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  1. Jacob Max Rabbie (1927-2013).

    PubMed

    Stroebe, Wolfgang; Zimbardo, Philip G

    2014-01-01

    Jacob Max Rabbie, an internationally renowned social psychologist and a founding member of the European Association of Social Psychology (EASP), died on June 29, 2013. Jaap was born in Haarlem, the Netherlands, on October 4, 1927. Jaap studied social psychology at the University of Amsterdam and became the face of Dutch social psychology. His later research focused on aggression between individuals and groups, his early work attempted to isolate the minimal conditions that suffice to generate discriminatory ingroup-outgroup attitudes. Jaap was a dedicated and passionate scientist, oriented to getting things right even when this meant going against the current stream.

  2. 75 FR 8187 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Renewals; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    .... Murray, Anthony D. Ovitt, John R. Parsons, III, Martin Postma, Steven S. Reinsvold, Michael J. Richard, Glenn T. Riley, George E. Todd, Gary S. Warren and Bradley A. Weiser. In accordance with 49 U.S.C. 31136.... Cozat, Alex G. Dlugolenski, Karen Y. Duvall, Nigel L. Farmer, Gordon R. Fritz, John A. Graham, Jimmy...

  3. How Can Science Help Us Care for Nature? Hermeneutics, Fragility, and Responsibility for the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joldersma, Clarence W.

    2009-01-01

    In this review essay, Clarence Joldersma argues for a novel role for science in developing an affirmative answer to his title question, "How can science help us care for nature?" He does so in dialogue with Clare Palmer's edited volume, "Teaching Environmental Ethics," Dirk Postma's "Why Care for Nature?" and Michael Bonnett's "Retrieving Nature."…

  4. Security Perception: Within and Beyond the Traditional Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    and Jaap de Wilde, Security: A New Framework for Analysis, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder London, 1998, pp. 110. 80 See Charles P. Kindleberger ...Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984. Kindleberger , Charles P., The World in

  5. 1975--Looking Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training and Development Journal, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Several prominent figures in the training and development/human resources profession offer their appraisals of the challenges facing practitioners in 1975. Included are Joe Batten, Martin Broadwell, Kate Kirkham, Malcolm Knowles, Tom Jaap, Gordon Lippitt, George Ordione, and Ben Treoge. (MW)

  6. Lack of Effectiveness of the 23-Valent Polysaccharide Pneumococcal Vaccine in Reducing All-Cause Pneumonias Among Healthy Young Military Recruits: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-08

    his pathogen [14]. Civilian cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness studies performed rior to this study suggested that vaccination against pneumococ- al...pneumonia would create net health improvements in every ge group and that vaccination programs for those considered at igh risk were economically...justified [22,23]. Beutels and Postma emonstrated that vaccination of those between 65 and 75 years f age, immunocompromised individuals, and military

  7. Evaluation of the Dental Effects of Laryngopharyngeal Reflux

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    of Clinical Gastroenterology, 8(2), 131-134. Mokdad, A., Ford, E., Bowman, B ., Dietz, W., Vinicor, F ., Bales, V., et al. {2001). Prevalence of...Ernst, T., Gennoni, M., Zeyen, B ., Halter, F ., & Merki, H. (1990). Tolerance to oral HZ-receptor antagonists. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 35(8...but up to 50 GER episodes per day is considered within the normal range (Demeester, Johnson, Joseph, Toscano, Hall, & Skinner , 1976; Postma, 2000). A

  8. Markers associated with testosterone enhancement of methamphetamine-induced striatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Buletko, A Blake; Dluzen, Dean E; McDermott, Janet L; Darvesh, Altaf S; Geldenhuys, Werner J

    2012-01-01

    Intact male CD-1 mice received an injection of testosterone propionate (TP--5 ug), progesterone (P--5 mg), the oil vehicle or remained untreated (control). At 24 hours after hormonal treatments the mice received an injection of methamphetamine (MA--40 mg/kg) and rectal temperatures were measured. At 5 days post-MA, assays were performed to assess effects of these treatments. Maximal increases in body temperatures, that were significantly greater than oil-treated controls, were obtained in TP-treated mice. At 5 days post-MA, maximal weight reductions were obtained with TP-treated mice, while P-treated mice showed no significant decrease between the pre- versus post-MA determinations. Striatal dopamine concentrations showed maximal reductions and heat-shock protein-70 maximal increases in the TP group, with both differing significantly as compared with all other groups. Protein levels of dopamine transporters were significantly decreased in P-treated mice, while vesicular monoamine transporter-2 was significantly decreased in TP-treated mice. Taken together, these results suggest that testosterone exacerbates the deleterious effects of MA within male mice as indicated by a number of markers related to neurotoxicity. The changes in markers as associated with this enhanced neurotoxicity suggest that TP may increase thermal/energy responses and/or oxidative stress to produce this effect.

  9. Sub-Saharan Africa Report Tables of Contents JPRS-SSA-86-096, 17 September 1986-JPRS-SSA-86-125, 30 December 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Bophuthatswana (THE CITIZEN, 2 Sep 86) 118 INDUSTRIAL/S&T Giant Water Project Aims to Double Vaal River System Supply (Jaap Boekkooi; THE STAR, 9 Sep 86...Lawyers Discuss Forming Giant National Organization (THE NEW NATION, 11-24 Sep 86) 87 - ,- d - 56 ! Drop in Necklace Killings Seen as...Safto Publishes RSA-US Trade Figures 103 Threats to Clothing Exports 103 Manganese Ore Sintering Plant 103 U.S. Pharmaceutical Giant Sells Stake 104

  10. Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from the Brazilian Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, C H; Huang, C S; Cares, J E

    1985-07-01

    Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. was found in the rhizospheres of Jatropha curcas, Musa sp., Anona muricata, Cassia tora, Panicum laxum, Paspalum fasciculatum, Aeschynomene sensitiva, Saccharum officinarum, Manihot esculenta, Abelmoschus esculentus, Tamarindus indica, Mangifera indica, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Commelina sp., Cyperus rotundus, Fimbristylis miliacea, Citrus sinensis, and Eichhornia crassipes on the Amazon River island of Xiborena, approximately 40 km southeast of Manaus, capital of the State of Amazonas. The type habitat is flooded annually for about 6 months by the Amazon River. Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. differs from the closely related species Xiphidorus yepesara Monteiro, 1976 by the larger size, by a, b, and c values, and by the rounded tail terminus. It also resembles Xiphidorus tucumanensis Chaves and Coomans, 1984, but can be distinguished by its larger size, larger a, b, and c values, more conical female tail, bilobed amphidial pouch, and the presence of a spermatheca full of sperm.

  11. Working memory contributes to the encoding of object location associations: Support for a 3-part model of object location memory.

    PubMed

    Gillis, M Meredith; Garcia, Sarah; Hampstead, Benjamin M

    2016-09-15

    A recent model by Postma and colleagues posits that the encoding of object location associations (OLAs) requires the coordination of several cognitive processes mediated by ventral (object perception) and dorsal (spatial perception) visual pathways as well as the hippocampus (feature binding) [1]. Within this model, frontoparietal network recruitment is believed to contribute to both the spatial processing and working memory task demands. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test each step of this model in 15 participants who encoded OLAs and performed standard n-back tasks. As expected, object processing resulted in activation of the ventral visual stream. Object in location processing resulted in activation of both the ventral and dorsal visual streams as well as a lateral frontoparietal network. This condition was also the only one to result in medial temporal lobe activation, supporting its role in associative learning. A conjunction analysis revealed areas of shared activation between the working memory and object in location phase within the lateral frontoparietal network, anterior insula, and basal ganglia; consistent with prior working memory literature. Overall, findings support Postma and colleague's model and provide clear evidence for the role of working memory during OLA encoding.

  12. Chemical and toxicological characterization of slurry reactor biotreatment of explosives-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Stewart, A.J.; Vass, A.A.; Ho, C.H.

    1998-08-01

    Treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated soil in the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP) soil slurry bioreactor (SSBR) eliminated detectable TNT but left trace levels of residual monoamino and diamino metabolites under some reactor operating conditions. The reduction of solvent-extractable bacterial mutagenicity in the TNT-contaminated soil was substantial and was similar to that achieved by static pile composts at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA) field demonstration. Aquatic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia from TNT in the leachates of TNT-contaminated soil was eliminated in the leachates of JAAP SSBR product soil. The toxicity of soil product leachates to Ceriodaphnia dubia was reasonably predicted using the specific toxicities of the components detected, weighted by their leachate concentrations. In samples where TNT metabolites were observed in the soil product and its leachates, this method determined that the contribution to predicted toxicity values was dominated by trace amounts of the diamino-metabolites, which are very toxic to ceriodaphnia dubia. When the SSBR operating conditions reduced the concentrations of TNT metabolites in the product soils and their leachates to undetectable concentrations, the main contributors to predicted aquatic toxicity values appeared to be molasses residues, potassium, and bicarbonate. Potassium and bicarbonate are beneficial or benign to the environment, and molasses residues are substantially degraded in the environment. Exotoxins, pathogenic bacteria, inorganic particles, ammonia, and dissolved metals did not appear to be important to soil product toxicity.

