Science.gov

Sample records for cooperating mobile robots

  1. Cooperating mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  2. Toward the Automated Synthesis of Cooperative Mobile Robot Teams

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1998-11-01

    A current limitation in the real-world use of cooperating mobiIe robots is the difficulty in determining the proper team composition for a given robotic application. Present technology restricts the design and implementation of cooperative robot teams to the expertise of a robotics researcher, who has to develop robot teams on an application-specific basis. The objective of our research is to reduce the complexity of cooperative robotic systems through the development of a methodology that enables the automated synthesis of cooperative robot teams. We propose an approach to this problem that uses a combination of the theories of sensori-computational systems and information invariants, building on the earlier work of Donald, Rus, et al. We describe the notion of defining equivalence classes that serve as fundamental building blocks of more complex cooperative mobile robot behaviors. We postulate a methodology for framing mission requirements in terms of the goals and constraints of the problem, incorporating issues such as multi-robot interference, communication, control strategy, robot complexity, and so forth, into the mechanism. Our initial work restricts the robot application and design space to three multi-robot application domains we have previously studied and implemented: keeping formation, "mock" hazardous waste cleanup, and cooperative observation. This paper presents the foundational ideas upon which our approach to cooperative team design is based. Keywords: Cooperative behaviors, behavior synthesis, multi-robot learning

  3. Visual world perception modeling and control of cooperative mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2003-10-01

    There has been a great interest in the recent years in visual coordination and target tracking for mobile robots cooperating in unstructured environments. This paper describes visual servo control techniques suitable for intelligent task planning of cooperative robots operating in unstructured environment. In this paper, we have considered a team of semi-autonomous robots controlled by a remote supervisory control system. We have presented an algorithm for visual position tracking of individual cooperative robots within their working environment. Initially, we present a technique suitable for visual servoing of a robot toward its landmark targets. Secondly, we present an image-processing technique that utilizes images from a remote surveillance camera for localization of the robots within the operational environment. In this algorithm, the surveillance camera can be either stationary or mobile. The supervisor control system keeps tracks of relative locations of individual robots and utilizes relative coordinate information of the robots to plan their cooperative activities. We presented some results of this research effort that illustrates effectiveness of the proposed algorithms for cooperative robotic systems visual team working and target tracking.

  4. Autonomous Mobile Platform for Research in Cooperative Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daemi, Ali; Pena, Edward; Ferguson, Paul

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a platform for research in cooperative mobile robotics. The structure and mechanics of the vehicles are based on R/C cars. The vehicle is rendered mobile by a DC motor and servo motor. The perception of the robot's environment is achieved using IR sensors and a central vision system. A laptop computer processes images from a CCD camera located above the testing area to determine the position of objects in sight. This information is sent to each robot via RF modem. Each robot is operated by a Motorola 68HC11E micro-controller, and all actions of the robots are realized through the connections of IR sensors, modem, and motors. The intelligent behavior of each robot is based on a hierarchical fuzzy-rule based approach.

  5. Autonomous Mobile Platform for Research in Cooperative Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daemi, Ali; Pena, Edward; Ferguson, Paul

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a platform for research in cooperative mobile robotics. The structure and mechanics of the vehicles are based on R/C cars. The vehicle is rendered mobile by a DC motor and servo motor. The perception of the robot's environment is achieved using IR sensors and a central vision system. A laptop computer processes images from a CCD camera located above the testing area to determine the position of objects in sight. This information is sent to each robot via RF modem. Each robot is operated by a Motorola 68HC11E micro-controller, and all actions of the robots are realized through the connections of IR sensors, modem, and motors. The intelligent behavior of each robot is based on a hierarchical fuzzy-rule based approach.

  6. Intelligent control and cooperation for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stingu, Petru Emanuel

    The topic discussed in this work addresses the current research being conducted at the Automation & Robotics Research Institute in the areas of UAV quadrotor control and heterogenous multi-vehicle cooperation. Autonomy can be successfully achieved by a robot under the following conditions: the robot has to be able to acquire knowledge about the environment and itself, and it also has to be able to reason under uncertainty. The control system must react quickly to immediate challenges, but also has to slowly adapt and improve based on accumulated knowledge. The major contribution of this work is the transfer of the ADP algorithms from the purely theoretical environment to the complex real-world robotic platforms that work in real-time and in uncontrolled environments. Many solutions are adopted from those present in nature because they have been proven to be close to optimal in very different settings. For the control of a single platform, reinforcement learning algorithms are used to design suboptimal controllers for a class of complex systems that can be conceptually split in local loops with simpler dynamics and relatively weak coupling to the rest of the system. Optimality is enforced by having a global critic but the curse of dimensionality is avoided by using local actors and intelligent pre-processing of the information used for learning the optimal controllers. The system model is used for constructing the structure of the control system, but on top of that the adaptive neural networks that form the actors use the knowledge acquired during normal operation to get closer to optimal control. In real-world experiments, efficient learning is a strong requirement for success. This is accomplished by using an approximation of the system model to focus the learning for equivalent configurations of the state space. Due to the availability of only local data for training, neural networks with local activation functions are implemented. For the control of a formation

  7. Cooperative system and method using mobile robots for testing a cooperative search controller

    DOEpatents

    Byrne, Raymond H.; Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.

