Science.gov

Sample records for cooling water circuit

  1. Effects of carbon dioxide absorbent cooling and temperature gradient reduction on water condensation in the anaesthesia circuit.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, G; Uchino, H; Joko, T; Kaneko, H; Ishii, N

    2008-01-01

    Large quantities of water condensation occur in the anaesthesia circuit during low-flow anaesthesia. We hypothesized that cooling of the CO2 absorbent would prevent water condensation. To cool CO2 absorbent efficiently, we constructed a novel temperature gradient reduction (TGR) canister, which was cooled by a blower. Experiments were divided into three groups: the conventional canister group (control group, n=6), the TGR canister without cooling group (TGR group, n=6), and the TGR canister with cooling group (TGR cooling group, n=6). One kilogramme of CO2 absorbent was placed into the canister. The anaesthetic ventilator was connected to a 3 litre bag and 300 ml min(-1) of CO2 was introduced. About 500 ml min(-1) of oxygen was used as fresh gas. The anaesthetic ventilator was set at a ventilatory frequency of 12 bpm, and tidal volume was adjusted to 700 ml. The longevity of the CO2 absorbent was 437 (sd 7.8) min in the control group, 564 (13.8) min in the TGR group (P<0.001 vs control), and 501 (5.8) min in the TGR cooling group (P<0.001 vs control, TGR). Total water condensation in the anaesthesia circuit was 215 (9.4) mg min(-1) in the control group, 223 (9.7) mg min(-1) in the TGR group, and 47.7 (5.7) mg min(-1) in the TGR cooling group (P<0.001 vs control, TGR). TGR of CO2 absorbent with cooling is a useful and simple method to reduce water condensation in the anaesthesia circuit in low-flow anaesthesia, with a little increase in the longevity of the CO2 absorbent.

  2. Integrated circuit cooled turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Um, Jae Y.; Holloman, Harry; Koester, Steven

    2017-08-29

    A turbine rotor blade includes at least two integrated cooling circuits that are formed within the blade that include a leading edge circuit having a first cavity and a second cavity and a trailing edge circuit that includes at least a third cavity located aft of the second cavity. The trailing edge circuit flows aft with at least two substantially 180-degree turns at the tip end and the root end of the blade providing at least a penultimate cavity and a last cavity. The last cavity is located along a trailing edge of the blade. A tip axial cooling channel connects to the first cavity of the leading edge circuit and the penultimate cavity of the trailing edge circuit. At least one crossover hole connects the penultimate cavity to the last cavity substantially near the tip end of the blade.

  3. Development of methods for the decrease in instability of recycling water of conjugated closed-circuit cooling system of HPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichirov, A. A.; Chichirova, N. D.; Vlasov, S. M.; Lyapin, A. I.; Misbakhov, R. Sh.; Silov, I. Yu.; Murtazin, A. I.

    2016-10-01

    On Russian HPPs, conjugated closed-circuit cooling systems, where purge water is used as initial for water-treatment facilities, are widespread. For this reason, it is impossible to use general methods for the stabilization treatment of recycling water in order to prevent scale formation in the units of a system, namely, turbine condensers and cooling towers. In this paper, the methods for the decrease in the instability of recycling water using the methods of chemical engineering, such as stabilization and synchronization of flows and organization of recycles, are suggested. The results of an industrial experiment on the implementation of stabilization treatment of recycling water by the organization of recycle are given. The experiment was carried out on Kazan CHPP-3. The flow scheme involved the recycle of chemically purified water (CPW) for the heat network make-up to the closed-circuit cooling system. The experiment was carried out at three stages with the gradual change of the consumption of the recycle, namely, 0, 50, and 100 t/h. According to the results of experiments, the reliable decrease in the rate of the sedimentation was recorded on the units of the system, namely, turbine condenser and chimney-type cooling tower. This is caused by two reasons. Firstly, this is periodic excessive concentration of recycling water due to the nonstationary character of inlet and outlet flows. Secondly, this is seasonal (particularly, in the summer period) exceeding of the evaporation coefficient. As a result of stabilization and synchronization of flows and organization of recycles, the quality of clarified and chemically purified water for the heat network make-up increases and the corrosion of iron- and copper-containing structural materials decreases. A natural decrease in temperature drop on the operating turbine condensers is mentioned.

  4. Apparatus and method of direct water cooling several parallel circuit cards each containing several chip packages

    DOEpatents

    Cipolla, Thomas M [Katonah, NY; Colgan, Evan George [Chestnut Ridge, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Hall, Shawn Anthony [Pleasantville, NY; Tian, Shurong [Mount Kisco, NY

    2011-12-20

    A cooling apparatus, system and like method for an electronic device includes a plurality of heat producing electronic devices affixed to a wiring substrate. A plurality of heat transfer assemblies each include heat spreaders and thermally communicate with the heat producing electronic devices for transferring heat from the heat producing electronic devices to the heat transfer assemblies. The plurality of heat producing electronic devices and respective heat transfer assemblies are positioned on the wiring substrate having the regions overlapping. A heat conduit thermally communicates with the heat transfer assemblies. The heat conduit circulates thermally conductive fluid therethrough in a closed loop for transferring heat to the fluid from the heat transfer assemblies via the heat spreader. A thermally conductive support structure supports the heat conduit and thermally communicates with the heat transfer assemblies via the heat spreader transferring heat to the fluid of the heat conduit from the support structure.

  5. The thermal circuit of a nuclear power station's unit built around a supercritical-pressure water-cooled reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silin, V. A.; Zorin, V. M.; Tagirov, A. M.; Tregubova, O. I.; Belov, I. V.; Povarov, P. V.

    2010-12-01

    Main results obtained from calculations of the steam generator and thermal circuit of the steam turbine unit for a nuclear power unit with supercritical-pressure water coolant and integral layout are presented. The obtained characteristics point to the advisability of carrying out further developments of this promising nuclear power technology.

  6. Cooling Water Intakes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Industries use large volumes of water for cooling. The water intakes pull large numbers of fish and other organisms into the cooling systems. EPA issues regulations on intake structures in order to minimize adverse environmental impacts.

  7. Internal cooling circuit for gas turbine bucket

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, Susan Marie; Davis, Richard Mallory

    2005-10-25

    In a gas turbine bucket having a shank portion and an airfoil portion having leading and trailing edges and pressure and suction sides, an internal cooling circuit, the internal cooling circuit having a serpentine configuration including plural radial outflow passages and plural radial inflow passages, and wherein a coolant inlet passage communicates with a first of the radial outflow passages along the trailing edge, the first radial outflow passage having a plurality of radially extending and radially spaced elongated rib segments extending between and connecting the pressure and suction sides in a middle region of the first passage to prevent ballooning of the pressure and suction sides at the first radial outflow passage.

  8. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  9. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  10. Cooling water distribution system

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  11. Cooling circuit for a gas turbine bucket and tip shroud

    DOEpatents

    Willett, Fred Thomas; Itzel, Gary Michael; Stathopoulos, Dimitrios; Plemmons, Larry Wayne; Plemmons, Helen M.; Lewis, Doyle C.

    2002-01-01

    An open cooling circuit for a gas turbine bucket wherein the bucket has an airfoil portion, and a tip shroud, the cooling circuit including a plurality of radial cooling holes extending through the airfoil portion and communicating with an enlarged internal area within the tip shroud before exiting the tip shroud such that a cooling medium used to cool the airfoil portion is subsequently used to cool the tip shroud.

  12. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P.

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  13. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  14. WATER COOLED RETORT COVER

    DOEpatents

    Ash, W.J.; Pozzi, J.F.

    1962-05-01

    A retort cover is designed for use in the production of magnesium metal by the condensation of vaporized metal on a collecting surface. The cover includes a condensing surface, insulating means adjacent to the condensing surface, ind a water-cooled means for the insulating means. The irrangement of insulation and the cooling means permits the magnesium to be condensed at a high temperature and in massive nonpyrophoric form. (AEC)

  15. Water cooling of HVDC thyristor valves

    SciTech Connect

    Lips, H.P. )

    1994-10-01

    It is generally accepted that water is a very effective medium to remove heat losses from any type of equipment. When used for HVDC thyristor valves, the fundamentals of electrolyte conduction and water chemistry need to be considered in the design of the cooling circuit. The characteristics of the materials used, in conjunction with high voltage stresses and circuit configuration, play an important role to assure longevity and corrosion-free performance.

  16. Water Cooled Mirror Design

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Gregory E.; Holloway, Michael Andrew; Pulliam, Elias Noel

    2015-03-30

    This design is intended to replace the current mirror setup being used for the NorthStar Moly 99 project in order to monitor the target coupon. The existing setup has limited movement for camera alignment and is difficult to align properly. This proposed conceptual design for a water cooled mirror will allow for greater thermal transfer between the mirror and the water block. It will also improve positioning of the mirror by using flexible vacuum hosing and a ball head joint capable of a wide range of motion. Incorporating this design into the target monitoring system will provide more efficient cooling of the mirror which will improve the amount of diffraction caused by the heating of the mirror. The process of aligning the mirror for accurate position will be greatly improved by increasing the range of motion by offering six degrees of freedom.

  17. Thermoelectrically cooled water trap

    DOEpatents

    Micheels, Ronald H.

    2006-02-21

    A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

  18. Water-Cooled Optical Thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menna, A. A.

    1987-01-01

    Water-cooled optical probe measures temperature of nearby radiating object. Intended primarily for use in silicon-growing furnace for measuring and controlling temperatures of silicon ribbon, meniscus, cartridge surfaces, heaters, or other parts. Cooling water and flushing gas cool fiber-optic probe and keep it clean. Fiber passes thermal radiation from observed surface to measuring instrument.

  19. Cooling/grounding mount for hybrid circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagstad, B.; Estrada, R.; Mandel, H.

    1981-01-01

    Extremely short input and output connections, adequate grounding, and efficient heat removal for hybrid integrated circuits are possible with mounting. Rectangular clamp holds hybrid on printed-circuit board, in contact with heat-conductive ground plate. Clamp is attached to ground plane by bolts.

  20. Heat transfer and turbulence in a turbulated blade cooling circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Abuaf, N. ); Kercher, D.M. )

    1994-01-01

    The aerothermal performance of a typical turbine blade three-pass turbulated cooling circuit geometry was investigated in a 10X plexiglass test model. The model closely duplicated the blade's leading edge, midchord, and trailing edge cooling passage geometries. Steady-state heat transfer coefficient distributions along the blade pressure side wall (convex surface) of the cooling circuit passages were measured with a thin-foil heater and a liquid crystal temperature sensor assembly. The heat transfer experiments were conducted on rib-roughened channels with staggered turbulators along the convex and concave surfaces of the cooling passages. Midchannel axial velocity and turbulence intensity measurements were taken by hot-wire anemometry at each passage end of the three-pass cooling circuit to characterize and relate the experimental data are compared with results of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis at the operating internal environment for a 1X rotating model of the blade cooling circuit and other turbulator channel geometry heat transfer data investigations. The comparison between the measurements and analysis is encouraging. Differences with other heat transfer data appear reasonably understood and explainable.

  1. Heat transfer and turbulence in a turbulated blade cooling circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuaf, N.; Kercher, D. M.

    1992-06-01

    The aero-thermal performance of a typical turbine blade three-pass turbulated cooling circuit geometry was investigated in a 10X plexiglas test model. The model closely duplicated the blade's leading edge, midchord and trailing edge cooling passage geometries. Steady state heat transfer coefficient distributions along the blade pressure side wall (convex surface) of the cooling circuit passages were measured with a thin-foil heater and a liquid crystal temperature sensor assembly. The heat transfer experiments were conducted on rib-roughened channels with staggered turbulators along the convex and concave surfaces of the cooling passages. Mid-channel axial velocity and turbulence intensity measurements were taken by hot wire anemometry at each passage end of the three-pass cooling circuit to characterize and relate the local thermal performance to the turbulence intensity levels. The near-atmospheric experimental data are compared with results of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis at the operating internal environment for a 1X rotating model of the blade cooling circuit and other turbulator channel geometry heat transfer data investigations. The comparison between the measurements and analysis is encouraging. Differences with other heat transfer data appear reasonably understood and explainable.

  2. Revisiting the research of floating condensation pressure for combined cooling circuits of refrigerating condensers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fot, A. N.; Maksimenko, V. A.

    2017-08-01

    The application of refrigeration condensers combined cooling circuit for reducing fresh water consumption is validated. The insufficiency of existing method of air and water cooling condensers combined circuits calculation is revealed. These circuits result in different values of the recommended condensation temperature (pressure) which does not correspond to a condenser combined cooling operation mode. The condensing temperatures ranges recommended by the known engineering calculation procedures; nature of their mutual change; and the small area having the common solution are graphically shown. The analysis of the known condensing temperature dependences for condensers is carried out and the influence quantities row is defined. The numerical technique of condensation temperature (pressure) determination considering the characteristics and operation modes within a year of evaporator, compressor throttling devices, compressor, condensers, and pipelines is offered. Numerical technique dependences for determination of floating condensation pressure within a year are given. In the given case, the refrigerator economic operation costs will be minimum during the year of refrigerator exploitation.

  3. A somatosensory circuit for cooling perception in mice.

    PubMed

    Milenkovic, Nevena; Zhao, Wen-Jie; Walcher, Jan; Albert, Tobias; Siemens, Jan; Lewin, Gary R; Poulet, James F A

    2014-11-01

    The temperature of an object provides important somatosensory information for animals performing tactile tasks. Humans can perceive skin cooling of less than one degree, but the sensory afferents and central circuits that they engage to enable the perception of surface temperature are poorly understood. To address these questions, we examined the perception of glabrous skin cooling in mice. We found that mice were also capable of perceiving small amplitude skin cooling and that primary somatosensory (S1) cortical neurons were required for cooling perception. Moreover, the absence of the menthol-gated transient receptor potential melastatin 8 ion channel in sensory afferent fibers eliminated the ability to perceive cold and the corresponding activation of S1 neurons. Our results identify parts of a neural circuit underlying cold perception in mice and provide a new model system for the analysis of thermal processing and perception and multimodal integration.

  4. Ozonation of cooling tower waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.; Howe, R. D. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Continuous ozone injection into water circulating between a cooling tower and heat exchanger with heavy scale deposits inhibits formation of further deposits, promotes flaking of existing deposits, inhibits chemical corrosion and controls algae and bacteria.

  5. Cooling circuit for a gas turbine bucket and tip shroud

    DOEpatents

    Willett, Fred Thomas

    2004-07-13

    An open cooling circuit for a gas turbine airfoil and associated tip shroud includes a first group of cooling holes internal to the airfoil and extending in a radially outward direction generally along a leading edge of the airfoil; a second group of cooling holes internal to the airfoil and extending in a radially outward direction generally along a trailing edge of the airfoil. A common plenum is formed in the tip shroud in direct communication with the first and second group of cooling holes, but a second plenum may be provided for the second group of radial holes. A plurality of exhaust holes extends from the plenum(s), through the tip shroud and opening along a peripheral edge of the tip shroud.

  6. Cooling circuit for and method of cooling a gas turbine bucket

    SciTech Connect

    Jacala, Ariel C. P.

    2002-01-01

    A closed internal cooling circuit for a gas turbine bucket includes axial supply and return passages in the dovetail of the bucket. A first radial outward supply passage provides cooling medium to and along a passageway adjacent the leading edge and then through serpentine arranged passageways within the airfoil to a chamber adjacent the airfoil tip. A second radial passage crosses over the radial return passage for supplying cooling medium to and along a pair of passageways along the trailing edge of the airfoil section. The last passageway of the serpentine passageways and the pair of passageways communicate one with the other in the chamber for returning spent cooling medium radially inwardly along divided return passageways to the return passage. In this manner, both the leading and trailing edges are cooled using the highest pressure, lowest temperature cooling medium.

  7. Trap seal for open circuit liquid cooled turbines

    DOEpatents

    Grondahl, Clayton M.; Germain, Malcolm R.

    1980-01-01

    An improved trap seal for open circuit liquid cooled turbines is disclosed. The trap seal of the present invention includes an annular recess formed in the supply conduit of cooling channels formed in the airfoil of the turbine buckets. A cylindrical insert is located in the annular recesses and has a plurality of axial grooves formed along the outer periphery thereof and a central recess formed in one end thereof. The axial grooves and central recess formed in the cylindrical insert cooperate with the annular recess to define a plurality of S-shaped trap seals which permit the passage of liquid coolant but prohibit passage of gaseous coolant.

  8. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOEpatents

    Birx, Daniel L.; Arnold, Phillip A.; Ball, Don G.; Cook, Edward G.

    1995-01-01

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

  9. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOEpatents

    Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

    1995-09-05

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

  10. Resistive cooling circuits for charged particle traps using crystal resonators.

    PubMed

    Kaltenbacher, T; Caspers, F; Doser, M; Kellerbauer, A; Pribyl, W

    2011-11-01

    The paper addresses a novel method to couple a signal from charged particles in a Penning trap to a high Q resonant circuit using a crystal resonator. Traditionally, the trap capacity is converted into a resonator by means of an inductance. The tuned circuit's Q factor is directly linked to the input impedance "seen" by the trapped particles at resonance frequency. This parallel resonance impedance is a measure of the efficiency of resistive cooling and thus it should be optimized. We propose here a commercially available crystal resonator since it exhibits a very high Q value and a parallel resonance impedance of several MΩ. The possibility to tune the parallel resonance frequency of the quartz results in filter behavior that allows covering a range of some tens of its 3dB bandwidth by means of tuning.

  11. Electrochemistry of Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, Dgiby; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Pitt, Jonathan

    2006-08-08

    This project developed a comprehensive mathematical and simulation model for calculating thermal hydraulic, electrochemical, and corrosion parameters, viz. temperature, fluid flow velocity, pH, corrosion potential, hydrogen injection, oxygen contamination, stress corrosion cracking, crack growth rate, and other important quantities in the coolant circuits of water-cooled nuclear power plants, including both Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The model is being used to assess the three major operational problems in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), which include mass transport, activity transport, and the axial offset anomaly, and provide a powerful tool for predicting the accumulation of SCC damage in BWR primary coolant circuits as a function of operating history. Another achievement of the project is the development of a simulation tool to serve both as a training tool for plant operators and as an engineering test-bed to evaluate new equipment and operating strategies (normal operation, cold shut down and others). The development and implementation of the model allows us to estimate the activity transport or "radiation fields" around the primary loop and the vessel, as a function of the operating parameters and the water chemistry.

  12. Antifouling strategies and corrosion control in cooling circuits.

    PubMed

    Cristiani, P; Perboni, G

    2014-06-01

    Biofouling and corrosion phenomena dramatically reduce the functionality of industrial cooling circuits, especially in marine environments. This study underlines the effectiveness of a low level chlorination treatment of seawater to prevent biological fouling and biocorrosion. Reported examples emphasize the reaction of chlorine with bromide, ammonia and organic compounds in seawater and the effectiveness of a treatment performed in such a way to guarantee a residual concentration lower than 3μM at the outlet of the condensers. In a brief review of antifouling strategies, alternatives to chlorination and the monitoring approach able to optimize the treatments are also reported. An integrated, on-line system based on electrochemical probes (Biox system and a linear polarization resistance probe) demonstrated to be sufficient to monitor in real time: corrosion, biofilm growth and chemical treatments based on chlorine or alternative oxidant products (chlorine dioxide, etc.). A careful electrochemical monitoring and the optimized treatments help the plant operators of industrial cooling circuits prevent the decay of the equipment performance, allowing at the same time the control of the halogenated by-products formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 18 CFR 420.44 - Cooling water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooling water. 420.44 Section 420.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Charges; Exemptions § 420.44 Cooling water. Water...

  14. 18 CFR 420.44 - Cooling water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooling water. 420.44 Section 420.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Charges; Exemptions § 420.44 Cooling water. Water...

  15. 18 CFR 420.44 - Cooling water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Cooling water. 420.44 Section 420.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Charges; Exemptions § 420.44 Cooling water. Water...

  16. 18 CFR 420.44 - Cooling water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cooling water. 420.44 Section 420.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Charges; Exemptions § 420.44 Cooling water. Water...

  17. 18 CFR 420.44 - Cooling water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cooling water. 420.44 Section 420.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Charges; Exemptions § 420.44 Cooling water. Water...

  18. Water-cooled nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, W.; Irion, L.

    1981-07-07

    A water-cooled nuclear reactor pressure vessel is internally provided with a check valve assembly for the inner end of a coolant inlet nozzle to prevent immediate loss of the coolant from the vessel by backward flow in the event the pressure of the coolant supply through the nozzle, drops below the pressure inside the vessel while the reactor is operating. The valve assembly includes a plurality of flap valves working in parallel so that if one fails to close when required, the balance of the flap valves remain operative to check the discharge of the coolant.

  19. Passive containment cooling water distribution device

    DOEpatents

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Fanto, Susan V.

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using a series of radial guide elements and cascading weir boxes to collect and then distribute the cooling water into a series of distribution areas through a plurality of cascading weirs. The cooling water is then uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weir notches in the face plate of the weir box.

  20. District cooling in Stockholm using sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Fermbaeck, G.

    1995-12-31

    In May this year Stockholm Energi started supplying properties in central Stockholm with cooling for comfort and for various processes from its new district cooling system. The project is unique in that most of the cooling energy is produced using cold water from the Baltic Sea. The following article describes the system and provides a summary of the considerations that resulted in venturing to invest in sea-water cooling for such a large project. There is also a description of the hydrological conditions that made the system feasible in Stockholm and some speculations about the possibilities to use cooled sea water elsewhere in the world.

  1. Water cooled static pressure probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas T. (Inventor); Eves, John W. (Inventor); Reece, Garland D. (Inventor); Geissinger, Steve L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved static pressure probe containing a water cooling mechanism is disclosed. This probe has a hollow interior containing a central coolant tube and multiple individual pressure measurement tubes connected to holes placed on the exterior. Coolant from the central tube symmetrically immerses the interior of the probe, allowing it to sustain high temperature (in the region of 2500 F) supersonic jet flow indefinitely, while still recording accurate pressure data. The coolant exits the probe body by way of a reservoir attached to the aft of the probe. The pressure measurement tubes are joined to a single, larger manifold in the reservoir. This manifold is attached to a pressure transducer that records the average static pressure.

  2. Radiation protection performance for the dismantling of the WWR-M primary cooling circuit.

    PubMed

    Lobach, Yu N; Luferenko, E D; Shevel, V N

    2014-12-01

    The WWR-M is a light-water-cooled and moderated heterogonous research reactor with a thermal output of 10 MW. The reactor has been in operation for >50 y and has had an excellent safety record. A non-hermeticity of the inlet line of the primary cooling circuit (PCC) was found, and the only reasonable technical solution was the complete replacement of the PCC inlet and outlet pipe lines. Such a replacement was a challenging technical task due to the necessity to handle large size components with complex geometries under conditions of high-level radiation fields, and therefore, it required detailed planning aiming to reduce staff exposure. This paper describes the dismantling and removal of the PCC components focusing on radiation protection issues.

  3. Feasibility assessment of vacuum cooling followed by immersion vacuum cooling on water-cooked pork.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoguang; Chen, Hui; Liu, Yi; Dai, Ruitong; Li, Xingmin

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum cooling followed by immersion vacuum cooling was designed to cool water-cooked pork (1.5±0.05 kg) compared with air blast cooling (4±0.5°C, 2 m/s), vacuum cooling (10 mbar) and immersion vacuum cooling. This combined cooling method was: vacuum cooling to an intermediate temperature of 25°C and then immersion vacuum cooling with water of 10°C to the final temperature of 10°C. It was found that the cooling loss of this combined cooling method was significantly lower (P<0.05) than those of air blast cooling and vacuum cooling. This combined cooling was faster (P<0.05) than air blast cooling and immersion vacuum cooling in terms of cooling rate. Moreover, the pork cooled by combined cooling method had significant differences (P<0.05) in water content, color and shear force.

  4. Turbine stator vane segment having internal cooling circuits

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Raymond Joseph; Burns, James Lee; Bojappa, Parvangada Ganapathy; Jones, Schotsch Margaret

    2003-01-01

    A turbine stator vane includes outer and inner walls each having outer and inner chambers and a vane extending between the outer and inner walls. The vane includes first, second, third, fourth and fifth cavities for flowing a cooling medium. The cooling medium enters the outer chamber of the outer wall, flows through an impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer band wall defining in part the hot gas path and through openings in the first, second and fourth cavities for flow radially inwardly, cooling the vane. The spent cooling medium flows into the inner wall and inner chamber for flow through an impingement plate radially outwardly to cool the inner wall. The spent cooling medium flows through the third cavity for egress from the turbine vane segment from the outer wall. The first, second or third cavities contain inserts having impingement openings for impingement cooling of the vane walls. The fifth cavity provides air cooling for the trailing edge.

  5. Injected Water Augments Cooling In Turboshaft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes experiments in which water injected into compressor-bleed cooling air of aircraft turboshaft engine. Injection of water previously suggested as way to provide additional cooling needed to sustain operation at power levels higher than usual. Involves turbine-inlet temperatures high enough to shorten lives of first-stage high-pressure turbine blades. Latent heat of vaporization of injected water serves as additional heat sink to maintain blades at design operating temperatures during high-power operation.

  6. Injected Water Augments Cooling In Turboshaft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes experiments in which water injected into compressor-bleed cooling air of aircraft turboshaft engine. Injection of water previously suggested as way to provide additional cooling needed to sustain operation at power levels higher than usual. Involves turbine-inlet temperatures high enough to shorten lives of first-stage high-pressure turbine blades. Latent heat of vaporization of injected water serves as additional heat sink to maintain blades at design operating temperatures during high-power operation.

  7. "Hot" for Warm Water Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    IBM Corporation; Energy Efficient HPC Working Group; Hewlett Packard Corporation; SGI; Cray Inc.; Intel Corporation; U.S. Army Engineer Research Development Center; Coles, Henry; Ellsworth, Michael; Martinez, David J.; Bailey, Anna-Maria; Banisadr, Farhad; Bates, Natalie; Coghlan, Susan; Cowley, David E.; Dube, Nicholas; Fields, Parks; Greenberg, Steve; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Kulesza, Peter R.; Loncaric, Josip; McCann, Tim; Pautsch, Greg; Patterson, Michael K.; Rivera, Richard G.; Rottman, Greg K.; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William; Vinson, Wade; Wescott, Ralph

    2011-08-26

    Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and remains on the roadmap for the foreseeable future. This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders of magnitude larger than that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transition from air to liquid cooling is an inflection point providing an opportunity to work collectively to set guidelines for facilitating the energy efficiency of liquid-cooled High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities and systems. The vision is to use non-compressor-based cooling, to facilitate heat re-use, and thereby build solutions that are more energy-efficient, less carbon intensive and more cost effective than their air-cooled predecessors. The Energy Efficient HPC Working Group is developing guidelines for warmer liquid-cooling temperatures in order to standardize facility and HPC equipment, and provide more opportunity for reuse of waste heat. This report describes the development of those guidelines.

  8. Gas turbine bucket cooling circuit and related process

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Doyle C.; Barb, Kevin Joseph

    2002-01-01

    A turbine bucket includes an airfoil portion having leading and trailing edges; at least one radially extending cooling passage within the airfoil portion, the airfoil portion joined to a platform at a radially inner end of the airfoil portion; a dovetail mounting portion enclosing a cooling medium supply passage; and, a crossover passage in fluid communication with the cooling medium supply passage and with at least one radially extending cooling passage, the crossover passage having a portion extending along and substantially parallel to an underside surface of the platform.

  9. Design and numerical analysis of cooling circuit for multistage canned pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yisong; Kong, Fanyu; Bai, Yuxing; Cao, Ruijia

    2017-05-01

    When multistage canned pump works, the temperature rise of the canned motor is high. The designing of the cooling circuit is critical for the performance of the multistage canned pump. The cooling circulation circuit is designed for DPB40-50 × 8 multistage canned pump, and numerical simulation method is adopted. The whole flow domain is modeled by CREO2.0, and calculated and analyzed by CFX14.0. The information of temperature, flow field, pressure distribution in the canned sleeve gap where temperature changed greatly were obtained, the convective heat transfer coefficient between fluid and motor, and the flow rate of the cooling fluid were also gained. The results show that: Under the design condition, the temperature rise of the cooling circuit inside the shielded motor is less than 3K, which can cool the shielded motor very well. The convective heat transfer coefficient of the wall surface of the stator and rotor shielding sleeve, the flow field and thermal field were analyzed, which can reflect the forced convection heat transfer characteristics of the fluid in the canned sleeve gap. The flow of the cooling fluid is changing with different working condition and reached the peak of temperature at the outlet of the canned sleeve gap. The cooling cycle flow are related with the pressure at the drainage hole directly. It can be also concluded that the cooling circuit can satisfy the requirements of the multistage canned pump.

  10. Closed circuit steam cooled turbine shroud and method for steam cooling turbine shroud

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Sexton, Brendan Francis; Kellock, Iain Robertson

    2002-01-01

    A turbine shroud cooling cavity is partitioned to define a plurality of cooling chambers for sequentially receiving cooling steam and impingement cooling of the radially inner wall of the shoud. An impingement baffle is provided in each cooling chamber for receiving the cooling media from a cooling media inlet in the case of the first chamber or from the immediately upstream chamber in the case of the second through fourth chambers and includes a plurality of impingement holes for effecting the impingement cooling of the shroud inner wall.

  11. Compact fluid cooled power converter supporting multiple circuit boards

    DOEpatents

    Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Beihoff, Bruce C.; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2005-03-08

    A support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  12. Variable cooling circuit for thermoelectric generator and engine and method of control

    DOEpatents

    Prior, Gregory P

    2012-10-30

    An apparatus is provided that includes an engine, an exhaust system, and a thermoelectric generator (TEG) operatively connected to the exhaust system and configured to allow exhaust gas flow therethrough. A first radiator is operatively connected to the engine. An openable and closable engine valve is configured to open to permit coolant to circulate through the engine and the first radiator when coolant temperature is greater than a predetermined minimum coolant temperature. A first and a second valve are controllable to route cooling fluid from the TEG to the engine through coolant passages under a first set of operating conditions to establish a first cooling circuit, and from the TEG to a second radiator through at least some other coolant passages under a second set of operating conditions to establish a second cooling circuit. A method of controlling a cooling circuit is also provided.

  13. Cooling water for SSC experiments: Supplemental Conceptual Design Report (SCDR)

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, R.E.

    1989-10-20

    This paper discusses the following topics on cooling water design on the superconducting super collider; low conductivity water; industrial cooling water; chilled water systems; and radioactive water systems. (LSP)

  14. Estimation of the residual bromine concentration after disinfection of cooling water by statistical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Megalopoulos, Fivos A; Ochsenkuehn-Petropoulou, Maria T

    2015-01-01

    A statistical model based on multiple linear regression is developed, to estimate the bromine residual that can be expected after the bromination of cooling water. Make-up water sampled from a power plant in the Greek territory was used for the creation of the various cooling water matrices under investigation. The amount of bromine fed to the circuit, as well as other important operational parameters such as concentration at the cooling tower, temperature, organic load and contact time are taken as the independent variables. It is found that the highest contribution to the model's predictive ability comes from cooling water's organic load concentration, followed by the amount of bromine fed to the circuit, the water's mean temperature, the duration of the bromination period and finally its conductivity. Comparison of the model results with the experimental data confirms its ability to predict residual bromine given specific bromination conditions.

  15. Water-Cooled Total-Temperature Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas T.; Reece, Garland D.

    1992-01-01

    Water-cooled supersonic total-pressure, static-pressure, and total-temperature probes developed to study high-temperature jet plumes. Total-temperature probe tested up to 2,000 degrees F incorporates annular cooling system up to thermocouple lead. Lead extends into test chamber to sense temperature of supersonic external flow. Design novel and significant. Applicable in development of jet engines and in research on fast flows of hot gases.

  16. Cooling circuit for steam and air-cooled turbine nozzle stage

    DOEpatents

    Itzel, Gary Michael; Yu, Yufeng

    2002-01-01

    The turbine vane segment includes inner and outer walls with a vane extending therebetween. The vane includes leading and trailing edge cavities and intermediate cavities. An impingement plate is spaced from the outer wall to impingement-cool the outer wall. Post-impingement cooling air flows through holes in the outer wall to form a thin air-cooling film along the outer wall. Cooling air is supplied an insert sleeve with openings in the leading edge cavity for impingement-cooling the leading edge. Holes through the leading edge afford thin-film cooling about the leading edge. Cooling air is provided the trailing edge cavity and passes through holes in the side walls of the vane for thin-film cooling of the trailing edge. Steam flows through a pair of intermediate cavities for impingement-cooling of the side walls. Post-impingement steam flows to the inner wall for impingement-cooling of the inner wall and returns the post-impingement cooling steam through inserts in other intermediate cavities for impingement-cooling the side walls of the vane.

  17. Steady state thermal-hydraulic analyses of the MITICA cooling circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Zaupa, M.; Sartori, E.; Dalla Palma, M.; Fellin, F.; Marcuzzi, D.; Pavei, M.; Rizzolo, A.

    2016-02-15

    Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advancement is the full scale prototype of the heating and current drive neutral beam injectors for ITER, to be built at Consorzio RFX (Padova). The engineering design of its components is challenging: the total heat loads they will be subjected to (expected between 2 and 19 MW), the high heat fluxes (up to 20 MW/m{sup 2}), and the beam pulse duration up to 1 h, set demanding requirements for reliable active cooling circuits. In support of the design, the thermo-hydraulic behavior of each cooling circuit under steady state condition has been investigated by using one-dimensional models. The final results, obtained considering a number of optimizations for the cooling circuits, show that all the requirements in terms of flow rate, temperature, and pressure drop are properly fulfilled.

  18. Steady state thermal-hydraulic analyses of the MITICA cooling circuits.

    PubMed

    Zaupa, M; Sartori, E; Dalla Palma, M; Fellin, F; Marcuzzi, D; Pavei, M; Rizzolo, A

    2016-02-01

    Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advancement is the full scale prototype of the heating and current drive neutral beam injectors for ITER, to be built at Consorzio RFX (Padova). The engineering design of its components is challenging: the total heat loads they will be subjected to (expected between 2 and 19 MW), the high heat fluxes (up to 20 MW/m(2)), and the beam pulse duration up to 1 h, set demanding requirements for reliable active cooling circuits. In support of the design, the thermo-hydraulic behavior of each cooling circuit under steady state condition has been investigated by using one-dimensional models. The final results, obtained considering a number of optimizations for the cooling circuits, show that all the requirements in terms of flow rate, temperature, and pressure drop are properly fulfilled.

  19. Steady state thermal-hydraulic analyses of the MITICA cooling circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaupa, M.; Sartori, E.; Dalla Palma, M.; Fellin, F.; Marcuzzi, D.; Pavei, M.; Rizzolo, A.

    2016-02-01

    Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advancement is the full scale prototype of the heating and current drive neutral beam injectors for ITER, to be built at Consorzio RFX (Padova). The engineering design of its components is challenging: the total heat loads they will be subjected to (expected between 2 and 19 MW), the high heat fluxes (up to 20 MW/m2), and the beam pulse duration up to 1 h, set demanding requirements for reliable active cooling circuits. In support of the design, the thermo-hydraulic behavior of each cooling circuit under steady state condition has been investigated by using one-dimensional models. The final results, obtained considering a number of optimizations for the cooling circuits, show that all the requirements in terms of flow rate, temperature, and pressure drop are properly fulfilled.

  20. Alternative water treatment for cooling towers

    SciTech Connect

    Wilsey, C.A.

    1997-04-01

    Problems commonly found in cooling towers include: calcium scale formation, corrosion, algae and bacterial growth. These problems can inhibit a cooling tower from operating at its most efficient capacity. An energy-saving, cost-efficient method to control each of these problems in tower water will ultimately benefit the owner as well as the environment. Supplemental ionic water purification was developed to overcome the disadvantages associates with a total chemical disinfection system. The concept of supplemental ionic water purification was developed in the early 1900s and later reviewed by NASA in the mid-1960`s. Only in the past seven years have biologists combined copper ions with chlorine to act as a bactericide. The findings have shown that metal compound ions (copper), when absorbed by bacteria, affect the organisms enzyme balance. This combination inhibits the organism`s reproduction and respiration capabilities. This technology has been applied to cooling tower operations as an alternative to a chemical-only regimen.

  1. Copper corrosion & clogging in APS deionized water cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adak, Bijaya

    An extensive amount of work has been performed on copper corrosion in last century due to its abundant use in domestic and industrial water systems. However, work on copper corrosion in deionized water is very limited. The water cooling system of Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory uses deionized water containing very low dissolved oxygen (less than 10 ppb). Therefore, It is expected that copper corrosion would be less in this system. On the contrary, APS suffers significant clogging in its water cooling circuit resulting from the deposition of corrosion product and carries out frequent expensive maintenance to retain the required flow rate. The location of pH and corrosion potential of APS water cooling system is very close to the boundary condition of the two oxides (CuO and Cu 2O) of the Pourbaix diagram of copper. While a single phase presence of either of these two oxides is stable as a protective layer, a mixture of the two oxides is unstable. An unstable protective layer results in spalling of the oxide layer. A fluctuation in water chemistry (which is common in an industrial facility) triggers a phase transformation between these two oxides due to its near boundary values. It was observed that the location of pH and corrosion potential was away from the boundaries in high dissolved oxygen condition (more than 2000 ppm). Hence, the possibility of phase transformation becomes lesser in high dissolved oxygen condition than in low dissolved oxygen condition. A test station, that was a replica of the APS water cooling system, was used to perform experiments in both high and low oxygen condition. It was demonstrated that high oxygen condition results in less clogging than in low oxygen condition. Microstructural characterization was performed on the coupons from test station and on some components from APS to evaluate oxide surface and determine phases. Mechanism of the phase transformation was suggested.

  2. Parallel LC circuit model for multi-band absorption and preliminary design of radiative cooling.

    PubMed

    Feng, Rui; Qiu, Jun; Liu, Linhua; Ding, Weiqiang; Chen, Lixue

    2014-12-15

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of multi-band absorption by exciting magnetic polaritons in the infrared region. According to the independent properties of the magnetic polaritons, we propose a parallel inductance and capacitance(PLC) circuit model to explain and predict the multi-band resonant absorption peaks, which is fully validated by using the multi-sized structure with identical dielectric spacing layer and the multilayer structure with the same strip width. More importantly, we present the application of the PLC circuit model to preliminarily design a radiative cooling structure realized by merging several close peaks together. This omnidirectional and polarization insensitive structure is a good candidate for radiative cooling application.

  3. A pump driving liquid cooling circuit method for the aperture of an infrared cold optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, RongJian

    2017-06-01

    To enhance the optical recognition and wavelength filtering of an infrared cold optical system, some lens need to be maintained within a certain temperature range, which requires specific thermal management of the aperture. A 250K liquid cooling circuit designed for this purpose is introduced, and the experimental results established and operated in a vacuum environmental simulation chamber is carried out and analyzed. A practical cooling power source of radiation cooling equipment is adopted and the sun exposure heat load is imitated by array of planar membrane heaters attached on the specific designed structure of the aperture. Controlling the aperture temperature and improving the optical system performance are proved effective. Numerical optimization of the cooling circuit and simulation of the aperture are performed , and the factors affect the optical system performance in the mean time are also investigated.

  4. Evaporative cooling of speleothem drip water

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, M. O.; Rau, G. C.; Andersen, M. S.; Roshan, H.; Rutlidge, H.; Marjo, C. E.; Markowska, M.; Jex, C. N.; Graham, P. W.; Mariethoz, G.; Acworth, R. I.; Baker, A.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the first use of concurrent high-precision temperature and drip rate monitoring to explore what controls the temperature of speleothem forming drip water. Two contrasting sites, one with fast transient and one with slow constant dripping, in a temperate semi-arid location (Wellington, NSW, Australia), exhibit drip water temperatures which deviate significantly from the cave air temperature. We confirm the hypothesis that evaporative cooling is the dominant, but so far unattributed, control causing significant disequilibrium between drip water and host rock/air temperatures. The amount of cooling is dependent on the drip rate, relative humidity and ventilation. Our results have implications for the interpretation of temperature-sensitive, speleothem climate proxies such as δ18O, cave microecology and the use of heat as a tracer in karst. Understanding the processes controlling the temperature of speleothem-forming cave drip waters is vital for assessing the reliability of such deposits as archives of climate change. PMID:24895139

  5. Cooling tower water conditioning study. [using ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.

    1979-01-01

    Successful elimination of cooling tower treatment chemicals was demonstrated. Three towers functioned for long periods of time with ozone as the only treatment for the water. The water in the systems was reused as much as 30 times (cycles of concentration) without deleterious effects to the heat exchangers. Actual system blow-down was eliminated and the only makeup water added was that required to replace the evaporation and mist entrainment losses. Minimum water savings alone are approximately 75.1 1/kg/year. Cost estimates indicate that a savings of 55 percent was obtained on the systems using ozone. A major problem experienced in the use of ozone for cooling tower applications was the difficulty of accurate concentration measurements. The ability to control the operational characteristics relies on easily and accurately determined concentration levels. Present methods of detection are subject to inaccuracies because of interfering materials and the rapid destruction of the ozone.

  6. Evaporative cooling of speleothem drip water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuthbert, M. O.; Rau, G. C.; Andersen, M. S.; Roshan, H.; Rutlidge, H.; Marjo, C. E.; Markowska, M.; Jex, C. N.; Graham, P. W.; Mariethoz, G.; Acworth, R. I.; Baker, A.

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the first use of concurrent high-precision temperature and drip rate monitoring to explore what controls the temperature of speleothem forming drip water. Two contrasting sites, one with fast transient and one with slow constant dripping, in a temperate semi-arid location (Wellington, NSW, Australia), exhibit drip water temperatures which deviate significantly from the cave air temperature. We confirm the hypothesis that evaporative cooling is the dominant, but so far unattributed, control causing significant disequilibrium between drip water and host rock/air temperatures. The amount of cooling is dependent on the drip rate, relative humidity and ventilation. Our results have implications for the interpretation of temperature-sensitive, speleothem climate proxies such as δ18O, cave microecology and the use of heat as a tracer in karst. Understanding the processes controlling the temperature of speleothem-forming cave drip waters is vital for assessing the reliability of such deposits as archives of climate change.

  7. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit water vapor radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sukamto, L. M.; Cooley, T. W.; Janssen, M. A.; Parks, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    A proof of concept Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) is under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). WVR's are used to remotely sense water vapor and cloud liquid water in the atmosphere and are valuable for meteorological applications as well as for determination of signal path delays due to water vapor in the atmosphere. The high cost and large size of existing WVR instruments motivate the development of miniature MMIC WVR's, which have great potential for low cost mass production. The miniaturization of WVR components allows large scale deployment of WVR's for Earth environment and meteorological applications. Small WVR's can also result in improved thermal stability, resulting in improved calibration stability. Described here is the design and fabrication of a 31.4 GHz MMIC radiometer as one channel of a thermally stable WVR as a means of assessing MMIC technology feasibility.

  8. Management of the Post-Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Water Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.; Etter, David; Rector, Tony; Hill, Terry; Wells, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The EMU incorporates two separate water circuits for the rejection of metabolic heat from the astronaut and the cooling of electrical components. The first (the Transport Water Loop) circulates in a semi-closed-loop manner and absorbs heat into a Liquid Coolant and Ventilation Garment (LCVG) worn by the astronaut. The second (the Feed-water Loop) provides water to a cooling device (Sublimator) with a porous plate, and that water subsequently sublimates to space vacuum. The cooling effect from the sublimation of this water translates to a cooling of the LCVG water that circulates through the Sublimator. Efforts are underway to streamline the use of a water processing kit (ALCLR) that is being used to periodically clean and disinfect the Transport Loop Water. Those efforts include a fine tuning of the duty cycle based on a review of prior performance data as well as an assessment of a fixed installation of this kit into the EMU backpack, within on-orbit EMU interface hardware or as a stand-alone unit. Furthermore, testing is being conducted to ensure compatibility between the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor Assembly (WPA) effluent and the EMU Sublimator as a prelude to using the WPA effluent as influent to the EMU Feed Water loop. This work is undertaken to reduce the crewtime and logistics burdens for the EMU, while ensuring the long-term health of the EMU water circuits for a 6-year service life.

  9. Management of the Post-Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Water Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.; Etter, David; Rector, Tony; Hill, Terry; Wells, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The EMU incorporates two separate water circuits for the rejection of metabolic heat from the astronaut and the cooling of electrical components. The first (the Transport Water Loop) circulates in a semi-closed-loop manner and absorbs heat into a Liquid Coolant and Ventilation Garment (LCVG) warn by the astronaut. The second (the Feed Water Loop) provides water to a cooling device (Sublimator) with a porous plate, and that water subsequently sublimates to space vacuum. The cooling effect from the sublimation of this water translates to a cooling of the LCVG water that circulates through the Sublimator. Efforts are underway to streamline the use of a water processing kit (ALCLR) that is being used to periodically clean and disinfect the Transport Loop Water. Those efforts include a fine tuning of the duty cycle based on a review of prior performance data as well as an assessment of a fixed installation of this kit into the EMU backpack or within on-orbit EMU interface hardware. Furthermore, testing is being conducted to ensure compatibility between the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor Assembly (WPA) effluent and the EMU Sublimator as a prelude to using the WPA effluent as influent to the EMU Feed Water loop. This work is undertaken to reduce the crew-time and logistics burdens for the EMU, while ensuring the long-term health of the EMU water circuits for a post-Shuttle 6-year service life.

  10. [Body cooling capacity of water circulated cooling pants during lower body exercise in a hot environment].

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Takao; Idota, Nozomi; Nagano, Chikage; Horie, Seichi; Sogabe, Yasuhiro; Monji, Koichi

    2005-03-01

    We investigated the body cooling capacity of water-circulated cooling pants during lower body exercise in a hot environment. Five subjects were asked to ride a bicycle ergometer and to keep a work rate of 75 W continuously for 20 minutes. They then rest on the ergometer for 15 minutes, in a climate chamber kept at WBGT = 31.5 degrees C. They repeated the same procedure three times under three different conditions; 1) wearing cooling pants with cold water supply; 2) wearing cooling pants without water supply; 3) wearing short pants instead of cooling pants. Esophageal temperature and heart rate of the subjects, when their cooling pants were supplied with cold water, were lower compared with the condition without water supply, and were almost the same as the condition wearing short pants. Water-circulated cooling pants should effectively cool the body at work where the worker has to wear pants that cover his legs to prevent injury.

  11. Initial Testing of the Stainless Steel NaK-Cooled Circuit (SNaKC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, Anne; Godfroy, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    An actively pumped alkali metal flow circuit, designed and fabricated at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, is currently undergoing testing in the Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF). Sodium potassium (NaK) was selected as the primary coolant. Basic circuit components include: simulated reactor core, NaK to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic liquid metal pump, liquid metal flowmeter, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, test section, and instrumentation. Operation of the circuit is based around the 37-pin partial-array core (pin and flow path dimensions are the same as those in a full core), designed to operate at 33 kWt. This presentation addresses the construction, fill and initial testing of the Stainless Steel NaK-Cooled Circuit (SNaKC).

  12. 50. NORTHERN VIEW OF NONEVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. NORTHERN VIEW OF NON-EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS IN CENTER, AND EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER COOLING TOWERS ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  13. Water cooling in induction heating furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lazcano-Navarro, A; Lazcano-Ponce, A.; Arellano-Valdes, R.

    1993-08-17

    An induction heated horizontal continuous casting device is described, comprising in combination a tundish opening for receiving steel, an inductor section for inductively maintaining steel temperature, a heating coil externally disposed about the inductor section, a refractory sleeve joint forming a discharge channel for removing liquid steel from the inductor, a water cooled coil array disposed about the inductor and a set of magnetic field insulator surrounding the coil.

  14. Inhibition of calcium carbonate crystal growth by organic additives using the constant composition method in conditions of recirculating cooling circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhim, Norinda; Kharbachi, Chams; Neveux, Thibaut; Bouteleux, Céline; Teychené, Sébastien; Biscans, Béatrice

    2017-08-01

    The cooling circuits used in power plants are subject to mineral crystallization which can cause scaling on the surfaces of equipment and construction materials reducing their heat exchange efficiency. Precipitated calcium carbonate is the predominant mineral scale commonly observed in cooling systems. Supersaturation is the key parameter controlling the nucleation and growth of calcite in these systems. The present work focuses on the precipitation of calcite using the constant composition method at constant supersaturation, through controlled addition of reactants to a semi-batch crystallizer, in order to maintain constant solution pH. The determination of the thermodynamic driving force (supersaturation) was based on the relevant chemical equilibria, total alkalinity and calculation of the activity coefficients. Calcite crystallization rates were derived from the experiments performed at supersaturation levels similar to those found in industrial station cooling circuits. Several types of seeds particles were added into the aqueous solution to mimic natural river water conditions in terms of suspended particulate matters content, typically: calcite, silica or illite particles. The effect of citric and copolycarboxylic additive inhibitors added to the aqueous solution was studied. The calcium carbonate growth rate was reduced by 38.6% in the presence of the citric additive and a reduction of 92.7% was observed when the copolycarboxylic additive was used under identical experimental conditions. These results are explained by the location of the adsorbed inhibitor at the crystal surface and by the degree of chemical bonding to the surface.

  15. Bacterial community structure in cooling water and biofilm in an industrial recirculating cooling water system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinmei; Liu, Min; Xiao, Huijie; Wu, Wei; Xie, Meijuan; Sun, Mengjia; Zhu, Chenglin; Li, Pengfu

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fouling is a serious problem in open recirculating cooling water systems. The bacterial communities that cause it have not been fully understood. In this study, we analyzed the community structure of free-living bacteria and particle-attached bacteria in cooling water, and bacteria in biofilm collected from the wall of the water reservoir in an industrial recirculating cooling water system by construction of a 16S rRNA gene clone library. Based on amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, clones of all three libraries were clustered into 45 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Thirteen OTUs displaying 91-96% sequence similarity to a type strain might be novel bacterial species. Noted differences in community structure were observed among the three libraries. The relative species richness of the free-living bacteria in cooling water was much lower than that of particle-attached bacteria and bacteria in biofilm. The majority of the free-living bacterial community (99.0%) was Betaproteobacteria. The predominant bacteria in the particle-attached bacterial community were Alphaproteobacteria (20.5%), Betaproteobacteria (27.8%) and Planctomycetes (42.0%), while those in the biofilm bacterial community were Alphaproteobacteria (47.9%), Betaproteobacteria (11.7%), Acidobacteria (13.1%) and Gemmatimonadetes (11.3%). To control microbial fouling in industrial recirculating cooling water systems, additional physiological and ecological studies of these species will be essential.

  16. 40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14... AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any point source for which a standard...

  17. 40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14... AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any point source for which a standard...

  18. 40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14... AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any point source for which a standard...

  19. 40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooling water intake structures. 401... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any point source for which a standard...

  20. 40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14... AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any point source for which a standard...

  1. Integrated axial and tangential serpentine cooling circuit in a turbine airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Marra, John J; Rudolph, Ronald J; Dalton, John P

    2015-05-05

    A continuous serpentine cooling circuit forming a progression of radial passages (44, 45, 46, 47A, 48A) between pressure and suction side walls (52, 54) in a MID region of a turbine airfoil (24). The circuit progresses first axially, then tangentially, ending in a last radial passage (48A) adjacent to the suction side (54) and not adjacent to the pressure side (52). The passages of the axial progression (44, 45, 46) may be adjacent to both the pressure and suction side walls of the airfoil. The next to last radial passage (47A) may be adjacent to the pressure side wall and not adjacent to the suction side wall. The last two radial passages (47A, 48A) may be longer along the pressure and suction side walls respectively than they are in a width direction, providing increased direct cooling surface area on the interiors of these hot walls.

  2. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, M.M.; Lau, L.K.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-12-14

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps. 1 figures.

  3. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, Michael M.; Lau, Louis K.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

  4. Computer model for air-cooled refrigerant condensers with specified refrigerant circuiting

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, R.D.; Creswick, F.A.; Fischer, S.K.; Jackson, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    A computer model for an air-cooled refrigerant condensor is presented; the model is intended for use in detailed design analyses or in simulation of the performance of existing heat exchangers that have complex refrigerant circuiting or unusual air-side geometries. The model relies on a tube-by-tube computational approach calculating the thermal and fluid-flow performance of each tube in the heat exchanger individually, using local temperatures and heat transfer coefficients. The refrigerant circuiting must be specified; the joining or branching of parallel circuits is accommodated using appropriate mixing expressions. Air-side heat exchange correlations may be specified so that various surface geometries can be investigated. Results of the analyses of two condensers are compared to experiment.