  13. Brain regions involved in subprocesses of small-space episodic object-location memory: a systematic review of lesion and functional neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; Eschen, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Object-location memory (OLM) enables us to keep track of the locations of objects in our environment. The neurocognitive model of OLM (Postma, A., Kessels, R. P. C., & Van Asselen, M. (2004). The neuropsychology of object-location memory. In G. L. Allen (Ed.), Human spatial memory: Remembering where (pp. 143-160). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, Postma, A., Kessels, R. P. C., & Van Asselen, M. (2008). How the brain remembers and forgets where things are: The neurocognition of object-location memory. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, 1339-1345. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.05.001 ) proposes that distinct brain regions are specialised for different subprocesses of OLM (object processing, location processing, and object-location binding; categorical and coordinate OLM; egocentric and allocentric OLM). It was based mainly on findings from lesion studies. However, recent episodic memory studies point to a contribution of additional or different brain regions to object and location processing within episodic OLM. To evaluate and update the neurocognitive model of OLM, we therefore conducted a systematic literature search for lesion as well as functional neuroimaging studies contrasting small-space episodic OLM with object memory or location memory. We identified 10 relevant lesion studies and 8 relevant functional neuroimaging studies. We could confirm some of the proposals of the neurocognitive model of OLM, but also differing hypotheses from episodic memory research, about which brain regions are involved in the different subprocesses of small-space episodic OLM. In addition, we were able to identify new brain regions as well as important research gaps.

  14. Transversely isotropic elasticity and poroelasticity arising from thin isotropic layers

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J.G.

    1997-07-01

    Since the classic work of Postma [1955] and Backus [1962], much has been learned about elastic constants in vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) media when the anisotropy is due to fine layering of isotropic elastic materials. However, new results are still being discovered. For example, the P-wave anisotropy parameter c{sub 11}/c{sub 33} lies in the range 1/4 {<=} c{sub 11}/c{sub 33} {<=} <{lambda}+2{mu}><1/({lambda}+2{mu})>, when the layers are themselves composed of isotropic elastic materials with Lame constants {lambda} and {mu} and the vertical average of the layers is symbolized by <{center_dot}>. The lower bound corrects a result of Postma. For porous layers, a connected solid frame forms the basis of the elastic behavior of a poroelastic medium in the presence of confining forces, while connected pores permit a percolating fluid (if present) to influence the mechanical response of the system from within. For isotropic and anisotropic poroelastic media, we establish general formulas for the behavior of transversely isotropic poroelasticity arising from laminations of isotropic components. The Backus averaging method is shown to provide elementary means of constructing general formulas. The results for confined fluids are then compared with the more general Gassmann [1951] formulas that must be satisfied by any anisotropic poroelastic medium and found to be in complete agreement. Such results are important for applications to oil exploration using AVO (amplitude versus offset) since the presence or absence of a fluid component, as well as the nature of the fluid, is the critical issue and the ways in which the fluid influences seismic reflection data still need to be better understood.

  15. Electrophoretic fingerprinting of benzodiazepine tablets in spike drinks.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, Jorge; Ortega-Ojeda, Fernando; López-Melero, Lucía; Montalvo, Gema; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    Over the last few years, there has been an increase in the reports of drug-facilitated crimes. The list of drugs associated with these crimes is extensive and benzodiazepines constitute one of the groups of substances more commonly used. The sedative properties, which characterize benzodiazepines, are enhanced when such drugs are combined with alcohol, being more attractive for committing these types of crimes. In this work, a capillary electrophoresis method was applied to the analysis of 63 different samples of club drinks spiked with benzodiazepine tablets. The resulting electropherograms were processed and analyzed with the chemometric multivariate techniques: principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA) classification. The PCA results allowed a clear differentiation of each drug class in a 3D plot. In addition, the SIMCA classification model (5% significance level) showed that eight out of nine test samples were automatically assigned by software to their proper sample class. The conflicting sample was correctly classified in the Coomans' plot (95% confidence). This novel approach based on the comparison of electrophoretic profiles of spiked drinks by chemometric tools allows determining the benzodiazepine used for drink spiking without the use of drug standards. Moreover, it provides an opportunity for the forensic laboratories to incorporate the identification capability provided by the electrophoretic fingerprinting of benzodiazepine solutions in existing or new databases.

  16. Uptake of explosives from contaminated soil by vegetation at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.F.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Zellmer, S.D.; Banwart, W.L.; Houser, W.P.

    1994-06-01

    This study examines the uptake of explosives by vegetation growing on soils contaminated by 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in Group 61 at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP). Plant materials and soil from the root zone were sampled and analyzed to determine TNT uptake under natural field conditions. Standard USATHAMA methods were used to determine concentrations of explosives, their derivatives, and metabolites in the soil samples. No- explosives were detected in the aboveground portion of any plant sample. However, results indicate that TNT, 2-aminodinitrotoluene (2-ADNT), and/or 4-ADNT were present in some root samples. The presence of 2-ADNT and 4-ADNT increases the likelihood that explosives were taken up by plant roots, as opposed to their presence resulting from external soil contamination.

  17. Semiconductor ring lasers as optical neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coomans, W.; Gelens, L.; Mashal, L.; Beri, S.; Van der Sande, G.; Danckaert, J.; Verschaffelt, G.

    2012-06-01

    Semiconductor Ring Lasers (SRLs) are a modern class of semiconductor lasers whose active cavity is characterized by a circular geometry. This enables the laser to support two counterpropagating modes, referred to as the clockwise (CW) and the counterclockwise (CCW) mode. Semiconductor ring lasers have been shown to have a regime of operation in which they are excitable, when the linear coupling between the counterpropagating modes is asymmetric. This can be achieved by increasing the reflection of, for example, the CW mode into the CCW mode. This will stabilize lasing in the CCW mode. In the excitable regime, the SRL will fire optical pulses (spikes) in the CW mode as a response to noise perturbations. In this contribution we experimentally and theoretically characterize these spikes. Our experiments reveal a statistical distribution of the characteristics of the optical pulses that is not observed in regular excitable systems. In particular, an inverse correlation exists between the pulse amplitude and duration. Numerical simulations and an interpretation in an asymptotic phase space confirm and explain these experimentally observed pulse characteristics [L. Gelens et al., Phys. Rev. A 82 063841, 2010]. We will also theoretically consider asymmetric SRLs coupled through a single bus waveguide. This is a first step towards an integrated optical neural network using semiconductor ring lasers as building blocks. We will show that for weak coupling, excitatory excursions still persist due to the similar phase space structure. Moreover, the coupled SRLs can excite pulses in each other and can thus function as communicating neurons [W. Coomans et al., Phys. Rev. E 84 036209, 2011]. This type of neural network can be fully integrated on chip and does not suffer from the drawback of needing extra-cavity measures, such as optical injection or saturable absorbers.

  18. Description of two new and six known species of the genus Tylencholaimus de Man, 1876 (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) with a diagnostic compendium and key to species.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Sumaya; Ahmad, Wasim

    2016-05-04

    Two new and six known species of the soil-inhabiting nematode genus Tylencholaimus de Man, 1876 are described and illustrated. Tylencholaimus arakii sp. n. is characterized by having 0.56-0.65 mm long body; lip region cap-like, set off by a shallow constriction; labial disc present; odontostyle 7-8 µm and odontophore 7-8 µm long, with well-developed, asymmetrical basal knobs; total spear length 15 μm; pharynx with slender anterior part which expands abruptly into the cylindrical basal bulb occupying about 45-47% of total neck length; female genital system mono-prodelphic; transverse vulva and short, hemispheroid tail. Tylencholaimus ladakhiensis sp. n. is characterized by having 0.56-0.73 mm long, slender body; lip region cap-like, set off by a slight constriction; amphid aperture slit-like; odontostyle slender 7-9 µm, with comparatively narrow lumen, odontophore 8-9 µm long; pharynx with slender anterior part which expands abruptly into the cylindrical basal bulb, occupying about 38-45% of total neck length; female genital system didelphic-amphidelphic and rounded-conoid tail, with distinct terminal caudal pore. Tylencholaimus proximus Thorne, 1939; Tylencholaimus mongolicus Andrássy, 1967; Tylencholaimus vulvulatus Rahman, Jairajpuri, Ahmad & Ahmad, 1987; Tylencholaimus ibericus Peña-Santiago & Coomans, 1994; Tylencholaimus imperanus Mohilal & Dhanachand, 2003 and Tylencholaimus cosmos (Dhanam & Jairajpuri, 1999) Peña-Santiago, 2008 are redescribed. Tylencholaimus proximus and Tylencholaimus mongolicus are reported for the first time from India and a male is reported for the first time for T. imperanus. A diagnostic key and compendium to species of the genus Tylencholaimus is provided.

