recorded when the temperature is decreased slightly. A phase difference between the two holograms indicates a temperature variation, and it is possible to obtain the temperature value at each small point of the sensed optical field. The relative phase map between the two object states is obtained simply and quickly through Fourier-transform method. Our experimental results reveal that the temperature values measured using this method and those obtained with a thermometer are consistent. We additionally show that it is possible to analyze the heat-loss process of a liquid sample in dynamic events using DHI.

  12. Non-equilibrium effects of core-cooling and time-dependent internal heating on mantle flush events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, D. A.; Balachandar, S.; Steinbach, V. C.; Honda, S.; Reuteler, D. M.; Smedsmo, J. J.; Lauer, G. S.

    We have examined the non-equilibrium effects of core-cooling and time-dependent internal-heating on the thermal evolution of the Earth's mantle and on mantle flush events caused by the two major phase transitions. Both two- and three-dimensional models have been employed. The mantle viscosity responds to the secular cooling through changes in the averaged temperature field. A viscosity which decreases algebraically with the average temperature has been considered. The time-dependent internal-heating is prescribed to decrease exponentially with a single decay time. We have studied the thermal histories with initial Rayleigh numbers between 2 x 107 and 108 . Flush events, driven by the non-equilibrium forcings, are much more dramatic than those produced by the equilibrium boundary conditions and constant internal heating. Multiple flush events are found under non-equilibrium conditions in which there is very little internal heating or very fast decay rates of internal-heating. Otherwise, the flush events take place in a relatively continuous fashion. Prior to massive flush events small-scale percolative structures appear in the 3D temperature fields. Time-dependent signatures, such as the surface heat flux, also exhibits high frequency oscillatory patterns prior to massive flush events. These two observations suggest that the flush event may be a self-organized critical phenomenon. The Nusselt number as a function of the time-varying Ra does not follow the Nusselt vs. Rayleigh number power-law relationship based on equilibrium (constant temperature) boundary conditions. Instead Nu(t) may vary non-monotonically with time because of the mantle flush events. Convective processes in the mantle operate quite differently under non-equilibrium conditions from its behaviour under the usual equilibrium situations.

  13. Effect of time of progesterone supplementation on serum progesterone and the conception rate of cooled Holstein heifers during the summer.

    PubMed

    Correa-Calderón, Abelardo; Pérez-Velázquez, Rolando; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Macias-Cruz, Ulises; Diaz-Molina, Raúl; Rivera-Acuña, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of progesterone supplementation at two different times on serum progesterone (P4 ) concentration, conception rate and resynchronization of cooled Holstein heifers in summer, 90 heifers were randomly assigned to two groups: (i) heifers subjected to TAI (timed artificial insemination) and progesterone supplementation from days 4 to 14 after TAI (S1; n = 45); and (ii) heifers under the same TAI protocol as S1 and progesterone supplementation from days 17 to 22 after TAI (S2 ; n = 45). The groups S1 and S2 were cooled 10 days before and 21 days after TAI. Respiratory rate, body surface temperature, vaginal temperature and rectal temperature recorded during the experiment were not different (P > 0.05) between S1 and S2 groups. Progesterone concentration was not different (P > 0.05) in S1 compared to S2 . The conception rates on days 30 and 55 were similar between groups (P > 0.05). Progesterone supplementation did not increase either conception rate or concentrations of P4 in heifers during the summer. Heifers not pregnant to first service in the group S2 were resynchronized (77.7%) for a second breeding. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Design of the cooled IRFPA real-time non-uniformity correction system based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Yicheng; Yun, Lijun; Shi, Junsheng; Zhang, Chao

    2011-11-01

    Non-Uniformity Correction (NUC) is a key technology for Infrared Focal Plane Array (IRFPA) real-time image processing system. In this paper, an IRFPA real-time two-point calibration (TPC) algorithm hardware system was designed. The system use CycloneIII-EP3C120F780 FPGA of the ALTERA as the controller, and has following features: simple structure, high precision, stability, portability, and real-time. The timing simulation and measurement for the developed hardware system verified the effectiveness of the scheme.

  15. Investigating cryoinjury using simulations and experiments: 2. TF-1 cells during graded freezing (interrupted slow cooling without hold time).

    PubMed

    Ross-Rodriguez, L U; Elliott, J A W; McGann, L E

    2010-08-01

    Cryopreservation plays a key role in the long-term storage of native and engineered cells and tissues for research and clinical applications. The survival of cells and tissues after freezing and thawing depends on the ability of the cells to withstand a variety of stresses imposed by the cryopreservation protocol. A better understanding of the nature and kinetics of cellular responses to temperature-induced conditions is required to minimize cryoinjury. An interrupted freezing procedure that allows dissection of cryoinjury was used to investigate the progressive damage that occurs to cells during cryopreservation using slow cooling. Simulations of cellular osmotic responses were used to provide interpretation linking states of the cell with events during the freezing procedure. Simulations of graded freezing (interrupted slow cooling without hold time) were correlated with cell recovery results of TF-1 cells. Calculated intracellular supercooling and osmolality, were used as indicators of the probability of cryoinjury due to intracellular ice formation and solution effects, providing direct links of cellular conditions to events in the freezing process. Using simulations, this study demonstrated that both intracellular supercooling and osmolality are necessary to explain graded freezing results. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A feasibility and optimization study to determine cooling time and burnup of advanced test reactor fuels using a nondestructive technique

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, Jorge

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study presented is to determine the best available non-destructive technique necessary to collect validation data as well as to determine burn-up and cooling time of the fuel elements onsite at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) canal. This study makes a recommendation of the viability of implementing a permanent fuel scanning system at the ATR canal and leads3 to the full design of a permanent fuel scan system. The study consisted at first in determining if it was possible and which equipment was necessary to collect useful spectra from ATR fuel elements at the canal adjacent to the reactor. Once it was establish that useful spectra can be obtained at the ATR canal the next step was to determine which detector and which configuration was better suited to predict burnup and cooling time of fuel elements non-destructively. Three different detectors of High Purity Germanium (HPGe), Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3), and High Pressure Xenon (HPXe) in two system configurations of above and below the water pool were used during the study. The data collected and analyzed was used to create burnup and cooling time calibration prediction curves for ATR fuel. The next stage of the study was to determine which of the three detectors tested was better suited for the permanent system. From spectra taken and the calibration curves obtained, it was determined that although the HPGe detector yielded better results, a detector that could better withstand the harsh environment of the ATR canal was needed. The in-situ nature of the measurements required a rugged fuel scanning system, low in maintenance and easy to control system. Based on the ATR canal feasibility measurements and calibration results it was determined that the LaBr3 detector was the best alternative for canal in-situ measurements; however in order to enhance the quality of the spectra collected using this scintillator a deconvolution method was developed. Following the development of the deconvolution method

  17. Vibrational cooling dynamics of a [FeFe]-hydrogenase mimic probed by time-resolved infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Caplins, Benjamin W; Lomont, Justin P; Nguyen, Son C; Harris, Charles B

    2014-12-11

    Picosecond time-resolved infrared spectroscopy (TRIR) was performed for the first time on a dithiolate bridged binuclear iron(I) hexacarbonyl complex ([Fe₂(μ-bdt)(CO)₆], bdt = benzene-1,2-dithiolate) which is a structural mimic of the active site of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase enzyme. As these model active sites are increasingly being studied for their potential in photocatalytic systems for hydrogen production, understanding their excited and ground state dynamics is critical. In n-heptane, absorption of 400 nm light causes carbonyl loss with low quantum yield (<10%), while the majority (ca. 90%) of the parent complex is regenerated with biexponential kinetics (τ₁ = 21 ps and τ₂ = 134 ps). In order to understand the mechanism of picosecond bleach recovery, a series of UV-pump TRIR experiments were performed in different solvents. The long time decay (τ₂) of the transient spectra is seen to change substantially as a function of solvent, from 95 ps in THF to 262 ps in CCl₄. Broadband IR-pump TRIR experiments were performed for comparison. The measured vibrational lifetimes (T₁(avg)) of the carbonyl stretches were found to be in excellent correspondence to the observed τ₂ decays in the UV-pump experiments, signifying that vibrationally excited carbonyl stretches are responsible for the observed longtime decays. The fast spectral evolution (τ₁) was determined to be due to vibrational cooling of low frequency modes anharmonically coupled to the carbonyl stretches that were excited after electronic internal conversion. The results show that cooling of both low and high frequency vibrational modes on the electronic ground state give rise to the observed picosecond TRIR transient spectra of this compound, without the need to invoke electronically excited states.

  18. Therapeutic hypothermia for out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation survivors: a feasibility study comparing time to achieve target core temperature using conventional conductive cooling versus combined conductive plus pericranial convective cooling.

    PubMed

    Wass, C Thomas; White, Roger D; Schroeder, Darrell R; Mirzoyev, Sultan A; Warfield, Karen T

    2013-04-01

    Mild to moderate therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has been shown to improve survival and neurologic outcome, as well as to reduce healthcare costs in patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with ventricular fibrillation. Accordingly, the American Heart Association has categorized this as a Class IB intervention. The therapeutic window for initiating TH is narrow, and thus, achieving target temperature expeditiously is of paramount importance to improve postresuscitative neurologic outcome. The present investigation is a feasibility study designed to assess the practicality and efficacy of including pericranial cooling in our postresuscitative TH protocol. Specifically, we compared time required to achieve target temperature (33°C) using our present standard of TH care (ie, conductive body cooling, conventional TH group) versus combined conductive body cooling plus convective (forced-air) head and neck cooling (combined TH group). Adult patients who experienced OHCA were included in the study provided TH could be initiated within 4 hours of resuscitation from ventricular fibrillation. Patients enrolled in both groups were cooled using the servo-controlled Arctic Sun conductive cooling system (Medivance, Inc, Louisville, CO). However, patients enrolled in the combined TH group also received forced-air pericranial cooling with an ambient temperature of approximately 13°C. In all cases, the target core (bladder) temperature was 33°C. The primary endpoint (ie, time required to achieve a core temperature of 33°C) was analyzed as a continuous variable and compared between groups using the rank sum test, whereas categorical variables were compared between groups using the chi-square test. Cardiac intensive care unit at a major tertiary care teaching center in Rochester, MN. Adult patients who experienced OHCA were included in the study. Patients enrolled in both groups were cooled using the servo-controlled Arctic Sun conductive cooling system

  19. Cooling Devices in Laser therapy.

    PubMed

    Das, Anupam; Sarda, Aarti; De, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Cooling devices and methods are now integrated into most laser systems, with a view to protecting the epidermis, reducing pain and erythema and improving the efficacy of laser. On the basis of method employed, it can be divided into contact cooling and non-contact cooling. With respect to timing of irradiation of laser, the nomenclatures include pre-cooling, parallel cooling and post-cooling. The choice of the cooling device is dictated by the laser device, the physician's personal choice with respect to user-friendliness, comfort of the patient, the price and maintenance costs of the device. We hereby briefly review the various techniques of cooling, employed in laser practice.

  20. Stochastic Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

  1. Reactivity and isotopic composition of spent PWR (pressurized-water-reactor) fuel as a function of initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time

    SciTech Connect

    Cerne, S.P.; Hermann, O.W.; Westfall, R.M.

    1987-10-01

    This study presents the reactivity loss of spent PWR fuel due to burnup in terms of the infinite lattice multiplications factor, k/sub infinity/. Calculations were performed using the SAS2 and CSAS1 control modules of the SCALE system. The k/sub infinity/ values calculated for all combinations of six enrichments, seven burnups, and five cooling times. The results are presented as a primary function of enrichment in both tabular and graphic form. An equation has been developed to estimate the tabulated values of k/sub infinity/'s by specifying enrichment, cooling time, and burnup. Atom densities for fresh fuel, and spent fuel at cooling times of 2, 10, and 20 years are included. 13 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Pre-Cooling With Crushed Ice is as Effective as Heat Acclimation at Improving Cycling Time Trial Performance in the Heat.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Matthew; Landers, Grant J; Wallman, Karen E; Kent, Georgina

    2017-06-12

    This study compared pre-cooling (ice ingestion) with heat acclimation training on cycling time trial (CTT) performance in the heat. Fifteen male cyclists/triathletes completed two 800 kJ cycle time trials in the heat, with a 12-day training program in between. Initially, all participants consumed 7 g·kg(-1) of water (22°C) in 30 min, prior to completing an 800 kJ CTT in hot, humid conditions (pre-CTT) (35°C, 50% relative humidity; RH). Participants were then split into two groups, pre-cooling (n=7): trained in thermoneutral conditions then underwent pre-cooling with ice ingestion (7 g·kg(-1),1°C) prior to the final CTT (post-CTT), heat acclimation (n=8): trained in hot conditions (35°C, 50% RH) and consumed water (7 g·kg(-1)) prior to post-CTT. Following training in both conditions, improvement in CTT time was deemed a likely positive benefit (pre-cooling -166±133 s; heat acclimation -105±62 s), with this result being similar between conditions (d=0.22, -0.68-1.08 90% confidence intervals; CI). Core temperature for post-CTT was lower in pre-cooling compared with heat acclimation from 20 min into the pre-cooling period until the 100 kJ mark of the CTT (d>0.98). Sweat onset occurred later in pre-cooling (250±100 s) compared with heat acclimation (180±80 s) for post-CTT (d=0.65, -0.30-1.50 90% CI). Thermal sensation was lower at the end of the pre-cooling period prior to post-CTT for the pre-cooling trial, compared with heat acclimation (d=1.24, 0.90-1.58 90% CI). Pre-cooling with ice ingestion offers an alternate method of improving endurance cycling performance in hot conditions if heat acclimation cannot be attained.

  3. Effect of Immersion Time and Cooling Mode on the Electrochemical Behavior of Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel in Sulfuric Acid Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekbir, Choukri; Dahoun, Nessrine; Guetitech, Asma; Hacid, Abdenour; Ziouche, Aicha; Ouaad, Kamel; Djadoun, Amar

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we investigated the influence of galvanizing immersion time and cooling modes environments on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of hot-dip galvanized steel, in 1 M sulfuric acid electrolyte at room temperature using potentiodynamic polarization technique. In addition, the evolution of thickness, structure and microstructure of zinc coatings for different immersion times and two cooling modes (air and water) is characterized, respectively, by using of Elcometer scan probe, x-ray diffraction and metallography analysis. The analysis of the behavior of steel and galvanized steel, vis-a-vis corrosion, by means of corrosion characteristic parameters as anodic (β a) and cathodic (β c) Tafel slopes, corrosion potential (E corr), corrosion current density (i corr), corrosion rate (CR) and polarization resistance (R p), reveals that the galvanized steel has anticorrosion properties much better than that of steel. More the immersion time increases, more the zinc coatings thickness increases, and more these properties become better. The comparison between the two cooling modes shows that the coatings of zinc produced by hot-dip galvanization and air-cooled provides a much better protection to steel against corrosion than those cooled by quenching in water which exhibit a brittle corrosive behavior due to the presence of cracks.

  4. Microbial analysis of meatballs cooled with vacuum and conventional cooling.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Hande Mutlu; Ozturk, Harun Kemal; Koçar, Gunnur

    2017-08-01

    Vacuum cooling is a rapid evaporative cooling technique and can be used for pre-cooling of leafy vegetables, mushroom, bakery, fishery, sauces, cooked food, meat and particulate foods. The aim of this study was to apply the vacuum cooling and the conventional cooling techniques for the cooling of the meatball and to show the vacuum pressure effect on the cooling time, the temperature decrease and microbial growth rate. The results of the vacuum cooling and the conventional cooling (cooling in the refrigerator) were compared with each other for different temperatures. The study shows that the conventional cooling was much slower than the vacuum cooling. Moreover, the microbial growth rate of the vacuum cooling was extremely low compared with the conventional cooling. Thus, the lowest microbial growth occurred at 0.7 kPa and the highest microbial growth was observed at 1.5 kPa for the vacuum cooling. The mass loss ratio for the conventional cooling and vacuum cooling was about 5 and 9% respectively.

  5. Time resolved analysis of Fermi gamma-ray bursts with fast-and slow-cooled synchrotron photon models

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, J. M.; Preece, R. D.; Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M. S.; Goldstein, A.; Bhat, P. N.; Greiner, J.; Gruber, D.; Kienlin, A.; Kouveliotou, C.; McGlynn, S.; Meegan, C. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Rau, A.; Xiong, S.; Axelsson, M.; Baring, M. G.; Dermer, C. D.; Iyyani, S.; Kocevski, D.; Omodei, N.; Ryde, F.; Vianello, G.

    2014-02-27

    Time-resolved spectroscopy is performed on eight bright, long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) dominated by single emission pulses that were observed with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Fitting the prompt radiation of GRBs by empirical spectral forms such as the Band function leads to ambiguous conclusions about the physical model for the prompt radiation. Moreover, the Band function is often inadequate to fit the data. Therefore, the GRB spectrum is modeled with two emission components consisting of optically thin non-thermal synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons and, when significant, thermal emission from a jet photosphere, which is represented by a blackbody spectrum. In order to produce an acceptable fit, the addition of a blackbody component is required in five out of the eight cases. We also find that the low-energy spectral index α is consistent with a synchrotron component with α = –0.81 ± 0.1. This value lies between the limiting values of α = –2/3 and α = –3/2 for electrons in the slow- and fast-cooling regimes, respectively, suggesting ongoing acceleration at the emission site. The blackbody component can be more significant when using a physical synchrotron model instead of the Band function, illustrating that the Band function does not serve as a good proxy for a non-thermal synchrotron emission component. The temperature and characteristic emission-region size of the blackbody component are found to, respectively, decrease and increase as power laws with time during the prompt phase. Additionally, we find that the blackbody and non-thermal components have separate temporal behaviors as far as their respective flux and spectral evolutions.

  6. Time resolved analysis of Fermi gamma-ray bursts with fast-and slow-cooled synchrotron photon models

    DOE PAGES

    Burgess, J. M.; Preece, R. D.; Connaughton, V.; ...

    2014-02-27

    Time-resolved spectroscopy is performed on eight bright, long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) dominated by single emission pulses that were observed with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Fitting the prompt radiation of GRBs by empirical spectral forms such as the Band function leads to ambiguous conclusions about the physical model for the prompt radiation. Moreover, the Band function is often inadequate to fit the data. Therefore, the GRB spectrum is modeled with two emission components consisting of optically thin non-thermal synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons and, when significant, thermal emission from a jet photosphere, which is represented by a blackbody spectrum. Inmore » order to produce an acceptable fit, the addition of a blackbody component is required in five out of the eight cases. We also find that the low-energy spectral index α is consistent with a synchrotron component with α = –0.81 ± 0.1. This value lies between the limiting values of α = –2/3 and α = –3/2 for electrons in the slow- and fast-cooling regimes, respectively, suggesting ongoing acceleration at the emission site. The blackbody component can be more significant when using a physical synchrotron model instead of the Band function, illustrating that the Band function does not serve as a good proxy for a non-thermal synchrotron emission component. The temperature and characteristic emission-region size of the blackbody component are found to, respectively, decrease and increase as power laws with time during the prompt phase. Additionally, we find that the blackbody and non-thermal components have separate temporal behaviors as far as their respective flux and spectral evolutions.« less

  7. Hardware/Software Data Acquisition System for Real Time Cell Temperature Monitoring in Air-Cooled Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bartolucci, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a hardware/software data acquisition system developed for monitoring the temperature in real time of the cells in Air-Cooled Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (AC-PEFC). These fuel cells are of great interest because they can carry out, in a single operation, the processes of oxidation and refrigeration. This allows reduction of weight, volume, cost and complexity of the control system in the AC-PEFC. In this type of PEFC (and in general in any PEFC), the reliable monitoring of temperature along the entire surface of the stack is fundamental, since a suitable temperature and a regular distribution thereof, are key for a better performance of the stack and a longer lifetime under the best operating conditions. The developed data acquisition (DAQ) system can perform non-intrusive temperature measurements of each individual cell of an AC-PEFC stack of any power (from watts to kilowatts). The stack power is related to the temperature gradient; i.e., a higher power corresponds to a higher stack surface, and consequently higher temperature difference between the coldest and the hottest point. The developed DAQ system has been implemented with the low-cost open-source platform Arduino, and it is completed with a modular virtual instrument that has been developed using NI LabVIEW. Temperature vs time evolution of all the cells of an AC-PEFC both together and individually can be registered and supervised. The paper explains comprehensively the developed DAQ system together with experimental results that demonstrate the suitability of the system. PMID:28698497

  8. Time-resolved analysis of Fermi gamma-ray bursts with fast- and slow-cooled synchrotron photon models

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, J. M.; Preece, R. D.; Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M. S.; Goldstein, A.; Bhat, P. N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Xiong, S.; Greiner, J.; Gruber, D.; Kienlin, A.; Rau, A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Meegan, C. A.; Axelsson, M.; Baring, M. G.; Dermer, C. D.; Iyyani, S.; Kocevski, D. E-mail: Rob.Preece@nasa.gov E-mail: baring@rice.edu; and others

    2014-03-20

    Time-resolved spectroscopy is performed on eight bright, long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) dominated by single emission pulses that were observed with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Fitting the prompt radiation of GRBs by empirical spectral forms such as the Band function leads to ambiguous conclusions about the physical model for the prompt radiation. Moreover, the Band function is often inadequate to fit the data. The GRB spectrum is therefore modeled with two emission components consisting of optically thin non-thermal synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons and, when significant, thermal emission from a jet photosphere, which is represented by a blackbody spectrum. To produce an acceptable fit, the addition of a blackbody component is required in five out of the eight cases. We also find that the low-energy spectral index α is consistent with a synchrotron component with α = –0.81 ± 0.1. This value lies between the limiting values of α = –2/3 and α = –3/2 for electrons in the slow- and fast-cooling regimes, respectively, suggesting ongoing acceleration at the emission site. The blackbody component can be more significant when using a physical synchrotron model instead of the Band function, illustrating that the Band function does not serve as a good proxy for a non-thermal synchrotron emission component. The temperature and characteristic emission-region size of the blackbody component are found to, respectively, decrease and increase as power laws with time during the prompt phase. In addition, we find that the blackbody and non-thermal components have separate temporal behaviors as far as their respective flux and spectral evolutions.

  9. Hardware/Software Data Acquisition System for Real Time Cell Temperature Monitoring in Air-Cooled Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Segura, Francisca; Bartolucci, Veronica; Andújar, José Manuel

    2017-07-09

    This work presents a hardware/software data acquisition system developed for monitoring the temperature in real time of the cells in Air-Cooled Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (AC-PEFC). These fuel cells are of great interest because they can carry out, in a single operation, the processes of oxidation and refrigeration. This allows reduction of weight, volume, cost and complexity of the control system in the AC-PEFC. In this type of PEFC (and in general in any PEFC), the reliable monitoring of temperature along the entire surface of the stack is fundamental, since a suitable temperature and a regular distribution thereof, are key for a better performance of the stack and a longer lifetime under the best operating conditions. The developed data acquisition (DAQ) system can perform non-intrusive temperature measurements of each individual cell of an AC-PEFC stack of any power (from watts to kilowatts). The stack power is related to the temperature gradient; i.e., a higher power corresponds to a higher stack surface, and consequently higher temperature difference between the coldest and the hottest point. The developed DAQ system has been implemented with the low-cost open-source platform Arduino, and it is completed with a modular virtual instrument that has been developed using NI LabVIEW. Temperature vs time evolution of all the cells of an AC-PEFC both together and individually can be registered and supervised. The paper explains comprehensively the developed DAQ system together with experimental results that demonstrate the suitability of the system.

  10. The contrasting roles of creep and stress relaxation in the time-dependent deformation during in-situ cooling of a nickel-base single crystal superalloy.

    PubMed

    Panwisawas, Chinnapat; D'Souza, Neil; Collins, David M; Bhowmik, Ayan

    2017-09-11

    Time dependent plastic deformation in a single crystal nickel-base superalloy during cooling from casting relevant temperatures has been studied using a combination of in-situ neutron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and modelling. Visco-plastic deformation during cooling was found to be dependent on the stress and constraints imposed to component contraction during cooling, which mechanistically comprises creep and stress relaxation. Creep results in progressive work hardening with dislocations shearing the γ' precipitates, a high dislocation density in the γ channels and near the γ/γ' interface and precipitate shearing. When macroscopic contraction is restricted, relaxation dominates. This leads to work softening from a decreased dislocation density and the presence of long segment stacking faults in γ phase. Changes in lattice strains occur to a similar magnitude in both the γ and γ' phases during stress relaxation, while in creep there is no clear monotonic trend in lattice strain in the γ phase, but only a marginal increase in the γ' precipitates. Using a visco-plastic law derived from in-situ experiments, the experimentally measured and calculated stresses during cooling show a good agreement when creep predominates. However, when stress relaxation dominates accounting for the decrease in dislocation density during cooling is essential.

  11. Leaching properties of slag generated by a gasification/vitrification unit: the role of pH, particle size, contact time and cooling method used.

    PubMed

    Moustakas, K; Mavropoulos, A; Katsou, E; Haralambous, K J; Loizidou, M

    2012-03-15

    The environmental impact from the operation of thermal waste treatment facilities mainly originates from the air emissions, as well as the generated solid residues. The objective of this paper is to examine the slag residue generated by a demonstration plasma gasification/vitrification unit and investigate the composition, the leaching properties of the slag under different conditions, as well as the role of the cooling method used. The influence of pH, particle size and contact time on the leachability of heavy metals are discussed. The main outcome is that the vitrified slag is characterized as inert and stable and can be safely disposed at landfills or used in the construction sector. Finally, the water-cooled slag showed better resistance in relation to heavy metal leachability compared to the air-cooled slag.

  12. Measurement and simulation of two-phase CO2 cooling in Micromegas modules for a Large Prototype of Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, D. S.; Attié, D.; Colas, P.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Majumdar, N.; Bhattacharya, S.; Sarkar, S.; Bhattacharya, A.; Ganjour, S.

    2015-08-01

    The readout electronics of a Micromegas (MM) module consume nearly 26 W of electric power, which causes the temperature of electronic board to increase upto 70 oC. Increase in temperature results in damage of electronics. Development of temperature gradient in the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) may affect precise measurement as well. Two-phase CO2 cooling has been applied to remove heat from the MM modules during two test beam experiments at DESY, Hamburg. Following the experimental procedure, a comprehensive study of the cooling technique has been accomplished for a single MM module by means of numerical simulation. This paper is focused to discuss the application of two-phase CO2 cooling to keep the temperature below 30 oC and stabilized within 0.2 oC.

  13. Stochastic cooling in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan J. M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Mernick, K.

    2012-05-20

    The full 6-dimensional [x,x'; y,y'; z,z'] stochastic cooling system for RHIC was completed and operational for the FY12 Uranium-Uranium collider run. Cooling enhances the integrated luminosity of the Uranium collisions by a factor of 5, primarily by reducing the transverse emittances but also by cooling in the longitudinal plane to preserve the bunch length. The components have been deployed incrementally over the past several runs, beginning with longitudinal cooling, then cooling in the vertical planes but multiplexed between the Yellow and Blue rings, next cooling both rings simultaneously in vertical (the horizontal plane was cooled by betatron coupling), and now simultaneous horizontal cooling has been commissioned. The system operated between 5 and 9 GHz and with 3 x 10{sup 8} Uranium ions per bunch and produces a cooling half-time of approximately 20 minutes. The ultimate emittance is determined by the balance between cooling and emittance growth from Intra-Beam Scattering. Specific details of the apparatus and mathematical techniques for calculating its performance have been published elsewhere. Here we report on: the method of operation, results with beam, and comparison of results to simulations.

  14. A Randomized, controlled, crossover trial to investigate times to onset of the perception of soothing and cooling by over-the-counter heartburn treatments.

    PubMed

    Strugala, V; Dettmar, P W; Sarratt, K; Sykes, J; Berry, P; Thomas, E

    2010-01-01

    This was a randomized, controlled, four-way crossover study in 45 subjects with a tendency to suffer from moderate heartburn following some meals. The study was designed to assess the time to onset of the perceived soothing and cooling effects of the alginate raft-forming products, Gaviscon Liquid (peppermint), Gaviscon Double Action Liquid (peppermint) and Gaviscon Powder Formulation (fresh tropical), compared with a non-active sublingual control. All three Gaviscon products provided significantly faster soothing and cooling effects compared with the control. Based on the upper 95% confidence limits for the median, time to onset of soothing was perceived within 3.15 min, 3.08 min and 4.05 min for Gaviscon Liquid, Double Action Liquid and Powder Formulation, respectively. Similarly, time to onset of cooling was perceived within 1.95 min, 1.23 min and 11.22 min for Gaviscon Liquid, Double Action Liquid and Powder Formulation, respectively. The results show that Gaviscon Liquid and Gaviscon Double Action soothe within 3.15 min and cool within 1.95 min.

  15. A fractal time thermal model for predicting the surface temperature of air-cooled cylindrical Li-ion cells based on experimental measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Marambio, Jorge; Moser, Francisco; Gana, Felipe; Severino, Bernardo; Calderón-Muñoz, Williams R.; Palma-Behnke, Rodrigo; Estevez, Pablo A.; Orchard, Marcos; Cortés, Marcelo

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a experimentally-validated fractal time thermal model to describe the discharge and cooling down processes of air-cooled cylindrical Lithium-ion cells. Three cases were studied, a spatially isolated single cell under natural convection and two spatial configurations of modules with forced air cooling: staggered and aligned arrays with 30 and 25 cells respectively. Surface temperature measurements for discharge processes were obtained in a single cell at 1 C, 2 C and 3 C discharge rates, and in the two arrays at 1 C discharge rate. In the modules, surface temperature measurements were obtained for selected cells at specific inlet cooling air speeds. The fractal time energy equation captures the anomalous temperature relaxation and describes the cell surface temperature using a stretched exponential model. Stretched exponential temperature models of cell surface temperature show a better agreement with experimental measurements than pure exponential temperature models. Cells closer to the horizontal side walls have a better heat dissipation than the cells along the centerline of the module. The high prediction capabilities of the fractal time energy equation are useful in new design approaches of thermal control strategies of modules and packs, and to develop more efficient signal-correction algorithms in multipoint temperature measurement technologies in Li-ion batteries.

  16. Coherent electron cooling.

    PubMed

    Litvinenko, Vladimir N; Derbenev, Yaroslav S

    2009-03-20

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams poses a major challenge for modern accelerator physics. The synchrotron radiation emitted from such beams is feeble; even in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operating with 7 TeV protons, the longitudinal damping time is about 13 hours. None of the traditional cooling methods seem able to cool LHC-class protons beams. In this Letter, we present a novel method of coherent electron cooling based on a high-gain free-electron laser (FEL). This technique could be critical for reaching high luminosities in hadron and electron-hadron colliders.

  17. Noninvasive real-time 2D imaging of temperature distribution during the plastic pellet cooling process by using electrical capacitance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Yusuke; Sapkota, Achyut; Sugawara, Michiko; Takei, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    This study has launched a concept to image a real-time 2D temperature distribution noninvasively by a combination of the electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) technique and a permittivity-temperature calibration equation for the plastic pellet cooling process. The concept has two steps, which are the relative permittivity calculation from the measured capacitance among the many electrodes by the ECT technique, and the temperature distribution imaging from the relative permittivity by the permittivity-temperature calibration equation. An ECT sensor with 12 electrodes was designed to image the cross-sectional temperature distribution during the polymethyl methacrylate pellets cooling process. The images of temperature distribution were successfully reconstructed from the relative permittivity distribution at every time step during the process. The images reasonably indicate the temperature diffusion in a 2D space and time within a 0.0065 and 0.0175 time-dependent temperature deviation, as compared to an analytical thermal conductance simulation and thermocouple measurement.

  18. Cool Earth Solar

    ScienceCinema

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2016-07-12

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  19. Cool Earth Solar

    SciTech Connect

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2013-04-22

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  20. Combining Hf-W Ages, Cooling Rates, and Thermal Models to Estimate the Accretion Time of Iron Meteorite Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, L.; Dauphas, N.; Wadhwa, M.; Masarik, J.; Janney, P. E.

    2007-12-01

    The 182Hf-182W short-lived chronometer has been widely used to date metal-silicate differentiation processes in the early Solar System. However the presence of cosmogenic effects from exposure to GCR can potentially hamper the use of this system for chronology purposes (e.g. [1,2]). These effects must be corrected for in order to calculate metal-silicate differentiation ages. In this study, high-precision W isotope measurements are presented for 32 iron meteorites from 8 magmatic and 2 non-magmatic groups. Exposure ages and pre- atmospheric size estimates are available for most of these samples [3]. Our precision is better than or comparable to the currently most precise literature data and our results agree with previous work [4]. All magmatic irons have ɛ182W equal within error to or more negative than the Solar System initial derived from a CAI isochron [5]. Iron meteorites from the same magmatic groups show variations in ɛ182W. These are most easily explained by exposure to cosmic rays in space. A correction method was developed to estimate pre-exposure ɛ182W for individual iron meteorite groups. Metal-silicate differentiation in most iron meteorite parent bodies must have occurred within 2 Myr of formation of refractory inclusions. For the first time, we combine 182Hf-182W ages with parent body sizes inferred from metallographic cooling rates in a thermal model to constrain the accretion time of iron meteorite parent bodies. The estimated accretion ages are within 1.5 Myr for most magmatic groups, and could be as early as 0.2 Myr after CAI formation. This is consistent with the study of Bottke et al. [6] who argued that iron meteorite parent bodies could represent an early generation of planetesimals formed in the inner region of the Solar System. [1] Masarik J. (1997) EPSL 152, 181-185. [2] Markowski A. et al. (2006) EPSL 250,104-115. [3] Voshage H. (1984) EPSL 71, 181-194. [4] Markowski A. et al. (2006) EPSL 242, 1-15. [5] Kleine T. et al. (2005) GCA 69

  1. Cooling wall

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenko, V.I.

    1995-07-01

    Protecting the shells of blast furnaces is being resolved by installing cast iron cooling plates. The cooling plates become non-operational in three to five years. The problem is that defects occur in manufacturing the cooling plates. With increased volume and intensity of work placed on blast furnaces, heat on the cast iron cooling plates reduces their reliability that limits the interim repair period of blast furnaces. Scientists and engineers from the Ukraine studied this problem for several years, developing a new method of cooling the blast furnace shaft called the cooling wall. Traditional cast iron plates were replaced by a screen of steel tubes, with the area between the tubes filled with fireproof concrete. Before placing the newly developed furnace shaft into operation, considerable work was completed such as theoretical calculations, design, research of temperature fields and tension. Continual testing over many years confirms the value of this research in operating blast furnaces. The cooling wall works with water cooling as well as vapor cooling and is operating in 14 blast furnaces in the Ukraine and two in Russia, and has operated for as long as 14 years.

  2. Cool & Connected

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Cool & Connected planning assistance program helps communities develop strategies and an action plan for using broadband to promote environmentally and economically sustainable community development.

  3. A Feasibility Study to Determine Cooling Time and Burnup of ATR Fuel Using a Nondestructive Technique and Three Types of Gamma-ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Jorge Navarro; Rahmat Aryaeinejad,; David W. Nigg

    2011-05-01

    A Feasibility Study to Determine Cooling Time and Burnup of ATR Fuel Using a Nondestructive Technique1 Rahmat Aryaeinejad, Jorge Navarro, and David W Nigg Idaho National Laboratory Abstract Effective and efficient Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel management require state of the art core modeling tools. These new tools will need isotopic and burnup validation data before they are put into production. To create isotopic, burn up validation libraries and to determine the setup for permanent fuel scanner system a feasibility study was perform. The study consisted in measuring short and long cooling time fuel elements at the ATR canal. Three gamma spectroscopy detectors (HPGe, LaBr3, and HPXe) and two system configurations (above and under water) were used in the feasibility study. The first stage of the study was to investigate which detector and system configuration would be better suited for different scenarios. The second stage of the feasibility study was to create burnup and cooling time calibrations using experimental isotopic data collected and ORIGEN 2.2 burnup data. The results of the study establish that a better spectra resolution is achieve with an above the water configuration and that three detectors can be used in the permanent fuel scanner system for different situations. In addition it was conclude that a number of isotopic ratios and absolute measurements could be used to predict ATR fuel burnup and cooling times. 1This work was supported by the U.S. Depart¬ment of Energy (DOE) under Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC Contract No. DE-AC07-05ID14517.

  4. Effects of cooling time and alloying elements on the microstructure of the gleeble-simulated heat-affected zone of 22% Cr duplex stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Rong-Iuan; Liou, Horng-Yih; Pan, Yeong-Tsuen

    2001-10-01

    The effects of austenite stabilizers, such as nitrogen, nickel, and manganese, and cooling time on the microstructure of the Gleeble simulated heat-affected zone (HAZ) of 22% Cr duplex stainless steels were investigated. The submerged are welding was performed for comparison purposes. Optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used for microscopic studies. The amount of Cr2N precipitates in the simulated HAZ was determined using the potentiostatic electrolysis method. The experimental results indicate that an increase in the nitrogen and nickel contents raised the δ to transformation temperature and also markedly increased the amount of austenite in the HAZ. The lengthened cooling time promotes the reformation of austenite. An increase in the austenite content reduces the supersaturation of nitrogen in ferrite matrix as well as the precipitation tendency of Cr2N. The optimum cooling time from 800 to 500 °C (Δ t 8/5) obtained from the Gleeble simulation is between 30 and 60 s, which ensures the austenite content in HAZ not falling below 25% and superior pitting and stress corrosion cracking resistance for the steels. The effect of manganese on the formation of austenite can be negligible.

  5. Direct Measurement of Initial Enrichment, Burn-up and Cooling Time of Spent Fuel Assembly with a Differential Die-Away Technique Based Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Henzl, Vladimir; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Tobin, Stephen J.

    2012-07-13

    An outline of this presentation of what a Differential Die-Away (DDA) instrument can do are: (1) Principle of operation of DDA instrument; (2) Determination of initial enrichment (IE) ({sigma} < 5%); (3) Determination of burn up (BU) ({sigma} {approx} 6%); (4) Determination of cooling time (CT) ({sigma} {approx} 20-50%); and (5) DDA instrument as a standalone device. DDA response (fresh fuel vs. spent fuel) is: (1) Fresh fuel => DDA response increases (die-away time is longer) with increasing fissile content; and (2) Spent fuel => DDA response decreases (die-away time is shorter) with higher burn-up (i.e. more neutron absorbers present).

  6. Development of the Glenn Heat-Transfer (Glenn-HT) Computer Code to Enable Time-Filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) Simulations and Application to Film Cooling on a Flat Plate Through Long Cooling Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ameri, Ali; Shyam, Vikram; Rigby, David; Poinsatte, Phillip; Thurman, Douglas; Steinthorsson, Erlendur

    2014-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) formulation for turbomachinery-related flows has enabled improved engine component designs. RANS methodology has limitations that are related to its inability to accurately describe the spectrum of flow phenomena encountered in engines. Examples of flows that are difficult to compute accurately with RANS include phenomena such as laminar/turbulent transition, turbulent mixing due to mixing of streams, and separated flows. Large eddy simulation (LES) can improve accuracy but at a considerably higher cost. In recent years, hybrid schemes that take advantage of both unsteady RANS and LES have been proposed. This study investigated an alternative scheme, the time-filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) method applied to compressible flows. The method developed by Shih and Liu was implemented in the Glenn-Heat-Transfer (Glenn-HT) code and applied to film-cooling flows. In this report the method and its implementation is briefly described. The film effectiveness results obtained for film cooling from a row of 30deg holes with a pitch of 3.0 diameters emitting air at a nominal density ratio of unity and two blowing ratios of 0.5 and 1.0 are shown. Flow features under those conditions are also described.

  7. Development of the Glenn-Heat-Transfer (Glenn-HT) Computer Code to Enable Time-Filtered Navier Stokes (TFNS) Simulations and Application to Film Cooling on a Flat Plate Through Long Cooling Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ameri, Ali A.; Shyam, Vikram; Rigby, David; Poinsatte, Phillip; Thurman, Douglas; Steinthorsson, Erlendur

    2014-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) formulation for turbomachinery-related flows has enabled improved engine component designs. RANS methodology has limitations that are related to its inability to accurately describe the spectrum of flow phenomena encountered in engines. Examples of flows that are difficult to compute accurately with RANS include phenomena such as laminar/turbulent transition, turbulent mixing due to mixing of streams, and separated flows. Large eddy simulation (LES) can improve accuracy but at a considerably higher cost. In recent years, hybrid schemes that take advantage of both unsteady RANS and LES have been proposed. This study investigated an alternative scheme, the time-filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) method applied to compressible flows. The method developed by Shih and Liu was implemented in the Glenn-Heat-Transfer (Glenn-HT) code and applied to film-cooling flows. In this report the method and its implementation is briefly described. The film effectiveness results obtained for film cooling from a row of 30deg holes with a pitch of 3.0 diameters emitting air at a nominal density ratio of unity and two blowing ratios of 0.5 and 1.0 are shown. Flow features under those conditions are also described.

  8. Development of the Glenn-HT Computer Code to Enable Time-Filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) Simulations and Application to Film Cooling on a Flat Plate Through Long Cooling Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ameri, Ali; Shyam, Vikram; Rigby, David; Poinsatte, Philip; Thurman, Douglas; Steinthorsson, Erlendur

    2014-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) formulation for turbomachinery-related flows has enabled improved engine component designs. RANS methodology has limitations which are related to its inability to accurately describe the spectrum of flow phenomena encountered in engines. Examples of flows that are difficult to compute accurately with RANS include phenomena such as laminarturbulent transition, turbulent mixing due to mixing of streams, and separated flows. Large eddy simulation (LES) can improve accuracy but at a considerably higher cost. In recent years, hybrid schemes which take advantage of both unsteady RANS and LES have been proposed. This study investigated an alternative scheme, the time-filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) method applied to compressible flows. The method developed by Shih and Liu was implemented in the Glenn-HT code and applied to film cooling flows. In this report the method and its implementation is briefly described. The film effectiveness results obtained for film cooling from a row of 30 holes with a pitch of 3.0 diameters emitting air at a nominal density ratio of unity and four blowing ratios of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 are shown. Flow features under those conditions are also described.