  5. Review of High Temperature Water and Steam Cooled Reactor Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Yoshiaki

    2002-07-01

    This review summarizes design concepts of supercritical-pressure water cooled reactors (SCR), nuclear superheaters and steam cooled fast reactors from 1950's to the present time. It includes water moderated supercritical steam cooled reactor, SCOTT-R and SC-PWR of Westinghouse, heavy water moderated light water cooled SCR of GE, SCLWR and SCFR of the University of Tokyo, B-500SKDI of Kurchatov Institute, CANDU -X of AECL, nuclear superheaters of GE, subcritical-pressure steam cooled FBR of KFK and B and W, Supercritical-pressure steam cooled FBR of B and W, subcritical-pressure steam cooled high converter by Edlund and Schultz and subcritical-pressure water-steam cooled FBR by Alekseev. This paper is prepared based on the previous review of SCR2000 symposium, and some author's comments are added. (author)

  6. PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gas/fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2015-09-22

    A system including a vessel including a heat source and a flue; a turbine; a condenser; a fluid conduit circuit disposed between the vessel, the turbine and the condenser; and a diverter coupled to the flue to direct a portion of an exhaust from the flue to contact with a cooling medium for the condenser water. A method including diverting a portion of exhaust from a flue of a vessel; modifying the pH of a cooling medium for a condenser with the portion of exhaust; and condensing heated fluid from the vessel with the pH modified cooling medium.

  7. Heat dissipation in water-cooled reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozai, Toyoki

    1994-01-01

    The energy balance of a lamp varies with the thermal and optical characteristics of the reflector. The photosynthetic radiation efficiency of lamps, defined as input power divided by photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) emitted from the lamp ranges between 0.17 and 0.26. The rest of the energy input is wasted as longwave (3000 nm and over) and non-PAR shortwave radiation (from 700 nm to 3000 nm), convective, and conductive heat from the lamp, reflector, and ballast, and simply for increasing the cooling load. Furthermore, some portion of the PAR is uselessly absorbed by the inner walls, shelves, vessels, etc. and some portion of the PAR received by the plantlets is converted into sensible and latent heat. More than 98% of the energy input is probably converted into heat, with only less than 2% of the energy input being converted into chemical energy as carbohydrates by photosynthesis. Therefore, it is essential to reduce the generation of heat in the culture room in order to reduce the cooling load. Through use of a water-cooled reflector, the generation of convective and conductive heat and longwave radiation from the reflector can be reduced, without reduction of PAR.

  8. COOLING WATER ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES AT U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Vine

    2010-12-01

    This report has been prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), for the purpose of providing a status report on the challenges and opportunities facing the U.S. commercial nuclear energy industry in the area of plant cooling water supply. The report was prompted in part by recent Second Circuit and Supreme Court decisions regarding cooling water system designs at existing thermo-electric power generating facilities in the U.S. (primarily fossil and nuclear plants). At issue in the courts have been Environmental Protection Agency regulations that define what constitutes “Best Technology Available” for intake structures that withdraw cooling water that is used to transfer and reject heat from the plant’s steam turbine via cooling water systems, while minimizing environmental impacts on aquatic life in nearby water bodies used to supply that cooling water. The report was also prompted by a growing recognition that cooling water availability and societal use conflicts are emerging as strategic energy and environmental issues, and that research and development (R&D) solutions to emerging water shortage issues are needed. In particular, cooling water availability is an important consideration in siting decisions for new nuclear power plants, and is an under-acknowledged issue in evaluating the pros and cons of retrofitting cooling towers at existing nuclear plants. Because of the significant ongoing research on water issues already being performed by industry, the national laboratories and other entities, this report relies heavily on ongoing work. In particular, this report has relied on collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), including its recent work in the area of EPA regulations governing intake structures in thermoelectric cooling water systems.

  9. Process for utilizing waste heat and for obtaining water gas during the cooling of incandescent coke

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, R.A.

    1984-03-20

    A process for utilizing waste heat and for obtaining water gas during the cooling of incandescent coke ejected from a chamber oven is described, this process being in two stages. In the first stage, the coke is dry-cooled with a mixture of water gas and water vapor as the cooling gas. This is circulated, and from the circuit the desired waste heat and the desired water gas are extracted. In the second stage, the coke is wet-cooled with water. The water vapor formed is taken off and returned to the environment and/or to the second stage. An apparatus is described for carrying out the process, and this apparatus has, located under one another, a filling shaft (1), a pre-chamber (2), a cooling chamber (3), a quenching chamber (4) with a water-spray device (5), an extraction housing (6) and a discharge shaft (7), and is equipped with a cooling-gas discharge line (19) leading away from the cooling chamber (3) and, in succession, a coarse separator (20), a heat sink (21), a blower (23), a cooling-gas delivery line (25) to the cooling chamber (3), an extraction line (26) leading away from the cooling-gas delivery line (25) with a throttling device (27), and a take-off line (34) which leads away from the extraction housing (6) and which leads to a cyclone separator (35), a blower (36) and an exhaust steam pipe (38) with a throttling device (37) and/or to a return line (39) with a throttling device (40).

  10. Selective Brain Cooling Reduces Water Turnover in Dehydrated Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, W. Maartin; Hetem, Robyn S.; Mitchell, Duncan; Maloney, Shane K.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Fuller, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In artiodactyls, arterial blood destined for the brain can be cooled through counter-current heat exchange within the cavernous sinus via a process called selective brain cooling. We test the hypothesis that selective brain cooling, which results in lowered hypothalamic temperature, contributes to water conservation in sheep. Nine Dorper sheep, instrumented to provide measurements of carotid blood and brain temperature, were dosed with deuterium oxide (D2O), exposed to heat for 8 days (40◦C for 6-h per day) and deprived of water for the last five days (days 3 to 8). Plasma osmolality increased and the body water fraction decreased over the five days of water deprivation, with the sheep losing 16.7% of their body mass. Following water deprivation, both the mean 24h carotid blood temperature and the mean 24h brain temperature increased, but carotid blood temperature increased more than did brain temperature resulting in increased selective brain cooling. There was considerable inter-individual variation in the degree to which individual sheep used selective brain cooling. In general, sheep spent more time using selective brain cooling, and it was of greater magnitude, when dehydrated compared to when they were euhydrated. We found a significant positive correlation between selective brain cooling magnitude and osmolality (an index of hydration state). Both the magnitude of selective brain cooling and the proportion of time that sheep spent selective brain cooling were negatively correlated with water turnover. Sheep that used selective brain cooling more frequently, and with greater magnitude, lost less water than did conspecifics using selective brain cooling less efficiently. Our results show that a 50kg sheep can save 2.6L of water per day (~60% of daily water intake) when it employs selective brain cooling for 50% of the day during heat exposure. We conclude that selective brain cooling has a water conservation function in artiodactyls. PMID:25675092

  11. Selective brain cooling reduces water turnover in dehydrated sheep.

    PubMed

    Strauss, W Maartin; Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; Maloney, Shane K; Meyer, Leith C R; Fuller, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In artiodactyls, arterial blood destined for the brain can be cooled through counter-current heat exchange within the cavernous sinus via a process called selective brain cooling. We test the hypothesis that selective brain cooling, which results in lowered hypothalamic temperature, contributes to water conservation in sheep. Nine Dorper sheep, instrumented to provide measurements of carotid blood and brain temperature, were dosed with deuterium oxide (D2O), exposed to heat for 8 days (40 ◦C for 6-h per day) and deprived of water for the last five days (days 3 to 8). Plasma osmolality increased and the body water fraction decreased over the five days of water deprivation, with the sheep losing 16.7% of their body mass. Following water deprivation, both the mean 24h carotid blood temperature and the mean 24h brain temperature increased, but carotid blood temperature increased more than did brain temperature resulting in increased selective brain cooling. There was considerable inter-individual variation in the degree to which individual sheep used selective brain cooling. In general, sheep spent more time using selective brain cooling, and it was of greater magnitude, when dehydrated compared to when they were euhydrated. We found a significant positive correlation between selective brain cooling magnitude and osmolality (an index of hydration state). Both the magnitude of selective brain cooling and the proportion of time that sheep spent selective brain cooling were negatively correlated with water turnover. Sheep that used selective brain cooling more frequently, and with greater magnitude, lost less water than did conspecifics using selective brain cooling less efficiently. Our results show that a 50 kg sheep can save 2.6L of water per day (~60% of daily water intake) when it employs selective brain cooling for 50% of the day during heat exposure. We conclude that selective brain cooling has a water conservation function in artiodactyls.

  12. Influence of detergents on water drift in cooling towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitkovicova, Rut

    An influence of detergents on the water drift from the cooling tower was experimentally investigated. For this experimental measurements was used a model cooling tower, especially an experimental aerodynamic line, which is specially designed for the measurement and monitoring of processes taking place around the eliminators of the liquid phase. The effect of different concentrations of detergent in the cooling water on the drift of water droplets from a commonly used type eliminator was observed with visualization methods.

  13. Influence of detergents on water drift in cooling towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitkovicova, Rut

    2016-11-01

    An influence of detergents on the water drift from the cooling tower was experimentally investigated. For this experimental measurements was used a model cooling tower, especially an experimental aerodynamic line, which is specially designed for the measurement and monitoring of processes taking place around the eliminators of the liquid phase. The effect of different concentrations of detergent in the cooling water on the drift of water droplets from a commonly used type eliminator was observed with visualization methods.

  14. Alternative cooling tower water treatment methods

    SciTech Connect

    Wilsey, C.A.

    1996-11-01

    The factors that contribute to proper water balance include total alkalinity, calcium hardness, and pH. In order to keep the cooling tower from scaling or corroding, a manipulation of these components is often necessary. This has traditionally been achieved with the use of chemicals, including but not limited to the following: acid, soda ash, sodium bicarbonate, calcium bicarbonate, algicide, and bactericide. Extensive research has shown that a balanced water system can also be achieved by using the proper combination of copper with a known halogen. Microbiologists have determined that a small amount of copper, acting as a supplement to chlorine at 0.4 ppm, has the same efficiency as 2.0 ppm free chlorine. Therefore, by using the following combination of components and procedures, the desired results can still be achieved: production of copper compound ions as a supplement to the chemical regimen; analysis and manipulation of make-up water; the use of copper as a coagulant for reduction of scale; copper as a supplemental bacterial disinfectant; and copper as an algicide.

  15. Hot water supply apparatus comprising a thermodynamic circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Chapelle, J.A.; Levacher, J.; Sanzey, E.; Vironneau, P.

    1982-12-21

    A hot water supply apparatus comprises a thermodynamic circuit having a compressor, a condensor for heat exchange between the thermodynamic fluid in the circuit and a high temperature source. That circuit further includes an evaporator arranged for heat exchange with a non-freezable heat carrying fluid which is circulated in a solar energy collecting circuit. A tank receives a body of water for heat storage. An heat exchanger is arranged in the circuit for circulation of the heat carrying fluid and is physically located above the tank. It may be combined with the evaporator. A pump directs a flow of water from the storage tank to sprinkling means associated with the heat exchanger whereby the apparatus operates as ice manufacturing device under severe cold conditions, when there is insufficient heating energy available from the sun.

  16. Water distribution characteristics of spray nozzles in a cooling tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitkovic, Pavol

    2015-05-01

    Water distribution characteristics of spray nozzles with spray plates used to distribute cooling water to the cooling fills in a cooling tower is one of the important parameters for the selection of nozzles. Water distribution characteristic describes the distribution of water from the axis of the nozzle along a fill. One of the parameters affecting the water distribution characteristic of the nozzle is airflow velocity of counter flow airstream. Water distribution characteristics are commonly measured using by a set of containers. The problem with this method of the measurement of characteristics is block of the airflow with collections of containers. Therefore, this work is using the visualization method.

  17. Effect of Precipitable Water Vapor Amount on Radiative Cooling Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Mingke; Zhao, Bin; Ao, Xianze; Pei, Gang

    2017-05-01

    A radiative cooler based on aluminum-evaporated polyvinyl-fluoride surface was employed to investigate the effect of precipitable water vapor amount on its radiative cooling performance. A mathematic model of steady heat transfer that considers the spectral radiant distribution of the sky, the transparent cover and the collecting surface was established. The results indicate that the amount of precipitable water vapor shows a remarkable and negative effect on radiative cooling performance of the radiative cooler. Both the temperature difference between the cooler and surroundings and the net radiative cooling power decrease as the precipitable water vapor amount increases. The net radiative cooling power drops by about 41.0% as the the precipitable water vapor amount changes from 1.0 cm to 7.0 cm. Besides, the radiative cooler shows better cooling performance in winter than in summer. The net radiative cooling power in summer of Hefei is about 82.2% of that in winter.

  18. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water usage.

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Andres L.; Everett, Randy L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Cappelle, Malynda A.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2010-09-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  19. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water consumption.

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, Susan Jeanne; Ciferno, Jared

    2010-10-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  20. Membrane evaporative cooling to 30 degrees C or less: 1. Membrane evaporative cooling of contained water.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Sidney

    2003-03-01

    Microporous hydrophobic membranes have been examined for possible use as containers in the evaporative cooling of water, particularly in desert climates. An experimental determination was made of the overall heat and mass transfer coefficients of these membranes while surmounting contained water and with air flowing over the surface of the membranes. Similar tests were made with water alone, that is, without a membrane. The coefficients were then used to compare the performance of existing (canvas water) coolers and membrane evaporative coolers under desert conditions. The performance of the membrane coolers was close enough to that of the canvas coolers that extensive investigation of various aspects of membrane evaporative cooling appears to be justified, particularly in view of the potential advantages of the latter over the existing evaporative cooling methods. For example, for cool storage of perishable goods in a desert climate, the membrane container might be uniquely qualified because of its low rate of water consumption compared to that of a canvas cooler.

  1. A model for radionuclide transport in the Cooling Water System

    SciTech Connect

    Kahook, S.D.

    1992-08-01

    A radionuclide transport model developed to assess radiological levels in the K-reactor Cooling Water System (CWS) in the event of an inadvertent process water (PW) leakage to the cooling water (CW) in the heat exchangers (HX) is described. During and following a process water leak, the radionuclide transport model determines the time-dependent release rates of radionuclide from the cooling water system to the environment via evaporation to the atmosphere and blow-down to the Savannah River. The developed model allows for delay times associated with the transport of the cooling water radioactivity through cooling water system components. Additionally, this model simulates the time-dependent behavior of radionuclides levels in various CWS components. The developed model is incorporated into the K-reactor Cooling Tower Activity (KCTA) code. KCTA allows the accident (heat exchanger leak rate) and the cooling tower blow-down and evaporation rates to be described as time-dependent functions. Thus, the postulated leak and the consequence of the assumed leak can be modelled realistically. This model is the first of three models to be ultimately assembled to form a comprehensive Liquid Pathway Activity System (LPAS). LPAS will offer integrated formation, transport, deposition, and release estimates for radionuclides formed in a SRS facility. Process water and river water modules are forthcoming as input and downstream components, respectively, for KCTA.

  2. A model for radionuclide transport in the Cooling Water System

    SciTech Connect

    Kahook, S.D.

    1992-08-01

    A radionuclide transport model developed to assess radiological levels in the K-reactor Cooling Water System (CWS) in the event of an inadvertent process water (PW) leakage to the cooling water (CW) in the heat exchangers (HX) is described. During and following a process water leak, the radionuclide transport model determines the time-dependent release rates of radionuclide from the cooling water system to the environment via evaporation to the atmosphere and blow-down to the Savannah River. The developed model allows for delay times associated with the transport of the cooling water radioactivity through cooling water system components. Additionally, this model simulates the time-dependent behavior of radionuclides levels in various CWS components. The developed model is incorporated into the K-reactor Cooling Tower Activity (KCTA) code. KCTA allows the accident (heat exchanger leak rate) and the cooling tower blow-down and evaporation rates to be described as time-dependent functions. Thus, the postulated leak and the consequence of the assumed leak can be modelled realistically. This model is the first of three models to be ultimately assembled to form a comprehensive Liquid Pathway Activity System (LPAS). LPAS will offer integrated formation, transport, deposition, and release estimates for radionuclides formed in a SRS facility. Process water and river water modules are forthcoming as input and downstream components, respectively, for KCTA.

  3. Water chemistry of a combined-cycle power plant's auxiliary equipment cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, B. M.; Korotkov, A. N.; Oparin, M. Yu.; Larin, A. B.

    2013-04-01

    Results from an analysis of methods aimed at reducing the corrosion rate of structural metal used in heat-transfer systems with water coolant are presented. Data from examination of the closed-circuit system for cooling the auxiliary mechanisms of a combined-cycle plant-based power unit and the results from adjustment of its water chemistry are given. A conclusion is drawn about the possibility of using a reagent prepared on the basis of sodium sulfite for reducing the corrosion rate when the loss of coolant is replenished with nondeaerated water.

  4. Successful water reuse in open recirculating cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vaska, M.; Lee, B.

    1994-12-31

    Water reuse in open recirculating cooling water systems is becoming increasingly prevalent in industry. Reuse can incorporate a number of varied approaches with the primary goal being water conservation. Market forces driving this trend include scarcity of fresh water makeup sources and higher costs associated with pretreatment of natural waters. Utilization of reuse water for cooling tower makeup has especially detrimental effects on corrosion and deposit rates. Additionally, once the reuse water is cycled and treated with inhibitors, dispersants and microbiocides, acceptability for discharge to a public waterway can be a concern. The task for water treatment suppliers is to guide industry in the feasibility and procedures for successfully achieving these goals. This paper focuses particularly on reuse of municipal wastewater for cooling tower makeup and explores techniques which have been found especially effective. Case histories are described where these concepts have been successfully applied in practice.

  5. The impact of monochloramine on the diversity and dynamics of Legionella pneumophila subpopulations in a nuclear power plant cooling circuit.

    PubMed

    Jakubek, Delphine; Le Brun, Matthieu; Leblon, Gerard; DuBow, Michael; Binet, Marie

    2013-08-01

    Members of the pathogenic Legionella genus encounter suitable growth conditions in nuclear power plant cooling circuits. To limit its proliferation and ensure that levels remain below regulatory thresholds, chemical treatment with monochloramine can be used in continuous or sequential conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of monochloramine on L. pneumophila subpopulations in the cooling circuits of a nuclear power plant. The chosen procedure involved monitoring the diversity and dynamics of L. pneumophila subpopulations every month over the course of a year in a nuclear power plant cooling circuit, which was treated for 2 months during the period under study. This study confirmed the effectiveness of monochloramine to limit L. pneumophila concentrations in cooling circuits. The culturable L. pneumophila community was strongly affected by the injection of monochloramine. Several subpopulations persisted during treatment at low concentrations (below the detection limit of standard methods), suggesting that the susceptibility of L. pneumophila is strain dependent. Although the composition of the subpopulations was not similar, the resilience of the community structure was observed. Indeed, the community eventually returned to its initial structure and presented a similar pattern of richness, diversity and uniformity to that seen before treatment.

  6. Section A, view of cooling water pipes and parking garage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section A, view of cooling water pipes and parking garage entrance/exit on west slurry wall, looking west. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York County, NY

  7. RED GATE HOUSE, INSTALLATION OF COOLING WATER PENSTOCK FOR NEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RED GATE HOUSE, INSTALLATION OF COOLING WATER PENSTOCK FOR NEW POWER STATION. PHOTOCOPY OF 1909 VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. From the collection of the Manchester Historic Association, Manchester, N. H. - Amoskeag Millyard, Canal Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

  8. 38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, LANCES, AND FUME HOODS IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE LOOKING EAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  9. 68. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER PIPES FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER PIPES FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. INTERIOR OF CAST HOUSE LOOKING NORTH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  10. (DARPA) Optical Radiation Cooling and Heating In Integrated Devices: Circuit cavity optomechanics for cooling and amplification on a silicon chip

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-16

    Columbia’s team focuses on chip-scale optomechanics with emphasis on circuit integration on silicon platforms. In Phase I (06/2010-06/2012), we...Columbia’s team focuses on chip-scale optomechanics with emphasis on circuit integration on silicon platforms. In Phase I (06/2010-06/2012), we advanced...multi- layer structures which can enable more flexible and efficient integration . Using our fully CMOS- compatible AlN photonic circuits , we have thus

  11. Cooling of gas turbines IX : cooling effects from use of ceramic coatings on water-cooled turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W Byron; Livingood, John N B

    1948-01-01

    The hottest part of a turbine blade is likely to be the trailing portion. When the blades are cooled and when water is used as the coolant, the cooling passages are placed as close as possible to the trailing edge in order to cool this portion. In some cases, however, the trailing portion of the blade is so narrow, for aerodynamic reasons, that water passages cannot be located very near the trailing edge. Because ceramic coatings offer the possibility of protection for the trailing part of such narrow blades, a theoretical study has been made of the cooling effect of a ceramic coating on: (1) the blade-metal temperature when the gas temperature is unchanged, and (2) the gas temperature when the metal temperature is unchanged. Comparison is also made between the changes in the blade or gas temperatures produced by ceramic coatings and the changes produced by moving the cooling passages nearer the trailing edge. This comparison was made to provide a standard for evaluating the gains obtainable with ceramic coatings as compared to those obtainable by constructing the turbine blade in such a manner that water passages could be located very near the trailing edge.

  12. PBF Cooling Tower under construction. Cold water basin is five ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower under construction. Cold water basin is five feet deep. Foundation and basin walls are reinforced concrete. Camera facing west. Pipe openings through wall in front are outlets for return flow of cool water to reactor building. Photographer: John Capek. Date: September 4, 1968. INEEL negative no. 68-3473 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems, including potable hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, D.; Oonk, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Progress made in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is reported. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition. A comparison of the proposed Solaron Heat Pump and Solar Desiccant Heating and Cooling Systems, installation drawings, data on the Akron House at Akron, Ohio, and other program activities are included.

  14. WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

    2004-11-01

    Power generation and water consumption are inextricably linked. Because of this relationship DOE/NETL has funded a competitive research and development initiative to address this relationship. This report is part of that initiative and is in response to DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41719-0. Thermal electric power generation requires large volumes of water to cool spent steam at the end of the turbine cycle. The required volumes are such that new plant siting is increasingly dependent on the availability of cooling circuit water. Even in the eastern U.S., large rivers such as the Monongahela may no longer be able to support additional, large power stations due to subscription of flow to existing plants, industrial, municipal and navigational requirements. Earlier studies conducted by West Virginia University (WV 132, WV 173 phase I, WV 173 Phase II, WV 173 Phase III, and WV 173 Phase IV in review) have identified that a large potential water resource resides in flooded, abandoned coal mines in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, and likely elsewhere in the region and nation. This study evaluates the technical and economic potential of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin water source to supply new power plants with cooling water. Two approaches for supplying new power plants were evaluated. Type A employs mine water in conventional, evaporative cooling towers. Type B utilizes earth-coupled cooling with flooded underground mines as the principal heat sink for the power plant reject heat load. Existing mine discharges in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin were evaluated for flow and water quality. Based on this analysis, eight sites were identified where mine water could supply cooling water to a power plant. Three of these sites were employed for pre-engineering design and cost analysis of a Type A water supply system, including mine water collection, treatment, and delivery. This method was also applied to a ''base case'' river-source power plant, for comparison. Mine-water system cost

  15. DUSEL Facility Cooling Water Scaling Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, W D

    2011-04-05

    Precipitation (crystal growth) in supersaturated solutions is governed by both kenetic and thermodynamic processes. This is an important and evolving field of research, especially for the petroleum industry. There are several types of precipitates including sulfate compounds (ie. barium sulfate) and calcium compounds (ie. calcium carbonate). The chemical makeup of the mine water has relatively large concentrations of sulfate as compared to calcium, so we may expect that sulfate type reactions. The kinetics of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4 {center_dot} 2H20, gypsum) scale formation on heat exchanger surfaces from aqueous solutions has been studied by a highly reproducible technique. It has been found that gypsum scale formation takes place directly on the surface of the heat exchanger without any bulk or spontaneous precipitation in the reaction cell. The kinetic data also indicate that the rate of scale formation is a function of surface area and the metallurgy of the heat exchanger. As we don't have detailed information about the heat exchanger, we can only infer that this will be an issue for us. Supersaturations of various compounds are affected differently by temperature, pressure and pH. Pressure has only a slight affect on the solubility, whereas temperature is a much more sensitive parameter (Figure 1). The affect of temperature is reversed for calcium carbonate and barium sulfate solubilities. As temperature increases, barium sulfate solubility concentrations increase and scaling decreases. For calcium carbonate, the scaling tendencies increase with increasing temperature. This is all relative, as the temperatures and pressures of the referenced experiments range from 122 to 356 F. Their pressures range from 200 to 4000 psi. Because the cooling water system isn't likely to see pressures above 200 psi, it's unclear if this pressure/scaling relationship will be significant or even apparent. The most common scale minerals found in the oilfield include

  16. The cooling of printed circuit board mounted components using copper ladder heat conduction to a cold wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, I. C.

    1982-09-01

    A series of experimental tests, designed to investigate the cooling of printed circuit board (PCB) mounted dual-in-line (DIL) components within an avionic box using the copper ladder/cold wall technique is described. Areas of investigation include avionic box orientation, side wall conduction, top plate finning, mixed air-wash, avionic power reduction, cooling air temperature reduction, cooling air mass flow rate reduction, cold wall heat pick-up and avionic box insulation. Results were obtained from thermocouple temperature measurements. The use of an aluminum alloy interplate to cool two adjacent PCBs is discussed. Results in graphic form are included together with a list of conclusions on the effects of all the major parameters considered.

  17. The performance of a mobile air conditioning system with a water cooled condenser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Battista, Davide; Cipollone, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    Vehicle technological evolution lived, in recent years, a strong acceleration due to the increased awareness of environmental issues related to pollutants and climate altering emissions. This resulted in a series of international regulations on automotive sector which put technical challenges that must consider the engine and the vehicle as a global system, in order to improve the overall efficiency of the system. The air conditioning system of the cabin, for instance, is the one of the most important auxiliaries in a vehicle and requires significant powers. Its performances can be significantly improved if it is integrated within the engine cooling circuit, eventually modified with more temperature levels. In this paper, the Authors present a mathematical model of the A/C system, starting from its single components: compressors, condenser, flush valve and evaporator and a comparison between different refrigerant fluid. In particular, it is introduced the opportunity to have an A/C condenser cooled by a water circuit instead of the external air linked to the vehicle speed, as in the actual traditional configuration. The A/C condenser, in fact, could be housed on a low temperature water circuit, reducing the condensing temperature of the refrigeration cycle with a considerable efficiency increase.

  18. Use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-16

    Freshwater demands are steadily increasing throughout the United States. As its population increases, more water is needed for domestic use (drinking, cooking, cleaning, etc.) and to supply power and food. In arid parts of the country, existing freshwater supplies are not able to meet the increasing demands for water. New water users are often forced to look to alternative sources of water to meet their needs. Over the past few years, utilities in many locations, including parts of the country not traditionally water-poor (e.g., Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, and North Carolina) have needed to reevaluate the availability of water to meet their cooling needs. This trend will only become more extreme with time. Other trends are likely to increase pressure on freshwater supplies, too. For example, as populations increase, they will require more food. This in turn will likely increase demands for water by the agricultural sector. Another example is the recent increased interest in producing biofuels. Additional water will be required to grow more crops to serve as the raw materials for biofuels and to process the raw materials into biofuels. This report provides information about an opportunity to reuse an abundant water source -- treated municipal wastewater, also known as 'reclaimed water' -- for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Innovations for Existing Plants research program (Feeley 2005). This program initiated an energy-water research effort in 2003 that includes the availability and use of 'nontraditional sources' of water for use at power plants. This report represents a unique reference for information on the use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling. In particular, the database of reclaimed water user facilities described in Chapter 2 is the first comprehensive national effort to identify and catalog those

  19. Microchannel water cooling of silicon x-ray monochromator crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, J.; Tompkins, W.H.; Troxel, C. Jr. ); Contolini, R.J.; Schmitt, E. ); Bilderback, D.H.; Henderson, C.; White, J.; Settersten, T. )

    1992-01-01

    The use in silicon x-ray monochromator crystals of water cooling channels with dimensions optimized for efficient heat transfer from silicon to water has been investigated. Such channels are typically about 40 {mu}m wide and 400 {mu}m deep. Procedures have been found for reliably producing microchannel-cooled crystals with very small amounts of residual strain. These crystals have been tested at a high-power wiggler beam line at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, using an x-ray beam having total power in excess of 250 W and normal-incidence power density greater than 5 W/mm{sup 2}. Under these conditions, the surface-temperature rise of a typical microchannel-cooled crystal was less than 5 {degree}C, and degradation of the (111) rocking curve at 12 keV was very slight. The cooling efficiency is consistent with analytic calculations.

  20. Water-cooled insulated steam-injection wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, L. H.; Jaffe, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    Water is used as insulated coolant and heat-transfer medium for steam-injection oil wells. Approach is somewhat analogous to cooling system in liquid-propellant rocket. In addition to trapping and delivering heat to steam-injection point, water will also keep casing cooler, preventing or reducing casing failures caused by thermal stresses.

  1. Water-cooled insulated steam-injection wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, L. H.; Jaffe, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    Water is used as insulated coolant and heat-transfer medium for steam-injection oil wells. Approach is somewhat analogous to cooling system in liquid-propellant rocket. In addition to trapping and delivering heat to steam-injection point, water will also keep casing cooler, preventing or reducing casing failures caused by thermal stresses.

  2. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consisted of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  3. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    These combined quarterly reports summarize the activities from November 1977 through September 1978, and over the progress made in the development, delivery and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  4. A data acquisition system for water heating and cooling experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perea Martins, J. E. M.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a simple analogue waterproof temperature probe design and its electronic interfacing with a computer to compose a data acquisition system for water temperature measurement. It also demonstrates the system usage through an experiment to verify the water heating period with an electric heater and another to verify the Newton’s law of cooling

  5. [Immediate cooling with water: emergency treatment of burns].

    PubMed

    Latarjet, J

    1990-01-01

    Experimental data have demonstrated that prolonged immediate cooling with cold water is the best first-aid treatment for burn injuries. However in France, this treatment is rarely applied; instead old, inefficient and aggravating methods are still very popular. Pediatricians must help to change this practice by recommending immediate cold water treatment for burns in children.

  6. Synthesis of a control model for a liquid nitrogen cooled, closed circuit, cryogenic nitrogen wind tunnel and its validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishna, S.; Goglia, G. L.

    1979-01-01

    The details of the efforts to synthesize a control-compatible multivariable model of a liquid nitrogen cooled, gaseous nitrogen operated, closed circuit, cryogenic pressure tunnel are presented. The synthesized model was transformed into a real-time cryogenic tunnel simulator, and this model is validated by comparing the model responses to the actual tunnel responses of the 0.3 m transonic cryogenic tunnel, using the quasi-steady-state and the transient responses of the model and the tunnel. The global nature of the simple, explicit, lumped multivariable model of a closed circuit cryogenic tunnel is demonstrated.

  7. Assessments of Water Ingress Accidents in a Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zuoyi; Dong Yujie; Scherer, Winfried

    2005-03-15

    Severe water ingress accidents in the 200-MW HTR-module were assessed to determine the safety margins of modular pebble-bed high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTR-module). The 200-MW HTR-module was designed by Siemens under the criteria that no active safety protection systems were necessary because of its inherent safe nature. For simulating the behavior of the HTR-module during severe water ingress accidents, a water, steam, and helium multiphase cavity model was developed and implemented in the dynamic simulator for nuclear power plants (DSNP) simulation system. Comparisons of the DSNP simulations incorporating these models with experiments and with calculations using the time-dependent neutronics and temperature dynamics code were made to validate the simulation. The analysis of the primary circuit showed that the maximum water concentration increase in the reactor core was <0.3 kg/(m{sup 3}s). The water vaporization in the steam generator and characteristics of water transport from the steam generator to the reactor core would reduce the rate of water ingress into the reactor core. The analysis of a full cavitation of the feedwater pump showed that if the secondary circuit could be depressurized, the feedwater pump would be stopped by the full cavitation. This limits the water transported from the deaerator to the steam generator. A comprehensive simulation of the HTR-module power plant showed that the water inventory in the primary circuit was limited to {approx}3000 kg. The nuclear reactivity increase caused by the water ingress would lead to a fast power excursion, which would be inherently counterbalanced by negative feedback effects. The integrity of the fuel elements, because the safety-relevant temperature limit of 1600 deg. C is not reached in any case, is not challenged.

  8. Mathematical model and calculation of water-cooling efficiency in a film-filled cooling tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laptev, A. G.; Lapteva, E. A.

    2016-10-01

    Different approaches to simulation of momentum, mass, and energy transfer in packed beds are considered. The mathematical model of heat and mass transfer in a wetted packed bed for turbulent gas flow and laminar wave counter flow of the fluid film in sprinkler units of a water-cooling tower is presented. The packed bed is represented as the set of equivalent channels with correction to twisting. The idea put forward by P. Kapitsa on representation of waves on the interphase film surface as elements of the surface roughness in interaction with the gas flow is used. The temperature and moisture content profiles are found from the solution of differential equations of heat and mass transfer written for the equivalent channel with the volume heat and mass source. The equations for calculation of the average coefficients of heat emission and mass exchange in regular and irregular beds with different contact elements, as well as the expression for calculation of the average turbulent exchange coefficient are presented. The given formulas determine these coefficients for the known hydraulic resistance of the packed bed element. The results of solution of the system of equations are presented, and the water temperature profiles are shown for different sprinkler units in industrial water-cooling towers. The comparison with experimental data on thermal efficiency of the cooling tower is made; this allows one to determine the temperature of the cooled water at the output. The technical solutions on increasing the cooling tower performance by equalization of the air velocity profile at the input and creation of an additional phase contact region using irregular elements "Inzhekhim" are considered.

  9. Factors stimulating propagation of legionellae in cooling tower water

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Sugiura, Minoru; Kusunoki, Shinji; Ezaki, Takayuki; Ikedo, Masanari; Yabuuchi, Eiko )

    1992-04-01

    The authors survey of cooling tower water demonstrated that the highest density of legionellae, {ge}10{sup 4} CFU/100 ml, appeared in water containing protozoa, {ge}10{sup 2} MPN/100 ml, and heterotrophic bacteria, {ge}10{sup 6} CFU/100 ml, at water temperatures between 25 and 35C. Viable counts of legionellae were detected even in the winter samples, and propagation, up to 10{sup 5} CFU/100 ml, occurs in summer. The counts of legionellae correlated positively with increases in water temperature, pH, and protozoan counts, but not with heterotrophic bacterial counts. The water temperature of cooling towers may promote increases in the viable counts of legionellae, and certain microbes, e.g., protozoa or some heterotrophic bacteria, may be a factor stimulating the propagation of legionellae.

  10. Cool-Water Carbonates, SEPM Special Publication No. 56

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallock, Pamela

    Doesn't field work on modern carbonates mean scuba diving on spectacular coral reefs in gin-clear water teeming with brightly colored fish? Not if you are one of the researchers that Jonathan Clarke of the Western Mining Corporation Ltd., in Preston, Victoria, Australia, assembled at a workshop in Geelong, Victoria, in January 1995. Their field work involves research cruises in high-latitude oceans, where mal de mer and chilling winds are constant companions. Many braved 10-m seas in modest-sized research vessels to sample shelves stripped of fine sediments by storm waves whose effects can reach to depths exceeding 200 m. Noel James of Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, carefully lays the groundwork for the book in a paper titled, “The Cool-Water Carbonate Depositional Realm,” which will assuredly become a standard reading assignment in advanced undergraduate-and graduate-level courses in carbonate sedimentology. James skillfully shows how cool-water carbonates are part of the greater carbonate depositional spectrum. By expanding recognition of the possible range of carbonate environments, sedimentologists expand their ability to understand and interpret ancient carbonates, particularly Paleozoic limestones that often show striking similarities to modern cool-water sediments. James' paper is followed by nine papers on modern cool-water carbonates, seven on Tertiary environments, and seven examples from Mesozoic and Paleozoic limestones

  11. Computer modeling of lime-soda softening of cooling waters

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.C.Y.

    1986-01-01

    A computer model is developed to fully describe the lime soda ash softening process. This process has a long history of being used to remove calcium and magnesium hardness from cooling waters in order to prevent scaling on heat exchangers. Softening of makeup water and/or a sidestream from the recirculating water will allow a reduction in blowdown. In the extreme case, zero blowdown may be accomplished to conserve cooling waters and to save the costs of disposing of blowdown. Cooling waters differ from most natural waters in having higher temperature and higher concentration of dissolved solids, and, therefore, a higher ionic strength. These factors plus the effects of complex formation are taken into consideration in the development of the computer model. To determine the composition of a softened water, the model assumes that an equilibrium state is reached in a reactor, and employs the equations of mass action and mass balance. The resulting nonlinear simultaneous equations are then linearized by Taylor series expansion and solved by the multidimensional Newton-Raphson method. The computer predictions are compared to the results of laboratory studies using synthetic waters.

  12. Condensate polishers for brackish water-cooled PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, M.A.; Darvill, M.R.; Bickerstaffe, J.A.; Chakravorti, R.; Siegwarth, D.P.

    1986-07-01

    The objectives of project RP 1571-5 ''Optimization of Pressurized Water Reactor Secondary Water Treatment: Task 4 Conceptual Design Options - Condensate Polishing'' were to provide detailed guidelines for the design of a condensate polishing system for retrofitting to a seawater cooled PWR. For this purpose a national 1100MW PWR with recirculating steam generators was defined. The polished water to be produced by this plant must be of such a quality so as to permit the advisory SGOG guidelines on impurity levels in Steam Generator water to be achieved. Target maximum impurity levels in the final polished water were proposed by the RP 1571 Project review Team and adopted for this study.

  13. Improved water-cooled cyclone constructions in CFBs

    SciTech Connect

    Alliston, M.G.; Luomaharju, T.; Kokko, A.

    1999-07-01

    The construction of CFB boilers has advanced in comparison with early designs. One improvement has been the use of water or steam cooled cyclones, which allows the use of thin refractories and minimizes maintenance needs. Cooled cyclones are also tolerant of wide load variations when the main fuel is biologically based, and coal or some other fuel is used as a back-up. With uncooled cyclones, load changes with high volatile fuels can mean significant temperature transients in the refractory, due to post-combustion phenomena in the cyclone. Kvaerner's development of water-cooled cyclones for CFBs began in the early 1980s. The first boiler with this design was delivered in 1985 in Sweden. Since then, Kvaerner Pulping has delivered over twenty units with cooled cyclones, in capacity ranging from small units up to 400 MW{sub th}. Among these units, Kvaerner has developed unconventional solutions for CFBs, in order to simplify the constructions and to increase the reliability for different applications. The first of them was CYMIC{reg{underscore}sign}, which has its water-cooled cyclone built inside the boiler furnace. There are two commercial CYMIC boilers in operation and one in project stages. The largest CYMIC in operation is a 185 MW{sub th} industrial boiler burning various fuels. For even larger scale units Kvaerner developed the Integrated Cylindrical Cyclone and Loopseal (ICCL) assembly. One of these installations is in operation in USA, having steaming capacity of over 500 t/h. The design bases of these new solutions are quite different in comparison with conventional cyclones. Therefore, an important part of the development has been cold model testing and mathematical modeling of the cyclones. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in water-cooled cyclone construction. The new solutions, their full-scale experience, and a comparison of the actual experience with the preliminary modeling work are introduced.

  14. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    V. King

    2000-06-19

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous

  15. Analyzing the possibility of achieving more efficient cooling of water in the evaporative cooling towers of the Armenian NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, V. G.; Yeghoyan, E. A.

    2015-10-01

    The specific features of the service cooling water system used at the Armenian NPP and modifications made in the arrangement for supplying water to the water coolers in order to achieve more efficient cooling are presented. The mathematical model applied in carrying out the analyses is described, the use of which makes it possible to investigate the operation of parallel-connected cooling towers having different hydraulic and thermal loads. When the third standby cooling tower is put into operation (with the same flow rate of water supplied to the water coolers), the cooled water temperature is decreased by around 2-3°C in the range of atmospheric air temperatures 0-35°C. However, the introduced water distribution arrangement with a decreased spraying density has limitation on its use at negative outdoor air temperatures due to the hazard intense freezing of the fill in the cooling tower peripheral zone. The availability of standby cooling towers in the shutdown Armenian NPP power unit along with the planned full replacement of the cooling tower process equipment create good possibilities for achieving a deeper water cooling extent and better efficiency of the NPP. The present work was carried out with the aim of achieving maximally efficient use of existing possibilities and for elaborating the optimal cooling tower modernization version. Individual specific heat-andmass transfer processes in the chimney-type evaporative cooling towers are analyzed. An improved arrangement for distributing cooled water over the cooling tower spraying area (during its operation with a decreased flow rate) is proposed with the aim of cooling water to a deeper extent and preserving the possibility of using the cooling towers in winter. The main idea behind improving the existing arrangement is to exclude certain zones of the cooling tower featuring inefficient cooling from operation. The effectiveness of introducing the proposed design is proven by calculations (taking as an

  16. Computational Simulation of a Water-Cooled Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozarth, Duane

    2008-01-01

    A Fortran-language computer program for simulating the operation of a water-cooled vapor-compression heat pump in any orientation with respect to gravity has been developed by modifying a prior general-purpose heat-pump design code used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  17. 49. LOOKING NORTH AT EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. LOOKING NORTH AT EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS, WITH BLOW ENGINE HOUSE No. 3 ON RIGHT, AND FILTER CAKE HOUSE IN FOREGROUND. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  18. Program for monitoring LDB concentrations in cooling-tower waters

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, W.E.

    1983-01-01

    A brief description is presented in tabular form describing the program employed by the Industrial Hygiene Department of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to monitor and control levels of Legionella in cooling tower waters. Guidelines are listed to protect personnel from an exposure that could lead to legionnaire's disease.

  19. Water immersion for post incident cooling of firefighters; a review of practical fire ground cooling modalities.

    PubMed

    Brearley, Matt; Walker, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly cooling firefighters post emergency response is likely to increase the operational effectiveness of fire services during prolonged incidents. A variety of techniques have therefore been examined to return firefighters core body temperature to safe levels prior to fire scene re-entry or redeployment. The recommendation of forearm immersion (HFI) in cold water by the National Fire and Protection Association preceded implementation of this active cooling modality by a number of fire services in North America, South East Asia and Australia. The vascularity of the hands and forearms may expedite body heat removal, however, immersion of the torso, pelvis and/or lower body, otherwise known as multi-segment immersion (MSI), exposes a greater proportion of the body surface to water than HFI, potentially increasing the rates of cooling conferred. Therefore, this review sought to establish the efficacy of HFI and MSI to rapidly reduce firefighters core body temperature to safe working levels during rest periods. A total of 38 studies with 55 treatments (43 MSI, 12 HFI) were reviewed. The core body temperature cooling rates conferred by MSI were generally classified as ideal (n = 23) with a range of ~0.01 to 0.35 °C min(-1). In contrast, all HFI treatments resulted in unacceptably slow core body temperature cooling rates (~0.01 to 0.05 °C min(-1)). Based upon the extensive field of research supporting immersion of large body surface areas and comparable logistics of establishing HFI or MSI, it is recommended that fire and rescue management reassess their approach to fireground rehabilitation of responders. Specifically, we question the use of HFI to rapidly lower firefighter core body temperature during rest periods. By utilising MSI to restore firefighter Tc to safe working levels, fire and rescue services would adopt an evidence based approach to maintaining operational capability during arduous, sustained responses. While the optimal MSI protocol will be

  20. Effects of chlorobrominated and chlorinated cooling waters on estuarine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Liden, L.H.; Burton, D.T.; Bongers, L.H.; Holland, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    Research report:Continuous-flow bioassays were conducted during August 1976 to compare the effects of chlorobrominated and chlorinated condenser cooling effluents on several selected estuarine food-chain organisms. Two fish species, two bivalve species, a copepod, and naturally occurring phytoplankton communities were studied. Toxic effects of chlorobrominated and chlorinated power plant cooling waters on estuarine organisms appear to be similar with respect to the lethal and sublethal response indicators used in the study. However, more comparative tests must be conducted to define any differences in toxicities of bromine chloride or chlorine residual oxidants. (50 references, 5 tables)

  1. Novel method for inducing rapid, controllable therapeutic hypothermia in rats using a perivascular implanted closed-loop cooling circuit.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Jessica A; Rajput, Padmesh S; Lyden, Patrick D

    2016-07-15

    Hypothermia is the most potent protective therapy available for cerebral ischemia. In experimental models, cooling the brain even a single degree Celsius alters outcome after global and focal ischemia. Difficulties translating therapeutic hypothermia to patients with stroke or after cardiac arrest include: uncertainty as to the optimal treatment duration; best target-depth temperature; and longest time delay after which therapeutic hypothermia won't benefit. Recent results from human clinical trials suggest that cooling with surface methods provides insufficient cooling speed or control over target temperature. Available animal models incorporate surface cooling methods that are slow, and do not allow for precise control of the target temperature. To address this need, we developed a rapid, simple, inexpensive model for inducing hypothermia using a perivascular implanted closed-loop cooling circuit. The method allows precise control of the target temperature. Using this method, target temperature for therapeutic hypothermia was reached within 13±1.07min (Mean±SE). Once at target, the temperature was maintained within 0.09°C for 4h. This method will allow future experiments to determine under what conditions therapeutic hypothermia is effective, determine the optimal relationship among delay, duration, and depth, and provide the research community with a new model for conducting further research into mechanistic questions underlying the efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cooling of Gas Turbines. 6 - Computed Temperature Distribution through Cross Section of Water-Cooled Turbine Blade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-05-01

    AERONAUTICS Figure 7. - Cross section of water-cooleä turbine blade showing location and size of seven coolant...Power Plants.~ Jet and~ Turbine ($) [SECTION. Turbines (I3) [CROSS DEFERENCES. Turbine blades - Thermal measurements (95350); Turbine blades ...section of water-cooled turbine blade FORG’N. TITLE: v.. ’V, ORIGINATING AGENCY. TRANSLATION. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

  3. Water pressure and flow regulation for water-cooled lasers.

    PubMed

    Chambers, J K; Talansky, M L

    1988-05-01

    We experienced laser water valve failure resulting from poor water quality, frequent laser shutdowns from low water flow rates, and unnecessary service calls shortly after installing a new laser. The water valve failure resulted from deposits and corrosion. A dirt/rust water filter was installed, and no further water valve failure has occurred. A flow meter was added to the water system to adjust flow rates. It clearly shows when laser shutdowns are caused by low flow rates and indicates the need for water filter changes. Water pressure was monitored and is most affected by use of the laser. A convenient electric water control, activated by the laser key switch, has proved to be reliable. The water control is kept open by a timer ten minutes after the laser is shut off. We determined that our laser shutdowns were related to transient drops in water flow rates and possibly to draw off of water in other parts of the hospital.

  4. Gasifier waste water treatment: Phase I cooling tower assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Willson, W.G.; Hendrikson, J.G.; Winton, S.L.

    1985-02-01

    Details of an advanced study of the treatability of waste waters from the fixed-bed gasification of lignite describe the test equipment and results at a pilot plant in North Dakota using stripped-gas liquor (SGL) as cooling tower makeup. Ammonia, alkalinity, phenol, and other non-hydantoin organics were removed from the cooling water by stripping and/or biological degradation, with the phenol concentration in the exhaust air exceeding the odor threshold. It will be necessary to control foaming of the circulating water, but both glycol and silicon based agents performed well during the test. It will also be necessary to reduce the high level of biofouling on heat transfer surfaces, although stainless steel fouling was not a major problem. The conclusion is that SGL is limited by potentially serious operating problems without additional treatment. 5 references, 4 figures, 7 tables.

  5. Computation of infrared cooling rates in the water vapor bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, M. D.; Arking, A.

    1978-01-01

    A fast but accurate method for calculating the infrared radiative terms due to water vapor has been developed. It makes use of the far wing approximation to scale transmission along an inhomogeneous path to an equivalent homogeneous path. Rather than using standard conditions for scaling, the reference temperatures and pressures are chosen in this study to correspond to the regions where cooling is most significant. This greatly increased the accuracy of the new method. Compared to line by line calculations, the new method has errors up to 4% of the maximum cooling rate, while a commonly used method based upon the Goody band model (Rodgers and Walshaw, 1966) introduces errors up to 11%. The effect of temperature dependence of transmittance has also been evaluated; the cooling rate errors range up to 11% when the temperature dependence is ignored. In addition to being more accurate, the new method is much faster than those based upon the Goody band model.

  6. Rotating diffuser for pressure recovery in a steam cooling circuit of a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Eldrid, Sacheverel Q.; Salamah, Samir A.; DeStefano, Thomas Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The buckets of a gas turbine are steam-cooled via a bore tube assembly having concentric supply and spent cooling steam return passages rotating with the rotor. A diffuser is provided in the return passage to reduce the pressure drop. In a combined cycle system, the spent return cooling steam with reduced pressure drop is combined with reheat steam from a heat recovery steam generator for flow to the intermediate pressure turbine. The exhaust steam from the high pressure turbine of the combined cycle unit supplies cooling steam to the supply conduit of the gas turbine.

  7. Water cooled silicon crystals for X-ray monochromators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, R.; Shah, R.; Jackson, K.; Tonnessen, T.

    1992-07-01

    Insertion devices (wigglers and undulators) proposed for synchrotron radiation sources will produce up to 10 kW/cm2 of thermal loading. In a double crystal monochromator, the first crystal must absorb nearly all of this output power, as it diffracts the desired wavelength to the second crystal. Storage rings currently projected or under construction produce heat loads of this intensity and thus require significantly improved optical element cooling methods to preserve the spectral quality of the output radiation. As beam intensities reach these higher levels, analysis of the thermal performance of passive and actively cooled optical elements becomes more and more critical because such elements are a cost effective means for producing a cooled crystal that performs to its design specifications the first time it is installed in the beamline. The Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International is applying the experience gained in high energy laser optics research (the design of cooled IR and UV optical components for free electron lasers) to the problems of cooled X-ray monochromator crystals and grazing incidence VUV optics. In this paper, a set of first order parametric calculations and a second order finite element calculation were performed to determine surface temperature rise, coolant pressure drop and surface distortion in a single crystal silicon heat exchanger with heat loads of 100 to 550 W/cm2. Two different heat exchanger designs (microchannels and pin post cell) and two different coolants (water and liquid gallium) were analyzed to assess performance advantages of each.

  8. Deployment Scenario of Heavy Water Cooled Thorium Breeder Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mardiansah, Deby; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2010-06-22

    Deployment scenario of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor has been studied. We have assumed to use plutonium and thorium oxide fuel in water cooled reactor to produce {sup 233}U which will be used in thorium breeder reactor. The objective is to analysis the potential of water cooled Th-Pu reactor for replacing all of current LWRs especially in Japan. In this paper, the standard Pressurize Water Reactor (PWR) has been designed to produce 3423 MWt; (i) Th-Pu PWR, (ii) Th-Pu HWR (MFR = 1.0) and (iii) Th-Pu HWR (MFR 1.2). The properties and performance of the core were investigated by using cell and core calculation code. Th-Pu PWR or HWR produces {sup 233}U to introduce thorium breeder reactor. The result showed that to replace all (60 GWe) LWR by thorium breeder reactor within a period of one century, Th-Pu oxide fueled PWR has insufficient capability to produce necessary amount of {sup 233}U and Th-Pu oxide fueled HWR has almost enough potential to produce {sup 233}U but shows positive void reactivity coefficient.

  9. USE of mine pool water for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Kupar, J. M .; Puder, M. G.

    2006-11-27

    Water and energy production issues intersect in numerous ways. Water is produced along with oil and gas, water runs off of or accumulates in coal mines, and water is needed to operate steam electric power plants and hydropower generating facilities. However, water and energy are often not in the proper balance. For example, even if water is available in sufficient quantities, it may not have the physical and chemical characteristics suitable for energy or other uses. This report provides preliminary information about an opportunity to reuse an overabundant water source--ground water accumulated in underground coal mines--for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which has implemented a water/energy research program (Feeley and Ramezan 2003). Among the topics studied under that program is the availability and use of ''non-traditional sources'' of water for use at power plants. This report supports NETL's water/energy research program.