  19. Two semiconductor ring lasers coupled by a single-waveguide for optical memory operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Sande, Guy; Coomans, Werner; Gelens, Lendert

    2014-05-01

    Semiconductor ring lasers are semiconductor lasers where the laser cavity consists of a ring-shaped waveguide. SRLs are highly integrable and scalable, making them ideal candidates for key components in photonic integrated circuits. SRLs can generate light in two counterpropagating directions between which bistability has been demonstrated. Hence, information can be coded into the emission direction. This bistable operation allows SRLs to be used in systems for all-optical switching and as all-optical memories. For the demonstration of fast optical flip-flop operation, Hill et al. [Nature 432, 206 (2004)] fabricated two SRLs coupled by a single waveguide, rather than a solitary SRL. Nevertheless, the literature shows that a single SRL can also function perfectly as an all-optical memory. In our recent paper [W. Coomans et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 033813, (2013)], we have raised the question whether coupling two SRLs to realize a single optical memory has any advantage over using a solitary SRL, taking into account the obvious disadvantage of a doubled footprint and power consumption. To provide the answer, we have presented in that paper a numerical study of the dynamical behavior of semiconductor ring lasers coupled by a single bus waveguide, both when weakly coupled and when strongly coupled. We have provided a detailed analysis of the multistable landscape in the coupled system, analyzed the stability of all solutions and related the internal dynamics in the individual lasers to the field effectively measured at the output of the waveguide. We have shown which coupling phases generally promote instabilities and therefore need to be avoided in the design. Regarding all-optical memory operation, we have demonstrated that there is no real advantage for bistable memory operation compared to using a solitary SRL. An increased power suppression ratio has been found to be mainly due to the destructive interference of the SRL fields at the low power port. Also

  20. A systematic revision of Baconia Lewis (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Exosternini)

    PubMed Central

    Caterino, Michael S.; Tishechkin, Alexey K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Here we present a complete revision of the species of Baconia. Up until now there have been 27 species assigned to the genus (Mazur, 2011), in two subgenera (Binhister Cooman and Baconia s. str.), with species in the Neotropical, Nearctic, Palaearctic, and Oriental regions. We recognize all these species as valid and correctly assigned to the genus, and redescribe all of them. We synonymize Binhister, previously used for a polyphyletic assemblage of species with varied relationships in the genus. We move four species into Baconia from other genera, and describe 85 species as new, bringing the total for the genus to 116 species. We divide these into 12 informal species groups, leaving 13 species unplaced to group. We present keys and diagnoses for all species, as well as habitus photos and illustrations of male genitalia for nearly all. The genus now contains the following species and species groups: Baconia loricata group [Baconia loricata Lewis, 1885, B. patula Lewis, 1885, Baconia gounellei (Marseul, 1887a), Baconia jubaris (Lewis, 1901), Baconia festiva (Lewis, 1891), Baconia foliosoma sp. n., Baconia sapphirina sp. n., Baconia furtiva sp. n., Baconia pernix sp. n., Baconia applanatis sp. n., Baconia disciformis sp. n., Baconia nebulosa sp. n., Baconia brunnea sp. n.], Baconia godmani group [Baconia godmani (Lewis, 1888), Baconia venusta (J. E. LeConte, 1845), Baconia riehli (Marseul, 1862), comb. n., Baconia scintillans sp. n., Baconia isthmia sp. n., Baconia rossi sp. n., Baconia navarretei sp. n., Baconia maculata sp. n., Baconia deliberata sp. n., Baconia excelsa sp. n., Baconia violacea (Marseul, 1853), Baconia varicolor (Marseul, 1887b), Baconia dives (Marseul, 1862), Baconia eximia (Lewis, 1888), Baconia splendida sp. n., Baconia jacinta sp. n., Baconia prasina sp. n., Baconia opulenta sp. n., Baconia illustris (Lewis, 1900), Baconia choaspites (Lewis, 1901), Baconia lewisi Mazur, 1984], Baconia salobrus group [Baconia salobrus (Marseul, 1887b

  1. Dexmedetomidine blocks thermal hyperalgesia and spinal glial activation in rat model of monoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bo; Zhang, Wei-shi; Yang, Jia-le; Xu, Hua; Deng, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Yu-qiu

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of systemic administration dexmedetomidine, a selective alpha 2 adrenergic receptor (α2AR) agonist, on thermal hyperalgesia and spinal glial activation evoked by monoarthritis (MA). Methods: MA was induced by an intra-articular injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Thermal hyperalgesia was measured by Hargreaves' test. The spinal glial activation status was analyzed by GFAP (an astrocytic marker) and Iba-1 (a microglial marker) immunohistochemistry or immunoblotting. Results: Unilateral intra-articular injection of CFA produced a robust glial activation of astrocytes and microglia in the spinal cord, which was associated with the development and maintenance of thermal hyperalgesia. Intraperitoneal (ip) injection of dexmedetomidine (2.5 and 10 μg/kg) was repeatedly given once daily for 5 days with the first injection 60 min before intra-articular CFA. At the dose of 10 μg/kg, dexmedetomidine significantly attenuated MA-induced ipsilateral hyperalgesia from day 2 to day 5. MA-induced up-regulation of GFAP expression on both sides of the spinal dorsal horn was significantly suppressed by day 5 post-MA following dexmedetomidine application, whereas MA-induced Iba-1 up-regulation was only partially suppressed. Conclusion: Systemic dexmedetomidine inhibits the activation of spinal glia, which is possibly associated with its antihyperalgesia in monoarthritic rats. PMID:20364156

  2. SPARC-90: A code for calculating fission product capture in suppression pools

    SciTech Connect

    Owczarski, P.C.; Burk, K.W. )

    1991-10-01

    This report describes the technical bases and use of two updated versions of a computer code initially developed to serve as a tool for calculating aerosol particle retention in boiling water reactor (BWR) pressure suppression pools during severe accidents, SPARC-87 and SPARC-90. The most recent version is SPARC-90. The initial or prototype version (Owczarski, Postma, and Schreck 1985) was improved to include the following: rigorous treatment of local particle deposition velocities on the surface of oblate spherical bubbles, new correlations for hydrodynamic behavior of bubble swarms, models for aerosol particle growth, both mechanistic and empirical models for vent exit region scrubbing, specific models for hydrodynamics of bubble breakup at various vent types, and models for capture of vapor iodine species. A complete user's guide is provided for SPARC-90 (along with SPARC-87). A code description, code operating instructions, partial code listing, examples of the use of SPARC-90, and summaries of experimental data comparison studies also support the use of SPARC-90. 29 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. The thermodynamic and ground state properties of the TIP4P water octamer.

    PubMed

    Asare, E; Musah, A-R; Curotto, E; Freeman, David L; Doll, J D

    2009-11-14

    Several stochastic simulations of the TIP4P [W. L. Jorgensen, J. Chandrasekhar, J. D. Madura, R. W. Impey, and M. L. Klein, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 926 (1983)] water octamer are performed. Use is made of the stereographic projection path integral and the Green's function stereographic projection diffusion Monte Carlo techniques, recently developed in one of our groups. The importance sampling for the diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is obtained by optimizing a simple wave function using variational Monte Carlo enhanced with parallel tempering to overcome quasiergodicity problems. The quantum heat capacity of the TIP4P octamer contains a pronounced melting peak at 160 K, about 50 K lower than the classical melting peak. The zero point energy of the TIP4P water octamer is 0.0348+/-0.0002 hartree. By characterizing several large samples of configurations visited by both guided and unguided diffusion walks, we determine that both the TIP4P and the SPC [H. J. C. Berendsen, J. P. Postma, W. F. von Gunsteren, and J. Hermans, (Intermolecular Forces, Reidel, 1981). p. 331] octamer have a ground state wave functions predominantly contained within the D(2d) basin of attraction. This result contrasts with the structure of the global minimum for the TIP4P potential, which is an S(4) cube. Comparisons of the thermodynamic and ground-state properties are made with the SPC octamer as well.