  9. Electron Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Timothy J. P.

    1991-08-01

    Electron cooling is a method of reducing the 6 -dimensional phase space volume of a stored ion beam. The technique was invented by Budker and first developed by him and his colleagues at the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk. Further studies of electron cooling were subsequently performed at CERN and Fermilab. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) an electron cooling system was designed, built, and commissioned in 1988. This was the highest energy system built to date (270 keV for cooling 500 MeV protons) and the first such system to be used as an instrument for performing nuclear and atomic physics experiments. This dissertation summarizes the design principles; measurements of the longitudinal drag rate (cooling force), equilibrium cooled beam properties and effective longitudinal electron beam temperature. These measurements are compared with theory and with the measured performance of other cooling systems. In addition the feasibility of extending this technology to energies an order of magnitude higher are discussed.

  10. Cooling Rates of Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Hewins, R. H.; Eiben, B. A.

    1995-09-01

    rates. Depending on temperature and starting composition, the charges cooled under such cooling rates exhibit either total glass, BO, PO, POP, or relict olivine texture, consistent with previous linear cooling experiments [2,3,9]. For type IIAB chondrule charges with PO, olivine zoning produced by initially cooling between 500 degrees C/hr and 5000 degrees C/hr is very similar to that of Semarkona chondrules [2]. In this cooling rate range, higher cooling rates enhance the zoning. Charges cooled between 10 degrees C/hr and 100 degrees C/hr show very limited olivine zoning. Textures and olivine zoning with ~10^5 degrees C/hr initial cooling rates. A cooling rate this high can only be achieved by quenching the charge in air immediately after the desired temperature is reached. The final charges are composed of glass and numerous small olivine crystals with grain sizes seldom exceeding 20 fm. Repeated heating/quenching cycles at lower temperature slowly coarsen the olivine crystals: 100 heating/quenching cycles can double the size of olivine, but the final olivine crystals are somewhat rounded and have curved embayments. Very limited olivine zoning is produced: the core/rim difference in FeO rarely exceeds 5%. Discussion. Under flash heating conditions, cooling rates of 10 - 100 degrees C/hr will cause extensive volatile loss except with an unusual ambient gas, and produce limited olivine zoning. Cooling rates of as high as 105 degrees C/hr certainly can preserve high volatile contents, but the crystals grown are too small. Repeated heating/extremely fast cooling cycles can coarsen the olivine grains, but not enough, and do not reproduce porphyritic chondrule textures well. In addition, the heating mechanism to heat chondrules hundreds of times with peak temperatures always constrained within a narrow window is unrealistic. The initial cooling rates of the chondrule cooling curves are more likely between these two extremes, and from our volatile loss results, they are

  11. Cooled railplug

    DOEpatents

    Weldon, William F.

    1996-01-01

    The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers.

  12. Cooling Devices in Laser therapy

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anupam; Sarda, Aarti; De, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Cooling devices and methods are now integrated into most laser systems, with a view to protecting the epidermis, reducing pain and erythema and improving the efficacy of laser. On the basis of method employed, it can be divided into contact cooling and non-contact cooling. With respect to timing of irradiation of laser, the nomenclatures include pre-cooling, parallel cooling and post-cooling. The choice of the cooling device is dictated by the laser device, the physician's personal choice with respect to user-friendliness, comfort of the patient, the price and maintenance costs of the device. We hereby briefly review the various techniques of cooling, employed in laser practice. PMID:28163450

  13. Cool School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Suzanne

    1980-01-01

    The design for Floyd Elementary School in Miami (Florida) seeks to harness solar energy to provide at least 70 percent of the annual energy for cooling needs and 90 percent for hot water. (Author/MLF)

  14. Effectiveness of ice-vest cooling in prolonging work tolerance time during heavy exercise in the heat for personnel wearing Canadian forces chemical defense ensembles

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, B.

    1991-01-01

    Effectiveness of a portable, ice-pack cooling vest (Steelevest) in prolonging work tolerance time in chemical defense clothing in the heat (33 C dry bulb, 33% relative humidity or 25 C WBGT) was evaluated while subjects exercised at a metabolic rate of approx. 700 watts. Subjects were six male volunteers. The protocol consisted of a 20 minute treadmill walk at 1.33 m/s. and 7.5% grade, followed by 15 minutes of a lifting task, 5 minutes rest, then another 20 minutes of lifting task for a total of one hour. The lifting task consisted of lifting of 20 kg box, carrying it 3 meters and setting it down. This was followed by a 6 m walk (3m back to the start point and 3 m back to the box) 15 sec after which the lifting cycle began again. The work was classified as heavy as previously defined. This protocol was repeated until the subjects were unable to continue or they reached a physiological endpoint. Time to voluntary cessation or physiological endpoint was called the work tolerance time. Physiological endpoints were rectal temperature of 39 C, heart rate exceeding 95% of maximum for two consecutive minutes or visible loss of motor control or nausea. The cooling vest had no effect on work tolerance time, rate of rise of rectal temperature or sweat loss. It was concluded that the Steelvest ice-vest is ineffective in prolonging work tolerance time and preventing increases in rectal temperature while wearing chemical protective clothing.

  15. Ultraefficient cooling of resonators: beating sideband cooling with quantum control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoting; Vinjanampathy, Sai; Strauch, Frederick W; Jacobs, Kurt

    2011-10-21

    The present state of the art in cooling mechanical resonators is a version of sideband cooling. Here we present a method that uses the same configuration as sideband cooling-coupling the resonator to be cooled to a second microwave (or optical) auxiliary resonator-but will cool significantly colder. This is achieved by varying the strength of the coupling between the two resonators over a time on the order of the period of the mechanical resonator. As part of our analysis, we also obtain a method for fast, high-fidelity quantum information transfer between resonators. © 2011 American Physical Society

  16. Investigating cryoinjury using simulations and experiments. 1: TF-1 cells during two-step freezing (rapid cooling interrupted with a hold time).

    PubMed

    Ross-Rodriguez, L U; Elliott, J A W; McGann, L E

    2010-08-01

    There is significant interest in designing a cryopreservation protocol for hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) which does not rely on dimethyl sulfoxide (Me(2)SO) as a cryoprotectant. Computer simulations that describe cellular osmotic responses during cooling and warming can be used to optimize the viability of cryopreserved HSC; however, a better understanding of cellular osmotic parameters is required for these simulations. As a model for HSC, the erythroleukemic human cell line TF-1 was used in this study. Simulations, based on the osmotic properties of TF-1 cells and on the solution properties of the intra- and extracellular compartments, were used to interpret cryoinjury associated with a two-step cryopreservation protocol. Calculated intracellular supercooling was used as an indicator of cryoinjury related to intracellular ice formation. Simulations were applied to the two-step cooling protocol (rapid cooling interrupted with a hold time) for TF-1 cells in the absence of Me(2)SO or other cryoprotectants and optimized by minimizing the indicator of cryoinjury. A comparison of simulations and experimental measurements of membrane integrity supports the concept that, for two-step cooling, increasing intracellular supercooling is the primary contributor to potential freezing injury due to the increase in the likelihood of intracellular ice formation. By calculating intracellular supercooling for each step separately and comparing these calculations with cell recovery data, it was demonstrated that it is not optimal simply to limit overall supercooling during two-step freezing procedures. More aptly, appropriate limitations of supercooling differ from the first step to the second step. This study also demonstrates why high cell recovery after cryopreservation could be achieved in the absence of traditional cryoprotectants. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A time resolved high energy X-ray diffraction study of cooling liquid SiO2.

    PubMed

    Skinner, L B; Benmore, C J; Weber, J K R; Wilding, M C; Tumber, S K; Parise, J B

    2013-06-14

    The evolution of the X-ray structure factor and corresponding pair distribution function of SiO2 has been measured upon cooling from the melt using high energy X-ray diffraction combined with aerodynamic levitation. Small changes in the position of the average Si-O bond distance and peak width are found to occur at ~1500(100) K in the region of the calorimetric glass transition temperature, T(g) and the observed density minima. At higher temperatures deviations from linear behavior are seen in the first sharp diffraction peak width, height and area at around 1750(50) K, which coincides with the reported density maximum around 1.2T(g).

  18. The Effect of Protoplanetary Disk Cooling Times on the Formation of Gas Giant Planets by Gravitational Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, Alan P.

    2017-02-01

    Observational evidence exists for the formation of gas giant planets on wide orbits around young stars by disk gravitational instability, but the roles of disk instability and core accretion for forming gas giants on shorter period orbits are less clear. The controversy extends to population synthesis models of exoplanet demographics and to hydrodynamical models of the fragmentation process. The latter refers largely to the handling of radiative transfer in three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamical models, which controls heating and cooling processes in gravitationally unstable disks, and hence dense clump formation. A suite of models using the β cooling approximation is presented here. The initial disks have masses of 0.091 M ⊙ and extend from 4 to 20 au around a 1 M ⊙ protostar. The initial minimum Toomre Q i values range from 1.3 to 2.7, while β ranges from 1 to 100. We show that the choice of Q i is equal in importance to the β value assumed: high Q i disks can be stable for small β, when the initial disk temperature is taken as a lower bound, while low Q i disks can fragment for high β. These results imply that the evolution of disks toward low Q i must be taken into account in assessing disk fragmentation possibilities, at least in the inner disk, i.e., inside about 20 au. The models suggest that if low Q i disks can form, there should be an as yet largely undetected population of gas giants orbiting G dwarfs between about 6 au and 16 au.

  19. Dopant-assisted negative photoionization Ion mobility spectrometry coupled with on-line cooling inlet for real-time monitoring H2S concentration in sewer gas.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Zhenxin; Hua, Lei; Li, Haiyang

    2016-06-01

    Malodorous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas often exists in the sewer system and associates with the problems of releasing the dangerous odor to the atmosphere and causing sewer pipe to be corroded. A simple method is in demand for real-time measuring H2S level in the sewer gas. In this paper, an innovated method based on dopant-assisted negative photoionization ion mobility spectrometry (DANP-IMS) with on-line semiconductor cooling inlet was put forward and successfully applied for the real-time measurement of H2S in sewer gas. The influence of moisture was effectively reduced via an on-line cooling method and a non-equilibrium dilution with drift gas. The limits of quantitation for the H2S in ≥60% relative humidity air could be obtained at ≤79.0ng L(-1) with linear ranges of 129-2064ng L(-1). The H2S concentration in a sewer manhole was successfully determined while its product ions were identified by an ion-mobility time-of-fight mass spectrometry. Finally, the correlation between sewer H2S concentration and the daily routines and habits of residents was investigated through hourly or real-time monitoring the variation of sewer H2S in manholes, indicating the power of this DANP-IMS method in assessing the H2S concentration in sewer system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Usefulness of real-time PCR as a complementary tool to the monitoring of Legionella spp. and Legionella pneumophila by culture in industrial cooling systems.

    PubMed

    Touron-Bodilis, A; Pougnard, C; Frenkiel-Lebossé, H; Hallier-Soulier, S

    2011-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of quantification by real-time PCR as a management tool to monitor concentrations of Legionella spp. and Legionella pneumophila in industrial cooling systems and its ability to anticipate culture trends by the French standard method (AFNOR T90-431). Quantifications of Legionella bacteria were achieved by both methods on samples from nine cooling systems with different water qualities. Proportion of positive samples for L. pneumophila quantified by PCR was clearly lower in deionized or river waters submitted to a biocide treatment than in raw river waters, while positive samples for Legionella spp. were quantified for almost all the samples. For some samples containing PCR inhibitors, high quantification limits (up to 4·80 × 10(5) GU l(-1) ) did not allow us to quantify L. pneumophila, when they were quantified by culture. Finally, the monitoring of concentrations of L. pneumophila by both methods showed similar trends for 57-100% of the samples. These results suggest that, if some methodological steps designed to reduce inhibitory problems and thus decrease the quantification limits, could be developed to quantify Legionella in complex waters, the real-time PCR could be a valuable complementary tool to monitor the evolution of L. pneumophila concentrations. This study shows the possibility of using real-time PCR to monitor L. pneumophila proliferations in cooling systems and the importance to adapt nucleic acid extraction and purification protocols to raw waters. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology. No claim to French Government works.

  1. Effectiveness of Ice-Vest Cooling in Prolonging Work Tolerance Time during Heavy Exercise in the Heat for Personnel Wearing Canadian Forces Chemical Defence Ensembles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    this institute ( McLellan et al (5)), we found that work tolerance times decreased dramatically when CD equipment was worn during work in the heat when...order in which the trials would be performed. The subjects performed "heavy" work as defired in a previous study ( McLellan et al (5)). The work consisted...and sweat rate in the no cooling condition found in this study are similar to those we have reported in another experiment ( McLellan et al (5)). In

  2. Cooled railplug

    DOEpatents

    Weldon, W.F.

    1996-05-07

    The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers. 10 figs.

  3. Cooling Vest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Because quadriplegics are unable to perspire below the level of spinal injury, they cannot tolerate heat stress. A cooling vest developed by Ames Research Center and Upjohn Company allows them to participate in outdoor activities. The vest is an adaptation of Ames technology for thermal control garments used to remove excess body heat of astronauts. The vest consists of a series of corrugated channels through which cooled water circulates. Its two outer layers are urethane coated nylon, and there is an inner layer which incorporates the corrugated channels. It can be worn as a backpack or affixed to a wheelchair. The unit includes a rechargeable battery, mini-pump, two quart reservoir and heat sink to cool the water.

  4. Teaching Social Communication Skills Using a Cool versus Not Cool Procedure plus Role-Playing and a Social Skills Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Taubman, Mitchell; Milne, Christine; Dale, Stephanie; Leaf, Jeremy; Townley-Cochran, Donna; Tsuji, Kathleen; Kassardjian, Alyne; Alcalay, Aditt; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John

    2016-01-01

    We utilized a cool versus not cool procedure plus role-playing to teach social communication skills to three individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The cool versus not cool procedure plus role-playing consisted of the researcher randomly demonstrating the behavior correctly (cool) two times and the behavior incorrectly (not cool) two…

  5. Teaching Social Communication Skills Using a Cool versus Not Cool Procedure plus Role-Playing and a Social Skills Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Taubman, Mitchell; Milne, Christine; Dale, Stephanie; Leaf, Jeremy; Townley-Cochran, Donna; Tsuji, Kathleen; Kassardjian, Alyne; Alcalay, Aditt; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John

    2016-01-01

    We utilized a cool versus not cool procedure plus role-playing to teach social communication skills to three individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The cool versus not cool procedure plus role-playing consisted of the researcher randomly demonstrating the behavior correctly (cool) two times and the behavior incorrectly (not cool) two…

  6. Sodium supplementation has no effect on endurance performance during a cycling time-trial in cool conditions: a randomised cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Samuel David; Black, Katherine Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Sodium ingestion during exercise may exert beneficial effects on endurance performance by either its ability to attenuate the decrease in plasma volume or reduce the risk of Exercise Associated Hyponatremia (EAH). This study aimed to investigate the effect of sodium supplements on endurance performance during a 72 km road cycling time-trial in cool conditions (13.8 ± 2.0°C). Nine well-trained cyclists (5 male, 4 female) participated in this randomized, double-blinded cross-over study, receiving either a 700 mg(.)h(-1) salt capsule, or a corn flour placebo during the time trial. Water was ingested ad-libitum throughout the time trial. Measurements were taken pre, post, and 40 min following time-trials, analysing blood, sweat, and urinary hydration and sodium concentration. Sodium supplements had no effect on time-trial performance (overall time = 171 min sodium vs. 172 min placebo; p = 0.46). There was also no effect on the change in plasma sodium concentration from pre to post time trial between trials (relative plasma [Na(+)] change (pre-post): sodium = 0.56%, placebo = 0.47%; p = 0.60). The greatest difference observed was a significantly change in plasma volume from pre to post exercise between the salt and the placebo trial (p = 0.02), which corresponded with an increased thirst with sodium supplementation. Sodium supplements therefore do not improving performance during exercise of approximately 3 h duration in cool conditions.

  7. Cooling vest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, J.; Kane, J.; Coverdale, J.

    1977-01-01

    Inexpensive vest of heat-sealable urethane material, when strapped to person's body, presents significant uncomplicated cooling system for environments where heavy accumulation of metabolic heat exists. Garment is applicable to occupations where physical exertion is required under heavy protective clothing.

  8. Cool Andromeda

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-28

    In this new view of the Andromeda, also known as M31, galaxy from the Herschel space observatory, cool lanes of forming stars are revealed in the finest detail yet. M31 is the nearest major galaxy to our own Milky Way at a distance of 2.5 million light-ye

  9. Separation of Joule Heating and Peltier Cooling via Time-Resolved X-Ray Di?raction in Si/SiGe Superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozina, Michael; Fuchs, Matthias; Chen, Jian; Jiang, Mason; Chen, Pice; Evans, Paul; Vermeersch, Bjorn; Bahk, Je-Hyeong; Shakouri, Ali; Brewe, Dale; Reis, David

    2012-02-01

    We present detailed measurements of the thermal pro?le in a pulsed current SiGe-based thermoelectric micro-cooler. The evolution of heat ?ow in thermoelectric materials has been previously studied using time-domain thermore?ectance imaging; however, such methods are typically only sensitive to the surface temperature of the device, and the heat ?ow into the material remains hidden. Using time-resolved x-ray di?raction, we probe the transient temperature change in both the surface gold electrode and the underlying Si/SiGe superlattice using the shift in diffraction pattern caused by thermal expansion. We are also able to resolve Joule heating vs. Peltier cooling taking place in the gold through separation of timescales made possible by the relatively short duration (100ps) of the Advanced Photon Source.

  10. Methods of beam cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1996-02-01

    Diverse methods which are available for particle beam cooling are reviewed. They consist of some highly developed techniques such as radiation damping, electron cooling, stochastic cooling and the more recently developed, laser cooling. Methods which have been theoretically developed, but not yet achieved experimentally, are also reviewed. They consist of ionization cooling, laser cooling in three dimensions and stimulated radiation cooling.

  11. Cool Flame Quenching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Howard; Chapek, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Cool flame quenching distances are generally presumed to be larger than those associated with hot flames, because the quenching distance scales with the inverse of the flame propagation speed, and cool flame propagation speeds are often times slower than those associated with hot flames. To date, this presumption has never been put to a rigorous test, because unstirred, non-isothermal cool flame studies on Earth are complicated by natural convection. Moreover, the critical Peclet number (Pe) for quenching of cool flames has never been established and may not be the same as that associated with wall quenching due to conduction heat loss in hot flames, Pe approx. = 40-60. The objectives of this ground-based study are to: (1) better understand the role of conduction heat loss and species diffusion on cool flame quenching (i.e., Lewis number effects), (2) determine cool flame quenching distances (i.e, critical Peclet number, Pe) for different experimental parameters and vessel surface pretreatments, and (3) understand the mechanisms that govern the quenching distances in premixtures that support cool flames as well as hot flames induced by spark-ignition. Objective (3) poses a unique fire safety hazard if conditions exist where cool flame quenching distances are smaller than those associated with hot flames. For example, a significant, yet unexplored risk, can occur if a multi-stage ignition (a cool flame that transitions to a hot flame) occurs in a vessel size that is smaller than that associated with the hot quenching distance. To accomplish the above objectives, a variety of hydrocarbon-air mixtures will be tested in a static reactor at elevated temperature in the laboratory (1g). In addition, reactions with chemical induction times that are sufficiently short will be tested aboard NASA's KC-135 microgravity (mu-g) aircraft. The mu-g results will be compared to a numerical model that includes species diffusion, heat conduction, and a skeletal kinetic mechanism

  12. Bunch beam cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryzgunov, M. I.; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Li, J.; Mao, L. J.; Parkhomchuk, V. V.; Reva, V. B.; Yang, X. D.; Zhao, H.

    2017-07-01

    Electron cooling is used for damping both transverse and longitudinal oscillations of heavy particle. The cooling of bunch ion beam (with RF voltage on) is important part of experiments with inner target, ion collision system, stacking and RF manipulation. The short length of an ion bunch increases the peak luminosity, gives a start-time point for using of the time-of-flight methods and obtains a short extraction beam pulse. This article describes the review of last experiments with electron cooling carried out on the CSRm, CSRe (China) and COSY (Germany) storage rings. The accumulated experience may be used for the project of electron cooler on 2.5 MeV (NICA) and 0.5 MeV HIAF for obtaining high luminosity, depressing beam-beam effects and RF manipulation.

  13. Cool Sportswear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    New athletic wear design based on the circulating liquid cooling system used in the astronaut's space suits, allows athletes to perform more strenuous activity without becoming overheated. Techni-Clothes gear incorporates packets containing a heat-absorbing gel that slips into an insulated pocket of the athletic garment and is positioned near parts of the body where heat transfer is most efficient. A gel packet is good for about one hour. Easily replaced from a supply of spares in an insulated container worn on the belt. The products, targeted primarily for runners and joggers and any other athlete whose performance may be affected by hot weather, include cooling headbands, wrist bands and running shorts with gel-pack pockets.

  14. Cooling technique

    DOEpatents

    Salamon, Todd R; Vyas, Brijesh; Kota, Krishna; Simon, Elina

    2017-01-31

    An apparatus and a method are provided. Use is made of a wick structure configured to receive a liquid and generate vapor in when such wick structure is heated by heat transferred from heat sources to be cooled off. A vapor channel is provided configured to receive the vapor generated and direct said vapor away from the wick structure. In some embodiments, heat conductors are used to transfer the heat from the heat sources to the liquid in the wick structure.

  15. Apparatus for in situ determination of burnup, cooling time and fissile content of an irradiated nuclear fuel assembly in a fuel storage pond

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, John R.; Halbig, James K.; Menlove, Howard O.; Klosterbuer, Shirley F.

    1985-01-01

    A detector head for in situ inspection of irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies submerged in a water-filled nuclear fuel storage pond. The detector head includes two parallel arms which extend from a housing and which are spaced apart so as to be positionable on opposite sides of a submerged fuel assembly. Each arm includes an ionization chamber and two fission chambers. One fission chamber in each arm is enclosed in a cadmium shield and the other fission chamber is unshielded. The ratio of the outputs of the shielded and unshielded fission chambers is used to determine the boron content of the pond water. Correcting for the boron content, the neutron flux and gamma ray intensity are then used to verify the declared exposure, cooling time and fissile material content of the irradiated fuel assembly.

  16. A high-performance matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometer with collisional cooling.

    PubMed

    Loboda, A V; Ackloo, S; Chernushevich, I V

    2003-01-01

    A high-performance orthogonal time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer was developed specifically for use in combination with a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) source. The MALDI source features an ionization region containing a buffer gas with variable pressure. The source is interfaced to the TOF section via a collisional focusing ion guide. The pressure in the source influences the rate of cooling and allows control of ion fragmentation. The instrument provides uniform resolution up to 18,000 FWHM (full width at half maximum). Mass accuracy routinely achieved with a single-point internal recalibration is below 2 ppm for protein digest samples. The instrument is also capable of recording spectra of samples containing compounds with a broad range of masses while using one set of experimental conditions and without compromising resolution or mass accuracy.

  17. Apparatus for in situ determination of burnup, cooling time and fissile content of an irradiated nuclear fuel assembly in a fuel storage pond

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, J.R.; Halbig, J.K.; Menlove, H.O.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1984-01-01

    A detector head for in situ inspection of irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies submerged in a water-filled nuclear fuel storage pond. The detector head includes two parallel arms which extend from a housing and which are spaced apart so as to be positionable on opposite sides of a submerged fuel assembly. Each arm includes an ionization chamber and two fission chambers. One fission chamber in each arm is enclosed in a cadmium shield and the other fission chamber is unshielded. The ratio of the outputs of the shielded and unshielded fission chambers is used to determine the boron content of the pond water. Correcting for the boron content, the neutron flux and gamma ray intensity are then used to verify the declared exposure, cooling time and fissile material content of the irradiated fuel assembly.

  18. Boar spermatozoa and prostaglandin F2alpha. Quality of boar sperm after the addition of prostaglandin F2alpha to the short-term extender over cooling time.

    PubMed

    Yeste, M; Briz, M; Pinart, E; Sancho, S; Garcia-Gil, N; Badia, E; Bassols, J; Pruneda, A; Bussalleu, E; Casas, I; Bonet, S

    2008-10-01

    Prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) has been used to improve reproductive performance in swine. The goal of the present work was to determine how the addition of PGF2alpha affects boar sperm quality. Eleven different treatments were evaluated: eight with only PGF2alpha (0.625, 1.25, 2.50, 5, 10, 12.50, 25 and 50mg PGF2alpha/100ml) and three binary treatments (0.625mg PGF2alpha/100ml+200microg/ml hyaluronic acid (HA), 1.25mg PGF2alpha/100ml+200microg/ml HA, 0.625mg PGF2alpha/100ml+7.5microM caffeine (Caf)). All these substances were added to 16 ejaculates from 16 healthy and sexually mature boars (n=16), and each ejaculate was considered as a replicate. Our study also assessed the effects of these 11 treatments over different periods of preservation. Sperm quality was tested immediately after the addition of treatments (time 0), and after 1, 3, 6 and 10 days of cooling at 15 degrees C. To evaluate sperm quality, five parameters were analysed: (1) sperm viability, acrosome and mitochondrial sheath integrity (using a multiple fluorochrome-staining test), (2) sperm motility, (3) sperm morphology and (4) agglutination (using a computer assisted system) and (5) osmotic resistance (using the ORT). Parametric (analysis of variance for repeated measures) and non-parametric tests (Friedman test) were used as statistical analyses. Treatments with PGF2alpha concentrations higher than 12.5mg/100ml were cytotoxic while the others did not damage boar spermatozoa. Thus, the other treatments may be used to produce profitable effects without adverse effects. Moreover, the addition of PGF2alpha at 5mg/100ml to sperm diluted in BTS may maintain sperm viability and motility better after 6 days of cooling, because significant differences were observed (P<0.05) compared with control at the same time.

  19. Designing Cool Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A NASA SBIR contract served as the beginning for the development of Daat Research Corporation's Coolit software. Coolit is a unique computational fluid dynamics (CFD) application aimed at thermal and cooling design problems. Coolit can generate 3-D representations of the thermofluid environment and "sketch" the component on the computer. The software modeling reduces time and effort in prototype building and testing.

  20. Elementary stochastic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Tollestrup, A.V.; Dugan, G

    1983-12-01

    Major headings in this review include: proton sources; antiproton production; antiproton sources and Liouville, the role of the Debuncher; transverse stochastic cooling, time domain; the accumulator; frequency domain; pickups and kickers; Fokker-Planck equation; calculation of constants in the Fokker-Planck equation; and beam feedback. (GHT)

  1. Anomalous law of cooling.

    PubMed

    Lapas, Luciano C; Ferreira, Rogelma M S; Rubí, J Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  2. Anomalous law of cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  3. Cyclic cooling algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Rempp, Florian; Mahler, Guenter; Michel, Mathias

    2007-09-15

    We introduce a scheme to perform the cooling algorithm, first presented by Boykin et al. in 2002, for an arbitrary number of times on the same set of qbits. We achieve this goal by adding an additional SWAP gate and a bath contact to the algorithm. This way one qbit may repeatedly be cooled without adding additional qbits to the system. By using a product Liouville space to model the bath contact we calculate the density matrix of the system after a given number of applications of the algorithm.

  4. Anomalous law of cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  5. Newton's Law of Cooling Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer…

  6. Newton's Law of Cooling Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer…

  7. Triatomic molecules laser-cooled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-06-01

    Molecules containing three atoms have been laser-cooled to ultracold temperatures for the first time. John Doyle and colleagues at Harvard University in the US used a technique called Sisyphus cooling to chill an ensemble of about a million strontium-monohydroxide molecules to 750 μK.

  8. Cooling device

    SciTech Connect

    Teske, L.

    1984-02-21

    A cooling device is claimed for coal dust comprising a housing, a motor-driven conveyor system therein to transport the coal dust over coolable trays in the housing and conveyor-wheel arms of spiral curvature for moving the coal dust from one or more inlets to one or more outlets via a series of communicating passages in the trays over which the conveyor-wheel arms pass under actuation of a hydraulic motor mounted above the housing and driving a vertical shaft, to which the conveyor-wheel arms are attached, extending centrally downwardly through the housing.

  9. REACTOR COOLING

    DOEpatents

    Quackenbush, C.F.

    1959-09-29

    A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

  10. Effects of short immersion time and cooling rates of copperizing process to the evolution of microstructures and copper behavior in the dead mild steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatimurti, Wikan; Sutarsis, Cunika, Aprida Ulya

    2017-01-01

    In a dead mild steel with maximum carbon content of 0.15%, carbon does not contribute much to its strength. By adding copper as an alloying element, a balance between strength and ductility could be obtained through grain refining, solid solution, or Cu precipitation. This research aimed to analyse the changes in microstructures and copper behaviour on AISI 1006, including the phases formed, composition, and Cu dispersion. The addition of cooper was done by immersing steel into molten copper or so we called, copperizing using the principles of diffusion. Specimens were cut with 6 × 3 × 0.3 cm measurement then preheated to 900°C and melting the copper at 1100°C. Subsequently, the immersion of the specimens into molten copper varied to 5 and 7 minutes, and also varying the cooling rate to annealing, normalizing, and quenching. A series of test being conduct were optical microscope test, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the longer the immersion time and slower cooling rate, the more Cu diffused causing smaller grain size with the highest Cu diffused recorded was 0.277% in the copperized AISI 1006 steel with 7 minutes of immersion and was annealed. The grain size reduced to 23041.5404 µm2. The annealed specimens show ferrite phase, the normalized ones show polygonal ferrite phase, while the quenched ones show granular bainite phase. The phase formed is single phase Cu. In addition, the normalized and quenched specimens show that Cu dissolved in Fe crystal forming solid solution.

  11. The effect of pre-cooling intensity on cooling efficiency and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Bogerd, Nina; Perret, Claudio; Bogerd, Cornelis P; Rossi, René M; Daanen, Hein A M

    2010-05-01

    Although pre-cooling is known to enhance exercise performance, the optimal cooling intensity is unknown. We hypothesized that mild cooling opposed to strong cooling circumvents skin vasoconstriction and thermogenesis, and thus improves cooling efficiency reflected in improved time to exhaustion. Eight males undertook three randomized trials, consisting of a pre-cooling and an exercise session. During the pre-cooling, performed in a room of 24.6 +/- 0.4 degrees C and 24 +/- 6% relative humidity, participants received either 45 min of mild cooling using an evaporative cooling shirt or strong cooling using an ice-vest. A no-cooling condition was added as a control. Subsequent cycling exercise was performed at 65%[Vdot]O(2peak) in a climatic chamber of 29.3 +/- 0.2 degrees C and 80 +/- 3% relative humidity. During the pre-cooling session, mild and strong cooling decreased the skin blood flow compared with the control. However, no differences were observed between mild and strong cooling. No thermogenesis was observed in any conditions investigated. The reduction of body heat content after pre-cooling was two times larger with strong cooling (39.5 +/- 8.4 W . m(-2)) than mild cooling (21.2 +/- 5.1 W . m(-2)). This resulted in the greatest improvement in time to exhaustion with strong cooling. We conclude that the cooling intensities investigated had a similar effect on cooling efficiency (vasoconstriction and thermogenesis) and that the improved performance after strong cooling is attributable to the greater decrease in body heat content.

  12. Brain cooling therapy.

    PubMed

    Gancia, P; Pomero, G

    2010-06-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (whole body or selective head cooling) is becoming standard of care for brain injury in infants with perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Brain cooling reduces the rate of apoptosis and early necrosis, reduces cerebral metabolic rate and the release of nitric oxide and free radicals. Animal models of perinatal brain injury show histological and functional improvement due to of early hypothermia. The brain protection depends on the temperature and time delay between insult and beginning of treatment (more effective with cooling to 33 +/- 0.5 degrees C, and less than 6 hours after hypoxic-ischemic insult). Recent meta-analyses and systematic reviews in human neonates show reduction in mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental disability at 12-24 months of age, with more favourable effects in the less severe forms of HIE. The authors describe their experience in 53 term newborns with moderate-severe HIE treated with whole body cooling between 2001 and 2009, and studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and general movements (GMs) assessment. The creation of a network connecting the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with the level I-II hospitals of the reference area, as part of regional network, is of paramount importance to enroll potential candidates and to start therapeutic hypothermia within optimal time window.

  13. Emissions of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320-DIAD air cooled light aircraft engine as a function of fuel-air ratio, timing, and air temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, P. R.; Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted aircraft engine was operated over a range of test conditions to establish the exhaust levels over the EPA seven-mode emissions cycle. Baseline (full rich production limit) exhaust emissions at an induction air temperature of 59 F and near zero relative humidity were 90 percent of the EPA standard for HC, 35 percent for NOx, and 161 percent for CO. Changes in ignition timing around the standard 25 deg BTDC from 30 deg BTDC to 20 deg BTDC had little effect on the exhaust emissions. Retarding the timing to 15 deg BTDC increased both the HC and CO emissions and decreased NOx emissions. HC and CO emissions decreased as the carburetor was leaned out, while NOx emissions increased. The EPA emission standards were marginally achieved at two leanout conditions. Variations in the quantity of cooling air flow over the engine had no effect on exhaust emissions. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased.

  14. Mild body cooling impairs attention via distraction from skin cooling.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Stephen S; Westwood, David A; Knox, Matthew K

    2007-02-01

    Many contemporary workers are routinely exposed to mild cold stress, which may compromise mental function and lead to accidents. A study investigated the effect of mild body cooling of 1.0 degree C rectal temperature (Tre) on vigilance (i.e. sustained attention) and the orienting of spatial attention (i.e. spatially selective processing of visual information). Vigilance and spatial attention tests were administered to 14 healthy males and six females at four stages (pre-immersion, deltaTre = 0, -0.5 and - 1.0 degree C ) of a gradual, head-out immersion cooling session (18-25 deltaC water), and in four time-matched stages of a contrast session, in which participants sat in an empty tub and no cooling took place. In the spatial attention test, target discrimination times were similar for all stages of the contrast session, but increased significantly in the cooling phase upon immersion (deltaTre = 0 degrees C), with no further increases at deltaTre = -0.5 and - 1.0 degree C. Despite global response slowing, cooling did not affect the normal pattern of spatial orienting. In the vigilance test, the variability of detection time was adversely affected in the cooling but not the contrast trials: variability increased at immersion but did not increase further with additional cooling. These findings suggest that attentional impairments are more closely linked to the distracting effects of cold skin temperature than decreases in body core temperature.

  15. Transpiration Cooling Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Kyo D.; Ries, Heidi R.; Scotti, Stephen J.; Choi, Sang H.

    1997-01-01

    The transpiration cooling method was considered for a scram-jet engine to accommodate thermally the situation where a very high heat flux (200 Btu/sq. ft sec) from hydrogen fuel combustion process is imposed to the engine walls. In a scram-jet engine, a small portion of hydrogen fuel passes through the porous walls of the engine combustor to cool the engine walls and at the same time the rest passes along combustion chamber walls and is preheated. Such a regenerative system promises simultaneously cooling of engine combustor and preheating the cryogenic fuel. In the experiment, an optical heating method was used to provide a heat flux of 200 Btu/sq. ft sec to the cylindrical surface of a porous stainless steel specimen which carried helium gas. The cooling efficiencies by transpiration were studied for specimens with various porosity. The experiments of various test specimens under high heat flux have revealed a phenomenon that chokes the medium flow when passing through a porous structure. This research includes the analysis of the system and a scaling conversion study that interprets the results from helium into the case when hydrogen medium is used.

  16. The nominal cooling tower

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, R.

    1995-12-31

    The heat Rejection Industry defines a nominal cooling tower as circulating three gallons of water per minute (GPM) per ton of refrigeration from entering the tower at 95{degrees}F. Hot Water temperature (HWT) Leaving at 85{degrees}F Cold Water Temperature (CWT) at a Design Wet Bulb of 70{degrees}F (WBT). Manufacturers then provide a selection chart based on various wet bulb temperatures and HWTs. The wet bulb fluctuates and varies through out the world since it is the combination ambient temperature, relative humidity, and/or dew point. Different HWT and CWT requirements are usually charted as they change, so that the user can select the nominal cooling tower model recommended by the manufacturer. Ask any HVAC operator, refinery manager, power generating station operator what happens when the Wet Bulb reaches or exceeds the design WBT of the area. He probably will tell you, {open_quotes}My cooling tower works quite well, but in the summer time, I usually have trouble with it.{close_quotes} This occurs because he is operating a nominal cooling tower.

  17. Laser cooling to quantum degeneracy.

    PubMed

    Stellmer, Simon; Pasquiou, Benjamin; Grimm, Rudolf; Schreck, Florian

    2013-06-28

    We report on Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of strontium atoms, using laser cooling as the only cooling mechanism. The condensate is formed within a sample that is continuously Doppler cooled to below 1  μK on a narrow-linewidth transition. The critical phase-space density for condensation is reached in a central region of the sample, in which atoms are rendered transparent for laser cooling photons. The density in this region is enhanced by an additional dipole trap potential. Thermal equilibrium between the gas in this central region and the surrounding laser cooled part of the cloud is established by elastic collisions. Condensates of up to 10(5) atoms can be repeatedly formed on a time scale of 100 ms, with prospects for the generation of a continuous atom laser.

  18. Antiproton cooling in the Fermilab Recycler Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaitsev, S.; Bolshakov, A.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, Alexey V.; Carlson, K.; Gattuso, C.; Hu, M.; Kazakevich, G.; Kramper, B.; Kroc, T.; Leibfritz, J.; Prost, L.; Pruss, S.; Saewert, G; Schmidt, C.W.; Seletskiy, S.; Shemyakin, A.; Sutherland, M.; Tupikov, V.; Warner, A.; Zenkevich, P.; /Fermilab /Moscow, ITEP /Novosibirsk, IYF /Rochester U.

    2005-12-01

    The 8.9-GeV/c Recycler antiproton storage ring is equipped with both stochastic and electron cooling systems. These cooling systems are designed to assist accumulation of antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. In this paper we report on an experimental demonstration of electron cooling of high-energy antiprotons. At the time of writing this report, the Recycler electron cooling system is routinely used in collider operations. It has helped to set recent peak luminosity records.

  19. Pre-cooling with ice slurry ingestion leads to similar run times to exhaustion in the heat as cold water immersion.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Rodney; Maté, Joseph; Watson, Greig; Nosaka, Kazunori; Laursen, Paul B

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of pre-exercise ice slurry ingestion and cold water immersion on submaximal running time in the heat. On three separate occasions, eight males ran to exhaustion at their first ventilatory threshold in the heat (34.0 ± 0.1 ° C, 52 ± 3% relative humidity) following one of three 30 min pre-exercise manoeuvres: (1) ice slurry ingestion; (2) cold water immersion; or (3) warm fluid ingestion (control). Running time was longer following cold water immersion (56.8 ± 5.6 min; P = 0.008) and ice slurry ingestion (52.7 ± 8.4 min; P = 0.005) compared with control (46.7 ± 7.2 min), but not significantly different between cold water immersion and ice slurry ingestion (P = 0.335). During exercise, rectal temperature was lower with cold water immersion from 15 and 20 min into exercise compared with control and ice slurry ingestion, respectively, and remained lower until 40 min (P = 0.001). At exhaustion rectal temperature was significantly higher following ice slurry ingestion (39.76 ± 0.36 ° C) compared with control (39.48 ± 0.36 ° C; P = 0.042) and tended to be higher than cold water immersion (39.48 ± 0.34 ° C; P = 0.065). As run times were similar between conditions, ice slurry ingestion may be a comparable form of pre-cooling to cold water immersion.

  20. Infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization orthogonal-time-of-flight mass spectrometry employing a cooling stage and water ice as a matrix.

    PubMed

    Pirkl, Alexander; Soltwisch, Jens; Draude, Felix; Dreisewerd, Klaus

    2012-07-03

    Although water ice has been utilized in the past as a matrix for infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (IR-MALDI-MS), it has not found a wider use due to limitations in the analytical performance and technical demands on the employment of the necessary cooling stage. Here, we developed a temperature-controlled sample stage for use with an orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-o-TOF-MS). The stage utilizes a combination of liquid nitrogen cooling and counterheating with a Peltier element. It allows adjustment of the sample temperature between ~-120 °C and room temperature. To identify optimal irradiation conditions for IR-MALDI with the water ice matrix, we first investigated the influence of excitation wavelength, varied between 2.7 and 3.1 μm, and laser fluence on the signal intensities of molecular substance P ions. These data suggest the involvement of transient melting of the ice during the laser pulse and primary energy deposition into liquid water. As a consequence, the best analytical performance is obtained at a wavelength corresponding to the absorption maximum of liquid water of about 2.94 μm. The current data significantly surpass the previously reported analytical features. The particular softness of the method is, for example, exemplified by the analysis of noncovalently bound holo-myoglobin and of ribonuclease B. This is also the first report demonstrating the analysis of an IgG monoclonal antibody (MW ~ 150 kDa) from a water ice matrix. Untypical for MALDI-MS, high charge states of multiply protonated species were moreover observed for some of the investigated peptides and even for lacto-N-fucopentaose II oligosaccharides. Using water ice as matrix is of particular interest for MALDI MS profiling and imaging applications since matrix-free spectra are produced. The MS and tandem MS analysis of metabolites directly from frozen food samples is demonstrated with the example of a strawberry fruit.