  10. The determinants of thermal comfort in cool water.

    PubMed

    Guéritée, J; House, J R; Redortier, B; Tipton, M J

    2015-10-01

    Water-based activities may result in the loss of thermal comfort (TC). We hypothesized that in cooling water, the hands and feet would be responsible. Supine immersions were conducted in up to five clothing conditions (exposing various regions), as well as investigations to determine if a "reference" skin temperature (Tsk) distribution in thermoneutral air would help interpret our findings. After 10 min in 34.5 °C water, the temperature was decreased to 19.5 °C over 20 min; eight resting or exercising volunteers reported when they no longer felt comfortable and which region was responsible. TC, rectal temperature, and Tsk were measured. Rather than the extremities, the lower back and chest caused the loss of overall TC. At this point, mean (SD) chest Tsk was 3.3 (1.7) °C lower than the reference temperature (P = 0.005), and 3.8 (1.5) °C lower for the back (P = 0.002). Finger Tsk was 3.1 (2.7) °C higher than the reference temperature (P = 0.037). In cool and cooling water, hands and feet, already adapted to colder air temperatures, will not cause discomfort. Contrarily, more discomfort may arise from the chest and lower back, as these regions cool by more than normal. Thus, Tsk distribution in thermoneutral air may help understand variations in TC responses across the body.

  11. Effect of Cooling Water on Stability of NLC Linac Components

    SciTech Connect

    Le Pimpec, Frederic

    2002-11-01

    Vertical vibration of linac components (accelerating structures, girders and quadrupoles) in the NLC has been studied experimentally and analytically. Effects such as structural resonances and vibration caused by cooling water both in accelerating structures and quadrupoles have been considered. Experimental data has been compared with analytical predictions and simulations using ANSYS. A design, incorporating the proper decoupling of structure vibrations from the linac quadrupoles, is being pursued.

  12. Effect of cooling water on stability of NLC linac components

    SciTech Connect

    F. Le Pimpec et al.

    2003-02-11

    Vertical vibration of linac components (accelerating structures, girders and quadrupoles) in the NLC has been studied experimentally and analytically. Effects such as structural resonances and vibration caused by cooling water both in accelerating structures and quadrupoles have been considered. Experimental data has been compared with analytical predictions and simulations using ANSYS. A design, incorporating the proper decoupling of structure vibrations from the linac quadrupoles, is being pursued.

  13. Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water

    SciTech Connect

    Corradini, Michael; Anderson, Mark; Hassan, Yassin; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2013-01-16

    This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

  14. 40 CFR 463.10 - Applicability; description of the contact cooling and heating water subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contact cooling and heating water subcategory. 463.10 Section 463.10 Protection of Environment... FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Contact Cooling and Heating Water Subcategory § 463.10 Applicability; description of the contact cooling and heating water subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges...

  15. 40 CFR 463.10 - Applicability; description of the contact cooling and heating water subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contact cooling and heating water subcategory. 463.10 Section 463.10 Protection of Environment... FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Contact Cooling and Heating Water Subcategory § 463.10 Applicability; description of the contact cooling and heating water subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges...

  16. 78 FR 35330 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG), 1.68, ``Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants... Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer to...

  17. Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water.

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, May Devan; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Stewart, Tom

    2010-02-01

    The formation of silica scale is a problem for thermoelectric power generating facilities, and this study investigated the potential for removal of silica by means of chemical coagulation from source water before it is subjected to mineral concentration in cooling towers. In Phase I, a screening of many typical as well as novel coagulants was carried out using concentrated cooling tower water, with and without flocculation aids, at concentrations typical for water purification with limited results. In Phase II, it was decided that treatment of source or make up water was more appropriate, and that higher dosing with coagulants delivered promising results. In fact, the less exotic coagulants proved to be more efficacious for reasons not yet fully determined. Some analysis was made of the molecular nature of the precipitated floc, which may aid in process improvements. In Phase III, more detailed study of process conditions for aluminum chloride coagulation was undertaken. Lime-soda water softening and the precipitation of magnesium hydroxide were shown to be too limited in terms of effectiveness, speed, and energy consumption to be considered further for the present application. In Phase IV, sodium aluminate emerged as an effective coagulant for silica, and the most attractive of those tested to date because of its availability, ease of use, and low requirement for additional chemicals. Some process optimization was performed for coagulant concentration and operational pH. It is concluded that silica coagulation with simple aluminum-based agents is effective, simple, and compatible with other industrial processes.

  18. Collisional cooling investigation of THz rotational transitions of water

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, Michael J.; Drouin, Brian J.; Pearson, John C.

    2010-02-15

    An investigation of the pressure broadening by helium and hydrogen of six rotational transitions of water has been completed. The six transitions studied included two para water transitions (0{sub 00}-1{sub 11} and 1{sub 11}-2{sub 02}) and four ortho water transitions (1{sub 01}-1{sub 10}, 2{sub 21}-3{sub 12}, 3{sub 03}-3{sub 12} and 3{sub 12}-3{sub 21}) in the frequency region 0.55-1.17 THz. This survey was accomplished using the collisional cooling technique which allowed the broadening of each transition to be studied below the water condensation temperature. For each of the transitions studied, the temperature dependence of the pressure broadening by helium showed little dependence on temperature, while the broadening by hydrogen showed a sharp decrease at the lowest temperatures. This behavior was modeled, for each transition broadened by helium and hydrogen, with a power law, or a power law modified with a Boltzmann-like step function, and the results of these fits will be presented. In addition, an extensive investigation of the systematic error in the temperature of the water vapor in the collisional cooling experiment will be discussed. Finally, the impact of these new broadening measurements on models of star formation in the interstellar medium will be outlined.

  19. Cool water vs warm water immersion for minimal sedation colonoscopy: a double-blind randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Falt, P; Šmajstrla, V; Fojtík, P; Tvrdík, J; Urban, O

    2013-01-01

    Water-aided insertion as an alternative colonoscopy technique reduces patient discomfort. Warm water has been used in most published trials, but the use of cool water is easier and, if equally effective, could support the use of the water-aided technique in routine practice. A double-blind, randomized, single-centre study was performed in which 201 patients were randomized to either cool (20-24 °C) or warm (37 °C) water immersion insertion. The primary outcome was caecal intubation time. The success rate of minimal sedation and patient discomfort were also assessed. The caecal intubation time for cool and warm water was similar (6.9 ± 3.5 vs 7.0 ± 3.4 min, P = 0.64). The respective success rates of minimal sedation colonoscopy (89.1% vs 90%, P = 1.00) and discomfort (P = 0.51) were no different. All other outcomes except a greater need for abdominal compression in the cool water arm (P = 0.04) were similar including the total procedure time, terminal ileum intubation rate, adenoma detection, length of the inserted scope, water volume, non-standard position rate, difficulty of the procedure and the patient's temperature sensation. The use of cool water did not modify the caecal intubation time compared with warm water. Exception for abdominal compression, all other end-points were no different. Cool water immersion is an alternative to the technically more demanding warm water immersion colonoscopy. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  20. What causes cooling water temperature gradients in forested stream reaches?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, G.; Malcolm, I. A.; Sadler, J. P.; Hannah, D. M.

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that shading by riparian vegetation may reduce maximum water temperature and provide refugia for temperature sensitive aquatic organisms. Longitudinal cooling gradients have been observed during the daytime for stream reaches shaded by coniferous trees downstream of clear cuts, or deciduous woodland downstream of open moorland. However, little is known about the energy exchange processes that drive such gradients, especially in semi-natural woodland contexts, and in the absence of potentially confounding cool groundwater inflows. To address this gap, this study quantified and modelled variability in stream temperature and heat fluxes along an upland reach of the Girnock Burn (a tributary of the Aberdeenshire Dee, Scotland) where riparian landuse transitions from open moorland to semi-natural forest. Observations were made along a 1050 m reach using a spatially-distributed network of ten water temperature micro-loggers, three automatic weather stations and >200 hemispherical photographs, which were used to estimate incoming solar radiation. These data parameterised a high-resolution energy flux model, incorporating flow-routing, which predicted spatio-temporal variability in stream temperature. Variability in stream temperature was controlled largely by energy fluxes at the water column-atmosphere interface. Predominantly net energy gains occurred along the reach during daylight hours, and heat exchange across the bed-water column interface accounted for <1% of the net energy budget. For periods when daytime net radiation gains were high (under clear skies), differences between water temperature observations decreased in the streamwise direction; a maximum difference of 2.5 °C was observed between the upstream reach boundary and 1050 m downstream. Furthermore, daily maximum water temperature at 1050 m downstream was ≤1°C cooler than at the upstream reach boundary and lagged the occurrence of daily maximum water temperature

  1. Design, Fabrication and Integration of a NaK-Cooled Circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Garber, Anne; Godfroy, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The Early Flight Fission Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has been tasked by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Nuclear Systems Office to design, fabricate, and test an actively pumped alkali metal flow circuit. The system, which was originally designed for use with a eutectic mixture of sodium potassium (NaK), was redesigned for use with lithium. Due to a shift in focus, it is once again being prepared for use with NaK. Changes made to the actively pumped, high temperature circuit include the replacement of the expansion reservoir, addition of remotely operated valves, and modification of the support table. Basic circuit components include: reactor segment, NaK to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and a spill reservoir. A 37-pin partial-array core (pin and flow path dimensions are the same as those in a full design) was selected for fabrication and test. This paper summarizes the integration and preparations for the fill of the pumped NaK circuit. (authors)

  2. Design, Fabrication and Integration of a NaK-Cooled Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, Anne; Godfroy, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has been tasked by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Nuclear Systems Office to design, fabricate, and test an actively pumped alkali metal flow circuit. The system, which was originally designed for use with a eutectic mixture of sodium potassium (NaK), was redesigned to for use with lithium. Due to a shi$ in focus, it is once again being prepared for use with NaK. Changes made to the actively pumped, high temperature circuit include the replacement of the expansion reservoir, addition of remotely operated valves, and modification of the support table. Basic circuit components include: reactor segment, NaK to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and a spill reservoir. A 37-pin partial-array core (pin and flow path dimensions are the same as those in a fill design) was selected for fabrication and test. This paper summarizes the integration and preparations for the fill of the pumped liquid metal NaK flow circuit.

  3. Low-pressure water-cooled inductively coupled plasma torch

    DOEpatents

    Seliskar, C.J.; Warner, D.K.

    1984-02-16

    An inductively coupled plasma torch is provided which comprises an inner tube, including a sample injection port to which the sample to be tested is supplied and comprising an enlarged central portion in which the plasma flame is confined; an outer tube surrounding the inner tube and containing water therein for cooling the inner tube, the outer tube including a water inlet port to which water is supplied and a water outlet port spaced from the water inlet port and from which water is removed after flowing through the outer tube; and an rf induction coil for inducing the plasma in the gas passing into the tube through the sample injection port. The sample injection port comprises a capillary tube including a reduced diameter orifice, projecting into the lower end of the inner tube. The water inlet is located at the lower end of the outer tube and the rf heating coil is disposed around the outer tube above and adjacent to the water inlet.

  4. Low-pressure water-cooled inductively coupled plasma torch

    DOEpatents

    Seliskar, Carl J.; Warner, David K.

    1988-12-27

    An inductively coupled plasma torch is provided which comprises an inner tube, including a sample injection port to which the sample to be tested is supplied and comprising an enlarged central portion in which the plasma flame is confined; an outer tube surrounding the inner tube and containing water therein for cooling the inner tube, the outer tube including a water inlet port to which water is supplied and a water outlet port spaced from the water inlet port and from which water is removed after flowing through the outer tube; and an r.f. induction coil for inducing the plasma in the gas passing into the tube through the sample injection port. The sample injection port comprises a capillary tube including a reduced diameter orifice, projecting into the lower end of the inner tube. The water inlet is located at the lower end of the outer tube and the r.f. heating coil is disposed around the outer tube above and adjacent to the water inlet.

  5. Modelization of the thermal coupling between the ITER TF coil conductor and the structure cooling circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, F.; Bessette, D.; Hoa, C.; Rousset, B.; Lacroix, B.

    2016-12-01

    The ITER Toroidal Field (TF) coils are required not to quench during the most demanding event: a plasma disruption followed by a fast discharge of the Central Solenoid (CS), the Poloidal Field (PF) coils and the Correction Coils (CC). This event creates large heat deposition in the ITER magnet stainless steel structures in addition to the conductor AC losses. In order to prevent quench occurring in the TF conductor, cooling channels, implemented in the TF coil structure (TFCS), have to remove a large fraction of the heat deposited. The first integrated TF and structure mock-up has been manufactured and then tested in the HELIOS cryogenic test facility (CEA Grenoble) to determine the thermal coupling between the TFCS and the TF conductor, both actively cooled by supercritical helium at 4.4 K and 5 bar. It consists in a stainless steel casing, a cooling pipe glued with resin in the casing groove, winding pack (WP) ground insulation, a radial plate and a copper dummy cable-in-conduit-conductor (CICC). Steady state as well as transient thermal characterizations have been completed in May 2015. Simulation results by thermal hydraulic codes (VENECIA/SuperMagnet) and some of the experimental data are presented and discussed. The thermal coupling between the helium in the cooling tube and the TF coil structure is then modelled as an equivalent heat transfer coefficient in order to simplify the thermal hydraulic (TH) models. Comparison between simplified coupling and detailed coupling is presented.

  6. Cooling cows efficiently with sprinklers: Physiological responses to water spray.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jennifer M; Schütz, Karin E; Tucker, Cassandra B

    2015-10-01

    Dairies in the United States commonly cool cattle with sprinklers mounted over the feed bunk that intermittently spray the cows' backs. These systems use potable water-an increasingly scarce resource--but there is little experimental evidence about how much is needed to cool cows or about droplet size, which is thought to affect hair coat penetration. Our objectives were to determine how sprinkler flow rate and droplet size affect physiological measures of heat load in a hot, dry climate, and to evaluate cooling effectiveness against water use. The treatments were an unsprayed control and 6 soaker nozzles that delivered four 3-min spray applications of 0.4, 1.3, or ≥ 4.5 L/min (with 2 droplet sizes within each flow rate) and resulting in 30 to 47% of spray directly wetting each cow. Data were collected from high-producing lactating Holsteins (n = 19) tested individually in ambient conditions (air temperature = 31.2 ± 3.8°C, mean ± standard deviation). Cows were restrained in headlocks for 1h and received 1 treatment/d for 3d each, with order of exposure balanced in a crossover design. When cows were not sprayed, physiological measures of heat load increased during the 1-h treatment. All measures responded rapidly to spray: skin temperature decreased during the first water application, and respiration rate and body temperature did so before the second. Droplet size had no effect on cooling, but flow rate affected several measures. At the end of 1h, 0.4 L/min resulted in lower respiration rate and skin temperature on directly sprayed body parts relative to the control but not baseline values, and body temperature increased to 0.2°C above baseline. When 1.3 or ≥ 4.5 L/min was applied, respiration rate was lower than the control and decreased relative to baseline, and body temperature stayed below baseline for at least 30 min after treatment ended. The treatment that best balanced cooling effectiveness against water usage was 1.3 L/min: although ≥ 4.5 L

  7. Multiresistant waterborne pathogens isolated from water reservoirs and cooling systems.

    PubMed

    Blasco, M D; Esteve, C; Alcaide, E

    2008-08-01

    To determine the incidence of multiple antibiotic-resistant strains of the emergent human pathogens Legionella pneumophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mesophilic Aeromonas species among those isolated from water reservoirs and industrial cooling systems. Water from four natural water reservoirs and four industrial cooling towers was sampled for 1 year period. The total heterotrophs, mesophilic Aeromonas, Pseudomonas spp. and Legionella spp. counts were performed as recommended by standard procedures, and the sensitivity of the isolates to 27 antibiotics was tested. A total of 117 Aeromonas, 60 P. aeruginosa and 15 L. pneumophila strains were isolated and identified by means of biochemical tests and DNA probes. 46.4% of Aeromonas, and 100% of P. aeruginosa isolates presented multiple resistance. Legionella pneumophila strains were generally sensitive to the drugs used. Antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria belonging to P. aeruginosa and mesophilic Aeromonas species are common in natural aquatic environments. Thus, the risk of waterborne diseases owing to domestic and industrial uses of freshwater should be re-examined from the increase of bacterial resistance point of view. These data confirm the emergence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics in aquatic environments.

  8. Water-cooled radiofrequency neuroablation for sacroiliac joint dysfunctional pain

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Binay Kumar; Dey, Samarjit; Biswas, Saumya; Mohan, Varinder Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction is a common source of chronic low-back pain. Recent evidences from different parts of the world suggest that cooled radiofrequency (RF) neuroablation of sacral nerves supplying SI joints has superior pain alleviating properties than available existing treatment options for SI joint dysfunctional pain. A 35-year-old male had intractable bilateral SI joint pain (numeric rating scale [NRS] – 9/10) with poor treatment response to intra-articular steroid therapy. Bilateral water cooled = RF was applied for neuroablation of nerves supplying both SI joints. Postprocedure pain intensity was 5/10 and after 7 days it was 2/10. On 18th-month follow-up, he is pain free except for mild pain (NRS 2/10) on occasional extreme twisting of the back. This case attempts to highlight that sacral neuroablation based on cooled RF technique can be a long lasting remedial option for chronic SI joint pain unresponsive to conventional treatment. PMID:28096589

  9. Water-cooled radiofrequency neuroablation for sacroiliac joint dysfunctional pain.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Binay Kumar; Dey, Samarjit; Biswas, Saumya; Mohan, Varinder Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction is a common source of chronic low-back pain. Recent evidences from different parts of the world suggest that cooled radiofrequency (RF) neuroablation of sacral nerves supplying SI joints has superior pain alleviating properties than available existing treatment options for SI joint dysfunctional pain. A 35-year-old male had intractable bilateral SI joint pain (numeric rating scale [NRS] - 9/10) with poor treatment response to intra-articular steroid therapy. Bilateral water cooled = RF was applied for neuroablation of nerves supplying both SI joints. Postprocedure pain intensity was 5/10 and after 7 days it was 2/10. On 18(th)-month follow-up, he is pain free except for mild pain (NRS 2/10) on occasional extreme twisting of the back. This case attempts to highlight that sacral neuroablation based on cooled RF technique can be a long lasting remedial option for chronic SI joint pain unresponsive to conventional treatment.

  10. Cardiovascular response to apneic immersion in cool and warm water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folinsbee, L.

    1974-01-01

    The influence of prior exposure to cool water and the influence of lung volume on the responses to breath holding were examined. The bradycardia and vasoconstriction that occur during breath-hold diving in man are apparently the resultant of stimuli from apnea, relative expansion of the thorax, lung volume, esophageal pressure, face immersion, and thermal receptor stimulation. It is concluded that the bradycardia and vasoconstriction associated with breath holding during body immersion are not attenuated by a preexisting bradycardia and vasoconstriction due to cold.

  11. Cardiovascular response to apneic immersion in cool and warm water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folinsbee, L.

    1974-01-01

    The influence of prior exposure to cool water and the influence of lung volume on the responses to breath holding were examined. The bradycardia and vasoconstriction that occur during breath-hold diving in man are apparently the resultant of stimuli from apnea, relative expansion of the thorax, lung volume, esophageal pressure, face immersion, and thermal receptor stimulation. It is concluded that the bradycardia and vasoconstriction associated with breath holding during body immersion are not attenuated by a preexisting bradycardia and vasoconstriction due to cold.

  12. Pink-Beam, Highly-Accurate Compact Water Cooled Slits

    SciTech Connect

    Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Jayne, Richard; Waterman, Dave; Caletka, Dave; Steadman, Paul; Dhesi, Sarnjeet

    2007-01-19

    Advanced Design Consulting, Inc. (ADC) has designed accurate compact slits for applications where high precision is required. The system consists of vertical and horizontal slit mechanisms, a vacuum vessel which houses them, water cooling lines with vacuum guards connected to the individual blades, stepper motors with linear encoders, limit (home position) switches and electrical connections including internal wiring for a drain current measurement system. The total slit size is adjustable from 0 to 15 mm both vertically and horizontally. Each of the four blades are individually controlled and motorized. In this paper, a summary of the design and Finite Element Analysis of the system are presented.

  13. Outsourcing of cooling water services ... A challenge or an opportunity?

    SciTech Connect

    Thatte, D.V.

    1998-12-31

    There is a growing trend of outsourcing a number of services. Cooling water treatment and monitoring are no exception. Outsourcing means different things to different organizations. This paper deals with various types of outsourcing set-ups and their technical and economic impact on both suppliers and users. It highlights the multifarious challenges faced by the suppliers as well as the users. It suggests actions to be taken by both parties in order to make such arrangements a success. This is then substantiated by interesting case histories illustrating these points.

  14. Stainless Steel NaK-Cooled Circuit (SNaKC) Fabrication and Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    An actively pumped Stainless Steel NaK Circuit (SNaKC) has been designed and fabricated by the Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) team at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. This circuit uses the eutectic mixture of sodium and potassium (NaK) as the working fluid building upon the experience and accomplishments of the SNAP reactor program from the late 1960's The SNaKC enables valuable experience and liquid metal test capability to be gained toward the goal of designing and building an affordable surface power reactor. The basic circuit components include a simulated reactor core a NaK to gas heat exchanger, an electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, a liquid metal flow meter, an expansion reservoir and a drain/fill reservoir To maintain an oxygen free environment in the presence of NaK, an argon system is utilized. A helium and nitrogen system are utilized for core, pump, and heat exchanger operation. An additional rest section is available to enable special component testing m an elevated temperature actively pumped liquid metal environment. This paper summarizes the physical build of the SNaKC the gas and pressurization systems, vacuum systems, as well as instrumentation and control methods.

  15. Stainless Steel NaK-Cooled Circuit (SNaKC) Fabrication and Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    An actively pumped Stainless Steel NaK Circuit (SNaKC) has been designed and fabricated by the Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) team at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. This circuit uses the eutectic mixture of sodium and potassium (NaK) as the working fluid building upon the experience and accomplishments of the SNAP reactor program from the late 1960's The SNaKC enables valuable experience and liquid metal test capability to be gained toward the goal of designing and building an affordable surface power reactor. The basic circuit components include a simulated reactor core a NaK to gas heat exchanger, an electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, a liquid metal flow meter, an expansion reservoir and a drain/fill reservoir To maintain an oxygen free environment in the presence of NaK, an argon system is utilized. A helium and nitrogen system are utilized for core, pump, and heat exchanger operation. An additional rest section is available to enable special component testing m an elevated temperature actively pumped liquid metal environment. This paper summarizes the physical build of the SNaKC the gas and pressurization systems, vacuum systems, as well as instrumentation and control methods.

  16. Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water.

    PubMed

    Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R

    2012-02-01

    Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ∕h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m∕s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg∕h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality.

  17. Comprehensive cooling water study: Volume 2, Water quality, Savannah River Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lower, M.W.

    1987-10-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effects of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. The initial report described the results from the first year of the study. This document is the final report and concludes the program. The report comprises eight volumes. The first is a summary of environmental effects. The other seven volumes address water quality, radionuclide and heavy metal transport, wetlands, aquatic ecology, Federally endangered species, ecology of Par Pond, and waterfowl. 60 figs., 70 tabs.

  18. Pyrometer mount for a closed-circuit thermal medium cooled gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Raymond Joseph; Kirkpatrick, Francis Lawrence; Burns, James Lee; Fulton, John Robert

    2002-01-01

    A steam-cooled second-stage nozzle segment has an outer band and an outer cover defining a plenum therebetween for receiving cooling steam for flow through the nozzles to the inner band and cover therefor and return flow through the nozzles. To measure the temperature of the buckets of the stage forwardly of the nozzle stage, a pyrometer boss is electron beam-welded in an opening through the outer band and TIG-welded to the outer cover plate. By machining a hole through the boss and seating a linearly extending tube in the boss, a line of sight between a pyrometer mounted on the turbine frame and the buckets is provided whereby the temperature of the buckets can be ascertained. The welding of the boss to the outer band and outer cover enables steam flow through the plenum without leakage, while providing a line of sight through the outer cover and outer band to measure bucket temperature.

  19. Thermal Analysis and Design of Air Cooled Electronic Circuit Boards Using a Desktop Computer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    tabular and graphical. By using internal selection of heat transfer corre- lations, the THERMELEX system depends only on input of physical parameters...only on input of physical parameters for thermal predictions. 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION---------------------------------------- 13 A...depending only on natural circulation for cooling. The major emphasis over the last 15 years has been a continuing effort toward a reduction in physical

  20. Seismic Design of ITER Component Cooling Water System-1 Piping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Aditya P.; Jadhav, Mahesh; Sharma, Lalit K.; Gupta, Dinesh K.; Patel, Nirav; Ranjan, Rakesh; Gohil, Guman; Patel, Hiren; Dangi, Jinendra; Kumar, Mohit; Kumar, A. G. A.

    2017-04-01

    The successful performance of ITER machine very much depends upon the effective removal of heat from the in-vessel components and other auxiliary systems during Tokamak operation. This objective will be accomplished by the design of an effective Cooling Water System (CWS). The optimized piping layout design is an important element in CWS design and is one of the major design challenges owing to the factors of large thermal expansion and seismic accelerations; considering safety, accessibility and maintainability aspects. An important sub-system of ITER CWS, Component Cooling Water System-1 (CCWS-1) has very large diameter of pipes up to DN1600 with many intersections to fulfill the process flow requirements of clients for heat removal. Pipe intersection is the weakest link in the layout due to high stress intensification factor. CCWS-1 piping up to secondary confinement isolation valves as well as in-between these isolation valves need to survive a Seismic Level-2 (SL-2) earthquake during the Tokamak operation period to ensure structural stability of the system in the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) event. This paper presents the design, qualification and optimization of layout of ITER CCWS-1 loop to withstand SSE event combined with sustained and thermal loads as per the load combinations defined by ITER and allowable limits as per ASME B31.3, This paper also highlights the Modal and Response Spectrum Analyses done to find out the natural frequency and system behavior during the seismic event.

  1. Water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, W.R.; Irick, S.C.; Lunt, D.L.J.

    1991-10-28

    The program for providing water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley is reviewed with respect to fabrication and metrology of the surfaces. Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from prototype mirrors and grating blanks will be presented, which show exceptionally low microroughness and mid-period error. We will briefly describe out improved version of the Long Trace Profiler, and its importance to out metrology program. We have completely redesigned the mechanical, optical and computational parts of the profiler system with the cooperation of Peter Takacs of Brookhaven, Continental Optical, and Baker Manufacturing. Most important is that one of our profilers is in use at the vendor to allow testing during fabrication. Metrology from the first water cooled mirror for an ALS beamline is presented as an example. The preplating processing and grinding and polishing were done by Tucson Optical. We will show significantly better surface microroughness on electroless nickel, over large areas, than has been reported previously.

  2. Water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, W.R.; Irick, S.C. ); Lunt, D.L.J. )

    1991-10-28

    The program for providing water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley is reviewed with respect to fabrication and metrology of the surfaces. Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from prototype mirrors and grating blanks will be presented, which show exceptionally low microroughness and mid-period error. We will briefly describe out improved version of the Long Trace Profiler, and its importance to out metrology program. We have completely redesigned the mechanical, optical and computational parts of the profiler system with the cooperation of Peter Takacs of Brookhaven, Continental Optical, and Baker Manufacturing. Most important is that one of our profilers is in use at the vendor to allow testing during fabrication. Metrology from the first water cooled mirror for an ALS beamline is presented as an example. The preplating processing and grinding and polishing were done by Tucson Optical. We will show significantly better surface microroughness on electroless nickel, over large areas, than has been reported previously.

  3. Improvement in Stability of SPring-8 Standard X-Ray Monochromators with Water-Cooled Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Miura, Takanori; Tanaka, Masayuki; Kishimoto, Hikaru; Matsuzaki, Yasuhisa; Shimizu, Nobtaka; Kawano, Yoshiaki; Kumasaka, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Sato, Masugu; Hirosawa, Ichiro; Senba, Yasunori; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Goto, Shunji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2010-06-01

    SPring-8 standard double-crystal monochromators containing water-cooled crystals were stabilized to a sufficient level to function as a part of optics components to supply stable microfocused x-ray beams, by determining causes of the instability and then removing them. The instability was caused by two factors—thermal deformation of fine stepper stages in the monochromator, which resulted in reduction in beam intensity with time, and vibrations of coolant supply units and vacuum pumps, which resulted in fluctuation in beam intensity. We remodeled the crystal holders to maintain the stage temperatures constant with water, attached x-ray and electron shields to the stages in order to prevent their warming up, introduced accumulators in the water circuits to absorb pressure pulsation, used polyurethane tubes to stabilize water flow, and placed rubber cushions un der scroll vacuum pumps. As a result, the intensity reduction rate of the beam decreased from 26% to 1% per hour and the intensity fluctuation from 13% to 1%. The monochromators were also modified to prevent radiation damage to the crystals, materials used as a water seal, and motor cables.

  4. 40 CFR 463.10 - Applicability; description of the contact cooling and heating water subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... processes in the contact cooling and heating water subcategory to waters of the United States and the introduction of such pollutants into publicly owned treatment works. Processes in the contact cooling and heating water subcategory are processes where process water comes in contact with plastic materials or...

  5. Experimental study of the decrease in the temperature of an air/water-cooled turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, A. A.; Sereda, A. V.; Shaiakberov, V. F.; Iskakov, K. M.; Shatalov, Iu. S.

    Results of the full-scale testing of an air/water-cooled deflector-type turbine blade are reported. Data on the decrease in the temperature of the cooling air and of the blade are presented and compared with the calculated values. An analysis of the results indicates that the use of air/water cooling makes it possible to significantly reduce the temperature of the cooling air and of the blade with practically no increase in the engine weight and dimensions.

  6. Optimum hot water temperature for absorption solar cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lecuona, A.; Ventas, R.; Venegas, M.; Salgado, R.; Zacarias, A.

    2009-10-15

    The hot water temperature that maximizes the overall instantaneous efficiency of a solar cooling facility is determined. A modified characteristic equation model is used and applied to single-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chillers. This model is based on the characteristic temperature difference and serves to empirically calculate the performance of real chillers. This paper provides an explicit equation for the optimum temperature of vapor generation, in terms of only the external temperatures of the chiller. The additional data required are the four performance parameters of the chiller and essentially a modified stagnation temperature from the detailed model of the thermal collector operation. This paper presents and discusses the results for small capacity machines for air conditioning of homes and small buildings. The discussion highlights the influence of the relevant parameters. (author)

  7. Shade, water and mass: Passive cooling in Andalucia

    SciTech Connect

    Carrasco, V.; Reynolds, J.S.

    1996-10-01

    A thermally massive, ancient patio (courtyard) house in Bornos Spain was monitored for 25 days in summer 1995. Data for light, relative humidity and air temperature were recorded at the floor`s center in the 3-story deep patio. Temperatures were also recorded in one ground floor and one second floor room adjacent to the patio, and on the roof terrace. Victor Carrasco (the owner) kept a daily record of his actions of shading (with a toldo), of watering the patio`s absorbent floor, and of opening windows for night ventilation. The data show the effects of shading, watering and night ventilation. The cycles of temperature and relative humidity in the center of the patio floor reveal a pattern of thermal sailing where skillful manipulations of shading, evaporative cooling, radiation and night ventilation result in indoor comfort despite the highest outside temperatures of this century that occurred in late July 1995.

  8. Kinetic model for the chlorination of power plant cooling waters

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.D.; Qualls, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Concern over the environmental effects of chlorination has prompted efforts to minimize the amount of chlorine necessary to prevent fouling of power-plant condensers. Kinetic expressions are developed for the short-term reactions of chlorine consumption by organic substances in natural freshwater. These expressions were developed to use in a kinetic model to predict the free and total available chlorine discharged in cooling water. This model uses commonly available water-quality data. It assumes that most of the chlorine-consuming substances are: (1) NH/sub 3/, (2) chloramine-forming organic-N, and (3) humic substances. It uses the Morris-Wei model of chlorine-ammonia reactions. Chloramine formation from organic-N was represented by a model compound, glycylglycine.

  9. The effect of cool water ingestion on gastrointestinal pill temperature.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, David M; Carter, James M; Richmond, Victoria L; Blacker, Sam D; Rayson, Mark P

    2008-03-01

    Telemetric gastrointestinal (GI) temperature pills are now commonly used to measure core body temperature and could minimize the risk of heat illness while maximizing operational effectiveness in workers subject to high levels of thermal strain. To quantify the effect of repeated cool water ingestion on the accuracy of GI pill temperature. Ten operational firefighters ingested a pill to measure GI temperature (T1int) before overnight sleep. Two hours following breakfast and 11.5 h after ingesting T1int, the firefighters ingested a second pill (T2int) before performing 8.5 h of intermittent activity (repetitive cycles of 30 min of seated rest followed by 30 min of general firefighter duties). During the first 2 min of each 30-min rest period, the firefighters consumed 250 mL of chilled water (5-8 degrees C). Water ingestion had a highly variable effect both within and between subjects in transiently (32 +/- 10 min) reducing the temperature of T2int in comparison with T1int. In general, this transient reduction in T2int became progressively smaller as time following ingestion increased. In some firefighters, the difference between T1int and T2int became negligible (+/- 0.1 degrees C) after 3 h, whereas in two others, large differences (peaking at 2.0 degrees C and 6.3 degrees C) were still observed when water was consumed 8 h after pill ingestion. These results show that a GI pill ingested immediately prior to physical activity cannot be used to measure core body temperature accurately in all individuals during the following 8 h when cool fluids are regularly ingested. This makes GI temperature measurement unsuitable for workers who respond to emergency deployments when regular fluid consumption is recommended operational practice.

  10. Behavior of stainless steels in pressurized water reactor primary circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Féron, D.; Herms, E.; Tanguy, B.

    2012-08-01

    Stainless steels are widely used in primary circuits of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Operating experience with the various grades of stainless steels over several decades of years has generally been excellent. Nevertheless, stress corrosion failures have been reported in few cases. Two main factors contributing to SCC susceptibility enhancement are investigated in this study: cold work and irradiation. Irradiation is involved in the stress corrosion cracking and corrosion of in-core reactor components in PWR environment. Irradiated assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is a complex and multi-physics phenomenon for which a predictive modeling able to describe initiation and/or propagation is not yet achieved. Experimentally, development of initiation smart tests and of in situ instrumentation, also in nuclear reactors, is an important axis in order to gain a better understanding of IASCC kinetics. A strong susceptibility for SCC of heavily cold worked austenitic stainless steels is evidenced in hydrogenated primary water typical of PWRs. It is shown that for a given cold-working procedure, SCC susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels materials increases with increasing cold-work. Results have shown also strong influences of the cold work on the oxide layer composition and of the maximum stress on the time to fracture.

  11. Closing pulp and paper mill water circuits with membrane filtration.

    PubMed

    Nuortila-Jokinen, Jutta; Huuhilo, Tiina; Nyström, Marianne

    2003-03-01

    In this study membrane filtration, ultrafiltration, and nanofiltration alone and as part of hybrid processes are considered as means to purify pulp and paper mill process waters suitable for reuse. Thermophilic aerobic biological treatment, pH adjustment, flocculation, and ozonation were tested as pretreatment methods on pilot or on laboratory scale. The aim was to increase flux and reduce fouling by various pretreatment steps and, thus, increase the competitiveness of the membrane process. The results were also evaluated by comparing the benefits obtained against the costs. It was discovered that benefits could be obtained with all the pretreatments tried. Thermophilic aerobic biology assisted in the removal of organic material and increased flux significantly, but the costs were the highest. The most cost-effective processes, however, seem to be pH-adjusted nanofiltration and flocculation nanofiltration hybrid processes, which is understandable because of their significantly lower investment costs compared to, for example, those of biological process. The pH adjustment increased the electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged solutes and membrane, thereby increasing the flux. Flocculation removed the foulants effectively from the feed and it both increased flux and reduced fouling. Yet, many noteworthy benefits were obtained also with ultrafiltration and ozonation. All of the hybrid processes tested could be applied at various points of the water circuit of an integrated pulp and paper mill for purification purposes. The eventual superiority and cost-effectiveness of the applied process remains to be determined case by case.

  12. Interactions between Cool Roofs and Urban Irrigation: Do Cooling Strategies Reduce Water Consumption in the San Francisco Bay Area?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahmani, P.; Jones, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    California has experienced progressive drought since 2012, with 2012-2014 constituting a nearly 10,000-year drought event, resulting in a suite of policies with the goal of reducing water consumption. At the same time, climate warming effects of accelerated urbanization along with projected global climate change raise an urgent need for sustainable mitigation and adaptation strategies to cool urban climates. In this study, for the first time, we assess the overarching benefits of cooling strategies on urban water consumption. We employ a satellite-supported regional climate-modeling framework over the San Francisco Bay Area to assess the effects of cool roofs on urban irrigation, a topic of increasing importance as it accounts for a significant fraction of urban water use particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. We use a suit of climatological simulations at high (1.5 km) spatial resolution, based on a Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Urban Canopy Model (UCM) modeling framework, reinforced with remotely sensed observations of Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF), leaf area index (LAI), and albedo. Our analysis shows that widespread incorporation of cool roofs would result in a mean daytime cooling of about 0.7° C, which in turn results in roughly 4% reduction in irrigation water, largely due to decreases in surface evapotranspiration rates. We further investigate the critical interactions between cool roofs, wind, and sea-breeze patterns as well as fog formation, a dominant weather pattern in San Francisco Bay area.

  13. A water-cooled mirror system for synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    DiGennaro, R.; Gee, B.; Guigli, J.; Hogrefe, H.; Howells, M.; Rarback, H.

    1987-06-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a directly-cooled soft x-ray mirror system which has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for synchrotron radiation beam lines in which mirror thermal distortion must be minimized for acceptable optical performance. Two similar mirror systems are being built: the first mirror has been installed and operated at the National Synchrotron Light Source on the X-17T mini-undulator beam line and will be moved to the permanent X-1 beam line when a new, more powerful undulator is installed there. The second system is being built for installation at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory on Beam Line VI, where the total absorbed power on the mirror may be as high as 2400 W with peak absorbed power density of 520 W/cm/sup 2/. Direct cooling by convection is achieved using internal water channels in a brazed, dispersion-strengthened copper and OFHC copper substrate with a polished electroless-nickel surface. A simple kinematic linkage and flexural pivot mounting provide for mirror positioning about two rotational axes that coincide with the optical surface. Surface figure metrology, optical configurations, and tolerancing are also discussed. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  14. A water-cooled mirror system for synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiGennaro, Richard; Gee, Bruce; Guigli, Jim; Hogrefe, Henning; Howells, Malcolm; Rarback, Harvey

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a directly-cooled soft X-ray mirror system which has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for synchrotron radiation beam lines in which mirror thermal distortion must be minimized for acceptable optical performance . Two similar mirror systems are being built: the first mirror has been installed and operated at the National Synchrotron Light Source on the X-17T miniundulator beam line and will be moved to the permanent X-1 beam line when a new, more powerful undulator is installed there. The second system is being built for installation at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory on Beam Line VI, where the total absorbed power on the mirror may be as high as 2400 W with a peak absorbed power density of 520 W/cm 2. Direct cooling by convection is achieved using internal water channels in a brazed, dispersion-strengthened copper and OFHC copper substrate with a polished electroless-nickel surface. A simple kinematic linkage and flexural pivot mounting provide for mirror positioning about two rotational axes that coincide with the optical surface. Surface figure metrology, optical configurations, and tolerancing are also discussed. This work was supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy, under contract #DE-AC03-76SF00098.

  15. Survey for the presence of specific free-living amoebae in cooling waters from Belgian power plants.

    PubMed

    Behets, Jonas; Declerck, Priscilla; Delaedt, Yasmine; Verelst, Lieve; Ollevier, Frans

    2007-05-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are distributed ubiquitously in aquatic environments with increasing importance in hygienic, medical and ecological relationships to man. In this study, water samples from Belgian industrial cooling circuits were quantitatively surveyed for the presence of FLA. Isolated, thermotolerant amoebae were identified morphologically as well as using the following molecular methods: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and isoenzyme electrophoresis and PCR. Thermophilic amoebae were present at nearly all collection sites, and the different detection methods gave similar results. Naegleria fowleri was the most frequently encountered thermotolerant species, and concentrations of thermotolerant FLA were correlated with higher temperatures.

  16. Thermal-hydraulic limitations on water-cooled limiters

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Y.S.; Misra, B.

    1984-08-01

    An assessment of the cooling requirements for fusion reactor components, such as the first wall and limiter/divertor, was carried out using pressurized water as the coolant. In order to establish the coolant operating conditions, a survey of the literature on departure from nucleate boiling, critical heat flux, asymmetrical heating and heat transfer augmentation techniques was carried out. The experimental data and the empirical correlations indicate that thermal protection for the fusion reactor components based on current design concepts can be provided with an adequate margin of safety without resorting to either high coolant velocities, excessive coolant pressures, or heat transfer augmentation techniques. If, however, the future designs require heat transfer enhancement techniques, experimental verification would be necessary since no data on heat transfer augmentation techniques exist for complex geometries, especially under asymmetrically heated conditions. Since the data presented herein concern primarily thermal protection, the final design should consider other factors such as thermal stresses, temperature limits, and fatigue.

  17. Detecting and mitigating aging in component cooling water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lofaro, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The time-dependent effects of aging on component cooling water (CCW) systems in nuclear power plants has been studied and documented as part of a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It was found that age related degradation leads to failures in the CCW system which can result in an increase in system unavailability, if not properly detected and mitigated. To identify effective methods of managing this degradation, information on inspection, monitoring, and maintenance practices currently available was obtained from various operating plants and reviewed. The findings were correlated with the most common aging mechanisms and failure modes and a compilation of aging detection and mitigation practices was formulated. This paper discusses the results of this work.

  18. Detecting and mitigating aging in component cooling water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lofaro, R.J.

    1991-12-31

    The time-dependent effects of aging on component cooling water (CCW) systems in nuclear power plants has been studied and documented as part of a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It was found that age related degradation leads to failures in the CCW system which can result in an increase in system unavailability, if not properly detected and mitigated. To identify effective methods of managing this degradation, information on inspection, monitoring, and maintenance practices currently available was obtained from various operating plants and reviewed. The findings were correlated with the most common aging mechanisms and failure modes and a compilation of aging detection and mitigation practices was formulated. This paper discusses the results of this work.

  19. Flow-induced vibration of component cooling water heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Y.S.; Chen, S.S. . Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of flow-induced vibration problems of component cooling water heat exchangers in one of Taipower's nuclear power stations. Specifically, it describes flow-induced vibration phenomena, tests to identify the excitation mechanisms, measurement of response characteristics, analyses to predict tube response and wear, various design alterations, and modifications of the original design. Several unique features associated with the heat exchangers are demonstrated, including energy-trapping modes, existence of tube-support-plate (TSP)-inactive modes, and fluidelastic instability of TSP-active and -inactive modes. On the basis of this evaluation, the difficulties and future research needs for the evaluation of heat exchangers are identified. 11 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Decrease in body insulation with exercise in cool water.

    PubMed

    Park, Y S; Pendergast, D R; Rennie, D W

    1984-06-01

    Steady-state body insulation was measured in 7 healthy male subjects during rest and exercise for 3 h in water of 28 degrees C - 32 degrees C. At rest, maximal body insulation increased as a linear function of mean subcutaneous fat thickness by an amount approximately 4-fold what would be predicted from the physical insulation of fat alone. With arm plus leg exercise, body insulation declined as an exponential function of the exercise intensity, reaching approximately 25% of the resting value at work loads above VO2 = 1.2 liters.min-1. During exercise the relationship between overall body insulation and mean subcutaneous fat thickness was almost identical to that predicted from fat insulation and mean subcutaneous fat thickness was almost identical to that predicted from fat insulation alone. These results suggest that 75% of maximal body insulation in resting subjects is achieved by use of skeletal muscle as an insulative barrier and that the muscle component is increased with increasing fat thickness. This muscle insulation shell is lost during exercise. As a practical consequence, heat generated by muscular exercise in water colder than critical water temperature cannot offset cooling unless the exercise intensity is great.

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Three Water Treatment Programs for Cooling Tower Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    10 to 20 percent per month. Use: 89 Treatment of cooling water in smaller cooling towers. Federal Specifications: None. SODIUM HEXAMETAPHOSPHATE ...viscosity 200-1000 cps at 25 degrees C. Use: Dispersant in cooling tower to prevent fouling by nonliving matter. Federal Specification: None. SODIUM ...Legionnaires’ disease in cooling towers. Federal Specification: O-S-602. SODIUM SILICATE,relatively low alkalinity, 41 degree Baume, approximately 28.8

  2. Water cooling system for an air-breathing hypersonic test vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Dziedzic, William M.

    1993-01-01

    This study provides concepts for hypersonic experimental scramjet test vehicles which have low cost and low risk. Cryogenic hydrogen is used as the fuel and coolant. Secondary water cooling systems were designed. Three concepts are shown: an all hydrogen cooling system, a secondary open loop water cooled system, and a secondary closed loop water cooled system. The open loop concept uses high pressure helium (15,000 psi) to drive water through the cooling system while maintaining the pressure in the water tank. The water flows through the turbine side of the turbopump to pump hydrogen fuel. The water is then allowed to vent. In the closed loop concept high pressure, room temperature, compressed liquid water is circulated. In flight water pressure is limited to 6000 psi by venting some of the water. Water is circulated through cooling channels via an ejector which uses high pressure gas to drive a water jet. The cooling systems are presented along with finite difference steady-state and transient analysis results. The results from this study indicate that water used as a secondary coolant can be designed to increase experimental test time, produce minimum venting of fluid and reduce overall development cost.

  3. Water cooling system for an air-breathing hypersonic test vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Dziedzic, William M.

    1993-01-01

    This study provides concepts for hypersonic experimental scramjet test vehicles which have low cost and low risk. Cryogenic hydrogen is used as the fuel and coolant. Secondary water cooling systems were designed. Three concepts are shown: an all hydrogen cooling system, a secondary open loop water cooled system, and a secondary closed loop water cooled system. The open loop concept uses high pressure helium (15,000 psi) to drive water through the cooling system while maintaining the pressure in the water tank. The water flows through the turbine side of the turbopump to pump hydrogen fuel. The water is then allowed to vent. In the closed loop concept high pressure, room temperature, compressed liquid water is circulated. In flight water pressure is limited to 6000 psi by venting some of the water. Water is circulated through cooling channels via an ejector which uses high pressure gas to drive a water jet. The cooling systems are presented along with finite difference steady-state and transient analysis results. The results from this study indicate that water used as a secondary coolant can be designed to increase experimental test time, produce minimum venting of fluid and reduce overall development cost.

  4. Water spray cooling during handling of feedlot cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown-Brandl, Tami M.; Eigenberg, Roger A.; Nienaber, John A.

    2010-11-01

    Activities involved in receiving or working (e.g., sorting, dehorning, castration, weighing, implanting, etc.) of feedlot cattle cause an increase in body temperature. During hot weather the increased body temperature may disrupt normal behaviors including eating, which can be especially detrimental to the well-being and performance of the animals. Sprinkle cooling of animals has been successfully employed within the pen; however, added moisture to the pens' surface increases odor generation from the pen. A study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a single instance of wetting an animal within the working facility instead of in the pen, which could potentially provide extra evaporative cooling to offset the added heat produced by activity. Sixty-four cross-bred heifers were assigned to one of eight pens on the basis of weight. On four separate occasions during hot conditions (average temperature 28.2 ± 1.9°C, 29.1 ± 2.0°C, 28.9 ± 3.0°C, and 26.8 ± 1.6°C; with the temperature ranging from 22.6 to 32.5°C during the trials), the heifers were moved from their pens to and from the working facility (a building with a scale and squeeze chute located 160-200 m away). While in the squeeze chute, four of the pens of heifers were sprinkle cooled and the remaining four pens were worked as normal. The heifers that were treated had a body temperature that peaked sooner (31.9 ± 0.63 min compared to 37.6 ± 0.62) with a lower peak body temperature (39.55 ± 0.03°C compared to 39.74 ± 0.03°C), and recovered sooner (70.5 ± 2.4 min compared to 83.2 ± 2.4 min). The treated animals also had a lower panting score, a visual assessment of level of cattle heat stress (1.1 ± 0.2 compared to 1.16 ± 0.2). The behavior measurements that were taken did not indicate a change in behavior. It was concluded that while a single instance of wetting an animal within the working facility did not completely offset the increase in body temperature, it was beneficial to the

  5. Distinct difference of flaA genotypes of Legionella pneumophila between isolates from bath water and cooling tower water.

    PubMed

    Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Kura, Fumiaki; Chang, Bin; Suzuki-Hashimoto, Atsuko; Ichinose, Masayuki; Endo, Takuro; Watanabe, Haruo

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the genetic difference of Legionella pneumophila in human-made environments, we collected isolates of L. pneumophila from bath water (n = 167) and cooling tower water (n = 128) primarily in the Kanto region in 2001 and 2005. The environmental isolates were serogrouped and sequenced for a target region of flaA. A total of 14 types of flaA genotypes were found: 10 from cooling tower water and nine from bath water. The flaA genotypes of isolates from cooling tower water were quite different from those of bath water.

  6. Marginal costs of water savings from cooling system retrofits: a case study for Texas power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loew, Aviva; Jaramillo, Paulina; Zhai, Haibo

    2016-10-01

    The water demands of power plant cooling systems may strain water supply and make power generation vulnerable to water scarcity. Cooling systems range in their rates of water use, capital investment, and annual costs. Using Texas as a case study, we examined the cost of retrofitting existing coal and natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plants with alternative cooling systems, either wet recirculating towers or air-cooled condensers for dry cooling. We applied a power plant assessment tool to model existing power plants in terms of their key plant attributes and site-specific meteorological conditions and then estimated operation characteristics of retrofitted plants and retrofit costs. We determined the anticipated annual reductions in water withdrawals and the cost-per-gallon of water saved by retrofits in both deterministic and probabilistic forms. The results demonstrate that replacing once-through cooling at coal-fired power plants with wet recirculating towers has the lowest cost per reduced water withdrawals, on average. The average marginal cost of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling retrofits at coal-fired plants is approximately 0.68 cents per gallon, while the marginal recirculating retrofit cost is 0.008 cents per gallon. For NGCC plants, the average marginal costs of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling and recirculating towers are 1.78 and 0.037 cents per gallon, respectively.

  7. [Isolation of Legionella spp. from cooling tower water and the effect of microbicides].

    PubMed

    Kasai, J; Ando, F; Kuwashima, M

    1989-08-01

    Legionella spp., the causative organism of legionnaires' disease, were isolated from more than 80% of water samples in cooling towers before washing. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of microbicide treatment of cooling tower water on Legionella spp., other bacteria and protozoa. 2-Bromo-2-nitropane-1,3-dial, 2,4-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin or silver nitrate-treated silica gel was added to cooling tower water. The isolation rate of Legionella spp. in the cooling tower water was 50% after microbiocide treatment with 2-bromo-2-nitropane-1,3-dial being the most effective. The microbicide treatment had no effect on other bacteria or protozoa. These findings indicated the importance of regular washing and water exchange of cooling tower water with microbicide treatment.

  8. High Speed Solid State Circuit Breaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podlesak, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Fort Monmouth, NJ, has developed and is installing two 3.3 MW high speed solid state circuit breakers at the Army's Pulse Power Center. These circuit breakers will interrupt 4160V three phase power mains in no more than 300 microseconds, two orders of magnitude faster than conventional mechanical contact type circuit breakers. These circuit breakers utilize Gate Turnoff Thyristors (GTO's) and are currently utility type devices using air cooling in an air conditioned enclosure. Future refinements include liquid cooling, either water or two phase organic coolant, and more advanced semiconductors. Each of these refinements promises a more compact, more reliable unit.

  9. Simulation of cooling-water discharges from power plants.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Buchak, E M; Edinger, J E; Kolluru, V S

    2001-01-01

    Accurate simulation of the temperature distribution in a cooling lake or reservoir is often required for feasibility studies of engineering options that increase the cooling capacity of the waterbody. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic and temperature model has been developed and applied to several cooling lakes in the south-eastern United States. In this paper, the details of the modeling system are presented, along with the application to the Flint Creek Lake.

  10. State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, R.D.

    1996-08-12

    The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

  11. Cooling of Water in a Flask: Convection Currents in a Fluid with a Density Maximum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velasco, S.; White, J. A.; Roman, F. L.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of density inversion on the convective flow of water in a spherical glass flask cooled with the help of an ice-water bath is shown. The experiment was carried out by temperature measurements (cooling curves) taken at three different heights along the vertical diameter of the flask. Flows inside the flask are visualized by seeding the…

  12. Cooling of Water in a Flask: Convection Currents in a Fluid with a Density Maximum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velasco, S.; White, J. A.; Roman, F. L.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of density inversion on the convective flow of water in a spherical glass flask cooled with the help of an ice-water bath is shown. The experiment was carried out by temperature measurements (cooling curves) taken at three different heights along the vertical diameter of the flask. Flows inside the flask are visualized by seeding the…

  13. 77 FR 73056 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1259, ``Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes the general scope and depth that the staff of the NRC considers acceptable for Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants.