  4. Rescuing psychoanalysis from Freud: the common project of Stekel, Jung and Ferenczi.

    PubMed

    Rudnytsky, Peter L

    2006-01-01

    This article offers an extended discussion of Wilhelm Stekel's "On the History of the Analytic Movement" (1926), published in English translation for the first time in "Psychoanalysis and History" 7(1) in 2005. It begins with a critique of the presentation of Stekel's text by Jaap Bos, who takes a purely rhetorical approach that seeks to exclude a psychological analysis of the author's motives. Bos's characterization of Stekel is likewise contested as unduly negative in crucial respects. The second section argues that it remains the task of the historian to search for truth. Attacks on the credibility of Jung by Harold Blum and Kurt Eissler are shown to reflect a bias that causes them to neglect the empirical evidence corroborating Jung's testimony concerning key events in his relationship to Freud. The third section lays out the numerous ways in which Stekel, Jung and Ferenczi independently arrived at remarkably similar judgements concerning Freud's character, and how his human failings exerted a harmful effect on the development of psychoanalysis. The final section moves to a discussion of how Stekel joins with Jung and Ferenczi in defining a common project of rescuing what is best in psychoanalysis from Freud's demands for personal loyalty and his attempts to subjugate his followers to intellectual tyranny.

  5. Uptake of explosives from contaminated soil by existing vegetation at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.F.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Zellmer, S.D.; Banwart, W.L. |

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the uptake of explosives by existing vegetation growing in TNT-contaminated soils on Group 61 at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP). The soils in this group were contaminated more than 40 years ago. In this study, existing plant materials and soil from the root zone were sampled from 15 locations and analyzed to determine TNT uptake by plants under natural field conditions. Plant materials were separated by species if more than one species was present at a sampling location. Standard methods were used to determine concentrations of explosives, their derivatives, and metabolites in the soil samples. Plant materials were also analyzed. No. explosives were detected in the aboveground portion of any plant sample. However, the results indicate that TNT, 2-amino DNT, and/or 4-amino DNT were found in some root samples of false boneset (Kuhnia eupatorioides), teasel (Dipsacus sylvestris), and bromegrass (Bromus inermis). It is possible that slight soil contamination remained on the roots, especially in the case of the very fine roots for species like bromegrass, where washing was difficult. The presence of 2-amino DNT and 4-amino DNT, which could be plant metabolites of TNT, increases the likelihood that explosives were taken up by plant roots, as opposed to their presence resulting from external soil contamination.

  6. Genome-wide protein QTL mapping identifies human plasma kallikrein as a post-translational regulator of serum uPAR levels

    PubMed Central

    Portelli, Michael A.; Siedlinski, Mateusz; Stewart, Ceri E.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Nieuwenhuis, Maartje A.; Vonk, Judith M.; Nurnberg, Peter; Altmuller, Janine; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Wardlaw, Andrew J.; Parker, Stuart G.; Connolly, Martin J.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Sayers, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The soluble cleaved urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (scuPAR) is a circulating protein detected in multiple diseases, including various cancers, cardiovascular disease, and kidney disease, where elevated levels of scuPAR have been associated with worsening prognosis and increased disease aggressiveness. We aimed to identify novel genetic and biomolecular mechanisms regulating scuPAR levels. Elevated serum scuPAR levels were identified in asthma (n=514) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n=219) cohorts when compared to controls (n=96). In these cohorts, a genome-wide association study of serum scuPAR levels identified a human plasma kallikrein gene (KLKB1) promoter polymorphism (rs4253238) associated with serum scuPAR levels in a control/asthma population (P=1.17×10−7), which was also observed in a COPD population (combined P=5.04×10−12). Using a fluorescent assay, we demonstrated that serum KLKB1 enzymatic activity was driven by rs4253238 and is inverse to scuPAR levels. Biochemical analysis identified that KLKB1 cleaves scuPAR and negates scuPAR's effects on primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) in vitro. Chymotrypsin was used as a proproteolytic control, while basal HBECs were used as a control to define scuPAR-driven effects. In summary, we reveal a novel post-translational regulatory mechanism for scuPAR using a hypothesis-free approach with implications for multiple human diseases.—Portelli, M. A., Siedlinski, M., Stewart, C. E., Postma, D. S., Nieuwenhuis, M. A., Vonk, J. M., Nurnberg, P., Altmuller, J., Moffatt, M. F., Wardlaw, A. J., Parker, S. G., Connolly, M. J., Koppelman, G. H., Sayers, I. Genome-wide protein QTL mapping identifies human plasma kallikrein as a post-translational regulator of serum uPAR levels. PMID:24249636

  7. CONFERENCE NOTE: Forthcoming Conference on Electromagnetic Metrology and Related Fundamental Contants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-01-01

    The 1984 CPEM—the world's leading international biennial conference for electromagnetic metrology and related fundamental constants—will be held on 20 24 August, 1984, at Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands. Papers are requested for CPEM 84 which describe original work, not published or previously presented, covering the design, performance or application of electromagnetic measurements, techniques, instruments or systems. In cooperation with the relevant commission of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) the Conference Committee has decided that topics on fundamental constants related to electromagnetic measurements will also be part of CPEM 84. All papers concerned with EM-measurements and related fundamental constants will be considered. Papers in the following fields are regarded as particularly appropriate for this conference: EM-based fundamental constants and standards direct current and low frequency time and frequency antennas and fields microwaves and millimeter waves (micro)computer-aided measurements infrared, visible and ultraviolet radiation electro optics, fibre optics lasers cryo-electronics technical calibration services. The conference language will be English. Authors are requested to submit a summary (500 1000 words) along with an abstract (maximum 50 words) to facilitate paper selection by the programme committee. The summary must describe clearly what new and significant results have been obtained and why the results are important. Summaries must be received on or before 1 February, 1984 and must be sent to Prof. dr. H Postma, Technical Programme Chairman CPEM 84, Delft University of Technology, PO Box 5046, NL-2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands. Authors will be notified before 15 May, 1984 whether their papers are accepted and informed of the manner of presentation and possible publication in the IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. conference issue.

  8. Disfluency clusters of children who stutter: relation of stutterings to self-repairs.

    PubMed

    LaSalle, L R; Conture, E G

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to account for the frequency, type, and possible origins of speech disfluency clusters in the spontaneous speech of 3- to 6-year-old children, 30 who stutter and 30 who do not stutter. On the basis of the Covert Repair Hypothesis (Postma & Kolk, 1993), which suggests that stutterings are the by-products of self-repairs or self-corrections of speech errors, three hypotheses were tested in attempts to account for the frequency and location of stutterings within speech disfluency clusters. Sequences of various types of speech disfluencies in utterances containing disfluency clusters were collected from audio/videotaped conversations between each of these 60 children and their mothers. Three types of speech disfluencies--overt self-repairs, covert self-repairs, and within-word disfluencies ("stutterings")--and the disfluency clusters they comprised, were identified and analyzed frame-by-frame. Results indicated that children who stutter produced significantly more stuttering-stuttering clusters (e.g., "I-I-I w-w-want ..." or "w-w-waaaant") and that, although children who do not stutter occasionally produced stutterings, they never produced stuttering-stuttering clusters. Furthermore, children who stutter produced significantly more stuttering-repair clusters, whereas children who do not stutter produced significantly more repair-repair clusters. Within the disfluency clusters of children who do not stutter, stutterings were more likely to follow an overt self-repair produced at a relatively fast speaking rate (6.6 sylls/sec). Findings are taken to suggest that stuttering-stuttering clusters may help differentiate between children who do and do not stutter, and that speech errors, self-repairs, and speech disfluencies influence one another within and between adjacent sounds, syllables, and words in what appears to be a nonhappenstance and theoretically important fashion.

  9. The Effects of Naltrexone on Subjective Response to Methamphetamine in a Clinical Sample: a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Laboratory Study.