  1. Renewable Heating and Cooling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  2. Radiocarbon-based Turnover Time Estimates of Soil Organic Carbon in a Cool-temperate Deciduous Forest in Asian Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, M.; Uchida, M.; Ohtsuka, T.; Murayama, S.; Shirato, Y.; Shibata, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Significantly more carbon is stored in the soils than in present in the atmosphere. Although the potential for C storage rates may change in the future as climate change progresses, the dynamics of soil carbon is unknown enough. We separated two density fractions on the soil down to 75 cm depth and estimated turnover time of these SOC fractions for volcanic ash soils in a cool-temperate deciduous forest in Japan, at one of AsiaFlux monitoring sites. According to the eddy-covariance based and biometric based carbon flux measurements over 10 years long in this site, this ecosystem is storing C (net ecosystem exchange (NEE): -2.4 tC ha-1 year- 1). However, the partitioning of C storage among vegetation and soils at this site is unknown. Measurements of carbon and radiocarbon (14C) inventory were used to determine the turnover time of two fractions of SOM: humified low density material < 2 g/cc and high density or mineral-associated organic matter > 2 g/cc. Total SOC stocks down to the depth of 75 cm were 26.2 kg C m-2, with the majority of SOC (52 percent) in the AB horizon (20 - 50 cm). Storage of SOC in our site was larger and differed considerably from that in other temperate forests in North America and Europe. The major part of the SOC (74 percent) was carbon in low density fraction. In the AB horizon, carbon in low density fraction accounted for 75 percent of the total SOC. The age of this fraction in lower AB horizon (35 - 50 cm) was significantly old (2490 years) as well as high density fraction (2930 years), although this fraction seems to consist of labile carbon. Turnover times in all fractions are investigated for some layers in the soil depth of 75cm, as well as fine roots, low density humified material and carbon associated with minerals. Turnover times in both fractions increased with soil depth and 11-2780 year for low density fractions and 610- 3740 year for high density fractions. The turnover times of SOC were relatively long (1760 - 3740 years) in

  3. Sympathetic cooling in a large ion crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guin-Dar; Duan, L.-M.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze the dynamics and steady state of a linear ion array when some of the ions are continuously laser cooled. We calculate the ions' local temperature measured by its position fluctuation under various trapping and cooling configurations, taking into account background heating due to the noisy environment. For a large system, we demonstrate that by arranging the cooling ions evenly in the array, one can suppress the overall heating considerably. We also investigate the effect of different cooling rates and find that the optimal cooling efficiency is achieved by an intermediate cooling rate. We discuss the relaxation time for the ions to approach the steady state, and show that with periodic arrangement of the cooling ions, the cooling efficiency does not scale down with the system size.

  4. Tattoo Cool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senz, John

    2005-01-01

    Each time John Senz starts an art lesson with tattoos, the frenzy of fun is predictable, even for staff. Senz looks forward to a busy day when he reaches for the airbrush and cosmetic paint. Students pick up the technique of airbrushing quickly and can't wait to paint designs on their skin. Although topics such as history, design, business, and…

  5. Tattoo Cool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senz, John

    2005-01-01

    Each time John Senz starts an art lesson with tattoos, the frenzy of fun is predictable, even for staff. Senz looks forward to a busy day when he reaches for the airbrush and cosmetic paint. Students pick up the technique of airbrushing quickly and can't wait to paint designs on their skin. Although topics such as history, design, business, and…

  6. Debuncher Cooling Limitations to Stacking

    SciTech Connect

    Halling, Mike

    1991-08-13

    During the January studies period we performed studies to determine the effect that debuncher cooling has on the stacking rate. Two different sets of measurements were made separated by about a week. Most measurements reported here are in PBAR log 16, page 243-247. These measurements were made by changing the accelerator timeline to give about 6 seconds between 29's, and then gating the cooling systems to simulate reduced cycle times. For the measurement of the momentum cooling effectiveness the gating switches could not be made to work, so the timeline was changed for each measurement. The cooling power of all three systems was about 800 watts for the tests reported here. We now regularly run at 1200 watts per system.

  7. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    DOEpatents

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  8. GCM-free, scaling quantification of natural and anthropogenic climate change: probabilities and return times for the industrial warming, postwar cooling and the "pause"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    2014-05-01

    In 1896 Arrhenius estimated that a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations would lead to a 5 - 6 K temperature increase of the global temperature. The development of Global Circulation Models (GCM's) in the 1970's has barely improved the situation, for example: i) The 1979 NAS estimate for CO2 doubling was a 1.5 - 4.5 K temperature increase, identical to last year's IPCC5 range. ii) Global warming is only evaluated indirectly using models (e.g. "fingerprinting"): the data is not fully exploited. iii) The exclusive reliance on GCM's for assessing anthropogenic warming gives ammunition to climate skeptics: one has to believe the models. iv) The statistical hypothesis that the warming is due only to natural variability must be statistically tested. The failure to reject this hypothesis gives ammunition to climate skeptics. GCM-free approaches are thus urgently needed; in this presentation we show how scaling notions and new data analysis techniques can be used to: i) Quantitatively define the climate (the climate is not "what you expect": expect "macroweather"!). ii) Quantify the natural space-time atmospheric variability over huge ranges of scale. iii) Quantify and distinguish natural and anthropogenic variability. Two new ideas are needed to distinguish natural and anthropogenic variability: a) use the industrial epoch CO2 forcing as a linear surrogate for all anthropogenic forcings (they are historically highly correlated due to economic activity), b) consider all the anthropogenic forcings as deterministic and all the natural (not - as is usually done - just internal) variability as stochastic. When this is done, we estimate the total anthropogenic warming (1880-2004) and the (effective) climate sensitivity: ΔTanth = 0.87±0.11 K, λ2x,CO2,eff = 3.08 ±0.85 K. These are close the IPPC values ΔTanth = 0.74±0.18 K (1900-2005) and λ2x,CO2 = 3±1.5 K (equilibrium climate sensitivity) and is independent of GCM models, radiative transfer calculations and emission

  9. Laser cooling without spontaneous emission.

    PubMed

    Corder, Christopher; Arnold, Brian; Metcalf, Harold

    2015-01-30

    This Letter reports the demonstration of laser cooling without spontaneous emission, and thereby addresses a significant controversy. It works by restricting the atom-light interaction to a time short compared to a cycle of absorption followed by natural decay. It is achieved by using the bichromatic force on an atomic transition with a relatively long excited state lifetime and a relatively short cooling time so that spontaneous emission effects are minimized. The observed width of the one-dimensional velocity distribution is reduced by ×2 thereby reducing the "temperature" by ×4. Moreover, our results comprise a compression in phase space because the spatial expansion of the atomic sample is limited. This accomplishment is of interest to direct laser cooling of molecules or in experiments where working space or time is limited.

  10. Quench cooling under reduced gravity.

    PubMed

    Chatain, D; Mariette, C; Nikolayev, V S; Beysens, D

    2013-07-01

    We report quench cooling experiments performed with liquid O(2) under different levels of gravity, simulated with magnetic gravity compensation. A copper disk is quenched from 300 to 90 K. It is found that the cooling time in microgravity is very long in comparison with any other gravity level. This phenomenon is explained by the insulating effect of the gas surrounding the disk. A weak gas pressurization (which results in subcooling of the liquid with respect to the saturation temperature) is shown to drastically improve the heat exchange, thus reducing the cooling time (about 20 times). The effect of subcooling on the heat transfer is analyzed at different gravity levels. It is shown that this type of experiment cannot be used for the analysis of the critical heat flux of the boiling crisis. The film boiling heat transfer and the minimum heat flux of boiling are analyzed as functions of gravity and subcooling.

  11. [Body cooling capacity of water circulated cooling pants during lower body exercise in a hot environment].

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Takao; Idota, Nozomi; Nagano, Chikage; Horie, Seichi; Sogabe, Yasuhiro; Monji, Koichi

    2005-03-01

    We investigated the body cooling capacity of water-circulated cooling pants during lower body exercise in a hot environment. Five subjects were asked to ride a bicycle ergometer and to keep a work rate of 75 W continuously for 20 minutes. They then rest on the ergometer for 15 minutes, in a climate chamber kept at WBGT = 31.5 degrees C. They repeated the same procedure three times under three different conditions; 1) wearing cooling pants with cold water supply; 2) wearing cooling pants without water supply; 3) wearing short pants instead of cooling pants. Esophageal temperature and heart rate of the subjects, when their cooling pants were supplied with cold water, were lower compared with the condition without water supply, and were almost the same as the condition wearing short pants. Water-circulated cooling pants should effectively cool the body at work where the worker has to wear pants that cover his legs to prevent injury.

  12. Comments on ionization cooling channels

    DOE PAGES

    Neuffer, David

    2017-09-25

    Ionization cooling channels with a wide variety of characteristics and cooling properties are being developed. These channels can produce cooling performances that are largely consistent with the linear ionization cooling theory developed previously. In this study, we review ionization cooling theory, discuss its application to presently developing cooling channels, and discuss criteria for optimizing cooling.

  13. Comments on ionization cooling channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuffer, D.

    2017-09-01

    Ionization cooling channels with a wide variety of characteristics and cooling properties are being developed. These channels can produce cooling performances that are largely consistent with the linear ionization cooling theory developed previously. In this paper we review ionization cooling theory, discuss its application to presently developing cooling channels, and discuss criteria for optimizing cooling.

  14. To cool, but not too cool: that is the question--immersion cooling for hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Caldwell, Joanne N; Van den Heuvel, Anne M J; Patterson, Mark J

    2008-11-01

    Patient cooling time can impact upon the prognosis of heat illness. Although ice-cold-water immersion will rapidly extract heat, access to ice or cold water may be limited in hot climates. Indeed, some have concerns regarding the sudden cold-water immersion of hyperthermic individuals, whereas others believe that cutaneous vasoconstriction may reduce convective heat transfer from the core. It was hypothesized that warmer immersion temperatures, which induce less powerful vasoconstriction, may still facilitate rapid cooling in hyperthermic individuals. Eight males participated in three trials and were heated to an esophageal temperature of 39.5 degrees C by exercising in the heat (36 degrees C, 50% relative humidity) while wearing a water-perfusion garment (40 degrees C). Subjects were cooled using each of the following methods: air (20-22 degrees C), cold-water immersion (14 degrees C), and temperate-water immersion (26 degrees C). The time to reach an esophageal temperature of 37.5 degrees C averaged 22.81 min (air), 2.16 min (cold), and 2.91 min (temperate). Whereas each of the between-trial comparisons was statistically significant (P < 0.05), cooling in temperate water took only marginally longer than that in cold water, and one cannot imagine that the 45-s cooling time difference would have any meaningful physiological or clinical implications. It is assumed that this rapid heat loss was due to a less powerful peripheral vasoconstrictor response, with central heat being more rapidly transported to the skin surface for dissipation. Although the core-to-water thermal gradient was much smaller with temperate-water cooling, greater skin and deeper tissue blood flows would support a superior convective heat delivery. Thus, a sustained physiological mechanism (blood flow) appears to have countered a less powerful thermal gradient, resulting in clinically insignificant differences in heat extraction between the cold and temperate cooling trials.

  15. Spatially-selective optical pumping cooling and Two-Isotope Collision-Assisted Zeeman cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Rebekah Ferrier

    In this thesis I describe two non-evaporative cooling schemes for cooling Rb atoms. The first is a Sisyphus-like ultracold gas cooling scheme called Spatially-selecTive Optical Pumping (STOP) cooling. In principle, STOP cooling has wide applicability to both atoms and molecules. STOP cooling works by exploiting the fact that atoms or molecules in a confining potential can be optically pumped out of an otherwise dark state in a spatially-selective way. Selecting atoms or molecules for optical pumping out of a dark state in a region of high potential energy and then waiting a fixed time after the optical pumping allows for the creation of a group of high kinetic energy atoms or molecules moving in a known direction. These can then be slowed using external fields (such as the scattering force from a resonant laser beam) and optically pumped back into the dark state, cooling the gas and closing the cooling cycle. I present theoretical modeling of the STOP cooling technique, including predictions of achievable cooling rates. I have conducted an experimental study of the cooling technique for a single cooling cycle, observing one dimensional cooling rates in excess of 100 micro-K per second in an ultracold gas of 87 Rb atoms. I will also comment on the prospects for improving the cooling performance beyond that presented in this work. The second cooling scheme I investigated is called Two-Isotope Collision Assisted Zeeman (2-CAZ) cooling. Through a combination of spin-exchange collisions in a magnetic field and optical pumping, it is possible to cool a gas of atoms without requiring the loss of atoms from the gas. I investigated 2-CAZ cooling using 85Rb and 87Rb. I was able to experimentally confirm that the measured 2-CAZ cooling rate agreed with a cooling rate predicted though a simple analytic model. As part of the measured cooling rate, I quantitatively characterized the heating rates associated with our actual implementation of this cooling technique and found

  16. Turbopump thermodynamic cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patten, T. C.; Mckee, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    System for cooling turbopumps used in cryogenic fluid storage facilities is described. Technique uses thermodynamic propellant vent to intercept pump heat at desired conditions. Cooling system uses hydrogen from outside source or residual hydrogen from cryogenic storage tank.

  17. Liquid-Cooled Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A liquid-cooled bra, offshoot of Apollo moon suit technology, aids the cancer-detection technique known as infrared thermography. Water flowing through tubes in the bra cools the skin surface to improve resolution of thermograph image.

  18. Liquid cooled garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Liquid cooled garments employed in several applications in which severe heat is encountered are discussed. In particular, the use of the garments to replace air line cooling units in a variety of industrial processing situations is discussed.

  19. Metamaterial enhances natural cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-03-01

    A new metamaterial film that uses passive radiative cooling to dissipate heat from an object and provides cooling without a power input has been developed by a team at the University of Colorado Boulder in the US.

  20. Cooling Water Intakes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Industries use large volumes of water for cooling. The water intakes pull large numbers of fish and other organisms into the cooling systems. EPA issues regulations on intake structures in order to minimize adverse environmental impacts.

  1. Data center cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J; Dang, Hien P; Parida, Pritish R; Schultz, Mark D; Sharma, Arun

    2015-03-17

    A data center cooling system may include heat transfer equipment to cool a liquid coolant without vapor compression refrigeration, and the liquid coolant is used on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack housed in the data center. The system may also include a controller-apparatus to regulate the liquid coolant flow to the liquid cooled information technology equipment rack through a range of liquid coolant flow values based upon information technology equipment temperature thresholds.

  2. Stochastic cooling in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan,J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M. M.; Severino, F.

    2009-05-04

    After the success of longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched heavy ion beam in RHIC, transverse stochastic cooling in the vertical plane of Yellow ring was installed and is being commissioned with proton beam. This report presents the status of the effort and gives an estimate, based on simulation, of the RHIC luminosity with stochastic cooling in all planes.

  3. Cooling of Stored Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, F.

    1986-06-10

    Beam cooling methods developed for the accumulation of antiprotons are being employed to assist in the performance of experiments in Nuclear and Particle Physics with ion beams stored in storage rings. The physics of beam cooling, and the ranges of utility of stochastic and electron cooling are discussed in this paper.

  4. 2004 Savannah River Cooling Tower Collection (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Alfred; Parker, Matthew J.; Villa-Aleman, E.

    2005-05-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collected ground truth in and around the Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area cooling tower during the spring and summer of 2004. The ground truth data consisted of air temperatures and humidity inside and around the cooling tower, wind speed and direction, cooling water temperatures entering; inside adn leaving the cooling tower, cooling tower fan exhaust velocities and thermal images taken from helicopters. The F-Area cooling tower had six cells, some of which were operated with fans off during long periods of the collection. The operating status (fan on or off) for each of the six cells was derived from operations logbooks and added to the collection database. SRNL collected the F-Area cooling tower data to produce a database suitable for validation of a cooling tower model used by one of SRNL's customer agencies. SRNL considers the data to be accurate enough for use in a model validation effort. Also, the thermal images of the cooling tower decks and throats combined with the temperature measurements inside the tower provide valuable information about the appearance of cooling towers as a function of fan operating status and time of day.

  5. Cooling water distribution system

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  6. ASTROMAG coil cooling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maytal, Ben-Zion; Vansciver, Steven W.

    1990-01-01

    ASTROMAG is a planned particle astrophysics magnetic facility. Basically it is a large magnetic spectrometer outside the Earth's atmosphere for an extended period of time in orbit on a space station. A definition team summarized its scientific objectives assumably related to fundamental questions of astrophysics, cosmology, and elementary particle physics. Since magnetic induction of about 7 Tesla is desired, it is planned to be a superconducting magnet cooled to liquid helium 2 temperatures. The general structure of ASTROMAG is based on: (1) two superconducting magnetic coils, (2) dewar of liquid helium 2 to provide cooling capability for the magnets; (3) instrumentation, matter-anti matter spectrometer (MAS) and cosmic ray isotope spectrometer (CRIS); and (4) interfaces to the shuttle and space station. Many configurations of the superconducting magnets and the dewar were proposed and evaluated, since those are the heart of the ASTROMAG. Baseline of the magnet configuration and cryostat as presented in the phase A study and the one kept in mind while doing the present study are presented. ASTROMAG's development schedule reflects the plan of launching to the space station in 1995.

  7. Postexercise Cooling Rates in 2 Cooling Jackets

    PubMed Central

    Brade, Carly; Dawson, Brian; Wallman, Karen; Polglaze, Ted

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Cooling jackets are a common method for removing stored heat accumulated during exercise. To date, the efficiency and practicality of different types of cooling jackets have received minimal investigation. Objective: To examine whether a cooling jacket containing a phase-change material (PC17) results in more rapid postexercise cooling than a gel cooling jacket and a no-jacket (control) condition. Design: Randomized, counterbalanced design with 3 experimental conditions. Setting: Participants exercised at 75% V̇o2max workload in a hot climate chamber (temperature  =  35.0 ± 1.4°C, relative humidity  =  52 ± 4%) for 30 minutes, followed by postexercise cooling for 30 minutes in cool laboratory conditions (ambient temperature  =  24.9 ± 1.8°C, relative humidity  =  39% ± 10%). Patients or Other Participants: Twelve physically active men (age  =  21.3 ± 1.1 years, height  =  182.7 ± 7.1 cm, body mass  =  76.2 ± 9.5 kg, sum of 6 skinfolds  =  50.5 ± 6.9 mm, body surface area  =  1.98 ± 0.14 m2, V̇o2max  =  49.0 ± 7.0 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated. Intervention(s): Three experimental conditions, consisting of a PC17 jacket, a gel jacket, and no jacket. Main Outcome Measure(s): Core temperature (TC), mean skin temperature (TSk), and TC cooling rate (°C/min). Results: Mean peak TC postexercise was 38.49 ± 0.42°C, 38.57 ± 0.41°C, and 38.55 ± 0.40°C for the PC17 jacket, gel jacket, and control conditions, respectively. No differences were observed in peak TC cooling rates among the PC17 jacket (0.038 ± 0.007°C/min), gel jacket (0.040 ± 0.009°C/min), and control (0.034 ± 0.010°C/min, P > .05) conditions. Between trials, no differences were calculated for mean TSk cooling. Conclusions: Similar cooling rates for all 3 conditions indicate that there is no benefit associated with wearing the PC17 or gel jacket. PMID:20210620

  8. Conduction cooling systems for linear accelerator cavities

    DOEpatents

    Kephart, Robert

    2017-05-02

    A conduction cooling system for linear accelerator cavities. The system conducts heat from the cavities to a refrigeration unit using at least one cavity cooler interconnected with a cooling connector. The cavity cooler and cooling connector are both made from solid material having a very high thermal conductivity of approximately 1.times.10.sup.4 W m.sup.-1 K.sup.-1 at temperatures of approximately 4 degrees K. This allows for very simple and effective conduction of waste heat from the linear accelerator cavities to the cavity cooler, along the cooling connector, and thence to the refrigeration unit.

  9. Comments on optical stochastic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    K.Y. Ng, S.Y. Lee and Y.K. Zhang

    2002-10-08

    An important necessary condition for transverse phase space damping in the optical stochastic cooling with transit-time method is derived. The longitudinal and transverse damping dynamics for the optical stochastic cooling is studied. The authors also obtain an optimal laser focusing condition for laser-beam interaction in the correction undulator. The amplification factor and the output peak power of the laser amplifier are found to differ substantially from earlier publications. The required power is large for hadron colliders at very high energy.

  10. Slow cooling of protein crystals.

    PubMed

    Warkentin, Matthew; Thorne, Robert E

    2009-10-01

    Cryoprotectant-free thaumatin crystals have been cooled from 300 to 100 K at a rate of 0.1 K s(-1) - 10(3)-10(4) times slower than in conventional flash cooling - while continuously collecting X-ray diffraction data, so as to follow the evolution of protein lattice and solvent properties during cooling. Diffraction patterns show no evidence of crystalline ice at any temperature. This indicates that the lattice of protein molecules is itself an excellent cryoprotectant, and with sodium potassium tartrate incorporated from the 1.5 M mother liquor ice nucleation rates are at least as low as in a 70% glycerol solution. Crystal quality during slow cooling remains high, with an average mosaicity at 100 K of 0.2 degrees . Most of the mosaicity increase occurs above approximately 200 K, where the solvent is still liquid, and is concurrent with an anisotropic contraction of the unit cell. Near 180 K a crossover to solid-like solvent behavior occurs, and on further cooling there is no additional degradation of crystal order. The variation of B factor with temperature shows clear evidence of a protein dynamical transition near 210 K, and at lower temperatures the slope dB/dT is a factor of 3-6 smaller than has been reported for any other protein. These results establish the feasibility of fully temperature controlled studies of protein structure and dynamics between 300 and 100 K.

  11. Atom cooling by nonadiabatic expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xi; Muga, J. G.; Campo, A. del; Ruschhaupt, A.

    2009-12-15

    Motivated by the recent discovery that a reflecting wall moving with a square-root-in-time trajectory behaves as a universal stopper of classical particles regardless of their initial velocities, we compare linear-in-time and square-root-in-time expansions of a box to achieve efficient atom cooling. For the quantum single-atom wave functions studied the square-root-in-time expansion presents important advantages: asymptotically it leads to zero average energy whereas any linear-in-time (constant box-wall velocity) expansion leaves a nonzero residual energy, except in the limit of an infinitely slow expansion. For finite final times and box lengths we set a number of bounds and cooling principles which again confirm the superior performance of the square-root-in-time expansion, even more clearly for increasing excitation of the initial state. Breakdown of adiabaticity is generally fatal for cooling with the linear expansion but not so with the square-root-in-time expansion.

  12. How does gas cool in dark matter haloes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, M.; Monaco, P.; Borgani, S.; Murante, G.; Tornatore, L.

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the process of cooling in dark matter haloes and assess how well simple models can represent it, we run a set of radiative smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of isolated haloes, with gas sitting initially in hydrostatic equilibrium within Navarro-Frenk-White potential wells. Simulations include radiative cooling and a scheme to convert high-density cold gas particles into collisionless stars, neglecting any astrophysical source of energy feedback. After having assessed the numerical stability of the simulations, we compare the resulting evolution of the cooled mass with the predictions of the classical cooling model of White & Frenk and of the cooling model proposed in the MORGANA code of galaxy formation. We find that the classical model predicts fractions of cooled mass which, after about 2 central cooling times, are about one order of magnitude smaller than those found in simulations. Although this difference decreases with time, after 8 central cooling times, when simulations are stopped, the difference still amounts to a factor of 2-3. We ascribe this difference to the lack of validity of the assumption that a mass shell takes one cooling time, as computed on the initial conditions, to cool to very low temperature. Indeed, we find from simulations that cooling SPH particles take most time in travelling, at roughly constant temperature and increasing density, from their initial position to a central cooling region, where they quickly cool down to ~104 K. We show that in this case the total cooling time is shorter than that computed on the initial conditions, as a consequence of the stronger radiative losses associated to the higher density experienced by these particles. As a consequence the mass cooling flow is stronger than that predicted by the classical model. The MORGANA model, which computes the cooling rate as an integral over the contribution of cooling shells and does not make assumptions on the time needed by shells to

  13. Cooling by Thermodynamic Induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patitsas, S. N.

    2017-03-01

    A method is described for cooling conductive channels to below ambient temperature. The thermodynamic induction principle dictates that the electrically biased channel will cool if the electrical conductance decreases with temperature. The extent of this cooling is calculated in detail for both cases of ballistic and conventional transport with specific calculations for carbon nanotubes and conventional metals, followed by discussions for semiconductors, graphene, and metal-insulator transition systems. A theorem is established for ballistic transport stating that net cooling is not possible. For conventional transport, net cooling is possible over a broad temperature range, with the range being size-dependent. A temperature clamping scheme for establishing a metastable nonequilibrium stationary state is detailed and followed with discussion of possible applications to on-chip thermoelectric cooling in integrated circuitry and quantum computer systems.

  14. NASA Microclimate Cooling Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this outline form presentation is to present NASA's challenges in microclimate cooling as related to the spacesuit. An overview of spacesuit flight-rated personal cooling systems is presented, which includes a brief history of cooling systems from Gemini through Space Station missions. The roles of the liquid cooling garment, thermal environment extremes, the sublimator, multi-layer insulation, and helmet visor UV and solar coatings are reviewed. A second section is presented on advanced personal cooling systems studies, which include heat acquisition studies on cooling garments, heat rejection studies on water boiler & radiators, thermal storage studies, and insulation studies. Past and present research and development and challenges are summarized for the advanced studies.

  15. Gas turbine cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Bancalari, Eduardo E.

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

  16. Cooling by Thermodynamic Induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patitsas, S. N.

    2016-11-01

    A method is described for cooling conductive channels to below ambient temperature. The thermodynamic induction principle dictates that the electrically biased channel will cool if the electrical conductance decreases with temperature. The extent of this cooling is calculated in detail for both cases of ballistic and conventional transport with specific calculations for carbon nanotubes and conventional metals, followed by discussions for semiconductors, graphene, and metal-insulator transition systems. A theorem is established for ballistic transport stating that net cooling is not possible. For conventional transport, net cooling is possible over a broad temperature range, with the range being size-dependent. A temperature clamping scheme for establishing a metastable nonequilibrium stationary state is detailed and followed with discussion of possible applications to on-chip thermoelectric cooling in integrated circuitry and quantum computer systems.

  17. The cooling of particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1994-10-01

    A review is given of the various methods which can be employed for cooling particle beams. These methods include radiation damping, stimulated radiation damping, ionization cooling, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, laser cooling, and laser cooling with beam coupling. Laser Cooling has provided beams of the lowest temperatures, namely 1 mK, but only for ions and only for the longitudinal temperature. Recent theoretical work has suggested how laser cooling, with the coupling of beam motion, can be used to reduce the ion beam temperature in all three directions. The majority of this paper is devoted to describing laser cooling and laser cooling with beam coupling.

  18. Hydrogen film cooling investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousar, D. C.; Ewen, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Effects of flow turning, flow acceleration, and supersonic flow on film cooling were determined experimentally and correlated in terms of an entrainment film cooling model. Experiments were conducted using thin walled metal test sections, hot nitrogen mainstream gas, and ambient hydrogen or nitrogen as film coolants. The entrainment film cooling model relates film cooling effectiveness to the amount of mainstream gases entrained with the film coolant in a mixing layer. The experimental apparatus and the analytical model used are described in detail and correlations for the entrainment fraction and film coolant-to-wall heat transfer coefficient are presented.

  19. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Stewart, William A.

    1991-01-01

    A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

  20. High energy electron cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very close to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.

  1. District cooling gets hot

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, R.S.

    1996-07-01

    Utilities across the country are adopting cool storage methods, such as ice-storage and chilled-water tanks, as an economical and environmentally safe way to provide cooling for cities and towns. The use of district cooling, in which cold water or steam is pumped to absorption chillers and then to buildings via a central community chiller plant, is growing strongly in the US. In Chicago, San Diego, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and elsewhere, independent district-energy companies and utilities are refurbishing neglected district-heating systems and adding district cooling, a technology first developed approximately 35 years ago.

  2. Power electronics cooling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sanger, Philip Albert; Lindberg, Frank A.; Garcen, Walter

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

  3. X-Ray spectroscopy of cooling flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestwich, Andrea

    1996-01-01

    Cooling flows in clusters of galaxies occur when the cooling time of the gas is shorter than the age of the cluster; material cools and falls to the center of the cluster potential. Evidence for short X-ray cooling times comes from imaging studies of clusters and X-ray spectroscopy of a few bright clusters. Because the mass accretion rate can be high (a few 100 solar mass units/year) the mass of material accumulated over the lifetime of a cluster can be as high as 10(exp 12) solar mass units. However, there is little evidence for this material at other wavelengths, and the final fate of the accretion material is unknown. X-ray spectra obtained with the Einstein SSS show evidence for absorption; if confirmed this result would imply that the accretion material is in the form of cool dense clouds. However ice on the SSS make these data difficult to interpret. We obtained ASCA spectra of the cooling flow cluster Abell 85. Our primary goals were to search for multi-temperature components that may be indicative of cool gas; search for temperature gradients across the cluster; and look for excess absorption in the cooling region.

  4. Stacking with stochastic cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspers, Fritz; Möhl, Dieter

    2004-10-01

    Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles 'seen' by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly 'protected' from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently 'shielded' against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 105 the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters). In the 'old AA', where the antiproton collection and stacking was done in one single ring, the injected beam was further shielded during cooling by means of a movable shutter. The complexity of these systems is very high. For more modest stacking ratios, one might use azimuthal rather than radial separation of stack and injected beam. Schematically half of the circumference would be used to accept and cool new beam and the remainder to house the stack. Fast gating is then required between the high gain cooling of the injected beam and the low gain stack cooling. RF-gymnastics are used to merge the pre-cooled batch with the stack, to re-create free space for the next injection, and to capture the new batch. This scheme is less demanding for the storage ring lattice, but at the expense of some reduction in stacking rate. The talk reviews the 'radial' separation schemes and also gives some considerations to the 'azimuthal' schemes.

  5. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Fanning, Alan W.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

  6. Elastocaloric cooling: Stretch to actively cool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossmer, Hinnerk; Kohl, Manfred

    2016-10-01

    The elastocaloric effect can be exploited in solid-state cooling technologies as an alternative to conventional vapour compression. Now, an elastocaloric device based on the concept of active regeneration achieves a temperature lift of 15.3 K and efficiencies competitive with other caloric-based approaches.

  7. Warming up and cooling down (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the exercise itself. By properly warming up the muscles and joints with low-level aerobic movement for 5 to 10 minutes, one may avoid injury and build endurance over time. Cooling down after exercise by walking ...

  8. DOAS, Radiant Cooling Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The article discusses dedicated outdoor air systems (DOAS) and radiant cooling technologies. Both of these topics were covered in previous ASHRAE Journal columns. This article reviews the technologies and their increasing acceptance. The two steps that ASHRAE is taking to disseminate DOAS information to the design community, available energy savings and the market potential of radiant cooling systems are addressed as well.

  9. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  10. Why Cool Roofs?

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Steven

    2010-01-01

    By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

  11. S'COOL Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This article describes one fifth grade's participation in in NASA's S'COOL (Students' Cloud Observations On-Line) Project, making cloud observations, reporting them online, exploring weather concepts, and gleaning some of the things involved in authentic scientific research. S?COOL is part of a real scientific study of the effect of clouds on…

  12. Data center cooling method

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Dang, Hien P.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-08-11

    A method aspect for removing heat from a data center may use liquid coolant cooled without vapor compression refrigeration on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack. The method may also include regulating liquid coolant flow to the data center through a range of liquid coolant flow values with a controller-apparatus based upon information technology equipment temperature threshold of the data center.

  13. District cooling in Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, B.

    1996-11-01

    This paper will present the status of the development of district cooling systems in Scandinavia over the last 5 years. It will describe the technologies used in the systems that have been constructed as well as the options considered in different locations. It will identify the drivers for the development of the cooling business to-date, and what future drivers for a continuing development of district cooling in Sweden. To-date, approximately 25 different cities of varying sizes have completed feasibility studies to determine if district cooling is an attractive option. In a survey, that was conducted by the Swedish District Heating Association, some 25 cities expected to have district cooling systems in place by the year 2000. In Sweden, district heating systems with hot water is very common. In many cases, it is simply an addition to the current service for the district heating company to also supply district cooling to the building owners. A parallel from this can be drawn to North America where district cooling systems now are developing rapidly. I am convinced that in these cities a district heating service will be added as a natural expansion of the district cooling company`s service.

  14. S'COOL Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This article describes one fifth grade's participation in in NASA's S'COOL (Students' Cloud Observations On-Line) Project, making cloud observations, reporting them online, exploring weather concepts, and gleaning some of the things involved in authentic scientific research. S?COOL is part of a real scientific study of the effect of clouds on…

  15. Liquid Cooled Garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Astronauts working on the surface of the moon had to wear liquid-cooled garments under their space suits as protection from lunar temperatures which sometimes reach 250 degrees Fahrenheit. In community service projects conducted by NASA's Ames Research Center, the technology developed for astronaut needs has been adapted to portable cooling systems which will permit two youngsters to lead more normal lives.

  16. Why Cool Roofs?

    ScienceCinema

    Chu, Steven

    2016-07-12

    By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

  17. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    DOEpatents

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2016-05-17

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  18. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    DOEpatents

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2015-08-18

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  19. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P.

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  20. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  1. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, Fred Wolf; Willett, Fred Thomas

    1999-07-20

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

  2. Modeling gasodynamic vortex cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdyan, A. E.; Fauve, S.

    2017-08-01

    We aim at studying gasodynamic vortex cooling in an analytically solvable, thermodynamically consistent model that can explain limitations on the cooling efficiency. To this end, we study an angular plus radial flow between two (coaxial) rotating permeable cylinders. Full account is taken of compressibility, viscosity, and heat conductivity. For a weak inward radial flow the model qualitatively describes the vortex cooling effect, in terms of both temperature and the decrease of the stagnation enthalpy, seen in short uniflow vortex (Ranque) tubes. The cooling does not result from external work and its efficiency is defined as the ratio of the lowest temperature reached adiabatically (for the given pressure gradient) to the lowest temperature actually reached. We show that for the vortex cooling the efficiency is strictly smaller than 1, but in another configuration with an outward radial flow, we find that the efficiency can be larger than 1. This is related to both the geometry and the finite heat conductivity.

  3. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

    1999-07-20

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

  4. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, Fred Wolf; Willett, Fred Thomas

    2000-01-01

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

  5. Hydronic rooftop cooling systems

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Richard C [Davis, CA; Lee, Brian Eric [Monterey, CA; Berman, Mark J [Davis, CA

    2008-01-29

    A roof top cooling unit has an evaporative cooling section that includes at least one evaporative module that pre-cools ventilation air and water; a condenser; a water reservoir and pump that captures and re-circulates water within the evaporative modules; a fan that exhausts air from the building and the evaporative modules and systems that refill and drain the water reservoir. The cooling unit also has a refrigerant section that includes a compressor, an expansion device, evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, and connecting refrigerant piping. Supply air components include a blower, an air filter, a cooling and/or heating coil to condition air for supply to the building, and optional dampers that, in designs that supply less than 100% outdoor air to the building, control the mixture of return and ventilation air.

  6. Stochastic cooling at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Marriner, J.

    1986-08-01

    The topics discussed are the stochastic cooling systems in use at Fermilab and some of the techniques that have been employed to meet the particular requirements of the anti-proton source. Stochastic cooling at Fermilab became of paramount importance about 5 years ago when the anti-proton source group at Fermilab abandoned the electron cooling ring in favor of a high flux anti-proton source which relied solely on stochastic cooling to achieve the phase space densities necessary for colliding proton and anti-proton beams. The Fermilab systems have constituted a substantial advance in the techniques of cooling including: large pickup arrays operating at microwave frequencies, extensive use of cryogenic techniques to reduce thermal noise, super-conducting notch filters, and the development of tools for controlling and for accurately phasing the system.

  7. Personal cooling in hot workings

    SciTech Connect

    Tuck, M.A.

    1999-07-01

    The number of mines experiencing climatic difficulties worldwide is increasing. In a large number of cases these climatic difficulties are confined to working areas only or to specific locations within working areas. Thus the problem in these mines can be described as highly localized, due to a large extent not to high rock temperatures but due to machine heat loads and low airflow rates. Under such situations conventional means of controlling the climate can be inapplicable and/or uneconomic. One possible means of achieving the required level of climatic control, to ensure worker health and safety whilst achieving economic gains, is to adopt a system of active man cooling. This is the reverse of normal control techniques where the cooling power of the ventilating air is enhanced in some way. Current methods of active man cooling include ice jackets and various umbilical cord type systems. These have numerous drawbacks, such as limited useful exposure times and limitations to worker mobility. The paper suggests an alternative method of active man cooling than those currently available and reviews the design criteria for such a garment. The range of application of such a garment is discussed, under both normal and emergency situations.

  8. Instabilities of cooled antiproton beam in recycler

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, A.; Lebedev, V.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The more beam is cooled, the less stable it is. In the 3.3 km Recycler Ring, stacked 8 GeV antiprotons are cooled both with stochastic (transversely) and electron (3D) cooling. Since the machine is staying near the coupling resonance, coupled optical functions should be used for stability analysis. To stabilize beam against the resistive wall instability, a digital damper is used. Digital dampers can be described as linear operators with explicit time dependence, and that makes a principle difference with analogous dampers. Theoretical description of the digital dampers is presented. Electron cooling makes possible a two-beam instability of the cooled beam with the electron beam. Special features of this instability are described, and the remedy is discussed.

  9. Final muon cooling for a muon collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta Castillo, John Gabriel

    To explore the new energy frontier, a new generation of particle accelerators is needed. Muon colliders are a promising alternative if muon cooling can be made to work. Muons are 200 times heavier than electrons, so they produce less synchrotron radiation, and they behave like point particles. However, they have a short lifetime of 2.2 mus and the beam is more difficult to cool than an electron beam. The Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) was created to develop concepts and technologies required by a muon collider. An important effort has been made in the program to design and optimize a muon beam cooling system. The goal is to achieve the small beam emittance required by a muon collider. This work explores a final ionization cooling system using magnetic quadrupole lattices with a low enough beta* region to cool the beam to the required limit with available low Z absorbers.

  10. Current Pulses Momentarily Enhance Thermoelectric Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Caillat, Thierry; Chen, Gang; Yang, Rong Gui

    2004-01-01

    The rates of cooling afforded by thermoelectric (Peltier) devices can be increased for short times by applying pulses of electric current greater than the currents that yield maximum steady-state cooling. It has been proposed to utilize such momentary enhancements of cooling in applications in which diode lasers and other semiconductor devices are required to operate for times of the order of milliseconds at temperatures too low to be easily obtainable in the steady state. In a typical contemplated application, a semiconductor device would be in contact with the final (coldest) somewhat taller stage of a multistage thermoelectric cooler. Steady current would be applied to the stages to produce steady cooling. Pulsed current would then be applied, enhancing the cooling of the top stage momentarily. The principles of operation are straightforward: In a thermoelectric device, the cooling occurs only at a junction at one end of the thermoelectric legs, at a rate proportional to the applied current. However, Joule heating occurs throughout the device at a rate proportional to the current squared. Hence, in the steady state, the steady temperature difference that the device can sustain increases with current only to the point beyond which the Joule heating dominates. If a pulse of current greater than the optimum current (the current for maximum steady cooling) is applied, then the junction becomes momentarily cooled below its lowest steady temperature until thermal conduction brings the resulting pulse of Joule heat to the junction and thereby heats the junction above its lowest steady temperature. A theoretical and experimental study of such transient thermoelectric cooling followed by transient Joule heating in response to current pulses has been performed. The figure presents results from one of the experiments. The study established the essential parameters that characterize the pulse cooling effect, including the minimum temperature achieved, the maximum

  11. Grackle: Chemistry and radiative cooling library for astrophysical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Britton D.; Bryan, Greg L.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Turk, Matthew J.; Regan, John; Wise, John H.; Schive, Hsi-Yu; Abel, Tom; Emerick, Andrew; O'Shea, Brian W.; Anninos, Peter; Hummels, Cameron B.; Khochfar, Sadegh

    2016-12-01

    The chemistry and radiative cooling library Grackle provides options for primordial chemistry and cooling, photo-heating and photo-ionization from UV backgrounds, and support for user-provided arrays of volumetric and specific heating rates for astrophysical simulations and models. The library provides functions to update chemistry species; solve radiative cooling and update internal energy; and calculate cooling time, temperature, pressure, and ratio of specific heats (gamma), and has interfaces for C, C++, Fortran, and Python codes.

  12. Enhanced photothermal cooling of nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guccione, G.; Hosseini, M.; Mirzaei, A.; Slatyer, H. J.; Buchler, B. C.; Lam, P. K.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the optomechanical interaction between light and metallic nanowires through the action of bolometric forces. We show that the response time of the photothermal forces induced on the nanowire is fast and the strength of the interaction can overcome the radiation pressure force. Furthermore, we suggest the photothermal forces can be enhanced by surface plasmon excitation to cool the sub-megahertz vibrational modes of the nanowires close to its quantum limit.

  13. MEIC electron cooling program

    DOE PAGES

    Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-12-01

    Cooling of proton and ion beams is essential for achieving high luminosities (up to above 1034 cm-2s-1) for MEIC, a Medium energy Electron-Ion Collider envisioned at JLab [1] for advanced nuclear science research. In the present conceptual design, we utilize the conventional election cooling method and adopted a multi-staged cooling scheme for reduction of and maintaining low beam emittances [2,3,4]. Two electron cooling facilities are required to support the scheme: one is a low energy (up to 2 MeV) DC cooler installed in the MEIC ion pre-booster (with the proton kinetic energy up to 3 GeV); the other is amore » high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) cooler in the collider ring (with the proton kinetic energy from 25 to 100 GeV). The high energy cooler, which is based on the ERL technology and a circulator ring, utilizes a bunched electron beam to cool bunched proton or ion beams. To complete the MEIC cooling concept and a technical design of the ERL cooler as well as to develop supporting technologies, an R&D program has been initiated at Jefferson Lab and significant progresses have been made since then. In this study, we present a brief description of the cooler design and a summary of the progress in this cooling R&D.« less

  14. MEIC electron cooling program

    SciTech Connect

    Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-12-01

    Cooling of proton and ion beams is essential for achieving high luminosities (up to above 1034 cm-2s-1) for MEIC, a Medium energy Electron-Ion Collider envisioned at JLab [1] for advanced nuclear science research. In the present conceptual design, we utilize the conventional election cooling method and adopted a multi-staged cooling scheme for reduction of and maintaining low beam emittances [2,3,4]. Two electron cooling facilities are required to support the scheme: one is a low energy (up to 2 MeV) DC cooler installed in the MEIC ion pre-booster (with the proton kinetic energy up to 3 GeV); the other is a high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) cooler in the collider ring (with the proton kinetic energy from 25 to 100 GeV). The high energy cooler, which is based on the ERL technology and a circulator ring, utilizes a bunched electron beam to cool bunched proton or ion beams. To complete the MEIC cooling concept and a technical design of the ERL cooler as well as to develop supporting technologies, an R&D program has been initiated at Jefferson Lab and significant progresses have been made since then. In this study, we present a brief description of the cooler design and a summary of the progress in this cooling R&D.