  14. 40 CFR 63.1086 - How must I monitor for leaks to cooling water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Ethylene Manufacturing Process Units: Heat Exchange Systems and Waste Operations Monitoring Requirements for Heat Exchange Systems § 63.1086 How must I monitor for leaks to cooling water? You must monitor for leaks to cooling water by monitoring each heat...

  15. State waste discharge permit application: 400 Area secondary cooling water

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This document constitutes the Washington Administrative Code 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit Application that serves as interim compliance as required by the Consent Order DE 91NM-177, for the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream. As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permitting Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered in to Consent Order DE 91NM-177. The Consent Order DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges.

  16. Methodology for predicting cooling water effects on fish

    SciTech Connect

    Cakiroglu, C.; Yurteri, C.

    1998-07-01

    The mathematical model presented here predicts the long-term effects of once-through cooling water systems on local fish populations. The fish life cycle model simulates different life stages of fish by using appropriate expressions representing growth and mortality rates. The heart of the developed modeling approach is the prediction of plant-caused reduction in total fish population by estimating recruitment to adult population with and without entrainment of ichthyoplankton and impingement of small fish. The model was applied to a local fish species, gilthead (Aparus aurata), for the case of a proposed power plant in the Aegean region of Turkey. The simulations indicate that entrainment and impingement may lead to a population reduction of about 2% to 8% in the long run. In many cases, an impact of this size can be considered rather unimportant. In the case of sensitive and ecologically values species facing extinction, however, necessary precautions should be taken to minimize or totally avoid such an impact.

  17. A novel nonoxidizing biocide for cooling water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeny, P.G.; Himpler, F.J.

    1994-12-31

    Quaternary ammonium biocides are commonly used in cooling water systems to control organisms associated with microbiologically induced corrosion and microbial fouling. These compounds while being highly efficacious and low cost have, in general, high foaming tendencies which can limit their range of application. A new quaternary ammonium compound, decylisononyldimethylammonium chloride (DIDMAC), was developed to prevent foam problems while maintaining the advantages of standard quat treatments. Laboratory evaluations showed DIDMAC to produce significantly less foam than a standard alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC), approaching that of a polymeric quat. Bactericidal and algicidal evaluations showed DIDMAC to provide efficacy greater than the polymeric quat and similar to the ADBAC. Field evaluations confirmed the laboratory results showing DIDMAC to foam significantly less than the ADBAC and similar to the polymeric quat. In the field, DIDMAC bactericidal and algicidal efficacies were evaluated in combination with other nonoxidizing biocides. Optimized programs, consisting of weekly additions of 10--30 mg/l DIDMAC with semiweekly applications of 1.5 mg/l isothiazolone, exceeded the algicidal and matched the bactericidal performance of control thione/isothiazolone programs. The DIDMAC-containing programs, in addition to providing enhanced bactericidal and algicidal efficacy, reduced treatment costs by 27 to 43% compared to the control.

  18. Design of Water-Drip Cooling Facilities for Heat Treatment of Mill Rollers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudin, Yu. V.; Maisuradze, M. V.; Anufriev, N. P.

    2013-07-01

    Water-drip cooling devices based on centrifugal jet atomizers are studied experimentally. Their main operating characteristics such as the irrigation density, the uniformity of the distribution of irrigation over the cooled surface, the dependence of the heat transfer factor on the surface temperature, etc. are determined. The effect of the design and production parameters of the quenching facilities on their operating characteristics and mode of cooling of large steel articles is considered for mill rollers as an example. The results of the tests are used to design cooling facilities and heat treatment processes for mill rollers with the use of water-drip quenching.

  19. Numerical study of coupled transfer of heat and mass between air and water inside a geothermal water cooling tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassem, Mohamed Mehdi; Bourouni, Karim; Thameur Chaibi, Mohamed

    2006-11-01

    In the south of Tunisia, geothermal water is used to irrigate cultures. Since its temperature is very high (70 C), geothermal water is cooled by cooling towers. These towers are sized empirically and present many operating problems such as excessive energy consumption, big loss of vapour and low cooling efficiency. The aim of our work is modelling the coupled heat and mass transfer between air and water inside the cooling tower. The most important results obtained are that the evaporative potential is dominating the convective one in the cooling process. That's why the cooling is more efficient in summer than in hibernal period when humidity of ambient air reaches high values. In other hand, the negative convective phenomenon is illustrated. In fact, at the bottom of the tower, water temperature reaches the air one; the two fluids begin to cooling simultaneously. Air is cooled by convection and water by evaporation. We demonstrate also that there is no point in putting fans in working during cold weather. We studied also the effect of the variation of heat transfer coefficient on the efficiency of cooling.

  20. Water spray cooling during handling of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Brown-Brandl, Tami M; Eigenberg, Roger A; Nienaber, John A

    2010-11-01

    Activities involved in receiving or working (e.g., sorting, dehorning, castration, weighing, implanting, etc.) of feedlot cattle cause an increase in body temperature. During hot weather the increased body temperature may disrupt normal behaviors including eating, which can be especially detrimental to the well-being and performance of the animals. Sprinkle cooling of animals has been successfully employed within the pen; however, added moisture to the pens' surface increases odor generation from the pen. A study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a single instance of wetting an animal within the working facility instead of in the pen, which could potentially provide extra evaporative cooling to offset the added heat produced by activity. Sixty-four cross-bred heifers were assigned to one of eight pens on the basis of weight. On four separate occasions during hot conditions (average temperature 28.2 ± 1.9°C, 29.1 ± 2.0°C, 28.9 ± 3.0°C, and 26.8 ± 1.6°C; with the temperature ranging from 22.6 to 32.5°C during the trials), the heifers were moved from their pens to and from the working facility (a building with a scale and squeeze chute located 160-200 m away). While in the squeeze chute, four of the pens of heifers were sprinkle cooled and the remaining four pens were worked as normal. The heifers that were treated had a body temperature that peaked sooner (31.9 ± 0.63 min compared to 37.6 ± 0.62) with a lower peak body temperature (39.55 ± 0.03°C compared to 39.74 ± 0.03°C), and recovered sooner (70.5 ± 2.4 min compared to 83.2 ± 2.4 min). The treated animals also had a lower panting score, a visual assessment of level of cattle heat stress (1.1 ± 0.2 compared to 1.16 ± 0.2). The behavior measurements that were taken did not indicate a change in behavior. It was concluded that while a single instance of wetting an animal within the working facility did not completely offset the

  1. Optimal Environmental Performance of Water-cooled Chiller System with All Variable Speed Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fu Wing; Chan, Kwok Tai

    This study investigates how the environmental performance of water-cooled chiller systems can be optimized by applying load-based speed control to all the system components. New chiller and cooling tower models were developed using a transient systems simulation program called TRNSYS 15 in order to assess the electricity and water consumption of a chiller plant operating for a building cooling load profile. The chiller model was calibrated using manufacturer's performance data and used to analyze the coefficient of performance when the design and control of chiller components are changed. The NTU-effectiveness approach was used for the cooling tower model to consider the heat transfer effectiveness at various air-to-water flow ratios and to identify the makeup water rate. Applying load-based speed control to the cooling tower fans and pumps could save an annual plant operating cost by around 15% relative to an equivalent system with constant speed configurations.

  2. Three African antelope species with varying water dependencies exhibit similar selective brain cooling.

    PubMed

    Strauss, W Maartin; Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; Maloney, Shane K; Meyer, Leith C R; Fuller, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    The use of selective brain cooling, where warm arterial blood destined for the brain is cooled in the carotid rete via counter-current heat exchange when in close proximity to cooler venous blood, contributes to the conservation of body water. We simultaneously measured carotid blood and hypothalamic temperature in four gemsbok, five red hartebeest and six blue wildebeest to assess the extent to which these free-living animals, with varying water dependency, routinely rely on selective brain cooling. We investigated the hypothesis that innate differences in selective brain cooling exist in large, sympatric artiodactyls with varying water dependency. All three species used selective brain cooling, without any discernible differences in three selective brain cooling indices. GLMMs revealed no species differences in the threshold temperature for selective brain cooling (z = 0.79, P = 0.43), the magnitude (z = -0.51, P = 0.61), or the frequency of selective brain cooling use (z = -0.47, P = 0.64), after controlling for carotid blood temperature and black globe temperature. Comparison of anatomical attributes of the carotid retes of the three species revealed that the volume (F 2,9 = 5.54, P = 0.03) and height (F 2,9 = 5.43, P = 0.03) of the carotid rete, per kilogram body mass, were greater in the red hartebeest than in the blue wildebeest. Nevertheless, intraspecific variability in the magnitude, the frequency of use, and the threshold temperature for selective brain cooling exceeded any interspecific variability in the three indices of selective brain cooling. We conclude that the three species have similar underlying ability to make use of selective brain cooling in an environment with freely available water. It remains to be seen to what extent these three species would rely on selective brain cooling, as a water conservation mechanism, when challenged by aridity, a condition likely to become prevalent throughout much of southern Africa under future climate change

  3. Thermal design of lithium bromide-water solution vapor absorption cooling system for indirect evaporative cooling for IT pod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, Digvijay Ramkrishna

    Nowadays with increase use of internet, mobile there is increase in heat which ultimately increases the efficient cooling system of server room or IT POD. Use of traditional ways of cooling system has ultimately increased CO2 emission and depletion of CFC's are serious environmental issues which led scientific people to improve cooling techniques and eliminate use of CFC's. To reduce dependency on fossil fuels and 4environmental friendly system needed to be design. For being utilizing low grade energy source such as solar collector and reducing dependency on fossil fuel vapour absorption cooling system has shown a great driving force in today's refrigeration systems. This LiBr-water aabsorption cooling consists of five heat exchanger namely: Evaporator, Absorber, Solution Heat Exchanger, Generator, Condenser. The thermal design was done for a load of 23 kW and the procedure was described in the thesis. There are 120 servers in the IT POD emitting 196 W of heat each on full load and some of the heat was generated by the computer placed inside the IT POD. A detailed procedure has been discussed. A excel spreadsheet was to prepared with varying tube sizes to see the effect on flows and ultimately overall heat transfer coefficient.

  4. Rotation and penetrative convection in water cooled from below}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alboussiere, T.; Labrosse, S.; Dubuffet, F.; Thibon, F.; Huguet, L.; Deguen, R.

    2012-12-01

    It has already been suggested that the outer core of the Earth might not be entirely in a convective regime [1], for instance in a region close to the CMB where the heat conducted along the adiabat could be larger than the net heat transfer and where compositional buoyancy vanishes. Radial dependence of thermal conductivity could also produce neighbouring stable and unstable regions. To what extent does convection spread into the stable region is then an important issue. Liquid water and its maximum density at 4°C provides a convenient way to observe penetrative convection. We have performed experiments where a volume of water (of square cross-section 16 cm by 16 cm and height 20 cm) initially at room temperature (around 22°C) is then suddenly cooled around 0°C at the bottom while the sides and top walls are (imperfectly) thermally insulated. Near the bottom, where temperature is below 4°C, unstable buoyancy conditions prevail and we observe convective cells. Above 4°C, quiescent stable stratification is observed. Temperature is close to 4°C within the bulk of the convective zone, so that the flux of heat extracted from the bottom is used to change the temperature from 22°C to 4°C within the successive layers of water, while the height of the convective zone increases and eventually reaches the top of the volume. Temperatures have been measured on a array of 15 PT100 probes protruding 5 mm into water along a vertical side wall. the extreme probes are 1 cm away from the lower and upper boundaries respectively. The evolution of all 15 temperatures can be seen on left-hand side of Fig. 1. Another type of information was obtained from a synthetic schlieren technique, whereby pictures of a random pattern placed behind the transparent water-filled box (perspex walls) are taken every 5 s with a digital camera. The cross-correlation of the different images provides a dynamical visualization of the gradients of refraction index within the volume of water. A snapshot

  5. Radiant Cooling for Closed-Loop Water Containment: Exploration of Possible Application in Dry Docks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-20

    Radiant Cooling For Closed-Loop Water Containment: Exploration of Possible Application in Dry Docks by Trevor R. Murphy, Mechanical...Organization: SPAWAR Sponsoring Organization: NESDI Keywords: Dry Dock Cooling , Heat Transfer, Closed Loop, Pipe System, Cost, Pareto List of Programs...provide data for estimating the cost of implementing a closed-loop radiant cooling system for ships in dry docks. Depending on the material used, pipe

  6. Cooling Rates of Humans in Air and in Water: An Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2012-12-01

    In a previous article I analyzed in detail the physical factors resulting in greater cooling rates of objects in still water than in still air, emphasizing cooling of the human body. By cooling rate I mean the rate of decrease of core temperature uncompensated by metabolism. I concluded that the "correct ratio for humans is closer to 2 than to 10." To support this assertion I subsequently did experiments, which I report following a digression on hypothermia.

  7. Accident analysis of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Yulianti, Yanti; Su’ud, Zaki; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2015-04-16

    Thorium has lately attracted considerable attention because it is accumulating as a by-product of large scale rare earth mining. The objective of research is to analyze transient behavior of a heavy water cooled thorium breeder that is designed by Tokai University and Tokyo Institute of Technology. That is oxide fueled, PWR type reactor with heavy water as primary coolant. An example of the optimized core has relatively small moderator to fuel volume ratio (MFR) of 0.6 and the characteristics of the core are burn-up of 67 GWd/t, breeding ratio of 1.08, burn-up reactivity loss during cycles of < 0.2% dk/k, and negative coolant reactivity coefficient. One of the nuclear reactor accidents types examined here is Unprotected Transient over Power (UTOP) due to withdrawing of the control rod that result in the positive reactivity insertion so that the reactor power will increase rapidly. Another accident type is Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) that caused by failure of coolant pumps. To analyze the reactor accidents, neutron distribution calculation in the nuclear reactor is the most important factor. The best expression for the neutron distribution is the Boltzmann transport equation. However, solving this equation is very difficult so that the space-time diffusion equation is commonly used. Usually, space-time diffusion equation is solved by employing a point kinetics approach. However, this approach is less accurate for a spatially heterogeneous nuclear reactor and the nuclear reactor with quite large reactivity input. Direct method is therefore used to solve space-time diffusion equation which consider spatial factor in detail during nuclear reactor accident simulation. Set of equations that obtained from full implicit finite-difference method is solved by using iterative methods. The indication of UTOP accident is decreasing macroscopic absorption cross-section that results large external reactivity, and ULOF accident is indicated by decreasing coolant flow. The

  8. Accident analysis of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulianti, Yanti; Su'ud, Zaki; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2015-04-01

    Thorium has lately attracted considerable attention because it is accumulating as a by-product of large scale rare earth mining. The objective of research is to analyze transient behavior of a heavy water cooled thorium breeder that is designed by Tokai University and Tokyo Institute of Technology. That is oxide fueled, PWR type reactor with heavy water as primary coolant. An example of the optimized core has relatively small moderator to fuel volume ratio (MFR) of 0.6 and the characteristics of the core are burn-up of 67 GWd/t, breeding ratio of 1.08, burn-up reactivity loss during cycles of < 0.2% dk/k, and negative coolant reactivity coefficient. One of the nuclear reactor accidents types examined here is Unprotected Transient over Power (UTOP) due to withdrawing of the control rod that result in the positive reactivity insertion so that the reactor power will increase rapidly. Another accident type is Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) that caused by failure of coolant pumps. To analyze the reactor accidents, neutron distribution calculation in the nuclear reactor is the most important factor. The best expression for the neutron distribution is the Boltzmann transport equation. However, solving this equation is very difficult so that the space-time diffusion equation is commonly used. Usually, space-time diffusion equation is solved by employing a point kinetics approach. However, this approach is less accurate for a spatially heterogeneous nuclear reactor and the nuclear reactor with quite large reactivity input. Direct method is therefore used to solve space-time diffusion equation which consider spatial factor in detail during nuclear reactor accident simulation. Set of equations that obtained from full implicit finite-difference method is solved by using iterative methods. The indication of UTOP accident is decreasing macroscopic absorption cross-section that results large external reactivity, and ULOF accident is indicated by decreasing coolant flow. The

  9. Evaluation of water cooled supersonic temperature and pressure probes for application to 1366 K flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas; Seiner, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Water cooled supersonic probes are developed to investigate total pressure, static pressure, and total temperature in high-temperature jet plumes and thereby determine the mean flow properties. Two probe concepts, designed for operation at up to 1366 K in a Mach 2 flow, are tested on a water cooled nozzle. The two probe designs - the unsymmetric four-tube cooling configuration and the symmetric annular cooling design - take measurements at 755, 1089, and 1366 K of the three parameters. The cooled total and static pressure readings are found to agree with previous test results with uncooled configurations. The total-temperature probe, however, is affected by the introduction of water coolant, and effect which is explained by the increased heat transfer across the thermocouple-bead surface. Further investigation of the effect of coolant on the temperature probe is proposed to mitigate the effect and calculate more accurate temperatures in jet plumes.

  10. Evaluation of water cooled supersonic temperature and pressure probes for application to 1366 K flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas; Seiner, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Water cooled supersonic probes are developed to investigate total pressure, static pressure, and total temperature in high-temperature jet plumes and thereby determine the mean flow properties. Two probe concepts, designed for operation at up to 1366 K in a Mach 2 flow, are tested on a water cooled nozzle. The two probe designs - the unsymmetric four-tube cooling configuration and the symmetric annular cooling design - take measurements at 755, 1089, and 1366 K of the three parameters. The cooled total and static pressure readings are found to agree with previous test results with uncooled configurations. The total-temperature probe, however, is affected by the introduction of water coolant, and effect which is explained by the increased heat transfer across the thermocouple-bead surface. Further investigation of the effect of coolant on the temperature probe is proposed to mitigate the effect and calculate more accurate temperatures in jet plumes.

  11. Comparison of solar panel cooling system by using dc brushless fan and dc water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwan, Y. M.; Leow, W. Z.; Irwanto, M.; M, Fareq; Hassan, S. I. S.; Safwati, I.; Amelia, A. R.

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss comparison of solar panel cooling system by using DC brushless fan and DC water pump. Solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation is an interesting technique to reduce non-renewable energy consumption and as a renewable energy. The temperature of PV modules increases when it absorbs solar radiation, causing a decrease in efficiency. A solar cooling system is design, construct and experimentally researched within this work. To make an effort to cool the PV module, Direct Current (DC) brushless fan and DC water pump with inlet/outlet manifold are designed for constant air movement and water flow circulation at the back side and front side of PV module representatively. Temperature sensors were installed on the PV module to detect temperature of PV. PIC microcontroller was used to control the DC brushless fan and water pump for switch ON or OFF depend on the temperature of PV module automatically. The performance with and without cooling system are shown in this experiment. The PV module with DC water pump cooling system increase 3.52%, 36.27%, 38.98%in term of output voltage, output current, output power respectively. It decrease 6.36 °C compare than to PV module without DC water pump cooling system. While DC brushless fan cooling system increase 3.47%, 29.55%, 32.23%in term of output voltage, output current, and output power respectively. It decrease 6.1 °C compare than to PV module without DC brushless fan cooling system. The efficiency of PV module with cooling system was increasing compared to PV module without cooling system; this is because the ambient temperature dropped significantly. The higher efficiency of PV cell, the payback period of the system can be shorted and the lifespan of PV module can also be longer.

  12. Computer program calculates peripheral water injection cooling of axisymmetric subsonic diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grey, J.

    1968-01-01

    Digital computer program calculates the cooling effectiveness and flow characteristics resulting from the mixing of a cool liquid injectant /water/ with a hot sonic or subsonic gas stream /hydrogen/. The output of the program provides pressure, temperature, velocity, density, composition, and Mach number profiles at any location in the mixing duct.

  13. Rotary combustor barrel with water-cooled baffles

    SciTech Connect

    Jurusz, M.T.

    1988-04-05

    A combustion barrel in a rotary combustor used for burning solid material is described. The rotary combustor is connected to heat exchanging equipment. The combustion barrel comprises: a generally cylindrical side wall rotatable about a central axis of rotation and having an input end and an exit end, baffle pipes, attached to the interior of the generally cylindrical side wall, extending longitudinally with adjacent baffle pipes separated by a second spacing distance more than twice as large as the first spacing distance, and having first and second pipe ends at the exit and input ends, respectively of the side wall, for agitating the solid material as the combustion barrel is rotated; a ring header, having a generally annular shape, coupled to the heat exchanging equipment, for supplying coolant to, and discharging coolant from, the cooling pipes and the baffle pipes; coupling means for coupling and sealing the first pipe ends of the cooling and baffle pipes to the ring header, supplying coolant to a first set of pipes selected from among the cooling pipes and the baffle pipes and discharging coolant from a second set of pipes corresponding to the remaining ones of the the cooling pipes and the baffle pipes; and return means for returning the coolant from the second ends of the cooling and baffle pipes in the first set of pipes to the ring header via the second set of pipes.

  14. Foulant Characteristics Comparison in Recycling Cooling Water System Makeup by Municipal Reclaimed Water and Surface Water in Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water. PMID:25893132

  15. Foulant characteristics comparison in recycling cooling water system makeup by municipal reclaimed water and surface water in power plant.

    PubMed

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water.

  16. Water-soluble cooling lubricants induce airway hyperresponsiveness in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Marek, W; Mensing, T; Fricke, H; Baur, X

    1998-01-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to water-soluble cooling lubricants (CL) induced by aerosol administered by tracheal tube was studied in a rabbit model of occupational lung disease. Two commercial CL were examined: the first was of the boric acid amine ester type without biozide (CL-BAE), the second was of the sulfonate type with biozide (CL-SB). 50, 5.0 or 0.5 mg/m3 CL was administered over a period of twice 2 h to six different groups of rabbits. Airway responsiveness (AR) to aerosols of 0.2% and 2.0% acetylcholine solution (ACH) was measured before and after each exposure to CL. A control group A of nine animals not exposed to CL showed no significant respiratory responses following inhalation of 0.2% ACH for 1 min. Conversely, inhalation of 2.0% ACH almost doubled the dynamic elastance (Edyn) in the ACH challenge test in this animal group. Airway resistance (RI), Edyn, slope of inspiratory pressure generation (delta Pes/tI), arterial pressure (Pa) and arterial blood gas tensions (PaO2, PaCO2) were not significantly altered during and after exposures to CL. However, after CL-BAE inhalation of 50 and 5 mg/m3 over 4 h, the amplitude of the ACH-induced airway obstruction indicated by the changes in Edyn rose significantly to almost five times the control response before exposure (group C, D, p < 0.005). Similar changes in RI and delta Pes/tI were obtained. After inhalation of 0.5 mg/m3 CL-BAE (group D), no significant changes in AR were observed. Similar to CL-BAE inhalation of 50 mg/m3, CL-SB caused enlarged AR in the ACH challenge test (group E), whereas no significant changes were found after exposure to 5.0 and 0.5 mg/m3 in groups F and G. In summary, CL aerosols with and without biozide in the range of 50 and 5 mg/m3 applied via tracheal tubes increased AR to ACH within 4 h of exposure in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. It has to be assumed that this augmented AR indicates an increased risk of developing lubricant-induced obstructive lung diseases.

  17. Sustained Recycle in Light Water and Sodium-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Michael A. Pope; Gilles J. Youinou

    2010-11-01

    From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain recycle of used fuel in either thermal or fast reactors. This paper examines multi-recycle potential performance by considering three recycling approaches and calculating several fuel cycle parameters, including heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; radiotoxicity of waste; and uranium utilization. The first recycle approach is homogeneous mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies in a light water reactor (LWR). The transuranic portion of the MOX was varied among Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. (All-TRU means all isotopes through Cf-252.) The Pu case was allowed to go to 10% Pu in fresh fuel, but when the minor actinides were included, the transuranic enrichment was kept below 8% to satisfy the expected void reactivity constraint. The uranium portion of the MOX was enriched uranium. That enrichment was increased (to as much as 6.5%) to keep the fuel critical for a typical LWR irradiation. The second approach uses heterogeneous inert matrix fuel (IMF) assemblies in an LWR - a mix of IMF and traditional UOX pins. The uranium-free IMF fuel pins were Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. The UOX pins were limited to 4.95% U-235 enrichment. The number of IMF pins was set so that the amount of TRU in discharged fuel from recycle N (from both IMF and UOX pins) was made into the new IMF pins for recycle N+1. Up to 60 of the 264 pins in a fuel assembly were IMF. The assembly-average TRU content was 1-6%. The third approach uses fast reactor oxide fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor with transuranic conversion ratio of 0.50 and 1.00. The transuranic conversion ratio is the production of transuranics divided by destruction of transuranics. The FR at CR=0.50 is similar to the CR for the MOX case. The fast reactor cases had a transuranic content of 33-38%, higher than IMF or MOX.

  18. Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use

    SciTech Connect

    Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

    2013-09-30

    Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our team’s exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive

  19. Reply to 'Comment on 'Collisional cooling investigation of THz rotational transitions of water''

    SciTech Connect

    Drouin, Brian J.; Pearson, John C.; Dick, Michael J.

    2010-09-15

    This response describes the authors' reaction to a critique of recent work on the ultracold physics of water. The possibility of spin-selective adsorption occurring in the context of the collisional cooling experiment is discussed.

  20. Water-cooled furnace heads for use with standard muffle tube furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. J.; Mullins, O.

    1975-01-01

    The design of water-cooled furnace seals for use in high-temperature controlled-atmosphere gas and vacuum studies is presented in detailed engineering drawings. Limiting design factors and advantages are discussed.

  1. 22. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: COOLING WATER PUMPS (WESTINGHOUSE C.S. INDUCTION MOTORS), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: COOLING WATER PUMPS (WESTINGHOUSE C.S. INDUCTION MOTORS), 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  2. Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

    2006-06-30

    Tree ring studies indicate that, for the greater part of the last three decades, New Mexico has been relatively 'wet' compared to the long-term historical norm. However, during the last several years, New Mexico has experienced a severe drought. Some researchers are predicting a return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters to supplement current fresh water supplies for power plant operation and cooling and other uses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. These were (1) an assessment of using water produced with oil and gas as a supplemental supply for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS); (2) a field evaluation of the wet-surface air cooling (WSAC) system at SJGS; and (3) the development of a ZeroNet systems analysis module and an application of the Watershed Risk Management Framework (WARMF) to evaluate a range of water shortage management plans. The study of the possible use of produced water at SJGS showed that produce water must be treated to justify its use in any reasonable quantity at SJGS. The study identified produced water volume and quality, the infrastructure needed to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements, and delivery and treatment economics. A number of produced water treatment alternatives that use off-the-shelf technology were evaluated along with the equipment needed for water treatment at SJGS. Wet surface air-cooling (WSAC) technology was tested at the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) to determine its capacity to cool power plant circulating water using degraded water. WSAC is a commercial cooling technology and has been used for many years to cool and/or condense process fluids. The purpose of the pilot test was to determine if WSAC

  3. Repair of a water-cooled field coil for a hydroelectric motor/generator

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.J. III

    1983-01-01

    Four reversible pump/turbine units at TVA's Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant were placed in service in 1978 to 1979. The stator and rotor windings for the motor/generators are direct water cooled. This paper describes repairs to a water-cooled coil of one of the 24 field poles of Unit No. 3 motor/generator placed in service in February 1979.

  4. In Hot Water: A Cooling Tower Case Study. Instructor's Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Justin; Raju, P. K.; Sankar, Chetan

    2005-01-01

    Vogtle Electric Generating Plant operated by Southern Nuclear Operating Company, a subsidiary of Southern Company, has found itself at a decision point. Vogtle depends on their natural draft cooling towers to remove heat from the power cycle. Depending on the efficiency of the towers, the cycle can realize more or less power output. The efficiency…

  5. In Hot Water: A Cooling Tower Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Justin; Raju, P. K.; Sankar, Chetan

    2005-01-01

    Problem Statement: Vogtle Electric Generating Plant operated by Southern Nuclear Operating Company, a subsidiary of Southern Company, has found itself at a decision point. Vogtle depends on their natural draft cooling towers to remove heat from the power cycle. Depending on the efficiency of the towers, the cycle can realize more or less power…

  6. In Hot Water: A Cooling Tower Case Study. Instructor's Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Justin; Raju, P. K.; Sankar, Chetan

    2005-01-01

    Vogtle Electric Generating Plant operated by Southern Nuclear Operating Company, a subsidiary of Southern Company, has found itself at a decision point. Vogtle depends on their natural draft cooling towers to remove heat from the power cycle. Depending on the efficiency of the towers, the cycle can realize more or less power output. The efficiency…

  7. In Hot Water: A Cooling Tower Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Justin; Raju, P. K.; Sankar, Chetan

    2005-01-01

    Problem Statement: Vogtle Electric Generating Plant operated by Southern Nuclear Operating Company, a subsidiary of Southern Company, has found itself at a decision point. Vogtle depends on their natural draft cooling towers to remove heat from the power cycle. Depending on the efficiency of the towers, the cycle can realize more or less power…

  8. Water cooled breeder program summary report (LWBR (Light Water Breeder Reactor) development program)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of the Department of Energy Water Cooled Breeder Program was to demonstrate pratical breeding in a uranium-233/thorium fueled core while producing electrical energy in a commercial water reactor generating station. A demonstration Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was successfully operated for more than 29,000 effective full power hours in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The reactor operated with an availability factor of 76% and had a gross electrical output of 2,128,943,470 kilowatt hours. Following operation, the expended core was examined and no evidence of any fuel element defects was found. Nondestructive assay of 524 fuel rods determined that 1.39 percent more fissile fuel was present at the end of core life than at the beginning, proving that breeding had occurred. This demonstrates the existence of a vast source of electrical energy using plentiful domestic thorium potentially capable of supplying the entire national need for many centuries. To build on the successful design and operation of the Shippingport Breeder Core and to provide the technology to implement this concept, several reactor designs of large breeders and prebreeders were developed for commercial-sized plants of 900--1000 Mw(e) net. This report summarizes the Water Cooled Breeder Program from its inception in 1965 to its completion in 1987. Four hundred thirty-six technical reports are referenced which document the work conducted as part of this program. This work demonstrated that the Light Water Breeder Reactor is a viable alternative as a PWR replacement in the next generation of nuclear reactors. This transition would only require a minimum of change in design and fabrication of the reactor and operation of the plant.

  9. Implications of Transitioning from De Facto to Engineered Water Reuse for Power Plant Cooling.

    PubMed

    Barker, Zachary A; Stillwell, Ashlynn S

    2016-05-17

    Thermoelectric power plants demand large quantities of cooling water, and can use alternative sources like treated wastewater (reclaimed water); however, such alternatives generate many uncertainties. De facto water reuse, or the incidental presence of wastewater effluent in a water source, is common at power plants, representing baseline conditions. In many cases, power plants would retrofit open-loop systems to cooling towers to use reclaimed water. To evaluate the feasibility of reclaimed water use, we compared hydrologic and economic conditions at power plants under three scenarios: quantified de facto reuse, de facto reuse with cooling tower retrofits, and modeled engineered reuse conditions. We created a genetic algorithm to estimate costs and model optimal conditions. To assess power plant performance, we evaluated reliability metrics for thermal variances and generation capacity loss as a function of water temperature. Applying our analysis to the greater Chicago area, we observed high de facto reuse for some power plants and substantial costs for retrofitting to use reclaimed water. Conversely, the gains in reliability and performance through engineered reuse with cooling towers outweighed the energy investment in reclaimed water pumping. Our analysis yields quantitative results of reclaimed water feasibility and can inform sustainable management of water and energy.

  10. Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

    2006-11-27

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that cooling water intake structures must reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. Many existing power plants in the United States utilize once-through cooling systems to condense steam. Once-through systems withdraw large volumes (often hundreds of millions of gallons per day) of water from surface water bodies. As the water is withdrawn, fish and other aquatic organisms can be trapped against the screens or other parts of the intake structure (impingement) or if small enough, can pass through the intake structure and be transported through the cooling system to the condenser (entrainment). Both of these processes can injure or kill the organisms. EPA adopted 316(b) regulations for new facilities (Phase I) on December 18, 2001. Under the final rule, most new facilities could be expected to install recirculating cooling systems, primarily wet cooling towers. The EPA Administrator signed proposed 316(b) regulations for existing facilities (Phase II) on February 28, 2002. The lead option in this proposal would allow most existing facilities to achieve compliance without requiring them to convert once-through cooling systems to recirculating systems. However, one of the alternate options being proposed would require recirculating cooling in selected plants. EPA is considering various options to determine best technology available. Among the options under consideration are wet-cooling towers and dry-cooling towers. Both types of towers are considered to be part of recirculating cooling systems, in which the cooling water is continuously recycled from the condenser, where it absorbs heat by cooling and condensing steam, to the tower, where it rejects heat to the atmosphere before returning to the condenser. Some water is lost to evaporation (wet tower only) and other water is removed from the recirculating system as a blow down stream to control the building up of suspended and

  11. Emergency makeup flow model for the K-reactor cooling water basin

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, K.L.

    1994-12-31

    The Savannah River site installed the K-reactor cooling tower in 1993 to replace river water supplied to a 25-million-gal cooling basin with cooling tower recirculation. The reactor accident safety analysis assumes that cooling water recirculation is lost during the accident and basin level will drop. Emergency river water supply makeup valves will be opened manually to restore basin makeup and level and maintain shutdown safety. A hydraulic model scopes out valve flow response as the valves are opened. Scoping objectives are (a) valve flow rate response, (b) volumetric makeup with time, and (c) total volumetric makeup effect on basin emergency operating operating procedures. Model results could influence basin emergency operating procedures development before actual field test data are obtained.

  12. Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper

    DOEpatents

    Jukkola, Walfred W.; Leon, Albert M.; Van Dyk, Jr., Garritt C.; McCoy, Daniel E.; Fisher, Barry L.; Saiers, Timothy L.; Karstetter, Marlin E.

    1981-11-24

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is provided in the housing to collect particulates from the combustion gases and separate the combustion zone from a volume within said housing in which convection heat exchange tubes are provided to extract heat from the exiting combustion gases.

  13. Experiment Study on Corrosion Control Using Coking Wastewater as Circulating Cooling Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huanzhen; Dong, Changqing; Bian, Lei; Zhao, Qian

    The coking wastewater drainage will bring severe water environmental pollution, so it is necessary to change the coking wastewater into resource. The reuse of pre-treated coking wastewater as make-up water for circulating cooling system is an important way. To prevent the circulating cooling system corrosion, the characteristic and the corrosion control technology and the effect of the classic corrosion inhibitors in the circulating cooling water system were studied by static experiment and dynamic experiment based on water quality stabilization theory. The results indicate that the corrosion in circulating cooling system is mainly spot corrosion caused by pollutants in coking wastewater, and the corrosion inhibition technology on the model of precipitated membrane based on phosphor series should be preferred. The mixed corrosion inhibitors HEDP and Zn 2+ optimally selected by experiment can form a firm corrosion inhibition membrane on heat transfer surface, and the corrosion inhibition rate could reach 85.6%. The corrosion rate of common carbon steel is 0.105 mm/a, which could satisfy the criterion of > Design criterion of the industrial circulating cooling water treatment > (GB 50050-95). The practical application to the circulating cooling system shows that the mixed corrosion inhibitors HEDP and Zn 2+ can control the corrosion in the system economically when the concentration multiple is 2-2.2, which opens up a feasible way for changing the coking wastewater into resource.

  14. Improving of the photovoltaic / thermal system performance using water cooling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussien, Hashim A.; Numan, Ali H.; Abdulmunem, Abdulmunem R.

    2015-04-01

    This work is devoted to improving the electrical efficiency by reducing the rate of thermal energy of a photovoltaic/thermal system (PV/T).This is achieved by design cooling technique which consists of a heat exchanger and water circulating pipes placed at PV module rear surface to solve the problem of the high heat stored inside the PV cells during the operation. An experimental rig is designed to investigate and evaluate PV module performance with the proposed cooling technique. This cooling technique is the first work in Iraq to dissipate the heat from PV module. The experimental results indicated that due to the heat loss by convection between water and the PV panel's upper surface, an increase of output power is achieved. It was found that without active cooling, the temperature of the PV module was high and solar cells could only achieve a conversion efficiency of about 8%. However, when the PV module was operated under active water cooling condition, the temperature was dropped from 76.8°C without cooling to 70.1°C with active cooling. This temperature dropping led to increase in the electrical efficiency of solar panel to 9.8% at optimum mass flow rate (0.2L/s) and thermal efficiency to (12.3%).

  15. Series circuit of organic thin-film solar cells for conversion of water into hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Atsushi; Naruse, Mitsuru; Abe, Takayuki

    2013-07-22

    A series circuit of bulk hetero-junction (BHJ) organic thin-film solar cells (OSCs) is investigated for electrolyzing water to gaseous hydrogen and oxygen. The BHJ OSCs applied consist of poly(3-hexylthiophene) as a donor and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester as an acceptor. A series circuit of six such OSC units has an open circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 3.4 V, which is enough to electrolyze water. The short circuit current (J(sc)), fill factor (FF), and energy conversion efficiency (η) are independent of the number of unit cells. A maximum electric power of 8.86 mW cm(-2) is obtained at the voltage of 2.35 V. By combining a water electrolysis cell with the series circuit solar cells, the electrolyzing current and voltage obtained are 1.09 mA and 2.3 V under a simulated solar light irradiation (100 mW cm(-2), AM1.5G), and in one hour 0.65 mL hydrogen is generated. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

  17. The impact of water use fees on dispatching and water requirements for water-cooled power plants in Texas.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Kelly T; Blackhurst, Michael F; King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E

    2014-06-17

    We utilize a unit commitment and dispatch model to estimate how water use fees on power generators would affect dispatching and water requirements by the power sector in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas' (ERCOT) electric grid. Fees ranging from 10 to 1000 USD per acre-foot were separately applied to water withdrawals and consumption. Fees were chosen to be comparable in cost to a range of water supply projects proposed in the Texas Water Development Board's State Water Plan to meet demand through 2050. We found that these fees can reduce water withdrawals and consumption for cooling thermoelectric power plants in ERCOT by as much as 75% and 23%, respectively. To achieve these water savings, wholesale electricity generation costs might increase as much as 120% based on 2011 fuel costs and generation characteristics. We estimate that water saved through these fees is not as cost-effective as conventional long-term water supply projects. However, the electric grid offers short-term flexibility that conventional water supply projects do not. Furthermore, this manuscript discusses conditions under which the grid could be effective at "supplying" water, particularly during emergency drought conditions, by changing its operational conditions.

  18. Cooling of Gas Turbines. 6; Computed Temperature Distribution Through Cross Section of Water-Cooled Turbine Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingood, John N. B.; Sams, Eldon W.

    1947-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the cross-sectional temperature distribution of a water-cooled turbine blade was made using the relaxation method to solve the differential equation derived from the analysis. The analysis was applied to specific turbine blade and the studies icluded investigations of the accuracy of simple methods to determine the temperature distribution along the mean line of the rear part of the blade, of the possible effect of varying the perimetric distribution of the hot gas-to -metal heat transfer coefficient, and of the effect of changing the thermal conductivity of the blade metal for a constant cross sectional area blade with two quarter inch diameter coolant passages.

  19. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Fanning, Alan W.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

  20. Evaluation of water cooled supersonic temperature and pressure probes for application to 2000 F flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas T.; Seiner, John M.

    1990-01-01

    The development of water cooled supersonic probes used to study high temperature jet plumes is addressed. These probes are: total pressure, static pressure, and total temperature. The motivation for these experiments is the determination of high temperature supersonic jet mean flow properties. A 3.54 inch exit diameter water cooled nozzle was used in the tests. It is designed for exit Mach 2 at 2000 F exit total temperature. Tests were conducted using water cooled probes capable of operating in Mach 2 flow, up to 2000 F total temperature. Of the two designs tested, an annular cooling method was chosen as superior. Data at the jet exit planes, and along the jet centerline, were obtained for total temperatures of 900 F, 1500 F, and 2000 F, for each of the probes. The data obtained from the total and static pressure probes are consistent with prior low temperature results. However, the data obtained from the total temperature probe was affected by the water coolant. The total temperature probe was tested up to 2000 F with, and without, the cooling system turned on to better understand the heat transfer process at the thermocouple bead. The rate of heat transfer across the thermocouple bead was greater when the coolant was turned on than when the coolant was turned off. This accounted for the lower temperature measurement by the cooled probe. The velocity and Mach number at the exit plane and centerline locations were determined from the Rayleigh-Pitot tube formula.

  1. Controlling the Distribution of Cold Water in Air Cooling Systems of Underground Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlązak, Nikodem; Obracaj, Dariusz; Swolkień, Justyna; Piergies, Kazimierz

    2016-12-01

    In Polish underground mines in which excavations are subjected to high heat load, central and group cooling systems based on indirect cooling units are implemented. Chilled water, referred to as cold water and produced in chillers, is distributed through a pipeline network to air coolers located in mining and development districts. The coolers are often moved to other locations and the pipeline network undergoes constant modification. In such a system, parameters of cold water in different branches of the pipeline network need to be controlled. The article presents the principles for controlling the cooling capacity of air coolers installed in an underground mine. Also, the authors propose automatic control of water flow rate in underground pipeline network and in particular coolers, depending on the temporary cooling load in the system. The principles of such a system, controlling cold water distribution, and the functions of its individual components are described. Finally, an example of an automatic control of water flow rate in a central cooling system currently implemented in a mine is presented.

  2. Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Lux, C.R.

    1991-12-31

    On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases.

  3. Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Lux, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases.

  4. Cool-down and frozen start-up behavior of a grooved water heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jong Hoon

    1990-01-01

    A grooved water heat pipe was tested to study its characteristics during the cool-down and start-up periods. The water heat pipe was cooled down from the ambient temperature to below the freezing temperature of water. During the cool-down, isothermal conditions were maintained at the evaporator and adiabatic sections until the working fluid was frozen. When water was frozen along the entire heat pipe, the heat pipe was rendered inactive. The start-up of the heat pipe from this state was studied under several different operating conditions. The results show the existence of large temperature gradients between the evaporator and the condenser, and the moving of the melting front of the working fluid along the heat pipe. Successful start-up was achieved for some test cases using partial gravity assist. The start-up behavior depended largely on the operating conditions.

  5. Research on Discharge Circuit of Electro-Hydraulic Power Impulse Water Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Gao, Quanjie; Wang, Wei; Liao, Zhenfang

    2012-01-01

    Electro-hydraulic power impulse water jets can convert the shock wave generated in the liquid by discharging into mechanical energy, and it has been widely used in material forming, surface cleaning, pipeline dirt cleaning and ore breaking process. Compared with the traditional high pressure water jets, the energy utilization of electro-hydraulic power impulse water jets is up to 80% while the water consumption is reduced by 40-55%. This paper has taken electro-hydraulic power impulse water jets as the research object, employed obtaining the maximum pressure of compression impulse matrix surface as the research goal, studied in depth the equivalent discharge circuit, characteristic equation and the relationship between the electrical parameters of the electro-hydraulic power impulse discharge circuit and built the calculation method of the voltage, the inductance, the capacitance and the electrode spacing parameter of electro-hydraulic power impulse water jets discharge circuit. So, it will provide important theoretical basis for further studies of electro-hydraulic power impulse technology and the existing water jets device.

  6. Comprehensive cooling water study annual report. Volume II: introduction and site description, Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, J.B.; Lower, M.W.; Mackey, H.E.; Specht, W.L.; Wilde, E.W.

    1985-07-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effecs of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. This report presents the results from the first year of the two year study and also summarizes results from previous studies on aquatic ecosystems of the Savannah River Plant. Five major program elements are addressed: water quality, radionuclide and heavy metal transport, wetlands ecology, aquatic ecology, and endangered species. 63 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Volume 7, Ecology of Par Pond, Savannah River Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.

    1987-10-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effects of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. The initial report (Gladden et al., 1985) described the results from the first year of the study. This document is the final report and concludes the program. The report comprises eight volumes. The first is a summary of environmental effects. The other seven volumes address water quality, radionuclide and heavy metal transport, wetlands, aquatic ecology, Federally endangered species, ecology of Par Pond, and waterfowl. 222 refs., 31 figs., 67 tabs.

  8. CALL-FOR-ABSTRACTS: SYMPOSIUM ON TECHNOLOGIES FOR PROTECTING AQUATIC ORGANISMS FROM COOLING WATER INTAKE STRUCTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires EPA to ensure that the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impacts. In February 2002, the EPA approved a proposed ...

  9. CALL-FOR-ABSTRACTS: SYMPOSIUM ON TECHNOLOGIES FOR PROTECTING AQUATIC ORGANISMS FROM COOLING WATER INTAKE STRUCTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires EPA to ensure that the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impacts. In February 2002, the EPA approved a proposed ...

  10. 40 CFR 463.10 - Applicability; description of the contact cooling and heating water subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PLASTICS MOLDING AND... cooling and heating water subcategory are processes where process water comes in contact with plastic materials or plastic products for the purpose of heat transfer during plastics molding and forming....

  11. Selection of Cooling Water Treatment at Military Installations to Prevent Scaling and Corrosion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    only. For cooling towers of 20 to 50 tons (18.1 to 45.3 MT), 3 cycles of concentration with sodium hexametaphos- phate (0.5 to 5 ppm) should be used...Liquid Cooling Tower Treatment Blend M mainly of adding sodium zeolite softening or blended (item 8), consists of 9.5 percent disphosphonic acid...2.8 percent sodium pyrophosphate (as Item 10), the harder waters. Recently, superior organic scale 1.4 percent causticized mercaptobenzothiazole, and

  12. Measured performance of a 3 ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A three ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It was concluded that a three-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

  13. Measured performance of a 3-ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 3-ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot-water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It is concluded that a 3-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

  14. Effect of Water-Cooled Nd:YAG Laser on Dentinal Tubule Occlusion In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shimeng; Liang, Kunneng; Liu, Hongling; Zhang, Manling; Yang, Heng; Guo, Shujuan; Ding, Yi

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a new water-cooled Nd:YAG laser on dentinal tubule occlusion. The effect of water-cooled Nd:YAG laser on dentinal tubule occlusion has not been reported. Acid-etched dentin samples were randomly divided into three groups: (1) dentin control, (2) dentin treated by Nd:YAG laser, (3) dentin treated by water-cooled Nd:YAG laser. After laser irradiation, half of the samples were immersed in a 6 wt% citric acid (pH 1.5) solution for 1 min to evaluate the acid resistance. The morphologies of dentin surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The number and diameters of the open dentinal tubules were analyzed by one-way and two-way analyses of variance. Both the Nd:YAG laser and water-cooled Nd:YAG laser melted the superficial layer of dentin, which caused dentinal tubule occlusion in most areas and diameter reduction of the rest open tubules. Microcracks on the dentin surface were only observed in the Nd:YAG laser group. The tubule occlusion induced by the two lasers showed a good acid resistance. The effect of water-cooled Nd:YAG laser on dentinal tubule occlusion is similar to that of the Nd:YAG laser. The dentinal tubule occlusion induced by the two lasers could resist acid challenge to some extent.

  15. Validation of IRS PCR, a molecular typing method, for the study of the diversity and population dynamics of Legionella in industrial cooling circuits.

    PubMed

    Jakubek, D; Le Brun, M; Leblon, G; Dubow, M; Binet, M

    2013-02-01

    Legionella bacteria are ubiquitous in aquatic environments. Members of the species Legionella pneumophila are responsible for more than 98% of cases of Legionnaires' disease in France. Our objective was to validate a molecular typing method called infrequent restriction site PCR (IRS PCR), applied to the study of the ecology of Legionella and to compare this method with reference typing methods, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequence-based Typing (SBT). PFGE and SBT are considered as gold methods for the epidemiological typing of Leg. pneumophila strains. However, these methods are not suitable to an ecological monitoring of Legionella in natural environments where a large number of strains has to be typed. Validation of IRS PCR method was performed by the identification of 45 Leg. pneumophila isolates from cooling circuits of thermal power plants by IRS PCR, PFGE and SBT. The parameters of each method were measured and compared to evaluate the effectiveness of IRS PCR. The results of this study showed that IRS PCR has a discriminating power similar or better than that of the reference methods and thus that, by its speed and low cost represents an appropriate tool for the study of the ecology of Legionella in cooling circuits.

  16. Isolation of Legionella species/serogroups from water cooling systems compared with potable water systems in Spanish healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Rivera, J-M; Aguilar, L; Granizo, J J; Vos-Arenilla, A; Giménez, M-J; Aguiar, J-M; Prieto, J

    2007-12-01

    Surveillance of Legionella spp. in hospital water systems was performed in forty-four inpatient healthcare facilities in Spain during 2005-2006. A total of 2,341 samples were collected: 470 from cooling systems (cooling towers) and 1,871 from potable water systems. The latter included 211 from cold-water tanks and 260 from hot-water tanks, totalling 471 from central water reservoirs 136 from showers, 1,172 from unfiltered taps and 92 from filtered taps, totalling 1,400 from peripheral points. Temperature, chlorine levels and the presence of Legionella spp. were determined. In all, 373 (15.9%) samples yielded Legionella spp. Significantly higher isolation rates were obtained from cooling towers (23.8%) versus cold- and hot-water tanks (approximately 4.7%), due to the significantly higher number of samples positive for serogroup 1 (19.4 vs 0.9-3.5%). In potable water systems, no differences were found between central water tanks and showers, but significant differences in isolation rates between central water tanks and unfiltered taps were observed (4.7 vs 19.6%) due to differences in non-serogroup 1 L. pneumophila. Filters significantly decreased isolation rates of these serotypes (11 vs 0%). Some seasonal differences were noted, with higher isolation rates in summer for legionella serogroup 1 in cooling systems and for L. pneumophila serogroups 2-14 in potable water systems. In regression models, higher temperatures were associated with colonisation in cooling systems, while lower chlorine levels were associated with colonisation in potable water systems.

  17. The microscale cooling effects of water sensitive urban design and irrigation in a suburban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadbent, Ashley M.; Coutts, Andrew M.; Tapper, Nigel J.; Demuzere, Matthias; Beringer, Jason

    2017-09-01

    Prolonged drought has threatened traditional potable urban water supplies in Australian cities, reducing capability to adapt to climate change and mitigate against extreme. Integrated urban water management (IUWM) approaches, such as water sensitive urban design (WSUD), reduce the reliance on centralised potable water supply systems and provide a means for retaining water in the urban environment through stormwater harvesting and reuse. This study examines the potential for WSUD to provide cooling benefits and reduce human exposure and heat stress and thermal discomfort. A high-resolution observational field campaign, measuring surface level microclimate variables and remotely sensed land surface characteristics, was conducted in a mixed residential suburb containing WSUD in Adelaide, South Australia. Clear evidence was found that WSUD features and irrigation can reduce surface temperature (T s) and air temperature (T a) and improve human thermal comfort (HTC) in urban environments. The average 3 pm T a near water bodies was found to be up to 1.8 °C cooler than the domain maximum. Cooling was broadly observed in the area 50 m downwind of lakes and wetlands. Design and placement of water bodies were found to affect their cooling effectiveness. HTC was improved by proximity to WSUD features, but shading and ventilation were also effective at improving thermal comfort. This study demonstrates that WSUD can be used to cool urban microclimates, while simultaneously achieving other environmental benefits, such as improved stream ecology and flood mitigation.

  18. Geographic, technologic, and economic analysis of using reclaimed water for thermoelectric power plant cooling.

    PubMed

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S; Webber, Michael E

    2014-04-15

    Use of reclaimed water-municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent-in nonpotable applications can be a sustainable and efficient water management strategy. One such nonpotable application is at thermoelectric power plants since these facilities require cooling, often using large volumes of freshwater. To evaluate the geographic, technologic, and economic feasibility of using reclaimed water to cool thermoelectric power plants, we developed a spatially resolved model of existing power plants. Our model integrates data on power plant and municipal wastewater treatment plant operations into a combined geographic information systems and optimization approach to evaluate the feasibility of cooling system retrofits. We applied this broadly applicable methodology to 125 power plants in Texas as a test case. Results show that sufficient reclaimed water resources exist within 25 miles of 92 power plants (representing 61% of capacity and 50% of generation in our sample), with most of these facilities meeting both short-term and long-term water conservation cost goals. This retrofit analysis indicates that reclaimed water could be a suitable cooling water source for thermoelectric power plants, thereby mitigating some of the freshwater impacts of electricity generation.