    PubMed

    Ray, Lara A; Bujarski, Spencer; Courtney, Kelly E; Moallem, Nathasha R; Lunny, Katy; Roche, Daniel; Leventhal, Adam M; Shoptaw, Steve; Heinzerling, Keith; London, Edythe D; Miotto, Karen

    2015-09-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) use disorder is a serious psychiatric condition for which there are no FDA-approved medications. Naltrexone (NTX) is an opioid receptor antagonist with demonstrated efficacy, albeit moderate, for the treatment of alcoholism and opioid dependence. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that NTX may be useful for the treatment of MA use disorder. To inform treatment development, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled human laboratory study of NTX. Non-treatment-seeking individuals meeting DSM-IV criteria for MA abuse or dependence (n=30) completed two separate 5-day inpatient stays. During each admission, participants completed testing sessions comprised of MA cue-reactivity and intravenous MA administration (30 mg) after receiving oral NTX (50 mg) or placebo for 4 days. This study tested the hypotheses that NTX would (a) attenuate cue-induced MA craving, and (b) reduce subjective responses to MA administration. Results largely supported the study hypotheses such that (a) NTX significantly blunted cue-induced craving for MA and (b) attenuated several of the hedonic subjective effects of MA, including craving, during controlled MA administration and as compared with placebo. NTX decreased overall subjective ratings of 'crave drug,' 'stimulated,' and 'would like drug access,' decreased the the post-MA administration timecourse of 'anxious' and increased ratings of 'bad drug effects,' as compared with placebo. These findings support a potential mechanism of action by showing that NTX reduced cue-induced craving and subjective responses to MA. This is consistent with positive treatment studies of NTX for amphetamine dependence, as well as ongoing clinical trials for MA.

  10. A novel fermentation strategy for removing the key inhibitor acetic acid and efficiently utilizing the mixed sugars from lignocellulosic hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Eiteman PHD; Elliot Altman Phd

    2009-02-11

    As part of preliminary research efforts, we have completed several experiments which demonstrate 'proof of concept.' These experiments addressed the following three questions: (1) Can a synthetic mixed sugar solution of glucose and xylose be efficiently consumed using the multi-organism approach? (2) Can this approach be used to accumulate a model product? (3) Can this approach be applied to the removal of an inhibitor, acetate, selectively from mixtures of xylose and glucose? To answer the question of whether this multi-organism approach can effectively consume synthetic mixed sugar solutions, we first tested substrate-selective uptake using two strains, one unable to consume glucose and one unable to consume xylose. The xylose-selective strain ALS998 has mutations in the three genes involved in glucose uptake, rendering it unable to consume glucose: ptsG codes for the Enzyme IICB{sup Glc} of the phosphotransferase system (PTS) for carbohydrate transport (Postma et al., 1993), manZ codes for the IID{sup Man} domain of the mannose PTS permease (Huber, 1996), glk codes for glucokinase (Curtis and Epstein 1975) We also constructed strain ALS1008 which has a knockout in the xylA gene encoding for xylose isomerase, rendering ALS1008 unable to consume xylose. Two batch experiments and one continuous bioprocess were completed. In the first experiment, each strain was grown separately in a defined medium of 8 g/L xylose and 15 g/L glucose which represented xylose and glucose concentrations that can be generated by actual biomass. In the second experiment, the two strains were grown together in batch in the same defined, mixed-sugar medium. In a third experiment, we grew the strains continuously in a 'chemostat', except that we shifted the concentrations of glucose and xylose periodically to observe how the system would respond. (For example, we shifted the glucose concentration suddenly from 15 g/L to 30 g/L in the feed).

  11. Multilevel fitting of {sup 235}U resonance data sensitive to Bohr-and Brosa-fission channels

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M.S.

    1995-05-01

    The recent determination of the K, J dependence of the neutron induced fission cross section of {sup 235}U by the Dubna group has led to a renewed interest in the mechanism of fission from saddle to scission. The K quantum numbers designate the so-called Bohr fission channels, which describe the fission properties at the saddle point. Certain other fission properties, e.g., the fragment mass and kinetic-energy distribution, are related to the properties of the scission point. The neutron energy dependence of the fragment kinetic energies has been measured by Hambsch et al., who analyzed their data according to a channel description of Brosa et al. How these two channel descriptions, the saddle-point Bohr channels and the scission-point Brosa channels, relate to one another is an open question, and is the subject matter of the present paper. We use the correlation coefficient between various data sets, in which variations are reported from resonance to resonance, as a measure of both-the statistical reliability of the data and of the degree to which different scission variables relate to different Bohr channels. We have carried out an adjustment of the ENDF/B-VI multilevel evaluation of the fission cross section of {sup 235}U, one that provides a reasonably good fit to the energy dependence of the fission, capture, and total cross sections below 100 eV, and to the Bohr-channel structure deduced from an earlier measurement by Pattenden and Postma. We have also further explored the possibility of describing the data of Hambsch et al. in the Brosa-channel framework with the same set of fission-width vectors, only in a different reference system. While this approach shows promise, it is clear that better data are also needed for the neutron energy variation of the scission-point variables.

  12. Thermochemolysis and the Search for Organic Material on Mars Onboard the MOMA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisson, Marietta; Buch, Arnaud; Szopa, Cyril; Glavin, Daniel; Freissinet, Carolinette; Pinnick, Veronica; Goetz, Walter; Stambouli, Moncef; Belmahdi, Imene; Coll, Patrice; Stalport, Fabien; Grand, Noël; Brinckerhoff, William; Goesmann, Fred; Raulin, François; Mahaffy, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Following the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment onboard the Curiosity rover, the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment onboard the future ExoMars 2018 mission will continue to investigate the organic composition of the martian subsurface. MOMA will have the advantage of extracting the sample from as deep as 2 meters below the martian surface where the deleterious effects of radiation and oxidation on organic matter are minimized. To analyse the wide range of organic compounds (volatile and non-volatile compounds) potentially present in the martian soil, MOMA includes two operational modes: UV laser desorption / ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (LDI-ITMS) and pyrolysis gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry (pyr-GC-ITMS). In order to analyse refractory organic compounds and chirality, samples which undergo GC-ITMS analysis may be derivatized beforhands, consisting in the reaction of the sample components with specific chemical reagents (MTBSTFA [1], DMF-DMA [2] or TMAH [3]). To prove the feasibility of the derivatization within the MOMA conditions we have adapated our laboratory procedure for the space conditions (temperature, time, pressure and size). Goal is optimize our detection limits and increase the range of the organic compounds that MOMA will be able to detect. Results of this study, show that Thermochemolysis is one of the most promising technique onboard MOMA to detect organic material. References : [1] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J Chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [2] Freissinet, C. et al. (2013) J Chrom. A, 1306, 731-740. [3] Geffroy-Rodier, C. et al. (2009) JAAP, 85, 454-459.

  13. Evaluation of soil toxicity at Joliet Army Ammunition Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Simini, M.; Amos, J.C.; Wentsel, R.S.; Checkai, R.T.; Phillips, C.T.; Chester, N.A.; Major, M.A.

    1995-04-01

    Environmental toxicity testing and chemical analyses of soil were performed as part of an ecological risk assessment at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP), Joliet, Illinois. Soils were collected from an area where munitions were loaded, assembled, and packed (area L7, group 1), and from an area where waste explosives were burned on unprotected soil (area L2). Control samples were collected from an adjacent field. Soil toxicity was determined using early seedling growth and vigor tests, earthworm survival and growth tests, and Microtox{reg_sign} assays. Relative toxicity of soils was determined within each area based on statistical significant (p = 0.05) of plant and earthworm growth and survival, and the effective concentration at which luminescence of the bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum was reduced by 50% (EC50) in the Microtox assay. Samples were designated as having high, moderate, or no significant toxicity. Soil that had significant toxicity according to at least one test, and representative samples showing no toxicity, were analyzed for munitions via HPLC. Chemical residues found in soils were 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT); 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB); 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT); 2,6-dinitrotoluene; 2-amino-4,6-DNT; 4-amino-2,6-DNT; 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX); and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). All soils with no significant toxicity were void of these chemicals. However, some soils void of munitions still showed toxicity that may have been caused by elevated levels of heavy metals. Linear regressions of toxicity test results vs. chemical concentrations showed that TNT and TNB accounted for most off the soil toxicity. Lowest-observable-effect concentrations (LOEC) of TNT were determined from these data. This study presents a simple, relatively inexpensive methodology for assessing toxicity of soils containing TNT, RDX, and other contaminants related to munitions production.

  14. "Affective contingencies in the affiliative domain: Physiological assessment, associations with the affiliation motive, and prediction of behavior": Correction to Dufner et al. (2015).