  15. Axion cooling of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedrakian, Armen

    2016-03-01

    Cooling simulations of neutron stars and their comparison with the data from thermally emitting x-ray sources put constraints on the properties of axions, and by extension, of any light pseudoscalar dark matter particles, whose existence has been postulated to solve the strong-C P problem of QCD. We incorporate the axion emission by pair-breaking and formation processes by S - and P -wave nucleonic condensates in a benchmark code for cooling simulations, as well as provide fit formulas for the rates of these processes. Axion cooling of neutron stars has been simulated for 24 models covering the mass range 1 to 1.8 solar masses, featuring nonaccreted iron and accreted light-element envelopes, and a range of nucleon-axion couplings. The models are based on an equation state predicting conservative physics of superdense nuclear matter that does not allow for the onset of fast cooling processes induced by phase transitions to non-nucleonic forms of matter or high proton concentration. The cooling tracks in the temperature vs age plane were confronted with the (time-averaged) measured surface temperature of the central compact object in the Cas A supernova remnant as well as surface temperatures of three nearby middle-aged thermally emitting pulsars. We find that the axion coupling is limited to fa/107 GeV ≥(5 - 10 ) , which translates into an upper bound on axion mass ma≤(0.06 - 0.12 ) eV for Peccei-Quinn charges of the neutron |Cn|˜0.04 and proton |Cp|˜0.4 characteristic for hadronic models of axions.

  16. Cryogenic generator cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckels, P. W.; Fagan, T. J.; Parker, J. H., Jr.; Long, L. J.; Shestak, E. J.; Calfo, R. M.; Hannon, W. F.; Brown, D. B.; Barkell, J. W.; Patterson, A.

    The concept for a hydrogen cooled aluminum cryogenic generator was presented by Schlicher and Oberly in 1985. Following their lead, this paper describes the thermal design of a high voltage dc, multimegawatt generator of high power density. The rotor and stator are cooled by saturated liquid and supercritical hydrogen, respectively. The brushless exciter on the same shaft is also cooled by liquid hydrogen. Component development testing is well under way and some of the test results concerning the thermohydraulic performance of the conductors are reported. The aluminum cryogenic generator's characteristics are attractive for hydrogen economy applications.

  17. Personal Cooling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Cool Head, a personal cooling system for use in heat stress occupations, is a spinoff of a channeled cooling garment for space wear. It is portable and includes a heat exchanger, control display unit, liquid reservoir and temperature control unit. The user can eliminate 40 to 60 percent of his body's heat storage and lower heart rate by 50 to 80 beats a minute. The system is used by the Army, Navy, crop dusting pilots, heavy equipment operators and auto racing drivers and is marketed by Life Enhancement Technologies, LLC. Further applications are under consideration.

  18. Geminga: A cooling superfluid neutron star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Dany

    1994-01-01

    We compare the recent temperature estimate for Geminga with neutron star cooling models. Because of its age (approximately 3.4 x 10(exp 5) yr), Geminga is in the photon cooling era. We show that its surface temperature (approximately 5.2 x 10(exp 5) K) can be understood by both types of neutrino cooling scenarios, i.e., slow neutrino cooling by the modified Urca process or fast neutrino cooling by the direct Urca process or by some exotic matter, and thus does not allow us to discriminate between these two competing schemes. However, for both types of scenarios, agreement with the observed temperature can only be obtained if baryon pairing is present in most, if not all, of the core of the star. Within the slow neutrino cooling scenario, early neutrino cooling is not sufficient to explain the observed low temperature, and extensive pairing in the core is necessary to reduce the specific heat and increase the cooling rate in the present photon cooling era. Within all the fast neutrino cooling scenarios, pairing is necessary throughout the whole core to control the enormous early neutrino emission which, without pairing suppression, would result in a surface temperature at the present time much lower than observed. We also comment on the recent temperature estimates for PSR 0656+14 and PSR 1055-52, which pertain to the same photon cooling era. If one assumes that all neutron stars undergo fast neutrino cooling, then these two objects also provide evidence for extensive baryon pairing in their core; but observational uncertainties also permit a more conservative interpretation, with slow neutrino emission and no pairing at all. We argue though that observational evidence for the slow neutrino cooling model (the 'standard' model) is in fact very dim and that the interpretation of the surface temperature of all neutron stars could be done with a reasonable theoretical a priori within the fast neutrino cooling scenarios only. In this case, Geminga, PSR 0656+14, and PSR

  19. Geminga: A cooling superfluid neutron star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Dany

    1994-01-01

    We compare the recent temperature estimate for Geminga with neutron star cooling models. Because of its age (approximately 3.4 x 10(exp 5) yr), Geminga is in the photon cooling era. We show that its surface temperature (approximately 5.2 x 10(exp 5) K) can be understood by both types of neutrino cooling scenarios, i.e., slow neutrino cooling by the modified Urca process or fast neutrino cooling by the direct Urca process or by some exotic matter, and thus does not allow us to discriminate between these two competing schemes. However, for both types of scenarios, agreement with the observed temperature can only be obtained if baryon pairing is present in most, if not all, of the core of the star. Within the slow neutrino cooling scenario, early neutrino cooling is not sufficient to explain the observed low temperature, and extensive pairing in the core is necessary to reduce the specific heat and increase the cooling rate in the present photon cooling era. Within all the fast neutrino cooling scenarios, pairing is necessary throughout the whole core to control the enormous early neutrino emission which, without pairing suppression, would result in a surface temperature at the present time much lower than observed. We also comment on the recent temperature estimates for PSR 0656+14 and PSR 1055-52, which pertain to the same photon cooling era. If one assumes that all neutron stars undergo fast neutrino cooling, then these two objects also provide evidence for extensive baryon pairing in their core; but observational uncertainties also permit a more conservative interpretation, with slow neutrino emission and no pairing at all. We argue though that observational evidence for the slow neutrino cooling model (the 'standard' model) is in fact very dim and that the interpretation of the surface temperature of all neutron stars could be done with a reasonable theoretical a priori within the fast neutrino cooling scenarios only. In this case, Geminga, PSR 0656+14, and PSR

  20. Actively controlling coolant-cooled cold plate configuration

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2016-04-26

    Cooling apparatuses are provided to facilitate active control of thermal and fluid dynamic performance of a coolant-cooled cold plate. The cooling apparatus includes the cold plate and a controller. The cold plate couples to one or more electronic components to be cooled, and includes an adjustable physical configuration. The controller dynamically varies the adjustable physical configuration of the cold plate based on a monitored variable associated with the cold plate or the electronic component(s) being cooled by the cold plate. By dynamically varying the physical configuration, the thermal and fluid dynamic performance of the cold plate are adjusted to, for example, optimally cool the electronic component(s), and at the same time, reduce cooling power consumption used in cooling the electronic component(s). The physical configuration can be adjusted by providing one or more adjustable plates within the cold plate, the positioning of which may be adjusted based on the monitored variable.

  1. Review of High Temperature Water and Steam Cooled Reactor Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Yoshiaki

    2002-07-01

    This review summarizes design concepts of supercritical-pressure water cooled reactors (SCR), nuclear superheaters and steam cooled fast reactors from 1950's to the present time. It includes water moderated supercritical steam cooled reactor, SCOTT-R and SC-PWR of Westinghouse, heavy water moderated light water cooled SCR of GE, SCLWR and SCFR of the University of Tokyo, B-500SKDI of Kurchatov Institute, CANDU -X of AECL, nuclear superheaters of GE, subcritical-pressure steam cooled FBR of KFK and B and W, Supercritical-pressure steam cooled FBR of B and W, subcritical-pressure steam cooled high converter by Edlund and Schultz and subcritical-pressure water-steam cooled FBR by Alekseev. This paper is prepared based on the previous review of SCR2000 symposium, and some author's comments are added. (author)

  2. Warm and Cool Dinosaurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannlein, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of warm and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)

  3. Waveguide cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, B. C. J.; Hartop, R. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An improved system is described for cooling high power waveguides by the use of cooling ducts extending along the waveguide, which minimizes hot spots at the flanges where waveguide sections are connected together. The cooling duct extends along substantially the full length of the waveguide section, and each flange at the end of the section has a through hole with an inner end connected to the duct and an opposite end that can be aligned with a flange hole in another waveguide section. Earth flange is formed with a drainage groove in its face, between the through hole and the waveguide conduit to prevent leakage of cooling fluid into the waveguide. The ducts have narrowed sections immediately adjacent to the flanges to provide room for the installation of fasteners closely around the waveguide channel.

  4. Warm and Cool Dinosaurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannlein, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of warm and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)

  5. Why Exercise Is Cool

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Why Exercise Is Cool KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Exercise Is ... day and your body will thank you later! Exercise Makes Your Heart Happy You may know that ...

  6. Cooling of a sunspot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boruta, N.

    1977-01-01

    The question of whether a perturbed photospheric area can grow into a region of reduced temperature resembling a sunspot is investigated by considering whether instabilities exist that can lead to a growing temperature change and corresponding magnetic-field concentration in some region of the photosphere. After showing that Alfven cooling can lead to these instabilities, the effect of a heat sink on the temperature development of a perturbed portion of the photosphere is studied. A simple form of Alfven-wave cooling is postulated, and computations are performed to determine whether growing modes exist for physically relevant boundary conditions. The results indicate that simple inhibition of convection does not give growing modes, but Alfven-wave production can result in cooling that leads to growing field concentration. It is concluded that since growing instabilities can occur with strong enough cooling, it is quite possible that energy loss through Alfven waves gives rise to a self-generating temperature change and sunspot formation.

  7. Bunched beam stochastic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jie.

    1992-01-01

    The scaling laws for bunched-beam stochastic cooling has been derived in terms of the optimum cooling rate and the mixing condition. In the case that particles occupy the entire sinusoidal rf bucket, the optimum cooling rate of the bunched beam is shown to be similar to that predicted from the coasting-beam theory using a beam of the same average density and mixing factor. However, in the case that particles occupy only the center of the bucket, the optimum rate decrease in proportion to the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. The cooling efficiency can be significantly improved if the synchrotron side-band spectrum is effectively broadened, e.g. by the transverse tune spread or by using a double rf system.

  8. Bunched beam stochastic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jie

    1992-09-01

    The scaling laws for bunched-beam stochastic cooling has been derived in terms of the optimum cooling rate and the mixing condition. In the case that particles occupy the entire sinusoidal rf bucket, the optimum cooling rate of the bunched beam is shown to be similar to that predicted from the coasting-beam theory using a beam of the same average density and mixing factor. However, in the case that particles occupy only the center of the bucket, the optimum rate decrease in proportion to the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. The cooling efficiency can be significantly improved if the synchrotron side-band spectrum is effectively broadened, e.g. by the transverse tune spread or by using a double rf system.

  9. Evaporative Cooling Membrane Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lomax, Curtis (Inventor); Moskito, John (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An evaporative cooling membrane device is disclosed having a flat or pleated plate housing with an enclosed bottom and an exposed top that is covered with at least one sheet of hydrophobic porous material having a thin thickness so as to serve as a membrane. The hydrophobic porous material has pores with predetermined dimensions so as to resist any fluid in its liquid state from passing therethrough but to allow passage of the fluid in its vapor state, thereby, causing the evaporation of the fluid and the cooling of the remaining fluid. The fluid has a predetermined flow rate. The evaporative cooling membrane device has a channel which is sized in cooperation with the predetermined flow rate of the fluid so as to produce laminar flow therein. The evaporative cooling membrane device provides for the convenient control of the evaporation rates of the circulating fluid by adjusting the flow rates of the laminar flowing fluid.

  10. Laser cooling of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, Richard I; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  11. Liquid cooled helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkins, William (Inventor); Williams, Bill A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Liquid cooled helmet comprising a cap of flexible material adapted to fit the head of a person, cooling panels mounted inside the cap forming passageways for carrying a liquid coolant, the panels being positioned to engage the cranium and neck of a person wearing the helmet, inlet and outlet lines communicating with the passageways, and releasable straps for securing the helmet about the neck of the wearer.

  12. Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Seiber, Larry E.; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    2007-09-11

    The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

  13. Cooled Ion Frequency Standard.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    experiments 1. Laser cooled atomic clock . We have completed work on the first frequency standard based on laser cooled atoms . This work which was...inaccuracy essentially equal to the U.S. best Cesium atomic clock with a clear direction for improvement and (2) this system facilitates studies of generic...problems are (1) to suppress second order and residual first order Doppler shifts in atomic frequency standards in a fundamental way--by substantially

  14. WATER COOLED RETORT COVER

    DOEpatents

    Ash, W.J.; Pozzi, J.F.

    1962-05-01

    A retort cover is designed for use in the production of magnesium metal by the condensation of vaporized metal on a collecting surface. The cover includes a condensing surface, insulating means adjacent to the condensing surface, ind a water-cooled means for the insulating means. The irrangement of insulation and the cooling means permits the magnesium to be condensed at a high temperature and in massive nonpyrophoric form. (AEC)

  15. An objective method for screening and selecting personal cooling systems based on cooling properties.

    PubMed

    Elson, John; Eckels, Steve

    2015-05-01

    A method is proposed for evaluation and selection of a personal cooling system (PCS) incorporating PCS, subject, and equipment weights; PCS run time; user task time; PCS cooling power; and average metabolic rate. The cooling effectiveness method presented is derived from first principles and allows those who select PCSs for specific applications to compare systems based on their projected use. This can lower testing costs by screening for the most applicable system. Methods to predict cooling power of PCSs are presented and are compared to data taken through standard manikin testing. The cooling effectiveness ranking is presented and validated against human subject test data. The proposed method provides significant insight into the application of PCS on humans. However, the interaction a humans with a PCS is complex, especially considering the range of clothing ensembles, physiological issues, and end use scenarios, and requires additional analysis.

  16. Weld electrode cooling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Robert C.; Simon, Daniel L.

    1999-03-01

    The U.S. auto/truck industry has been mandated by the Federal government to continuously improve their fleet average gas mileage, measured in miles per gallon. Several techniques are typically used to meet these mandates, one of which is to reduce the overall mass of cars and trucks. To help accomplish this goal, lighter weight sheet metal parts, with smaller weld flanges, have been designed and fabricated. This paper will examine the cooling characteristics of various water cooled weld electrodes and shanks used in resistance spot welding applications. The smaller weld flanges utilized in modern vehicle sheet metal fabrications have increased industry's interest in using one size of weld electrode (1/2 inch diameter) for certain spot welding operations. The welding community wants more data about the cooling characteristics of these 1/2 inch weld electrodes. To hep define the cooling characteristics, an infrared radiometer thermal vision system (TVS) was used to capture images (thermograms) of the heating and cooling cycles of several size combinations of weld electrodes under typical production conditions. Tests results will show why the open ended shanks are more suitable for cooling the weld electrode assembly then closed ended shanks.

  17. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favalli, A.; Vo, D.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Tobin, S. J.; Trellue, H.; Vaccaro, S.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)-Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI-SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute 137Cs count rate and the 154Eu/137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs, 106Ru/137Cs, and 144Ce/137Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity's behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. The results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.

  18. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden

    DOE PAGES

    Favalli, Andrea; Vo, D.; Grogan, Brandon R.; ...

    2016-02-26

    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)–Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI–SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuelmore » assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute 137Cs count rate and the 154Eu/137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs, 106Ru/137Cs, and 144Ce/137Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity’s behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. Furthermore, the results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.« less

  19. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Favalli, Andrea; Vo, D.; Grogan, Brandon R.; Jansson, Peter; Liljenfeldt, Henrik; Mozin, Vladimir; Schwalbach, P.; Sjoland, A.; Tobin, Stephen J.; Trellue, Holly; Vaccaro, S.

    2016-02-26

    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)–Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI–SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute 137Cs count rate and the 154Eu/137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs, 106Ru/137Cs, and 144Ce/137Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity’s behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. Furthermore, the results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.

  20. Effects of running time of a cattle-cooling system on core body temperature of cows on dairy farms in an arid environment.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, X A; Smith, J F; Bradford, B J; Harner, J P; Oddy, A

    2010-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted on a commercial dairy farm to describe the effects of a reduction in Korral Kool (KK; Korral Kool Inc., Mesa, AZ) system operating time on core body temperature (CBT) of primiparous and multiparous cows. In the first experiment, KK systems were operated for 18, 21, or 24 h/d while CBT of 63 multiparous Holstein dairy cows was monitored. All treatments started at 0600 h, and KK systems were turned off at 0000 h and 0300 h for the 18-h and 21-h treatments, respectively. Animals were housed in 9 pens and assigned randomly to treatment sequences in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. In the second experiment, 21 multiparous and 21 primiparous cows were housed in 6 pens and assigned randomly to treatment sequences (KK operated for 21 or 24 h/d) in a switchback design. All treatments started at 0600 h, and KK systems were turned off at 0300 h for the 21-h treatments. In experiment 1, cows in the 24-h treatment had a lower mean CBT than cows in the 18- and 21-h treatments (38.97, 39.08, and 39.03±0.04°C, respectively). The significant treatment by time interaction showed that the greatest treatment effects occurred at 0600 h; treatment means at this time were 39.43, 39.37, and 38.88±0.18°C for 18-, 21-, and 24-h treatments, respectively. These results demonstrate that a reduction in KK system running time of ≥3 h/d will increase CBT. In experiment 2, a significant parity by treatment interaction was found. Multiparous cows on the 24-h treatment had lower mean CBT than cows on the 21-h treatment (39.23 and 39.45±0.17°C, respectively), but treatment had no effect on mean CBT of primiparous cows (39.50 and 39.63±0.20°C for 21- and 24-h treatments, respectively). A significant treatment by time interaction was observed, with the greatest treatment effects occurring at 0500 h; treatment means at this time were 39.57, 39.23, 39.89, and 39.04±0.24°C for 21-h primiparous, 24-h primiparous, 21-h multiparous, and 24-h multiparous cows

  1. Comparing Social Stories™ to Cool versus Not Cool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Mitchell, Erin; Townley-Cochran, Donna; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Leaf, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    In this study we compared the cool versus not cool procedure to Social Stories™ for teaching various social behaviors to one individual diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The researchers randomly assigned three social skills to the cool versus not cool procedure and three social skills to the Social Stories™ procedure. Naturalistic probes…

  2. Comparing Social Stories™ to Cool versus Not Cool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Mitchell, Erin; Townley-Cochran, Donna; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Leaf, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    In this study we compared the cool versus not cool procedure to Social Stories™ for teaching various social behaviors to one individual diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The researchers randomly assigned three social skills to the cool versus not cool procedure and three social skills to the Social Stories™ procedure. Naturalistic probes…

  3. Integrals for IBS and beam cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, A.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Simulation of beam cooling usually requires performing certain integral transformations every time step or so, which is a significant burden on the CPU. Examples are the dispersion integrals (Hilbert transforms) in the stochastic cooling, wake fields and IBS integrals. An original method is suggested for fast and sufficiently accurate computation of the integrals. This method is applied for the dispersion integral. Some methodical aspects of the IBS analysis are discussed.

  4. Integrals for IBS and Beam Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, A.

    2005-06-08

    Simulation of beam cooling usually requires performing certain integral transformations every time step or so, which is a significant burden on the CPU. Examples are the dispersion integrals (Hilbert transforms) in the stochastic cooling, wake fields and IBS integrals. An original method is suggested for fast and sufficiently accurate computation of the integrals. This method is applied for the dispersion integral. Some methodical aspects of the IBS analysis are discussed.

  5. Rotationally inelastic cross sections, rates and cooling times for para-H2 +, ortho-D2 + and HD+ in cold helium gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, Mario Hernández; Schiller, Stephan; Wester, Roland; Gianturco, Francesco Antonio

    2017-05-01

    In the present work we discuss the dynamical processes guiding the relaxation of the internal rotational energy of three diatomic ions, the para-H2+, the ortho-D2+ and the HD+ in collision with He atoms. The state-changing cross sections and rates for these Molecular Hydrogen Ions (MHIs) are obtained from Close Coupling quantum dynamics calculations and the decay times into their respective ground states are computed by further solving the relevant time-evolution equations. The comparison of the results from the three molecules allows us to obtain a detailed understanding, and a deep insight, on the relative efficiencies of the relaxation processes considered. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Dynamics of Molecular Systems (MOLEC 2016)", edited by Alberto Garcia-Vela, Luis Banares and Maria Luisa Senent.

  6. The influence of finishing/polishing time and cooling system on surface roughness and microhardness of two different types of composite resin restorations

    PubMed Central

    Kaminedi, Raja Rajeswari; Penumatsa, Narendra Varma; Priya, Tulasi; Baroudi, Kusai

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of finishing time and polishing time on surface roughness and microhardness of nanofilled and hybrid resin composites. Materials and Methods: Hundred disk composite specimens from micro hybrid composite and nanohybrid composite were prepared, 50 for each type of composite. The specimens were divided into five groups according to the time of finishing and polishing (immediate, 15 min, 24 h and dry). Composite under the Mylar strip without finishing and polishing was taken as the control group. Surface roughness was measured with environmental scanning electronic microscope (ESEM) and microhardness was determined using Vickers Microhardness Tester. Data collected were statistically analyzed by t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey's post hoc test. Results: Smooth surface with low hardness was obtained for the group under Mylar strip without finishing and polishing. The highest roughness was recorded for delayed finishing and polishing for both composites. Immediate finishing and polishing increased the surface hardness more than that in the control group in both types of composites. Dry finishing reduced the hardness significantly for micro hybrid composite, but resulted in the highest surface hardness for nanofilled composite. Conclusion: Immediate finishing and polishing under coolant resulted in the best surface smoothness and hardness values in micro hybrid composite; however, immediate dry finishing and polishing gave the best smoothness and hardness values in nanohybrid composite. PMID:25558457

  7. SOLERAS solar active cooling field test operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, J.; Martin, R.

    Four small-scale commercial size solar cooling systems being tested in Arizona as part of the SOLERAS program are described, together with 1981 performance summaries. A 63 kW air-cooled Rankine cycle system powered by parabolic troughs is used to cool a one-story office building. The system has both hot and cold storage tanks and uses R-11 fluid. A 49 kW Rankine cycle system driven by 218.5 sq m of evacuated tube collectors features direct expansion cooling of part of an office building, as well as part-time electrical generation for the grid. A water-absorption cycle system with 53 kW of power from 133.8 sq m of tracking parabolic trough receivers is employed to cool a warehouse office area. The system includes a hot storage tank and ground-mounted solar energy collection. Computer room cooling is provided by the fourth system, a 35 kW air-cooled absorption system system featuring 89.2 sq m of Fresnel lens collectors mounted roof-top. Design simplicity has been found to be mandatory for performance optimization, thereby ruling out cogeneration. Alsi, the use of both hot and cold storage has proven beneficial from cost and operational points of view

  8. Disorder in flash cooled protein crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriminski, Sergey Alekseevich

    Heat transfer from protein crystals and temperature distribution during flash cooling were analyzed analytically. For flash cooling in gas streams heat transfer is limited by the boundary layer, so that strains during cooling are small. Characteristic cooling times vary with crystal size L as L3/2. Plunge into liquids increases cooling rates by more than an order of magnitude. However, plunge cooling produces much larger internal temperature gradients and strains that may damage crystals, especially in the case of large crystals. Based on this analysis, factors affecting the success of flash cooling experiments can be ordered from most to least important as follows: crystal solvent content and solvent composition; crystal size and shape; amount of residual liquid around the crystal; cooling method (liquid or gas); choice of gas/liquid; relative speed between cooling fluid and crystal. Two problems related to flash cooling are investigated using X-ray imaging, diffraction peak shape measurements and conventional diffraction on tetragonal lysozyme. Step preceding flash cooling---post-growth treatment---is modelled by dehydration. The results indicate that near 88% relative humidity c lattice parameter decreases abruptly, mosaicity and diffraction resolution degrade sharply, topographs develop extensive contrast. This transformation exhibits metastability and hysteresis; original order can be restored by rehydration. These are features of the first order phase transition involving abrupt loss of crystal water. Consequently, post-growth treatment should either avoid lattice transitions or maintain the lattice in an ordered metastable state. Flash cooling of large (˜1 mm) crystals degrades diffraction resolution, broadens mosaicity and lattice spacings distribution. Lattice strain decreases and diffraction resolution improves with decreasing crystal size and with the usage of glycerol. Annealing reduces lattice constant spread and improves the resolution. X

  9. Experimental study on the evaporative cooling of an air-cooled condenser with humidifying air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Mao-Yu; Ho, Ching-Yen; Jang, Kuang-Jang; Yeh, Cheng-Hsiung

    2014-02-01

    Using six different materials to construct a water curtain, this study aims to determine the most effective spray cooling of an air cooled heat exchanger under wet conditions. The experiments were carried out at a mass flow rate of 0.005-0.01 kg/s (spraying water), an airspeed of 0.6-2.4 m/s and a run time of 0-72 h for the material degradation tests. The experimental results indicate that the cooling efficiency, the heat rejection, and the sprinkling density increase as the amount of spraying water increases, but, the air-flow of the condenser is reduced at the same time. In addition, the cooling efficiency of the pads decreases with an increase of the inlet air velocity. In terms of experimental range, the natural wood pulp fiberscan can reach 42.7-66 % for cooling efficiency and 17.17-24.48 % for increases of heat rejection. This means that the natural wood pulp fiberscan pad most effectively enhances cooling performance, followed in terms of cooling effectiveness by the special non-woven rayon pad, the woollen blanket, biochemistry cotton and kapok, non-woven cloth of rayon cotton and kapok, and white cotton pad, respectively. However, the natural wood pulp fiberscan and special non-woven rayon display a relatively greater degradation of the cooling efficiency than the other test pads used in the material degradation tests.

  10. Heat transfer characteristics in film cooling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licu, Dragos Nicolae

    1998-11-01

    . The local momentum flux ratio is a more appropriate scaling parameter when coolants with different densities are used. A film cooling effectiveness correlation was also developed for one of the geometries investigated based on an area-averaged film cooling effectiveness and on a newly defined blowing parameter. This correlation accounts implicitly for the particular geometrical layout used and explicitly for the main injection parameters investigated. The results can be now more directly used in existing design procedures. A new experimental technique based on wide-band liquid crystal thermography and transient one-dimensional heat conduction has been developed and implemented. The technique combines a real-time, true colour imaging system with the use of a wide-band liquid crystal and multiple event sampling for the simultaneous determination of the film cooling effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient from one transient test. A comparison of different image capture techniques is also presented and computer codes are developed for data processing. For a test case of compound angle square jets in a crossflow, very good agreement was obtained between the film cooling effectiveness calculated from the transient heat transfer experiments and the film cooling effectiveness measured in isothermal mass transfer experiments using a flame ionization detector technique. This new approach has been developed as a major part of this thesis and represents a significant contribution to the use of liquid crystal thermography in film cooling applications.

  11. The initial cooling of pahoehoe flow lobes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keszthelyi, L.; Denlinger, R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new thermal model for the initial cooling of pahoehoe lava flows. The accurate modeling of this initial cooling is important for understanding the formation of the distinctive surface textures on pahoehoe lava flows as well as being the first step in modeling such key pahoehoe emplacement processes as lava flow inflation and lava tube formation. This model is constructed from the physical phenomena observed to control the initial cooling of pahoehoe flows and is not an empirical fit to field data. We find that the only significant processes are (a) heat loss by thermal radiation, (b) heat loss by atmospheric convection, (c) heat transport within the flow by conduction with temperature and porosity-dependent thermal properties, and (d) the release of latent heat during crystallization. The numerical model is better able to reproduce field measurements made in Hawai'i between 1989 and 1993 than other published thermal models. By adjusting one parameter at a time, the effect of each of the input parameters on the cooling rate was determined. We show that: (a) the surfaces of porous flows cool more quickly than the surfaces of dense flows, (b) the surface cooling is very sensitive to the efficiency of atmospheric convective cooling, and (c) changes in the glass forming tendency of the lava may have observable petrographic and thermal signatures. These model results provide a quantitative explanation for the recently observed relationship between the surface cooling rate of pahoehoe lobes and the porosity of those lobes (Jones 1992, 1993). The predicted sensitivity of cooling to atmospheric convection suggests a simple field experiment for verification, and the model provides a tool to begin studies of the dynamic crystallization of real lavas. Future versions of the model can also be made applicable to extraterrestrial, submarine, silicic, and pyroclastic flows.

  12. Terrestrial cooling and solar variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agee, E. M.

    1982-01-01

    Observational evidence from surface temperature records is presented and discussed which suggests a significant cooling trend over the Northern Hemisphere from 1940 to the present. This cooling trend is associated with an increase of the latitudinal gradient of temperature and the lapse rate, as predicted by climate models with decreased solar input and feedback mechanisms. Evidence suggests that four of these 80- to 100-year cycles of global surface temperature fluctuation may have occurred, and in succession, from 1600 to the present. Interpretation of sunspot activity were used to infer a direct thermal response of terrestrial temperature to solar variability on the time scale of the Gleissberg cycle (90 years, an amplitude of the 11-year cycles). A physical link between the sunspot activity and the solar parameter is hypothesized. Observations of sensible heat flux by stationary planetary waves and transient eddies, as well as general circulation modeling results of these processes, were examined from the viewpoint of the hypothesis of cooling due to reduced insolation.

  13. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannotti, Maurizio; Irastorza, Igor; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a mild preference for a non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP or a massless HP represent the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO and the massless HP requires a multi TeV energy scale of new physics that might be accessible at the LHC.

  14. Stochastic cooling of a high energy collider

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Lee, R.C.; Mernick, K.

    2011-09-04

    Gold beams in RHIC revolve more than a billion times over the course of a data acquisition session or store. During operations with these heavy ions the event rates in the detectors decay as the beams diffuse. A primary cause for this beam diffusion is small angle Coloumb scattering of the particles within the bunches. This intra-beam scattering (IBS) is particularly problematic at high energy because the negative mass effect removes the possibility of even approximate thermal equilibrium. Stochastic cooling can combat IBS. A theory of bunched beam cooling was developed in the early eighties and stochastic cooling systems for the SPS and the Tevatron were explored. Cooling for heavy ions in RHIC was also considered.

  15. DETAILED STUDIES OF ELECTRON COOLING FRICTION FORCE.

    SciTech Connect

    FEDOTOV, A.V.; BRUHWILER, D.L.; ABELL, D.T.; SIDORIN, A.O.

    2005-09-18

    High-energy electron cooling for RHIC presents many unique features and challenges. An accurate estimate of the cooling times requires detailed simulation of the electron cooling process. The first step towards such calculations is to have an accurate description of the cooling force. Numerical simulations are being used to explore various features of the friction force which appear due to several effects, including the anisotropy of the electron distribution in velocity space and the effect of a strong solenoidal magnetic field. These aspects are being studied in detail using the VORFAL code, which explicitly resolves close binary collisions. Results are compared with available asymptotic and empirical formulas and also, using the BETACOOL code, with direct numerical integration of less approximate expressions over the specified electron distribution function.

  16. Cooling system with automated seasonal freeze protection

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Levi A.; Chu, Richard C.; David, Milnes P.; Ellsworth, Jr., Michael J.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Simons, Robert E.; Singh, Prabjit; Zhang, Jing

    2016-05-24

    An automated multi-fluid cooling system and method are provided for cooling an electronic component(s). The cooling system includes a coolant loop, a coolant tank, multiple valves, and a controller. The coolant loop is at least partially exposed to outdoor ambient air temperature(s) during normal operation, and the coolant tank includes first and second reservoirs containing first and second fluids, respectively. The first fluid freezes at a lower temperature than the second, the second fluid has superior cooling properties compared with the first, and the two fluids are soluble. The multiple valves are controllable to selectively couple the first or second fluid into the coolant in the coolant loop, wherein the coolant includes at least the second fluid. The controller automatically controls the valves to vary first fluid concentration level in the coolant loop based on historical, current, or anticipated outdoor air ambient temperature(s) for a time of year.

  17. Detailed Studies of Electron Cooling Friction Force

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A. V.; Bruhwiler, D. L.; Abell, D. T.; Sidorin, A. O.

    2006-03-20

    High-energy electron cooling for RHIC presents many unique features and challenges. An accurate estimate of the cooling times requires detailed simulation of the electron cooling process. The first step towards such calculations is to have an accurate description of the cooling force. Numerical simulations are being used to explore various features of the friction force which appear due to several effects, including the anisotropy of the electron distribution in velocity space and the effect of a strong solenoidal magnetic field. These aspects are being studied in detail using the VORPAL code, which explicitly resolves close binary collisions. Results are compared with available asymptotic and empirical formulas and also, using the BETACOOL code, with direct numerical integration of less approximate expressions over the specified electron distribution function.

  18. Mirror-Mediated Cooling:. a Paradigm for Particle Cooling via the Retarded Dipole Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freegarde, Tim; Bateman, James; Xuereb, André; Horak, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The dipole force, which is generally conservative and thus unable to cool or heat a particle's motion, acquires a dissipative nature when invested with some form of memory. We consider here the use of a single mirror, placed at a suitable distance from the particle, as the delay element or memory. This geometry, which may be considered as the prototype for cavity-mediated cooling, itself offers a realistic cooling mechanism, and for a one-dimensional example we find cooling times of milliseconds and limiting temperatures in the milllikelvin range. The cooling force is in principle applicable to atoms, molecules, particles and nanostructures, and can be enhanced through the use of optical resonances, perhaps plasmonic or geometric in origin, in the mirror, and by the inclusion of gain within the optical feedback path.

  19. Cooling in a compound bucket

    SciTech Connect

    Shemyakin, A.; Bhat, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, A.; Hu, M.; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    Electron cooling in the Fermilab Recycler ring is found to create correlation between longitudinal and transverse tails of the antiproton distribution. By separating the core of the beam from the tail and cooling the tail using 'gated' stochastic cooling while applying electron cooling on the entire beam, one may be able to significantly increase the overall cooling rate. In this paper, we describe the procedure and first experimental results.

  20. Cool or Fool? The Association Between Drinker Prototypes and Alcohol Consumption Using Multiple Time-Point Diary Assessments in Adolescent Males.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Hanneke A; Spijkerman, Renske; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Engels, Rutger C M E; Scholte, Ron H J

    2017-04-16

    There is still limited understanding of how different kinds of drinker prototypes are associated with adolescent drinking. This study uses the strengths of multiple time-point diary measures (enhanced validity of alcohol use measurement) to test the predictive value of abstainer, moderate and heavy drinker prototypes in social situations. We examined whether the favorability of these prototypes (i.e., "prototype evaluation"), the perceived similarity of these prototypes to one's self-image (i.e., "prototype similarity") assessed at baseline, and their interaction predict alcohol use assessed in social situations. Drinker prototypes were assessed in a baseline sample of 599 adolescents. Subsequently, a sample of 77 alcohol-using 16 to 18-year-old males reported their Friday and Saturday evening drinking behavior the next day during eight weeks (resulting in 495 daily measures). Alcohol use was assessed in the company of peers. The more adolescents perceived themselves as similar to heavy drinker prototypes the higher their alcohol consumption in social situations. The more adolescents held favorable abstainer prototypes, the lower their alcohol consumption. The interaction between prototype evaluation and similarity was not significant. By using a more reliable and valid method to assess adolescents' alcohol use, the present study showed that more "extreme" drinker prototypes (i.e., heavy drinker and abstainer prototypes) are most predictive of adolescent alcohol use in social situations. Increasing the perceived dissimilarity to heavy drinker prototypes and the favorability of abstainer prototypes may therefore be important targets in interventions aimed at reducing adolescents' alcohol consumption.

  1. Cooling of burns: Mechanisms and models.

    PubMed

    Wright, E H; Harris, A L; Furniss, D

    2015-08-01

    The role of cooling in the acute management of burns is widely accepted in clinical practice, and is a cornerstone of basic first aid in burns. This has been underlined in a number of animal models. The mechanism by which it delivers its benefit is poorly understood, but there is a reduction in burns progression over the first 48 h, reduced healing time, and some subjective improvements in scarring when cooling is administered after burning. Intradermal temperature normalises within a matter of seconds to a few minutes, yet the benefits of even delayed cooling persist, implying it is not simply the removal of thermal energy from the damaged tissues. Animal models have used oedema formation, preservation of dermal perfusion, healing time and hair retention as indicators of burns severity, and have shown cooling to improve these indices, but pharmacological or immunological blockade of humoural and cellular mediators of inflammation did not reproduce the benefit of cooling. More recently, some studies of tissue from human and animal burns have shown consistent, reproducible, temporal changes in gene expression in burned tissues. Here, we review the experimental evidence of the role and mechanism of cooling in burns management, and suggest future research directions that may eventually lead to improved treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Monitoring Cray Cooling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Don E; Ezell, Matthew A; Becklehimer, Jeff; Donovan, Matthew J; Layton, Christopher C

    2014-01-01

    While sites generally have systems in place to monitor the health of Cray computers themselves, often the cooling systems are ignored until a computer failure requires investigation into the source of the failure. The Liebert XDP units used to cool the Cray XE/XK models as well as the Cray proprietary cooling system used for the Cray XC30 models provide data useful for health monitoring. Unfortunately, this valuable information is often available only to custom solutions not accessible by a center-wide monitoring system or is simply ignored entirely. In this paper, methods and tools used to harvest the monitoring data available are discussed, and the implementation needed to integrate the data into a center-wide monitoring system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is provided.

  3. STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    BLASKIEWICZ,M.BRENNAN,J.M.CAMERON,P.WEI,J.

    2003-05-12

    Emittance growth due to Intra-Beam Scattering significantly reduces the heavy ion luminosity lifetime in RHIC. Stochastic cooling of the stored beam could improve things considerably by counteracting IBS and preventing particles from escaping the rf bucket [1]. High frequency bunched-beam stochastic cooling is especially challenging but observations of Schottky signals in the 4-8 GHz band indicate that conditions are favorable in RHIC [2]. We report here on measurements of the longitudinal beam transfer function carried out with a pickup kicker pair on loan from FNAL TEVATRON. Results imply that for ions a coasting beam description is applicable and we outline some general features of a viable momentum cooling system for RHIC.

  4. Winds from cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.

    1995-01-01

    Spectral observations of cool stars enable study of the presence and character of winds and the mass loss process in objects with effective temperatures, gravities, and atmospheric compositions which differ from that of the Sun. A wealth of recent spectroscopic measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer complement high resolution ground-based measures in the optical and infrared spectral regions. Such observations when combined with realistic semi-empirical atmospheric modeling allow us to estimate the physical conditions in the atmospheres and winds of many classes of cool stars. Line profiles support turbulent heating and mass motions. In low gravity stars, evidence is found for relatively fast (approximately 200 km s(exp -1)), warm winds with rapid acceleration occurring in the chromosphere. In some cases outflows commensurate with stellar escape velocities are present. Our current understanding of cool star winds will be reviewed including the implications of stellar observations for identification of atmospheric heating and acceleration processes.

  5. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, Paul F.; Cooke, Franklin E.; Fitch, James R.

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

  6. Cooling of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pethick, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    It is at present impossible to predict the interior constitution of neutron stars based on theory and results from laboratory studies. It has been proposed that it is possible to obtain information on neutron star interiors by studying thermal radiation from their surfaces, because neutrino emission rates, and hence the temperature of the central part of a neutron star, depend on the properties of dense matter. The theory predicts that neutron stars cool relatively slowly if their cores are made up of nucleons, and cool faster if the matter is in an exotic state, such as a pion condensate, a kaon condensate, or quark matter. This view has recently been questioned by the discovery of a number of other processes that could lead to copious neutrino emission and rapid cooling.

  7. Cooling of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pethick, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    It is at present impossible to predict the interior constitution of neutron stars based on theory and results from laboratory studies. It has been proposed that it is possible to obtain information on neutron star interiors by studying thermal radiation from their surfaces, because neutrino emission rates, and hence the temperature of the central part of a neutron star, depend on the properties of dense matter. The theory predicts that neutron stars cool relatively slowly if their cores are made up of nucleons, and cool faster if the matter is in an exotic state, such as a pion condensate, a kaon condensate, or quark matter. This view has recently been questioned by the discovery of a number of other processes that could lead to copious neutrino emission and rapid cooling.

  8. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

  9. How cool is Uchimizu?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solcerova, Anna; van Emmerik, Tim; Hilgersom, Koen; van de Ven, Frans; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-04-01

    The Urban Heat Island (UHI) was first described 200 years ago, but ways to mitigate heat in urban areas reach much further into the past. Uchimizu is a 17th century Japanese tradition, in which water is sprinkled around houses, temples, and in gardens to cool the ground surface and the air, and to settle the dust. Nowadays, megacities such as Tokyo are aiming to revive the - by modern technology suppressed - method, and uchimizu is promoted by local authorities as a "clever way to feel cool". Unfortunately, the number of published studies that have quantified the cooling effects of uchimizu is limited, and only uses measurements of the surface temperature, or air temperature at a single height, as a measure of the cooling effect. In this research a dense 3D Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) setup was used to measure air temperature within once cubic meter of air above an urban surface with high spatial and temporal resolution. Six experiments were performed to systematically study the effect of (1) applied water amount, (2) initial surface temperature, and (3) shading on the cooling effect of uchimizu. We present the results and the subsequent analyses of these experiments, done during summer in Delft, The Netherlands. We show that this simple water sprinkling method has the potential to decrease extreme temperatures in impervious and paved parts of urban areas considerably. Besides mitigating the UHI, uchimizu practice is also an opportunity to increase awareness among citizens, and stimulate citizen participation in solving heat stress problems and energy saving. By providing refreshing insights on the cooling effect of uchimizu, we aim to contribute to the modern revival of this old tradition.