  19. Zirconium carbide coating for corium experiments related to water-cooled and sodium-cooled reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plevacova, K.; Journeau, C.; Piluso, P.; Zhdanov, V.; Baklanov, V.; Poirier, J.

    2011-07-01

    Since the TMI and Chernobyl accidents the risk of nuclear severe accident is intensively studied for existing and future reactors. In case of a core melt-down accident in a nuclear reactor, a complex melt, called corium, forms. To be able to perform experiments with prototypic corium materials at high temperature, a coating which resists to different corium melts related to Generation I and II Water Reactors and Generation IV sodium fast reactor was researched in our experimental platforms both in IAE NNC in Kazakhstan and in CEA in France. Zirconium carbide was selected as protective coating for graphite crucibles used in our induction furnaces: VCG-135 and VITI. The method of coating application, called reactive wetting, was developed. Zirconium carbide revealed to resist well to the (U x, Zr y)O 2-z water reactor corium. It has also the advantage not to bring new elements to this chemical system. The coating was then tested with sodium fast reactor corium melts containing steel or absorbers. Undesirable interactions were observed between the coating and these materials, leading to the carburization of the corium ingots. Concerning the resistance of the coating to oxide melts without ZrO 2, the zirconium carbide coating keeps its role of protective barrier with UO 2-Al 2O 3 below 2000 °C but does not resist to a UO 2-Eu 2O 3 mixture.

  20. Optimization of Cooling Water Flow Rate in Nuclear and Thermal Power Plants Based on a Mathematical Model of Cooling Systems{sup 1}

    SciTech Connect

    Murav’ev, V. P. Kochetkov, A. V.; Glazova, E. G.

    2016-09-15

    A mathematical model and algorithms are proposed for automatic calculation of the optimum flow rate of cooling water in nuclear and thermal power plants with cooling systems of arbitrary complexity. An unlimited number of configuration and design variants are assumed with the possibility of obtaining a result for any computational time interval, from monthly to hourly. The structural solutions corresponding to an optimum cooling water flow rate can be used for subsequent engineering-economic evaluation of the best cooling system variant. The computerized mathematical model and algorithms make it possible to determine the availability and degree of structural changes for the cooling system in all stages of the life cycle of a plant.

  1. Correction analysis for a supersonic water cooled total temperature probe tested to 1370 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas T.; Seiner, John M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors address the thermal analysis of a water cooled supersonic total temperature probe tested in a Mach 2 flow, up to 1366 K total temperature. The goal of this experiment was the determination of high-temperature supersonic jet mean flow temperatures. An 8.99 cm exit diameter water cooled nozzle was used in the tests. It was designed for exit Mach 2 at 1366 K exit total temperature. Data along the jet centerline were obtained for total temperatures of 755 K, 1089 K, and 1366 K. The data from the total temperature probe were affected by the water coolant. The probe was tested through a range of temperatures between 755 K and 1366 K with and without the cooling system turned on. The results were used to develop a relationship between the indicated thermocouple bead temperature and the freestream total temperature. The analysis and calculated temperatures are presented.

  2. Correction analysis for a supersonic water cooled total temperature probe tested to 1370 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas T.; Seiner, John M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors address the thermal analysis of a water cooled supersonic total temperature probe tested in a Mach 2 flow, up to 1366 K total temperature. The goal of this experiment was the determination of high-temperature supersonic jet mean flow temperatures. An 8.99 cm exit diameter water cooled nozzle was used in the tests. It was designed for exit Mach 2 at 1366 K exit total temperature. Data along the jet centerline were obtained for total temperatures of 755 K, 1089 K, and 1366 K. The data from the total temperature probe were affected by the water coolant. The probe was tested through a range of temperatures between 755 K and 1366 K with and without the cooling system turned on. The results were used to develop a relationship between the indicated thermocouple bead temperature and the freestream total temperature. The analysis and calculated temperatures are presented.

  3. New Mexico cloud super cooled liquid water survey final report 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Beavis, Nick; Roskovensky, John K.; Ivey, Mark D.

    2010-02-01

    Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories are partners in an effort to survey the super-cooled liquid water in clouds over the state of New Mexico in a project sponsored by the New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program. This report summarizes the scientific work performed at Sandia National Laboratories during the 2009. In this second year of the project a practical methodology for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water was created. This was accomplished through the analysis of certain MODIS sensor satellite derived cloud products and vetted parameterizations techniques. A software code was developed to analyze multiple cases automatically. The eighty-one storm events identified in the previous year effort from 2006-2007 were again the focus. Six derived MODIS products were obtained first through careful MODIS image evaluation. Both cloud and clear-sky properties from this dataset were determined over New Mexico. Sensitivity studies were performed that identified the parameters which most influenced the estimation of cloud super-cooled liquid water. Limited validation was undertaken to ensure the soundness of the cloud super-cooled estimates. Finally, a path forward was formulized to insure the successful completion of the initial scientific goals which include analyzing different of annual datasets, validation of the developed algorithm, and the creation of a user-friendly and interactive tool for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water.

  4. Water cooling system leak proofing strategy for the Plasma Couette Experiment Upgrade (PCX-U)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Mike; Flanagan, Ken; Hernandez, Wilson; Jaeger, Austin; Laufman-Wollitzer, Lauren; Nikolau, Ethan; Tabbutt, Megan; Waleffe, Roger; Wallace, John; Xu, Yufan; Forest, Cary

    2016-10-01

    An improved system for water cooling several experimental components has been installed for the Plasma Couette Experiment Upgrade (PCX-U). The most important aspect of the upgrade was to cool the new SmCo permanent magnet cage array. Many methods of connecting water cooling pipes, tubes, and fittings were employed balancing several factors. These factors included ease of assembly/disassembly, reliability, operating pressure, operating temperature, chemical reactivity, and cost. The actions taken to develop the water cooling system will be discussed and illustrated. A focus will be made on sealing cooling water leaks from the inside out on small diameter metal passages (including extrusions, tubing, and fittings). These passages were located inside a vacuum environment, and only the ends of each passage were accessible to do the work. The vacuum vessel of PCX-U is a 1 meter diameter, 1 meter tall cylinder comprised of 0.25'' thick stainless steel. PCX-U has one removable end. Rings of SmCo magnets attached to a removable frame create a cusp field to contain the plasma and provide a resonance surface for the RF. This work is supported by the NSF.

  5. Using containment analysis to improve component cooling water heat exchanger limits

    SciTech Connect

    Da Silva, H.C.; Tajbakhsh, A.

    1995-12-31

    The Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station design requires that exit temperatures from the Component Cooling Water Heat Exchanger remain below 330.37 K during the Emergency Core Cooling System recirculation stage, following a hypothetical Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). Due to measurements indicating a higher than expected combination of: (a) high fouling factor in the Component Cooling Water Heat Exchanger with (b) high ultimate heat sink temperatures, that might lead to temperatures in excess of the 330.37 K limit, if a LOCA were to occur, TUElectric adjusted key flow rates in the Component Cooling Water network. This solution could only be implemented with improvements to the containment analysis methodology of record. The new method builds upon the CONTEMPT-LT/028 code by: (a) coupling the long term post-LOCA thermohydraulics with a more detailed analytical model for the complex Component Cooling Water Heat Exchanger network and (b) changing the way mass and energy releases are calculated after core reflood and steam generator energy is dumped to the containment. In addition, a simple code to calculate normal cooldowns was developed to confirm RHR design bases were met with the improved limits.

  6. Ice water submersion for rapid cooling in severe drug-induced hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Laskowski, Larissa K.; Landry, Adaira; Vassallo, Susi U.; Hoffman, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Context The optimal method of cooling hyperthermic patients is controversial. Although controlled data support ice water submersion, many authorities recommend a mist and fan technique. We report two patients with drug-induced hyperthermia, to demonstrate the rapid cooing rates of ice water submersion. Case details Case 1. A 27-year-old man presented with a sympathomimetic toxic syndrome and a core temperature of 41.4°C after ingesting 4-fluoroamphetamine. He was submerged in ice water and his core temperature fell to 38°C within 18 minutes (a mean cooling rate of 0.18°C/min). His vital signs stabilized, his mental status improved and he left on hospital day 2. Case 2. A 32-year-old man with a sympathomimetic toxic syndrome after cocaine use was transported in a body bag and arrived with a core temperature of 44.4°C. He was intubated, sedated with IV benzodiazepines, and submerged in ice water. After 20 minutes his temperature fell to 38.8°C (a cooling rate of 0.28°C/min). He was extubated the following day, and discharged on day 10. Discussion In these two cases, cooling rates exceeded those reported for mist and fan technique. Since the priority in hyperthermia is rapid cooling, clinical data need to be collected to reaffirm the optimal approach. PMID:25695144

  7. Experimental and numerical analysis of the cooling performance of water spraying systems during a fire.

    PubMed

    Chen, YaoHan; Su, ChungHwei; Tseng, JoMing; Li, WunJie

    2015-01-01

    The water spray systems are effective protection systems in the confined or unconfined spaces to avoid the damage to building structures since the high temperature when fires occur. NFPA 15 and 502 have suggested respectively that the factories or vehicle tunnels install water spray systems to protect the machinery and structures. This study discussed the cooling effect of water spray systems in experimental and numerical analyses. The actual combustion of woods were compared with the numerical simulations. The results showed that although the flame continued, the cooling effects by water spraying process within 120 seconds were obvious. The results also indicated that the simulation results of the fifth version Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) overestimated the space temperature before water spraying in the case of the same water spray system.

  8. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Cooling Performance of Water Spraying Systems during a Fire

    PubMed Central

    Chen, YaoHan; Su, ChungHwei; Tseng, JoMing; Li, WunJie

    2015-01-01

    The water spray systems are effective protection systems in the confined or unconfined spaces to avoid the damage to building structures since the high temperature when fires occur. NFPA 15 and 502 have suggested respectively that the factories or vehicle tunnels install water spray systems to protect the machinery and structures. This study discussed the cooling effect of water spray systems in experimental and numerical analyses. The actual combustion of woods were compared with the numerical simulations. The results showed that although the flame continued, the cooling effects by water spraying process within 120 seconds were obvious. The results also indicated that the simulation results of the fifth version Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) overestimated the space temperature before water spraying in the case of the same water spray system. PMID:25723519

  9. Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E.; Johnson, F. Thomas; Orr, Richard S.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tubesheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tubesheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tubesheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch therebetween. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight.

  10. 78 FR 64029 - Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY... Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors,'' in which the NRC made editorial corrections and... analysis for liquid and gaseous radwaste system components for light water nuclear power...

  11. Water cooling system using a piezoelectrically actuated flow pump for a medical headlight system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Rogério F.; Vatanabe, Sandro L.; de Oliveira, Amaury R.; Nakasone, Paulo H.; Silva, Emílio C.

    2007-04-01

    The microchips inside modern electronic equipment generate heat and demand, each day, the use of more advanced cooling techniques as water cooling systems, for instance. These systems combined with piezoelectric flow pumps present some advantages such as higher thermal capacity, lower noise generation and miniaturization potential. The present work aims at the development of a water cooling system based on a piezoelectric flow pump for a head light system based on LEDs. The cooling system development consists in design, manufacturing and experimental characterization steps. In the design step, computational models of the pump, as well as the heat exchanger were built to perform sensitivity studies using ANSYS finite element software. This allowed us to achieve desired flow and heat exchange rates by varying the frequency and amplitude of the applied voltage. Other activities included the design of the heat exchanger and the dissipation module. The experimental tests of the cooling system consisted in measuring the temperature difference between the heat exchanger inlet and outlet to evaluate its thermal cooling capacity for different values of the flow rate. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results were also made.

  12. Cool water: demonstration of a clean and efficient new coal technology.

    PubMed

    Spencer, D F; Alpert, S B; Gilman, H H

    1986-05-02

    Cool Water, the world's first commercial-scale, integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plant, has been operating successfully since May 1984 near Barstow, California. The 100-megawatt plant, which was completed ahead of schedule and under budget, is probably the cleanest coal-fired power generating facility now in commercial operation. An ongoing demonstration program at Cool Water shows that future baseload power plants that use this technology can be built modularly in increments of a few hundred megawatts and compete economically with much larger, conventional coal-fired power plants equipped for flue gas desulfurization.

  13. Questioning the Mpemba effect: hot water does not cool more quickly than cold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burridge, Henry C.; Linden, Paul F.

    2016-11-01

    The Mpemba effect is the name given to the assertion that it is quicker to cool water to a given temperature when the initial temperature is higher. This assertion seems counter-intuitive and yet references to the effect go back at least to the writings of Aristotle. Indeed, at first thought one might consider the effect to breach fundamental thermodynamic laws, but we show that this is not the case. We go on to examine the available evidence for the Mpemba effect and carry out our own experiments by cooling water in carefully controlled conditions. We conclude, somewhat sadly, that there is no evidence to support meaningful observations of the Mpemba effect.

  14. Questioning the Mpemba effect: hot water does not cool more quickly than cold.

    PubMed

    Burridge, Henry C; Linden, Paul F

    2016-11-24

    The Mpemba effect is the name given to the assertion that it is quicker to cool water to a given temperature when the initial temperature is higher. This assertion seems counter-intuitive and yet references to the effect go back at least to the writings of Aristotle. Indeed, at first thought one might consider the effect to breach fundamental thermodynamic laws, but we show that this is not the case. We go on to examine the available evidence for the Mpemba effect and carry out our own experiments by cooling water in carefully controlled conditions. We conclude, somewhat sadly, that there is no evidence to support meaningful observations of the Mpemba effect.

  15. Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, J.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Orr, R.S.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-11-30

    A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tube sheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tube sheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tube sheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch there between. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight. 6 figures.

  16. Exit chimney joint and method of forming the joint for closed circuit steam cooled gas turbine nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Burns, James Lee

    2002-01-01

    A nozzle segment for a gas turbine includes inner and outer band portions and a vane extending between the band portions. The inner and outer band portions are each divided into first and second plenums separated by an impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to the first cavity for flow through the apertures to cool the outer nozzle wall. The steam flows through a leading edge cavity in the vane into the first cavity of the inner band portion for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the inner nozzle wall. Spent cooling steam flows through a plurality of cavities in the vane, exiting through an exit chimney in the outer band. The exit chimney is secured at its inner end directly to the nozzle vane wall surrounding the exit cavities, to the margin of the impingement plate at a location intermediate the ends of the exit chimney and to margins of an opening through the cover whereby each joint is externally accessible for joint formation and for subsequent inspection.

  17. Numerical analysis on the beam quality improvements of high power chemical laser system with water cooled mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kai; Li, Bin; Xu, Xiao-jun

    2011-06-01

    Chemical laser is one of the most widely used high power infrared sources. Thermal deformation of mirrors in a resonator is a key factor which hinders the improvement of the beam quality in high power chemical lasers, and it has been a matter of the utmost concern in the design of high power chemical laser systems. Water-cooled technique is one of the most widely methods employed in cooling mirrors in high power laser systems. Several kinds of water-cooled mirrors have been studied by researchers in the world. Research teams of the United States and Russia have done a lot of work and their water cooled mirrors behave very well. In China, the study of micro-channel water cooled silicon mirror has been carried out by Cheng Zuhai in detail and the research of water jet cooled mirror has been performed by Li Bin. Both the two types of water cooled mirrors show excellent capabilities in alleviating the thermal deformation of mirrors. However, the issues that how and to what extent the beam quality is improved when the water cooled mirrors are involved have not been analyzed so far. In this paper, through numerical simulations, the beam qualities of linear resonators with various types of water cooled mirrors are analyzed in detail, and the effects of the two types of water cooled mirrors are compared. The thermal distortion of uncooled Si mirrors is characterized by Zernike polynomials and the beam quality is characterized with Strehl ratio, β factor, and M2 factor, which degenerates as the beam oscillates in the distorted resonator. The aberrance of mirrors non-uniformly heated by high energy laser mainly distributes on the low-even-order Zernike polynomials. When the uncooled Si mirrors are replaced by water cooled mirrors, the distortion decreases greatly and the beam quality is improved a lot. Although the performance of the water jet cooled mirror on mitigating distortion is better than the micro-channel water cooled mirror, the resonator made up of two water jet

  18. Global cooling after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: a test of climate feedback by water vapor.

    PubMed

    Soden, Brian J; Wetherald, Richard T; Stenchikov, Georgiy L; Robock, Alan

    2002-04-26

    The sensitivity of Earth's climate to an external radiative forcing depends critically on the response of water vapor. We use the global cooling and drying of the atmosphere that was observed after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo to test model predictions of the climate feedback from water vapor. Here, we first highlight the success of the model in reproducing the observed drying after the volcanic eruption. Then, by comparing model simulations with and without water vapor feedback, we demonstrate the importance of the atmospheric drying in amplifying the temperature change and show that, without the strong positive feedback from water vapor, the model is unable to reproduce the observed cooling. These results provide quantitative evidence of the reliability of water vapor feedback in current climate models, which is crucial to their use for global warming projections.

  19. State of Fukushima nuclear fuel debris tracked by Cs137 in cooling water.

    PubMed

    Grambow, B; Mostafavi, M

    2014-11-01

    It is still difficult to assess the risk originating from the radioactivity inventory remaining in the damaged Fukushima nuclear reactors. Here we show that cooling water analyses provide a means to assess source terms for potential future releases. Until now already about 34% of the inventories of (137)Cs of three reactors has been released into water. We found that the release rate of (137)Cs has been constant for 2 years at about 1.8% of the inventory per year indicating ongoing dissolution of the fuel debris. Compared to laboratory studies on spent nuclear fuel behavior in water, (137)Cs release rates are on the higher end, caused by the strong radiation field and oxidant production by water radiolysis and by impacts of accessible grain boundaries. It is concluded that radionuclide analyses in cooling water allow tracking of the conditions of the damaged fuel and the associated risks.

  20. An Analysis of Water-Use and Energy-Use Impacts of Residential-Scale Evaporative Cooling Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajmand, Nasim

    The use of evaporative technology for cooling increases the demand for good water quality (e.g., treated municipal water). The problem is further aggravated in regions with poor water quality and where long-term droughts have decreased water availability. At the same time, energy savings achieved by new evaporative cooling technologies compared to conventional systems have attracted attention in hot and dry climatic zones. In this study, the balance between water consumption and energy savings, and concerns about adequate water quantity and quality, were examined in small-scale evaporative cooling systems. First, the trade-off between water use and energy savings was explored by comparing energy base and cost analyses for three different water resources (tap water, rainwater, and desalination water). Then, one laboratory study to understand the precipitation reaction mechanism in small-scale evaporative cooling systems, plus one field experiment, were conducted to understand water quality impacts and concerns raised by evaporative cooling technologies. The results of the study indicate that evaporative cooling technologies make sense in terms of energy and cost expended in hot and dry climates, even considering the high energy costs of desalination water. Mineral scale deposition formed for water of both low and high hardness (a range representative of municipal water resources) due to high degrees of mineral saturation. The use of rainwater could both mitigate the challenges of scale deposition from municipal tap water (by providing excellent water quality) and decrease water consumption by reducing bleed rate.

  1. The dynamics of cooling water discharge in a shallow, non-tidal embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, Richard; Bolding, Karsten; Hetland, Robert D.; Schernewski, Gerald; Siegel, Herbert; Burchard, Hans

    2013-12-01

    The dynamics of cooling water spreading in a non-tidal embayment is subject of a modelling-based study of Greifswald Bay, a shallow embayment at the south-western coast of the Baltic Sea. Potential cooling water spreading due to a possible power plant at Greifswald Bay is evaluated as differences between a realistic hind-cast simulation and a similar simulation but including the cooling water pumping. The model results are confirmed with satellite imagery of the embayment during operation of a nuclear power plant in the 1980s. The effect of cooling water pumping on the residual circulation, additional stratification and the heating of near-bed waters in the herring spawning areas is evaluated from the simulation. The model results for an idealised embayment and the realistic scenario, as well as the satellite images, show a clear dependence of the plume spreading on the wind direction. Although the surface plume affects a large area of the embayment, the results show a localised impact on residual circulation, bulk stratification and heating of the waterbody.

  2. Ultimate Heat Sink Thermal Performance and Water Utilization: Measurements on Cooling and Spray Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Athey, G. F.; Hadlock, R. K.; Abbey, O. B.

    1982-02-01

    A data acquisition research program, entitled "Ultimate Heat Sink Performance Field Experiments," has been brought to completion. The primary objective is to obtain the requisite data to characterize thermal performance and water utilization for cooling ponds and spray ponds at elevated temperature. Such data are useful for modeling purposes, but the work reported here does not contain modeling efforts within its scope. The water bodies which have been studied are indicative of nuclear reactor ultimate heat sinks, components of emergency core cooling systems. The data reflect thermal performance and water utilization for meteorological and solar influences which are representative of worst-case combinations of conditions. Constructed water retention ponds, provided with absolute seals against seepage, have been chosen as facilities for the measurement programs; the first pond was located at Raft River, Idaho, and the second at East Mesa, California. The data illustrate and describe, for both cooling ponds and spray ponds, thermal performance and water utilization as the ponds cool from an initially elevated temperature. To obtain the initial elevated temperature, it has been convenient to conduct the measurements at geothermal sites having large supplies and delivery rates of hot geothermal fluid. The data are described and discussed in the text, and presented in the form of data volumes as appendices.

  3. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Volume 5, Aquatic ecology, Savannah River Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1987-10-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effects of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. The initial report (Gladden et al., 1985) described the results from the first year of the study. This document is the final report and concludes the program. The report comprises eight volumes. The first is a summary of environmental effects. The other seven volumes address water quality, radionuclide and heavy metal transport, wetlands, aquatic ecology, Federally endangered species, ecology of Par Pond, and waterfowl. This report documents the results of the Aquatic Ecology Program of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study. The purpose of the Aquatic Ecology Program was to determine the environmental impacts of cooling water intake and release on the biological communities of SRP streams and swamps and the Savannah River, and the significance of these impacts on the SRP environment. 171 refs., 132 figs., 165 tabs.

  4. Effect of cooling during inter-exercise periods on subsequent intramuscular water movement and muscle performance.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, O; Otsuka, S; Fukubayashi, T

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of cooling between exercise sessions on intramuscular water movement and muscle performance, the lower extremities of nine untrained men were assigned to either a cooling protocol (20-min water immersion, 15 °C) or a noncooling protocol. Each subject performed two exercise sessions involving maximal concentric knee extension and flexion (three repetitions, 60°/s; followed by 50 repetitions, 180°/s). The peak torque at 60°/s and total work, mean power, and decrease rate of torque value at 180°/s were evaluated. Axial magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted images of the mid-thigh were obtained before and after each exercise session. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for the quadriceps and hamstrings were calculated for evaluating intramuscular water movement. Both groups exhibited significantly increased ADC values for the quadriceps and hamstrings after each exercise session. These ADC values returned to the pre-exercise level after water immersion. No significant difference was observed in muscle performance from first exercise session to the next in either group, except for increased total work and mean power in knee flexion in the cooled group. Cooling intervention between exercise sessions decreased exercise-induced elevation of intramuscular water movement and had some beneficial effects on muscle endurance of knee flexors, but not knee extensors. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Columnar joint morphology and cooling rate: A starch-water mixture experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toramaru, A.; Matsumoto, T.

    2004-02-01

    An analogue experiment using a starch-water mixture has been carried out in order to understand the effect of cooling rate on the morphological characteristics of a basalt columnar joint. If the contraction of material is essential for the formation of columnar joint structure, the water loss rate by desiccation (hereafter referred to as desiccation rate) in the experiment is analogous to the cooling rate in solidifying basalt. In the experiment the desiccation rate is controlled by varying the distance between the starch-water mixture and a lamp used as the heat source. We find that there are three regimes in the relation between joint formation and desiccation rate: (1) At desiccation rates higher than ˜1.4 × 10-2 (g cm-2 h-1) (normal columnar joint regime), the average cross-sectional area S of a column is inversely proportional to the average desiccation rate, (i.e., S ∝ -δ, with δ = 1). (2) Between that desiccation rate and a critical desiccation rate, 0.8 × 10-2 (g/cm2h), S approaches infinity as decreases close to a critical desiccation rate (i.e., exponent δ monotonically increases from unity to infinity) (critical regime). (3) Below the critical desiccation rate, no columnar structure forms (no columnar joint regime forms). Applying the present experimental result to the formation of basalt column, the basalt columnar cross-sectional area is inversely proportional to the cooling rate with factors including elasticity, crack growth coefficient, thermal expansion, glass transition temperature, and crack density ratio at stress maximum. Also, it can be predicted that there exists a critical cooling rate below which the columnar joint does not form; the presence of a critical regime between the normal columnar jointing and no columnar jointing during a certain cooling rate range can also be predicted. We find that at higher cooling rate the preferred column shape is a pentagon, whereas at lower cooling rate it is a hexagon.

  6. Critical Design Issues of Tokamak Cooling Water System of ITER's Fusion Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seokho H; Berry, Jan

    2011-01-01

    U.S. ITER is responsible for the design, engineering, and procurement of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS). The TCWS transfers heat generated in the Tokamak to cooling water during nominal pulsed operation 850 MW at up to 150 C and 4.2 MPa water pressure. This water contains radionuclides because impurities (e.g., tritium) diffuse from in-vessel components and the vacuum vessel by water baking at 200 240 C at up to 4.4MPa, and corrosion products become activated by neutron bombardment. The system is designated as safety important class (SIC) and will be fabricated to comply with the French Order concerning nuclear pressure equipment (December 2005) and the EU Pressure Equipment Directive using ASME Section VIII, Div 2 design codes. The complexity of the TCWS design and fabrication presents unique challenges. Conceptual design of this one-of-a-kind cooling system has been completed with several issues that need to be resolved to move to next stage of the design. Those issues include flow balancing between over hundreds of branch pipelines in parallel to supply cooling water to blankets, determination of optimum flow velocity while minimizing the potential for cavitation damage, design for freezing protection for cooling water flowing through cryostat (freezing) environment, requirements for high-energy piping design, and electromagnetic impact to piping and components. Although the TCWS consists of standard commercial components such as piping with valves and fittings, heat exchangers, and pumps, complex requirements present interesting design challenges. This paper presents a brief description of TCWS conceptual design and critical design issues that need to be resolved.

  7. Ultrafast cooling by covalently bonded graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid immersed in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Walther, Jens H.; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2016-11-01

    The increasing power density and the decreasing dimensions of transistors present severe thermal challenges to the design of modern microprocessors. Furthermore, new technologies such as three-dimensional chip-stack architectures require novel cooling solutions for their thermal management. Here, we demonstrate, through transient heat-dissipation simulations, that a covalently bonded graphene-carbon nanotube (G-CNT) hybrid immersed in water is a promising solution for the ultrafast cooling of such high-temperature and high heat-flux surfaces. The G-CNT hybrid offers a unique platform to integrate the superior axial heat transfer capability of individual CNTs via their parallel arrangement. The immersion of the G-CNT in water enables an additional heat dissipation path via the solid-liquid interaction, allowing for the sustainable cooling of the hot surface under a constant power input of up to 10 000 W cm-2.

  8. Ultrafast cooling by covalently bonded graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid immersed in water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Walther, Jens H; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2016-11-18

    The increasing power density and the decreasing dimensions of transistors present severe thermal challenges to the design of modern microprocessors. Furthermore, new technologies such as three-dimensional chip-stack architectures require novel cooling solutions for their thermal management. Here, we demonstrate, through transient heat-dissipation simulations, that a covalently bonded graphene-carbon nanotube (G-CNT) hybrid immersed in water is a promising solution for the ultrafast cooling of such high-temperature and high heat-flux surfaces. The G-CNT hybrid offers a unique platform to integrate the superior axial heat transfer capability of individual CNTs via their parallel arrangement. The immersion of the G-CNT in water enables an additional heat dissipation path via the solid-liquid interaction, allowing for the sustainable cooling of the hot surface under a constant power input of up to 10 000 W cm(-2).

  9. Post exercise changes in compartmental body temperature accompanying intermittent cold water cooling in the hyperthermic horse.

    PubMed

    Marlin, D J; Scott, C M; Roberts, C A; Casas, I; Holah, G; Schroter, R C

    1998-01-01

    Whereas the efficacy of cold water cooling of horses has been demonstrated by several studies, the dynamics of temperature changes within and between compartments (primarily muscle, blood [core], skin and deep core [rectal]) have not been investigated. Changes in body temperature associated with cold water cooling were investigated in the hyperthermic horse. Muscle (TMU), pulmonary artery (TPA), rectal (TREC), tail-skin (TTSK) and coat surface (TCOAT) temperatures, were monitored continuously in 5 Thoroughbred horses during and after exercise in hot humid (30 degrees C and 80% RH) conditions on a treadmill. Horses were cooled in the hot humid environment with cold water (approximately 6 degrees C) for 6 30 s periods. Between each 30 s cooling period the horses stood for 30 s. A total of 180 l of cold water was applied. Horses were monitored for a further 4 min following the final cooling period. From the end of exercise to the end of the final cooling (6.5 min), mean (+/- s.e.) rates of decrease for TTSK and TPA were similar (0.8 +/- 0.1 and 0.8 +/- 0.1 degrees C/min, respectively). The effects on TMU and TREC were less marked, with average rates of 0.2 +/- 0.1 and 0.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C/min, respectively. During the first 4 min of cooling, TPA fell during the 30 s period of water application and rose during each 30 s period of standing. When TPA fell below approximately 36.5 degrees C, these variations were suppressed and TPA rose steadily, despite continued applications; TREC and TMU continued to fall, although less rapidly than before. These observations are consistent with the onset of skin vasoconstriction at low TPA. The mechanism is mediated through a cooling of circulating blood volume providing a greater capacity for heat transfer between muscle and circulation. Intermittent application of cold water (approximately 6 degrees C) improves heat removal without apparent deleterious effects and is well tolerated. Even when hypothermia develops (based on TPA

  10. Linking water stress effects on carbon partitioning by introducing a xylem circuit into L-PEACH

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, David; Favreau, Romeo; Auzmendi, Iñigo; DeJong, Theodore M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Many physiological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration can be strongly influenced by the diurnal patterns of within-tree water potential. Despite numerous experiments showing the effect of water potential on fruit-tree development and growth, there are very few models combining carbohydrate allocation with water transport. The aim of this work was to include a xylem circuit into the functional–structural L-PEACH model. Methods The xylem modelling was based on an electrical circuit analogy and the Hagen–Poisseuille law for hydraulic conductance. Sub-models for leaf transpiration, soil water potential and the soil–plant interface were also incorporated to provide the driving force and pathway for water flow. The model was assessed by comparing model outputs to field measurements and published knowledge. Key Results The model was able to simulate both the water uptake over a season and the effect of different irrigation treatments on tree development, growth and fruit yield. Conclusions This work opens the way to a new field of modelling where complex interactions between water transport, carbohydrate allocation and physiological functions can be simulated at the organ level and describe functioning and behaviour at the tree scale. PMID:21546432

  11. Loss Current Analysis of Water Tree Degradation in Polyethylene using Equivalent Circuit Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masafumi; Itoh, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Noboru

    It is well known that the degradation of XLPE cable by water tree gives rise to harmonics in the loss current. Many researches by simulation and experiment have been carried out for the purpose of the elucidation of the mechanism of the harmonics in the loss current generation. In the present study, the loss current was calculated from the equivalent circuit model composed of voltage-dependent resistance and condenser. These elements are being connected with the matrix state. As a result, we were able to obtain the good agreement between the experimental value and the calculated value by appropriately choosing the characteristics of the voltage-dependent resistance. The equivalent circuit model determined in this study can consider not only the electrical characteristic of water tree but also its shape.

  12. Do cool water or physiologic saline compresses enhance resolution of experimentally-induced irritant contact dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Levin, C Y; Maibach, H I

    2001-09-01

    Acute irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is frequently treated with cool water or saline compresses. While presumed effective, little quantitative evaluation documents the treatment's benefit. This study sought to determine the efficacy of both distilled water and physiologic saline compresses on experimentally-induced ICD. 24-h application of both the lipophilic nonanoic acid (NAA) and the hydrophilic sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) were used to induce irritant contact dermatitis in 9 healthy volunteers. Following irritation, compresses were applied 0.5 h 2x daily for 4 consecutive days. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), chromametry and visual scoring were used to quantify results. Cool compresses of both water and saline significantly reduced TEWL and LDF, with no statistically significant difference between the efficacy of the saline or water compresses. Chromametry and visual scoring did not detect a significant effect with either the water or saline compresses. The results suggest an improvement with 2x-daily application of either water or physiologic saline compresses in the treatment of acute ICD, though true clinical benefit will be elucidated through further experimentation. Certainly, the current recommendation regarding the use of cool compresses for treating ICD should not be discarded.

  13. Evaluation of nonpotable ground water in the desert area of southeastern California for powerplant cooling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinemann, Anne C.

    1989-01-01

    Powerplant siting is dependent upon many factors; in southern California the prevailing physical constraint is water availability. Increasing land-use and other environmental concerns preclude further sites along the coast. A review of available hydrologic data was made of 142 ground-water basins in the southeast California desert area to ascertain if any could be feasible sources of nonpotable powerplant cooling water. Feasibility implies the capacity to sustain a typical 1,000-megawatt electrical-power generating plant for 30 years with an ample supply of ground water for cooling. Of the 142 basins reviewed, 5 met or exceeded established hydrologic criteria for supplying the water demands of a typical powerplant. These basins are: (1) middle Amargosa valley, (2) Soda Lake valley, (3) Caves Canyon valley, (4) Chuckwalla Valley, and (5) Calzona-Vidal Valley. Geohydrologic evaluations of these five basins assessed the occurrence and suitability of ground water and effects of long-term pumping. An additional six basins met or exceeded hydrologic criteria, with qualifications, for providing powerplant cooling water. The remaining 131 basins either did not meet the criteria, or available data were insufficient to determine if the basins would meet the criteria.

  14. Application-specific integrated circuit design for a typical pressurized water reactor pressure channel trip

    SciTech Connect

    Battle, R.E.; Manges, W.W.; Emery, M.S.; Vendermolen, R.I.; Bhatt, S.

    1994-03-01

    This article discusses the use of application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in nuclear plant safety systems. ASICs have certain advantages over software-based systems because they can be simple enough to be thoroughly tested, and they can be tailored to replace existing equipment. An architecture to replace a pressurized water reactor pressure channel trip is presented. Methods of implementing digital algorithms are also discussed.

  15. APT cooling water supply make-up trade study. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.W.; Hink, R.

    1996-08-08

    In the conceptual design of the APT cooling water system, several options exist for the design of the system(s) which serve as the ultimate heat sink. This study will evaluate alternative methods of providing an ultimate heat sink to the APT.

  16. Why Do Objects Cool More Rapidly in Water than in Still Air?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2011-01-01

    An Internet search for why objects, especially humans, cool more rapidly in water than in air, both at the same temperature, and by how much, yields off-the-cuff answers unsupported by experiment or analysis. To answer these questions in depth requires a smattering of engineering heat transfer, including radiative transfer, and the different…

  17. 40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... tower used to remove heat from industrial processes, chemical reactions, or plants producing electrical... treatment chemicals in cooling systems. 749.68 Section 749.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...

  18. 40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... tower used to remove heat from industrial processes, chemical reactions, or plants producing electrical... treatment chemicals in cooling systems. 749.68 Section 749.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...

  19. 40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... tower used to remove heat from industrial processes, chemical reactions, or plants producing electrical... treatment chemicals in cooling systems. 749.68 Section 749.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...

  20. Why Do Objects Cool More Rapidly in Water than in Still Air?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2011-01-01

    An Internet search for why objects, especially humans, cool more rapidly in water than in air, both at the same temperature, and by how much, yields off-the-cuff answers unsupported by experiment or analysis. To answer these questions in depth requires a smattering of engineering heat transfer, including radiative transfer, and the different…

  1. 40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tower used to remove heat from industrial processes, chemical reactions, or plants producing electrical... treatment chemicals in cooling systems. 749.68 Section 749.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...

  2. 40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... tower used to remove heat from industrial processes, chemical reactions, or plants producing electrical... treatment chemicals in cooling systems. 749.68 Section 749.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...

  3. Reduction of Fire Hazard in Materials for Irrigators and Water Collectors in Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, N. V.; Konstantinova, N. I.; Gordon, E. P.; Poedintsev, E. A.

    2016-09-15

    A way of reducing the fire hazard of PVC film used to make cooling-tower irrigators and water collectors is examined. A new generation of fire retardant, nanostructured magnesium hydroxide, is used to impart fire retardant properties. The fabrication technology is optimized with a roller-calendering manufacturing technique, and the permissible ranges of fire hazard indicators for materials in irrigators and water collectors are determined.

  4. Fish mortality by impingement on the cooling-water intake screens of Britain's largest direct-cooled power station.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M F D

    2008-04-01

    An estimated 5.66 x 10(7) fish (summed quarterly 95% confidence intervals: 3.01 x 10(7)-1.07 x 10(8)) weighing 258.4 t (143.2-467.9 t) were killed on the cooling-water intake screens of the 2400 MW Longannet Power Station (Forth estuary) in January 1999--December 2000. Abundance and number of species (40) collected were close to predictions for a power station of this size and latitude. Potential losses of equivalent adult whiting (Merlangius merlangus), cod (Gadus morhua), and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) through deaths of juveniles were estimated at 353.1 t (208.0-603.2 t) worth approximately euro 429,266 (euro 246,592-752,765) in 1999--2000. Fish catch-per-trawl in the estuary was generally not noticeably greater during a year of low water withdrawal (coal miners' strike of 1984--1985) when compared to other years from 1982 to 2001, except for gobies (Pomatoschistus spp.). A fish-return system is being tested at Longannet to reduce mortality.

  5. Characterization of N-Acylhomoserine Lactones Produced by Bacteria Isolated from Industrial Cooling Water Systems.

    PubMed

    Okutsu, Noriya; Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Xie, Xiaonan; Kato, Norihiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2015-12-30

    The cooling water systems are used to remove heat generated in the various industries. Biofouling of the cooling water systems causes blocking of condenser pipes and the heat exchanger tubes. In many Gram-negative bacteria, N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) are used as quorum-sensing signal molecule and associated with biofilm formation. To investigate the relationship between quorum sensing and biofouling in the cooling water system, we isolated a total of 192 bacterial strains from the five cooling water systems, and screened for AHL production. Seven isolates stimulated AHL-mediated purple pigment production in AHL reporter strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 or VIR07. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, AHL-producing isolates were assigned to Aeromonas hydrophila, Lysobacter sp., Methylobacterium oryzae, and Bosea massiliensis. To the best of our knowledge, B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. have not been reported as AHL-producing species in the previous researches. AHLs extracted from the culture supernatants of B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. AHLs produced by B. massiliensis were assigned as N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL), and N-(3-oxooctanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL). AHLs produced by Lysobacter sp. were assigned as N-decanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL) and N-(3-oxodecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C10-HSL). This is the first report of identification of AHLs produced by B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. isolated from the cooling water system.

  6. Patterns of fish assemblage structure and dynamics in waters of the Savannah River Plant. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study final report

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, J.M.; Anderson, C.S.; Floyd, K.B.; Negus, M.T.; Meador, M.R.

    1986-06-01

    Research conducted as part of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) has elucidated many factors that are important to fish population and community dynamics in a variety of habitats on the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Information gained from these studies is useful in predicting fish responses to SRP operations. The overall objective of the CCWS was (1) to determine the environmental effects of SRP cooling water withdrawals and discharges and (2) to determine the significance of the cooling water impacts on the environment. The purpose of this study was to: (1) examine the effects of thermal plumes on anadromous and resident fishes, including overwintering effects, in the SRP swamp and associated tributary streams; (2) assess fish spawning and locate nursery grounds on the SRP; (3) examine the level of use of the SRP by spawning fish from the Savannah River, this objective was shared with the Savannah River Laboratory, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; and (4) determine impacts of cooling-water discharges on fish population and community attributes. Five studies were designed to address the above topics. The specific objectives and a summary of the findings of each study are presented.

  7. Effect of makeup water properties on the condenser fouling in power planr cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Safari, I.; Walker, M.; Abbasian, J.; Arastoopour, H.; Hsieh, M-K.; Dzombak, D.; Miller, D.

    2011-01-01

    The thermoelectric power industry in the U.S. uses a large amount of fresh water. As available freshwater for use in thermoelectric power production becomes increasingly limited, use of nontraditional water sources is of growing interest. Utilization of nontraditional water, in cooling systems increases the potential for mineral precipitation on heat exchanger surfaces. In that regard, predicting the accelerated rate of scaling and fouling in condenser is crucial to evaluate the condenser performance. To achieve this goal, water chemistry should be incorporated in cooling system modeling and simulation. This paper addresses the effects of various makeup water properties on the cooling system, namely pH and aqueous speciation, both of which are important factors affecting the fouling rate in the main condenser. Detailed modeling of the volatile species desorption (i.e. CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}), the formation of scale in the recirculating system, and the relationship between water quality and the corresponding fouling rates is presented.

  8. Review of the effects of the Clean Water Act on cooling-system selection by the steam-electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Paddock, R.A.; McCown, D.L.

    1982-06-01

    A review of surveys of the steam-electric industry in general and the nuclear industry in particular has shown a significant trend away from open-cycle cooling and toward closed-cycle cooling that is at least in part a consequence of the Clean Water Act and subsequent EPA guidelines and standards. Among older plants, which are not significantly affected by the Clean Water Act, nearly 85% use some form of open-cycle cooling. However, among plants that are under construction or planned, only 10 to 15% plan to use open-cycle cooling. Most of this trend is apparently due to anticipation of restrictions on open-cycle cooling rather than to direct action by the EPA prohibiting open-cycle cooling at specific sites, because requests for permission to operate open-cycle cooling systems have been denied for less than 1% of all existing and new capacity. A review was made of the potential environmental effects, water consumption rates, capital and generating costs, and energy usage associated with open-cycle and closed-cycle cooling systems. No evidence was found that clearly supports a general preference for any type of cooling system over another. However, on a case-by-cae basis, site-specific conditions may indicate a preferred cooling technology. It is concluded that the opportunity for the use of all available cooling options should be retained and that an effort should be made to assure the steam-electric industry that the options are indeed available.

  9. Performance evaluation of heat-stressed commercial broilers provided water-cooled floor perches.

    PubMed

    Reilly, W M; Koelkebeck, K W; Harrison, P C

    1991-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether water-cooled floor perches would be utilized by commercial broilers exposed to a constant hot ambient environment; and subsequently, whether utilization of these perches would improve performance beyond those provided uncooled floor perches. A total of 330 day-old commercial broiler chicks were randomly allocated to six pens (2.44 m2) in an environmentally controlled facility and maintained in a thermoneutral brooding environment for 16 days. Following this period, 240 birds were selected on a body weight basis and randomly assigned to the six pens. A perch constructed from steel pipe (2.44 m length, 5.0 cm diameter) was then placed diagonally on the litter covered floor of each pen. The birds were first exposed to a thermoneutral period (27.7 C), during which time cooling of the perches in three replicate pens was initiated by circulating tap water. The other three experimental pens received ambient perches. Ambient temperature was then raised to 32.6 C for the following 4 wk. The results of the present study showed that utilization of water-cooled perches by broilers was greater (P less than or equal to .01) than ambient perch utilization throughout the 32.6 C period. Average daily gain was greatest (P less than or equal to .01) for broilers exposed to cool perches. Additionally, they consume more feed (P less than or equal to .05), on a daily basis, than those given ambient perches during the heat-stress period. Broilers exposed to water-cooled perches also had a more efficient gain to feed ratio (P less than or equal to .01). At the completion of the study, final body weight and total body weight gain were greater (P less than or equal to .05) for broilers given water-cooled perches compared with those exposed to ambient perches. Total amount of feed consumed and total feed efficiency were only moderately affected (P less than or equal to .10) by perch treatments. These results indicated that water-cooled perches were

  10. Hypotheses of calculation of the water flow rate evaporated in a wet cooling tower

    SciTech Connect

    Bourillot, C.

    1983-08-01

    The method developed by Poppe at the University of Hannover to calculate the thermal performance of a wet cooling tower fill is presented. The formulation of Poppe is then validated using full-scale test data from a wet cooling tower at the power station at Neurath, Federal Republic of Germany. It is shown that the Poppe method predicts the evaporated water flow rate almost perfectly and the condensate content of the warm air with good accuracy over a wide range of ambient conditions. The simplifying assumptions of the Merkel theory are discussed, and the errors linked to these assumptions are systematically described, then illustrated with the test data.

  11. Use of Produced Water in Recirculating Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kent Zammit; Michael N. DiFilippo

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. This deliverable describes possible test configurations for produced water demonstration projects at SJGS. The ability to host demonstration projects would enable the testing and advancement of promising produced water treatment technologies. Testing is described for two scenarios: Scenario 1--PNM builds a produced water treatment system at SJGS and incorporates planned and future demonstration projects into the design of the system. Scenario 2--PNM forestalls or decides not to install a produced water treatment system and would either conduct limited testing at SJGS (produced water would have to be delivered by tanker trucked) or at a salt water disposal facility (SWD). Each scenario would accommodate demonstration projects differently and these differences are discussed in this deliverable. PNM will host a demonstration test of water-conserving cooling technology--Wet Surface Air Cooling (WSAC) using cooling tower blowdown

  12. Organohalogen products from chlorination of cooling water at nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R.M.

    1983-10-01

    Eight nuclear power units at seven locations in the US were studied to determine the effects of chlorine, added as a biocide, on the composition of cooling water discharge. Water, sediment and biota samples from the sites were analyzed for total organic halogen and for a variety of organohalogen compounds. Haloforms were discharged from all plants studied, at concentrations of a few ..mu..g/L (parts-per-billion). Evidence was obtained that power plants with cooling towers discharge a significant portion of the haloforms formed during chlorination to the atmosphere. A complex mixture of halogenated phenols was found in the cooling water discharges of the power units. Cooling towers can act to concentrate halogenated phenols to levels approaching those of the haloforms. Examination of samples by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry did not result in identification of any significant concentrations of lipophilic base-neutral compounds that could be shown to be formed by the chlorination process. Total concentrations of lipophilic (Bioabsorbable) and volatile organohalogen material discharged ranged from about 2 to 4 ..mu..g/L. Analysis of sediment samples for organohalogen material suggests that certain chlorination products may accumulate in sediments, although no tissue bioaccumulation could be demonstrated from analysis of a limited number of samples. 58 references, 25 figures, 31 tables.

  13. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir) and type

  14. Ice-Water Immersion and Cold-Water Immersion Provide Similar Cooling Rates in Runners With Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Clements, Julie M; Casa, Douglas J; Knight, J; McClung, Joseph M; Blake, Alan S; Meenen, Paula M; Gilmer, Allison M; Caldwell, Kellie A

    2002-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether ice-water immersion or cold-water immersion is the more effective treatment for rapidly cooling hyperthermic runners. DESIGN AND SETTING: 17 heat-acclimated highly trained distance runners (age = 28 +/- 2 years, height = 180 +/- 2 cm, weight = 68.5 +/- 2.1 kg, body fat = 11.2 +/- 1.3%, training volume = 89 +/- 10 km/wk) completed a hilly trail run (approximately 19 km and 86 minutes) in the heat (wet-bulb globe temperature = 27 +/- 1 degrees C) at an individually selected "comfortable" pace on 3 occasions 1 week apart. The random, crossover design included (1) distance run, then 12 minutes of ice-water immersion (5.15 +/- 0.20 degrees C), (2) distance run, then 12 minutes of cold-water immersion (14.03 +/- 0.28 degrees C), or (3) distance run, then 12 minutes of mock immersion (no water, air temperature = 28.88 +/- 0.76 degrees C). MEASUREMENTS: Each subject was immersed from the shoulders to the hip joints for 12 minutes in a tub. Three minutes elapsed between the distance run and the start of immersion. Rectal temperature was recorded at the start of immersion, at each minute of immersion, and 3, 6, 10, and 15 minutes postimmersion. No rehydration occurred during any trial. RESULTS: Length of distance run, time to complete distance run, rectal temperature, and percentage of dehydration after distance run were similar (P >.05) among all trials, as was the wet-bulb globe temperature. No differences (P >.05) for cooling rates were found when comparing ice-water immersion, cold-water immersion, and mock immersion at the start of immersion to 4 minutes, 4 to 8 minutes, and the start of immersion to 8 minutes. Ice-water immersion and cold-water immersion cooling rates were similar (P >.05) to each other and greater (P <.05) than mock immersion at 8 to 12 minutes, the start of immersion to 10 minutes, and the start of immersion to every other time point thereafter. Rectal temperatures were similar (P >.05) between ice-water immersion and

  15. Ice-Water Immersion and Cold-Water Immersion Provide Similar Cooling Rates in Runners With Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Julie M.; Casa, Douglas J.; Knight, J. Chad; McClung, Joseph M.; Blake, Alan S.; Meenen, Paula M.; Gilmer, Allison M.; Caldwell, Kellie A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether ice-water immersion or cold-water immersion is the more effective treatment for rapidly cooling hyperthermic runners. Design and Setting: 17 heat-acclimated highly trained distance runners (age = 28 ± 2 years, height = 180 ± 2 cm, weight = 68.5 ± 2.1 kg, body fat = 11.2 ± 1.3%, training volume = 89 ± 10 km/wk) completed a hilly trail run (approximately 19 km and 86 minutes) in the heat (wet-bulb globe temperature = 27 ± 1°C) at an individually selected “comfortable” pace on 3 occasions 1 week apart. The random, crossover design included (1) distance run, then 12 minutes of ice-water immersion (5.15 ± 0.20°C), (2) distance run, then 12 minutes of cold-water immersion (14.03 ± 0.28°C), or (3) distance run, then 12 minutes of mock immersion (no water, air temperature = 28.88 ± 0.76°C). Measurements: Each subject was immersed from the shoulders to the hip joints for 12 minutes in a tub. Three minutes elapsed between the distance run and the start of immersion. Rectal temperature was recorded at the start of immersion, at each minute of immersion, and 3, 6, 10, and 15 minutes postimmersion. No rehydration occurred during any trial. Results: Length of distance run, time to complete distance run, rectal temperature, and percentage of dehydration after distance run were similar (P > .05) among all trials, as was the wet-bulb globe temperature. No differences (P > .05) for cooling rates were found when comparing ice-water immersion, cold-water immersion, and mock immersion at the start of immersion to 4 minutes, 4 to 8 minutes, and the start of immersion to 8 minutes. Ice-water immersion and cold-water immersion cooling rates were similar (P > .05) to each other and greater (P < .05) than mock immersion at 8 to 12 minutes, the start of immersion to 10 minutes, and the start of immersion to every other time point thereafter. Rectal temperatures were similar (P > .05) between ice-water immersion and cold-water immersion at the

  16. Volume and structural analysis of super-cooled water under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duki, Solomon F.; Tsige, Mesfin

    2012-02-01

    Motivated by recent experimental study of super-cooled water at high pressure [1], we performed atomistic molecular dynamic simulations study on bulk water molecules at isothermal-isobaric ensemble. These simulations are performed at temperatures that range from 40 K to 380 K using two different cooling rates, 10K/ns and 10K/5ns, and pressure that ranges from 1atm to 10000 atm. Our analysis for the variation of the volume of the bulk sample against temperature indicates a downward concave shape for pressures above certain values, as reported in [1]. The same downward concave behavior is observed at high pressure on the mean-squared-displacements (MSD) of the water molecules when the MSD is plotted against time. To get further insight on the effect of the pressure on the sample we have also performed a structural analysis of the sample.[4pt] [1] O. Mishima, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 144503 (2010);

  17. A model for calculating radionuclide concentrations in the Fermilab industrial cooling water system

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.Donald; /Fermilab

    2007-10-01

    Large particle accelerators such as those at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) unavoidably produce radionuclides in their bulk shielding and also require large volume process cooling water systems to handle electrical heat loads. The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beam facility came on line during CY 2005. After several months of initial operation of this facility, measurable concentrations of {sup 3}H as tritiated water were identified throughout the Industrial Cooling Water (ICW) system. This was the first identification of measurable concentrations of any radionuclide leaving the Fermilab site, motivating an extensive effort to understand these discharges in order to minimize environmental releases. As part of this work, a simple model of radionuclide concentrations in this system has been developed.