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Reports an error in "Affective contingencies in the affiliative domain: Physiological assessment, associations with the affiliation motive, and prediction of behavior" by Michael Dufner, Ruben C. Arslan, Birk Hagemeyer, Felix D. Schönbrodt and Jaap J. A. Denissen (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2015[Oct], Vol 109[4], 662-676). In this article an erroneous statement was made regarding the high cutoff filter for the EMG raw signal. The high cutoff filter reported in Appendix B in the Technical Details of the EMG Recording Procedure section should be 300 Hz. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-37761-001.) According to classical motive disposition theory, individuals differ in their propensity to derive pleasure from affiliative experiences. This propensity is considered a core process underlying the affiliation motive and a pervasive cause of motivated behavior. In this study, we tested these assumptions. We presented participants with positive affiliative stimuli and used electromyography to record changes in facial muscular activity that are indicative of subtle smiling. We were thus able to physiologically measure positive affect following affiliative cues. Individual differences in these affective contingencies were internally consistent and temporally stable. They converged with affiliation motive self- and informant reports and picture story exercise scores, indicating that they are partly accessible to the self, observable to outsiders, and overlap with implicit systems. Finally, they predicted affiliative behavior in terms of situation selection and modification across a wide variety of contexts (i.e., in daily life, the laboratory, and an online social network). These findings corroborate the long-held assumption that affective contingencies represent a motivational core aspect of affiliation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. End-To-END Performance of the Future MOMA Instrument Aboard the ExoMars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnick, V. T.; Buch, A.; Szopa, C.; Grand, N.; Danell, R.; Grubisic, A.; van Amerom, F. H. W.; Glavin, D. P.; Freissinet, C.; Coll, P. J.; Stalport, F.; Humeau, O.; Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Steininger, H.; Goesmann, F.; Raulin, F.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Following the SAM experiment aboard the Curiosity rover, the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment aboard the 2018 ExoMars mission will be the continuation of the search for organic matter on the Mars surface. One advancement with the ExoMars mission is that the sample will be extracted as deep as 2 meters below the Martian surface to minimize effects of radiation and oxidation on organic materials. To analyze the wide range of organic composition (volatile and non-volatile compounds) of the Martian soil, MOMA is equipped with a dual ion source ion trap mass spectrometer utilizing UV laser desorption / ionization (LDI) and pyrolysis gas chromatography (pyr-GC). In order to analyze refractory organic compounds and chiral molecules during GC-ITMS analysis, samples may be submitted to a derivatization process, consisting of the reaction of the sample components with specific reactants (MTBSTFA [1], DMF-DMA [2] or TMAH [3]). Previous experimental reports have focused on coupling campaigns between the breadboard versions of the GC, provided by the French team (LISA, LATMOS, CentraleSupelec), and the MS, provided by the US team (NASA-GSFC). This work focuses on the performance verification and optimization of the GC-ITMS experiment using the Engineering Test Unit (ETU) models which are representative of the form, fit and function of the flight instrument including a flight-like pyrolysis oven and tapping station providing by the German team (MPS). The results obtained demonstrate the current status of the end-to-end performance of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry mode of operation. References: [1] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J Chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [2] Freissinet et al. (2011) J Chrom A, 1306, 59-71. [3] Geffroy-Rodier, C. et al. (2009) JAAP, 85, 454-459.

  16. Epigenome-Wide Meta-Analysis of Methylation in Children Related to Prenatal NO2 Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gruzieva, Olena; Xu, Cheng-Jian; Breton, Carrie V.; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Antó, Josep M.; Auffray, Charles; Ballereau, Stéphane; Bellander, Tom; Bousquet, Jean; Bustamante, Mariona; Charles, Marie-Aline; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; den Dekker, Herman T.; Duijts, Liesbeth; Felix, Janine F.; Gehring, Ulrike; Guxens, Mònica; Jaddoe, Vincent V.W.; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A.; Merid, Simon Kebede; Kere, Juha; Kumar, Ashish; Lemonnier, Nathanael; Lepeule, Johanna; Nystad, Wenche; Page, Christian Magnus; Panasevich, Sviatlana; Postma, Dirkje; Slama, Rémy; Sunyer, Jordi; Söderhäll, Cilla; Yao, Jin; London, Stephanie J.; Pershagen, Göran; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Melén, Erik

    2016-01-01

    HT, Duijts L, Felix JF, Gehring U, Guxens M, Jaddoe VV, Jankipersadsing SA, Merid SK, Kere J, Kumar A, Lemonnier N, Lepeule J, Nystad W, Page CM, Panasevich S, Postma D, Slama R, Sunyer J, Söderhäll C, Yao J, London SJ, Pershagen G, Koppelman GH, Melén E. 2017. Epigenome-wide meta-analysis of methylation in children related to prenatal NO2 air pollution exposure. Environ Health Perspect 125:104–110; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP36 PMID:27448387

  17. Hydrology, sediment circulation and long-term morphological changes in highly urbanized Shenzhen River estuary, China: A combined field experimental and modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiyan; Mao, Xian-zhong

    2015-10-01

    The Shenzhen River estuary is a small estuary in highly urbanized regions between Shenzhen and Hong Kong, China. An increasing amount of sediment has been observed to accumulate in the estuary, imposing a severe impact on the ecological environment. In this study we utilized a series of hydrographic and bathymetry surveys to study the hydrology, sediment transport and morphological processes in the estuary. Flow and sediment circulation patterns in different seasons were inferred using current velocity, salinity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) time series collected in the hydrographic surveys in conjunction with fathometer profiles in bathymetry surveys. Historical time series at two stations were also analyzed by Mann-Kendall test for possible trends of the driving forces for estuarine morphological processes. The two-dimensional depth-averaged DELFT numerical model was employed to simulate the flow, salinity and SSC fields during the synchronous surveys and to predict the long-term morphological processes in the estuary. A bimodal SSC distribution was observed with two high-SSC zones separated by a low-SSC zone near the central bay, which cannot be explained by the conventional nongravitational transport theory of Postma (1967). It is hypothesized that sediment circulation in the estuary can be separated into two different systems: the "tidal zone" is under the influence of marine sediment from the Pearl River estuary, whereas the "fluvial zone" is mainly affected by terrestrial sediment from the river. Sediment mass exchange between the two systems is limited due to the presence of the low-SSC zone, the location of which could vary with the relative strengths of river flow and tides. The trend analysis of historical time series shows that the river discharge and the mean sea level are increasing and the flood tide range and the ebb tide range are decreasing. These trends are closely related to the intense human activities in the urbanization of

  18. Air Pollution and Lung Function in Dutch Children: A Comparison of Exposure Estimates and Associations Based on Land Use Regression and Dispersion Exposure Modeling Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, Ulrike; Hoek, Gerard; Keuken, Menno; Jonkers, Sander; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; Postma, Dirkje S.; Brunekreef, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Background There is limited knowledge about the extent to which estimates of air pollution effects on health are affected by the choice for a specific exposure model. Objectives We aimed to evaluate the correlation between long-term air pollution exposure estimates using two commonly used exposure modeling techniques [dispersion and land use regression (LUR) models] and, in addition, to compare the estimates of the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and lung function in children using these exposure modeling techniques. Methods We used data of 1,058 participants of a Dutch birth cohort study with measured forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements at 8 years of age. For each child, annual average outdoor air pollution exposure [nitrogen dioxide (NO2), mass concentration of particulate matter with diameters ≤ 2.5 and ≤ 10 μm (PM2.5, PM10), and PM2.5 soot] was estimated for the current addresses of the participants by a dispersion and a LUR model. Associations between exposures to air pollution and lung function parameters were estimated using linear regression analysis with confounder adjustment. Results Correlations between LUR- and dispersion-modeled pollution concentrations were high for NO2, PM2.5, and PM2.5 soot (R = 0.86–0.90) but low for PM10 (R = 0.57). Associations with lung function were similar for air pollutant exposures estimated using LUR and dispersion modeling, except for associations of PM2.5 with FEV1 and FVC, which were stronger but less precise for exposures based on LUR compared with dispersion model. Conclusions Predictions from LUR and dispersion models correlated very well for PM2.5, NO2, and PM2.5 soot but not for PM10. Health effect estimates did not depend on the type of model used to estimate exposure in a population of Dutch children. Citation Wang M, Gehring U, Hoek G, Keuken M, Jonkers S, Beelen R, Eeftens M, Postma DS, Brunekreef B

  19. SAM Sample preparation and its impact on the detection of organic compounds on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, Arnaud; Szopa, Cyril; Coll, Patrice; Freissinet, Caroline; Glavin, Daniel; Belmahdi, Imene; François, Pascaline; Millan, Maeva; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; navarro, Rafael; Stern, Jennifer; Pinnick, Veronica; Coscia, David; Teinturier, Samuel; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Mahaffy, Paul