  10. Research on cooling effectiveness in stepped slot film cooling vane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yulong; Wu, Hong; Zhou, Feng; Rong, Chengjun

    2016-06-01

    As one of the most important developments in air cooling technology for hot parts of the aero-engine, film cooling technology has been widely used. Film cooling hole structure exists mainly in areas that have high temperature, uneven cooling effectiveness issues when in actual use. The first stage turbine vanes of the aero-engine consume the largest portion of cooling air, thereby the research on reducing the amount of cooling air has the greatest potential. A new stepped slot film cooling vane with a high cooling effectiveness and a high cooling uniformity was researched initially. Through numerical methods, the affecting factors of the cooling effectiveness of a vane with the stepped slot film cooling structure were researched. This paper focuses on the cooling effectiveness and the pressure loss in different blowing ratio conditions, then the most reasonable and scientific structure parameter can be obtained by analyzing the results. The results show that 1.0 mm is the optimum slot width and 10.0 is the most reasonable blowing ratio. Under this condition, the vane achieved the best cooling result and the highest cooling effectiveness, and also retained a low pressure loss.

  11. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2002-01-01

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  12. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2004-11-02

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  13. Combustor liner cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Berkman, Mert Enis

    2013-08-06

    A combustor liner is disclosed. The combustor liner includes an upstream portion, a downstream end portion extending from the upstream portion along a generally longitudinal axis, and a cover layer associated with an inner surface of the downstream end portion. The downstream end portion includes the inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining a plurality of microchannels. The downstream end portion further defines a plurality of passages extending between the inner surface and the outer surface. The plurality of microchannels are fluidly connected to the plurality of passages, and are configured to flow a cooling medium therethrough, cooling the combustor liner.

  14. Developing Marine Science Instructional Materials Using Integrated Scientist-Educator Collaborative Design Teams: A Discussion of Challenges and Success Developing Real Time Data Projects for the COOL Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonnell, J.; Duncan, R. G.; Glenn, S.

    2007-12-01

    , in which students use real-time-data (RTD) to generate explanations about important ocean phenomena. We will discuss our use of an Instructional Design Model (Gauge 1987) to: 1) assess our audience need, 2) develop an effective collaborative design team, 3) develop and evaluate the instructional product, and 4) implement professional development designed to familiarize teachers with oceans sciences as a context for scientific inquiry.

  15. Towards demonstration of electron cooling with bunched electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A.

    2012-01-11

    All electron cooling systems which were in operation so far employed electron beam generated with an electrostatic electron gun in DC operating mode, immersed in a longitudinal magnetic field. At low energies magnetic field is also being used to transport electron beam through the cooling section from the gun to the collector. At higher energies (few MeV), it was shown that one can have simpler electron beam transport without continuous magnetic field. Because of a rather weak magnetic field on the cathode and in the cooling section the latter approach was referred to as 'non-magnetized cooling', since there was no suppression of the transverse angular spread of the electron beam with the magnetic field in the cooling section. Such a cooler successfully operated at FNAL (2005-11) at electron beam energy of 4.3 MeV. Providing cooling at even higher energies would be easier with RF acceleration of electron beam, and thus using bunched electron beam for cooling. Significant efforts were devoted to explore various aspects of such bunched electron beam cooling as part of R and D of high-energy electron cooling for RHIC. However, experimental studies of such cooling are still lacking. Establishing this technique experimentally would be extremely useful for future high-energy applications. Presently there is an ongoing effort to build Proof-of-Principle (PoP) experiment of Coherent Electron Cooling (CEC) at RHIC, which promises to be superior to conventional electron cooling for high energies. Since the CEC experiment is based on bunched electron beam and it has sections where electron beam co-propagates with the ion beam at the same velocity, it also provides a unique opportunity to explore experimentally conventional electron cooling but for the first time with a bunched electron beam. As a result, it allows us to explore techniques needed for the high-energy electron cooling such as 'painting' with a short electron beam and control of ion beam distribution under

  16. Actively controlling coolant-cooled cold plate configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2015-07-28

    A method is provided to facilitate active control of thermal and fluid dynamic performance of a coolant-cooled cold plate. The method includes: monitoring a variable associated with at least one of the coolant-cooled cold plate or one or more electronic components being cooled by the cold plate; and dynamically varying, based on the monitored variable, a physical configuration of the cold plate. By dynamically varying the physical configuration, the thermal and fluid dynamic performance of the cold plate are adjusted to, for example, optimally cool the one or more electronic components, and at the same time, reduce cooling power consumption used in cooling the electronic component(s). The physical configuration can be adjusted by providing one or more adjustable plates within the coolant-cooled cold plate, the positioning of which may be adjusted based on the monitored variable.

  17. Cryopreservation of turkey semen by the pellet method: effects of variables such as the extender, cryoprotectant concentration, cooling time and warming temperature on sperm quality determined through principal components analysis.

    PubMed

    Iaffaldano, Nicolaia; Romagnoli, Luca; Manchisi, Angelo; Rosato, Maria Pina

    2011-09-15

    This study was designed to identify the best pellet cryopreservation procedure for the cryosurvival of turkey semen among 192 different treatments established by variations and permutations of seven conditions used in the freezing/thawing process. These conditions were: diluent (IGGKPh, SPh or Tselutin); dilution rate (1:3 vs. 1:4); cooling time (45 vs. 60 min); dimethylacetamide (DMA) concentration as cryoprotectant (6 vs. 8%); equilibration time in DMA (1 vs. 5 min); semen drop volume (50 vs. 80 μL) and thawing temperature (60 vs. 75 °C). Through principal components analysis (PCA), post-thaw sperm quality data (mobility, viability and membrane functional integrity) were reduced to a single output variable (Sperm Quality) indicating overall post-thaw semen quality. All treatments induced a significant reduction in semen quality after warming (P < 0.01), though one set of seven conditions, or treatment, was identified by PCA to generate the highest Sperm Quality score and a further five treatments yielded a score not significantly different (P > 0.05) from this best score. Although still not fulfilling the requirements for commercial application, our findings serve to identify the critical steps in turkey sperm cryopreservation that need to be assessed in future studies.

  18. Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling

    DOEpatents

    Hultgren, Kent Goran; McLaurin, Leroy Dixon; Bertsch, Oran Leroy; Lowe, Perry Eugene

    1998-01-01

    A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn.

  19. Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling

    DOEpatents

    Hultgren, K.G.; McLaurin, L.D.; Bertsch, O.L.; Lowe, P.E.

    1998-05-26

    A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn. 5 figs.

  20. Curved film cooling admission tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Papell, S. S. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Effective film cooling to protect a wall surface from a hot fluid which impinges on or flows along the surface is provided. A film of cooling fluid having increased area is provided by changing the direction of a stream of cooling fluid through an angle of from 135 deg. to 165 deg. before injecting it through the wall into the hot flowing gas. The 1, cooling fluid is injected from an orifice through a wall into a hot flowing gas at an angle to form a cooling fluid film. Cooling fluid is supplied to the orifice from a cooling fluid source via a turbulence control passageway having a curved portion between two straight portions. The angle through which the direction of the cooling fluid is turned results in less mixing of the cooling fluid with the hot gas, thereby substantially increasing the length of the film in a downstream direction.

  1. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  2. Guide to Cool Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-01

    Traditional dark-colored roofing materials absorb sunlight, making them warm in the sun and increasing the need for air conditioning. White or special "cool color" roofs absorb less sunlight, stay cooler in the sun and transmit less heat into the building.

  3. Warm and Cool Cityscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubelirer, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…

  4. Warm and Cool Cityscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubelirer, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…

  5. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI,I.

    2001-05-13

    The Accelerator Collider Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is operating the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which includes the dual-ring, 3.834 km circumference superconducting collider and the venerable AGS as the last part of the RHIC injection chain. CAD is planning on a luminosity upgrade of the machine under the designation RHIC II. One important component of the RHIC II upgrade is electron cooling of RHIC gold ion beams. For this purpose, BNL and the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk entered into a collaboration aimed initially at the development of the electron cooling conceptual design, resolution of technical issues, and finally extend the collaboration towards the construction and commissioning of the cooler. Many of the results presented in this paper are derived from the Electron Cooling for RHIC Design Report [1], produced by the, BINP team within the framework of this collaboration. BNL is also collaborating with Fermi National Laboratory, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and the University of Indiana on various aspects of electron cooling.

  6. Simulation of Bichromatic Force Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Xiang; Corder, Christopher; Metcalf, Harold

    2016-05-01

    Laser cooling without spontaneous emission as implemented by the bichromatic force (BF) remains a controversial topic. We have done a numerical simulation of the BF on He using the 23 S <--> 33 P transition at λ = 389 nm in order to support the interpretation of previously reported measurements. Our experiments and the simulation reported here use a time scale comparable to the excited state lifetime so that spontaneous emission cannot contribute significantly. The average velocity change is 30 - 40 times larger than the recoil velocity but the measurements of both phase space and velocity space compression are limited by the longitudinal velocity spread of the atomic beam to ~ 2. The simulation clearly shows this spreading. The code passed several preliminary tests using single-frequency traveling and standing waves, and then it was run with the appropriate bichromatic light fields. Its output agrees very well with the measurements and, most importantly, shows that significant laser cooling is indeed possible on a time scale comparable to that of a single absorption-spontaneous cycle. Supported by ONR.

  7. Intelligent Engine Systems: Thermal Management and Advanced Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergholz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced Turbine Cooling and Thermal Management program is to develop intelligent control and distribution methods for turbine cooling, while achieving a reduction in total cooling flow and assuring acceptable turbine component safety and reliability. The program also will develop embedded sensor technologies and cooling system models for real-time engine diagnostics and health management. Both active and passive control strategies will be investigated that include the capability of intelligent modulation of flow quantities, pressures, and temperatures both within the supply system and at the turbine component level. Thermal management system concepts were studied, with a goal of reducing HPT blade cooling air supply temperature. An assessment will be made of the use of this air by the active clearance control system as well. Turbine component cooling designs incorporating advanced, high-effectiveness cooling features, will be evaluated. Turbine cooling flow control concepts will be studied at the cooling system level and the component level. Specific cooling features or sub-elements of an advanced HPT blade cooling design will be downselected for core fabrication and casting demonstrations.

  8. Cooling of solar flares plasmas. 1: Theoretical considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cargill, Peter J.; Mariska, John T.; Antiochos, Spiro K.

    1995-01-01

    Theoretical models of the cooling of flare plasma are reexamined. By assuming that the cooling occurs in two separate phase where conduction and radiation, respectively, dominate, a simple analytic formula for the cooling time of a flare plasma is derived. Unlike earlier order-of-magnitude scalings, this result accounts for the effect of the evolution of the loop plasma parameters on the cooling time. When the conductive cooling leads to an 'evaporation' of chromospheric material, the cooling time scales L(exp 5/6)/p(exp 1/6), where the coronal phase (defined as the time maximum temperature). When the conductive cooling is static, the cooling time scales as L(exp 3/4)n(exp 1/4). In deriving these results, use was made of an important scaling law (T proportional to n(exp 2)) during the radiative cooling phase that was forst noted in one-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical simulations (Serio et al. 1991; Jakimiec et al. 1992). Our own simulations show that this result is restricted to approximately the radiative loss function of Rosner, Tucker, & Vaiana (1978). for different radiative loss functions, other scaling result, with T and n scaling almost linearly when the radiative loss falls off as T(exp -2). It is shown that these scaling laws are part of a class of analytic solutions developed by Antiocos (1980).

  9. Cooling and clusters: when is heating needed?

    PubMed

    Bryan, Greg; Voit, Mark

    2005-03-15

    There are (at least) two unsolved problems concerning the current state of the ther- mal gas in clusters of galaxies. The first is to identify the source of the heating which onsets cooling in the centres of clusters with short cooling times (the 'cooling-flow' problem). The second to understand the mechanism which boosts the entropy in cluster and group gas. Since both of these problems involve an unknown source of heating it is tempting to identify them with the same process, particularly since active galactic nuclei heating is observed to be operating at some level in a sample of well-observed 'cooling-flow' clusters. Here we show, using numerical simulations of cluster formation, that much of the gas ending up in clusters cools at high redshift and so the heating is also needed at high redshift, well before the cluster forms. This indicates that the same process operating to solve the cooling-flow problem may not also resolve the cluster-entropy problem.

  10. Electron Cooling Study for MEIC

    SciTech Connect

    He, Zhang; Douglas, David R.; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-09-01

    Electron cooling of the ion beams is one critical R&D to achieve high luminosities in JLab's MEIC proposal. In the present MEIC design, a multi-staged cooling scheme is adapted, which includes DC electron cooling in the booster ring and bunched beam electron cooling in the collider ring at both the injection energy and the collision energy. We explored the feasibility of using both magnetized and non-magnetized electron beam for cooling, and concluded that a magnetized electron beam is necessary. Electron cooling simulation results for the newly updated MEIC design is also presented.

  11. How to keep cool in tough times.

    PubMed

    Muller-Smith, P

    1999-02-01

    Reengineering is no longer an event that has a beginning and an end. It is an ongoing process of change that continues to occur in all types of businesses. Because there is no longer the sense of security that doing a job well will guarantee continued employment, workers have to approach career planning from a different perspective. Moving up the career ladder in a single organization can no longer serve as the benchmark of success. The contemporary approach to success will be more geared toward the ability to constantly reinvent your unique set of job skills that are transferable from one job setting to another, thus ensuring employability.

  12. Rapid Cooling of Dusty Gas in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, William G.; Brighenti, Fabrizio

    2003-06-01

    We propose a stellar origin for the central dust clouds observed in most giant elliptical galaxies. Dusty gas ejected from evolving red giant stars in elliptical or cD galaxies can cool rapidly even after entering the hot X-ray-emitting gas. Cooling by thermal collisions with dust grains can be faster than either the dynamical time in the galactic potential or the grain sputtering time. Some grains survive in the cooled gas. Dusty stellar outflows cool more efficiently in the central regions, where the stellar metallicity is higher. Mergers with gas and dust-rich dwarf galaxies may occasionally occur but are not required to explain the observed dust clouds.

  13. Heat pipe cooling of an aerospace foam mold manufacturing process

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, D.R.; Feldman, K.T.; Marjon, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    A passive heat pipe cooling system was developed to cool a Bendix foam mold used to manufacture aerospace foam parts. The cooling system consists of ten copper-water heat pipes with cooling fins implanted into the aluminum mold and cooled by a domestic size fan blowing ambient air. The number and location of the heat pipes was determined to provide the most effective cooling and mold isothermalization based on experimental measurements of mold temperatures during the exothermic foaming process and from practical considerations of the mold geometry and use. Performance tests were cnducted on an individual heat pipe and on the ten heat pipes implanted in the mold. Both exothermic foam heating and internal electrical heat input were used in the experiments. The experimental test results indicate that the heat pipe cooling system with a fan is four to six times faster than free convection cooling of the mold with no heat pipes or fan and nearly twice as fast as cooling by the fan only. Similarly fast increases in mold heating time in the cure furnace could be realized if the heat pipes are used during this part of the production process. The heat pipes also cool hot spots in the mold and help isothermalize the mold so that better quality foam parts should be produced.

  14. Miniature, Cooled Pressure-Measuring Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Eves, John W.; White, David R.

    1994-01-01

    Probe designed to reduce settling time dramatically. Pressure-sensing transducer mounted in probe and connected to tip by short tube having cross-sectional area substantially smaller than conventional connecting tubes. Probe includes stainless-steel cylindrical exterior housing holding closed pressure chamber in which piezoelectric pressure transducer mounted. Open connecting tube passes portion of high-velocity, high-temperature fluid stream into closed pressure chamber. Any change of pressure in sampled stream propagates into closed pressure chamber with settling time inversely proportional to cross-sectional area of connecting tube. Cooling chamber formed around pressure chamber connected to source of water or other cooling fluid via inlet and outlet tubes.

  15. Laser Cooled Atomic Clocks in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. J.; Kohel, J.; Klipstein, W. M.; Seidel, D. J.; Maleki, L.

    2000-01-01

    The goals of the Glovebox Laser-cooled Atomic Clock Experiment (GLACE) are: (1) first utilization of tunable, frequency-stabilized lasers in space, (2) demonstrate laser cooling and trapping in microgravity, (3) demonstrate longest 'perturbation-free' interaction time for a precision measurement on neutral atoms, (4) Resolve Ramsey fringes 2-10 times narrower than achievable on Earth. The approach taken is: the use of COTS components, and the utilization of prototype hardware from LCAP flight definition experiments. The launch date is scheduled for Oct. 2002. The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) specifications are reviewed, and a picture of the MSG is shown.

  16. Miniature, Cooled Pressure-Measuring Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Eves, John W.; White, David R.

    1994-01-01

    Probe designed to reduce settling time dramatically. Pressure-sensing transducer mounted in probe and connected to tip by short tube having cross-sectional area substantially smaller than conventional connecting tubes. Probe includes stainless-steel cylindrical exterior housing holding closed pressure chamber in which piezoelectric pressure transducer mounted. Open connecting tube passes portion of high-velocity, high-temperature fluid stream into closed pressure chamber. Any change of pressure in sampled stream propagates into closed pressure chamber with settling time inversely proportional to cross-sectional area of connecting tube. Cooling chamber formed around pressure chamber connected to source of water or other cooling fluid via inlet and outlet tubes.

  17. Cryogen spray cooling during laser tissue welding.

    PubMed

    Fried, N M; Walsh, J T

    2000-03-01

    Cryogen cooling during laser tissue welding was explored as a means of reducing lateral thermal damage near the tissue surface and shortening operative time. Two centimetre long full-thickness incisions were made on the epilated backs of guinea pigs, in vivo. India ink was applied to the incision edges then clamps were used to appose the edges. A 4 mm diameter beam of 16 W, continuous-wave, 1.06 microm, Nd:YAG laser radiation was scanned over the incisions, producing approximately 100 ms pulses. There was a delay of 2 s between scans. The total irradiation time was varied from 1-2 min. Cryogen was delivered to the weld site through a solenoid valve in spurt durations of 20, 60 and 100 ms. The time between spurts was either 2 or 4 s, corresponding to one spurt every one or two laser scans. Histology and tensile strength measurements were used to evaluate laser welds. Total irradiation times were reduced from 10 min without surface cooling to under 1 min with surface cooling. The thermal denaturation profile showed less denaturation in the papillary dermis than in the mid-dermis. Welds created using optimized irradiation and cooling parameters had significantly higher tensile strengths (1.7 +/- 0.4 kg cm(-2)) than measured in the control studies without cryogen cooling (1.0 +/- 0.2 kg cm(-2)) (p < 0.05). Cryogen cooling of the tissue surface during laser welding results in increased weld strengths while reducing thermal damage and operative times. Long-term studies will be necessary to determine weld strengths and the amount of scarring during wound healing.

  18. Transient effects in laser cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Padua, S.; Xie, C.; Gupta, R.; Batelaan, H.; Bergeman, T.; Metcalf, H.

    1993-05-01

    Transient laser cooling (TLC) can produce cooling and heating, but often with the opposite detuning from that found in steady state. In TLC the time scale is set by the optical pumping (OP) rate to a state not coupled by the laser field. The combination of such OP processes and the conservative light shift potential U{sub o}sin{sup 2}kz leads to TLC. The average PE of atoms entering a standing wave is U{sub o}/2. They experience the optical force until undergoing OP to an uncoupled state, which is more likely to happen at high light intensity, near an antinode. For {delta} > 0 this means higher PE and thus lower KE, and conversely for {delta} < 0. In TLC there is no final {open_quotes}temperature{close_quotes} resulting from competition between a damping force and diffusive heating. Instead the changes in KE are bounded by U{sub o} so that the signal widths decrease with intensity. This can result in sub-Doppler widths. We have made two independent theoretical studies of these experiments. In a semiclassical calculation we evolve the motion for a calculated OP time and calculate the velocity distribution. We have also performed fully quantum mechanical calculations of the motion of atoms in the standing wave whose basis set consists of product states of internal and external atomic coordinates.

  19. Time-resolved infrared diode laser spectroscopy of the ν3 band of the jet-cooled Fe(CO)2 radical produced by ultraviolet photolysis of Fe(CO)5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Tachikawa, Yasuhisa; Sakaguchi, Kouichi; Hikida, Toshihide; Tanaka, Takehiko

    1999-09-01

    The infrared spectrum of the iron dicarbonyl radical Fe(CO)2 produced in a supersonic jet expansion by the excimer laser photolysis of iron pentacarbonyl Fe(CO)5 was observed by time-resolved infrared diode laser spectroscopy. About 170 transitions, each split into one or two fine structure components, were assigned to the ν3 (CO antisymmetric stretch) band of Fe(CO)2. The assignment was greatly facilitated by spectral simplification caused by rotational as well as vibrational cooling in the supersonic jet. It was observed that lines are missing at alternate J quantum numbers in each spin component, which confirmed that Fe(CO)2 is a linear molecule with D∞h symmetry and that the electronic ground state is of 3Σg- symmetry. The rotational and centrifugal distortion constants in the ground state were determined to be B0=1414.675(46) MHz and D0=0.3077(74) kHz, respectively. The spin-spin interaction constants obtained, λ0=655.3(42) GHz, is comparable with that of the FeCO radical, λ0=684.470(51) GHz. The ν3 band origin was determined to be 1928.184335 (82) cm-1. The figures in parentheses are uncertainties (1σ) in units of the last digit.

  20. STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR BUNCHED BEAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    BLASKIEWICZ, M.

    2005-05-16

    Problems associated with bunched beam stochastic cooling are reviewed. A longitudinal stochastic cooling system for RHIC is under construction and has been partially commissioned. The state of the system and future plans are discussed.

  1. Ages of 24 widespread tephras erupted since 30,000 years ago in New Zealand, with re-evaluation of the timing and palaeoclimatic implications of the Lateglacial cool episode recorded at Kaipo bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, David J.; Blaauw, Maarten; Hogg, Alan G.; Newnham, Rewi M.

    2013-08-01

    cal. yr BP; Rotorua 15,635 ± 412 cal. yr BP; Rerewhakaaitu 17,496 ± 462 cal. yr BP; Okareka 21,858 ± 290 cal. yr BP; Te Rere 25,171 ± 964 cal. yr BP; Kawakawa/Oruanui 25,358 ± 162 cal. yr BP; Poihipi 28,446 ± 670 cal. yr BP; and Okaia 28,621 ± 1428 cal. yr BP. Secondly, we have re-dated the start and end of the Lateglacial cool episode (climate event NZce-3 in the NZ-CES), previously referred to as the Lateglacial climate reversal, as defined at Kaipo bog in eastern North Island, New Zealand, using both Bacon and OxCal P_Sequence modelling with the IntCal09 data set. The ca 1200-yr-long cool episode, indicated by a lithostratigraphic change in the Kaipo peat sequence to grey mud with lowered carbon content, and a high-resolution pollen-derived cooling signal, began 13,739 ± 125 cal. yr BP and ended 12,550 ± 140 cal. yr BP (mid-point ages of the 95% highest posterior density regions, Bacon modelling). The OxCal modelling, generating almost identical ages, confirmed these ages. The Lateglacial cool episode (ca 13.8-12.6 cal. ka BP) thus overlaps a large part of the entire Antarctic Cold Reversal chronozone (ca 14.1-12.4 cal. ka BP or ca 14.6-12.8 cal. ka BP), and an early part of the Greenland Stadial-1 (Younger Dryas) chronozone (ca 12.9-11.7 cal. ka BP). The timing of the Lateglacial cool episode at Kaipo is broadly consistent with the latitudinal patterns in the Antarctic Cold Reversal signal suggested for the New Zealand archipelago from marine and terrestrial records, and with records from southern South America.

  2. Vaporization Would Cool Primary Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Miyake, Robert N.

    1991-01-01

    Temperature of discharging high-power-density primary battery maintained below specified level by evaporation of suitable liquid from jacket surrounding battery, according to proposal. Pressure-relief valve regulates pressure and boiling temperature of liquid. Less material needed in cooling by vaporization than in cooling by melting. Technique used to cool batteries in situations in which engineering constraints on volume, mass, and location prevent attachment of cooling fins, heat pipes, or like.

  3. Selective Brain Cooling Reduces Water Turnover in Dehydrated Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, W. Maartin; Hetem, Robyn S.; Mitchell, Duncan; Maloney, Shane K.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Fuller, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In artiodactyls, arterial blood destined for the brain can be cooled through counter-current heat exchange within the cavernous sinus via a process called selective brain cooling. We test the hypothesis that selective brain cooling, which results in lowered hypothalamic temperature, contributes to water conservation in sheep. Nine Dorper sheep, instrumented to provide measurements of carotid blood and brain temperature, were dosed with deuterium oxide (D2O), exposed to heat for 8 days (40◦C for 6-h per day) and deprived of water for the last five days (days 3 to 8). Plasma osmolality increased and the body water fraction decreased over the five days of water deprivation, with the sheep losing 16.7% of their body mass. Following water deprivation, both the mean 24h carotid blood temperature and the mean 24h brain temperature increased, but carotid blood temperature increased more than did brain temperature resulting in increased selective brain cooling. There was considerable inter-individual variation in the degree to which individual sheep used selective brain cooling. In general, sheep spent more time using selective brain cooling, and it was of greater magnitude, when dehydrated compared to when they were euhydrated. We found a significant positive correlation between selective brain cooling magnitude and osmolality (an index of hydration state). Both the magnitude of selective brain cooling and the proportion of time that sheep spent selective brain cooling were negatively correlated with water turnover. Sheep that used selective brain cooling more frequently, and with greater magnitude, lost less water than did conspecifics using selective brain cooling less efficiently. Our results show that a 50kg sheep can save 2.6L of water per day (~60% of daily water intake) when it employs selective brain cooling for 50% of the day during heat exposure. We conclude that selective brain cooling has a water conservation function in artiodactyls. PMID:25675092

  4. Selective brain cooling reduces water turnover in dehydrated sheep.

    PubMed

    Strauss, W Maartin; Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; Maloney, Shane K; Meyer, Leith C R; Fuller, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In artiodactyls, arterial blood destined for the brain can be cooled through counter-current heat exchange within the cavernous sinus via a process called selective brain cooling. We test the hypothesis that selective brain cooling, which results in lowered hypothalamic temperature, contributes to water conservation in sheep. Nine Dorper sheep, instrumented to provide measurements of carotid blood and brain temperature, were dosed with deuterium oxide (D2O), exposed to heat for 8 days (40 ◦C for 6-h per day) and deprived of water for the last five days (days 3 to 8). Plasma osmolality increased and the body water fraction decreased over the five days of water deprivation, with the sheep losing 16.7% of their body mass. Following water deprivation, both the mean 24h carotid blood temperature and the mean 24h brain temperature increased, but carotid blood temperature increased more than did brain temperature resulting in increased selective brain cooling. There was considerable inter-individual variation in the degree to which individual sheep used selective brain cooling. In general, sheep spent more time using selective brain cooling, and it was of greater magnitude, when dehydrated compared to when they were euhydrated. We found a significant positive correlation between selective brain cooling magnitude and osmolality (an index of hydration state). Both the magnitude of selective brain cooling and the proportion of time that sheep spent selective brain cooling were negatively correlated with water turnover. Sheep that used selective brain cooling more frequently, and with greater magnitude, lost less water than did conspecifics using selective brain cooling less efficiently. Our results show that a 50 kg sheep can save 2.6L of water per day (~60% of daily water intake) when it employs selective brain cooling for 50% of the day during heat exposure. We conclude that selective brain cooling has a water conservation function in artiodactyls.

  5. Self pumping magnetic cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, V.; Wang, Z.; Ray, A.; Sridhar, I.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2017-01-01

    Efficient thermal management and heat recovery devices are of high technological significance for innovative energy conservation solutions. We describe a study of a self-pumping magnetic cooling device, which does not require external energy input, employing Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles suspended in water. The device performance depends strongly on magnetic field strength, nanoparticle content in the fluid and heat load temperature. Cooling (ΔT) by ~20 °C and ~28 °C was achieved by the application of 0.3 T magnetic field when the initial temperature of the heat load was 64 °C and 87 °C, respectively. These experiments results were in good agreement with simulations performed with COMSOL Multiphysics. Our system is a self-regulating device; as the heat load increases, the magnetization of the ferrofluid decreases; leading to an increase in the fluid velocity and consequently, faster heat transfer from the heat source to the heat sink.

  6. Radial turbine cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Radial turbines have been used extensively in many applications including small ground based electrical power generators, automotive engine turbochargers and aircraft auxiliary power units. In all of these applications the turbine inlet temperature is limited to a value commensurate with the material strength limitations and life requirements of uncooled metal rotors. To take advantage of all the benefits that higher temperatures offer, such as increased turbine specific power output or higher cycle thermal efficiency, requires improved high temperature materials and/or blade cooling. Extensive research is on-going to advance the material properties of high temperature superalloys as well as composite materials including ceramics. The use of ceramics with their high temperature potential and low cost is particularly appealing for radial turbines. However until these programs reach fruition the only way to make significant step increases beyond the present material temperature barriers is to cool the radial blading.

  7. Cooling our tomorrows economically

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, J.R. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports that summer cooling poses unprecedented problems in the years ahead for architects, engineers, manufacturers, contractors and users. True, millions of tons of fine volcanic ash from the Philippines' Mt. Pinatubo and soot from Kuwait's burned oil wells now encircle the globe, creating temporary shade. The eruption also sent up related weights of sulfur dioxide (convertible to stratospheric sulfate aerosols) for further shading. Together, they may briefly counteract global warming, but rising greenhouse gases guarantee the latter will return with renewed force. Greenhouse gas production continues, making global warming certain, even if all CFCs are phased out, for they are minor greenhouse problems. Cooling loads will increase faster than rising temperatures as populations increase and move south, and as comfort and clean air standards rise. In addition, the fear of skin cancer, cataracts and related retinal and immune system damage may shortly keep more people indoors in summer, thereby raising internal loads.

  8. Cooled particle accelerator target

    DOEpatents

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2005-06-14

    A novel particle beam target comprising: a rotating target disc mounted on a retainer and thermally coupled to a first array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins that extend radially inwardly from the retainer and mesh without physical contact with a second array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins that extend radially outwardly from and are thermally coupled to a cooling mechanism capable of removing heat from said second array of spaced-apart fins and located within the first array of spaced-apart parallel fins. Radiant thermal exchange between the two arrays of parallel plate fins provides removal of heat from the rotating disc. A method of cooling the rotating target is also described.

  9. Cooling Floor AC Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Lu; Hao, Ding; Hong, Zhang; Ce, Gao Dian

    The present HVAC equipments for the residential buildings in the Hot-summer-and-Cold-winter climate region are still at a high energy consuming level. So that the high efficiency HVAC system is an urgently need for achieving the preset government energy saving goal. With its advantage of highly sanitary, highly comfortable and uniform of temperature field, the hot-water resource floor radiation heating system has been widely accepted. This paper has put forward a new way in air-conditioning, which combines the fresh-air supply unit and such floor radiation system for the dehumidification and cooling in summer or heating in winter. By analyze its advantages and limitations, we found that this so called Cooling/ Heating Floor AC System can improve the IAQ of residential building while keep high efficiency quality. We also recommend a methodology for the HVAC system designing, which will ensure the reduction of energy cost of users.

  10. AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1958-05-27

    A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

  11. Cooling loads in laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, C.K.; Cook, M.R.

    1999-07-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system for a laboratory must be designed with consideration for safety, air cleanliness, and space temperature. The primary safety concern is to ensure proper coordination between fume hood exhaust and makeup air supply. Air cleanliness is maintained by properly filtering supply air, by delivering adequate room air changes, and by ensuring proper pressure relationships between the laboratory and adjacent spaces. Space temperature is maintained by supplying enough cooling air to offset the amount of heat generated in the room. Each of these factors must be considered, and the one that results in the largest ventilation rate is used to establish the supply and exhaust airflows. The project described in this paper illustrates a case where cooling load is the determining factor in the sizing of the air systems.

  12. Cooling options for Astromag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maytal, B. Z.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison of the various cooling options for the Astromag particle physics experiment is presented. The baseline design for the cryogenic system involves using a natural circulation fountain-effect driven flow loop (Hofmann type). The present paper considers two alternative options for cooling. The first design involves a thermal strap made of a high-conductivity metal, e.g., high-purity aluminum or copper, which connects the coil to the helium reservoir. Venting helium vapor can also be used to minimize the temperature of the magnet and recover from a quench. The second design is based on an He II heat pipe concept where steady state heat transport is by counterflow. Cavitation is prevented by use of a porous plug. Forced flow He II is also available but only during extraordinary operating conditions.

  13. Water Cooled Mirror Design

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Gregory E.; Holloway, Michael Andrew; Pulliam, Elias Noel

    2015-03-30

    This design is intended to replace the current mirror setup being used for the NorthStar Moly 99 project in order to monitor the target coupon. The existing setup has limited movement for camera alignment and is difficult to align properly. This proposed conceptual design for a water cooled mirror will allow for greater thermal transfer between the mirror and the water block. It will also improve positioning of the mirror by using flexible vacuum hosing and a ball head joint capable of a wide range of motion. Incorporating this design into the target monitoring system will provide more efficient cooling of the mirror which will improve the amount of diffraction caused by the heating of the mirror. The process of aligning the mirror for accurate position will be greatly improved by increasing the range of motion by offering six degrees of freedom.

  14. Laser Cooling of Solids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    journal.org) Schematic of an optical refrigeration system. Pump light is efficiently generated by a semicon- ductor diode laser. The laser light en- ters...efficiency of light emitting diodes (LEDs). Various methods have been devised to remedy this prob- lem for LEDs but not all are applicable to laser...cooling: light quanta in the red tail of the absorption spectrum are absorbed from a monochro- matic source followed by spontaneous emission of more

  15. Conduction cooled tube supports

    DOEpatents

    Worley, Arthur C.; Becht, IV, Charles

    1984-01-01

    In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

  16. Cooled Ion Frequency Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-27

    on Frequency Standards and Metrology, Ancona , Italy (Springer Verlag, 1988) to be published. 8. "High Accuracy Spectroscopy of Stored Ions," D.J...Wineland, W.M. Itano, J.S. Bergquist, J.J. Bollinger, F. Diedrich and S.L. Gilbert, Proc. 4th Symp. on Frequency Standards and Metrology, Ancona , Italy...Proc. 4th Symp. on Frequency Standards and Metrology, Ancona , Italy (Springer Verlag, 1988) to be published. 10. "Quantative Study of Laser Cooling in

  17. Frequency Comb Cooling Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-18

    frequency combs ). Recently the power and spectral coverage of frequency combs have grown considerably with projected 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE...Aug-2011 18-May-2012 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final report on frequency comb cooling project The views, opinions and/or... frequency combs ). Recently the power and spectral coverage of frequency combs have grown considerably with projected average powers above 10 kW. We

  18. Evaluation of three commercial microclimate cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadarette, Bruce S.; Decristofano, Barry S.; Speckman, Karen N.; Sawka, Michael N.

    1988-11-01

    Three commercially available microclimate cooling systems were evaluated for their ability to reduce heat stress in men exercising in a hot environment while wearing high insulative, low permeability clothing. The cooling systems were: (1) ILC Dover Model 19 Coolvest (ILC) (2) LSSI Coolhead(LSSI), and (3) Thermacor Cooling vest (THERM). Endurance Time (ET), Heart Rate (HR), rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (TSK), Sweating Rate (SR), Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) and Thermal Sensation (TS) were measured. The subjects self-terminated on all LSSI tests because of headaches. Statistical analyses were performed on data collected at 60 minutes to have values on all subjects. There were no differences in HR, Tre, SR or TS values among the cooling vests. The subjects' TSK was lower (P less than 0.05) for the LSSI than THERM: and RPE values were higher (P less than 0.05) for LSSI than the other two vests. These data suggest an improved physiological response to exercise heat stress with all three commercial systems with the greatest benefit in performance time provided by the ILC cooling system.

  19. Designing modern furnace cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merry, J.; Sarvinis, J.; Voermann, N.

    2000-02-01

    An integrated multidisciplinary approach to furnace design that considers the interdependence between furnace cooling elements and other furnace systems, such as binding, cooling water, and instrumentation, is necessary to achieve maximum furnace production and a long refractory life. The retrofit of the BHP Hartley electric furnace and the Kidd Creek copper converting furnace are successful examples of an integrated approach to furnace cooling design.

  20. Water-Cooled Optical Thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menna, A. A.

    1987-01-01

    Water-cooled optical probe measures temperature of nearby radiating object. Intended primarily for use in silicon-growing furnace for measuring and controlling temperatures of silicon ribbon, meniscus, cartridge surfaces, heaters, or other parts. Cooling water and flushing gas cool fiber-optic probe and keep it clean. Fiber passes thermal radiation from observed surface to measuring instrument.

  1. Conduction cooling: multicrate fastbus hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Makowiecki, D.; Sims, W.; Larsen, R.

    1980-11-01

    Described is a new and novel approach for cooling nuclear instrumentation modules via heat conduction. The simplicity of liquid cooled crates and ease of thermal management with conduction cooled modules are described. While this system was developed primarily for the higher power levels expected with Fastbus electronics, it has many general applications.

  2. Cab Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Damman, Dennis

    2005-10-31

    Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

  3. Lamination cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Rippel, Wally E.; Kobayashi, Daryl M.

    2005-10-11

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a lamination cooling system including a stack of laminations, each defining a plurality of apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define a plurality of cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack, and gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed to prevent a liquid cooling fluid in the passageways from escaping between the laminations. The gaps are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. The apertures of each lamination can be coincident with the same-sized apertures of adjacent laminations to form straight passageways, or they can vary in size, shape and/or position to form non-axial passageways, angled passageways, bidirectional passageways, and manifold sections of passageways that connect a plurality of different passageway sections. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  4. Project S'COOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Carolyn J.; Chambers, Lin H.

    1998-01-01

    The Students Clouds Observations On-Line or S'COOL project was piloted in 1997. It was created with the idea of using students to serve as one component of the validation for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument which was launched with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) in November, 1997. As part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise CERES is interested in the role clouds play in regulating our climate. Over thirty schools became involved in the initial thrust of the project. The CERES instrument detects the location of clouds and identifies their physical properties. S'COOL students coordinate their ground truth observations with the exact overpass of the satellite at their location. Their findings regarding cloud type, height, fraction and opacity as well as surface conditions are then reported to the NASA Langley Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data is then accessible to both the CERES team for validation and to schools for educational application via the Internet. By March of 1998 ninety-three schools, in nine countries had enrolled in the S'COOL project. Joining the United States participants were from schools in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. The project is gradually becoming the global project envisioned by the project s creators. As students obtain the requested data useful for the scientists, it was hoped that students with guidance from their instructors would have opportunity and motivation to learn more about clouds and atmospheric science as well.

  5. Project S'COOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Carolyn J.; Chambers, Lin H.

    1998-01-01

    The Students Clouds Observations On-Line or S'COOL project was piloted in 1997. It was created with the idea of using students to serve as one component of the validation for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument which was launched with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) in November, 1997. As part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise CERES is interested in the role clouds play in regulating our climate. Over thirty schools became involved in the initial thrust of the project. The CERES instrument detects the location of clouds and identifies their physical properties. S'COOL students coordinate their ground truth observations with the exact overpass of the satellite at their location. Their findings regarding cloud type, height, fraction and opacity as well as surface conditions are then reported to the NASA Langley Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data is then accessible to both the CERES team for validation and to schools for educational application via the Internet. By March of 1998 ninety-three schools, in nine countries had enrolled in the S'COOL project. Joining the United States participants were from schools in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. The project is gradually becoming the global project envisioned by the project s creators. As students obtain the requested data useful for the scientists, it was hoped that students with guidance from their instructors would have opportunity and motivation to learn more about clouds and atmospheric science as well.

  6. NSCool: Neutron star cooling code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Dany

    2016-09-01

    NSCool is a 1D (i.e., spherically symmetric) neutron star cooling code written in Fortran 77. The package also contains a series of EOSs (equation of state) to build stars, a series of pre-built stars, and a TOV (Tolman- Oppenheimer-Volkoff) integrator to build stars from an EOS. It can also handle “strange stars” that have a huge density discontinuity between the quark matter and the covering thin baryonic crust. NSCool solves the heat transport and energy balance equations in whole GR, resulting in a time sequence of temperature profiles (and, in particular, a Teff - age curve). Several heating processes are included, and more can easily be incorporated. In particular it can evolve a star undergoing accretion with the resulting deep crustal heating, under a steady or time-variable accretion rate. NSCool is robust, very fast, and highly modular, making it easy to add new subroutines for new processes.

  7. Effects of cooling methods on silver-palladium castings.

    PubMed

    Jochen, D G; Caputo, A A; Matyas, J

    1988-03-01

    Cast metal specimens for three ceramic metals were subjected to two different types of cooling procedures after casting. One method involved the rapid cooling of the casting as soon as the red glow of the button disappeared. The other method allowed the castings to bench cool to room temperature. Hardness, bond strength, and microstructural determinations lead to the following conclusions. 1. Vickers hardness values for W-1 and Rx-91 alloys for each cooling regimen were not significantly different. Statistically higher hardness values were obtained for the quenched specimens of JP-5 alloys compared with the bench-cooled specimens. 2. Cooling of W-1 and JP-5 alloy specimens by quenching resulted in higher bond strengths than for specimens that were bench-cooled to room temperature. However, bench-cooling Rx-91 alloy lead to higher bond strengths than did quenching. 3. For all of the alloys examined, quenching produced a smaller grain structure than did bench-cooling. 4. From the standpoint of the parameters tested and the saving of processing time, quenching of the silver-palladium ceramic alloys examined is the cooling procedure of choice for W-1 and JP-5 alloys.