  18. Ice growth and interface oscillation of water droplets impinged on a cooling surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Yoshimichi; Ishikawa, Shoji; Kimura, Ryota; Toyohara, Kazumasa

    2017-06-01

    We focused on the attenuation of air-water interface oscillation for impinged water droplets freezing on a cooling surface. We carried out not only experiments but also two-dimensional numerical simulation on the droplets using a Phase-field method and an immersed boundary method. The Reynolds number and Weber number were in the range of 35-129 and 1.6-22, respectively. The experimental and computational results showed that the height of the impinged droplets on the symmetrical axis started to oscillate as a result of the impact of the collision of droplets with the surfaces in all the cases that we investigated. The measured frequency of the oscillations in the case of the adiabatic droplets was equal to the frequency estimated from the equation for the capillary-gravity waves on sessile droplets (Temperton, 2013) [30]. The oscillations converged rapidly in all impinged water droplets that froze on the cooling surface. This is due partly to the growth of ice shells along the air-water interface and partly to decreases in water volume as a result of the ice growth mainly on the cooling surface. In addition, the thermal field was disturbed not only by the latent heat transfer but also by the upward component of recirculating flow induced by the droplet impingement.

  19. Effect of water temperature on cooling efficiency during hyperthermia in humans.

    PubMed

    Proulx, C I; Ducharme, M B; Kenny, G P

    2003-04-01

    We evaluated the cooling rate of hyperthermic subjects, as measured by rectal temperature (T(re)), during immersion in a range of water temperatures. On 4 separate days, seven subjects (4 men, 3 women) exercised at 65% maximal oxygen consumption at an ambient temperature of 39 degrees C until T(re) increased to 40 degrees C (45.4 +/- 4.1 min). After exercise, the subjects were immersed in a circulated water bath controlled at 2, 8, 14, or 20 degrees C until T(re) returned to 37.5 degrees C. No difference in cooling rate was observed between the immersions at 8, 14, and 20 degrees C despite the differences in the skin surface-to-water temperature gradient, possibly because of the presence of shivering at 8 and 14 degrees C. Compared with the other conditions, however, the rate of cooling (0.35 +/- 0.14 degrees C/min) was significantly greater during the 2 degrees C water immersion, in which shivering was seldom observed. This rate was almost twice as much as the other conditions (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that 2 degrees C water is the most effective immersion treatment for exercise-induced hyperthermia.

  20. Investigation of Water-spray Cooling of Turbine Blades in a Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, John C; Stelpflug, William J

    1953-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation was made with a J33-A-9 engine to determine the effectiveness of spray cooling as a means of increasing thrust by permitting engine operation at inlet-gas temperatures and speeds above rated. With the assumption of adequate spray cooling at a coolant-to-gas flow ratio of 3 percent, calculations for the sea-level static condition indicated a thrust may be achieved by engine operation at an inlet-gas temperature of 2000 degrees F and an overspeed of 10 percent. Of the water-injection configurations investigated experimentally, those located in the inner ring of the stator diaphragm provided the best cooling at rated engine speed.

  1. Thermohydraulic responses of a water-cooled tokamak fusion DEMO to loss-of-coolant accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, M.; Tobita, K.; Someya, Y.; Utoh, H.; Sakamoto, Y.; Gulden, W.

    2015-11-01

    Major in- and ex-vessel loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) of a water-cooled tokamak fusion DEMO reactor have been analysed. Analyses have identified responses of the DEMO systems to these accidents and pressure loads to confinement barriers for radioactive materials. As for the in-VV LOCA, we analysed the multiple double-ended break of the first wall cooling pipes around the outboard toroidal circumference. As for the ex-VV LOCA, we analysed the double-ended break of the primary cooling pipe. The thermohydraulic analysis results suggest that the in- and ex-vessel LOCAs crucially threaten integrity of the primary and final confinement barriers, respectively. Mitigations of the loads to the confinement barriers are also discussed.

  2. Cooling system for removing metabolic heat from an hermetically sealed spacesuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbon, B. W.; Vykukal, H. C.; Williams, B. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved cooling and ventilating system is described for removing metabolic heat, waste gases and water vapor generated by a wearer of an hermetically sealed spacesuit. The cooling system was characterized by a body suit, having a first circuit for simultaneously establishing a cooling flow of water through the thorax and head sections of the body suit. Circulation patches were included mounted in the thorax section and head section of the body suit. A second circuit for discharing a flow of gas throughout the spacesuit and a disconnect unit for coupling the circuits with a life support system externally related to the spacesuit were provided.

  3. Effect of Water Spray Evaporative Cooling at the Inlet of Regeneration Air Stream on the Performance of an Adsorption Desiccant Cooling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Kosuke; Kodama, Akio; Hirose, Tsutomu; Goto, Motonobu; Okano, Hiroshi

    This paper shows an influence of evaporative cooler at the inlet of regeneration air stream of an adsorptive desiccant cooling process on the cooling/dehumidifying performance. This evaporative cooling was expected to cause humidity increase in regeneration air reducing the dehumidifying performance of the honeycomb absorber, while the evaporative cooling plays an important role to produce a lower temperature in supply air. Two different airs to be used for the regeneration of the desiccant wheel were considered. One was fresh outside air (OA mode) and the other was air ventilated from the room (RA mode). Experimental results showed that the amount of dehumidified water obtained at the process without water spray evaporative cooler was actually larger than that of process with water spray evaporative cooler. This behavior was mainly due to increase of humidity or relative humidity in the regeneration air as expected. However, temperature of supply air produced by the process with the evaporator was rather lower than that of the other because of the cooled return air, resulting higher CE value. Regarding the operating mode, the evaporative cooler at the OA-mode was no longer useful at higher ambient humidity because of the difficulty of the evaporation of the water in such high humidity. It was also found that its dehumidifying performance was remarkably decreased at higher ambient humidity and lower regeneration temperature since the effective adsorption capacity at the resulting high relative humidity of the regeneration air decreased.

  4. Cooling by cutaneous water evaporation in the heat-acclimated rock pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Arieli, Yehuda; Peltonen, Liisa; Ophir, Eshel

    2002-03-01

    The present study provides an up-to-date overview of the cutaneous water-evaporation cooling mechanism in the rock pigeon. Cutaneous water evaporation fully replaces the classic respiratory cooling mechanism in the resting, heat-acclimated bird, and is more economical in terms of water conservation. It enables the pigeon to maintain homeostasis, and to breed successfully in harsh environments. Adrenergic signaling is involved in the initiation of this novel mechanism, either by deactivation of the beta-adrenergic receptors (ARs), or activation of the alpha-AR. The adrenergic signaling results in a marked increase in cutaneous blood flow and in the arterial-to-venous blood-flow ratio. This is associated with alterations in the cutaneous capillary wall ultrastructure, which increase its permeability to plasma proteins and water. The end result of this process might be an increase in water efflux from the capillary lumen. The properties of beta-ARs were measured in the cardiac muscle of thermal-acclimated pigeons. Significant down-regulation in the density of beta-ARs, associated with increased affinity of these receptors, was measured in the heat-acclimated pigeon. Concomitantly, changes in the skin ultrastructure and lipid composition were found in very well defined patches in the epidermis of heat-acclimated pigeons. These suppress the skin resistance to water transfer. We suggest that this cooling mechanism involves finely orchestrated adjustments in the ultrastructure of the skin and the cutaneous capillaries, and in skin blood flow. Adrenergic signals are among those factors that regulate this cooling mechanism during exposure to a hot environment.

  5. A Novel Absorption Cycle for Combined Water Heating, Dehumidification, and Evaporative Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    CHUGH, Devesh; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R; Abdelaziz, Omar; Moghaddam, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    In this study, development of a novel system for combined water heating, dehumidification, and space evaporative cooling is discussed. Ambient water vapor is used as a working fluid in an open system. First, water vapor is absorbed from an air stream into an absorbent solution. The latent heat of absorption is transferred into the process water that cools the absorber. The solution is then regenerated in the desorber, where it is heated by a heating fluid. The water vapor generated in the desorber is condensed and its heat of phase change is transferred to the process water in the condenser. The condensed water can then be used in an evaporative cooling process to cool the dehumidified air exiting the absorber, or it can be drained if primarily dehumidification is desired. Essentially, this open absorption cycle collects space heat and transfers it to process water. This technology is enabled by a membrane-based absorption/desorption process in which the absorbent is constrained by hydrophobic vapor-permeable membranes. Constraining the absorbent film has enabled fabrication of the absorber and desorber in a plate-and-frame configuration. An air stream can flow against the membrane at high speed without entraining the absorbent, which is a challenge in conventional dehumidifiers. Furthermore, the absorption and desorption rates of an absorbent constrained by a membrane are greatly enhanced. Isfahani and Moghaddam (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2013) demonstrated absorption rates of up to 0.008 kg/m2s in a membrane-based absorber and Isfahani et al. (Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 2013) have reported a desorption rate of 0.01 kg/m2s in a membrane-based desorber. The membrane-based architecture also enables economical small-scale systems, novel cycle configurations, and high efficiencies. The absorber, solution heat exchanger, and desorber are fabricated on a single metal sheet. In addition to the open arrangement and membrane-based architecture, another novel feature of the

  6. Effects of mild hypohydration on cooling during cold-water immersion following exertional hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Butts, Cory L; Luhring, Katherine E; Smith, Cody R; Tucker, Matthew A; Moyen, Nicole E; Ganio, Matthew S; McDermott, Brendon P

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the effects of mild hypohydration compared to euhydration on the cooling efficacy of cold-water immersion (CWI). Fourteen participants (eight male, six female; age 26 ± 5 years; ht 1.77 ± 0.08 m; wt 72.2 ± 8.8 kg; 20.6 ± 7.4 % body fat) completed one euhydrated (EU) trial followed by one hypohydrated trial (HY; via 24 h fluid restriction) in an environmental chamber (33.6 ± 0.9 °C, 55.8 ± 1.7 % RH). Volitional exercise was performed in a manner that matched end-exercise rectal temperature (T re) through repeating exercise mode and intensity. Participants were then immersed in ice water (2.0 ± 0.8 °C) until T re reached 38.1 °C or for a maximum of 15 min. T re, heart rate (HR), skin blood flux (SBF) and mean skin temperature (T sk) were monitored continuously during cooling. Pre-cooling body mass was decreased in the HY trial (-2.66 ± 1.23 % body mass) and maintained in the EU trial (-0.66 ± 0.44 %) compared to baseline mass (P < 0.001). Cooling rates were faster when EU (0.14 ± 0.05 °C/min) compared to HY (0.11 ± 0.05 °C/min, P = 0.046). HR, SBF, and T sk were not different between EU and HY trials (P > 0.05), however, all variables significantly decreased with immersion independent of hydration status (P < 0.001). The primary finding was that hypohydration modestly attenuates the rate of cooling in exertionally hyperthermic individuals. Regardless of hydration status, the cooling efficacy of CWI was preserved and should continue to be utilized in the treatment of exertional hyperthermia.

  7. Relative Permittivity and Conductivity of Water-treed Region in XLPE Estimated by an Equivalent Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Tamon; Ito, Noriyuki; Kawai, Jiro; Nakamura, Shuhei

    By dividing a water-treed XLPE sheet sample of 1 mm thickness into a non-degraded region and a water-treed one, relative permittivity εr2' and ac conductivity σAC2 of the water-treed region have been estimated using an equivalent circuit. The way of changes of εr2' and σAC2 with the length r of the water-treed region has been discussed based on the Sillars model. It has been concluded that the volume fraction of water in the water-treed layer is in the range of 0.5 % to 1.5 % for the most-degraded XLPE sheet, which depends on the ratio of axes of spheroids to which water-filled voids and channels are compared. It is also concluded that ac conductivity of water in the water-treed region is in the range of 3×10-3 S/m to 2×10-2 S/m.

  8. Safety analysis of a high temperature supercritical pressure light water cooled and moderated reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiwatari, Y.; Oka, Y.; Koshizuka, S.

    2002-07-01

    A safety analysis code for a high temperature supercritical pressure light water cooled reactor (SCLWR-H) with water rods cooled by descending flow, SPRAT-DOWN, is developed. The hottest channel, a water rod, down comer, upper and lower plenums, feed pumps, etc. are modeled as junction of nodes. Partial of the feed water flows downward from the upper dome of the reactor pressure vessel to the water rods. The accidents analyzed here are total loss of feed water flow, feed water pump seizure, and control rods ejection. All the accidents satisfy the criteria. The accident event at which the maximum cladding temperature is the highest is total loss of feedwater flow. The transients analyzed here are loss of feed water heating, inadvertent start-up of an auxiliary water supply system, partial loss of feed water flow, loss of offsite power, loss of load, and abnormal withdrawal of control rods. All the transients satisfied the criteria. The transient event for which the maximum cladding temperature is the highest is control rod withdrawal at normal operation. The behavior of loss of load transient is different from that of BWR. The power does not increase because loss of flow occurs and the density change is small. The sensitivities of the system behavior to various parameters during transients and accidents are analyzed. The parameters having strong influence are the capacity of the auxiliary water supply system, the coast down time of the main feed water pumps, and the time delay of the main feed water pumps trip. The control rod reactivity also has strong influence. (authors)

  9. A practical application for the chemical treatment of Southern California`s reclaimed, Title 22 water for use as makeup water for recirculating cooling water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zakrzewski, J.; Cosulich, J.; Bartling, E.

    1998-12-31

    Pilot cooling water studies conducted at a Southern California landfill/cogeneration station demonstrated a successful chemical treatment program for recirculating cooling water that used unnitrified, reclaimed, Title 22 water as the primary makeup water source. The constituents in the reclaimed water are supplied by variety of residential and waste water sources resulting in a water quality that may vary to a greater degree than domestic water supplies. This water contains high concentrations of orthophosphate, ammonia, chlorides and suspended solids. The impact of which, under cycled conditions is calcium orthophosphate scaling, high corrosion of yellow metal and mild steel, stress cracking of copper alloys and stainless steel and rapidly growing biological activity. A mobile cooling water testing laboratory with two pilot recirculating water systems modeled the cogeneration station`s cooling tower operating conditions and parameters. The tube and shell, tube side cooling heat exchangers were fitted with 443 admiralty, 90/10 copper nickel, 316 stainless steel and 1202 mild steel heat exchanger tubes. Coupons and Corrater electrodes were also installed. A chemical treatment program consisting of 60/40 AA/AMPS copolymer for scale, deposits and dispersion, sodium tolyltriazole for yellow metal corrosion, and a bromination program to control the biological activity was utilized in the pilot systems. Recirculating water orthophosphate concentrations reached levels of 70 mg/L as PO, and ammonia concentrations reached levels of 35 mg/L, as total NH3. The study successfully demonstrated a chemical treatment program to control scale and deposition, minimize admiralty, 90/10 copper nickel and carbon steel corrosion rates, prevent non-heat transfer yellow metal and stainless steel stress cracking, and control the biological activity in this high nutrient water.

  10. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; An Enhanced Evaporative Cooling Systems for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Makinen, Janice V.; Miller, Sean.; Campbell, Colin; Lynch, Bill; Vogel, Matt; Craft, Jesse; Petty, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator - Baseline heat rejection technology for the Portable Life Support System of the Advanced EMU center dot Replaces sublimator in the current EMU center dot Contamination insensitive center dot Can work with Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator in Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) to reject heat and reuse evaporated water The Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) is being developed to replace the sublimator for future generation spacesuits. Water in LCVG absorbs body heat while circulating center dot Warm water pumped through SWME center dot SWME evaporates water vapor, while maintaining liquid water - Cools water center dot Cooled water is then recirculated through LCVG. center dot LCVG water lost due to evaporation (cooling) is replaced from feedwater The Independent TCV Manifold reduces design complexity and manufacturing difficulty of the SWME End Cap. center dot The offset motor for the new BPV reduces the volume profile of the SWME by laying the motor flat on the End Cap alongside the TCV.

  11. Electric chiller buyer`s guide: Water-cooled centrifugal and screw chillers

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, L.

    1995-06-01

    The phase-out of CFCs at the end of 1995 is driving increasing numbers of building owners to convert or replace their chillers with equipment that uses non-CFC refrigerants. Because chillers last for decades, the efficiency of the replacement equipment will have a lasting effect on the energy use, operating cost, and environmental impact of the over 25 percent of commercial floor space that is cooled by chillers, as well as the need for utility capacity. Each chiller is custom built, and many efficiency options are available. The lowest life cycle costs will be obtained by optimizing the cooling plant (including the cooling tower and chilled water distribution system) to match the year-round load profile of the building, not just its peak load. Careful sizing of replacement chillers can correct the oversizing that is so common, thereby reducing capital and operating costs. Significant savings may also be obtained by designing for the local climate, rather than basing chiller selection on the standard conditions assumed in most analyses. This report covers the models and features available in electric water-cooled centrifugal and screw chillers of 150 to 1,200 tons. In addition to full- and part-load efficiencies, it includes information on sizing, refrigerants, heat exchangers, adjustable-frequency drives, trade-offs between chiller efficiency and pumping power, staging of multiple chillers, maintenance, chiller testing, and utility program opportunities.

  12. In situ cooling with ice water for the easier removal of self-expanding nitinol stents

    PubMed Central

    Merkel, Daniel; Brinkmann, Eckhard; Wiens, Daniel; Derwahl, Karl-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is yet to be determined what effects temperature has on the properties of nitinol in order to simplify the process of removing nitinol self-expanding metal stents (SEMS). Materials and methods: We describe the procedure for removal of SEMS in a total of 11 cases with 9 patients. A study involving cooling of nitinol stents in situ with ice water just before their removal was attempted. Results: All stents were removed successfully. In partially covered and in fully covered stents, the stent rigidity was noticeably reduced following cooling. Stent removal was performed by inversion, which was achieved by pulling on the stent from its distal end. No adverse events were observed during this trial. Conclusion: The higher pliability of the stents after ice-water cooling facilitates stent removal. With this method, a mobilization of all stents by the invagination technique was achieved. The separation of the uncoated stent ends from the intestinal wall by the invagination technique, as well as the mucosal vasoconstriction resulting from the cooling, lead to an easier SEMS removal and may serve to prevent severe bleeding of the mucosal wall during this process. PMID:26134772

  13. Utilization of artificial recharged effluent as makeup water for industrial cooling system: corrosion and scaling.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liangliang; Qin, Kena; Zhao, Qingliang; Noguera, Daniel R; Xin, Ming; Liu, Chengcai; Keene, Natalie; Wang, Kun; Cui, Fuyi

    2016-01-01

    The secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plants was reused for industrial cooling water after pre-treatment with a laboratory-scale soil aquifer treatment (SAT) system. Up to a 95.3% removal efficiency for suspended solids (SS), 51.4% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 32.1% for Cl(-) and 30.0% SO4(2-) were observed for the recharged secondary effluent after the SAT operation, which is essential for controlling scaling and corrosion during the cooling process. As compared to the secondary effluent, the reuse of the 1.5 m depth SAT effluent decreased the corrosion by 75.0%, in addition to a 55.1% decline of the scales/biofouling formation (with a compacted structure). The experimental results can satisfy the Chinese criterion of Design Criterion of the Industrial Circulating Cooling Water Treatment (GB 50050-95), and was more efficient than tertiary effluent which coagulated with ferric chloride. In addition, chemical structure of the scales/biofouling obtained from the cooling system was analyzed.

  14. Impact of operating conditions on cooling capacity for sorption systems using water as refrigerant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremeac, Brice; Giraud, Florine; Vallon, Pierrick

    2017-02-01

    The implementation of compact heat exchanger in sorption systems is a key factor to allow the development of these systems. The aim of this paper is to develop a statistical model with a design of experiment (DOE) methodology and use dimensionless number to evaluate and understand the influence of the height of refrigerant liquid and secondary fluid inlet temperature on cooling capacity of a compact pate-type evaporator for sorption systems working near vacuum pressure. For this purpose, an experimental campaign was conducted on a small adsorption test bench using 13X/water as working couple. Cooling capacities from 640 to 2000 W were measured. The DOE is a Doelhert type with two parameters: the inlet secondary fluid temperature (from 10 to 21 °C) and the filing level of refrigerant in the evaporator (from 6 to 24 cm). Thanks to the exploitation of the mathematical model obtained, optimal points under different constraints were found. A maximum cooling capacity of 2021 +/-75 W in the entire experimental field was predicted for a secondary fluid inlet temperature of 25°C and a height of liquid level of 19.2 cm. Bond number and modified Jacob number per the ratio Psat/Ptriple were analyzed. The dimensionless numbers are correlated to the cooling capacity as a first step for designing compact plate-type evaporator for adsorption systems using water as refrigerant.

  15. Heating and cooling of municipal buildings with waste heat from ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, D.S.; Hochgraf, J.

    1980-10-01

    The feasibility of using waste heat from municipal water wells to replace natural gas for heating of the City Hall, Fire Station, and Community Hall in Wilmer, Texas was studied. At present, the 120/sup 0/F well water is cooled by dissipating the excess heat through evaporative cooling towers before entering the distribution system. The objective of the study was to determine the pumping cycle of the well and determine the amount of available heat from the water for a specified period. This data were correlated with the heating and cooling demand of the City's buildings, and a conceptual heat recovery system will be prepared. The system will use part or all of the excess heat from the water to heat the buildings, thereby eliminating the use of natural gas. The proposed geothermal retrofit of the existing natural gas heating system is not economical because the savings in natural gas does not offset the capital cost of the new equipment and the annual operating and maintenance costs. The fuel savings and power costs are a virtual trade-off over the 25-year period. The installation and operation of the system was estimated to cost $105,000 for 25 years which is an unamortized expense. In conclusion, retrofitting the City of Wilmer's municipal buildings is not feasible based on the economic analysis and fiscal projections as presented.

  16. Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1991-01-01

    A passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated box located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

  17. Multi-Model Assessment of Global Hydropower and Cooling Water Discharge Potential Under Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Vliet, M. T. H.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Eisener, S.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understanding of how climate change may impact the availability and temperature of water resources is therefore of major importance. Here we use a multi-model ensemble to show the potential impacts of climate change on global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential. For the first time, combined projections of streamflow and water temperature were produced with three global hydrological models (GHMs) to account for uncertainties in the structure and parametrization of these GHMs in both water availability and water temperature. The GHMs were forced with bias-corrected output of five general circulation models (GCMs) for both the lowest and highest representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). The ensemble projections of streamflow and water temperature were then used to quantify impacts on gross hydropower potential and cooling water discharge capacity of rivers worldwide. We show that global gross hydropower potential is expected to increase between +2.4% (GCM-GHM ensemble mean for RCP 2.6) and +6.3% (RCP 8.5) for the 2080s compared to 1971-2000. The strongest increases in hydropower potential are expected for Central Africa, India, central Asia and the northern high-latitudes, with 18-33% of the world population living in these areas by the 2080s. Global mean cooling water discharge capacity is projected to decrease by 4.5-15% (2080s). The largest reductions are found for the United States, Europe, eastern Asia, and southern parts of South America, Africa and Australia, where strong water temperature increases are projected combined with reductions in mean annual streamflow. These regions are expected to affect 11-14% (for RCP2.6 and the shared socioeconomic

  18. Multi-Model Assessment of Global Hydropower and Cooling Water Discharge Potential Under Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Vliet, M. T. H.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Eisener, S.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understanding of how climate change may impact the availability and temperature of water resources is therefore of major importance. Here we use a multi-model ensemble to show the potential impacts of climate change on global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential. For the first time, combined projections of streamflow and water temperature were produced with three global hydrological models (GHMs) to account for uncertainties in the structure and parametrization of these GHMs in both water availability and water temperature. The GHMs were forced with bias-corrected output of five general circulation models (GCMs) for both the lowest and highest representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). The ensemble projections of streamflow and water temperature were then used to quantify impacts on gross hydropower potential and cooling water discharge capacity of rivers worldwide. We show that global gross hydropower potential is expected to increase between +2.4% (GCM-GHM ensemble mean for RCP 2.6) and +6.3% (RCP 8.5) for the 2080s compared to 1971-2000. The strongest increases in hydropower potential are expected for Central Africa, India, central Asia and the northern high-latitudes, with 18-33% of the world population living in these areas by the 2080s. Global mean cooling water discharge capacity is projected to decrease by 4.5-15% (2080s). The largest reductions are found for the United States, Europe, eastern Asia, and southern parts of South America, Africa and Australia, where strong water temperature increases are projected combined with reductions in mean annual streamflow. These regions are expected to affect 11-14% (for RCP2.6 and the shared socioeconomic

  19. A Series RCL Circuit Theory for Analyzing Non-Steady-State Water Uptake of Maize Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jie; Yu, Gui-Rui; Nakayama, Keiichi

    2014-10-01

    Understanding water uptake and transport through the soil-plant continuum is vital for ecosystem management and agricultural water use. Plant water uptake under natural conditions is a non-steady transient flow controlled by root distribution, plant configuration, soil hydraulics, and climatic conditions. Despite significant progress in model development, a mechanistic description of transient water uptake has not been developed or remains incomplete. Here, based on advanced electrical network theory (RLC circuit theory), we developed a non-steady state biophysical model to mechanistically analyze the fluctuations of uptake rates in response to water stress. We found that the non-steady-state model captures the nature of instantaneity and hysteresis of plant water uptake due to the considerations of water storage in plant xylem and coarse roots (capacitance effect), hydraulic architecture of leaf system (inductance effect), and soil-root contact (fuse effect). The model provides insights into the important role of plant configuration and hydraulic heterogeneity in helping plants survive an adverse environment. Our tests against field data suggest that the non-steady-state model has great potential for being used to interpret the smart water strategy of plants, which is intrinsically determined by stem size, leaf size/thickness and distribution, root system architecture, and the ratio of fine-to-coarse root lengths.

  20. A Series RCL Circuit Theory for Analyzing Non-Steady-State Water Uptake of Maize Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jie; Yu, Gui-Rui; Nakayama, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    Understanding water uptake and transport through the soil-plant continuum is vital for ecosystem management and agricultural water use. Plant water uptake under natural conditions is a non-steady transient flow controlled by root distribution, plant configuration, soil hydraulics, and climatic conditions. Despite significant progress in model development, a mechanistic description of transient water uptake has not been developed or remains incomplete. Here, based on advanced electrical network theory (RLC circuit theory), we developed a non-steady state biophysical model to mechanistically analyze the fluctuations of uptake rates in response to water stress. We found that the non-steady-state model captures the nature of instantaneity and hysteresis of plant water uptake due to the considerations of water storage in plant xylem and coarse roots (capacitance effect), hydraulic architecture of leaf system (inductance effect), and soil-root contact (fuse effect). The model provides insights into the important role of plant configuration and hydraulic heterogeneity in helping plants survive an adverse environment. Our tests against field data suggest that the non-steady-state model has great potential for being used to interpret the smart water strategy of plants, which is intrinsically determined by stem size, leaf size/thickness and distribution, root system architecture, and the ratio of fine-to-coarse root lengths. PMID:25335512

  1. A series RCL circuit theory for analyzing non-steady-state water uptake of maize plants.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jie; Yu, Gui-Rui; Nakayama, Keiichi

    2014-10-22

    Understanding water uptake and transport through the soil-plant continuum is vital for ecosystem management and agricultural water use. Plant water uptake under natural conditions is a non-steady transient flow controlled by root distribution, plant configuration, soil hydraulics, and climatic conditions. Despite significant progress in model development, a mechanistic description of transient water uptake has not been developed or remains incomplete. Here, based on advanced electrical network theory (RLC circuit theory), we developed a non-steady state biophysical model to mechanistically analyze the fluctuations of uptake rates in response to water stress. We found that the non-steady-state model captures the nature of instantaneity and hysteresis of plant water uptake due to the considerations of water storage in plant xylem and coarse roots (capacitance effect), hydraulic architecture of leaf system (inductance effect), and soil-root contact (fuse effect). The model provides insights into the important role of plant configuration and hydraulic heterogeneity in helping plants survive an adverse environment. Our tests against field data suggest that the non-steady-state model has great potential for being used to interpret the smart water strategy of plants, which is intrinsically determined by stem size, leaf size/thickness and distribution, root system architecture, and the ratio of fine-to-coarse root lengths.

  2. Water-cooled target modules for steady-state operation of the W7-X divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscary, J.; Greuner, H.; Czerwinski, M.; Mendelevitch, B.; Pfefferle, K.; Renner, H.

    2003-09-01

    The stellarator WENDELSTEIN 7-X (W7-X) includes water-cooled plasma facing components (PFCs) to allow steady-state operation and to provide an efficient particle and power exhaust up to 10 MW for a maximum pulse duration of 30 min. Ten divertor units are arranged along the helical edge of the fivefold periodic plasma column. The three-dimensional shape and positioning of the target surfaces are optimized to address physics issues for a wide range of experimental parameters, which influence the topology of the boundary. The three-dimensional target surfaces are reproduced by a series of consecutive plane target elements as a set of parallel water-cooled elements positioned onto the frameworks of target modules. The design and arrangement of target modules and elements are described.

  3. Prospects for development of an innovative water-cooled nuclear reactor for supercritical parameters of coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyakin, S. G.; Kirillov, P. L.; Baranaev, Yu. D.; Glebov, A. P.; Bogoslovskaya, G. P.; Nikitenko, M. P.; Makhin, V. M.; Churkin, A. N.

    2014-08-01

    The state of nuclear power engineering as of February 1, 2014 and the accomplished elaborations of a supercritical-pressure water-cooled reactor are briefly reviewed, and the prospects of this new project are discussed based on this review. The new project rests on the experience gained from the development and operation of stationary water-cooled reactor plants, including VVERs, PWRs, BWRs, and RBMKs (their combined service life totals more than 15 000 reactor-years), and long-term experience gained around the world with operation of thermal power plants the turbines of which are driven by steam with supercritical and ultrasupercritical parameters. The advantages of such reactor are pointed out together with the scientific-technical problems that need to be solved during further development of such installations. The knowledge gained for the last decade makes it possible to refine the concept and to commence the work on designing an experimental small-capacity reactor.

  4. Fishing for isotopes in the Brookhaven Lab Isotope Producer (BLIP) cooling water

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzsimmons, Jonathan

    2016-04-29

    Be-7 has been used in environmental studies; the isotope is produced during BLIP irradiations and accumulates in the 320 gallons of cooling water. Be-7 has a 53.24 day half-life, so the optimal production/purification time is at the end of the BLIP run season. To purify Be-7 fifteen to twenty gallons of BLIP cooling water are removed and pumped through ion exchange columns that retain Be-7. This labor intensive approach captures ~15 mCi of Be-7, but the solution requires further purification. The method can lead to increased radiation exposure to staff. The ideal way to capture isotopes from large volumes is to reach in to the solution and selectively pull out the desired isotope. It is a lot like fishing.

  5. Questioning the Mpemba effect: hot water does not cool more quickly than cold

    PubMed Central

    Burridge, Henry C.; Linden, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    The Mpemba effect is the name given to the assertion that it is quicker to cool water to a given temperature when the initial temperature is higher. This assertion seems counter-intuitive and yet references to the effect go back at least to the writings of Aristotle. Indeed, at first thought one might consider the effect to breach fundamental thermodynamic laws, but we show that this is not the case. We go on to examine the available evidence for the Mpemba effect and carry out our own experiments by cooling water in carefully controlled conditions. We conclude, somewhat sadly, that there is no evidence to support meaningful observations of the Mpemba effect. PMID:27883034

  6. Temperature dynamics and control of a water-cooled fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, Daniel; El-Sharkh, M. Y.; Telotte, John C.; Palanki, Srinivas

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a time-varying proportional-integral (PI) controller is designed for controlling the temperature of a water-cooled 5 kW hydrogen fuel cell stack. This controller is designed using a mathematical model for the stack temperature, which is derived using basic chemical engineering material and energy balances. The controller affects the stack temperature by changing the flow rate of cooling water that passes across the stack. The model is then analyzed using a number of power demand profiles to determine the effectiveness of the controller. The results show that a time-varying PI controller is adequate for maintaining the stack temperature within 5 K of the target point.

  7. Neutronics Analysis of Water-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qingjun; Li, Jia; Liu, Songlin

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the nuclear response to the water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket models for CFETR, a detailed 3D neutronics model with 22.5° torus sector was developed based on the integrated geometry of CFETR, including heterogeneous WCCB blanket models, shield, divertor, vacuum vessel, toroidal and poloidal magnets, and ports. Using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code MCNP5 and IAEA Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library FENDL2.1, the neutronics analyses were performed. The neutron wall loading, tritium breeding ratio, the nuclear heating, neutron-induced atomic displacement damage, and gas production were determined. The results indicate that the global TBR of no less than 1.2 will be a big challenge for the water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket for CFETR. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000, and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  8. High power testing of water-cooled waveguide for ITER-like ECH transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. P.; Doane, J. L.; Grunloh, H. J.; O'Neill, R. C.; Ikeda, R.; Oda, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Sakamoto, K.

    2017-05-01

    The results of high power testing of new water-cooled ECH waveguide components for ITER are presented. The components are a precision-coupled 4.2 m waveguide assembly, a short expansion joint, and water-cooled waveguide for gyrotron commissioning. The testing was conducted at the QST Naka Fusion Institute using gyrotron pulses of 450 kW at 170 GHz for 300 s. Analysis shows that the power absorbed per unit length for the various waveguide components are dependent on location in the transmission line with respect to high order mode generators, such as miter bends. Additionally, larger-than-expected reflections from the load led to high absorption levels in the transmission line.

  9. Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a lake for the storage of reclaimed water before and after usage as cooling water.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yu-Chen; Xi, Jin-Ying; Li, Guo-Qiang; Shi, Xiao-Jie; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2015-06-01

    Wastewater reclamation and reuse is a promising way to relieve water scarcity by substituting for natural water consumption by industrial cooling. However, health concerns regarding cooling water originating from reclaimed water are increasing because an abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) has been detected in reclaimed water. To assess the potential increase of ARB risks in reclaimed water after reuse for industrial cooling, the prevalence of six types of ARB was investigated in water and sediment samples from Lake Gaobeidian, which serves as an artificial circular storage reservoir for reclaimed water for cooling reuse. The effect of treated wastewater and cooling water drainage on the ARB distribution in water and sediment samples was also studied. The results showed that the concentration levels of six types of ARB in lake water samples were as high as those in treated wastewater. The annual median concentrations of total heterotrophic bacteria (HPC) and ARB in discharged cooling water after usage were 0.6-log and 0.4-log higher than those in treated wastewater and the cooling water intake site, respectively, indicating that the process of cooling water usage enhanced the proliferation of HPC and consequently increased the concentrations of ARB. Furthermore, the percentages of penicillin-, ampicillin-, and cephalothin-resistant bacteria in water were 30-57%, 36-48%, and 23-40% higher than those in sediment, respectively. However, the proportions of chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria in water were 35-85% lower than those in sediment. Quantitative evaluation of antibiotic resistance showed that HPC in water had a significant tolerance to penicillin and chloramphenicol, with 50% inhibitory concentrations reaching 22.90 mg L(-1) and 29.11 mg L(-1), respectively.

  10. Water-Cooled Data Center Packs More Power Per Rack | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Frank Blanchard and Ken Michaels, Staff Writers Behind each tall, black computer rack in the data center at the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) is something both strangely familiar and oddly out of place: It looks like a radiator. The back door of each cabinet is gridded with the coils of the Liebert cooling system, which circulates chilled water to remove heat generated by the high-speed, high-capacity, fault-tolerant equipment.

  11. Development and selection of heat-resistant tool steels for water-cooled dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremney, L. S.; Zabezhinskii, A. Ya.

    1980-02-01

    Alloying and heat treatment of tool steels for water-cooled dies to improve the service life in high-speed automatic presses must ensure: 1) The lowest but still sufficient level of hardening during precipitation hardening; 2) the smallest amount of carbide not dissolved during quenching; 3) prevention of the decomposition of martensite in grain boundaries during tempering; 4) a structure of lath martensite.

  12. Low Maintenance Water Treatment for Heating and Cooling Systems: Review of Technologies and Guidelines for Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    formulation will be in preventing scale build-up during temporary upsets in water chemistry . The first class of polymers that found widespread use and...tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate (THPS), the winner of the 1999 President’s Green Chemistry Challenge Award. Some of these compounds can...Open cooling system chemistry can change very rapidly, so control of blowdown and chemical feed (including biocides) needs to be as auto- mated as

  13. Topical report : NSTF facilities plan for water-cooled VHTR RCCS : normal operational tests.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Tzanos, C. P.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Generation IV roadmapping activity, the gas-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) has been selected as the principal concept for hydrogen production and other process-heat applications such as district heating and potable water production. On this basis, the DOE has selected the VHTR for additional R&D with the ultimate goal of demonstrating emission-free electricity and hydrogen production with this advanced reactor concept.

  14. Water-Cooled Data Center Packs More Power Per Rack | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Frank Blanchard and Ken Michaels, Staff Writers Behind each tall, black computer rack in the data center at the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) is something both strangely familiar and oddly out of place: It looks like a radiator. The back door of each cabinet is gridded with the coils of the Liebert cooling system, which circulates chilled water to remove heat generated by the high-speed, high-capacity, fault-tolerant equipment.

  15. Analysis of water management at a closed cooling system of a power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regucki, P.; Engler, B.; Szeliga, Z.

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents a mathematical model describing the changes in SO4 2- ions concentration in a closed system of cooling water circulation in a professional power plant due to the new restrictions posed on industrial emissions by EU and Polish government regulations [1]. Analyzing the behavior of the numerical solutions of the model Authors could determine the optimal volumetric flow rate of wastewater depending on the current configuration of operating power units in a professional power plant.

  16. Analytical study of a microfludic DNA amplification chip using water cooling effect.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jyh Jian; Shen, Chia Ming; Ko, Yu Wei

    2013-04-01

    A novel continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip has been analyzed in our work. Two temperature zones are controlled by two external controllers and the other temperature zone at the chip center is controlled by the flow rate of the fluid inside a channel under the glass chip. By employing a water cooling channel at the chip center, the sequence of denaturation, annealing, and extension can be created due to the forced convection effect. The required annealing temperature of PCR less than 313 K can also be demonstrated in this chip. The Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) cooling channel with the thin aluminum cover is utilized to enhance the temperature uniformity. The size of this chip is 76 mm × 26 mm × 3 mm. This device represents the first demonstration of water cooling thermocycling within continuous-flow PCR microfluidics. The commercial software CFD-ACE+(TM) is utilized to determine the distances between the heating assemblies within the chip. We investigate the influences of various chip materials, operational parameters of the cooling channel and geometric parameters of the chip on the temperature uniformity on the chip surface. Concerning the temperature uniformity of the working zones and the lowest temperature at the annealing zone, the air gap spacing of 1 mm and the cooling channel thicknesses of 1 mm of the PMMA channel with an aluminum cover are recommended in our design. The hydrophobic surface of the PDMS channel was modified by filling it with 20 % Tween 20 solution and then adding bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution to the PCR mixture. DNA fragments with different lengths (372 bp and 478 bp) are successfully amplified with the device.

  17. RAMI Analysis for Designing and Optimizing Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) for the ITER's Fusion Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, Juan J; Reiersen, Wayne T

    2011-01-01

    U.S.-ITER is responsible for the design, engineering, and procurement of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS). TCWS is designed to provide cooling and baking for client systems that include the first wall/blanket, vacuum vessel, divertor, and neutral beam injector. Additional operations that support these primary functions include chemical control of water provided to client systems, draining and drying for maintenance, and leak detection/localization. TCWS interfaces with 27 systems including the secondary cooling system, which rejects this heat to the environment. TCWS transfers heat generated in the Tokamak during nominal pulsed operation - 850 MW at up to 150 C and 4.2 MPa water pressure. Impurities are diffused from in-vessel components and the vacuum vessel by water baking at 200-240 C at up to 4.4 MPa. TCWS is complex because it serves vital functions for four primary clients whose performance is critical to ITER's success and interfaces with more than 20 additional ITER systems. Conceptual design of this one-of-a-kind cooling system has been completed; however, several issues remain that must be resolved before moving to the next stage of the design process. The 2004 baseline design indicated cooling loops that have no fault tolerance for component failures. During plasma operation, each cooling loop relies on a single pump, a single pressurizer, and one heat exchanger. Consequently, failure of any of these would render TCWS inoperable, resulting in plasma shutdown. The application of reliability, availability, maintainability, and inspectability (RAMI) tools during the different stages of TCWS design is crucial for optimization purposes and for maintaining compliance with project requirements. RAMI analysis will indicate appropriate equipment redundancy that provides graceful degradation in the event of an equipment failure. This analysis helps demonstrate that using proven, commercially available equipment is better than using custom-designed equipment

  18. Effects of Solution Hydrodynamics on Corrosion Inhibition of Steel by Citric Acid in Cooling Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashassi-Sorkhabi, H.; Asghari, E.; Mohammadi, M.

    2014-08-01

    Corrosion is a major problem in cooling water systems, which is often controlled using corrosion inhibitors. Solution hydrodynamics is one of the factors affecting corrosion inhibition of metals in these systems. The present work focuses on the study of the combined effects of citric acid concentration (as a green corrosion inhibitor) and fluid flow on corrosion of steel in simulated cooling water. Electrochemical techniques including Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used for corrosion studies. Laminar flow was simulated using a rotating disk electrode. The effects of solution hydrodynamics on inhibition performance of citric acid were discussed. The citric acid showed low inhibition performance in quiescent solution; however, when the electrode rotated at 200 rpm, inhibition efficiency increased remarkably. It was attributed mainly to the acceleration of inhibitor mass transport toward metal surface. The efficiencies were then decreased at higher rotation speeds due to enhanced wall shear stresses on metal surface and separation of adsorbed inhibitor molecules. This article is first part of authors' attempts in designing green inhibitor formulations for industrial cooling water. Citric acid showed acceptable corrosion inhibition in low rotation rates; thus, it can be used as a green additive to the corrosion inhibitor formulations.

  19. State waste discharge permit application 400 Area secondary cooling water. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This document constitutes the Washington Administrative Code 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit Application that serves as interim compliance as required by Consent Order DE 91NM-177, for the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream. As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site that affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permitting Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order DE 91NM-177. The Consent Order DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. Based upon compositional and flow rate characteristics, liquid effluent streams on the Hanford Site have been categorized into Phase 1, Phase 2, and Miscellaneous streams. This document only addresses the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream, which has been identified as a Phase 2 stream. The 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream includes contribution streams from the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility, the Maintenance and Storage Facility, the 481-A pump house, and the Fast Flux Test Facility.

  20. Outbreak of legionnaires' disease from a cooling water system in a power station.

    PubMed

    Morton, S; Bartlett, C L; Bibby, L F; Hutchinson, D N; Dyer, J V; Dennis, P J

    1986-09-01

    In September and October 1981 six cases of pneumonia occurred among men working in a power station under construction. Three were identified as cases of legionella pneumonia and two others had serology suggestive of legionella infection. In a sample of 92 men from the site 10 had low levels of antibodies to legionella; a similar sample of men working on an adjacent site showed none with positive serology. In a case control study it was found that cases of pneumonia were more likely than controls to have worked on a part of the site where four small capacity cooling towers were located. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the water systems of these four towers but was not found in samples from any other cooling towers or hot or cold water outlets on the site. It would appear that there was airborne spread of the organism from these cooling water systems which had not received conventional treatment to inhibit corrosion and organic growth. This is the first outbreak of legionnaires' disease to be recorded in an industrial setting in the United Kingdom. No cases of legionella infection have occurred on the site since the introduction of control measures.

  1. Outbreak of legionnaires' disease from a cooling water system in a power station.

    PubMed Central

    Morton, S; Bartlett, C L; Bibby, L F; Hutchinson, D N; Dyer, J V; Dennis, P J

    1986-01-01

    In September and October 1981 six cases of pneumonia occurred among men working in a power station under construction. Three were identified as cases of legionella pneumonia and two others had serology suggestive of legionella infection. In a sample of 92 men from the site 10 had low levels of antibodies to legionella; a similar sample of men working on an adjacent site showed none with positive serology. In a case control study it was found that cases of pneumonia were more likely than controls to have worked on a part of the site where four small capacity cooling towers were located. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the water systems of these four towers but was not found in samples from any other cooling towers or hot or cold water outlets on the site. It would appear that there was airborne spread of the organism from these cooling water systems which had not received conventional treatment to inhibit corrosion and organic growth. This is the first outbreak of legionnaires' disease to be recorded in an industrial setting in the United Kingdom. No cases of legionella infection have occurred on the site since the introduction of control measures. PMID:3756116

  2. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Volume 6, Federally endangered species, Savannah River Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effects of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. The initial report described the results from the first year of the study. This document is the final report and concludes the program. The report comprises eight volumes. The Endangered Species Act requires that Federal agencies use their authorities to conduct programs for the conservation of endangered and threatened species and to ensure that agency actions do not jeopardize the continued existence of or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitat of protected species. Those Federally endangered or threatened species that occur on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) include the American alligator, the red-cockaded woodpecker, the shortnose sturgeon, the wood stork, and the bald eagle. Of these species, the alligator, sturgeon, wood stork, and the bald eagle are likely to be affected directly and/or indirectly by the intake or release of cooling water at the SRP. 81 refs., 76 figs., 35 tabs.

  3. [Cool/Hot target effect of the water fog infrared stealth].

    PubMed

    Du, Yong-cheng; Yang, Li; Zhang, Shi-cheng; Yang, Zhen; Hu, Shuang-xi

    2012-08-01

    Artificial spray fog will come into being cool target because of the strong evaporation and convection but weak radiation heat flux, when it is used for defence of infrared imaging guided missile. Also, when it is the contrary condition, the water fog will come into being hot target. In order to open out the phenomenon particularly, a math model which can account for the cool/hot effect produced by water fog shielding the thermal radiation is established by coupling the calculation of radiation transfer equation and energy conversation equation, based on the Mie theory. This model is proved to be accurate in comparison with the Monte-Carlo method and Lambert-Beer' law. The water fog is seemed as absorbing, emitting and anisotropic scattering medium, and the medium radiation, multiple scattering, target radiation flux, and environment influence such as the conductivity, convection turbulent heat diffusion and evaporation is calculated. The phenomenon of cool/hot target effect can be shown in detail with this model.

  4. Systems design of direct-cycle supercritical-water-cooled fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Koshizuka, Seiichi; Jevremovic, Tatjana; Okano, Yashushi

    1995-01-01

    The system design of a direct-cycle supercritical-water-cooled fast reactor is presented. The supercritical water does not exhibit a change of phase. the recirculation system, steam separator, and dryer of a boiling water reactor (BWR) are unnecessary. Roughly speaking, the reactor pressure vessel and control rods are similar to those of a pressurized water reactor, the containment and emergency core cooling system are similar to a BWR, and the balance of plant is similar to a supercritical-pressure fossil-fired power plant (FPP). the electric power of the fast converter is 1,508 MW(electric). The number of coolant loops is only two because of the high coolant enthalpy. Containment volume is much reduced. The thermal efficiency is improved 24% over a BWR. The coolant void reactivity is negative by placing thin zirconium-hydride layers between seeds and blankets. The power costs would be much reduced compared with those of a light water reactor (LWR) and a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor. The concept is based on the huge amount of experience with the water coolant technology of LWRs and FPPs. The oxidation of stainless steel cladding is avoided by adopting a much lower coolant temperature than that of the FPP.

  5. Corrosion control when using passively treated abandoned mine drainage as alternative makeup water for cooling systems.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Li, Heng; Monnell, Jason D; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2011-09-01

    Passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD) is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water in mining regions where such water is abundant. Passive treatment and reuse of AMD can avoid the contamination of surface water caused by discharge of abandoned mine water, which typically is acidic and contains high concentrations of metals, especially iron. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of reusing passively treated AMD in cooling systems with respect to corrosion control through laboratory experiments and pilot-scale field testing. The results showed that, with the addition of the inhibitor mixture orthophosphate and tolyltriazole, mild steel and copper corrosion rates were reduced to acceptable levels (< 0.127 mm/y and < 0.0076 mm/y, respectively). Aluminum had pitting corrosion problems in every condition tested, while cupronickel showed that, even in the absence of any inhibitor and in the presence of the biocide monochloramine, its corrosion rate was still very low (0.018 mm/y).

  6. Multilead, Vaporization-Cooled Soldering Heat Sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, John

    1995-01-01

    Vaporization-cooled heat sink proposed for use during soldering of multiple electrical leads of packaged electronic devices to circuit boards. Heat sink includes compliant wicks held in grooves on edges of metal fixture. Wicks saturated with water. Prevents excessive increases in temperature at entrances of leads into package.

  7. Heat transfer coefficient distribution over the inconel plate cooled from high temperature by the array of water jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Z.; Telejko, T.; Cebo-Rudnicka, A.; Szajding, A.; Rywotycki, M.; Hadała, B.

    2016-09-01

    The industrial rolling mills are equipped with systems for controlled water cooling of hot steel products. A cooling rate affects the final mechanical properties of steel which are strongly dependent on microstructure evolution processes. In case of water jets cooling the heat transfer boundary condition can be defined by the heat transfer coefficient. In the present study one and three dimensional heat conduction models have been employed in the inverse solution to heat transfer coefficient. The inconel plate has been heated to about 900oC and then cooled by one, two and six water jets. The plate temperature has been measured by 30 thermocouples. The heat transfer coefficient distributions at plate surface have been determined in time of cooling.

  8. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  9. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  10. Presence of pathogenic amoebae in power plant cooling waters. Final report, October 15, 1977-September 30, 1979. [Naegleria fowleri

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Willaert, E.; Stevens, A.R.

    1981-03-01

    Cooling-water-associated algae and sediments from five northern and five southern or western electric power plants were tested for the presence of pathogenic amoebae. In addition, water algae and sediments from five northern and five southern/western sites not associated with power plants were tested. There was a significant correlation at northern power plants between the presence of thermophilic, pathogenic amoebae in cooling waters and thermal additions. Presence of the pathogenic did not correlate with salinity, pH, conductivity, or a variety of various chemical components of the cooling waters. Selected pathogenic isolates were tested serologically and were classified as Naegleria fowleri. Although thermal additions were shown to be contributing factor in predisposing cooling waters to the growth of pathogenic amoebae, the data suggest the involvement of other currently undefined parameters associated with the presence of the pathogenic amoebae. 35 refs., 21 tabs.

  11. Temperature distribution of a hot water storage tank in a simulated solar heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 2,300-liter hot water storage tank was studied under conditions simulating a solar heating and cooling system. The initial condition of the tank, ranging from 37 C at the bottom to 94 C at the top, represented a condition midway through the start-up period of the system. During the five-day test period, the water in the tank gradually rose in temperature but in a manner that diminished its temperature stratification. Stratification was found not to be an important factor in the operation of the particular solar system studied.

  12. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-08-04

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  13. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-01-01

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  14. Investigation of corrosion caused by constituents of refinery wastewater effluent used as circulating cooling water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongzhi; Song, Shaofu; Huang, Jie; Ji, Lin; Wu, Fangyun

    2003-01-01

    The corrosion rate of steel plate using single-factor, multifactor, and complex water systems was investigated via refinery wastewater effluents used as circulating cooling water. The results show that the primary corrosion factors of steel depend on the characteristics of the ions, the formation of the oxidized coating, the diffusion of dissolved oxygen, and other complex factors, although ions such as chloride, calcium, and carbonate play an important role. The corrosion rate of carbon steel exhibits two trends: The corrosion rate is high at low conductivity, increases to a maximum, and then decreases and becomes stable with increasing conductivity, as is the case with chloride, sulfate, nitrate and calcium ions. On the other hand, the corrosion rate is highest at low conductivity and then decreases and becomes stable with increasing conductivity, as is the case with carbonate, silicate, and sodium nitrate ions. Research results indicate that the anticorrosive ability is minimal at low conductivity; but is excellent at high conductivity. Pretreatment of low-conductivity water using air flotation and clarification to decrease the concentrations of chloride, calcium, and carbonate ions to a suitable level to satisfy the anticorrosion requirements is required. However, it is not necessary to significantly reduce the salt concentration or conductivity of the water by osmosis or ion exchange to obtain an anticorrosion effect when reusing wastewater effluents as circulating cooling water.

  15. Influence of water quench cooling on degassing and aroma stability of roasted coffee.

    PubMed

    Baggenstoss, Juerg; Poisson, Luigi; Luethi, Regina; Perren, Rainer; Escher, Felix

    2007-08-08

    Coffee roasting experiments with air cooling versus water quench cooling were carried out on laboratory scale with a fluidized-bed hot air roasting system (200 g batch size) and on production scale with a rotating bowl roaster (320 kg batch size). Two series of coffees with different water contents resulted, which were stored at 25 degrees C under normal atmospheric conditions. Carbon dioxide desorption was followed and stability of selected aroma compounds was tested with headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and stable isotope labeled compounds as internal standards. Degassing is faster in water-quenched coffees with higher moisture content, but pore size distribution in the different coffee samples did not correlate with degassing behavior. Bean firmness, which increases with increasing moisture content, might have an influence on degassing. Air- and water-quenched coffees exhibit similar stability of most aroma compounds despite different degassing behavior. However, evolution of dimethyl trisulfide was different in coffees with increased water content. This suggests higher thiol oxidation rates, a factor that is cited to be related to a faster loss of freshness attributes.