    2014-05-01

    The wet chemistry experiments on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) [1] experiment in the Curiosity rover of the Mars Science Laboratory mission supports extraction of polar organic compounds from solid samples that improves their detection either by increasing the release of chemical species from solid sample matrices, or by changing their chemical structure to make compounds more amenable to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). The wet chemistry approach provides an alternative to the nominal inert-thermal desorption/pyrolysis analytical protocol used by SAM [1] that is more aptly suited for polar components. SAM, includes two different wet chemistry experiments: MTBSTFA derivatization [2-3] and TMAH thermochemolysis [4]. Here we report on the nature of the MTBSTFA derivatization experiment on SAM, the detection of MTBSTFA products in the SAM evolved gas analysis and GCMS experiments, and the implications of this detection. Solid sample were heated up to approximately 840°C at a rate of 35°C/min under He flow. For GC analyses, the majority of the gas released was trapped on a hydrocarbon trap (Tenax®) over a specific temperature range. Adsorbed volatiles on the GC injection trap (IT) were then released into the GC column (CLP-MXT 30m x 0.25mm x 0.25µm) by rapidly heating the IT to 300°C. Then, in order better understand the part of compounds detected coming from internal reaction we have performed several lab experiments to mimic the SAM device. We have investigated the thermal degradation of Tenax®, and possible interaction with MTBSTFA and perchlorate in the SAM trap (Tenax®) to better constrain interpretations of SAM results on Mars. References: [1] Mahaffy, P. et al. (2012) Space Sci Rev, 170, 401-478. [2] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [3] Stalport, F. et al. (2012) Planet. Space Sci. 67: 1-13 [4] Geffroy-Rodier, C. et al. (2009) JAAP, 85, 454-459. Acknowledgements: SAM-GC team acknowledges support from the French Space Agency

  20. Performances of the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) GC-MS suite aboard ExoMars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, A.; Grand, N.; Pinnick, V. T.; Szopa, C.; Humeau, O.; Danell, R.; van Amerom, F. H. W.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Belmahdi, I.; Coll, P. J.; Lustrement, B.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Stalport, F.; Steininger, H.; Goesmann, F.; Raulin, F.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) aboard the ExoMars rover (Pasteur) will be a key analytical tool in providing chemical (molecular) information from the solid samples collected by the rover, with a particular focus on the characterization of the organic content. Samples will be extracted as deep as 2 meters below the martian surface to minimize effects of radiation and oxidation on organic materials. The core of the MOMA instrument is a dual source UV laser desorption / ionization (LDI) and pyrolysis gas chromatography (pyr-GC) ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) which provides the unique capability to characterize a broad range of compounds, including both of volatile and non-volatile species. Samples which undergo GC-ITMS analysis may be submitted to a derivatization process, consisting of the reaction of the sample components with specific reactants (MTBSTFA [1], DMF-DMA [2] or TMAH [3]) which increase the volatility of complex organic species. With the goal to optimize this instrumentation, and especially the GC-ITMS coupling, a series of tests is currently being carried out with prototypes of MOMA instrumentation and with the ETU models wich is similar to the flight model. The MOMA oven and tapping station are also part of these end-to-end experiments. Qualitative and quantitative tests has been done on gas, liquid and solid samples. The results obtained demonstrate the current status of the end-to-end performance of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry mode of operation. Both prototypes individually meet the performance requirements, but this work particularly demonstrates the capabilities of the critical GC-MS interface. References: [1] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [2] Freissinet et al. (2011) J Chrom A, 1306, 59-71. [3] Geffroy-Rodier, C. et al. (2009) JAAP, 85, 454-459. Acknowledgements: Funding provided by the Mars Exploration Program (point of contact, George Tahu, NASA/HQ). MOMA is a collaboration between NASA and ESA (PI

  1. "Assessment of identity during adolescence using daily diary methods: Measurement invariance across time and sex": Correction to Becht et al. (2015).

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Reports an error in "Assessment of Identity During Adolescence Using Daily Diary Methods: Measurement Invariance Across Time and Sex" by Andrik I. Becht, Susan J. T. Branje, Wilma A. M. Vollebergh, Dominique F. Maciejewski, Pol A. C. van Lier, Hans M. Koot, Jaap J. A. Denissen and Wim H. J. Meeus (Psychological Assessment, Advanced Online Publication, Aug 10, 2015, np). In the article the participants should have been reported as N = 494. No differences were found in the results upon reanalyzing the data with the correct number of participants. Additionally, the last sentence of the first full paragraph in the Invariance Across Boys and Girls subsection of the Method section should read "In the fourth model, strict invariance was examined, in which the residual variances were constrained to be equal for boys and girls." (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-36246-001.) The aim of this study was to assess measurement invariance of adolescents' daily reports on identity across time and sex. Adolescents (N = 497; mean age = 13.32 years at Time 1, 56.7% boys) from the general population reported on their identity commitments, exploration in depth and reconsideration on a daily basis for 3 weeks within 1 year across 5 years. We used the single-item version of the Utrecht Management of Identity Commitments Scale (UMICS; Klimstra et al., 2010), a broad measure of identity-formation processes covering both interpersonal and educational identity domains. This study tested configural, metric, scalar, and strict measurement invariance across days within weeks, across sex, across weeks within years, and across years. Results indicated that daily diary reports show strict measurement invariance across days, across weeks within years, across years, and across boys and girls. These results support the use of daily diary methods to assess identity at various time intervals ranging from days to years and across sex. Results are discussed with

  2. Using Biochar composts for improving sandy vineyard soils while reducing the risk of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammann, Claudia; Mengel, Jonathan; Mohr, Julia; Muskat, Stefan; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Löhnertz, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    leaching compared to the control (where nearly all mineral N was lost), the larger application amount in pure compost caused rising nitrate loss rates, likely due to compost mineralization. Interestingly, this was not the case when biochar was included, either co-composted or mixed into the substrates afterwards. However, after three years, the biochar-compost treatment still showed the highest grape yield of all treatments, while the treatment with biochar mixed in after compost production did not have the same effect. The results suggest that biochar-composts, for example produced from vine making residue and greenwaste, may reduce the risk of nitrate leaching while increasing the soil organic content more permanently than other amendments. Genesio, L., Miglietta, F., Baronti, S., Vaccari, F.P., 2015. Biochar increases vineyard Productivity without affecting grape quality: Results from a four years field experiment in Tuscany. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 201, 20-25. Kammann, C.I., Schmidt, H.-P., Messerschmidt, N., Linsel, S., Steffens, D., Müller, C., Koyro, H.-W., Conte, P., Joseph, S., 2015. Plant growth improvement mediated by nitrate capture in cocomposted biochar. Scientific Reports 5, doi: 10.1038/srep11080. Ruysschaert, G., Nelissen, V., Postma, R., Bruun, E., O'Toole, A., Hammond, J., Rödger, J.-M.,Hylander, L., Kihlberg, T., Zwart, K., Hauggaard-Nielsen, H., Shackley, S., 2016. Field applications of pure biochar in the North Sea region and across Europe, in: Shackley, S.,Ruysschaert, G., Zwart, K., Glaser, B. (Eds.), Biochar in European Soils and Agriculture - Science and Practice. Routhledge, Oxon, UK and New York, USA.

  3. Determination of thermal stability of specific biomarker lipids of the freshwater fern Azolla through hydrous pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sap, Merel; Speelman, Eveline N.; Lewan, Michael D.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2010-05-01

    , M., Cronin, T. M., Onodera, J., Takahashi, K., Bujak, J. P., Stein, R., van der Burgh, J., Eldrett, J. S., Harding, I. C., Lotter, A. F., Sangiorgi, F., van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, H., de Leeuw, J. W., Matthiessen, J., Backman, J., Moran, K. (2006), Episodic fresh surface waters in the Eocene Arctic Ocean, Nature 441, 606-609. • Speelman, E. N., M. M. L. van Kempen, J. Barke, H. Brinkhuis, G. J. Reichart, A. J. P. Smolders, J. G. M. Roelofs, F. Sangiorgi, J. W. de Leeuw, A. F. Lotter, J. S. Sinnighe Damsté (2009), The Eocene Arctic Azolla bloom: environmental conditions, productivity and carbon drawdown, Geobiology, 7, 155-170. • Speelman, E. N., G.-J. Reichart, J.W. de Leeuw, W. I. C. Rijpstra, Jaap S. Sinnighe Damsté (2009), Biomarker lipids of the freshwater fern Azolla and its fossil counterpart from the Eocene Arctic Ocean, Organic Geochemistry, 40, 628-637.