  8. Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Circle, David

    2005-01-01

    When a teacher gives their time to a student, it is more significant to that student than anything else one could do for him or her. Music teachers deal with time all the time. Someone once said that "time is like money: we never have enough." This may seem true; however, time is not like money. One can make more money, but one cannot "make time."…

  9. Body-Cooling Paradigm in Sport: Maximizing Safety and Performance During Competition.

    PubMed

    Adams, William M; Hosokawa, Yuri; Casa, Douglas J

    2016-12-01

    Although body cooling has both performance and safety benefits, knowledge on optimizing cooling during specific sport competition is limited. To identify when, during sport competition, it is optimal for body cooling and to identify optimal body-cooling modalities to enhance safety and maximize sport performance. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify articles with specific context regarding body cooling, sport performance, and cooling modalities used during sport competition. A search of scientific peer-reviewed literature examining the effects of body cooling on exercise performance was done to examine the influence of body cooling on exercise performance. Subsequently, a literature search was done to identify effective cooling modalities that have been shown to improve exercise performance. The cooling modalities that are most effective in cooling the body during sport competition depend on the sport, timing of cooling, and feasibility based on the constraints of the sports rules and regulations. Factoring in the length of breaks (halftime substitutions, etc), the equipment worn during competition, and the cooling modalities that offer the greatest potential to cool must be considered in each individual sport. Scientific evidence supports using body cooling as a method of improving performance during sport competition. Developing a strategy to use cooling modalities that are scientifically evidence-based to improve performance while maximizing athlete's safety warrants further investigation.

  10. Rate of runaway evaporative cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Groep, J. van de; Straten, P. van der; Vogels, J. M.

    2011-09-15

    Evaporative cooling is a process that is essential in creating Bose-Einstein condensates in dilute atomic gasses. This process has often been simulated based on a model using a truncated Boltzmann distribution. This model assumes that the energy distribution up to the threshold energy can still be described by a Boltzmann distribution: it assumes detailed balance up to the threshold energy. However, the evolution of the distribution function in time is not taken into account. Here we solve the kinetic Boltzmann equation for a gas undergoing evaporative cooling in a harmonic and linear trap in order to determine the evolution of the energy distribution. The magnitude of the discrepancy with the truncated Boltzmannmodel is calculated by including a polynomial expansion of the distribution function. We find that up to 35% fewer particles are found in the high-energy tail of the distribution with respect to the truncated Boltzmann distribution and up to 15% more collisions are needed to reach quantum degeneracy. Supported by a detailed investigation of the particle loss rate at different energies, we conclude that the limited occupation of high-energy states during the evaporation process causes the lowering of the evaporation speed and efficiency.

  11. Coronal Structures in Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor); Dupree, Andrea K.

    2004-01-01

    Many papers have been published that further elucidate the structure of coronas in cool stars as determined from EUVE, HST, FUSE, Chandra, and XMM-Newton observations. In addition we are exploring the effects of coronas on the He I 1083081 transition that is observed in the infrared. Highlights of these are summarized below including publications during this reporting period and presentations. Ground-based magnetic Doppler imaging of cool stars suggests that active stars have active regions located at high latitudes on their surface. We have performed similar imaging in X-ray to locate the sites of enhanced activity using Chandra spectra. Chandra HETG observations of the bright eclipsing contact binary 44i Boo and Chandra LETG observations for the eclipsing binary VW Cep show X-ray line profiles that are Doppler-shifted by orbital motion. After careful analysis of the spectrum of each binary, a composite line-profile is constructed by adding the individual spectral lines. This high signal-to-noise ratio composite line-profile yields orbital velocities for these binaries that are accurate to 30 km/sec and allows their orbital motion to be studied at higher time resolutions. In conjunction with X-ray lightcurves, the phase-binned composite line-profiles constrain coronal structures to be small and located at high latitudes. These observations and techniques show the power of the Doppler Imaging Technique applied to X-ray line emission.

  12. Mechano-caloric cooling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederking, T. H. K.; Luna, Jack; Abbassi, P.; Carandang, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    The mechano-caloric effect is potentially useful in the He II temperature range. Aside from demonstration work, little quantification effort appears to have been known since other refrigeration possibilities have been available for some time. Successful He II use-related system examples are as follows: in space, the utilization of the latent heat of vaporization has been quite successful in vapor-liquid phase separation (VLPS) in conjunction with thermomechanical force application in plugs. In magnet cooling systems, the possibility of using the mechano-caloric cooling effect in conjunction with thermo-mechanical circulation pump schemes, has been assessed (but not quantified yet to the extent desirable). A third example is quoted in conjunction with superfluid wind tunnel studies and liquid helium tow tank for surface vessels respectively. In all of these (partially future) R and D areas, the question of refrigerator effectiveness using the mechano-caloric effect appears to be relevant, possibly in conjunction with questions of reliability and simplicity. The present work is concerned with quantification of phenomena including simplified thermodynamic cycle calculations.

  13. Finger Cooling During Cold Air Exposure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikuisis, Peter

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents a method for predicting the onset of finger freezing. It is an extension of a tissue-cooling model originally developed to predict the onset of cheek freezing. The extension to the finger is presented as a more conservative warning of wind chill. Indeed, guidance on the risk of finger freezing is important not only to safeguard the finger, but also because it pertains more closely to susceptible facial features, such as the nose, than if only the risk of cheek freezing was provided. The importance of blood flow to the finger and the modeling of vaso-constriction are demonstrated through cooling predictions that agree reasonably well with several reported observations. Differences in the prediction between the present physiologic-based model and the engineering model used to develop the wind chill index are also discussed. New wind chill charts are presented that tabulate the mean cooling rates and corresponding onset times to freezing of the finger for various combinations of air temperature and wind speed. Results indicate that the surface of the finger cools to its freezing point in approximately one-eighth of the time predicted for the cheek. For combinations that result in the same wind chill temperature (WCT), the rate of finger cooling is faster at the higher wind speed. This asymmetry was previously disclosed through the application of the model to cheek cooling, and it reiterates the ambiguity associated with the reporting of WCT. It is further emphasized that the reporting of onset times to freezing, or safe exposure limits, is a more logical and meaningful alternative to the WCT.

  14. Hole Cooling Is Much Faster than Electron Cooling in PbSe Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Spoor, Frank C M; Kunneman, Lucas T; Evers, Wiel H; Renaud, Nicolas; Grozema, Ferdinand C; Houtepen, Arjan J; Siebbeles, Laurens D A

    2016-01-26

    In semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), charge carrier cooling is in direct competition with processes such as carrier multiplication or hot charge extraction that may improve the light conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices. Understanding charge carrier cooling is therefore of great interest. We investigate high-energy optical transitions in PbSe QDs using hyperspectral transient absorption spectroscopy. We observe bleaching of optical transitions involving higher valence and conduction bands upon band edge excitation. The kinetics of rise of the bleach of these transitions after a pump laser pulse allow us to monitor, for the first time, cooling of hot electrons and hot holes separately. Our results show that holes cool significantly faster than electrons in PbSe QDs. This is in contrast to the common assumption that electrons and holes behave similarly in Pb chalcogenide QDs and has important implications for the utilization of hot charge carriers in photovoltaic devices.

  15. Stochastic cooling of 200 MeV protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambertson, G.; Bisognano, J.; Flood, W.; Laslett, L. J.; Leemann, C.; Leskovar, B.; Lo, C. C.; Main, R.; Smith, L.; Staples, J.

    1980-07-01

    Vertical and longitudinal cooling was achieved at the FNAL 200 MeV cooling ring. Initial longitudinal cooling times of 20 seconds for 1.5 x 1 million circulating protons are in approximate 20 seconds for 1.5 x 1 million circulating protons are in approximate agreement with calculations based on measured system parameters. The cooling systems have an electronic bandwidth of approxmately 300 MHz, traveling wave pickups and kickers, and a notch filter using flexible cable. The traveling wave structures provide a good signal-to-noise ratio and reduce output power requirements.

  16. Radiation Pressure Cooling as a Quantum Dynamical Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bing; Yang, Liu; Lin, Qing; Xiao, Min

    2017-06-01

    One of the most fundamental problems in optomechanical cooling is how small the thermal phonon number of a mechanical oscillator can be achieved under the radiation pressure of a proper cavity field. Different from previous theoretical predictions, which were based on an optomechanical system's time-independent steady states, we treat such cooling as a dynamical process of driving the mechanical oscillator from its initial thermal state, due to its thermal equilibrium with the environment, to a stabilized quantum state of higher purity. We find that the stabilized thermal phonon number left in the end actually depends on how fast the cooling process could be. The cooling speed is decided by an effective optomechanical coupling intensity, which constitutes an essential parameter for cooling, in addition to the sideband resolution parameter that has been considered in other theoretical studies. The limiting thermal phonon number that any cooling process cannot surpass exhibits a discontinuous jump across a certain value of the parameter.

  17. Changes in copper sulfate crystal habit during cooling crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giulietti, M.; Seckler, M. M.; Derenzo, S.; Valarelli, J. V.

    1996-09-01

    The morphology of technical grade copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate crystals produced from batch cooling experiments in the temperature range of 70 to 30°C is described and correlated with the process conditions. A slow linear cooling rate (batch time of 90 min) predominantly caused the appearance of well-formed crystals. Exponential cooling (120 min) resulted in the additional formation of agglomerates and twins. The presence of seeds for both cooling modes led to round crystals, agglomerates and twins. Fast linear cooling (15 min) gave rise to a mixture of the former types. Broken crystals and adhering fragments were often found. Growth zoning was pronounced in seeded and linear cooling experiments. Fluid inclusions were always found and were more pronounced for larger particles. The occurrence of twinning, zoning and fluid inclusions was qualitatively explained in terms of fundamental principles.

  18. Laser cooling of molecular anions.

    PubMed

    Yzombard, Pauline; Hamamda, Mehdi; Gerber, Sebastian; Doser, Michael; Comparat, Daniel

    2015-05-29

    We propose a scheme for laser cooling of negatively charged molecules. We briefly summarize the requirements for such laser cooling and we identify a number of potential candidates. A detailed computation study with C_{2}^{-}, the most studied molecular anion, is carried out. Simulations of 3D laser cooling in a gas phase show that this molecule could be cooled down to below 1 mK in only a few tens of milliseconds, using standard lasers. Sisyphus cooling, where no photodetachment process is present, as well as Doppler laser cooling of trapped C_{2}^{-}, are also simulated. This cooling scheme has an impact on the study of cold molecules, molecular anions, charged particle sources, and antimatter physics.

  19. A Class Inquiry into Newton's Cooling Curve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholow, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Newton's cooling curve was chosen for the four-part laboratory inquiry into conditions affecting temperature change. The relationship between time and temperature is not foreseen by the average high school student before the first session. However, during several activities students examine the classic relationship, T = A exp[superscript -Ct] + B…

  20. A Class Inquiry into Newton's Cooling Curve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholow, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Newton's cooling curve was chosen for the four-part laboratory inquiry into conditions affecting temperature change. The relationship between time and temperature is not foreseen by the average high school student before the first session. However, during several activities students examine the classic relationship, T = A exp[superscript -Ct] + B…

  1. Weighing Ultra-Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-05-01

    Large Ground-Based Telescopes and Hubble Team-Up to Perform First Direct Brown Dwarf Mass Measurement [1] Summary Using ESO's Very Large Telescope at Paranal and a suite of ground- and space-based telescopes in a four-year long study, an international team of astronomers has measured for the first time the mass of an ultra-cool star and its companion brown dwarf. The two stars form a binary system and orbit each other in about 10 years. The team obtained high-resolution near-infrared images; on the ground, they defeated the blurring effect of the terrestrial atmosphere by means of adaptive optics techniques. By precisely determining the orbit projected on the sky, the astronomers were able to measure the total mass of the stars. Additional data and comparison with stellar models then yield the mass of each of the components. The heavier of the two stars has a mass around 8.5% of the mass of the Sun and its brown dwarf companion is even lighter, only 6% of the solar mass. Both objects are relatively young with an age of about 500-1,000 million years. These observations represent a decisive step towards the still missing calibration of stellar evolution models for very-low mass stars. PR Photo 19a/04: Orbit of the ultra-cool stars in 2MASSW J0746425+2000321. PR Photo 19b/04: Animated Gif of the orbital motion. Telephone number star Even though astronomers have found several hundreds of very low mass stars and brown dwarfs, the fundamental properties of these extreme objects, such as masses and surface temperatures, are still not well known. Within the cosmic zoo, these ultra-cool stars represent a class of "intermediate" objects between giant planets - like Jupiter - and "normal" stars less massive than our Sun, and to understand them well is therefore crucial to the field of stellar astrophysics. The problem with these ultra-cool stars is that contrary to normal stars that burn hydrogen in their central core, no unique relation exists between the luminosity of the

  2. Broadband Optical Cooling of Molecular Rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, Chien-Yu

    Laser cooling of atoms is a widely utilized technique in scientific research, and has been developed over more than three decades. Recently, optically controlling and manipulating the external and internal degrees of freedom of molecules has aroused wide interest in the physics and chemistry communities. However, owing to the more complicated internal structure of molecules, laser cooling of molecules is still underdeveloped. Here we demonstrate cooling the rotation of trapped molecular ions from room temperature to 4 K. The molecule of interest, AlH+, is co-trapped and sympathetically cooled with Ba+ to milliKelvin temperatures in its translational degree of freedom. The nearly diagonal Franck-Condon-Factors between the electronic X and A states of AlH+ create semi-closed cycling transitions between the vibrational ground states of X and A states. A spectrally filtered femtosecond laser is used to optically pump the population to the two lowest rotational levels, with opposite parities, in as little as 100 mus by driving the A-X transition. In addition, a cooling scheme including vibrational relaxation brings the population to the N=0positive-parity level on the order of 100 ms. The population distribution among the rotational levels is detected by resonance-enhanced multiphoton dissociation (REMPD) and time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (TOFMS). This technique opens new avenues to many further studies such as high-precision molecular quantum logic spectroscopy (mQLS) and fundamental constant measurements.

  3. Cavity Cooling for Ensemble Spin Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cory, David

    2015-03-01

    Recently there has been a surge of interest in exploring thermodynamics in quantum systems where dissipative effects can be exploited to perform useful work. One such example is quantum state engineering where a quantum state of high purity may be prepared by dissipative coupling through a cold thermal bath. This has been used to great effect in many quantum systems where cavity cooling has been used to cool mechanical modes to their quantum ground state through coupling to the resolved sidebands of a high-Q resonator. In this talk we explore how these techniques may be applied to an ensemble spin system. This is an attractive process as it potentially allows for parallel remove of entropy from a large number of quantum systems, enabling an ensemble to achieve a polarization greater than thermal equilibrium, and potentially on a time scale much shorter than thermal relaxation processes. This is achieved by the coupled angular momentum subspaces of the ensemble behaving as larger effective spins, overcoming the weak individual coupling of individual spins to a microwave resonator. Cavity cooling is shown to cool each of these subspaces to their respective ground state, however an additional algorithmic step or dissipative process is required to couple between these subspaces and enable cooling to the full ground state of the joint system.

  4. Cooling experiments using dummies covered by leaves.

    PubMed

    Althaus, L; Stückradt, S; Henssge, C; Bajanowski, T

    2007-03-01

    One main method to estimate the time of death is the measurement of the body temperature. The cooling of a corpse depends on a number of conditions including the surroundings. In cases where the cooling conditions differ from the defined standard, a corrective factor is used to characterise the influence of clothing, air movement, the properties of the supporting base and the humidity. Nothing is known about the significance of other circumstances, for example of a tegument by leaves or wet leaves. Therefore, the cooling of dummies which were placed on a 2-cm-thick layer of wet/dry leaves and covered by a 10-cm-thick layer of leaves was investigated. Corrective factors of 1.0 for wet leaves on the ground and of 1.3 and 1.5 for drier leaves were found. If the dummies were additionally covered, corrective factors ranged between 1.8 and 2.7.

  5. Evaporative cooling and the Mpemba effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vynnycky, M.; Mitchell, S. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Mpemba effect is popularly summarized by the statement that “hot water can freeze faster than cold”, and has been observed experimentally since the time of Aristotle; however, there exist almost no theoretical models that predict the effect. With a view to initiating rigorous modelling activity on this topic, this paper analyzes in some depth the only available model in literature, which considers the potential role of evaporative cooling and treats the cooling water as a lumped mass. Certain omissions in the original work are highlighted and corrected, and results are obtained for a wide range of operating conditions—in particular, initial liquid temperature and cooling temperature. The implications and importance of the results of the model for experimental design are discussed, as are extensions of the model to handle more realistic 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional configurations.

  6. SUCCESSFUL BUNCHED BEAM STOCHASTIC COOLING IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    BRENNAN, J.M.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; SEVERINO, F.

    2006-06-23

    We report on a successful test of bunch-beam stochastic cooling in RHIC at 100 GeV. The cooling system is designed for heavy ions but was tested in the recent RHIC run which operated only with polarized protons. To make an analog of the ion beam a special bunch was prepared with very low intensity. This bunch had {approx}1.5 x 10{sup 9} protons, while the other 100 bunches contained {approx}1.2 x 10{sup 11} protons each. With this bunch a cooling time on the order 1 hour was observed through shortening of the bunch length and increase in the peak bunch current, together with a narrowing of the spectral line width of the Scottky power at 4 GHz. The low level signal processing electronics and the isolated-frequency kicker cavities are described.

  7. [Scalp cooling for chemotherapy-induced alopecia].

    PubMed

    Komen, Marion M C; Smorenburg, Carolien H; van den Hurk, Corina J G; Nortier, J W R Hans

    2011-01-01

    Alopecia is a very common side effect of cytostatic therapy and is considered one of the most emotionally distressing effects. To prevent alopecia scalp cooling is currently used in some indications in medical oncology in 59 hospitals in the Netherlands. The success of scalp cooling depends on various factors such as type of chemotherapy, dose, infusion time, number of treatment cycles and combinations of drugs. In general, scalp cooling is well tolerated. The reported side-effects are headache, coldness, dizziness and sometimes claustrophobia. An increase in the risk of scalp metastases has not been demonstrated. Proceeding from the South Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Centre a national working group is put together in order to draw up a national guideline for chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

  8. Black holes, cooling flows and galaxy formation.

    PubMed

    Peacock, J A

    2005-03-15

    Central black holes in galaxies are now well established as a ubiquitous phenomenon, and this fact is important for theories of cosmological structure formation. Merging of galaxy haloes must preserve the proportionality between black hole mass and baryonic mass; the way in which this happens may help solve difficulties with existing ing models of galaxy formation, which suffer from excessive cooling and thus over- produce stars. Feedback from active nuclei may be the missing piece of the puzzle, regulating galaxy-scale cooling flows. Such a process now seems to be observed in cluster-scale cooling flows, where dissipation of sound waves generated by radio lobes can plausibly balance the energy lost in X-rays, at least in a time-averaged sense.

  9. Cooling method with automated seasonal freeze protection

    SciTech Connect

    Cambell, Levi; Chu, Richard; David, Milnes; Ellsworth, Jr, Michael; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Simons, Robert; Singh, Prabjit; Zhang, Jing

    2016-05-31

    An automated multi-fluid cooling method is provided for cooling an electronic component(s). The method includes obtaining a coolant loop, and providing a coolant tank, multiple valves, and a controller. The coolant loop is at least partially exposed to outdoor ambient air temperature(s) during normal operation, and the coolant tank includes first and second reservoirs containing first and second fluids, respectively. The first fluid freezes at a lower temperature than the second, the second fluid has superior cooling properties compared with the first, and the two fluids are soluble. The multiple valves are controllable to selectively couple the first or second fluid into the coolant in the coolant loop, wherein the coolant includes at least the second fluid. The controller automatically controls the valves to vary first fluid concentration level in the coolant loop based on historical, current, or anticipated outdoor air ambient temperature(s) for a time of year.

  10. The Transient Response of Cooling Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, E. Eric

    1982-10-01

    Cooling ponds are a form of closed cycle cooling used for steam-electric power plants. Because of their thermal inertia they provide an advantage over cooling towers in filtering fluctuations in intake temperature, which results in improved plant efficiency. By using linear systems theory, the transient behavior of various types of ponds is analyzed in response to periodic meteorological conditions (characterized by equilibrium temperature) and plant operational conditions (characterized by condenser temperature rise). Frequency response is expressed in terms of dimensionless ratios involving frequency of input forcing, characteristic hydraulic residence and surface response times, and appropriate mixing parameters. Results are also interpreted with respect to physical design variables, such as pond area, depth, degree of stratification, intake submergence, discharge entrance mixing, condenser flow rate, and temperature rise.

  11. Solar heating and cooling.

    PubMed

    Duffie, J A; Beckman, W A

    1976-01-16

    We have adequate theory and engineering capability to design, install, and use equipment for solar space and water heating. Energy can be delivered at costs that are competitive now with such high-cost energy sources as much fuel-generated, electrical resistance heating. The technology of heating is being improved through collector developments, improved materials, and studies of new ways to carry out the heating processes. Solar cooling is still in the experimental stage. Relatively few experiments have yielded information on solar operation of absorption coolers, on use of night sky radiation in locations with clear skies, on the combination of a solar-operated Rankine engine and a compression cooler, and on open cycle, humidification-dehumidification systems. Many more possibilities for exploration exist. Solar cooling may benefit from collector developments that permit energy delivery at higher temperatures and thus solar operation of additional kinds of cycles. Improved solar cooling capability can open up new applications of solar energy, particularly for larger buildings, and can result in markets for retrofitting existing buildings. Solar energy for buildings can, in the next decade, make a significant contribution to the national energy economy and to the pocketbooks of many individual users. very large-aggregate enterprises in manufacture, sale, and installation of solar energy equipment can result, which can involve a spectrum of large and small businesses. In our view, the technology is here or will soon be at hand; thus the basic decisions as to whether the United States uses this resource will be political in nature.

  12. Energetics and Cooling in Urban Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spronken-Smith, Rachel Anne

    While there has been a long tradition for the integration of architecture and landscape to improve the urban environment, little is known about the effect of urban parks on local climate. In this study the park effect is determined through an integrated research approach incorporating field measurements of the thermal regime and energetics of urban parks, together with scale modelling of nocturnal cooling in urban parks. The research is limited to consideration of the park effect in two cities with different summer climates: Sacramento, California (hot summer Mediterranean) and Vancoucer, British Columbia (cool summer Mediterranean). In both these cities, surveys of summer-time air temperature patterns associated with urban parks confirm and extend previous findings. In temperate Vancouver, the park effect is typically 1-2^circC, rarely more than 3^circC, although it can be higher under ideal conditions. However, in a hot, dry city, the effect is considerably enhanced with parks as much as 5-7^circC cooler than their urban surrounds. A comparison of the surface energy balance of small open, grassed parks in these two cities demonstrated the importance of evapotranspiration in park energetics. In hot, dry Sacramento, evaporation in the park was advectively -assisted and exceeded that at an irrigated rural site. Strong advective edge effects on evaporation were observed in this wet park. These decayed approximately exponentially with distance into the park. The urban park in Vancouver was moist, but unirrigated. While evaporation dominated the surface energy balance, the sensible heat flux was positive through most of the day, and evaporation was not strongly influenced by advection. The evaporation trend in the park probably reflected the turbulence and soil moisture regimes. However, an irrigated lawn in Vancouver did exhibit edge-type advection. This suggests the soil moisture regime may be critical in determining whether evaporation exceeds the potential rate

  13. Being "Nice" or Being "Normal": Girls Resisting Discourses of "Coolness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paechter, Carrie; Clark, Sheryl

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we consider discourses of friendship and belonging mobilised by girls who are not part of the dominant "cool" group in one English primary school. We explore how, by investing in alternative and, at times, resistant, discourses of "being nice" and "being normal" these "non-cool" girls were able…

  14. Being "Nice" or Being "Normal": Girls Resisting Discourses of "Coolness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paechter, Carrie; Clark, Sheryl

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we consider discourses of friendship and belonging mobilised by girls who are not part of the dominant "cool" group in one English primary school. We explore how, by investing in alternative and, at times, resistant, discourses of "being nice" and "being normal" these "non-cool" girls were able…

  15. Radiative and gas cooling of falling molten drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, M. B.

    1978-01-01

    The supercooling rate and solidification time for molten drops of niobium, copper, and lead are calculated. Calculations for both radiation and helium gas cooling are presented in order to estimate the influence that the presence of helium gas would have upon the cooling rate of falling drops in the Marshall Space Flight Center space processing drop tube.

  16. Turbine airfoil film cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hylton, Larry D.

    1986-01-01

    Emphasis is placed on developing more accurate analytical models for predicting turbine airfoil external heat transfer rates. Performance goals of new engines require highly refined, accurate design tools to meet durability requirements. In order to obtain improvements in analytical capabilities, programs are required which focus on enhancing analytical techniques through verification of new models by comparison with relevant experimental data. The objectives of the current program are to develop an analytical approach, based on boundary layer theory, for predicting the effects of airfoil film cooling on downstream heat transfer rates and to verify the resulting analytical method by comparison of predictions with hot cascade data obtained under this program.

  17. Cooling apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Mayes, James C [Sugar Land, TX

    2009-05-05

    A device and method provide for cooling of a system having an energy source, one or more devices that actively consume energy, and one or more devices that generate heat. The device may include one or more thermoelectric coolers ("TECs") in conductive engagement with at least one of the heat-generating devices, and an energy diverter for diverting at least a portion of the energy from the energy source that is not consumed by the active energy-consuming devices to the TECs.

  18. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-08-04

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  19. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-01-01

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  20. COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Binner, C.R.; Wilkie, C.B.

    1958-03-18

    This patent relates to a design for a reactor of the type in which a fluid coolant is flowed through the active portion of the reactor. This design provides for the cooling of the shielding material as well as the reactor core by the same fluid coolant. The core structure is a solid moderator having coolant channels in which are disposed the fuel elements in rod or slug form. The coolant fluid enters the chamber in the shield, in which the core is located, passes over the inner surface of said chamber, enters the core structure at the center, passes through the coolant channels over the fuel elements and out through exhaust ducts.

  1. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  2. Superconducting magnet cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Vander Arend, Peter C.; Fowler, William B.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for cooling a conductor to the superconducting state. The conductor is positioned within an inner conduit through which is flowing a supercooled liquid coolant in physical contact with the conductor. The inner conduit is positioned within an outer conduit so that an annular open space is formed therebetween. Through the annular space is flowing coolant in the boiling liquid state. Heat generated by the conductor is transferred by convection within the supercooled liquid coolant to the inner wall of the inner conduit and then is removed by the boiling liquid coolant, making the heat removal from the conductor relatively independent of conductor length.

  3. Evaluation of the NightCool Nocturnal Radiation Cooling Concept: Annual Performance Assessment in Scale Test Buildings Stage Gate 1B

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Danny S.; Sherwin, John R.

    2008-03-01

    In this report, data is presented on the long-term comparative with all of NightCool system fully operational, with circulating fans when attic conditions are favorable for nocturnal cooling and with conventional air conditioning at other times. Data is included for a full year of the cooling season in Central Florida, which stretches from April to November of 2007.

  4. Facial Cooling During Cold Air Exposure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikuisis, Peter; Osczevski, Randall J.

    2003-07-01

    A dynamic model of facial cooling was developed in conjunction with the release of the new wind chill temperature (WCT) index, whereby the WCT provides wind chill estimates based on steady-state considerations and the dynamic model can be used to predict the rate of facial cooling and particularly the onset of freezing. In the present study, the dynamic model is applied to various combinations of air temperature and wind speed, and predictions of the resultant steady-state cheek skin temperatures are tabulated. Superimposed on these tables are times to a cheek skin temperature of 10°C, which has been reported as painful, and times to freezing. For combinations of air temperature and wind speed that result in the same final steady-state cheek temperature or the same WCT, the initial rate of change of skin temperature is higher for those combinations having higher wind speeds. This suggests that during short exposures, high winds combined with low temperatures might be perceived as more stressful than light winds with lower temperatures that result in the same "wind chill." This paper also discloses the paradox that individuals having a low cheek thermal resistance are predicted to experience a more severe WCT, but be at less risk of cooling injury than individuals with higher thermal resistances. The advantages of cooling-time predictions using the dynamic model are discussed with the recommendation/conclusion that safe exposure limits are more meaningful and less ambiguous than the reporting of the WCT.

  5. Dynamic cooling during laser skin welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Nathaniel M.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    1999-06-01

    Cryogen spray cooling of the tissue surface was investigated for laser welding applications. Benefits include reduced thermal damage to the papillary dermis and reduced operation time. Two-cm-long, full-thickness incisions were made on the backs of guinea pigs, in vivo. India ink was used as an absorber and clamps were used to appose the incision edges. Continuous-wave, 1.06-μm, Nd:YAG laser radiation was scanned over the incisions, producing ~100 ms pulses. A 4-mm-diameter laser spot was used with a constant power of 16 W. The total operation time was 60 or 120 s. Cryogen was delivered in spurt durations of 20, 60, or 100 ms, with 2 or 4 s between spurts. The working distance was approximately 12 cm, and the spray covered an area of about 5.0 x 5.0 cm. Control welds were irradiated for 20, 40, or 60 s. Total operation times were reduced from 10 min without dynamic cooling to 1 min with dynamic cooling. Optimal tensile strength was 1.7 +/- 0.7 kg/cm2, comparible to stengths of 2.1 +/- 0.7 kg/cm2 reported in previous studies without cryogen cooling (p>0.25). Thermal damage in the papillary dermis measured 320 +/- 80 μm.

  6. Cooling athletes with a spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Katy E; Price, Michael J; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2015-01-01

    additional findings from the able-bodied literature, the combination of methods used prior to and during exercise and/or during rest periods/half-time may increase the effectiveness of a strategy. However, due to the paucity of research involving athletes with an SCI, it is difficult to establish an optimal cooling strategy. Future studies are needed to ensure that research outcomes can be translated into meaningful performance enhancements by investigating cooling strategies under the constraints of actual competition. Cooling strategies that meet the demands of intermittent wheelchair sports need to be identified, with particular attention to the logistics of the sport.

  7. Towards Laser Cooling of Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani nia, Iman

    This dissertation reports on novel theoretical concepts as well as experimental efforts toward laser cooling of semiconductors. The use of quantum well system brings the opportunity to engineer bandstructure, effective masses and the spatial distribution of electrons and holes. This permits the incorporation of novel quantum mechanical phenomena to manipulate the temperature change of the material upon light-matter interaction. Inspired by the fact that Coulomb interaction can lead to blueshift of radiation after photo-absorption, the theory of Coulomb assisted laser cooling is proposed and investigated for the first time. In order to design suitable multiple quantum well (MQW) structures with Coulomb interaction a Poisson-Schrodinger solver was devised using MATLAB software. The software is capable of simulating all III-V material compositions and it results have been confirmed experimentally. In the next step, different MQW designs were proposed and optimized to exploit Coulomb interaction for assisting of optical refrigeration. One of the suitable designs with standard InGaAsP/InAlAs/InP layers was used to grow the MQW structures using metal organic vapor deposition (MOCVD). Novel techniques of fabrication were implemented to make suspended structures for detecting ultralow thermal powers. By fabricating accurate thermometers, the temperature changes of the device upon laser absorption were measured. The accurate measurement of the temperature encouraged us to characterize the electrical response of the device as another important tool to promote our understanding of the 4 underlying physical phenomena. This is in addition to the accurate spectral and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements that provided us with a wealth of information about the effects of stress, Auger recombination and excitonic radiance in such structures. As the future works, important measurements for finding the quantum efficiency of the devices via electrical characterization and

  8. Choice materials for district cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, J.

    1995-12-31

    Stockholm Energi is anxious to get suggestions on pipe designs for district cooling systems that will be built in the future. A lot of effort has been put into this area when designing their first system. Operation of this system started in May of this year. Even if the pipes chosen so far will provide a long life time to the pipe system, the company expects that in the future other designs will give the same result for less money. Exchange of practical experiences across the ocean should make smarter and happier operators on both shores. The pipes chosen by Stockholm Energi for putting in the ground and in rock tunnels are steel pipes preinsulated with polyurethane foam covered with polyethylene. Design for indoor like installation has been stainless steel pipes insulated on site by foam injected in a cover of aluminium. The author will be happy to exchange further details on your request.

  9. High speed cooled CCD experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, C.R.; Albright, K.L.; Yates, G.J.

    1998-12-31

    Experiments were conducted using cooled and intensified CCD cameras. Two different cameras were identically tested using different Optical test stimulus variables. Camera gain and dynamic range were measured by varying microchannel plate (MCP) voltages and controlling light flux using neutral density (ND) filters to yield analog digitized units (ADU) which are digitized values of the CCD pixel`s analog charge. A Xenon strobe (5 {micro}s FWHM, blue light, 430 nm) and a doubled Nd.yag laser (10 ns FWHM, green light, 532 nm) were both used as pulsed illumination sources for the cameras. Images were captured on PC desktop computer system using commercial software. Camera gain and integration time values were adjusted using camera software. Mean values of camera volts versus input flux were also obtained by performing line scans through regions of interest. Experiments and results will be discussed.

  10. Feasibility assessment of vacuum cooling followed by immersion vacuum cooling on water-cooked pork.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoguang; Chen, Hui; Liu, Yi; Dai, Ruitong; Li, Xingmin

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum cooling followed by immersion vacuum cooling was designed to cool water-cooked pork (1.5±0.05 kg) compared with air blast cooling (4±0.5°C, 2 m/s), vacuum cooling (10 mbar) and immersion vacuum cooling. This combined cooling method was: vacuum cooling to an intermediate temperature of 25°C and then immersion vacuum cooling with water of 10°C to the final temperature of 10°C. It was found that the cooling loss of this combined cooling method was significantly lower (P<0.05) than those of air blast cooling and vacuum cooling. This combined cooling was faster (P<0.05) than air blast cooling and immersion vacuum cooling in terms of cooling rate. Moreover, the pork cooled by combined cooling method had significant differences (P<0.05) in water content, color and shear force.

  11. Supersonic film cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, Robert W.; Hardin, Larry W.; Rodgers, Richard J.; Ernst, Richard C.

    1990-10-01

    The currently available supersonic film cooling effectiveness data can not be reduced to a common correlation even for the same coolant gas. No single parameter or group of parameters has been identified as being responsible for this disparity. In this study, two coolant gases, hydrogen and nitrogen, two nozzle shapes, two coolant Mach numbers, three slot heights, three lip thicknesses, two levels of mainstream total temperature, two levels of flowpath divergence, and a wide range of the ratio of coolant mass flux per unit area to mainstream mass flux per unit area are examined in a Mach 3.0 vitiated airstream simulating a scramjet combustor. The results show that data for each gas can be reasonably correlated to a single line for variations in all parameters tested except for lip thickness and flowpath divergence. A very small lip thickness yields higher effectiveness in the near slot region only. The two values of flowpath divergence yielded unique data correlations. The controlling parameter is the axial pressure gradient. Mainstream turbulence level appears to be the reason why correlations from different studies can not be reconciled. High turbulence levels yield low film effectiveness. Therefore, using film cooling to protect the walls of a scramjet combustor presents the designer with a dilemma since efficient combustioin requires high levels of mixing.

  12. Cooled spool piston compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Brian G. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A hydraulically powered gas compressor receives low pressure gas and outputs a high pressure gas. The housing of the compressor defines a cylinder with a center chamber having a cross-sectional area less than the cross-sectional area of a left end chamber and a right end chamber, and a spool-type piston assembly is movable within the cylinder and includes a left end closure, a right end closure, and a center body that are in sealing engagement with the respective cylinder walls as the piston reciprocates. First and second annual compression chambers are provided between the piston enclosures and center housing portion of the compressor, thereby minimizing the spacing between the core gas and a cooled surface of the compressor. Restricted flow passageways are provided in the piston closure members and a path is provided in the central body of the piston assembly, such that hydraulic fluid flows through the piston assembly to cool the piston assembly during its operation. The compressor of the present invention may be easily adapted for a particular application, and is capable of generating high gas pressures while maintaining both the compressed gas and the compressor components within acceptable temperature limits.

  13. Cooling of dried coal

    SciTech Connect

    Siddoway, M.A.

    1988-06-14

    This patent describes a process for noncombustibly drying particulate coal comprising: separating the coal into two wet coal streams; passing one wet coal system into a dryer to form a bed; heating air in a furnace; admitting the heated air to the dryer to fluidize the bed; withdrawing dryer exhaust gas; passing the exhaust gas through a cyclone and withdrawing coal fines from the cyclone; withdrawing a hot, dry coal stream from the dryer; blending the drier hot dry coal stream with the cyclone coal fines; withdrawing cyclone exhaust gas; wet scrubbing the cyclone exhaust gas to form a coal fines slurry and scrubber exhaust gas; passing the coal fines slurry to a sedimentation pool; blending the second wet coal stream with the drier hot dry coal stream and the cyclone coal fines; passing the latter blended stream to a cooler to form a bed; fluidizing the latter bed with ambient air; withdrawing cooler exhaust gas and passing the gas to a cyclone; passing exhaust gas from the latter cyclone to a baghouse and collecting coal fines therein; passing the latter coal fines to the furnace as fuel for heating the air; and withdrawing cooled coal from the cooler and blending the cooled coal with coal fines from the latter cyclone.

  14. Emergency core cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Schenewerk, William E.; Glasgow, Lyle E.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor provided with an emergency core cooling system includes a reactor vessel which contains a reactor core comprising an array of fuel assemblies and a plurality of blanket assemblies. The reactor core is immersed in a pool of liquid metal coolant. The reactor also includes a primary coolant system comprising a pump and conduits for circulating liquid metal coolant to the reactor core and through the fuel and blanket assemblies of the core. A converging-diverging venturi nozzle with an intermediate throat section is provided in between the assemblies and the pump. The intermediate throat section of the nozzle is provided with at least one opening which is in fluid communication with the pool of liquid sodium. In normal operation, coolant flows from the pump through the nozzle to the assemblies with very little fluid flowing through the opening in the throat. However, when the pump is not running, residual heat in the core causes fluid from the pool to flow through the opening in the throat of the nozzle and outwardly through the nozzle to the assemblies, thus providing a means of removing decay heat.

  15. Passive cooling safety system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.; Hui, Marvin M.; Berglund, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  16. Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  17. The Cool Flames Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Howard; Chapek, Richard; Neville, Donna; Sheredy, William; Wu, Ming-Shin; Tornabene, Robert

    2001-01-01

    A space-based experiment is currently under development to study diffusion-controlled, gas-phase, low temperature oxidation reactions, cool flames and auto-ignition in an unstirred, static reactor. At Earth's gravity (1g), natural convection due to self-heating during the course of slow reaction dominates diffusive transport and produces spatio-temporal variations in the thermal and thus species concentration profiles via the Arrhenius temperature dependence of the reaction rates. Natural convection is important in all terrestrial cool flame and auto-ignition studies, except for select low pressure, highly dilute (small temperature excess) studies in small vessels (i.e., small Rayleigh number). On Earth, natural convection occurs when the Rayleigh number (Ra) exceeds a critical value of approximately 600. Typical values of the Ra, associated with cool flames and auto-ignitions, range from 104-105 (or larger), a regime where both natural convection and conduction heat transport are important. When natural convection occurs, it alters the temperature, hydrodynamic, and species concentration fields, thus generating a multi-dimensional field that is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to be modeled analytically. This point has been emphasized recently by Kagan and co-workers who have shown that explosion limits can shift depending on the characteristic length scale associated with the natural convection. Moreover, natural convection in unstirred reactors is never "sufficiently strong to generate a spatially uniform temperature distribution throughout the reacting gas." Thus, an unstirred, nonisothermal reaction on Earth does not reduce to that generated in a mechanically, well-stirred system. Interestingly, however, thermal ignition theories and thermokinetic models neglect natural convection and assume a heat transfer correlation of the form: q=h(S/V)(T(bar) - Tw) where q is the heat loss per unit volume, h is the heat transfer coefficient, S/V is the surface to

  18. Effect of cooling on Clostridium perfringens in pea soup.

    PubMed

    de Jong, A E I; Rombouts, F M; Beumer, R R

    2004-02-01

    Foods associated with Clostridium perfringens outbreaks are usually abused after cooking. Because of their short generation times, C. perfringens spores and cells can grow out to high levels during improper cooling. Therefore, the potential of C. perfringens to multiply in Dutch pea soup during different cooling times was investigated. Tubes of preheated pea soup (50 degrees C) were inoculated with cocktails of cells or heat-activated spores of this pathogen. The tubes were linearly cooled to 15 degrees C in time spans of 3, 5, 7.5, and 10 h and were subsequently stored in a refrigerator at 3 or 7 degrees C for up to 84 h. Cell numbers increased by 1-log cycle during the 3-h cooling period and reached their maximum after 10 h of cooling. Subsequent refrigeration hardly reduced cell numbers. Cooling of 3.75 liters of pea soup in an open pan showed that this amount of pea soup cooled from 50 to 15 degrees C in 5 h, which will allow a more than 10-fold increase in cell numbers. These findings emphasize the need of good hygienic practices and quick cooling of heated foods after preparation.