  16. USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Michael N. DiFilippo

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 1 presents a general assessment of produced water generation in the San Juan Basin in Four Corners Area of New Mexico. Oil and gas production, produced water handling and disposal, and produced water quantities and chemistry are discussed. Legislative efforts to enable the use of this water at SJGS are also described.

  17. Water chemistry of the secondary circuit at a nuclear power station with a VVER power reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyapkov, V. F.; Erpyleva, S. F.

    2017-05-01

    Results of implementation of the secondary circuit organic amine water chemistry at Russian nuclear power plant (NPP) with VVER-1000 reactors are presented. The requirements for improving the reliability, safety, and efficiency of NPPs and for prolonging the service life of main equipment items necessitate the implementation of new technologies, such as new water chemistries. Data are analyzed on the chemical control of power unit coolant for quality after the changeover to operation with the feed of higher amines, such as morpholine and ethanolamine. Power units having equipment containing copper alloy components were converted from the all-volatile water chemistry to the ethanolamine or morpholine water chemistry with no increase in pH of the steam generator feedwater. This enables the iron content in the steam generator feedwater to be decreased from 6-12 to 2.0-2.5 μg/dm3. It is demonstrated that pH of high-temperature water is among the basic factors controlling erosion and corrosion wear of the piping and the ingress of corrosion products into NPP steam generators. For NPP power units having equipment whose construction material does not include copper alloys, the water chemistries with elevated pH of the secondary coolant are adopted. Stable dosing of correction chemicals at these power units maintains pH25 of 9.5 to 9.7 in the steam generator feedwater with a maximum iron content of 2 μg/dm3 in the steam generator feedwater.

  18. Plant control of a fast breeder reactor cooled by supercritical light water

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsuka, T.; Oka, Y.; Koshizuka, S.

    1997-12-01

    Supercritical water does not exhibit a change of phase. The plant system of the supercritical water cooled reactor is the once-through, direct-cycle where the steam-water separator and coolant recirculation systems are eliminated. It is different from those of BWR and PWR. The reactor is sensitive to the perturbations of the feedwater flow rate, since the whole core coolant driven by the feedwater pumps flows to the turbines. The axial coolant density change is larger than that of a BWR. Pressure control by the feedwater like the supercritical fossil-fired power plant (FPP) is not appropriate because the change of feedwater flow rate largely affects the core power through the coolant density feedback. It is necessary to analyze the controllability of the plant against coolant flow and pressure perturbations for assessing the technical feasibility of the reactor. The plant behaviors of a fast breeder reactor cooled by supercritical water (SCFBR) are analyzed for three principal perturbations: the change of the control rod position, the feedwater flow rate and the turbine control valve opening. Based on the step responses to the perturbations, the plant control system is designed: the pressure is controlled by the turbine control valves, the main steam temperature is controlled by the feedwater flow rate and the core power is controlled by the control rods. Parameters of the control system are selected by the test calculations to satisfy both fast convergence and stability criteria. The plant behaviors with the designed plant control system are stable against the perturbations. The reactor cooled by supercritical light water is controllable with the plant control system designed here. 7 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Technical analysis of a river basin-based model of advanced power plant cooling technologies for mitigating water management challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S.; Clayton, Mary E.; Webber, Michael E.

    2011-07-01

    Thermoelectric power plants require large volumes of water for cooling, which can introduce drought vulnerability and compete with other water needs. Alternative cooling technologies, such as cooling towers and hybrid wet-dry or dry cooling, present opportunities to reduce water diversions. This case study uses a custom, geographically resolved river basin-based model for eleven river basins in the state of Texas (the Brazos and San Jacinto-Brazos, Colorado and Colorado-Brazos, Cypress, Neches, Nueces, Red, Sabine, San Jacinto, and Trinity River basins), focusing on the Brazos River basin, to analyze water availability during drought. We utilized two existing water availability models for our analysis: (1) the full execution of water rights—a scenario where each water rights holder diverts the full permitted volume with zero return flow, and (2) current conditions—a scenario reflecting actual diversions with associated return flows. Our model results show that switching the cooling technologies at power plants in the eleven analyzed river basins to less water-intensive alternative designs can potentially reduce annual water diversions by 247-703 million m3—enough water for 1.3-3.6 million people annually. We consider these results in a geographic context using geographic information system tools and then analyze volume reliability, which is a policymaker's metric that indicates the percentage of total demand actually supplied over a given period. This geographic and volume reliability analysis serves as a measure of drought susceptibility in response to changes in thermoelectric cooling technologies. While these water diversion savings do not alleviate all reliability concerns, the additional streamflow from the use of dry cooling alleviates drought concerns for some municipal water rights holders and might also be sufficient to uphold instream flow requirements for important bays and estuaries on the Texas Gulf coast.

  20. The influence of circuit inductance on the energy characteristics of electric discharge and deformation of plates in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosenkov, V. M.; Bychkov, V. M.

    2017-08-01

    We have experimentally studied the influence of discharge-circuit inductance on the efficiency of conversion of energy stored in a capacitor bank, evolved in the electric-discharge channel in water, and spent for the resulting plastic deformation of plates. It is established for the first time that a growth in inductance of the discharge circuit produces a positive effect on the deformation of plates by increasing the amount of energy spent in this process.

  1. Water-soluble thin film transistors and circuits based on amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sung Hun; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Cho, In-Tak; Han, Sang Youn; Chung, Ha Uk; Lee, Dong Joon; Shin, Jongmin; Baek, Geun Woo; Kim, Tae-il; Lee, Jong-Ho; Rogers, John A

    2015-04-22

    This paper presents device designs, circuit demonstrations, and dissolution kinetics for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) comprised completely of water-soluble materials, including SiNx, SiOx, molybdenum, and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Collections of these types of physically transient a-IGZO TFTs and 5-stage ring oscillators (ROs), constructed with them, show field effect mobilities (∼10 cm2/Vs), on/off ratios (∼2×10(6)), subthreshold slopes (∼220 mV/dec), Ohmic contact properties, and oscillation frequency of 5.67 kHz at supply voltages of 19 V, all comparable to otherwise similar devices constructed in conventional ways with standard, nontransient materials. Studies of dissolution kinetics for a-IGZO films in deionized water, bovine serum, and phosphate buffer saline solution provide data of relevance for the potential use of these materials and this technology in temporary biomedical implants.

  2. Investigation of flow characteristics effects on heat transfer in water-cooled cylinder heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M. A. M.; Abd El-Hameed, H. M.; Mahmoud, Osama E.

    2017-04-01

    An experimental and theoretical study has been performed to investigate the effect of flow characteristics on heat-transfer in water impingement-cooled cylinder heads. Numerous investigations have been made using a three-dimensional model, which is designed and solved by FLUENT software using both realizable k-ɛ turbulent and heat transfer models. The simulation investigates a fully developed turbulent-water flow in asymmetric heated circular passage cooled by parallel flow or impingement of circular submerged confined liquid jet. The following parameters were investigated for both parallel flow and jet impingement flow: flow velocities (1, 2 and 3 m/s), bulk fluid temperatures (50, 70 and 90 °C), main duct diameters (6, 8, 10 and 12 mm). While the following parameters were investigated for jet impingement flow, jet diameter ratio (0.6, 0.8 and 1) and jet inclination angles as measured from horizontal (45°, 60° and 90°). Experimental results were used to verify the theoretical model. Results indicate that, the normal jet (90°) gives the maximum cooling effect in comparison to other angles while the maximum heat transfer coefficient is found at jet interface position.

  3. Investigation of flow characteristics effects on heat transfer in water-cooled cylinder heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M. A. M.; Abd El-Hameed, H. M.; Mahmoud, Osama E.

    2016-08-01

    An experimental and theoretical study has been performed to investigate the effect of flow characteristics on heat-transfer in water impingement-cooled cylinder heads. Numerous investigations have been made using a three-dimensional model, which is designed and solved by FLUENT software using both realizable k-ɛ turbulent and heat transfer models. The simulation investigates a fully developed turbulent-water flow in asymmetric heated circular passage cooled by parallel flow or impingement of circular submerged confined liquid jet. The following parameters were investigated for both parallel flow and jet impingement flow: flow velocities (1, 2 and 3 m/s), bulk fluid temperatures (50, 70 and 90 °C), main duct diameters (6, 8, 10 and 12 mm). While the following parameters were investigated for jet impingement flow, jet diameter ratio (0.6, 0.8 and 1) and jet inclination angles as measured from horizontal (45°, 60° and 90°). Experimental results were used to verify the theoretical model. Results indicate that, the normal jet (90°) gives the maximum cooling effect in comparison to other angles while the maximum heat transfer coefficient is found at jet interface position.

  4. Modeling and characterization of shape memory alloy springs with water cooling strategy in a neurosurgical robot.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shing Shin; Kim, Yeongjin; Desai, Jaydev P

    2017-09-01

    Since shape memory alloy (SMA) has high power density and is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatible, it has been chosen as the actuator for the meso-scale minimally invasive neurosurgical intracranial robot (MINIR-II) that is envisioned to be operated under continuous MRI guidance. We have devised a water cooling strategy to improve its actuation frequency by threading a silicone tube through the spring coils to form a compact cooling module-integrated actuator. To create active bi-directional motion in each robot joint, we configured the SMA springs in an antagonistic way. We modeled the antagonistic SMA spring behavior and provided the detailed steps to simulate its motion for a complete cycle. We investigated heat transfer during the resistive heating and water cooling processes. Characterization experiments were performed to determine the parameters used in both models, which were then verified by comparing the experimental and simulated data. The actuation frequency of the antagonistic SMAs was evaluated for several motion amplitudes and we could achieve a maximum actuation frequency of 0.143 Hz for a sinusoidal trajectory with 2 mm amplitude. Lastly, we developed a robotic system to implement the actuators on the MINIR-II to move its end segment back and forth for approximately ±25°.

  5. Occurrence of American shad eggs in 1G cooling-water canal

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, R.W.

    1982-08-01

    American shad eggs are only semi-bouyant and require river turbulence to remain suspended in the water column long enough (three days) for the larvae to hatch. In 1978, shad eggs entrained into the Savannah River Plant 16 cooling-water canal sank to the bottom of the canal before reaching the pumphouse. Eggs removed from the water column in this manner due to decreasing water velocity and turbulence would most likely be lost to predation and burial in the bottom sediments. Efforts to determine egg densities in the river and intake canals were unsuccessful due to the persistent bloom of a slime fungus (Leptomitus sp.) which clogged the plankton sampling apparatus. Thus quantitative estimates of shad egg losses were not obtainable. Further qualitative data would not have been cost-effective so the observations were terminated.

  6. Conducting water chemistry of the secondary coolant circuit of VVER-based nuclear power plant units constructed without using copper containing alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyapkov, V. F.

    2014-07-01

    The secondary coolant circuit water chemistry with metering amines began to be put in use in Russia in 2005, and all nuclear power plant units equipped with VVER-1000 reactors have been shifted to operate with this water chemistry for the past seven years. Owing to the use of water chemistry with metering amines, the amount of products from corrosion of structural materials entering into the volume of steam generators has been reduced, and the flow-accelerated corrosion rate of pipelines and equipment has been slowed down. The article presents data on conducting water chemistry in nuclear power plant units with VVER-1000 reactors for the secondary coolant system equipment made without using copper-containing alloys. Statistical data are presented on conducting ammonia-morpholine and ammonia-ethanolamine water chemistries in new-generation operating power units with VVER-1000 reactors with an increased level of pH. The values of cooling water leaks in turbine condensers the tube system of which is made of stainless steel or titanium alloy are given.

  7. The influence of EI-21 redox ion-exchange resins on the secondary-coolant circuit water chemistry of vehicular nuclear power installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskvin, L. N.; Rakov, V. T.

    2015-06-01

    The results obtained from testing the secondary-coolant circuit water chemistry of full-scale land-based prototype bench models of vehicular nuclear power installations equipped with water-cooled water-moderated and liquid-metal reactor plants are presented. The influence of copper-containing redox ionexchange resins intended for chemically deoxygenating steam condensate on the working fluid circulation loop's water chemistry is determined. The influence of redox ion-exchange resins on the water chemistry is evaluated by generalizing an array of data obtained in the course of extended monitoring using the methods relating to physicochemical analysis of the quality of condensate-feedwater path media and the methods relating to metallographic analysis of the state of a faulty steam generator's tube system surfaces. The deoxygenating effectiveness of the normal state turbine condensate vacuum deaeration system is experimentally determined. The refusal from applying redox ion-exchange resins in the condensate polishing ion-exchange filters is formulated based on the obtained data on the adverse effect of copper-containing redox ionexchange resins on the condensate-feedwater path water chemistry and based on the data testifying a sufficient effect from using the normal state turbine condensate vacuum deaeration system. Data on long-term operation of the prototype bench model of a vehicular nuclear power installation without subjecting the turbine condensate to chemical deoxygenation are presented.

  8. Devitrification of Impact Glasses at the Bosumtwi Impact Structure, Ghana: Implications for Suevite Cooling History and Presence of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Välja, R.; Kirsimäe, K.; Koeberl, C.; Boamah, D. K.

    2015-09-01

    We report petrography and geochemistry of devitrification products in impact glasses in Bosumtwi suevites and we aim for refining the cooling history of suevites and estimate the presence-influence of water on the impact glass devitrification.

  9. Sensitivity Analysis of Reprocessing Cooling Times on Light Water Reactor and Sodium Fast Reactor Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    R. M. Ferrer; S. Bays; M. Pope

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of variations of the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and fast reactor reprocessing cooling time on a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) assuming a single-tier fuel cycle scenario. The results from this study show the effects of different cooling times on the SFR’s transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio (CR) and transuranic fuel enrichment. Also, the decay heat, gamma heat and neutron emission of the SFR’s fresh fuel charge were evaluated. A 1000 MWth commercial-scale SFR design was selected as the baseline in this study. Both metal and oxide CR=0.50 SFR designs are investigated.

  10. Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The project described is part of the U. S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid-liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program was provided from the beginning of the program, and resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

  11. Water-cooled grid support for high-power irradiation with thin target windows.

    PubMed

    Barnhart, T E; Converse, A K; Dabbs, K A; Nickles, R J; Buckley, K; Jivan, S; Ruth, T J; Roberts, A D

    2003-01-01

    A new thin window support system for the accelerator production of positron emitters (e.g. 17F, 18F 11C, 15O) has been developed. The integrated support grid and cooling design has been optimized for 6-13 MeV protons or deuterons. The water-cooled support grid regularly operated at > 100 microA of 6 MeV deuterons and protons. The grid performed without failure at > or = 50 microA of 13 MeV protons on a 3.1 MPa gas target using 25.4 microm aluminum target foil. Transmission for the smallest hole grid of 72% based on uniform parallel beam agreed with the measured yield of 71 +/- 1% compared to the theoretical maximum yield. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  12. Combined effects of pre-cooling and water ingestion on thermoregulation and physical capacity during exercise in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Takatori, Tadashi; Komura, Takashi; Yamasaki, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the combined effects of pre-cooling and water ingestion on thermoregulatory responses and exercise capacity at 32 degrees C and 80% relative humidity. Nine untrained males exercised for 60 min on a cycle ergometer at 60% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) (first exercise bout) under four separate conditions: No Water intake, Pre-cooling, Water ingestion, and a combination of pre-cooling and water ingestion (Combined). To evaluate the efficacy of these conditions on exercise capacity, the participants exercised to exhaustion at 80% VO2max (second exercise bout) following the first exercise bout. Rectal and mean skin temperatures before the first exercise bout in the Pre-cooling and Combined conditions were significantly lower than in the No Water and Water conditions. At the end of the first exercise bout, rectal temperature was lower in the Combined condition (38.5 +/- 0.1 degrees C) than in the other conditions (No Water: 39.1 +/- 0.1 degrees C; Pre-cooling: 38.7 +/- 0.1 degrees C; Water: 38.8 +/- 0.1 degrees C) (P < 0.05). Heat storage was higher following pre-cooling than when there was no pre-cooling (P < 0.05). The final rectal temperature in the second exercise bout was similar between the four conditions (39.1 +/- 0.1 degrees C). However, exercise time to exhaustion was longer (P < 0.05) in the Combined condition than in the other conditions. Total sweat loss was less following pre-cooling than when there was no pre-cooling (P < 0.001). Evaporative sweat loss in the Water and Combined conditions was greater (P < 0.01) than in the No Water and Pre-cooling conditions. Our results suggest that the combination of pre-cooling and water ingestion increases exercise endurance in a hot environment through enhanced heat storage and decreased thermoregulatory and cardiovascular strain.

  13. Pliocene cooling enhanced by flow of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikawa, Keiji; Martin, Ellen E.; Basak, Chandranath; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Seki, Osamu; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Ikehara, Minoru; Sakai, Saburo; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2015-06-01

    Warming of high northern latitudes in the Pliocene (5.33-2.58 Myr ago) has been linked to the closure of the Central American Seaway and intensification of North Atlantic Deep Water. Subsequent cooling in the late Pliocene may be related to the effects of freshwater input from the Arctic Ocean via the Bering Strait, disrupting North Atlantic Deep Water formation and enhancing sea ice formation. However, the timing of Arctic freshening has not been defined. Here we present neodymium and lead isotope records of detrital sediment from the Bering Sea for the past 4.3 million years. Isotopic data suggest the presence of Alaskan glaciers as far back as 4.2 Myr ago, while diatom and C37:4 alkenone records show a long-term trend towards colder and fresher water in the Bering Sea beginning with the M2 glaciation (3.3 Myr ago). We argue that the introduction of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean by 3.3 Myr ago preconditioned the climate system for global cooling.

  14. Pliocene cooling enhanced by flow of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Horikawa, Keiji; Martin, Ellen E.; Basak, Chandranath; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Seki, Osamu; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Ikehara, Minoru; Sakai, Saburo; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2015-01-01

    Warming of high northern latitudes in the Pliocene (5.33–2.58 Myr ago) has been linked to the closure of the Central American Seaway and intensification of North Atlantic Deep Water. Subsequent cooling in the late Pliocene may be related to the effects of freshwater input from the Arctic Ocean via the Bering Strait, disrupting North Atlantic Deep Water formation and enhancing sea ice formation. However, the timing of Arctic freshening has not been defined. Here we present neodymium and lead isotope records of detrital sediment from the Bering Sea for the past 4.3 million years. Isotopic data suggest the presence of Alaskan glaciers as far back as 4.2 Myr ago, while diatom and C37:4 alkenone records show a long-term trend towards colder and fresher water in the Bering Sea beginning with the M2 glaciation (3.3 Myr ago). We argue that the introduction of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean by 3.3 Myr ago preconditioned the climate system for global cooling. PMID:26119338

  15. Pliocene cooling enhanced by flow of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Horikawa, Keiji; Martin, Ellen E; Basak, Chandranath; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Seki, Osamu; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Ikehara, Minoru; Sakai, Saburo; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2015-06-29

    Warming of high northern latitudes in the Pliocene (5.33-2.58 Myr ago) has been linked to the closure of the Central American Seaway and intensification of North Atlantic Deep Water. Subsequent cooling in the late Pliocene may be related to the effects of freshwater input from the Arctic Ocean via the Bering Strait, disrupting North Atlantic Deep Water formation and enhancing sea ice formation. However, the timing of Arctic freshening has not been defined. Here we present neodymium and lead isotope records of detrital sediment from the Bering Sea for the past 4.3 million years. Isotopic data suggest the presence of Alaskan glaciers as far back as 4.2 Myr ago, while diatom and C37:4 alkenone records show a long-term trend towards colder and fresher water in the Bering Sea beginning with the M2 glaciation (3.3 Myr ago). We argue that the introduction of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean by 3.3 Myr ago preconditioned the climate system for global cooling.

  16. Natural Convection Heat Transfer Characteristics of Liquid Metal Cooled by Subcooled Water

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Il S.; Yu, Yong H.; Son, Hyoung M.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2006-07-01

    An experimental study is performed to investigate the natural convection heat transfer characteristics with subcooled coolant to create engineering database for basic applications in a lead alloy cooled reactor. Tests are performed in the ALTOS (Applied Liquid-metal Thermal Operation Study) apparatus as part of MITHOS (Metal Integrated Thermo Hydrodynamic Operation System). The relationship between the Nusselt number (Nu) and the Rayleigh number (Ra) in the liquid metal is determined and compared with the correlations in the literature and experimental results. Given the similar Ra condition, the present test results for Nu of the liquid metal pool with subcooled coolant are found to be similar to those predicted by the existing correlations or measured from previous experiments. The current experimental results are utilized to develop new engineering solutions. The new experimental correlations for predicting the natural convection heat transfer are applicable to low Prandtl number (Pr) materials that are heated from below and cooled by the external coolant above. Results from this study are slated to be used to design BORIS (Battery Optimized Reactor Integral System), a small lead cooled modular fast reactor for deployment in remote sites. Tests are performed with air, water and Wood's metal (Pb-Bi-Sn-Cd) filling a rectangular pool while the lower surface is heated and the upper surface cooled by forced convection of water. The inner dimensions of the test section are 20 cm in length, 11.3 cm in height, and 15 cm in width. Wood's metal has a melting temperature of 78 deg. C. Constant temperature and heat flux condition is adopted for the bottom heating. The test parameters include the heated bottom surface temperature of the liquid metal pool, the input power to the bottom surface of the section, and the coolant temperature. (authors)

  17. Direct injection GC method for measuring light hydrocarbon emissions from cooling-tower water.

    PubMed

    Lee, Max M; Logan, Tim D; Sun, Kefu; Hurley, N Spencer; Swatloski, Robert A; Gluck, Steve J

    2003-12-15

    A Direct Injection GC method for quantifying low levels of light hydrocarbons (C6 and below) in cooling water has been developed. It is intended to overcome the limitations of the currently available technology. The principle of this method is to use a stripper column in a GC to strip waterfrom the hydrocarbons prior to entering the separation column. No sample preparation is required since the water sample is introduced directly into the GC. Method validation indicates that the Direct Injection GC method offers approximately 15 min analysis time with excellent precision and recovery. The calibration studies with ethylene and propylene show that both liquid and gas standards are suitable for routine calibration and calibration verification. The sampling method using zero headspace traditional VOA (Volatile Organic Analysis) vials and a sample chiller has also been validated. It is apparent that the sampling method is sufficient to minimize the potential for losses of light hydrocarbons, and samples can be held at 4 degrees C for up to 7 days with more than 93% recovery. The Direct Injection GC method also offers <1 ppb (w/v) level method detection limits for ethylene, propylene, and benzene. It is superior to the existing El Paso stripper method. In addition to lower detection limits for ethylene and propylene, the Direct Injection GC method quantifies individual light hydrocarbons in cooling water, provides better recoveries, and requires less maintenance and setup costs. Since the instrumentation and supplies are readily available, this technique could easily be established as a standard or alternative method for routine emission monitoring and leak detection of light hydrocarbons in cooling-tower water.

  18. Numerical Investigation of the Flow Dynamics and Evaporative Cooling of Water Droplets Impinging onto Heated Surfaces: An Effective Approach To Identify Spray Cooling Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Nan; Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Rui-Na; Ouyang, Xiao-Long; Jiang, Pei-Xue

    2016-09-13

    Numerical investigations of the dynamics and evaporative cooling of water droplets impinging onto heated surfaces can be used to identify spray cooling mechanisms. Droplet impingement dynamics and evaporation are simulated using the presented numerical model. Volume-of-fluid method is used in the model to track the free surface. The contact line dynamics was predicted from a dynamic contact angle model with the evaporation rate predicted by a kinetic theory model. A species transport equation was solved in the gas phase to describe the vapor convection and diffusion. The numerical model was validated by experimental data. The physical effects including the contact angle hysteresis and the thermocapillary effect are analyzed to offer guidance for future numerical models of droplet impingement cooling. The effects of various parameters including surface wettability, surface temperature, droplet velocity, droplet size, and droplet temperature were numerically studied from the standpoint of spray cooling. The numerical simulations offer profound analysis and deep insight into the spray cooling heat transfer mechanisms.

  19. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes.

  20. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes. PMID:26201073

  1. Density of hydrophobically confined deeply cooled water investigated by small angle X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kao-Hsiang; Zhang, Yang; Jeng, U.-Ser; Mou, Chung-Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Water's behavior near hydrophobic surfaces has attracted great attention due to chemical and geological applications. Here, we report small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies of water confined in the hydrophobic nanoporous carbon material, CMK-1-14, from ambient to deeply cooled temperatures. By monitoring the scattering intensity of the first Bragg peak, which is directly related to the scattering length density contrast between the carbon matrix and the confined water, the average density of the hydrophobically confined water was determined from 300 K to 150 K at ambient pressure. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the majority of such hydrophobically confined water did not crystallize in the investigated temperature range. By exploiting the fast speed of SAXS measurements and the continuous temperature ramping, the average density profile and the deduced thermal expansion coefficient (αp) were obtained. We found that the well-known density maximum of water at 277 K downshifted to 260 K, and the density minimum which has been observed in hydrophilic confinement disappeared. In addition, the previously measured large density decreasing of 18% at low temperature was recalibrated to a more reasonable 10% instead. Consequently, the recalculated αp peak was found to be quite similar to that of the water confined in hydrophilic MCM-41-S-15 suggesting an intrinsic property of water, which does not sensitively depend on the confinement surface.

  2. The study of marine corrosion of copper alloys in chlorinated condenser cooling circuits: the role of microbiological components.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Maria L; Doma, Jemimah; Sztyler, Magdalena; Beech, Iwona; Cristiani, Pierangela

    2014-06-01

    The present paper reports the on-line monitoring of corrosion behavior of the CuNi 70:30 and Al brass alloys exposed to seawater and complementary offline microbiological analyses. An electrochemical equipment with sensors specifically set for industrial application and suitable to estimate the corrosion (by linear polarization resistance technique), the biofilm growth (by the BIOX electrochemical probe), the chlorination treatment and other physical-chemical parameters of the water has been used for the on-line monitoring. In order to identify and better characterize the bacteria community present on copper alloys, tube samples were collected after a long period (1year) and short period (2days) of exposition to treated natural seawater (TNSW) and natural seawater (NSW). From the collected samples, molecular techniques such as DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and identification by sequencing were performed to better characterize and identify the microbial biodiversity present in the samples. The monitoring data confirmed the significant role played by biofouling deposition against the passivity of these Cu alloys in seawater and the positive influence of antifouling treatments based on low level dosages. Molecular analysis indicated biodiversity with the presence of Marinobacter, Alteromonas and Pseudomonas species.

  3. What causes cooling water temperature gradients in a forested stream reach?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, G.; Malcolm, I. A.; Sadler, J. P.; Hannah, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that shading by riparian vegetation may reduce maximum water temperatures and provide refugia for temperature-sensitive aquatic organisms. Longitudinal cooling gradients have been observed during the daytime for stream reaches shaded by coniferous trees downstream of clear cuts or deciduous woodland downstream of open moorland. However, little is known about the energy exchange processes that drive such gradients, especially in semi-natural woodland contexts without confounding cool groundwater inflows. To address this gap, this study quantified and modelled variability in stream temperature and heat fluxes along an upland reach of the Girnock Burn (a tributary of the Aberdeenshire Dee, Scotland) where riparian land use transitions from open moorland to semi-natural, predominantly deciduous woodland. Observations were made along a 1050 m reach using a spatially distributed network of 10 water temperature data loggers, 3 automatic weather stations and 211 hemispherical photographs that were used to estimate incoming solar radiation. These data parameterised a high-resolution energy flux model incorporating flow routing, which predicted spatio-temporal variability in stream temperature. Variability in stream temperature was controlled largely by energy fluxes at the water-column-atmosphere interface. Net energy gains occurred along the reach, predominantly during daylight hours, and heat exchange across the bed-water-column interface accounted for <1% of the net energy budget. For periods when daytime net radiation gains were high (under clear skies), differences between water temperature observations increased in the streamwise direction; a maximum instantaneous difference of 2.5 °C was observed between the upstream reach boundary and 1050 m downstream. Furthermore, daily maximum water temperature at 1050 m downstream was ≤1 °C cooler than at the upstream reach boundary and lagged by >1 h. Temperature gradients were not generated

  4. Hydraulic design of a re-circulating water cooling system of a combined cycle power plant in Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, C.K.; Pandit, D.R.; Kwon, S.G.

    1998-12-31

    The paper describes the hydraulic design and hydraulic transient analysis of the re-circulating water cooling system of the combined cyclo Sipco power cogeneration plant in Thailand. The power plant of 450 MW total capacity is proposed to be built in two stages. Stage one will produce 300 MW of power and will consist of two gas turbine generators (GTG) and one steam turbine generator (STG). Stage two will produce 150 MW of power and will consist of one GTG and one STG. The cooling system will consist of one GTG and one STG. The cooling system will consist of cooling towers, a combined collecting basin and pump intake sump, pumps and motors, and separate conveyance systems and condensers for the generator units in the two stages. In a re-circulating water cooling system, cold water is pumped from the pump intake sump to the condensers through the conveyance system and hot water from the condensers is carried through the returning pipeline system to the cooling towers, whence the water after cooling is drained into the sump at the base of the towers. Total cooling water requirement for the system in stage one is estimated to be 112,000 gallons per minute (GPM), and that in stage two, 56,000 GPM. The sump is designed using the computer program HEC-2, developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE) and the pump intake basin, following the recommendations of the Hydraulic Institute. The pumps were sized by computing the head loss in the system, and, the steady state and transient performances (during pump start-up and shut-down procedures and due to possible power or mechanical failure of one or all pumps) of the system were analyzed by mathematically modeling the system using the computer program WHAMO (Water Hammer nd Mass Oscillations), also developed by the COE.

  5. Mpemba effect and phase transitions in the adiabatic cooling of water before freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, S.; De Risi, R.; Somma, L.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, an accurate experimental investigation of the Mpemba effect (that is, of the fact that initially hot water freezes before the colder one) is carried out, showing that, in the adiabatic cooling of water, relevant roles are played by supercooling, and by phase transitions which take place at 6±1 ∘C,3.5±0.5 ∘C and 1.3±0.6 ∘C. The last transition, which occurs with the non-negligible probability of 0.21 with respect to the total number of runs performed, has not been detected earlier. On the basis of our experimental results, we can present a thorough theoretical analysis of supercooling and of such phase transitions, which are interpreted in terms of the different ordering of molecule clusters in water.

  6. Experimental simulation of the water cooling of corium spread over the floor of a BWR containment

    SciTech Connect

    Morage, F.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.; Podowski, M.Z.

    1995-09-01

    This paper is concerned with an experimental investigation of the cooling effect of water collected on the surface of corium released onto the floor of a BWR drywell. In the present experiments, the actual reactor materials were replaced by simulant materials. Specifically, the results are shown for Freon-11 film boiling over liquid Wood`s metal spread above a solid porous surface through which argon gas was injected. An analysis of the obtained experimental data revealed that the actual film boiling heat transfer between a molten pool of corium and the water above the pool should be more efficient than predicted by using standard correlations for boiling over solid surfaces. This effect will be further augmented by the gas released due to the ablation of concrete floor beneath the corium and percolating towards its upper surface and into through the water layer above.

  7. Transient cooling of a hot metal plate with an impinging water jet

    SciTech Connect

    Kumagai, Satoshi; Suzuki, Shinju; Kubo, Ryo; Kawazoe, Masataka

    1995-12-31

    Transient boiling heat-transfer rate of a two-dimensional impinging water jet was measured throughout the surface of a 20 x 150 mm rectangle, during cooling from approximately 400 C to 100 C. Time-dependent surface-temperature distributions and the progress of a solid-liquid contact front were obtained for jet subcooling from 14 K to 50 K. Solid-liquid contact at the stagnation line starts from the moment of jet impingement, where violent boiling occurs and generated vapor splashes the water film; this results in deprivation of water supply to the outer region of the surface. The temperature of the outer surface remains high up to the time when the solid-liquid contact front reaches it and a large temperature gradient appears near the front. The surface temperature for the initiation of solid-liquid contact is higher at locations nearer the stagnation line and with higher jet subcooling.

  8. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 143: Availability of chilled water system and room cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, V.T.

    1993-12-01

    This report presents the regulatory analysis for Generic Issue (GI-143), {open_quotes}Availability of Chilled Water System and Room Cooling.{close_quotes} The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and related auxiliaries are required to provide control of environmental conditions in areas in light water reactor (LWR) plants that contain safety-related equipment. In some plants, the HVAC and chilled water systems serve to maintain a suitable environment for both safety and non-safety-related areas. Although some plants have an independent chilled water system for the safety-related areas, the heat removal capability often depends on the operability of other supporting systems such as the service water system or the component cooling water system. The operability of safety-related components depends upon operation of the HVAC and chilled water systems to remove heat from areas containing the equipment. If cooling to dissipate the heat generated is unavailable, the ability of the safety-related equipment to operate as intended cannot be assured. Typical components or areas in the nuclear power plant that could be affected by the failure of cooling from HVAC or chilled water systems include the (1) emergency switchgear and battery rooms, (2) emergency diesel generator room, (3) pump rooms for residual heat removal, reactor core isolation cooling, high-pressure core spray, and low-pressure core spray, and (4) control room. The unavailability of such safety-related equipment or areas could cause the core damage frequency (CDF) to increase significantly.

  9. Water-cooled hard-soldered kilowatt laser diode arrays operating at high duty cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumel, Genady; Karni, Yoram; Oppenhaim, Jacob; Berk, Yuri; Shamay, Moshe; Tessler, Renana; Cohen, Shalom; Risemberg, Shlomo

    2010-04-01

    High brightness laser diode arrays are increasingly found in defense applications either as efficient optical pumps or as direct energy sources. In many instances, duty cycles of 10- 20 % are required, together with precise optical collimation. System requirements are not always compatible with the use of microchannel based cooling, notwithstanding their remarkable efficiency. Simpler but effective solutions, which will not involve high fluid pressure drops as well as deionized water, are needed. The designer is faced with a number of challenges: effective heat removal, minimization of the built- in and operational stresses as well as precise and accurate fast axis collimation. In this article, we report on a novel laser diode array which includes an integral tap water cooling system. Robustness is achieved by all around hard solder bonding of passivated 940nm laser bars. Far field mapping of the beam, after accurate fast axis collimation will be presented. It will be shown that the design of water cooling channels , proper selection of package materials, careful design of fatigue sensitive parts and active collimation technique allow for long life time and reliability, while not compromising the laser diode array efficiency, optical power density ,brightness and compactness. Main performance characteristics are 150W/bar peak optical power, 10% duty cycle and more than 50% wall plug efficiency with less than 1° fast axis divergence. Lifetime of 0.5 Gshots with less than 10% power degradation has been proved. Additionally, the devices have successfully survived harsh environmental conditions such as thermal cycling of the coolant temperature and mechanical shocks.

  10. Hydroxyl carboxylate based non-phosphorus corrosion inhibition process for reclaimed water pipeline and downstream recirculating cooling water system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Dong; Hou, Deyin

    2016-01-01

    A combined process was developed to inhibit the corrosion both in the pipeline of reclaimed water supplies (PRWS) and in downstream recirculating cooling water systems (RCWS) using the reclaimed water as makeup. Hydroxyl carboxylate-based corrosion inhibitors (e.g., gluconate, citrate, tartrate) and zinc sulfate heptahydrate, which provided Zn(2+) as a synergistic corrosion inhibition additive, were added prior to the PRWS when the phosphate (which could be utilized as a corrosion inhibitor) content in the reclaimed water was below 1.7 mg/L, and no additional corrosion inhibitors were required for the downstream RCWS. Satisfactory corrosion inhibition was achieved even if the RCWS was operated under the condition of high numbers of concentration cycles. The corrosion inhibition requirement was also met by the appropriate combination of PO4(3-) and Zn(2+) when the phosphate content in the reclaimed water was more than 1.7 mg/L. The process integrated not only water reclamation and reuse, and the operation of a highly concentrated RCWS, but also the comprehensive utilization of phosphate in reclaimed water and the application of non-phosphorus corrosion inhibitors. The proposed process reduced the operating cost of the PRWS and the RCWS, and lowered the environmental hazard caused by the excessive discharge of phosphate. Furthermore, larger amounts of water resources could be conserved as a result.

  11. Holocene sediment dynamics on a cool-water carbonate shelf: Otway, southeastern Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Boreen, T.D.; James, N.P. )

    1993-07-01

    The Otway Shelf is covered by cool waters and veneered by bryozoan-dominated carbonate sediments. Radiocarbon dating and stratigraphy of shelf vibracores and slope gravity cores document late Pleistocene/Holocene deposition. Shelf sediments of the late Pleistocene high-stand are rare, either never having been deposited or having been removed during the following sea-level fall. During the subsequent lowstand the shelf was exposed, facies shifted basinward, and beach/dune complexes were constructed near the shelf edge. The deep shelf was characterized by nondeposition and hardground formation, and the shelf margin became locally erosional. Upper-slope bryozoan/sponge assemblages continued to grow actively, and lower-slope foraminifera and nannofossil ooze was increasingly enriched in hemipelagic terrigenous mud swept off the wide shelf. Coarse shelf debris and lowstand dune sands were erosively reworked and transported onto the upper slope and redistributed to deep-slope aprons during early transgression. The late Quaternary shelf record resembles that of flat-topped, warm-water platforms with Holocene sediment overlying Pleistocene/Tertiary limestone, but for different reasons. The slow growth potential, uniform profile of sediment production and distribution, and inability of constituent organisms to construct rigid frameworks favor maintenance of a shallow ramp profile and makes the cool-water carbonate system an excellent modern analog for interpretation of many ancient ramp successions.

  12. Chloride removal from recycled cooling water using ultra-high lime with aluminum process.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed; Batchelor, Bill

    2002-01-01

    Chloride is a deleterious ionic species in cooling water systems because it promotes corrosion, and most of the scale and corrosion inhibitors are sensitive to chloride concentration in the water. Chloride can be removed from cooling water by precipitation as calcium chloroaluminate [Ca4Al2Cl2(OH)12]. A set of equilibrium experiments and one kinetic experiment were conducted to evaluate chloride removal using the ultra-high lime with aluminum (UHLA) process and to characterize the equilibrium conditions of calcium chloroaluminate precipitation. A total of 48 batch-equilibrium experiments were conducted on a 30 mM NaCl solution over a range of values for lime dose (0 to 200 mM) and sodium aluminate dose (0 to 100 mM). Experimental results showed that the UHLA process can remove chloride and that the formation of a calcium chloroaluminate solid phase is a reasonable mechanism that is able to adequately describe experimental results. An average value of the ion activity product of 10(-94.75) was obtained and can be used as an estimate of the solubility product for Ca4Al2Cl2(OH)12.

  13. The cast structure of a 7075 alloy produced by a water-cooling centrifugal casting method

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, J.W. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Jong, S.H.

    1994-03-01

    A water-cooling centrifugal casting method was applied to cast the 7075 Al alloy to generate a much finer cast structure than that produced by conventional ingot casting methods. The effects of casting parameters, i.e., rotation speed, pouring temperature, water flow, and grain refiner, on casting structure were systematically studied so that the optimum casting condition and the solidification mechanism could be established. The typical cast structure along the thickness direction of a cast ring could be divided into four equiaxed zones, including the chill zone which is in contact with the mold wall. All zones have their characteristic grain size, morphology, and relative thickness, which are all dependent on the casting condition. The optimum casting condition yielding the finest structure available was found to be 3,000 rpm, 650 C, and sufficient water cooling. A uniform portion occupying 90 pct of the whole thickness and having a grain size of 17 [mu]m could be achieved under such a casting condition. When a grain refiner was added, the whole ring became further concentrated with grains of fine structure. A mechanism concerning the overall effects of rapid solidification, turbulent flow, and centrifugal force has been proposed for the present casting method and might explain the zone-structure formation and the effects of the casting parameters on microstructural features.

  14. Temperature-time distribution and thermal stresses on the RTG fins and shell during water cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) packages designed for space missions generally do not require active cooling. However, the heat they generate cannot remain inside of the launch vehicle bay and requires active removal. Therefore, before the Shuttle bay door is closed, the RTG coolant tubes attached to the heat rejection fins must be filled with water, which will circulate and remove most of the heat from the cargo bay. There is concern that charging a system at initial temperature around 200 C with water at 24 C can cause unacceptable thermal stresses in the RTG shell and fins. A computer model is developed to estimate the transient temperature distribution resulting from such charging. The thermal stresses resulting from the temperature gradients do not exceed the elastic deformation limit for the material. Since the simplified mathematical model for thermal stresses tends to overestimate stresses, it is concluded that the RTG can be cooled by introducing water at 24 C to the initially hot fin coolant tubes while the RTG is in the Shuttle cargo bay.

  15. Corrosion control when using secondary treated municipal wastewater as alternative makeup water for cooling tower systems.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Chowdhury, Indranil; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2010-12-01

    Secondary treated municipal wastewater is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water, especially in arid regions. Laboratory and field testing was conducted in this study to evaluate the corrosiveness of secondary treated municipal wastewater for various metals and metal alloys in cooling systems. Different corrosion control strategies were evaluated based on varied chemical treatment. Orthophosphate, which is abundant in secondary treated municipal wastewater, contributed to more than 80% precipitative removal of phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors. Tolyltriazole worked effectively to reduce corrosion of copper (greater than 95% inhibition effectiveness). The corrosion rate of mild steel in the presence of free chlorine 1 mg/L (as Cl2) was approximately 50% higher than in the presence of monochloramine 1 mg/L (as Cl2), indicating that monochloramine is a less corrosive biocide than free chlorine. The scaling layers observed on the metal alloys contributed to corrosion inhibition, which could be seen by comparing the mild steel 21-day average corrosion rate with the last 5-day average corrosion rate, the latter being approximately 50% lower than the former.

  16. Temperature-time distribution and thermal stresses on the RTG fins and shell during water cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) packages designed for space missions generally do not require active cooling. However, the heat they generate cannot remain inside of the launch vehicle bay and requires active removal. Therefore, before the Shuttle bay door is closed, the RTG coolant tubes attached to the heat rejection fins must be filled with water, which will circulate and remove most of the heat from the cargo bay. There is concern that charging a system at initial temperature around 200 C with water at 24 C can cause unacceptable thermal stresses in the RTG shell and fins. A computer model is developed to estimate the transient temperature distribution resulting from such charging. The thermal stresses resulting from the temperature gradients do not exceed the elastic deformation limit for the material. Since the simplified mathematical model for thermal stresses tends to overestimate stresses, it is concluded that the RTG can be cooled by introducing water at 24 C to the initially hot fin coolant tubes while the RTG is in the Shuttle cargo bay.

  17. Fabrication of gas turbine water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware employing plasma spray process

    DOEpatents

    Schilke, Peter W.; Muth, Myron C.; Schilling, William F.; Rairden, III, John R.

    1983-01-01

    In the method for fabrication of water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware for high temperature gas turbines, a high thermal conductivity copper alloy is applied, employing a high velocity/low pressure (HV/LP) plasma arc spraying process, to an assembly comprising a structural framework of copper alloy or a nickel-based super alloy, or combination of the two, and overlying cooling tubes. The copper alloy is plamsa sprayed to a coating thickness sufficient to completely cover the cooling tubes, and to allow for machining back of the copper alloy to create a smooth surface having a thickness of from 0.010 inch (0.254 mm) to 0.150 inch (3.18 mm) or more. The layer of copper applied by the plasma spraying has no continuous porosity, and advantageously may readily be employed to sustain a pressure differential during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonding of the overall structure to enhance bonding by solid state diffusion between the component parts of the structure.

  18. Simulation and control of water-gas shift packed bed reactor with inter-stage cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saw, S. Z.; Nandong, J.

    2016-03-01

    Water-Gas Shift Reaction (WGSR) has become one of the well-known pathways for H2 production in industries. The issue with WGSR is that it is kinetically favored at high temperatures but thermodynamically favored at low temperatures, thus requiring careful consideration in the control design in order to ensure that the temperature used does not deactivate the catalyst. This paper studies the effect of a reactor arrangement with an inter-stage cooling implemented in the packed bed reactor to look at its effect on outlet temperature. A mathematical model is developed based on one-dimensional heat and mass transfers which incorporate the intra-particle effects. It is shown that the placement of the inter-stage cooling and the outlet temperature exiting the inter-stage cooling have strong influence on the reaction conversion. Several control strategies are explored for the process. It is shown that a feedback- feedforward control strategy using Multi-scale Control (MSC) is effective to regulate the reactor temperature profile which is critical to maintaining the catalysts activity.

  19. Safe corrosion inhibitor for treating cooling water on heat power engineering plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, L. A.; Khasanova, D. I.; Mukhutdinova, E. R.; Safin, D. Kh.; Sharifullin, I. G.

    2017-08-01

    Heat power engineering (HPE) consumes significant volumes of water. There are, therefore, problems associated with corrosion, biological fouling, salt deposits, and sludge formation on functional surfaces of heat power equipment. One of the effective ways to solve these problems is the use of inhibitory protection. The development of new Russian import-substituting environmentally friendly inhibitors is very relevant. This work describes experimental results on the OPC-800 inhibitor (TU 2415-092-00206 457-2013), which was produced at Karpov Chemical Plant and designed to remove mineral deposits, scale, and biological fouling from the surfaces of water-rotation node systems on HPE objects. This reagent is successfully used as an effective corrosion inhibitor in the water recycling systems of Tatarstan petrochemical enterprises. To save fresh make-up water, the circulating system is operated in a no-blow mode, which is characterized by high evaporation and salt content coefficients. It was experimentally found that corrosion rate upon treatment of recycled water with the OPC-800 inhibitor is 0.08-0.10 mm/year. HPE mainly uses inhibitors based on oxyethylidene diphosphonic (OEDPA) and nitrilotrimethylphosphonic (NTMPA) acids. The comparative characteristic of inhibition efficiency for OPC-800 and OEDF-Zn-U2 is given. The results obtained indicate that OPC-800 can be used as an inhibitor for treatment of cooling water in HPE plants. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the features of water rotation of a thermal power plant.

  20. Density of hydrophobically confined deeply cooled water investigated by small angle X-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Kao-Hsiang; Zhang, Yang; Jeng, U-Ser; Mou, Chung-Yuan

    2015-09-07

    Water’s behavior near hydrophobic surfaces has attracted great attention due to chemical and geological applications. Here, we report small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies of water confined in the hydrophobic nanoporous carbon material, CMK-1-14, from ambient to deeply cooled temperatures. By monitoring the scattering intensity of the first Bragg peak, which is directly related to the scattering length density contrast between the carbon matrix and the confined water, the average density of the hydrophobically confined water was determined from 300 K to 150 K at ambient pressure. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the majority of such hydrophobically confined water did not crystallize in the investigated temperature range. By exploiting the fast speed of SAXS measurements and the continuous temperature ramping, the average density profile and the deduced thermal expansion coefficient (α{sub p}) were obtained. We found that the well-known density maximum of water at 277 K downshifted to 260 K, and the density minimum which has been observed in hydrophilic confinement disappeared. In addition, the previously measured large density decreasing of 18% at low temperature was recalibrated to a more reasonable 10% instead. Consequently, the recalculated α{sub p} peak was found to be quite similar to that of the water confined in hydrophilic MCM-41-S-15 suggesting an intrinsic property of water, which does not sensitively depend on the confinement surface.

  1. Integrated process control for recirculating cooling water treatment in the coal chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Pei, Y S; Guo, W; Yang, Z F

    2011-01-01

    This work focused on the integrated process of the recirculating cooling water (RCW) treatment to achieve approximate zero emission in the coal chemical industry. The benefits of fractional and comprehensive RCW treatment were quantified and qualified by using a water and mass balance approach. Limits of cycle of concentrations and some encountered bottlenecks were used to ascertain set target limits for different water sources. Makeup water was mixed with water produced from reverse osmosis (RO) in the proportion of 6:4, which notably reduced salts discharge. Side infiltration, which settled down suspended solids, can reduce energy consumption by over 40%. An automated on-line monitoring organic phosphorus inhibitor feed maintains the RCW system stability in comparison to the manual feed. Two-step electrosorb technology (EST) instead of an acid feed can lead cycle of concentration of water to reach 7.0. The wastewater from RO, EST and filter was transferred into a concentration treatment system where metallic ions were adsorbed by permanent magnetic materials. Separation of water and salts was completed by using a magnetic disc separator. Applying the integrated process in a coal chemical industry, a benefit of 1.60 million Yuan annually in 2 years was gained and approximate zero emission was achieved. Moreover, both technical and economic feasibility were demonstrated in detail.

  2. Molecular characterization of viable Legionella spp. in cooling tower water samples by combined use of ethidium monoazide and PCR.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Fujimura, Reiko; Agata, Kunio; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Viable Legionella spp. in environmental water samples were characterized phylogenetically by a clone library analysis combining the use of ethidium monoazide and quantitative PCR. To examine the diversity of Legionella spp., six cooling tower water samples and three bath water samples were collected and analyzed. A total of 617 clones were analyzed for their 16S rRNA gene sequences and classified into 99 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The majority of OTUs were not clustered with currently described Legionella spp., suggesting the wide diversity of not-yet-cultured Legionella groups harbored in cooling tower water environments.

  3. Evaporative cooling of microscopic water droplets in vacuo: Molecular dynamics simulations and kinetic gas theory

    DOE PAGES

    Schlesinger, Daniel; Sellberg, Jonas A.; Nilsson, Anders; ...

    2016-03-22

    In the present study, we investigate the process of evaporative cooling of nanometer-sized droplets in vacuum using molecular dynamics simulations with the TIP4P/2005 water model. The results are compared to the temperature evolution calculated from the Knudsen theory of evaporation which is derived from kinetic gas theory. The calculated and simulation results are found to be in very good agreement for an evaporation coefficient equal to unity. Lastly, our results are of interest to experiments utilizing droplet dispensers as well as to cloud micro-physics.

  4. Fuel Breeding and Core Behavior Analyses on In Core Fuel Management of Water Cooled Thorium Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Permana, Sidik; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Waris, Abdul; Subhki, Muhamad Nurul; Ismail,

    2010-12-23

    Thorium fuel cycle with recycled U-233 has been widely recognized having some contributions to improve the water-cooled breeder reactor program which has been shown by a feasible area of breeding and negative void reactivity which confirms that fissile of 233U contributes to better fuel breeding and effective for obtaining negative void reactivity coefficient as the main fissile material. The present study has the objective to estimate the effect of whole core configuration as well as burnup effects to the reactor core profile by adopting two dimensional model of fuel core management. About more than 40 months of cycle period has been employed for one cycle fuel irradiation of three batches fuel system for large water cooled thorium reactors. All position of fuel arrangement contributes to the total core conversion ratio which gives conversion ratio less than unity of at the BOC and it contributes to higher than unity (1.01) at the EOC after some irradiation process. Inner part and central part give the important part of breeding contribution with increasing burnup process, while criticality is reduced with increasing the irradiation time. Feasibility of breeding capability of water-cooled thorium reactors for whole core fuel arrangement has confirmed from the obtained conversion ratio which shows higher than unity. Whole core analysis on evaluating reactivity change which is caused by the change of voided condition has been employed for conservative assumption that 100% coolant and moderator are voided. It obtained always a negative void reactivity coefficient during reactor operation which shows relatively more negative void coefficient at BOC (fresh fuel composition), and it becomes less negative void coefficient with increasing the operation time. Negative value of void reactivity coefficient shows the reactor has good safety properties in relation to the reactivity profile which is the main parameter in term of criticality safety analysis. Therefore, this

  5. The effects of aging on Boiling Water Reactor core isolation cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Bom Soon

    1994-06-01

    A study was performed to assess the effects of aging on the Reactor Core Isolation Cooling system in commercial Boiling Water Reactors. This study is part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The failure data, from national databases, as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to understand the effects of aging on the RCIC system. This analysis identified important components that should receive the highest priority in terms of aging management. The aging characterization provided information on the effects of aging on component failure frequency, failure modes, and failure causes.

  6. Evaporative cooling of microscopic water droplets in vacuo: Molecular dynamics simulations and kinetic gas theory.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Daniel; Sellberg, Jonas A; Nilsson, Anders; Pettersson, Lars G M

    2016-03-28

    In the present study, we investigate the process of evaporative cooling of nanometer-sized droplets in vacuum using molecular dynamics simulations with the TIP4P/2005 water model. The results are compared to the temperature evolution calculated from the Knudsen theory of evaporation which is derived from kinetic gas theory. The calculated and simulation results are found to be in very good agreement for an evaporation coefficient equal to unity. Our results are of interest to experiments utilizing droplet dispensers as well as to cloud micro-physics.