  4. Wet Chemistry on SAM: How it Helps to Detect Organics on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, Arnaud; Freissinet, Caroline; Szopa, Cyril; Glavin, Danny; Coll, Patrice; Cabane, Michel; Eigenbrode, Jen; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Stern, Jen; Coscia, David; Teinturier, Samuel; Dworkin, Jason; Mahaffy, Paul; MSL Science Team

    2013-04-01

    of the background signal under its gaseous phase and is derived from at least one of the seven MTBSTFA/DMF derivatization cups in SAM. Since MTBSTFA is able to react in the gaseous phase, its detection implies the possibility to have some MTBSTFA reactions with all the labile compounds possibly present in the Martian soil, in the sampling system and/or inside the SAM instrument. In addition, we also have observed the presence of compounds resulting from the derivatization reaction between MTBSTFA and water. Indeed, water has been detected by two ways: the EGA experiment and the GC-TCD-MS run. Due to the presence of mono- and bi-silylated water derivatives, several characteristic ions can be detected in the EGA mode (e.g. m/z = 147, 73), and two characteristic peaks in the GC-TCD-MS analysis are also observed. In addition to water, a sylilated chloride compound has been detected after pyrolysis of the Rocknest soil. This compound is the simplest chloride derivative compound: chloro(1,1-dimethylethyl)dimethyl-silane, and it co-elutes with the mono-sylilated water derivative. [1] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [2] Stalport, F. et al. (2012) Planet. Space Sci. 67: 1-13. [3] Geffroy-Rodier, C. et al. (2009) JAAP, 85, 454-459.

  5. Making and breaking the sediment record - characterising effects of tsunamis, storms and average conditions on dune erosion and recovery: a forward modelling exploration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelvink, Dano; Costas, Susana

    2015-04-01

    cases we resolve wave-averaged flows, bed load and suspended load transport and morphology change including avalanching. Results will be presented in terms of both profile change and resulting contribution to stratigraphy, allowing to evaluate the effects of these different building blocks on the stratigraphic record. References: Apotsos, A., G. Gelfenbaum, and B. Jaffe, 2011. Process-based modeling of tsunami inundation and sediment transport, J. Geophys. Res., 116, F01006, doi:10.1029/2010JF001797. Rebêlo, L., Costas, S., Brito, P., Ferraz, M., Prudêncio, M. I. and Burbidge, C., 2013. Imprints of the 1755 tsunami in the Tróia Peninsula shoreline, Portugal In: Conley, D.C., Masselink, G., Russell, P.E. and O'Hare, T.J. (eds.), Proceedings 12th International Coastal Symposium (Plymouth, England), Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 65, pp. 814-819, ISSN 0749-0208. Dano Roelvink, Ad Reniers, Ap van Dongeren, Jaap van Thiel de Vries, Robert McCall, Jamie Lescinski. Modelling storm impacts on beaches, dunes and barrier islands. Coastal Engineering, Volume 56, Issues 11-12, November-December 2009, Pages 1133-1152

  6. Downwind changes in grain size of aeolian dust; examples from marine and terrestrial archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuut, Jan-Berend; Prins, Maarten

    2013-04-01

    ., Troelstra, S., Bacon, P., Kamerling, I., Wester, W., Konert, M., Huang, X., Ke, W., Vandenberghe, J., 2009. Dust supply from river floodplains: The case of the lower Huang He (Yellow River) recorded in a loess-palaeosol sequence from the Mangshan Plateau. Journal of Quaternary Science 24, 75-84. Stuut, J.-B.W., Prins, M.A., Schneider, R.R., Weltje, G.J., Jansen, J.H.F., Postma, G., 2002. A 300-kyr record of aridity and wind strength in southwestern Africa: inferences from grain-size distributions of sediments on Walvis Ridge, SE Atlantic. Marine Geology 180, 221-233. Stuut, J.-B.W., Zabel, M., Ratmeyer, V., Helmke, P., Schefuß, E., Lavik, G., Schneider, R.R., 2005. Provenance of present-day eolian dust collected off NW Africa. Journal of Geophysical Research 110. Stuut, J.-B.W., Kasten, S., Lamy, F., Hebbeln, D., 2007. Sources and modes of terrigenous sediment input to the Chilean continental slope. Quaternary International 161, 67-76. Tjallingii, R., Claussen, M., Stuut, J.-B.W., Fohlmeister, J., Jahn, A., Bickert, T., Lamy, F., Rohl, U., 2008. Coherent high- and low-latitude control of the northwest African hydrological balance. Nature Geoscience 1, 670-675. Torres-Padrón, M.E., Gelado-Caballero, M.D., Collado-Sánchez, C., Siruela-Matos, V.F., Cardona-Castellano, P.J., Hernández-Brito, J.J., 2002. Variability of dust inputs to the CANIGO zone. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 49, 3455-3464. Weltje, G.J., Prins, M.A., 2003. Muddled or mixed? Inferring palaeoclimate from size distributions of deep-sea clastics. Sedimentary Geology 162, 39-62.

  7. New Book Recounts Exciting, Colorful History Of Radio Astronomy in Green Bank, West Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-07-01

    interested in astronomical discovery will find fascinating and highly personal accounts by Peter Mezger on observations of radio recombination lines, by Lewis Snyder and Barry Turner on the early days of astrochemistry, by Don Backer and David Nice on observations of pulsars, and by David Shaffer, James Moran, Ken Kellermann and Barry Clark on aspects of the development of long baseline interferometric techniques. Today's generation of scientists will find interesting reminiscences by Patrick Palmer, Thomas Wilson, and Nobel Laureate Joseph Taylor on their experiences as graduate students doing thesis research at Green Bank, and from Sebastian von Hoerner and Jaap Baars on their work in telescope development. The volume also relates the entry of computers into radio astronomy, and reprints the one-page memo from 1960 which laid out the protocol for use of the new "single roll of magnetic tape" just acquired by the Observatory. A major portion of the book describes some singular events associated with this singular place: the first search for radio signals from extraterrestrial civilizations -- Project Ozma -- conducted by Dr. Frank Drake in 1960. But it was Fun... documents how this routine project thrust the NRAO into the national spotlight to the discomfort of its director, a distinguished astronomer of the old school. The book also recounts a few episodes in the amazing life of Grote Reber, the engineer who built the first-ever radio dish in his backyard and was a regular visitor to Green Bank. The NRAO Green Bank Observatory is an international center for research, and in two unique and frequently hilarious articles, Ken Kellermann and Barry Clark tell their stories of the first cooperative radio astronomical projects between the Soviet Union and the U.S., which involved transporting an atomic clock from Green Bank to a Soviet Observatory on the Black Sea at a time when international tensions were high, and it was impossible to make a phone call from the USSR to Green

  8. Ocular ultraviolet radiation exposure of welders.

    PubMed

    Tenkate, Thomas D

    2017-03-15

    exposure of workers in a welding environment. Am Indust Hyg Assoc J. 1997;58:33-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/15428119791013053.  4. ACGIH. Ultraviolet radiation in: TLVs and BEIs. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Cincinnati; 2016. p. 153-8.  5. Tenkate TSD and Collins MJ. Angles of entry of ultraviolet radiation into welding helmets. Am Indust Hyg Assoc J, 1997; 58:54-6. https://doi.org/10.1080/15428119791013099.  6. Tenkate T. Welding arc time and UV exposure: implications for worker safety. J Occup Health Safety-Aust NZ. 2008;24(2):161-6.  7. ANSI Z49.1:2012. Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes. American Welding Society: Miami; 2012.  8. Lombardi DA, Verma SK, Brennan MJ, Perry MJ. Factors influencing worker use of personal protective eyewear. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 2009;41:755-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2009.03.017.  9. Tenkate TD. Optical radiation hazards of welding arcs. Rev Environ Health. 1998;13(3):131-46. https://doi.org/10.1515/REVEH.1998.13.3.131.  10. Thieden E, Philipsen PA, Heydenreich J, Wulf HC. UV radiation exposure related to age, sex, occupation, and sun behavior based on time-stamped personal dosimeter readings. Arch Dermatol. 2004;140:197-203. https://doi.org/10.1001/archderm.140.2.197.  11. Gourzoulidis GA, Achtipis A, Topalis FV, Kazasidis ME, Pantelis D, Markoulis A. Artificial optical radiation photobiological hazards in arc welding. Physica Medica. 2016;32:981-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmp.2016.07.001.  12. Mariutti G, Matzeu M. Measurement of ultraviolet radiation emitted from welding arcs. Health Physics. 1988;54(5):529-32. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004032-198805000-00004.  13. Okuno T. Measurement of ultraviolet radiation from welding arcs. Industrial Health. 1987; 25:147-56. https://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.25.147. 14. Zlateva V, Toncheva R, Andreev A. Epidemiological studies on occupational eye pathology. Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 1996;6(4):440-5.  15. Lombardi DA, Pannala R