  19. The Baby Cooling Project of Japan to Implement Evidence-Based Neonatal Cooling

    PubMed Central

    Takenouchi, Toshiki; Iwata, Sachiko; Nabetani, Makoto; Mukai, Takeo; Shibasaki, Jun; Tsuda, Kennosuke; Tokuhisa, Takuya; Sobajima, Hisanori; Tamura, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia was first recommended as a standard of care by international guidelines in 2010. However, at that time, the number of centers capable of providing standard cooling was limited even in Japan. The aim of this project was to implement a nationwide network of evidence-based cooling within 3 years. A taskforce was formed in June 2010 to undergo the primary nationwide practice survey, design of action plans, and the appraisal of interventions by involving all registered level-II/III neonatal intensive care units in Japan. Based on findings from the primary survey, aggressive action plans were introduced that focused on the formulation of clinical recommendations, facilitation of educational events, and opening of an online case registry. Findings from the follow-up survey (January 2013) were compared with the results from the primary survey (June 2010). Four workshops and three consensus meetings were held to formulate clinical recommendations, which were followed by the publication of practical textbooks, large-scale education seminars, and implementation of a case registry. A follow-up survey covering 253 units (response rate: 89.1%) showed that cooling centers increased from 89 to 135. Twelve prefectures had no cooling centers in 2010, whereas all 47 prefectures had at least one in 2013. In cooling centers, adherence to the standard cooling protocols and the use of servo-controlled cooling devices improved from 20.7% to 94.7% and from 79.8% to 98.5%, respectively. A rapid improvement in the national provision of evidence-based cooling was achieved. International consensus guidelines coupled with domestic interventions might be effective in changing empirical approaches to evidence-based practice. PMID:25260150

  20. Cooling of Gas Turbines. 2; Effectiveness of Rim Cooling of Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfenstein, Lincoln; Meyer, Gene L.; McCarthy, John S.

    1947-01-01

    An analysis is presented of rim cooling of gas-turbine blades; that is, reducing the temperature at the base of the blade (wheel rim), which cools the blade by conduction alone. Formulas for temperature and stress distributions along the blade are derived and, by the use of experimental stress-rupture data for a typical blade alloy, a relation is established between blade life (time for rupture), operating speed, and amount of rim cooling for several gas temperatures. The effect of blade parameter combining the effects of blade dimensions, blade thermal conductivity, and heat-transfer coefficient is determined. The effect of radiation on the results is approximated. The gas temperatures ranged from 1300F to 1900F and the rim temperature, from 0F to 1000F below the gas temperature. This report is concerned only with blades of uniform cross section, but the conclusions drawn are generally applicable to most modern turbine blades. For a typical rim-cooled blade, gas temperature increases are limited to about 200F for 500F of cooling of the blade base below gas temperature, and additional cooling brings progressively smaller increases. In order to obtain large increases in thermal conductivity or very large decreases in heat-transfer coefficient or blade length or necessary. The increases in gas temperature allowable with rim cooling are particularly small for turbines of large dimensions and high specific mass flows. For a given effective gas temperature, substantial increases in blade life, however, are possible with relatively small amounts of rim cooling.

  1. Multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling of a person employs an evaporative cooling liquid that changes phase from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The evaporative cooling liquid is absorbed into a superabsorbent material enclosed within the multilayer composite material. The multilayer composite material has a high percentage of the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix. The cooling effect can be sustained for an extended period of time because of the high percentage of phase change liquid that can be absorbed into the superabsorbent. Such a composite can be used for cooling febrile patients by evaporative cooling as the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix changes from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The composite can be made with a perforated barrier material around the outside to regulate the evaporation rate of the phase change liquid. Alternatively, the composite can be made with an imperveous barrier material or semipermeable membrane on one side to prevent the liquid from contacting the person's skin. The evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix can be recharged by soaking the material in the liquid. The multilayer composite material can be fashioned into blankets, garments and other articles.

  2. Electronic cooling using thermoelectric devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebarjadi, M.

    2015-05-01

    Thermoelectric coolers or Peltier coolers are used to pump heat in the opposite direction of the natural heat flux. These coolers have also been proposed for electronic cooling, wherein the aim is to pump heat in the natural heat flux direction and from hot spots to the colder ambient temperature. In this manuscript, we show that for such applications, one needs to use thermoelectric materials with large thermal conductivity and large power factor, instead of the traditionally used high ZT thermoelectric materials. We further show that with the known thermoelectric materials, the active cooling cannot compete with passive cooling, and one needs to explore a new set of materials to provide a cooling solution better than a regular copper heat sink. We propose a set of materials and directions for exploring possible materials candidates suitable for electronic cooling. Finally, to achieve maximum cooling, we propose to use thermoelectric elements as fins attached to copper blocks.

  3. Electronic cooling using thermoelectric devices

    SciTech Connect

    Zebarjadi, M.

    2015-05-18

    Thermoelectric coolers or Peltier coolers are used to pump heat in the opposite direction of the natural heat flux. These coolers have also been proposed for electronic cooling, wherein the aim is to pump heat in the natural heat flux direction and from hot spots to the colder ambient temperature. In this manuscript, we show that for such applications, one needs to use thermoelectric materials with large thermal conductivity and large power factor, instead of the traditionally used high ZT thermoelectric materials. We further show that with the known thermoelectric materials, the active cooling cannot compete with passive cooling, and one needs to explore a new set of materials to provide a cooling solution better than a regular copper heat sink. We propose a set of materials and directions for exploring possible materials candidates suitable for electronic cooling. Finally, to achieve maximum cooling, we propose to use thermoelectric elements as fins attached to copper blocks.

  4. Solar space heating and cooling by selective use of the components of a desiccant cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbud, Ihsan Aladdin

    , the thermal energy needed for desiccant cooling is three to four times greater than that for Los Angeles and New York, so the desiccant system is not a competitive option in hot, humid climates. Life cycle savings in the three locations show that operation of the desiccant cooling and heating system with solar energy is more costly than with conventional energy at 1996 prices. Solar energy would become competitive, however, if annual electric energy inflation rates exceed 10 percent.

  5. Comparison of selective head cooling therapy and whole body cooling therapy in newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy: short term results

    PubMed Central

    Atıcı, Aytuğ; Çelik, Yalçın; Gülaşı, Selvi; Turhan, Ali Haydar; Okuyaz, Çetin; Sungur, Mehmet Ali

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In this study, it was aimed to investigate which method was superior by applying selective head cooling or whole body cooling therapy in newborns diagnosed with moderate or severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Materials and Method: Newborns above the 35th gestational age diagnosed with moderate or severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were included in the study and selective head cooling or whole body cooling therapy was performed randomly. The newborns who were treated by both methods were compared in terms of adverse effects in the early stage and in terms of short-term results. Ethics committee approval was obtained for the study (06.01.2010/35). Results: Fifty three babies diagnosed with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were studied. Selective head cooling was applied to 17 babies and whole body cooling was applied to 12 babies. There was no significant difference in terms of adverse effects related to cooling therapy between the two groups. When the short-term results were examined, it was found that the hospitalization time was 34 (7–65) days in the selective head cooling group and 18 (7–57) days in the whole body cooling group and there was no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.097). Four patients in the selective head cooling group and two patients in the whole body cooling group were discharged with tracheostomy because of the need for prolonged mechanical ventilation and there was no difference between the groups in terms of discharge with tracheostomy (p=0.528). Five patients in the selective head cooling group and three patients in the whole body cooling group were discharged with a gastrostomy tube because they could not be fed orally and there was no difference between the groups in terms of discharge with a gastrostomy tube (p=0.586). One patient who was applied selective head cooling and one patient who was applied whole body cooling died during hospitalization and there was no difference between the groups in terms of

  6. Polarigenic Mechanisms in Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, H. E.; Aspin, C.

    The authors present spectropolarimetric observations of α Orionis and use these data to model the polarigenic mechanism operating in cool giants and supergiants. They also present high resolution CCD spectropolarimetry of VY Canis Majoris, a cool, massive object embedded in a complex nebulosity. Finally, the authors discuss the diagnostic power of measurements of this type and the similarities and differences between the wavelength dependence of the polarization of normal cool stars and that of VY CMa.

  7. Stochastic cooling technology at Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquinelli, Ralph J.

    2004-10-01

    The first antiproton cooling systems were installed and commissioned at Fermilab in 1984-1985. In the interim period, there have been several major upgrades, system improvements, and complete reincarnation of cooling systems. This paper will present some of the technology that was pioneered at Fermilab to implement stochastic cooling systems in both the Antiproton Source and Recycler accelerators. Current performance data will also be presented.

  8. Liquid cooling of aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidinger, Hanns

    1931-01-01

    This report presents a method for solving the problem of liquid cooling at high temperatures, which is an intermediate method between water and air cooling, by experiments on a test-stand and on an airplane. A utilizable cooling medium was found in ethylene glycol, which has only one disadvantage, namely, that of combustibility. The danger, however is very slight. It has one decided advantage, that it simultaneously serves as protection against freezing.

  9. Workshop 4 Converter cooling & recuperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iles, Peter; Hindman, Don

    1995-01-01

    Cooling the PV converter increases the overall TPV system efficiency, and more than offsets the losses incurred in providing cooling systems. Convective air flow methods may be sufficient, and several standard water cooling systems, including thermo-syphon radiators, capillary pumps or microchannel plates, are available. Recuperation is used to increase system efficiency, rather than to increase the emitter temperature. Recuperators operating at comparable high temperatures, such as in high temperature turbines have worked effectively.

  10. Beam cooling: Principles and achievements

    SciTech Connect

    Mohl, Dieter; Sessler, Andrew M.

    2003-05-18

    After a discussion of Liouville's theorem, and its implications for beam cooling, a brief description is given of each of the various methods of beam cooling: stochastic, electron, radiation, laser, ionization, etc. For each, we present the type of particle for which it is appropriate, its range of applicability, and the currently achieved degree of cooling. For each method we also discuss the present applications and, also, possible future developments and further applications.

  11. Variable area fuel cell cooling

    DOEpatents

    Kothmann, Richard E.

    1982-01-01

    A fuel cell arrangement having cooling fluid flow passages which vary in surface area from the inlet to the outlet of the passages. A smaller surface area is provided at the passage inlet, which increases toward the passage outlet, so as to provide more uniform cooling of the entire fuel cell. The cooling passages can also be spaced from one another in an uneven fashion.

  12. Radiative cooling for thermophotovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhiguang; Sun, Xingshu; Bermel, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Radiative cooling has recently garnered a great deal of attention for its potential as an alternative method for photovoltaic thermal management. Here, we will consider the limits of radiative cooling for thermal management of electronics broadly, as well as a specific application to thermal power generation. We show that radiative cooling power can increase rapidly with temperature, and is particularly beneficial in systems lacking standard convective cooling. This finding indicates that systems previously operating at elevated temperatures (e.g., 80°C) can be passively cooled close to ambient under appropriate conditions with a reasonable cooling area. To examine these general principles for a previously unexplored application, we consider the problem of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion of heat to electricity via thermal radiation illuminating a photovoltaic diode. Since TPV systems generally operate in vacuum, convective cooling is sharply limited, but radiative cooling can be implemented with proper choice of materials and structures. In this work, realistic simulations of system performance are performed using the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) techniques to capture thermal emitter radiation, PV diode absorption, and radiative cooling. We subsequently optimize the structural geometry within realistic design constraints to find the best configurations to minimize operating temperature. It is found that low-iron soda-lime glass can potentially cool the PV diode by a substantial amount, even to below ambient temperatures. The cooling effect can be further improved by adding 2D-periodic photonic crystal structures. We find that the improvement of efficiency can be as much as an 18% relative increase, relative to the non-radiatively cooled baseline, as well as a potentially significant improvement in PV diode lifetime.

  13. Sorption cooling: a valid extension to passive cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doornink, Jan; Burger, Johannes; ter Brake, Marcel

    2007-10-01

    Passive cooling has shown to be a very dependable cryogenic cooling method for space missions. Several missions employ passive radiators to cool down their delicate sensor systems for many years, without consuming power, without exporting vibrations or producing electromagnetic interference. So for a number of applications, passive cooling is a good choice. At lower temperatures, the passive coolers run into limitations that prohibit accommodation on a spacecraft. The approach to this issue has been to find a technology able to supplement passive cooling for lower temperatures, which maintains as much as possible of the advantages of passive coolers. Sorption cooling employs a closed cycle Joule-Thomson expansion process to achieve the cooling effect. Sorption cells perform the compression phase in this cycle. At a low temperature and pressure, these cells adsorb the working fluid. At a higher temperature they desorb the fluid and thus produce a high-pressure flow to the restriction in the cold stage. The sorption process selected for this application is of the physical type, which is completely reversible. It does not suffer from degradation as is the case with chemical sorption of e.g. hydrogen in metal hydrides. Sorption coolers include no moving parts except for some check valves, they export neither mechanical vibrations nor electromagnetic interference, and are potentially very dependable due to their simplicity. The required cooling temperature determines the type of working fluid to be applied. Sorption coolers can be used in conjunction with passive cooling for heat rejection at different levels. This paper starts with a brief discussion on applications of passive coolers in different types of orbits and the limitations on passive cooling at low cooling temperatures. Next, the working principle of sorption cooling is summarized. The DARWIN mission is chosen as an example application of sorption and passive cooling and special attention is paid to the

  14. Sorption cooling: A valid extension to passive cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doornink, D. J.; Burger, J. F.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

    2008-05-01

    Passive cooling has shown to be a very dependable cryogenic cooling method for space missions. Several missions employ passive radiators to cool down their delicate sensor systems for many years, without consuming power, without exporting vibrations or producing electromagnetic interference. So for a number of applications, passive cooling is a good choice. At lower temperatures, the passive coolers run into limitations that prohibit accommodation on a spacecraft. The approach to this issue has been to find a technology able to supplement passive cooling for lower temperatures, which maintains as much as possible of the advantages of passive coolers. Sorption cooling employs a closed cycle Joule-Thomson expansion process to achieve the cooling effect. Sorption cells perform the compression phase in this cycle. At a low temperature and pressure, these cells adsorb the working fluid. At a higher temperature they desorb the fluid and thus produce a high-pressure flow to the expander in the cold stage. The sorption process selected for this application is of the physical type, which is completely reversible. It does not suffer from degradation as is the case with chemical sorption of, e.g., hydrogen in metal hydrides. Sorption coolers include no moving parts except for some check valves, they export neither mechanical vibrations nor electromagnetic interference, and are potentially very dependable due to their simplicity. The required cooling temperature determines the type of working fluid to be applied. Sorption coolers can be used in conjunction with passive cooling for heat rejection at different levels. This paper starts with a brief discussion on applications of passive coolers in different types of orbits and on the limitations of passive cooling for lower cooling temperatures. Next, the working principle of sorption cooling is summarized. The DARWIN mission is chosen as an example application of sorption and passive cooling and special attention is paid to the

  15. Regeneratively Cooled Porous Media Jacket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mungas, Greg (Inventor); Fisher, David J. (Inventor); London, Adam Pollok (Inventor); Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The fluid and heat transfer theory for regenerative cooling of a rocket combustion chamber with a porous media coolant jacket is presented. This model is used to design a regeneratively cooled rocket or other high temperature engine cooling jacket. Cooling jackets comprising impermeable inner and outer walls, and porous media channels are disclosed. Also disclosed are porous media coolant jackets with additional structures designed to transfer heat directly from the inner wall to the outer wall, and structures designed to direct movement of the coolant fluid from the inner wall to the outer wall. Methods of making such jackets are also disclosed.

  16. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    DOEpatents

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  17. GAS COOLED NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Rodwell, W.

    1958-06-10

    A gas-cooled nuclear reactor consisting of a graphite reacting core and reflector structure supported in a containing vessel is described. A gas sealing means is included for sealing between the walls of the graphite structure and containing vessel to prevent the gas coolant by-passing the reacting core. The reacting core is a multi-sided right prismatic structure having a pair of parallel slots around its periphery. The containing vessel is cylindrical and has a rib on its internal surface which supports two continuous ring shaped flexible web members with their radially innermost ends in sealing engagement within the radially outermost portion of the slots. The core structure is supported on ball bearings. This design permits thermal expansion of the core stracture and vessel while maintainirg a peripheral seal between the tvo elements.

  18. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    DOEpatents

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  19. Thermoelectrically cooled water trap

    DOEpatents

    Micheels, Ronald H.

    2006-02-21

    A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

  20. Film cooling for a closed loop cooled airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2003-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending therebetween. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. At least one film cooling hole is defined through a wall of at least one of the cavities for flow communication between an interior of the cavity and an exterior of the vane. The film cooling hole(s) are defined adjacent a potential low LCF life region, so that cooling medium that bleeds out through the film cooling hole(s) reduces a thermal gradient in a vicinity thereof, thereby the increase the LCF life of that region.

  1. New conceptual method for directly cooling the target biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yan; Liu, Jing

    2005-01-01

    Hypothermia is a commonly adopted strategy to decrease the cerebral oxygen demands, which is critical for the patient to sustain longer time when subjected to a hypoxia. However, when circulatory arrest occurs, the traditional approaches such as selective brain cooling (SBC), systemic body cooling or perfusing cool blood are often not very helpful due to their slow cooling rates in preventing the tendency of a slight cerebral temperature increase at the onset of circulatory arrest. To resolve such difficult issue, a new conceptual volumetric cooling method (VCM) through minimally invasive injection of physiological coolant was proposed in this study. A heat and fluid transport model based on porous medium configuration was established to describe the thermal responses of brain tissues during hypothermia resuscitation. Theoretical calculations indicated that VCM could significantly improve the cooling rate in the deep part of the biological tissues within a desired period of time. To further test this approach, a series of either in vitro or in vivo animal experiments were performed, which also strongly supported the theoretical predictions and indicated that VCM was well appropriate for the localized cooling of target tissues. The concept of the present VCM could also possibly be extended to more wide clinical situations, when an instant and highly localized cooling for the specific organs or tissues are urgently requested. It also raised challenging issues such as injury or negative effect for the clinical operation of this VCM, which need to be addressed in the coming study.

  2. Theoretical limits on brain cooling by external head cooling devices

    PubMed Central

    Sukstanskii, A. L.; Yablonskiy, D. A.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous experimental studies have demonstrated that mild hypothermia is a rather promising therapy for acute brain injury in neonates. Because measurement of the resultant cooling of human brain in vivo is beyond current technology, an understanding of physical factors limiting the possible brain cooling would be a substantial achievement. Herein brain cooling by external head cooling devices is studied within the framework of an analytical model of temperature distribution in the brain. Theoretical limits on brain hypothermia induced by such devices are established. Analytical expressions are obtained that allow evaluation of changes in brain temperature under the influence of measurable input parameters. We show that a mild hypothermia can be successfully induced in neonates only if two necessary conditions are fulfilled: sufficiently low cerebral blood flow and sufficiently high value of the heat transfer coefficient describing the heat exchange between the head surface and a cooling device. PMID:17429678

  3. Cooling Methods in Heat Stroke.

    PubMed

    Gaudio, Flavio G; Grissom, Colin K

    2016-04-01

    Heat stroke is an illness with a high risk of mortality or morbidity, which can occur in the young and fit (exertional heat stroke) as well as the elderly and infirm (nonexertional heat stroke). In the United States, from 2006 to 2010, there were at least 3332 deaths attributed to heat stroke. To summarize the available evidence on the principal cooling methods used in the treatment of heat stroke. Although it is generally agreed that rapid, effective cooling increases survival in heat stroke, there continues to be debate on the optimal cooling method. Large, controlled clinical trials on heat stroke are lacking. Cooling techniques applied to healthy volunteers in experimental models of heat stroke have not worked as rapidly in actual patients with heat stroke. The best available evidence has come from large case series using ice-water immersion or evaporation plus convection to cool heat-stroke patients. Ice-water immersion has been shown to be highly effective in exertional heat stroke, with a zero fatality rate in large case series of younger, fit patients. In older patients with nonexertional heat stroke, studies have more often promoted evaporative plus convective cooling. Evaporative plus convective cooling may be augmented by crushed ice or ice packs applied diffusely to the body. Chilled intravenous fluids may also supplement primary cooling. Based on current evidence, ice packs applied strategically to the neck, axilla, and groin; cooling blankets; and intravascular or external cooling devices are not recommended as primary cooling methods in heat stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A model for radionuclide transport in the Cooling Water System

    SciTech Connect

    Kahook, S.D.

    1992-08-01

    A radionuclide transport model developed to assess radiological levels in the K-reactor Cooling Water System (CWS) in the event of an inadvertent process water (PW) leakage to the cooling water (CW) in the heat exchangers (HX) is described. During and following a process water leak, the radionuclide transport model determines the time-dependent release rates of radionuclide from the cooling water system to the environment via evaporation to the atmosphere and blow-down to the Savannah River. The developed model allows for delay times associated with the transport of the cooling water radioactivity through cooling water system components. Additionally, this model simulates the time-dependent behavior of radionuclides levels in various CWS components. The developed model is incorporated into the K-reactor Cooling Tower Activity (KCTA) code. KCTA allows the accident (heat exchanger leak rate) and the cooling tower blow-down and evaporation rates to be described as time-dependent functions. Thus, the postulated leak and the consequence of the assumed leak can be modelled realistically. This model is the first of three models to be ultimately assembled to form a comprehensive Liquid Pathway Activity System (LPAS). LPAS will offer integrated formation, transport, deposition, and release estimates for radionuclides formed in a SRS facility. Process water and river water modules are forthcoming as input and downstream components, respectively, for KCTA.

  5. A model for radionuclide transport in the Cooling Water System

    SciTech Connect

    Kahook, S.D.

    1992-08-01

    A radionuclide transport model developed to assess radiological levels in the K-reactor Cooling Water System (CWS) in the event of an inadvertent process water (PW) leakage to the cooling water (CW) in the heat exchangers (HX) is described. During and following a process water leak, the radionuclide transport model determines the time-dependent release rates of radionuclide from the cooling water system to the environment via evaporation to the atmosphere and blow-down to the Savannah River. The developed model allows for delay times associated with the transport of the cooling water radioactivity through cooling water system components. Additionally, this model simulates the time-dependent behavior of radionuclides levels in various CWS components. The developed model is incorporated into the K-reactor Cooling Tower Activity (KCTA) code. KCTA allows the accident (heat exchanger leak rate) and the cooling tower blow-down and evaporation rates to be described as time-dependent functions. Thus, the postulated leak and the consequence of the assumed leak can be modelled realistically. This model is the first of three models to be ultimately assembled to form a comprehensive Liquid Pathway Activity System (LPAS). LPAS will offer integrated formation, transport, deposition, and release estimates for radionuclides formed in a SRS facility. Process water and river water modules are forthcoming as input and downstream components, respectively, for KCTA.

  6. Optoacoustic laser monitoring of cooling and freezing of tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Larin, Kirill V; Larina, I V; Motamedi, M; Esenaliev, R O

    2002-11-30

    Real-time monitoring of cooling and freezing of tissues, cells, and other biological objects with a high spatial and time resolution, which is necessary for selective destruction of cancer and benign tumours during cryotherapy, as well as for preventing any damage to the structure and functioning of biological objects in cryobiology, is considered. The optoacoustic method, based on the measurement and analysis of acoustic waves induced by short laser pulses, is proposed for monitoring the cooling and freezing of the tissue. The effect of cooling and freezing on the amplitude and time profile of acoustic signals generated in real tissues and in a model object is studied. The experimental results indicate that the optoacoustic laser technique can be used for real-time monitoring of cooling and freezing of biological objects with a submillimeter spatial resolution and a high contrast. (laser biology and medicine)

  7. Scalp cooling to prevent hair loss in chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, L

    1996-05-01

    Hair loss is a potentially distressing side-effect of several cytotoxic drugs. Scalp cooling can help prevent hair loss, but is time-consuming and uncomfortable. Patients should be able to make informed choices about such treatment.

  8. Stochastic cooling: recent theoretical directions

    SciTech Connect

    Bisognano, J.

    1983-03-01

    A kinetic-equation derivation of the stochastic-cooling Fokker-Planck equation of correlation is introduced to describe both the Schottky spectrum and signal suppression. Generalizations to nonlinear gain and coupling between degrees of freedom are presented. Analysis of bunch beam cooling is included.

  9. Automotive Cooling and Lubricating Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide new mechanics with a source of study materials to assist them in becoming more proficient in their jobs. The course contains four study units covering automotive cooling system maintenance, cooling system repair, lubricating systems, and lubrication…

  10. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  11. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  12. Review of microclimate cooling systems in the chemical, biological, radiological environment

    SciTech Connect

    Derion, T.; Pozos, R.S.

    1993-09-22

    Soldiers may work in hot environments and under conditions posing a biological, chemical, or nuclear threat. Chemical protective overgarments are worn to prevent contact with toxins; however, they prevent dissipation of body heat. This review addresses the effectiveness of microclimate cooling systems in alleviating thermal strain in personnel encapsulated in protective overgarments during exertion in the heat. Air, liquid, and passive ice cooling systems are primarily reviewed, but other methodologies are also discussed. Air cooling can increase tolerance time fourfold, but high ambient temperature air cooling may be dangerous. Liquid cooling is effective in reducing heat strain at light to moderate work loads and is beneficial when applied to the thighs during lower-body exercise. Overcooling and discomfort can occur with a liquid-cooled system due to cutaneous vasoconstriction. Liquid-cooled systems are heavy, require excessive maintenance, and tube compression can result in interrupted coolant flow. Air cooling is inefficient compared to liquid cooling because of air's lower specific heat. Ice cooling may only be suitable for short-term work and is generally less effective than either air or liquid cooling although the wearer can move about untethered. The best cooling system design approach may he indicated by consideration of the unique cooling needs of personnel performing specific tasks in various environments. Microclimate cooling CBR Environment.

  13. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  14. A novel electronic cooling concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponnappan, R.; Beam, J. E.

    Advanced electrical power conditioning systems for the More Electric Aircraft Initiative involve high currents and high voltages with the attendant waste heat generation and cooling problems. The use of solid state switching devices such as MCTs for these systems will result in power dissipation of several hundred Watts per square centimeter. Conventional forced air or low velocity single phase fluid cooling is inadequate to handle the waste heat dissipation of these high power devices. More advanced and innovative methods of cooling which can use fluids available in the aircraft and also easy to package are sought. A new approach called 'venturi flow cooling concept' is described. It is shown that localized cooling up to 200 W/sq cm is possible at the venturi throat region where the MCTs can be mounted. PAO coolant with Pr = 56 at 40 C can be conveniently used in aircraft.

  15. Experiences in solar cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.

    The results of performance evaluations for nine solar cooling systems are presented, and reasons fow low or high net energy balances are discussed. Six of the nine systems are noted to have performed unfavorably compared to standard cooling systems due to thermal storage losses, excessive system electrical demands, inappropriate control strategies, poor system-to-load matching, and poor chiller performance. A reduction in heat losses in one residential unit increased the total system efficiency by 2.5%, while eliminating heat losses to the building interior increased the efficiency by 3.3%. The best system incorporated a lithium bromide absorption chiller and a Rankine cycle compression unit for a commercial application. Improvements in the cooling tower and fan configurations to increase the solar cooling system efficiency are indicated. Best performances are expected to occur in climates inducing high annual cooling loads.

  16. New fine structure cooling rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoegy, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    One of the dominant electron cooling processes in the ionosphere is caused by electron impact induced fine structure transitions among the ground state levels of atomic oxygen. This fine structure cooling rate is based on theoretical cross sections. Recent advances in the numerical cross section determinations to include polarization effects and more accurate representations of the atomic target result in new lower values. These cross sections are employed in this paper to derive a new fine structure cooling rate which is between 40% and 60% of the currently used rate. A new generalized formula is presented for the cooling rate (from which the fine structure cooling rate is derived), valid for arbitrary mass and temperature difference of the colliding particles and arbitrary inelastic energy difference.

  17. TOPICAL REVIEW: Physics of thermoelectric cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurevich, Yu G.; Logvinov, G. N.

    2005-12-01

    A new approach is suggested to explain the Peltier effect. It assumes that the Peltier effect is not an isothermal effect. The approach is based on the occurrences of induced thermal fluxes in a structure which consists of two conducting media, through which a dc electric current flows. These induced thermal diffusion fluxes arise to compensate for the change in the thermal flux caused by the electric current (the drift thermal flux) flowing through the junction, in accordance with the general Le Châtelier-Braun principle. The occurrence of these thermal diffusion fluxes leads to temperature heterogeneity in the structure and, as a result, to a cooling or heating of the junction. Within the framework of this concept, the thermoelectric cooling is analysed. It is shown that in the general case the Peltier effect always occurs together with another thermoelectric effect. This thermoelectric effect is predicted for the first time, and we have called it the barrierless thermoelectric effect. Both these effects essentially depend on the junction surface thermal resistance. The Peltier effect disappears in the limiting case of a very large surface thermal resistance, while the barrierless effect disappears in the limiting case of a very small surface thermal resistance. The dependence of thermoelectric cooling on the geometrical dimensions of the structure is noted, and the corresponding interpretation of this fact is discussed. It is shown that the thermoelectric cooling (heating) is a thermodynamically reversible process in the linear approximation of the electric current applied.

  18. Cooling of Accretion-Heated Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijnands, Rudy; Degenaar, Nathalie; Page, Dany

    2017-09-01

    We present a brief, observational review about the study of the cooling behaviour of accretion-heated neutron stars and the inferences about the neutron-star crust and core that have been obtained from these studies. Accretion of matter during outbursts can heat the crust out of thermal equilibrium with the core and after the accretion episodes are over, the crust will cool down until crust-core equilibrium is restored. We discuss the observed properties of the crust cooling sources and what has been learned about the physics of neutron-star crusts. We also briefly discuss those systems that have been observed long after their outbursts were over, i.e, during times when the crust and core are expected to be in thermal equilibrium. The surface temperature is then a direct probe for the core temperature. By comparing the expected temperatures based on estimates of the accretion history of the targets with the observed ones, the physics of neutron-star cores can be investigated. Finally, we discuss similar studies performed for strongly magnetized neutron stars in which the magnetic field might play an important role in the heating and cooling of the neutron stars.

  19. Importance of combining convection with film cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colladay, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    The interaction of film and convection cooling and its effect on wall cooling efficiency is investigated analytically for two cooling schemes for advanced gas turbine applications. The two schemes are full coverage- and counterflow-film cooling. In full coverage film cooling, the cooling air issues from a large number of small discrete holes in the surface. Counterflow film cooling is a film-convection scheme with film injection from a slot geometry. The results indicate that it is beneficial to utilize as much of the cooling air heat sink as possible for convection cooling prior to ejecting it as a film.

  20. Importance of combining convection with film cooling.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colladay, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    The interaction of film and convection cooling and its effect on wall cooling efficiency is investigated analytically for two cooling schemes for advanced gas turbine applications. The two schemes are full coverage- and counterflow-film cooling. In full coverage film cooling, the cooling air issues from a large number of small discrete holes in the surface. Counterflow film cooling is a film-convection scheme with film injection from a slot geometry. The results indicate that it is beneficial to utilize as much of the cooling air heat sink as possible for convection cooling prior to ejecting it as a film.

  1. Film cooling air pocket in a closed loop cooled airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael; Osgood, Sarah Jane; Bagepalli, Radhakrishna; Webbon, Waylon Willard; Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending between them. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. To provide for air film cooing of select portions of the airfoil outer surface, at least one air pocket is defined on a wall of at least one of the cavities. Each air pocket is substantially closed with respect to the cooling medium in the cavity and cooling air pumped to the air pocket flows through outlet apertures in the wall of the airfoil to cool the same.

  2. Novel device for tissue cooling during endoscopic laryngeal laser surgery: thermal damage study in an ex vivo calf model.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hae Jin; Burns, James A; Kobler, James B; Heaton, James T; Zeitels, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Minimizing collateral thermal damage during endoscopic laryngeal laser surgery remains a priority, and tissue cooling is one way to achieve this goal. Cooling systems utilizing compressed air have been shown to reduce the extent of thermal trauma on the vocal folds, but these units are not ideal for endoscopic applications because cooling is inefficient at the low airflows needed. We examined whether a novel vortex cooling device that generates cooled air at low flow rates would provide a cooling benefit beyond that which could be obtained by using room-temperature air for cooling tissue or by using no cooling during simulated laryngeal laser surgery. A continuous-wave thulium laser was used to incise glottic tissue in 12 calf vocal folds. Cooling was achieved with a prototype vortex cooler (9 degrees C air output; flow rate, 3 L/min), and tissue temperature measurements were compared to those with room-air cooling and no cooling. Thermal damage was analyzed histologically by measuring the depth of lactate dehydrogenase inactivation surrounding the mucosal incision. The cooling conditions were tested during time-constant cuts (8 seconds) and depth-constant cuts (into the thyroarytenoid muscle). During time-constant cuts, comparison between vortex cooling and room-air cooling revealed that vortex cooling resulted in a thermal damage zone that was 14% smaller (519 versus 603 microm; p < 0.05). During depth-constant cuts, vortex cooling created a thermal damage zone that was 32% smaller than that created with no cooling (p <0.01) and 9% smaller than that created with room-air cooling (p < 0.01). Vortex cooling reduces thermal damage more effectively than room-air cooling or no cooling during both time-constant and depth-constant thulium laser cuts.

  3. 46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooling systems. 153.432 Section 153.432 Shipping COAST... Control Systems § 153.432 Cooling systems. (a) Each cargo cooling system must have an equivalent standby... cooling system. (b) Each tankship that has a cargo tank with a required cooling system must have a manual...

  4. 46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooling systems. 153.432 Section 153.432 Shipping COAST... Control Systems § 153.432 Cooling systems. (a) Each cargo cooling system must have an equivalent standby... cooling system. (b) Each tankship that has a cargo tank with a required cooling system must have a manual...

  5. 46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooling systems. 153.432 Section 153.432 Shipping COAST... Control Systems § 153.432 Cooling systems. (a) Each cargo cooling system must have an equivalent standby... cooling system. (b) Each tankship that has a cargo tank with a required cooling system must have a manual...

  6. Tarp-Assisted Cooling as a Method of Whole-Body Cooling in Hyperthermic Individuals.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Yuri; Adams, William M; Belval, Luke N; Vandermark, Lesley W; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the efficacy of tarp-assisted cooling as a body cooling modality. Participants exercised on a motorized treadmill in hot conditions (ambient temperature 39.5°C [103.1°F], SD 3.1°C [5.58°F]; relative humidity 38.1% [SD 6.7%]) until they reached exercise-induced hyperthermia. After exercise, participants were cooled with either partial immersion using a tarp-assisted cooling method (water temperature 9.20°C [48.56°F], SD 2.81°C [5.06°F]) or passive cooling in a climatic chamber. There were no differences in exercise duration (mean difference=0.10 minutes; 95% CI -5.98 to 6.17 minutes or end exercise rectal temperature (mean difference=0.10°C [0.18°F]; 95% CI -0.05°C to 0.25°C [-0.09°F to 0.45°F] between tarp-assisted cooling (48.47 minutes [SD 8.27 minutes]; rectal temperature 39.73°C [103.51°F], SD 0.27°C [0.49°F]) and passive cooling (48.37 minutes [SD 7.10 minutes]; 39.63°C [103.33°F], SD 0.40°C [0.72°F]). Cooling time to rectal temperature 38.25°C (100.85°F) was significantly faster in tarp-assisted cooling (10.30 minutes [SD 1.33 minutes]) than passive cooling (42.78 [SD 5.87 minutes]). Cooling rates for tarp-assisted cooling and passive cooling were 0.17°C/min (0.31°F/min), SD 0.07°C/min (0.13°F/min) and 0.04°C/min (0.07°F/min), SD 0.01°C/min (0.02°F/min), respectively (mean difference=0.13°C [0.23°F]; 95% CI 0.09°C to 0.17°C [0.16°F to 0.31°F]. No sex differences were observed in tarp-assisted cooling rates (men 0.17°C/min [0.31°F/min], SD 0.07°C/min [0.13°F/min]; women 0.16°C/min [0.29°F/min], SD 0.07°C/min [0.13°F/min]; mean difference=0.02°C/min [0.04°F/min]; 95% CI -0.06°C/min to 0.10°C/min [-0.11°F/min to 0.18°F/min]). Women (0.04°C/min [0.07°F/min], SD 0.01°C/min [0.02°F/min]) had greater cooling rates than men (0.03°C/min [0.05°F/min], SD 0.01°C/min [0.02°F/min]) in passive cooling, with negligible clinical effect (mean difference=0.01°C/min [0.02°F/min]; 95% CI 0.001

  7. Alternatives to the existence of large cooling flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Wallace

    1990-01-01

    Arguments against the existence of large-scale cooling flows in clusters of galaxies are presented. The evidence for cooling flows is all circumstantial, consisting of observations of cool gas or hot gas with a radiative cooling time less than the Hubble time, or a central peak in the X-ray surface brightness profile. There is no evidence for large quantities (several tens to several hundreds of solar masses per year) of matter actually flowing anywhere. On the contrary, several lines of evidence suggest thaat cooling flows, if they exist, must be suppressed by one to two orders of magnitude from the values implied by simple estimates based on the radiative cooling time of the X-ray emitting gas. Two heat sources which might accomplish this, thermal conduction and relativistic particles, are considered, and an alternative to the standard model for cooling flows is presented: an accretion flow with feedback wherein the accretion of gas into a massive black hole in the central galaxy generates high energy particles that heat the gas and act to limit the accretion.

  8. Alternatives to the existence of large cooling flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Wallace

    1990-01-01

    Arguments against the existence of large-scale cooling flows in clusters of galaxies are presented. The evidence for cooling flows is all circumstantial, consisting of observations of cool gas or hot gas with a radiative cooling time less than the Hubble time, or a central peak in the X-ray surface brightness profile. There is no evidence for large quantities (several tens to several hundreds of solar masses per year) of matter actually flowing anywhere. On the contrary, several lines of evidence suggest thaat cooling flows, if they exist, must be suppressed by one to two orders of magnitude from the values implied by simple estimates based on the radiative cooling time of the X-ray emitting gas. Two heat sources which might accomplish this, thermal conduction and relativistic particles, are considered, and an alternative to the standard model for cooling flows is presented: an accretion flow with feedback wherein the accretion of gas into a massive black hole in the central galaxy generates high energy particles that heat the gas and act to limit the accretion.

  9. The characteristic of evaporative cooling magnet for ECRIS.

    PubMed

    Xiong, B; Ruan, L; Gu, G B; Lu, W; Zhang, X Z; Zhan, W L

    2016-02-01

    Compared with traditional de-ionized pressurized-water cooled magnet of ECRIS, evaporative cooling magnet has some special characteristics, such as high cooling efficiency, simple maintenance, and operation. The analysis is carried out according to the design and operation of LECR4 (Lanzhou Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source No. 4, since July 2013), whose magnet is cooled by evaporative cooling technology. The insulation coolant replaces the de-ionized pressurized-water to absorb the heat of coils, and the physical and chemical properties of coolant remain stable for a long time with no need for purification or filtration. The coils of magnet are immersed in the liquid coolant. For the higher cooling efficiency of coolant, the current density of coils can be greatly improved. The heat transfer process executes under atmospheric pressure, and the temperature of coils is lower than 70 °C when the current density of coils is 12 A/mm(2). On the other hand, the heat transfer temperature of coolant is about 50 °C, and the heat can be transferred to fresh air which can save cost of water cooling system. Two years of LECR4 stable operation show that evaporative cooling technology can be used on magnet of ECRIS, and the application advantages are very obvious.

  10. The characteristic of evaporative cooling magnet for ECRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, B.; Ruan, L.; Gu, G. B.; Lu, W.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhan, W. L.

    2016-02-01

    Compared with traditional de-ionized pressurized-water cooled magnet of ECRIS, evaporative cooling magnet has some special characteristics, such as high cooling efficiency, simple maintenance, and operation. The analysis is carried out according to the design and operation of LECR4 (Lanzhou Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source No. 4, since July 2013), whose magnet is cooled by evaporative cooling technology. The insulation coolant replaces the de-ionized pressurized-water to absorb the heat of coils, and the physical and chemical properties of coolant remain stable for a long time with no need for purification or filtration. The coils of magnet are immersed in the liquid coolant. For the higher cooling efficiency of coolant, the current density of coils can be greatly improved. The heat transfer process executes under atmospheric pressure, and the temperature of coils is lower than 70 °C when the current density of coils is 12 A/mm2. On the other hand, the heat transfer temperature of coolant is about 50 °C, and the heat can be transferred to fresh air which can save cost of water cooling system. Two years of LECR4 stable operation show that evaporative cooling technology can be used on magnet of ECRIS, and the application advantages are very obvious.

  11. The characteristic of evaporative cooling magnet for ECRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, B.; Ruan, L.; Gu, G. B.; Lu, W.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhan, W. L.

    2016-02-15

    Compared with traditional de-ionized pressurized-water cooled magnet of ECRIS, evaporative cooling magnet has some special characteristics, such as high cooling efficiency, simple maintenance, and operation. The analysis is carried out according to the design and operation of LECR4 (Lanzhou Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source No. 4, since July 2013), whose magnet is cooled by evaporative cooling technology. The insulation coolant replaces the de-ionized pressurized-water to absorb the heat of coils, and the physical and chemical properties of coolant remain stable for a long time with no need for purification or filtration. The coils of magnet are immersed in the liquid coolant. For the higher cooling efficiency of coolant, the current density of coils can be greatly improved. The heat transfer process executes under atmospheric pressure, and the temperature of coils is lower than 70 °C when the current density of coils is 12 A/mm{sup 2}. On the other hand, the heat transfer temperature of coolant is about 50 °C, and the heat can be transferred to fresh air which can save cost of water cooling system. Two years of LECR4 stable operation show that evaporative cooling technology can be used on magnet of ECRIS, and the application advantages are very obvious.

  12. Perspectives in microclimate cooling involving protective clothing in hot environments

    SciTech Connect

    Speckman, K.L.; Allan, A.E.; Sawka, M.N.; Young, A.J.; Muza, S.R.