  7. Soy-Based, Water-Cooled, TC W-III Two Cycle Engine Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, Curtis R.; Miller, Mark E.

    2003-08-30

    The objective of this project was to achieve technical approval and commercial launch for a biodegradable soy oil-based, environmentally safe, TC W-III performance, water-cooled, two cycle engine oil. To do so would: (1) develop a new use for RBD soybean oil; (2) increase soybean utilization in North America in the range of 500 K-3.0 MM bushels; and (3) open up supply opportunities of 1.5-5.0 MM bushels worldwide. These goals have been successfully obtained.

  8. Alternating Authigenic and Carbonate Factory Production within a Cool-water Carbonate Sequence Stratigraphic Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, N. K.; Reid, C.; Bassett, K. N.

    2012-12-01

    Glaucony and phosphate production is characteristic of low sedimentation rates within low energy, oxygen-depleted environments, and is often associated with condensed sections and unconformities. Glaucony- and phosphate-rich rocks are often interpreted to be associated with sea-level highstands and maximum flooding surfaces, especially in siliciclastic systems. In contrast, our research shows that in the cool-water carbonate realm glaucony and, to an extent, phosphate are connected to lowstands and transgressions, requiring a reversal in the way they are interpreted within a sequence stratigraphic context. The Mid-Tertiary rocks of the Waitaki Basin, South Island, New Zealand, contain a cool-water carbonate and greensand succession formed on the eastern passive margin of the Zealandia continental fragment, and include two major sequence boundaries within a broad regional transgression. The palaeobasin contained an eastern outer shelf volcanic-induced high that acted like a platform rim, from where the basin deepened towards the west. The basal sequence contains a bryozoan grainstone facies that formed a shoal on the eastern volcanic seamount. This grades westward to a quartzose impure wackestone containing terrigenous material derived from low-lying islands of Zealandia far to the west. The overlying sequence boundary forms a karst surface associated with the high in the east, and a firmground in the west, and developed as a result of sea-level fall and lowstand conditions. During these lowstand conditions the terrigenous supply of silt and clay material was moved closer to the Waitaki Basin and this was then available for glauconitisation. Calcareous glaucony- and phosphate-rich greensands accumulated during the subsequent transgression, with the glaucony and phosphate content decreasing through this second sequence to form pure packstones during highstand and early regression. The second sequence boundary overlying these packstones shows similar karst and

  9. Interfacial tension in cooled heterogeneous liquid acetonitrile-ethyl acetate-isopropanol-water-phenol systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudakov, O. B.; Khorokhordina, E. A.; Preobrazhenskii, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    It is found that the tension at the interfacial boundary of liquid phases formed by mixtures of acetonitrile-ethyl acetate-isopropanol (85 : 15 : 0 and 80 : 15 : 5 vol/vol/vol %) and water at 263 K falls exponentially as the concentration of phenols grows within 0-1 mg/mL. It is shown that the relatively low values of interfacial tension (11-32 mN/m) observed in cooled heterogeneous systems promote the redistribution of phenols between two liquid phases.

  10. General features of direct-cycle, supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Y.; Koshizuka, S.

    1996-07-01

    The concept of direct-cycle, supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors is developed. Breeding is possible in the tight lattice core. The power output can be maximized in the fast converter reactor. The gross thermal efficiency of the high temperature reactor adopting Inconel as fuel cladding is expected to be 44.8%. The plant system is similar to the supercritical-fossil-fired power plant which adopts once-through type coolant circulation system. The volume and height of the containment are approximately half of the BWR. The basic safety principles follows those of LWRs. The reactor will solve the economic problems of LWR and LMFBR.

  11. USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Michael N. DiFilippo

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 2 focuses on transportation--the largest obstacle to produced water reuse in the San Juan Basin (the Basin). Most of the produced water in the Basin is stored in tanks at the well head and must be transported by truck to salt water disposal (SWD) facilities prior to injection. Produced water transportation requirements from the well head to SJGS and the availability of existing infrastructure to transport the water are discussed in this deliverable.

  12. Research on heat transfer characteristics and cold trap capacity of a water catcher during vacuum pre-cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Enhai; Liu, Yin; Wang, Changzhong; Liu, Shiqi

    2017-01-01

    Effect of vacuum pre-cooling process on apples was a complex process of heat and mass transfers. The research is based on the physical properties of apples and their heat and mass transfer mechanisms during vacuum pre-cooling. As for the heat transfer characteristics of a water catcher in vacuum pre-cooling, the research studied the heat transfer mechanism and calculated the cold trap capacity by experimental means, and it cold trap capacity were evaluated to supply references for future research into the practical applications of such vacuum pre-cooling techniques. The results provide a theoretical basis for exploring better pre-cooling process conditions and the design of water catchers. The experimental results show that, when the wall temperature of the water catcher is -5°C, the optimal cold trap capacity is about 90.72g and the required cooling capacity is 210.13W in the vacuum pre-cooling of 201.9g of apples.

  13. Microbial fouling community analysis of the cooling water system of a nuclear test reactor with emphasis on sulphate reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, P; Joshi, M Hiren; Rao, T S

    2011-10-01

    Culture and molecular-based techniques were used to characterize bacterial diversity in the cooling water system of a fast breeder test reactor (FBTR). Techniques were selected for special emphasis on sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Water samples from different locations of the FBTR cooling water system, in addition to biofilm scrapings from carbon steel coupons and a control SRB sample were characterized. Whole genome extraction of the water samples and SRB diversity by group specific primers were analysed using nested PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results of the bacterial assay in the cooling water showed that the total culturable bacteria (TCB) ranged from 10(3) to 10(5) cfu ml(-1); iron-reducing bacteria, 10(3) to 10(5) cfu ml(-1); iron oxidizing bacteria, 10(2) to 10(3) cfu ml(-1) and SRB, 2-29 cfu ml(-1). However, the counts of the various bacterial types in the biofilm sample were 2-3 orders of magnitude higher. SRB diversity by the nested PCR-DGGE approach showed the presence of groups 1, 5 and 6 in the FBTR cooling water system; however, groups 2, 3 and 4 were not detected. The study demonstrated that the PCR protocol influenced the results of the diversity analysis. The paper further discusses the microbiota of the cooling water system and its relevance in biofouling.

  14. Recovery of metals from waste printed circuit boards by a mechanical method using a water medium.

    PubMed

    Duan, Chenlong; Wen, Xuefeng; Shi, Changsheng; Zhao, Yuemin; Wen, Baofeng; He, Yaqun

    2009-07-15

    Research on the recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCB) is at the forefront of environmental pollution prevention and resource recycling. To effectively crush waste PCB and to solve the problem of secondary pollution from fugitive odors and dust created during the crushing process, a wet impacting crusher was employed to achieve comminution liberation of the PCB in a water medium. The function of water in the crushing process was analyzed. When using slippery hammerheads, a rotation speed of 1470 rpm, a water flow of 6m(3)/h and a sieve plate aperture of 2.2mm, 95.87% of the crushed product was sized less than 1mm. 94.30% of the metal was in this grade of product. Using smashed material graded -1mm for further research, a Falcon concentrator was used to recover the metal from the waste PCB. Engineering considerations were the liberation degree, the distribution ratio of the metal and a way to simplify the technology. The separation mechanism for fine particles of different densities in a Falcon concentrator was analyzed in detail and the separation process in the segregation and separation zones was deduced. Also, the magnitude of centrifugal acceleration, the back flow water pressure and the feed slurry concentration, any of which might affect separation results, were studied. A recovery model was established using Design-Expert software. Separating waste PCB, crushed to -1mm, with the Falcon separator gave a concentrated product graded 92.36% metal with a recovery of 97.05%. To do this the reverse water pressure was 0.05 MPa, the speed transducer frequency was set at 30 Hz and the feed density was 20 g/l. A flow diagram illustrating the new technique of wet impact crushing followed by separation with a Falcon concentrator is provided. The technique will prevent environmental pollution from waste PCB and allow the effective recovery of resources. Water was used as the medium throughout the whole process.

  15. Study of using microfiltration and reverse osmosis membrane technologies for reclaiming cooling water in the power industry.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Xu, Z Y; An, H G; Liu, L Q

    2007-07-01

    A study of using dual membrane technologies, microfiltration (MF) and reverse osmosis (RO), for reclaiming blowdown of the cooling tower was conducted at ZJK power plant, Hebei province, China. The study shows that the combined MF-RO system can effectively reduce water consumption in the power industry. The results indicate that MF process is capable of producing a filtrate suitable for RO treatment and achieving a silt density index (SDI) less than 2, turbidity of 0.2 NTU. The water quality of RO effluent is very good with an average conductivity of about 40 micros/cm and rejection of 98%. The product water is suitable for injection into the cooling tower to counteract with cooling water intrusion. After adopting this system, water-saving effectiveness as expressed in terms of cycles of concentration could be increased from 2.5-2.8 times to 5 times.

  16. Offshore Floating Wind Turbine-driven Deep Sea Water Pumping for Combined Electrical Power and District Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sant, T.; Buhagiar, D.; Farrugia, R. N.

    2014-06-01

    A new concept utilising floating wind turbines to exploit the low temperatures of deep sea water for space cooling in buildings is presented. The approach is based on offshore hydraulic wind turbines pumping pressurised deep sea water to a centralised plant consisting of a hydro-electric power system coupled to a large-scale sea water-cooled air conditioning (AC) unit of an urban district cooling network. In order to investigate the potential advantages of this new concept over conventional technologies, a simplified model for performance simulation of a vapour compression AC unit was applied independently to three different systems, with the AC unit operating with (1) a constant flow of sea surface water, (2) a constant flow of sea water consisting of a mixture of surface sea water and deep sea water delivered by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine and (3) an intermittent flow of deep sea water pumped by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine. The analysis was based on one year of wind and ambient temperature data for the Central Mediterranean that is known for its deep waters, warm climate and relatively low wind speeds. The study confirmed that while the present concept is less efficient than conventional turbines utilising grid-connected electrical generators, a significant portion of the losses associated with the hydraulic transmission through the pipeline are offset by the extraction of cool deep sea water which reduces the electricity consumption of urban air-conditioning units.

  17. Effects of menthol application on the skin during prolonged immersion in cool and cold water.

    PubMed

    Botonis, P G; Kounalakis, S N; Cherouveim, E D; Koskolou, M D; Geladas, N D

    2017-09-20

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of skin surface menthol application on rectal temperature (Tre) during prolonged immersion in cool and cold water. We hypothesized that menthol application would lead to a slower Tre decline due to the reduced heat loss as a consequence of the menthol-induced vasoconstriction and that this effect would be attenuated during cold-water immersion. Six male subjects were immersed for 55 minutes in stirred cool (24°C) or cold (14°C) water immediately after attaining a Tre of 38°C by cycling at 60% of maximum heart rate on two occasions: without (ΝM) and with (M) whole-body skin application of menthol cream. Tre, the proximal-distal skin temperature gradient, and oxygen uptake were continuously measured. ANOVA with repeated measures was employed to detect differences among variables. Significance level was set at 0.05. The area under the curve for Tre was calculated and was greater in 24°C M (-1.81 ± 8.22 a.u) compared to 24°C NM (-27.09 ± 19.09 a.u., P = .03, r = .90), 14°C NM (-18.08 ± 10.85 a.u., P = .03, r = .90), and 14°C M (-11.71 ± 12.58 a.u, P = .05, r = .81). In cool water, oxygen uptake and local vasoconstriction were increased (P ≤ .05) by 39 ± 25% and 56 ± 37%, respectively, with menthol compared to ΝM, while no differences were observed in cold water. Menthol application on the skin before prolonged immersion reduces heat loss resulting in a blunted Tre decline. However, such a response is less obvious at 14°C water immersion, possibly because high-threshold cold-sensitive fibers are already maximally recruited and the majority of cold receptors saturated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Measurements of erbium laser-ablation efficiency in hard dental tissues under different water cooling conditions.

    PubMed

    Kuščer, Lovro; Diaci, Janez

    2013-10-01

    Laser triangulation measurements of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-ablated volumes in hard dental tissues are made, in order to verify the possible existence of a "hydrokinetic" effect that has been proposed as an alternative to the "subsurface water expansion" mechanism for hard-tissue laser ablation. No evidence of the hydrokinetic effect could be observed under a broad range of tested laser parameters and water cooling conditions. On the contrary, the application of water spray during laser exposure of hard dental material is observed to diminish the laser-ablation efficiency (AE) in comparison with laser exposure under the absence of water spray. Our findings are in agreement with the generally accepted principle of action for erbium laser ablation, which is based on fast subsurface expansion of laser-heated water trapped within the interstitial structure of hard dental tissues. Our measurements also show that the well-known phenomenon of ablation stalling, during a series of consecutive laser pulses, can primarily be attributed to the blocking of laser light by the loosely bound and recondensed desiccated minerals that collect on the tooth surface during and following laser ablation. In addition to the prevention of tooth bulk temperature buildup, a positive function of the water spray that is typically used with erbium dental lasers is to rehydrate these minerals, and thus sustaining the subsurface expansion ablation process. A negative side effect of using a continuous water spray is that the AE gets reduced due to the laser light being partially absorbed in the water-spray particles above the tooth and in the collected water pool on the tooth surface. Finally, no evidence of the influence of the water absorption shift on the hypothesized increase in the AE of the Er,Cr:YSGG wavelength is observed.

  19. Renewable Heating and Cooling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  20. Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forseberg, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    This document describes passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor which employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated evaporator located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

  1. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY OF WATER-COOLED FUSION REACTORS: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, Andrei Y; Flanagan, George F

    2010-01-01

    ITER is an experimental Tokamak fusion energy reactor that is being built in Cadarache, France, in collaboration with seven agencies representing China, the European Union, India, Japan, Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, and the United States. The main objective of ITER is to demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility of a controlled fusion reaction An important U.S. contribution is the design, fabrication, and delivery of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS). This paper describes the main sources of radioactivity in TCWS water, which are the nitrogen isotopes 16N and 17N, tritium, activated corrosion products, and the carbon isotope 14C; the relative contribution of each of these sources to the total radioactive contamination of water; issues related to excess accumulation of these species; and methods to control TCWS radioactivity within acceptable limits. Among these methods are: (1) water purification to minimize corrosion of materials in contact with TCWS water; (2) monitoring of vital chemistry parameters and control of water chemistry; (3) design of proper building structure and/or TCWS loop/geometry configuration; and (4) design of an ITER liquid radwaste facility tailored to TCWS operational requirements. Design of TCWS nuclear chemistry control is crucial to ensuring that the inventory of radioactive species is consistent with the principle of 'As Low as Reasonably Achievable.'

  2. Experimental assessment of on-chip liquid cooling through microchannels with de-ionized water and diluted ethylene glycol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Yonghyun; Kim, Sungdong; Eunkyung Kim, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    Recent progress in Si IC devices, which results in an increase in power density and decrease in device size, poses various thermal challenges owing to high heat dissipation. Therefore, conventional cooling techniques become ineffective and produce a thermal bottleneck. In this study, an on-chip liquid cooling module with microchannels and through Si via (TSV) was fabricated, and cooling characteristics were evaluated by IR measurements. Both the microchannels and TSVs were fabricated in a Si wafer by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and the wafer was bonded with a glass wafer by a anodic bonding. The fabricated liquid cooling sample was evaluated using two different coolants (de-ionized water and 70 wt % diluted ethylene glycol), and the effect of coolants on cooling characteristics was investigated.

  3. Effect of Water Vapor During Secondary Cooling on Hot Shortness in Fe-Cu-Ni-Sn-Si Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, Erica; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2014-10-01

    Residual Cu in recycled steel scrap can cause hot shortness when the iron matrix is oxidized. Hot shortness can occur directly after the solid steel is formed from continuous casting as the steel undergoes a cooling process known as secondary cooling where water is first sprayed on the surface to promote cooling. This is followed by a radiant cooling stage where the steel is cooled in air to room temperature. This investigation examines the roles of water vapor, Si content, temperature, and the presence of Sn in a Fe-0.2 wt pct Cu-0.05 wt pct Ni alloy on oxidation, separated Cu and Cu induced-hot shortness during simulations of the secondary cooling process. The secondary cooling from 1473 K (1200 °C) resulted in a slight increase in liquid quantity and grain boundary penetration as compared to the isothermal heating cycles at 1423 K (1150 °C) due to the higher temperatures experienced in the non-isothermal cycle. The addition of water vapor increased the sample oxidation as compared to samples processed in dry atmospheres due to increased scale adherence, scale plasticity, and inward transport of oxygen. The increase in weight gain of the wet atmosphere increased the liquid formation at the interface in the non-Si containing alloys. The secondary cooling cycle with water vapor and the effect of Sn lead to the formation of many small pools of Cu-rich liquid embedded within the surface of the metal due to the Sn allowing for increased grain boundary decohesion and the water vapor allowing for oxidation within liquid-penetrated grain boundaries. The presence of Si increased the amount of occlusion of Cu and Fe, significantly decreasing the quantity of liquid at the interface and the amount of grain boundary penetration.

  4. Gas turbine cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Bancalari, Eduardo E.

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

  5. The progress of the water cooled separator CFB boiler in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Junfu; Zhang Jiansheng; Yue Guangxi

    1999-07-01

    Since the first pilot 75 t/h water cooled separator CFB boiler was in operation in 1996, a hot test program has been conducted by Tsinghua University and several boiler works, so as to promote scaling of the CFB boiler. The present paper introduces the test program and the primary results, such as the separator efficiency, material balance, solid bulk density, heat transfer along the height of the furnace, etc. Besides the traditional test technology, some newly developed apparatus was used in the hot test. According to the experience obtained from the boiler, the improvement measure was taken for the second and third boiler, which were in commercial operation in 1998. The first operation experience of the second and third boiler proves the effect of the improvement. Considering the experience and the test program, the scaling up design of water cooled separator was done. The present paper also introduces the design consideration of the 130 t/h and 220 t/h CFB boiler.

  6. Hot ion plasma production in HIP-1 using water-cooled hollow cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Lauver, M. R.; Patch, R. W.; Layman, R. W.; Snyder, A.

    1975-01-01

    A steady-state ExB plasma was formed by applying a strong radially inward dc electric field near the mirror throats. Most of the results were for hydrogen, but deuterium and helium plasmas were also studied. Three water-cooled hollow cathodes were operated in the hot-ion plasma mode with the following results: (1) thermally emitting cathodes were not required to achieve the hot-ion mode; (2) steady-state operation (several minutes) was attained; (3) input powers greater than 40 kW were achieved; (4) cathode outside diameters were increased from 1.2 cm (uncooled) to 4.4 cm (water-cooled); (5) steady-state hydrogen plasma with ion temperatures from 185 to 770 eV and electron temperatures from 5 to 21 eV were produced. Scaling relations were empirically obtained for discharge current, ion temperature, electron temperature, and relative ion density as a function of hydrogen gas feed rate, magnetic field, and cathode voltage. Neutrons were produced from deuterium plasma, but it was not established whether thay came from the plasma volume or from the electrode surfaces.

  7. Pozzolanic filtration/solidification of radionuclides in nuclear reactor cooling water

    SciTech Connect

    Englehardt, J.D.; Peng, C.

    1995-12-31

    Laboratory studies to investigate the feasibility of one- and two-step processes for precipitation/coprecipitating radionuclides from nuclear reactor cooling water, filtering with pozzolanic filter aid, and solidifying, are reported in this paper. In the one-step process, ferrocyanide salt and excess lime are added ahead of the filter, and the resulting filter cake solidifies by a pozzolanic reaction. The two-step process involves addition of solidifying agents subsequent to filtration. It was found that high surface area diatomaceous synthetic calcium silicate powders, sold commercially as functional fillers and carriers, adsorb nickel isotopes from solution at neutral and slightly basic pH. Addition of the silicates to cooling water allowed removal of the tested metal isotopes (nickel, iron, manganese, cobalt, and cesium) simultaneously at neutral to slightly basic pH. Lime to diatomite ratio was the most influential characteristic of composition on final strength tested, with higher lime ratios giving higher strength. Diatomaceous earth filter aids manufactured without sodium fluxes exhibited higher pozzolanic activity. Pozzolanic filter cake solidified with sodium silicate and a ratio of 0.45 parts lime to 1 part diatomite had compressive strength ranging from 470 to 595 psi at a 90% confidence level. Leachability indices of all tested metals in the solidified waste were acceptable. In light of the typical requirement of removing iron and desirability of control over process pH, a two-step process involving addition of Portland cement to the filter cake may be most generally applicable.

  8. Reactor cooling water expansion joint bellows: The role of the seam weld in fatigue crack development

    SciTech Connect

    West, S.L.; Nelson, D.Z.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1992-12-01

    The secondary cooling water system pressure boundary of Savannah River Site reactors includes expansion joints utilizing a thin-wall bellows. While successfully used for over thirty years, an occasional replacement has been required because of the development of small, circumferential fatigue cracks in a bellows convolute. One such crack was recently shown to have initiated from a weld heat-affected zone liquation microcrack. The crack, initially open to the outer surface of the rolled and seam welded cylindrical bellows section, was closed when cold forming of the convolutes placed the outer surface in residual compression. However, the bellows was placed in tension when installed, and the tensile stresses reopened the microcrack. This five to eight grain diameter microcrack was extended by ductile fatigue processes. Initial extension was by relatively rapid propagation through the large-grained weld metal, followed by slower extension through the fine-grained base metal. A significant through-wall crack was not developed until the crack extended into the base metal on both sides of the weld. Leakage of cooling water was subsequently detected and the bellows removed and a replacement installed.

  9. Numerical analysis of thermal effects in semiconductor disk laser with water cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Renjiang; Pan, Yingjun; Jiang, Maohua; Zhang, Peng

    2014-11-01

    This paper has established a thermal model of Vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser (VECSELs) with water-cooled heatsink, calculated the distribution of temperature field with finite element method, and studied the effects of pumping light, heat transfer coefficient, and heatsink characteristics on the maximum temperature of the quantum well. Calculations show that there is an optimal heat transfer coefficient value interval, thermal conductivity of the VECSELs heatsink will have a significant impact on the maximum temperature of the quantum well, and increasing area of cooler heatsink would help to improve heat dissipation performance. It also shows that the maximum temperature of the quantum well has a linear relationship with pump power, and a nearly inverse relationship with the spot size. Due to thermal diffusion of water-cooled heatsink for VECSELs point heat source, the maximum temperature of quantum well is not sensitive to thickness and area of the heatsink, heat dissipation performance which uses a diamond heatsink is about 1.7 times the oxygen-free copper heatsink.

  10. Cognitive, psychomotor, and physical performance in cold air after cooling by exercise in cold water.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Catherine; Tharion, William J; Sils, Ingrid V; Castellani, John W

    2007-06-01

    This study evaluated performance after lowering core temperature at different rates while local tissues were either cooled (lower body) or not cooled (upper body). There were 10 men who volunteered to perform up to 8 cold water immersions (CWI) at combinations of 2 water temperatures (10 degrees C and 15 degrees C), 2 depths [waist (W), chest (C)], and 2 walking speeds (0.44 or 0.88 m x s(-1)) until their core temperature fell to 35.5 degrees C, stabilized above that temperature, or they requested to stop. They also completed a control trial (120 min rest in 19 degrees C air). Immediately following each CWI and control, cognitive and physical performance tests were performed in cold air (10 degrees C; CAE). Overall, the CWI protocol lowered rectal temperature by 0.3-1.0 degrees C. Mean skin temperature was approximately 26 degrees C and finger temperature was approximately 15 degrees C during CAE. No statistical differences were observed across trials for any cognitive test. On the physical performance tests, step test performance was degraded approximately 12% on CWI trials compared with control, but there were no differences in manual dexterity, hand grip strength, marksmanship, or pull-ups. These results indicate that cognitive performance can be maintained despite mild hypothermia, and that physical performance is related to local tissue temperature, not a moderately reduced core temperature.

  11. Contingency power for small turboshaft engines using water injection into turbine cooling air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Because of one engine inoperative requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot day, high altitude takeoff situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stresses is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  12. Contingency power for a small turboshaft engine by using water injection into turbine cooling air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    Because of one-engine-inoperative (OEI) requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot-day, high-altitude take-off situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation by using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stress is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  13. Contingency power for small turboshaft engines using water injection into turbine cooling air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.; Berger, Brett

    1987-01-01

    Because of one engine inoperative requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot day, high altitude takeoff situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stresses is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  14. Locating of leaks in water-cooled generator stator bars using perfluorocarbon tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Loss, W.M.; Dietz, R.N.

    1991-09-01

    Water cooled stator bars in power plant generators often fail during the maintenance cycle due to water leakage. After the hydrogen pressure in the generator shell has been released water can leak through cracks in the copper and through the insulation. Leaking bars, but not the leaks themselves, are detected with so-called hi-pot'' (high potential) tests where direct electrical current is applied to the stator bar windings. A study initiated by ConEd and Brookhaven's Tracer Technology Center to explore the cause of these leakage problems to determine if the failures originate in the manufacturing process or are created in service by phase related torque stresses. To this purpose bars that had failed the hi-pot test were investigated first with the insulation in place and then stripped to the bare copper. The bars were pressurized with gases containing perfluorocarbon tracers and the magnitude and location of the leaks was detected by using tracers technology principles and instruments such as the double source'' method and the Dual Trap Analyzer. In the second part of the project the windings within a generator were tested in-situ for leaks during an outage using tracer principles. Recommendations are given suggesting the shut down of stator bar cooling water before hydrogen bleeding during outages and a revision of the current vent flow rate. The new standard should establish a reasonable leak rate for the stator bar windings proper and exclude leakage of pump seals and connections. Testing during the maintenance cycle in generators should include routine tracer leak detection following the hi-pot test.

  15. Locating of leaks in water-cooled generator stator bars using perfluorocarbon tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Loss, W.M.; Dietz, R.N.

    1991-09-01

    Water cooled stator bars in power plant generators often fail during the maintenance cycle due to water leakage. After the hydrogen pressure in the generator shell has been released water can leak through cracks in the copper and through the insulation. Leaking bars, but not the leaks themselves, are detected with so-called ``hi-pot`` (high potential) tests where direct electrical current is applied to the stator bar windings. A study initiated by ConEd and Brookhaven`s Tracer Technology Center to explore the cause of these leakage problems to determine if the failures originate in the manufacturing process or are created in service by phase related torque stresses. To this purpose bars that had failed the hi-pot test were investigated first with the insulation in place and then stripped to the bare copper. The bars were pressurized with gases containing perfluorocarbon tracers and the magnitude and location of the leaks was detected by using tracers technology principles and instruments such as the ``double source`` method and the Dual Trap Analyzer. In the second part of the project the windings within a generator were tested in-situ for leaks during an outage using tracer principles. Recommendations are given suggesting the shut down of stator bar cooling water before hydrogen bleeding during outages and a revision of the current vent flow rate. The new standard should establish a reasonable leak rate for the stator bar windings proper and exclude leakage of pump seals and connections. Testing during the maintenance cycle in generators should include routine tracer leak detection following the hi-pot test.

  16. A new universal formula for efficiency: sensitivity to cooling conditions of nuclear and conventional power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Haidar, N.H.

    1984-10-01

    A new approximate formula is derived for the sensitivity of the net efficiency of fissile- and fossil-fueled condensing power stations to incremental variations in the design temperature of the cooling water or air. It is universal for the three basic modes (open circuit, wet tower, and dry tower) of turbine condenser cooling and incorporates nearly all of the decisive design parameters involved.

  17. Coiling Temperature Control Using Temperature Measurement Method for the Hot Rolled Strip in the Water Cooling Banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Shigemasa; Tachibana, Hisayoshi; Honda, Tatsuro; Uematsu, Chihiro

    In the hot strip mill, the quality of the strip greatly depends on the cooling process between the last stand in the finishing mill and the coilers. Therefore, it is important to carefully control the coiling temperature to regulate the mechanical properties of the strip. To realize high accuracy of coiling temperature, a new coiling temperature control using temperature measurement method for the hot rolled strip in the water cooling banks has been developed. The features of the new coiling temperature control are as follows: (i) New feedforward control adjusts ON/OFF swiching of cooling headers according to the strip temperature measured in the water cooling banks. (ii) New feedforward control is achieved by dynamic control function. This coiling temperature control has been in operation successfully since 2008 at Kashima Steel Works and improved the accuracy of coiling temperature of high strength steel considerably.

  18. Effects of side cooling on temperature, humidity and water recycling efficiency in a culture vessel for a space experiment--results of ground experiment.

    PubMed

    Tani, A; Seino, K

    2000-06-01

    Seed-to-seed experiments using dwarf plants will be conducted in Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) set up in the International Space Station (ISS). Development of a simple system to recycle water transpired by plants is necessary to save space and electrical power. A cooling system using a cooling plate that cools one side of the ventilated culture vessel to enhance water vapor condensation was developed. Effects of side cooling on air temperature, relative humidity and water recycling efficiency in the culture vessel were investigated on the ground. Decreasing the cooling plate temperature lowered temperatures of cooled side and inside air. Cooling treatment also decreased relative humidity inside the vessel less than 90% and lowered the amount of water vapor lost from the vessel through ventilation filters. This seemed to be due to the increased water vapor condensation onto the cooled side. To investigate the effect of increases in outside humidity on water recycling efficiency in the culture vessel, a water vapor transfer model was established. The calculation results indicate that an increase in relative humidity around the vessel can decrease water vapor loss from the vessel, increase water condensation onto the cooled side, and therefore, enhance water recycling efficiency in the vessel. The side cooling system seems to be useful for the CBEF in ISS because relative humidity in the CBEF is controllable.

  19. Ice Formation Process for Ice Thermal Energy Storage by Cooling Water-Oil Emulsion with Stirring in a Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Shinji; Okada, Masashi; Tsuchida, Daisuke; Kang, Chaedong; Matsumoto, Koji; Kawagoe, Tetuso

    A water-oil emulsion which is the mixture of silanol-aqueous solution and silicone oil was frozen in a vessel with stirring under various cooling temperatures. The cooling surfaces of the vessels were PTFE or PF A whose critical surface tension is relatively low. The effects of the wall thermal resistance on ice formation process were investigated. The relationship between the state of formed ice and cooling heat flux during freezing was c1arified. When the critical surface tension of the inner wall of the cooling surface is fixed, a smaller thermal resistance of wall enables the ice formation without ice adhesion to the surface at a higher ice formation rate. Ice can be formed without adhesion at the lower cooling temperature by using the vessel with a larger thermal resistance although the maximum cooling heat flux is relatively small. The maximum cooling heat flux decreases when the ratio of wall thermal resistance to overall thermal resistance before freezing is more than one half. It was shown that there were proper conditions to increase the cooling heat flux and that ice could be formed with high IPF under the proper conditions.

  20. Projected Life of the SLAC Linac Braze Joints: Braze integrity and corrosion of cooling water hardware on accelerator sections

    SciTech Connect

    Glesener, W.F.; Garwin, E.L.; /SLAC

    2006-07-17

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the condition of braze joints and cooling water hardware from an accelerator section after prolonged use. Metallographic analysis was used to examine critical sites on an accelerator section that had been in use for more than 30 years. The end flange assembly showed no internal operational damage or external environmental effects. The cavity cylinder stack showed no internal operational damage however the internal surface was highly oxidized. The internal surface of the cooling water tubing was uniformly corroding at a rate of about 1 mil per year and showed no evidence of pitting. Tee fitting internal surfaces are corroding at non-uniform rates due to general corrosion and pitting. Remaining service life of the cooling water jacket is estimated to be about 20 years or year 2027. At this time, water supply pressure will exceed allowable fitting pressure due to corrosion of tubing walls.

  1. The induction of water to the inlet air as a means of internal cooling in aircraft-engine cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, Addison M; Krsek, Alois, Jr; Jones, Anthony W

    1943-01-01

    Report presents the results of investigations conducted on a full-scale air-cooled aircraft-engine cylinder of 202-cubic inch displacement to determine the effects of internal cooling by water induction on the maximum permissible power and output of an internal-combustion engine. For a range of fuel-air and water-fuel ratios, the engine inlet pressure was increased until knock was detected aurally, the power was then decreased 7 percent holding the ratios constant. The data indicated that water was a very effective internal coolant, permitting large increases in engine power as limited by either knock or by cylinder temperatures.

  2. Factors affecting the recovery of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 from cooling tower water systems.

    PubMed

    Lu, H F; Tsou, M F; Huang, S Y; Tsai, W C; Chung, J G; Cheng, K S

    2001-09-01

    A total of 20 water samples collected from the cooling towers at 20 different sites were analyzed under various conditions for the presence of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. A comparative assessment was performed to evaluate methods of sample collection (spray drops, beneath water at 20- to 40-cm depth, and water outlet), concentration (filtration and centrifugation), acid buffer treatment (no treatment, treatment for 3, 5, and 15 min), and CO2 incubation or candle jar incubation. The reduction in viable colonies and false negative rate were compared for the different factors. No quantitative differences in isolation of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 was found among samples collected from water at a depth of 20 to 40 cm, from water outlet, and from spray drops. Treatment in an acid buffer for 15 min significantly reduced the recovery rate, with a reduction in bacterial counts of about 40%, compared with a 3-min (12%) or a 5-min (25%) treatment. Acid buffer treatment for 3 or 5 min reduced the overgrowth of commensal flora. This treatment improved the selectivity but not the sensitivity for L. pneumophila serogroup 1. Colonies on plates incubated at 37 degrees C in a candle jar with a humidified atmosphere grew better than those incubated at 35 degrees C with 5% CO2. These results demonstrate that methods of sample collection, concentration, and incubation, but not collection site, can affect the isolation rate for L. pneumophila serogroup 1.

  3. Multi-purpose rainwater harvesting for water resource recovery and the cooling effect.

    PubMed

    An, Kyoung Jin; Lam, Yun Fat; Hao, Song; Morakinyo, Tobi Eniolu; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2015-12-01

    The potential use of rainwater harvesting in conjunction with miscellaneous water supplies and a rooftop garden with rainwater harvesting facility for temperature reduction have been evaluated in this study for Hong Kong. Various water applications such as toilet flushing and areal climate controls have been systematically considered depending on the availability of seawater toilet flushing using the Geographic Information System (GIS). For water supplies, the district Area Precipitation per Demand Ratio (APDR) has been calculated to quantify the rainwater utilization potential of each administrative district in Hong Kong. Districts with freshwater toilet flushing prove to have higher potential for rainwater harvest and utilization compared to the areas with seawater toilet flushing. Furthermore, the effectiveness of using rainwater harvesting for miscellaneous water supplies in Hong Kong and Tokyo has been analyzed and compared; this revives serious consideration of diurnal and seasonal patterns of rainfall in applying such technology. In terms of the cooling effect, the implementation of a rooftop rainwater harvesting garden has been evaluated using the ENVI-met model. Our results show that a temperature drop of 1.3 °C has been observed due to the rainwater layer in the rain garden. This study provides valuable insight into the applicability of the rainwater harvesting for sustainable water management practice in a highly urbanized city. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Water Cooling on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 6N01 Aluminum Alloy P-MIG-Welded Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yi; Li, Haiyang; Liang, Zhimin; Wang, Dianlong

    2017-06-01

    In-process water cooling was applied to 8-mm-thick 6N01 aluminum alloy joined using the pulsed metal-inert gas (P-MIG) multi-pass welding method. The influence of the cooling conditions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joints were mainly discussed. Compared with natural cooling, under water cooling, the peak temperature decreased and the cooling rate increased substantially, leading to a decrease in the partially melted zone of the welded joint. The columnar grain sizes adjacent to the fusion boundary were much more elongated under water cooling than under natural cooling. In addition, when water cooling was performed, the width of the softened zone was approximately 6 mm smaller than that with natural cooling, and the overall microhardness of the welded joint was improved. The tensile and nominal yield strengths of the welded joint were approximately 11 and 7 MPa higher under water cooling than under natural cooling, respectively. The fracture surface morphology of the welded joints exhibited typical ductile fracture. Thus, water cooling can optimize the microstructure and improve the mechanical properties of the 6N01 alloy P-MIG-welded joint.

  5. Effect of Water Cooling on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 6N01 Aluminum Alloy P-MIG-Welded Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yi; Li, Haiyang; Liang, Zhimin; Wang, Dianlong

    2017-08-01

    In-process water cooling was applied to 8-mm-thick 6N01 aluminum alloy joined using the pulsed metal-inert gas (P-MIG) multi-pass welding method. The influence of the cooling conditions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joints were mainly discussed. Compared with natural cooling, under water cooling, the peak temperature decreased and the cooling rate increased substantially, leading to a decrease in the partially melted zone of the welded joint. The columnar grain sizes adjacent to the fusion boundary were much more elongated under water cooling than under natural cooling. In addition, when water cooling was performed, the width of the softened zone was approximately 6 mm smaller than that with natural cooling, and the overall microhardness of the welded joint was improved. The tensile and nominal yield strengths of the welded joint were approximately 11 and 7 MPa higher under water cooling than under natural cooling, respectively. The fracture surface morphology of the welded joints exhibited typical ductile fracture. Thus, water cooling can optimize the microstructure and improve the mechanical properties of the 6N01 alloy P-MIG-welded joint.

  6. Investigation of the falling water flow with evaporation for the passive containment cooling system and its scaling-down criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Li, Junming; Li, Le

    2017-09-01

    Falling water evaporation cooling could efficiently suppress the containment operation pressure during the nuclear accident, by continually removing the core decay heat to the atmospheric environment. In order to identify the process of large-scale falling water evaporation cooling, the water flow characteristics of falling film, film rupture and falling rivulet were deduced, on the basis of previous correlation studies. The influences of the contact angle, water temperature and water flow rates on water converge along the flow direction were then numerically obtained and results were compared with the data for AP1000 and CAP1400 nuclear power plants. By comparisons, it is concluded that the water coverage fraction of falling water could be enhanced by either reducing the surface contact angle or increasing the water temperature. The falling water flow with evaporation for AP1000 containment was then calculated and the feature of its water coverage fraction was analyzed. Finally, based on the phenomena identification of falling water flow for AP1000 containment evaporation cooling, the scaling-down is performed and the dimensionless criteria were obtained.

  7. Cool School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Suzanne

    1980-01-01

    The design for Floyd Elementary School in Miami (Florida) seeks to harness solar energy to provide at least 70 percent of the annual energy for cooling needs and 90 percent for hot water. (Author/MLF)

  8. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility tempered water and tempered water cooling system design description

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Tempered Water (TW) and Tempered Water Cooling (TWC) System . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the TW and TWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SOD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  9. A STUDY ON LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA, WATER CHEMISTRY, AND ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS IN COOLING TOWERS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.; Brigmon, R.

    2009-10-20

    Legionnaires disease is a pneumonia caused by the inhalation of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. The majority of illnesses have been associated with cooling towers since these devices can harbor and disseminate the bacterium in the aerosolized mist generated by these systems. Historically, Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling towers have had occurrences of elevated levels of Legionella in all seasons of the year and in patterns that are difficult to predict. Since elevated Legionella in cooling tower water are a potential health concern a question has been raised as to the best control methodology. In this work we analyze available chemical, biological, and atmospheric data to determine the best method or key parameter for control. The SRS 4Q Industrial Hygiene Manual, 4Q-1203, 1 - G Cooling Tower Operation and the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program, states that 'Participation in the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program is MANDATORY for all operating cooling towers'. The resulting reports include L. pneumophila concentration information in cells/L. L. pneumophila concentrations >10{sup 7} cells/L are considered elevated and unsafe so action must be taken to reduce these densities. These remedial actions typically include increase biocide addition or 'shocking'. Sometimes additional actions are required if the problem persists including increase tower maintenance (e.g. cleaning). Evaluation of 14 SRS cooling towers, seven water quality parameters, and five Legionella serogroups over a three-plus year time frame demonstrated that cooling tower water Legionella densities varied widely though out this time period. In fact there was no one common consistent significant variable across all towers. The significant factors that did show up most frequently were related to suspended particulates, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen, not chlorine or bromine as might be expected. Analyses of atmospheric data showed that there were more frequent significant elevated Legionella

  10. Effect of Some Factors on Critical Condition of Ice Formation for Flowing Supercooled Organic Water Solution in Cooled Circular Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Hideo; Miyahara, Satoshi; Takeya, Kengo

    Supercooling characteristics of three kinds of organic water solutions (D-Sorbitol, Glycerol, Glucose) in a forced flow were investigated experimentally. The critical condition of ice nucleation in a cooled circular tube was examined for concentration of water solution and cooling temperature under various Reynolds numbers. It was found that the flow velocity and cooling temperature conditions in a laminar flow region. However, in a turbulent flow region, the critical degree of supercooling was influenced by the flow velocity and cooling temperature. As a result, non-dimensional correlation equations for the critical condition of ice formation were derived in the laminar and turbulent flow region as a function of some non-dimensional parameters. While the ice making efficiency of D-Sorbitol water solution was measured under various Reynolds numbers and cooling temperature conditions on the stable supercooling condition. The ice making efficiency of supercooled organic water solution was influenced by the degree of the supercooling based on the mixed organic water solution temperature at the outlet of the inner tube.

  11. Thermal characteristics of air-water spray impingement cooling of hot metallic surface under controlled parametric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Santosh Kumar; Mishra, Purna Chandra

    2016-06-01

    Experimental results on the thermal characteristics of air-water spray impingement cooling of hot metallic surface are presented and discussed in this paper. The controlling input parameters investigated were the combined air and water pressures, plate thickness, water flow rate, nozzle height from the target surface and initial temperature of the hot surface. The effects of these input parameters on the important thermal characteristics such as heat transfer rate, heat transfer coefficient and wetting front movement were measured and examined. Hot flat plate samples of mild steel with dimension 120 mm in length, 120 mm breadth and thickness of 4 mm, 6 mm, and 8 mm respectively were tested. The air assisted water spray was found to be an effective cooling media and method to achieve very high heat transfer rate from the surface. Higher heat transfer rate and heat transfer coefficients were obtained for the lesser i.e, 4 mm thick plates. Increase in the nozzle height reduced the heat transfer efficiency of spray cooling. At an inlet water pressure of 4 bar and air pressure of 3 bar, maximum cooling rates 670°C/s and average cooling rate of 305.23°C/s were achieved for a temperature of 850°C of the steel plate.

  12. Numerical modeling of the influence of cool skin on the heat balance and thermal regime of a water body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chechin, D. G.; Repina, I. A.; Stepanenko, V. M.

    2010-08-01

    The influence that cool skin has on the energy exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean is investigated in this work. For this purpose, a series of numerical experiments with the use of the one-dimensional LAKE model of a water body were performed. Three types of cold-skin parameterization were used in this model. The data of in situ measurements in the coastal zone of the Black Sea, in the Arctic Ocean, and over Lake Sparkling served as the boundary and initial conditions. It has been established from the results of experiments that the LAKE model with the incorporated parameterization of the cool skin successfully reproduces cold-skin characteristics, namely, the difference between the temperature of the cool skin surface and the water temperature below the skin. The results of numerical experiments are within the variability of the results of in situ measurements. It has been shown that the presence of a cool skin reduces the heat losses of a body of water. The numerical experiments showed that the presence of a cool skin can change the thermal regime of a water body and its stratification by changing the heat balance at the surface. This result can be important for the modeling of many processes inside a body of water and at its surface, for example, gas and heat exchange.

  13. USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kent Zammit; Michael N. DiFilippo

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Produced water is generated nationally as a byproduct of oil and gas production. Seven states generate 90 percent of the produced water in the continental US. About 37 percent of the sources documented in the US Geological Survey's (USGS) Produced Waters Database have a TDS of less than 30,000 mg/l. This is significant because produced water treatment for reuse in power plants was found to be very costly above 30,000 mg/l TDS. For the purposes of this report, produced water treatment was assessed using the technologies evaluated for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) in Deliverable 3, Treatment and Disposal Analysis. Also, a methodology was developed to readily estimate capital and operating costs for produced water treatment. Two examples are presented to show how the cost estimating methodology can be used to evaluate the cost of treatment of produced water at power plants close to oil and gas production.

  14. [The ice water test and bladder cooling reflex. Physiology, pathophysiology and clinical importance].

    PubMed

    Hüsch, T; Neuerburg, T; Reitz, A; Haferkamp, A

    2016-04-01

    Urodynamic studies are utilised for identification and follow-up of functional disorders of the lower urinary tract. Provocation tests are used to determine disorders which could not be revealed in standard cystometry. The ice water test is a simple test to identify neurogenic bladder dysfunction and to screen the integrity of the upper motor neuron in neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Development and significance of the ice water test is presented in this review against the background of physiology and pathophysiology of the lower urinary tract. A systematic review of PubMed and ScienceDirect databases was performed in April 2015. No language or time limitation was applied. The following key words and Medical Subject Heading terms were used to identify relevant studies: "ice water test", "bladder cooling reflex", "micturition" and "neuronal control". Review articles and bibliographies of other relevant studies identified were hand searched to find additional studies. The ice water test is performed by rapid instillation of 4-8 °C cold fluid into the urinary bladder. Hereby, afferent C fibers are activated by cold receptors in the bladder leading to the bladder cooling reflex. It is a spinal reflex which causes an involuntarily contraction of the urinary bladder. The test is normally positive in young infants during the first 4 years of life and become negative with maturation of the central nervous system afterwards by inhibition of the reflex. The damage of the upper motor neuron causes the recurrence of the reflex in the adulthood and indicates spinal and cerebral lesions. The ice water test is utilised to identify lesions of the upper motor neuron. However, in the case of detrusor acontractility the test will always be negative and can not be utilized to distinguish between neurogenic or muscular causes. Furthermore, the test is also positive in a small percentage of cases of non-neurogenic diseases, e.g. in prostate-related bladder outlet obstruction or

  15. Water circuit closure with membrane technology in the pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Nuortila-Jokinen, J; Mänttäri, M; Huuhilo, T; Kallioinen, M; Nyström, M

    2004-01-01

    In this study, membrane filtration as an internal purification method, "the kidney", in the pulp and paper industry is discussed. Membrane filtration is economically competitive and a very versatile process. It can be used to remove the enriched organic and/or inorganic loads either partially or totally from, for example, the mechanical pulping and paper making water circuits and it can be applied to various points within the process. With the so-called shear enhanced membrane modules very high fluxes, in ultrafiltration about 400 L/(m2h) and in nanofiltration fluxes almost 200 L/(m2h), have been obtained. Depending on the membrane, suspended solids (microfiltration), polysaccharides, extractives and high molar mass lignous substances (ultrafiltration) and multivalent salts (nanofiltration) can be removed. Ultrafiltration permeate can well be used in paper machine showers to replace fresh water. The quality of the nanofiltration permeate is significantly higher than that of ultrafiltration. The membrane processes can be enhanced by various pre-treatment techniques to produce higher permeate fluxes and to eliminate membrane fouling. Such pre-treatment methods are, e.g., chemical treatment, ozonation and biological treatment. The most cost-effective processes were chemical flocculation, pH adjustment and thermophilic aerobic biological treatment.

  16. Use of Air2Air Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Mortensen

    2009-06-30

    This program was undertaken to build and operate the first Air2Air{trademark} Water Conservation Cooling Tower at a power plant, giving a validated basis and capability for water conservation by this method. Air2Air{trademark} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10%-25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate).

  17. What is "Normative" at Cooling Water Intakes? Defining Normalcy Before Judging Adverse

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, C.C.

    1998-09-23

    Judgments of adverse environmental impact from cooling water intake structures need to be preceded by an appreciation of what is normal. In its repo~ Return to the River, the Independent Scientd5c Group (now called the Independent Scientfilc Advisory Board) --the scientific peer review arm of the Northwest Power Planning Council-- advanced the notion of a "normative river ecosystem" as a new conceptual foundation for salrnonid recovery in the Columbia River basin. With this perspective, the sum of the best scientific understanding of how organisms and aquatic ecosystems function should be the norm or standard of measure for how we judge the effects of human activities on aquatic systems. ,For the best likelihood of recovery, key aspects of altered systems should be brought back toward nonnative (although not necessarily fully back to the historical or pristine state); new alterations should be judged for adversity by how much they move key attributes away from normative or what might be considered normal. In this presentation, I ask what "normative" is for the setting of cooling water intake structures and how this concept could help resolve long-standing disputes between groups interested in avoiding darnage to all organisms that might be entrained or impinged and those who take a more population or community perspective for judging adverse environmental impact. In essence, I suggest that if a water intake does not move the aquatic ecosystem outside the "normative" range, based on expressions of norrrdcy such as those discussed, then no adverse impact has occurred. Having an explicit baseline in normal or normative would place 316(b) analyses on the same conceptual foundation as 316(a) analyses, which strive to demonstrate the continuation of a balanced, indigenous community of aquatic organisms at the power station Iocation.

  18. Use of mean residence time of water, flowrate, and equilibrium temperature indicated by water geothermometers to rank geothermal resources. Application to the thermal water circuits of Northern Calabria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollaro, Carmine; Vespasiano, Giovanni; Muto, Francesco; De Rosa, Rosanna; Barca, Donatella; Marini, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    A new hydro-geochemical survey was carried out on the thermal sites of Northern Calabria. By use of new and historical data, it was possible to improve the knowledge on the deep systems of interest. First, thermal waters were characterized by means of a classical approach, including water classifications, use of the triangular diagram of Cl-Li-B, and geothermometry through suitably selected functions. Then, the tritium-based mean residence time and flowrate of the thermal waters of Northern Calabria were used to evaluate the volume of the geothermal reservoir and its component terms. Based on these results, the heat stored in the geothermal reservoir was computed by means of the volume method. Their natural heat discharge was also calculated. These parameters as well as the reservoir temperature indicated by water geothermometers were used to rank the geothermal resources of Northern Calabria. Sambiase resulted to be the thermal circuit of highest geothermal potential.

  19. Technology to Facilitate the Use of Impaired Waters in Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect

    Colborn, Robert

    2012-04-30

    The project goal was to develop an effective silica removal technology and couple that with existing electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) technology to achieve a cost effective treatment for impaired waters to allow for their use in the cooling towers of coal fired power plants. A quantitative target of the program was a 50% reduction in the fresh water withdrawal at a levelized cost of water of $3.90/Kgal. Over the course of the program, a new molybdenum-modified alumina was developed that significantly outperforms existing alumina materials in silica removal both kinetically and thermodynamically. The Langmuir capacity is 0.11g silica/g adsorbent. Moreover, a low cost recycle/regeneration process was discovered to allow for multiple recycles with minimal loss in activity. On the lab scale, five runs were carried out with no drop in performance between the second and fifth run in ability to absorb the silica from water. The Mo-modified alumina was successfully prepared on a multiple kilogram scale and a bench scale model column was used to remove 100 ppm of silica from 400 liters of simulated impaired water. Significant water savings would result from such a process and the regeneration process could be further optimized to reduce water requirements. Current barriers to implementation are the base cost of the adsorbent material and the fine powder form that would lead to back pressure on a large column. If mesoporous materials become more commonly used in other areas and the price drops from volume and process improvements, then our material would also lower in price because the amount of molybdenum needed is low and no additional processing is required. There may well be engineering solutions to the fine powder issue; in a simple concept experiment, we were able to pelletize our material with Boehmite, but lost performance due to a dramatic decrease in surface area.

  20. Effects of different cooling treatments on water diffusion, microcirculation, and water content within exercised muscles: evaluation by magnetic resonance T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Osamu; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we determined the effects of different cooling treatments on exercised muscles. Seven adults underwent four post-exercise treatments (20-min ice-bag application, 60-min gel-pack application at 10 degrees C and 17 degrees C, and non-cooling treatment) with at least 1 week between treatments. Magnetic resonance diffusion- and T2-weighted images were obtained to calculate the apparent diffusion coefficients (apparent diffusion coefficient 1, which reflects intramuscular water diffusion and microcirculation, and apparent diffusion coefficient 2, which is approximately equal to the true diffusion coefficient that excludes as much of the effect of intramuscular microcirculation as possible) and the T2 values (intramuscular water content level) of the ankle dorsiflexors, respectively, before and after ankle dorsiflexion exercise and after post-exercise treatment. The T2 values increased significantly after exercise and returned to pre-exercise values after each treatment; no significant differences were observed among the four post-exercise treatments. Both apparent diffusion coefficients also increased significantly after exercise and decreased significantly after the three cooling treatments; no significant difference was detected among the three cooling treatments. Local cooling suppresses both water diffusion and microcirculation within exercised muscles. Moreover, although the treatment time was longer, adequate cooling effects could be achieved using the gel-pack applications at relatively mild cooling temperatures.