    1987-09-01

    The effectiveness of microclimate cooling systems in alleviating the thermal burden imposed upon soldiers by the wearing of chemical protective clothing under varying environmental conditions was examined in a series of studies conducted by the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine on the copper manikin, in the climatic chambers and in the field. Liquid-cooled undergarments (LCU) and air-cooled vests (ACV) were tested under environmental conditions from 29 C, 85% rh to 52 C, 25% rh. These parameters were chosen to stimulate conditions that may be encountered in either armored vehicles or in desert or tropic climates. The authors reviewed seven studies using LCU (including two ice-cooled vests) and six studies using ACV. LXU tests investigated the effect on cooling when the proportion of total skin surface covered by the LCU was varied. ACV tests examined the effects on cooling during different combinations of air temperature, humidity, and air-flow rates. Additionally, these combinations were tested at low and moderate metabolic rates. The findings from these LCU and ACV studies demonstrate that a) cooling can be increased with a greater body-surface coverage by an LCU, and b) evaporative cooling with an ACV is enhanced at low metabolic rates with optimal combinations of air-flow rates and dry bulb/dew point temperatures, resulting in the extension of tolerance time. The application of these findings to industrial work situations is apparent.

  13. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced hair loss by scalp cooling.

    PubMed

    Grevelman, E G; Breed, W P M

    2005-03-01

    Chemotherapy-induced temporary hair loss is one of the most common and distressing side-effects of cancer therapy. Scalp cooling to reduce this hair loss is a controversial issue for many doctors and nurses. This may be due to inadequate knowledge. This review from 53 publications and three personal communications focuses on the efficacy of the treatment, side-effects, possible disadvantages and the controversies in these areas. Scalp cooling has become an increasingly effective method to prevent hair loss, especially when anthracyclines or taxanes are used. Unfortunately, many studies were small and badly designed and are therefore difficult to compare. There is a considerable variation in the success rates in the various studies. This remains unexplained, but the cooling time, the chemotherapy used and the temperature seem to be influential. Scalp cooling should not be used if chemotherapy is given with a curative intent in patients with generalised haematogenic metastases. The majority of patients tolerate cooling very well. Scalp cooling is effective but not for all chemotherapy patients. Further psychological, clinical and biophysical research is needed to determine exact indications for cooling and to improve the effect, tolerance, side-effects and the cooling procedure. Multicentre trials should be carried out to gather this information.

  14. Acoustic cooling engine

    DOEpatents

    Hofler, Thomas J.; Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1988-01-01

    An acoustic cooling engine with improved thermal performance and reduced internal losses comprises a compressible fluid contained in a resonant pressure vessel. The fluid has a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and is capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave. A thermodynamic element has first and second ends and is located in the resonant pressure vessel in thermal communication with the fluid. The thermal response of the thermodynamic element to the acoustic standing wave pumps heat from the second end to the first end. The thermodynamic element permits substantial flow of the fluid through the thermodynamic element. An acoustic driver cyclically drives the fluid with an acoustic standing wave. The driver is at a location of maximum acoustic impedance in the resonant pressure vessel and proximate the first end of the thermodynamic element. A hot heat exchanger is adjacent to and in thermal communication with the first end of the thermodynamic element. The hot heat exchanger conducts heat from the first end to portions of the resonant pressure vessel proximate the hot heat exchanger. The hot heat exchanger permits substantial flow of the fluid through the hot heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one quarter wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. The frequency of the acoustic driver can be continuously controlled so as to maintain resonance.

  15. Metallic Glass Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A sample of advanced metallic glass alloy cools down during an experiment with the TEMPUS furnace on STS-94, July 7, 1997, MET:5/23:35 (approximate). The sequence shows the sample glowing, then fading to black as scientists began the process of preserving the liquid state, but lowering the temperature below the normal solidification temperature of the alloy. This process is known as undercooling. (10 second clip covering approximately 50 seconds.) TEMPUS (stands for Tiegelfreies Elektromagnetisches Prozessiere unter Schwerelosigkeit (containerless electromagnetic processing under weightlessness). It was developed by the German Space Agency (DARA) for flight aboard Spacelab. The DARA project scientist was Igon Egry. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). DARA and NASA are exploring the possibility of flying an advanced version of TEMPUS on the International Space Station. (354KB JPEG, 2700 x 2038 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300189.html.

  16. Performance of Air-cooled Engine Cylinders Using Blower Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1936-01-01

    An investigation was made to obtain information on the minimum quantity of air and power required to cool conventional air cooled cylinders at various operating conditions when using a blower. The results of these tests show that the minimum power required for satisfactory cooling with an overall blower efficiency of 100 percent varied from 2 to 6 percent of the engine power depending on the operating conditions. The shape of the jacket had a large effect on the cylinder temperatures. Increasing the air speed over the front of the cylinder by keeping the greater part of the circumference of the cylinder covered by the jacket reduced the temperatures over the entire cylinder.

  17. Runaway electron generation in a cooling plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.; Helander, P.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Fueloep, T.

    2005-12-15

    The usual calculation of Dreicer [Phys. Rev. 115, 238 (1959); 117, 329 (1960)] generation of runaway electrons assumes that the plasma is in a steady state. In a tokamak disruption this is not necessarily true since the plasma cools down quickly and the collision time for electrons at the runaway threshold energy can be comparable to the cooling time. The electron distribution function then acquires a high-energy tail which can easily be converted to a burst of runaways by the rising electric field. This process is investigated and simple criteria for its importance are derived. If no rapid losses of fast electrons occur, this can be a more important source of runaway electrons than ordinary Dreicer generation in tokamak disruptions.

  18. Carrier cooling in colloidal quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Pelton, Matthew; Ithurria, Sandrine; Schaller, Richard D; Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S; Talapin, Dmitri V

    2012-12-12

    It has recently become possible to chemically synthesize atomically flat semiconductor nanoplatelets with monolayer-precision control over the platelet thickness. It has been suggested that these platelets are quantum wells; that is, carriers in these platelets are confined in one dimension but are free to move in the other two dimensions. Here, we report time-resolved photoluminescence and transient-absorption measurements of carrier relaxation that confirm the quantum-well nature of these nanomaterials. Excitation of the nanoplatelets by an intense laser pulse results in the formation of a high-temperature carrier population that cools back down to ambient temperature on the time scale of several picoseconds. The rapid carrier cooling indicates that the platelets are well-suited for optoelectronic applications such as lasers and modulators.

  19. Cavity cooling of an ensemble spin system.

    PubMed

    Wood, Christopher J; Borneman, Troy W; Cory, David G

    2014-02-07

    We describe how sideband cooling techniques may be applied to large spin ensembles in magnetic resonance. Using the Tavis-Cummings model in the presence of a Rabi drive, we solve a Markovian master equation describing the joint spin-cavity dynamics to derive cooling rates as a function of ensemble size. Our calculations indicate that the coupled angular momentum subspaces of a spin ensemble containing roughly 10(11) electron spins may be polarized in a time many orders of magnitude shorter than the typical thermal relaxation time. The described techniques should permit efficient removal of entropy for spin-based quantum information processors and fast polarization of spin samples. The proposed application of a standard technique in quantum optics to magnetic resonance also serves to reinforce the connection between the two fields, which has recently begun to be explored in further detail due to the development of hybrid designs for manufacturing noise-resilient quantum devices.

  20. Cooling tower water conditioning study. [using ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.

    1979-01-01

    Successful elimination of cooling tower treatment chemicals was demonstrated. Three towers functioned for long periods of time with ozone as the only treatment for the water. The water in the systems was reused as much as 30 times (cycles of concentration) without deleterious effects to the heat exchangers. Actual system blow-down was eliminated and the only makeup water added was that required to replace the evaporation and mist entrainment losses. Minimum water savings alone are approximately 75.1 1/kg/year. Cost estimates indicate that a savings of 55 percent was obtained on the systems using ozone. A major problem experienced in the use of ozone for cooling tower applications was the difficulty of accurate concentration measurements. The ability to control the operational characteristics relies on easily and accurately determined concentration levels. Present methods of detection are subject to inaccuracies because of interfering materials and the rapid destruction of the ozone.

  1. MUON COLLIDERS - IONIZATION COOLING AND SOLENOIDS.

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    1999-03-29

    For a muon collider, to obtain the needed luminosity, the phase space volume must be greatly reduced within the muon life time. The ionization cooling is the preferred method used to compress the phase space and reduce the emittance to obtain high luminosity muon beams. Alternating solenoid lattices has been proposed for muon colliders, where the emittance are huge. We present an overview, discuss formalism, transfer maps for solenoid magnets and beam dynamics.

  2. Correlation of Cooling Data from an Air-Cooled Cylinder and Several Multicylinder Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, Benjamin; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1940-01-01

    The theory of engine-cylinder cooling developed in a previous report was further substantiated by data obtained on a cylinder from a Wright r-1820-g engine. Equations are presented for the average head and barrel temperatures of this cylinder as functions of the engine and the cooling conditions. These equations are utilized to calculate the variation in cylinder temperature with altitude for level flight and climb. A method is presented for correlating average head and barrel temperatures and temperatures at individual points on the head and the barrel obtained on the test stand and in flight. The method is applied to the correlation and the comparison of data obtained on a number of service engines. Data are presented showing the variation of cylinder temperature with time when the power and the cooling pressure drop are suddenly changed.

  3. An Alternative to Laser Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raizen, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Laser cooling has been the standard approach for over thirty years for cooling the translational motion of atoms. While laser cooling is an extremely successful method, it has been limited to a small set of elements in the periodic table. The performance of laser cooling for those elements has saturated in terms of flux of ultra-cold atoms, density, and phase-space density. I report our progress towards the development of an alternative to laser cooling. Our approach relies on magnetic stopping of supersonic beams, an atomic coilgun. A recent advance is the experimental realization of an adiabatic coilgun which preserves phase-space density. Further cooling was demonstrated with a one-way wall, realizing the historic thought experiment of Maxwell's Demon. More recently, we showed how to apply this method to compress atomic phase space with almost no loss of atom number. Our approach is fundamentally different than laser cooling as it does not rely on the momentum of the photon, but rather the photon entropy. I will report on our experimental progress towards this goal, and describe future experiments that will be enabled by this work.

  4. Tympanic temperatures during hemiface cooling.

    PubMed

    Cabanac, M; Germain, M; Brinnel, H

    1987-01-01

    In adult men the left half of the head was covered with thick heat insulation, and the right hemiface was cooled by spraying a mist of water, and vigorous fanning. The subjects were immersed up to the waist in warm water (42 degrees) to achieve hyperthermia. In control sessions the subjects were rendered slightly hypothermic by preliminary exposure to cold. Under the hypothermic condition during right skin cooling, the right Tty remained low as compared with oesophageal temperature, while the left Tty was raised. Under the hyperthermic condition right hemiface cooling maintained not only the right Tty lower than oesophageal but also, to a lesser extent the left Tty, while the skin on the left side was close to core temperature. This latter result cannot be explained by conductive cooling from the skin to the tympanic membrane and implies a vascular cooling of the left Tty originating from the other side of the head. It is concluded that selective cooling of the brain takes place during hyperthermia. The main mechanism is forced vascular convection, but conductive cooling also occurs.

  5. Non-intrusive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Morrison, Edward F.; Bergman, John W.

    2001-05-22

    A readily replaceable heat exchange cooling jacket for applying fluid to a system conduit pipe. The cooling jacket comprises at least two members, separable into upper and lower portions. A chamber is formed between the conduit pipe and cooling jacket once the members are positioned about the pipe. The upper portion includes a fluid spray means positioned above the pipe and the bottom portion includes a fluid removal means. The heat exchange cooling jacket is adaptable with a drain tank, a heat exchanger, a pump and other standard equipment to provide a system for removing heat from a pipe. A method to remove heat from a pipe, includes the steps of enclosing a portion of the pipe with a jacket to form a chamber between an outside surface of the pipe and the cooling jacket; spraying cooling fluid at low pressure from an upper portion of the cooling jacket, allowing the fluid to flow downwardly by gravity along the surface of the pipe toward a bottom portion of the chamber; and removing the fluid at the bottom portion of the chamber.

  6. Liquid Cooling in Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Cader, Tahir; Sorell,, Vali; Westra, Levi; Marquez, Andres

    2009-05-01

    Semiconductor manufacturers have aggressively attacked the problem of escalating microprocessor power consumption levels. Today, server manufacturers can purchase microprocessors that currently have power consumption levels capped at 100W maximum. However, total server power levels continue to increase, with the increase in power consumption coming from the supportin chipsets, memory, and other components. In turn, full rack heat loads are very aggressivley climbing as well, and this is making it increasingly difficult and cost-prohibitive for facility owners to cool these high power racks. As a result, facilities owners are turning to alternative, and more energy efficient, cooling solutions that deploy liquids in one form or another. The paper discusses the advent of the adoption of liquid-cooling in high performance computing centers. An overview of the following competing rack-based, liquid-cooling, technologies is provided: in-row, above rack, refrigerated/enclosed rack, rear door heat exchanger, and device-level (i.e., chip-level). Preparation for a liquid-cooled data center, retroft and greenfield (new), is discussed, with a focus on the key issues that are common to all liquid-cooling technologies that depend upon the delivery of water to the rack (or in some deployments, a Coolant Distribution Unit). The paper then discusses, in some detail, the actual implementation and deployment of a liquid device-level cooled (spray cooled) supercomputer at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Initial results from a successful 30 day compliance test show excellent hardware stability, operating system (OS) and software stack stability, application stability and performance, and an availability level that exceeded expectations at 99.94%. The liquid-cooled supercomputer achieved a peak performance of 9.287 TeraFlops, which placed it at number 101 in the June 2007 Top500 fastest supercomputers worldwide. Long-term performance and energy efficiency testing is

  7. Measurements of Beam Cooling in Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohayai, Tanaz; Snopok, Pavel; Rogers, Chris; Neuffer, David; Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Cooled muon beams are essential for production of high-flux neutrino beams at the Neutrino Factory and high luminosity muon beams at the Muon Collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment, MICE aims to demonstrate muon beam cooling through ionization energy loss of muons in material. The standard figure of merit for cooling in MICE is the transverse RMS emittance reduction and to measure this, the individual muon positions and momenta are reconstructed using scintillating-fiber tracking detectors, before and after a low-Z absorbing material. In this study, in addition to a preview on the standard measurement technique, an alternative technique is described, which is the measurement of phase-space density using the novel Kernel Density Estimation method. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No. DE - AC05 - 06OR23100.

  8. Cool Cities, Cool Planet (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema

    Rosenfeld, Arthur; Pomerantz, Melvin; Levinson, Ronnen

    2016-07-12

    Science at the Theater: Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how cool roofs can cool your building, your city ... and our planet. Arthur Rosenfeld, Professor of Physics Emeritus at UC Berkeley, founded the Berkeley Lab Center for Building Science in 1974. He served on the California Energy Commission from 2000 to 2010 and is commonly referred to as California's godfather of energy efficiency. Melvin Pomerantz is a member of the Heat Island Group at Berkeley Lab. Trained as a physicist at UC Berkeley, he specializes in research on making cooler pavements and evaluating their effects. Ronnen Levinson is a staff scientist at Berkeley Lab and the acting leader of its Heat Island Group. He has developed cool roofing and paving materials and helped bring cool roof requirements into building energy efficiency standards.

  9. Cool Cities, Cool Planet (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Arthur; Pomerantz, Melvin; Levinson, Ronnen

    2010-10-11

    Science at the Theater: Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how cool roofs can cool your building, your city ... and our planet. Arthur Rosenfeld, Professor of Physics Emeritus at UC Berkeley, founded the Berkeley Lab Center for Building Science in 1974. He served on the California Energy Commission from 2000 to 2010 and is commonly referred to as California's godfather of energy efficiency. Melvin Pomerantz is a member of the Heat Island Group at Berkeley Lab. Trained as a physicist at UC Berkeley, he specializes in research on making cooler pavements and evaluating their effects. Ronnen Levinson is a staff scientist at Berkeley Lab and the acting leader of its Heat Island Group. He has developed cool roofing and paving materials and helped bring cool roof requirements into building energy efficiency standards.

  10. Cooling arrangement for a tapered turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, George

    2010-07-27

    A cooling arrangement (11) for a highly tapered gas turbine blade (10). The cooling arrangement (11) includes a pair of parallel triple-pass serpentine cooling circuits (80,82) formed in an inner radial portion (50) of the blade, and a respective pair of single radial channel cooling circuits (84,86) formed in an outer radial portion (52) of the blade (10), with each single radial channel receiving the cooling fluid discharged from a respective one of the triple-pass serpentine cooling circuit. The cooling arrangement advantageously provides a higher degree of cooling to the most highly stressed radially inner portion of the blade, while providing a lower degree of cooling to the less highly stressed radially outer portion of the blade. The cooling arrangement can be implemented with known casting techniques, thereby facilitating its use on highly tapered, highly twisted Row 4 industrial gas turbine blades that could not be cooled with prior art cooling arrangements.

  11. Constraining the Cooling Rates of Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockdale, S. C.; Franchi, I. A.; Anand, M.; Grady, M. M.

    2017-02-01

    The cooling rates of chondrules are an important constraint on chondrule formation. By measuring and modelling diffusion profiles between relict grain and overgrowth formed during cooling, we will calculate the cooling rate of the host chondrule.

  12. Hybrid cooling vest for cooling between exercise bouts in the heat: Effects and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Chan, Albert P C; Yang, Yang; Song, Wen-Fang; Wong, Del P

    2017-01-01

    While continuous cooling strategies may induce some ergonomic problems to occupational workers, cooling between work bouts may be an alternative for cooling them down in hot environments. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of wearing a newly designed hybrid cooling vest (HCV) between two bouts of exercise. Inside a climatic chamber set at an air temperature of 37°C and a relative humidity of 60%, twelve male participants underwent two bouts of intermittent exercise interspersed with a 30min between-bout recovery session, during which HCV or a passive rest without any cooling (PAS) was administered. The results indicated that thermoregulatory, physiological, and perceptual strains were significantly lower in HCV than those in PAS during the recovery session (p≤0.022), which were accompanied with a large effect of cooling (Cohen's d=0.84-2.11). For the second exercise bout, the exercise time following HCV (22.13±12.27min) was significantly longer than that following PAS (11.04±3.40min, p=0.005, d=1.23) During this period, core temperature Tc was significantly lower by 0.14±0.0.15°C in HCV than that in PAS. The heart rate drift over time was declined by 2±2bpmmin(-1) (p=0.001, d=1.00) and the rise in physiological strain index was reduced by 0.11±0.12unitmin(-1) (p=0.010, d=0.96) following the use of HCV. These findings suggested that using HCV could accelerate between-bout recovery and improve subsequent exercise performance by the enlarged body core temperature margin and blunted cardiovascular drift.

  13. Workshop 4 Converter cooling & recuperation

    SciTech Connect

    Iles, P.; Hindman, D.

    1995-01-05

    Cooling the PV converter increases the overall TPV system efficiency, and more than offsets the losses incurred in providing cooling systems. Convective air flow methods may be sufficient, and several standard water cooling systems, including thermo-syphon radiators, capillary pumps or microchannel plates, are available. Recuperation is used to increase system efficiency, rather than to increase the emitter temperature. Recuperators operating at comparable high temperatures, such as in high temperature turbines have worked effectively. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  14. PBF Cooling Tower. Hot deck of Cooling Tower with fan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower. Hot deck of Cooling Tower with fan motors in place. Fan's propeller blades (not in view) rotate within lower portion of vents. Inlet pipe is a left of view. Contractor's construction buildings in view to right. Photographer: Larry Page. Date: June 30, 1969. INEEL negative no. 69-3781 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. Personal cooling in nuclear power stations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kamon, E.

    1983-03-01

    Two approaches to personal, non-restrictive cooling of workers exposed to high-temperature work environments in nuclear power plants were evaluated. Both approaches involved a cooling garment designed to be worn under the protective clothing donned in penetration into radiation areas. One garmet was developed to cool by direct body contact with small packets of frozen water enclosed in the pockets of a shirt. The other garmets cooled by circulating a cooled liquid through capillaries in a vest and head cap (System A) or a vest (System B). Testing was conducted in a laboratory simulation of high ambient temperature (55/sup 0/C) and moderate metabolic heat production (200 to 300 kcal/h). Exposure time without cooling (control) was 52 minutes (Group 1) for the workloads demanding 200 kcal/h (48 minutes for Group 2). A long garmet with 7.2 kg of frozen water (LFWG) increased mean exposure time over the control by 242% (163% for the same garmet with 6.2 kg of frozen water). A short-version garmet with 3.8 kg of frozen water (SFWG) increased the stay time by 115%. The circulating-liquid garmets increased mean exposure time 35% (System A) and 27% (System B) over the control. In field observation, the LFWG with 6.2 kg of frozen water improved stay time by 125%.

  16. Method of Estimating Continuous Cooling Transformation Curves of Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongmei; Zhou, Wancheng; Ray, Chandra S.; Day, Delbert E.

    2006-01-01

    A method is proposed for estimating the critical cooling rate and continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curve from isothermal TTT data of glasses. The critical cooling rates and CCT curves for a group of lithium disilicate glasses containing different amounts of Pt as nucleating agent estimated through this method are compared with the experimentally measured values. By analysis of the experimental and calculated data of the lithium disilicate glasses, a simple relationship between the crystallized amount in the glasses during continuous cooling, X, and the temperature of undercooling, (Delta)T, was found to be X = AR(sup-4)exp(B (Delta)T), where (Delta)T is the temperature difference between the theoretical melting point of the glass composition and the temperature in discussion, R is the cooling rate, and A and B are constants. The relation between the amount of crystallisation during continuous cooling and isothermal hold can be expressed as (X(sub cT)/X(sub iT) = (4/B)(sup 4) (Delta)T(sup -4), where X(sub cT) stands for the crystallised amount in a glass during continuous cooling for a time t when the temperature comes to T, and X(sub iT) is the crystallised amount during isothermal hold at temperature T for a time t.

  17. Quantitative data analysis to determine best food cooling practices in U.S. restaurants.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, Donald W; Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Reimann, Dave; Koktavy, Nicole; Blade, Henry; Nicholas, David

    2015-04-01

    Data collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that improper cooling practices contributed to more than 500 foodborne illness outbreaks associated with restaurants or delis in the United States between 1998 and 2008. CDC's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) personnel collected data in approximately 50 randomly selected restaurants in nine EHS-Net sites in 2009 to 2010 and measured the temperatures of cooling food at the beginning and the end of the observation period. Those beginning and ending points were used to estimate cooling rates. The most common cooling method was refrigeration, used in 48% of cooling steps. Other cooling methods included ice baths (19%), room-temperature cooling (17%), ice-wand cooling (7%), and adding ice or frozen food to the cooling food as an ingredient (2%). Sixty-five percent of cooling observations had an estimated cooling rate that was compliant with the 2009 Food and Drug Administration Food Code guideline (cooling to 41 °F [5 °C] in 6 h). Large cuts of meat and stews had the slowest overall estimated cooling rate, approximately equal to that specified in the Food Code guideline. Pasta and noodles were the fastest cooling foods, with a cooling time of just over 2 h. Foods not being actively monitored by food workers were more than twice as likely to cool more slowly than recommended in the Food Code guideline. Food stored at a depth greater than 7.6 cm (3 in.) was twice as likely to cool more slowly than specified in the Food Code guideline. Unventilated cooling foods were almost twice as likely to cool more slowly than specified in the Food Code guideline. Our data suggest that several best cooling practices can contribute to a proper cooling process. Inspectors unable to assess the full cooling process should consider assessing specific cooling practices as an alternative. Future research could validate our estimation method and study the effect of specific practices on the full

  18. Quantitative Data Analysis To Determine Best Food Cooling Practices in U.S. Restaurants†

    PubMed Central

    Schaffner, Donald W.; Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Reimann, Dave; Koktavy, Nicole; Blade, Henry; Nicholas, David

    2017-01-01

    Data collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that improper cooling practices contributed to more than 500 foodborne illness outbreaks associated with restaurants or delis in the United States between 1998 and 2008. CDC's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) personnel collected data in approximately 50 randomly selected restaurants in nine EHS-Net sites in 2009 to 2010 and measured the temperatures of cooling food at the beginning and the end of the observation period. Those beginning and ending points were used to estimate cooling rates. The most common cooling method was refrigeration, used in 48% of cooling steps. Other cooling methods included ice baths (19%), room-temperature cooling (17%), ice-wand cooling (7%), and adding ice or frozen food to the cooling food as an ingredient (2%). Sixty-five percent of cooling observations had an estimated cooling rate that was compliant with the 2009 Food and Drug Administration Food Code guideline (cooling to 41°F [5°C] in 6 h). Large cuts of meat and stews had the slowest overall estimated cooling rate, approximately equal to that specified in the Food Code guideline. Pasta and noodles were the fastest cooling foods, with a cooling time of just over 2 h. Foods not being actively monitored by food workers were more than twice as likely to cool more slowly than recommended in the Food Code guideline. Food stored at a depth greater than 7.6 cm (3 in.) was twice as likely to cool more slowly than specified in the Food Code guideline. Unventilated cooling foods were almost twice as likely to cool more slowly than specified in the Food Code guideline. Our data suggest that several best cooling practices can contribute to a proper cooling process. Inspectors unable to assess the full cooling process should consider assessing specific cooling practices as an alternative. Future research could validate our estimation method and study the effect of specific practices on the full

  19. Muon cooling in a quadrupole magnet channel

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, David; Poklonskiy, A.; /Michigan State U.

    2007-10-01

    As discussed before,[1] a cooling channel using quadrupole magnets in a FODO transport channel can be used for initial cooling of muons. In the present note we discuss this possibility of a FODO focusing channel for cooling, and we present ICOOL simulations of muon cooling within a FODO channel. We explore a 1.5m cell-length cooling channel that could be used for the initial transverse cooling stage of a muon collider or neutrino factory.

  20. Temperature profiles of different cooling methods in porcine pancreas procurement.

    PubMed

    Weegman, Bradley P; Suszynski, Thomas M; Scott, William E; Ferrer Fábrega, Joana; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Anazawa, Takayuki; O'Brien, Timothy D; Rizzari, Michael D; Karatzas, Theodore; Jie, Tun; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-01-01

    Porcine islet xenotransplantation is a promising alternative to human islet allotransplantation. Porcine pancreas cooling needs to be optimized to reduce the warm ischemia time (WIT) following donation after cardiac death, which is associated with poorer islet isolation outcomes. This study examines the effect of four different cooling Methods on core porcine pancreas temperature (n = 24) and histopathology (n = 16). All Methods involved surface cooling with crushed ice and chilled irrigation. Method A, which is the standard for porcine pancreas procurement, used only surface cooling. Method B involved an intravascular flush with cold solution through the pancreas arterial system. Method C involved an intraductal infusion with cold solution through the major pancreatic duct, and Method D combined all three cooling Methods. Surface cooling alone (Method A) gradually decreased core pancreas temperature to <10 °C after 30 min. Using an intravascular flush (Method B) improved cooling during the entire duration of procurement, but incorporating an intraductal infusion (Method C) rapidly reduced core temperature 15-20 °C within the first 2 min of cooling. Combining all methods (Method D) was the most effective at rapidly reducing temperature and providing sustained cooling throughout the duration of procurement, although the recorded WIT was not different between Methods (P = 0.36). Histological scores were different between the cooling Methods (P = 0.02) and the worst with Method A. There were differences in histological scores between Methods A and C (P = 0.02) and Methods A and D (P = 0.02), but not between Methods C and D (P = 0.95), which may highlight the importance of early cooling using an intraductal infusion. In conclusion, surface cooling alone cannot rapidly cool large (porcine or human) pancreata. Additional cooling with an intravascular flush and intraductal infusion results in improved core porcine pancreas temperature profiles during procurement and

  1. Advanced lightweight cooling-garment technology: functional improvements in thermosensitive patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Heim, A; Rothmaier, M; Weder, M; Kool, J; Schenk, P; Kesselring, J

    2007-03-01

    Cooling of thermosensitive patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) can improve clinical symptoms. In order to study the effectiveness of an advanced lightweight cooling-garment technology based on aquatic evaporation, a single-blinded balanced crossover study was performed on 20 patients with an Expanded Disability Status Scale score < or =6.5. The results using a tight-cuff cooling-garment prototype for peripheral cooling suggest improvement of a timed-walking test, leg-strength, fine-motor skills and subjective benefits. Preliminary data of the heart rate variability (HRV) including six patients suggest that the MS patients show an abnormal HRV after sham condition, which is normalized after cooling. Technical information was gained about the cooling activity and the practicability and handling of the device. These encouraging findings promote further adaptations of the prototype to increase its cooling properties and ameliorate the practicability of the cooling garment.

  2. Mini-Membrane Evaporator for Contingency Spacesuit Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Craft, Jesse; Lynch, William; Wilkes, Robert; Vogel, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The next-generation Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is integrating a number of new technologies to improve reliability and functionality. One of these improvements is the development of the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL) for contingency crewmember cooling. The ACL is a completely redundant, independent cooling system that consists of a small evaporative cooler--the Mini Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), independent pump, independent feedwater assembly and independent Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The Mini-ME utilizes the same hollow fiber technology featured in the full-sized AEMU PLSS cooling device, the Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), but Mini-ME occupies only 25% of the volume of SWME, thereby providing only the necessary crewmember cooling in a contingency situation. The ACL provides a number of benefits when compared with the current EMU PLSS contingency cooling technology, which relies upon a Secondary Oxygen Vessel; contingency crewmember cooling can be provided for a longer period of time, more contingency situations can be accounted for, no reliance on a Secondary Oxygen Vessel (SOV) for contingency cooling--thereby allowing a reduction in SOV size and pressure, and the ACL can be recharged-allowing the AEMU PLSS to be reused, even after a contingency event. The first iteration of Mini-ME was developed and tested in-house. Mini-ME is currently packaged in AEMU PLSS 2.0, where it is being tested in environments and situations that are representative of potential future Extravehicular Activities (EVA's). The second iteration of Mini-ME, known as Mini- ME2, is currently being developed to offer more heat rejection capability. The development of this contingency evaporative cooling system will contribute to a more robust and comprehensive AEMU PLSS.

  3. Mini-Membrane Evaporator for Contingency Spacesuit Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Petty, Brian; Craft, Jesse; Lynch, William; Wilkes, Robert; Vogel, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The next-generation Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is integrating a number of new technologies to improve reliability and functionality. One of these improvements is the development of the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL) for contingency crewmember cooling. The ACL is a completely redundant, independent cooling system that consists of a small evaporative cooler--the Mini Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), independent pump, independent feedwater assembly and independent Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The Mini-ME utilizes the same hollow fiber technology featured in the full-sized AEMU PLSS cooling device, the Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), but Mini-ME occupies only approximately 25% of the volume of SWME, thereby providing only the necessary crewmember cooling in a contingency situation. The ACL provides a number of benefits when compared with the current EMU PLSS contingency cooling technology, which relies upon a Secondary Oxygen Vessel; contingency crewmember cooling can be provided for a longer period of time, more contingency situations can be accounted for, no reliance on a Secondary Oxygen Vessel (SOV) for contingency cooling--thereby allowing a reduction in SOV size and pressure, and the ACL can be recharged-allowing the AEMU PLSS to be reused, even after a contingency event. The first iteration of Mini-ME was developed and tested in-house. Mini-ME is currently packaged in AEMU PLSS 2.0, where it is being tested in environments and situations that are representative of potential future Extravehicular Activities (EVA's). The second iteration of Mini-ME, known as Mini-ME2, is currently being developed to offer more heat rejection capability. The development of this contingency evaporative cooling system will contribute to a more robust and comprehensive AEMU PLSS.

  4. Jet-regulated cooling catastrophe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Yohan; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Teyssier, Romain

    2010-12-01

    We present the first implementation of active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback in the form of momentum-driven jets in an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) cosmological resimulation of a galaxy cluster. The jets are powered by gas accretion on to supermassive black holes (SMBHs) which also grow by mergers. Throughout its formation, the cluster experiences different dynamical states: both a morphologically perturbed epoch at early times and a relaxed state at late times allowing us to study the different modes of black hole (BH) growth and associated AGN jet feedback. BHs accrete gas efficiently at high redshift (z > 2), significantly pre-heating proto-cluster haloes. Gas-rich mergers at high redshift also fuel strong, episodic jet activity, which transports gas from the proto-cluster core to its outer regions. At later times, while the cluster relaxes, the supply of cold gas on to the BHs is reduced leading to lower jet activity. Although the cluster is still heated by this activity as sound waves propagate from the core to the virial radius, the jets inefficiently redistribute gas outwards and a small cooling flow develops, along with low-pressure cavities similar to those detected in X-ray observations. Overall, our jet implementation of AGN feedback quenches star formation quite efficiently, reducing the stellar content of the central cluster galaxy by a factor of 3 compared to the no-AGN case. It also dramatically alters the shape of the gas density profile, bringing it in close agreement with the β model favoured by observations, producing quite an isothermal galaxy cluster for gigayears in the process. However, it still falls short in matching the lower than universal baryon fractions which seem to be commonplace in observed galaxy clusters.

  5. Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system

    SciTech Connect

    Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

    2014-11-25

    A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

  6. Self-Excitation and Feedback Cooling of an Isolated Proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guise, N.; Disciacca, J.; Gabrielse, G.

    2010-04-01

    The first one-proton self-excited oscillator (SEO) and one-proton feedback cooling are demonstrated. In a Penning trap with a large magnetic gradient, the SEO frequency is resolved to the high precision needed to detect a one-proton spin flip. This is after undamped magnetron motion is sideband cooled to a 14 mK theoretical limit, and despite random frequency shifts (typically larger than those from a spin flip) that take place every time sideband cooling is applied. The observations open a possible path towards a million-fold improved comparison of the p¯ and p magnetic moments.

  7. Autoresonance Cooling of Ions in an Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, R. K.; Saha, K.; Heber, O.; Rappaport, M. L.; Zajfman, D.

    2017-09-01

    Autoresonance (AR) cooling of a bunch of ions oscillating inside an electrostatic ion beam trap is demonstrated for the first time. The relatively wide initial longitudinal velocity distribution is reduced by at least an order of magnitude using AR acceleration and ramping forces. The hot ions escaping the bunch are not lost from the system but continue to oscillate in the trap outside of the bunch and may be further cooled by successive AR processes. Ion-ion collisions inside the bunch close to the turning points in the trap's mirrors contribute to the thermalization of the ions. This cooling method can be applied to any mass and any charge.

  8. Energy and IAQ Implications of Residential Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, William; Walker, Iain

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluates the energy, humidity and indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of residential ventilation cooling in all U.S. IECC climate zones. A computer modeling approach was adopted, using an advanced residential building simulation tool with airflow, energy and humidity models. An economizer (large supply fan) was simulated to provide ventilation cooling while outdoor air temperatures were lower than indoor air temperatures (typically at night). The simulations were performed for a full year using one-minute time steps to allow for scheduling of ventilation systems and to account for interactions between ventilation and heating/cooling systems.

  9. System and method for pre-cooling of buildings

    DOEpatents

    Springer, David A.; Rainer, Leo I.

    2011-08-09

    A method for nighttime pre-cooling of a building comprising inputting one or more user settings, lowering the indoor temperature reading of the building during nighttime by operating an outside air ventilation system followed, if necessary, by a vapor compression cooling system. The method provides for nighttime pre-cooling of a building that maintains indoor temperatures within a comfort range based on the user input settings, calculated operational settings, and predictions of indoor and outdoor temperature trends for a future period of time such as the next day.

  10. Cooling a magnetic nanoisland by spin-polarized currents.

    PubMed

    Brüggemann, J; Weiss, S; Nalbach, P; Thorwart, M

    2014-08-15

    We investigate cooling of a vibrational mode of a magnetic quantum dot by a spin-polarized tunneling charge current exploiting the magnetomechanical coupling. The spin-polarized current polarizes the magnetic nanoisland, thereby lowering its magnetic energy. At the same time, Ohmic heating increases the vibrational energy. A small magnetomechanical coupling then permits us to remove energy from the vibrational motion and cooling is possible. We find a reduction of the vibrational energy below 50% of its equilibrium value. The lowest vibration temperature is achieved for a weak electron-vibration coupling and a comparable magnetomechanical coupling. The cooling rate increases at first with the magnetomechanical coupling and then saturates.

  11. Testing aspects of advanced coherent electron cooling technique

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.; Jing, Y.; Pinayev, I.; Wang, G.; Samulyak, R.; Ratner, D.

    2015-05-03

    An advanced version of the Coherent-electron Cooling (CeC) based on the micro-bunching instability was proposed. This approach promises significant increase in the bandwidth of the CeC system and, therefore, significant shortening of cooling time in high-energy hadron colliders. In this paper we present our plans of simulating and testing the key aspects of this proposed technique using the set-up of the coherent-electron-cooling proof-of-principle experiment at BNL.

  12. Polarization gradient cooling of single atoms in optical dipole traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Yue-Sum; Steiner, Matthias; Kurtsiefer, Christian

    2017-09-01

    We experimentally investigate σ+-σ- polarization gradient cooling (PGC) of a single 87Rb atom in a tightly focused dipole trap and show that the cooling limit strongly depends on the polarization of the trapping field. For optimized cooling light power, the temperature of the atom reaches 10.4 (6 )μ K in a linearly polarized trap, approximately five times lower than in a circularly polarized trap. The inhibition of PGC is qualitatively explained by the fictitious magnetic fields induced by the trapping field. We further demonstrate that switching the trap polarization from linear to circular after PGC induces only minor heating.

  13. Combustion effects on film cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousar, D. C.; Ewen, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of: (1) a reactive environment on film cooling effectiveness, and (2) film cooling on rocket engine performance were determined experimentally in a rocket thrust chamber assembly operating with hydrogen and oxygen propellants at 300 psi chamber pressure. Tests were conducted using hydrogen, helium, and nitrogen film coolants in an instrumented, thin walled, steel thrust chamber. The film cooling, performance loss, and heat transfer coefficient data were correlated with the ALRC entrainment film cooling model which relates film coolant effectiveness and mixture ratio at the wall to the amount of mainstream gases entrained with the film coolant in a mixing layer. In addition, a comprehensive thermal analysis computer program, HOCOOL, was prepared from previously existing ALRC computer programs and analytical techniques.

  14. Hydrogen film/conductive cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewen, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Small scale nozzle tests using heated nitrogen were run to obtain effectiveness and wall heat transfer data with hydrogen film cooling. Effectiveness data are compared with an entrainment model developed from planar, unaccelerated flow data. Results indicate significant effects due to flow turning and acceleration. With injection velocity effects accounted for explicitly, heat transfer correlation coefficients were found to be the same with and without film cooling when properties are evaluated at an appropriate reference temperature for the local gas composition defined by the coolant effectiveness. A design study for an O2/H2 application with 300 psia (207 N/sq cm) chamber pressure and 1500 lbs (6670 N) thrust indicates an adiabatic wall design requires 4 to 5 percent of the total flow as hydrogen film cooling. Internal regenerative cooling designs were found to offer no reduction in coolant requirements.

  15. Cooling Technology for Electronic Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Wataru

    The rapid growth of data processing speed in computers has been sustained by the advances in cooling technology. This article first presents a review of the published data of heat loads in recent Japanese large-scale computers. The survey indicates that, since around 1980, the high-level integration of microelectronic circuits has brought about almost four fold increase in the power dissipation from logic chips. The integration also has invited the evolutions of multichip modules and new schemes of electronic interconnections. Forced convection air-cooling and liquid cooling coupled with thermal connectors are discussed with reference to the designs employed in actual computers. More advanced cooling schemes are also discussed. Finally, the importance of thermal environmental control of computer rooms is emphasized.

  16. Coronal Structures in Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor); Duprec, Andrea K.

    2003-01-01

    Many papers have been published that further elucidate the structure of coronas in cool stars as determined from EUVE, HST, FUSE, Chandra, and XMM-Newton observations. Highlights of these are summarized including publications during this reporting period and presentations.

  17. Ozonation of cooling tower waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.; Howe, R. D. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Continuous ozone injection into water circulating between a cooling tower and heat exchanger with heavy scale deposits inhibits formation of further deposits, promotes flaking of existing deposits, inhibits chemical corrosion and controls algae and bacteria.

  18. Advance in MEIC cooling studies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuhong; Derbenev, Ya.; Douglas, D.; Hutton, A.; Kimber, A.; Li, R.; Nissen, E.; Tennant,; Zhang, H.

    2013-06-01

    Cooling of ion beams is essential for achieving a high luminosity for MEIC at Jefferson Lab. In this paper, we present the design concept of the electron cooling system for MEIC. In the design, two facilities are required for supporting a multi-staged cooling scheme; one is a 2 MeV DC cooler in the ion pre-booster; the other is a high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) ERL-circulator cooler in the collider ring. The simulation studies of beam dynamics in an ERL-circulator cooler are summarized and followed by a report on technology development for this cooler. We also discuss two proposed experiments for demonstrating high energy cooling with a bunched electron beam and the ERL-circulator cooler.

  19. Sun Heats, Cools Columbus Tech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Solar energy heats and cools the newest building on the campus of Columbus Technical Institute in Ohio. A solar demonstration project grant from the Department of Energy covered about 77 percent of the solar cost. (Author/MLF)

  20. Radiative cooling for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath; Wang, Ken X.; Anoma, Marc A.; Fan, Shanhui

    2015-03-01

    Standard solar cells heat up under sunlight, and the resulting increased temperature of the solar cell has adverse consequences on both its efficiency and its reliability. We introduce a general approach to radiatively lower the operating temperature of a solar cell through sky access, while maintaining its sunlight absorption. We present first an ideal scheme for the radiative cooling of solar cells. For an example case of a bare crystalline silicon solar cell, we show that the ideal scheme can passively lower the operating temperature by 18.3 K. We then show a microphotonic design based on realistic material properties, that approaches the performance of the ideal scheme. We also show that the radiative cooling effect is substantial, even in the presence of significant non-radiative heat change, and parasitic solar absorption in the cooling layer, provided that we design the cooling layer to be sufficiently thin.