    2002-01-01

    A test system for testing a controller provides a way to use large numbers of miniature mobile robots to test a cooperative search controller in a test area, where each mobile robot has a sensor, a communication device, a processor, and a memory. A method of using a test system provides a way for testing a cooperative search controller using multiple robots sharing information and communicating over a communication network.

  8. Cooperative path following control of multiple nonholonomic mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ke-Cai; Jiang, Bin; Yue, Dong

    2017-07-11

    Cooperative path following control problem of multiple nonholonomic mobile robots has been considered in this paper. Based on the framework of decomposition, the cooperative path following problem has been transformed into path following problem and cooperative control problem; Then cascaded theory of non-autonomous system has been employed in the design of controllers without resorting to feedback linearization. One time-varying coordinate transformation based on dilation has been introduced to solve the uncontrollable problem of nonholonomic robots when the whole group's reference converges to stationary point. Cooperative path following controllers for nonholonomic robots have been proposed under persistent reference or reference target that converges to stationary point respectively. Simulation results using Matlab have illustrated the effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Task-Based Flocking Algorithm for Mobile Robot Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hongsheng; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Tong, Guofeng

    In this paper, one task-based flocking algorithm that coordinates a swarm of robots is presented and evaluated based on the standard simulation platform. Task-based flocking algorithm(TFA) is an effective framework for mobile robots cooperation. Flocking behaviors are integrated into the cooperation of the multi-robot system to organize a robot team to achieve a common goal. The goal of the whole team is obtained through the collaboration of the individual robot’s task. The flocking model is presented, and the flocking energy function is defined based on that model to analyze the stability of the flocking and the task switching criterion. The simulation study is conducted in a five-versus-five soccer game, where the each robot dynamically selects its task in accordance with status and the whole robot team behaves as a flocking. Through simulation results and experiments, it is proved that the task-based flocking algorithm can effectively coordinate and control the robot flock to achieve the goal.

  10. Simulation of cooperating robot manipulators on a mobile platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Stephen H.; Wen, John Ting-Yung; Saridis, George N.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic equations of motion are presented for two or more cooperating manipulators on a freely moving mobile platform. The system of cooperating robot manipulators forms a closed kinematic chain where the force of interaction must be included in the formulation of robot and platform dynamics. The formulation includes the full dynamic interactions from arms to platform and arm tip to arm tip, and the possible translation and rotation of the platform. The equations of motion are shown to be identical in structure to the fixed-platform cooperative manipulator dynamics. The number of DOFs of the system is sufficiently large to make recursive dynamic calculation methods potentially more efficient than closed-form solutions. A complete simulation with two 6-DOF manipulators of a free-floating platform is presented along a with a multiple-arm controller to position the common load.

  11. CoMRoS: Cooperative mobile robots Stuttgart

    SciTech Connect

    Braeunl, T.; Kalbacher, M.; Levi, P.; Mamier, G.

    1996-12-31

    Project CoMRoS has the goal to develop intelligent cooperating mobile robots. Several different vehicles are to solve a single task autonomously by exchanging plans without a central control. We use {open_quotes}Robuter II{close_quotes} vehicles from Robosoft France, adapted to our needs. The standard vehicle has very little local intelligence (VME bus system) and is controlled remotely by wireless Ethernet for sending steering commands and receiving sonar sensor data. A wireless video link is used to transmit camera images. Data exchange between vehicles is then performed among the corresponding workstations. The remote control is basically used to simplify testing and debugging of robot programs. However, each vehicle can also be driven completely autonomous by using a laptop PC.

  12. Tandem mobile robot system

    DOEpatents

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  13. Distributed Planning and Control for Teams of Cooperating Mobile Robots

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    2004-06-15

    This CRADA project involved the cooperative research of investigators in ORNL's Center for Engineering Science Advanced Research (CESAR) with researchers at Caterpillar, Inc. The subject of the research was the development of cooperative control strategies for autonomous vehicles performing applications of interest to Caterpillar customers. The project involved three Phases of research, conducted over the time period of November 1998 through December 2001. This project led to the successful development of several technologies and demonstrations in realistic simulation that illustrated the effectiveness of the control approaches for distributed planning and cooperation in multi-robot teams.

  14. Distributed cooperating processes in a mobile robot control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skillman, Thomas L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A mobile inspection robot has been proposed for the NASA Space Station. It will be a free flying autonomous vehicle that will leave a berthing unit to accomplish a variety of inspection tasks around the Space Station, and then return to its berth to recharge, refuel, and transfer information. The Flying Eye robot will receive voice communication to change its attitude, move at a constant velocity, and move to a predefined location along a self generated path. This mobile robot control system requires integration of traditional command and control techniques with a number of AI technologies. Speech recognition, natural language understanding, task and path planning, sensory abstraction and pattern recognition are all required for successful implementation. The interface between the traditional numeric control techniques and the symbolic processing to the AI technologies must be developed, and a distributed computing approach will be needed to meet the real time computing requirements. To study the integration of the elements of this project, a novel mobile robot control architecture and simulation based on the blackboard architecture was developed. The control system operation and structure is discussed.

  15. Distributed cooperating processes in a mobile robot control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skillman, Thomas L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A mobile inspection robot has been proposed for the NASA Space Station. It will be a free flying autonomous vehicle that will leave a berthing unit to accomplish a variety of inspection tasks around the Space Station, and then return to its berth to recharge, refuel, and transfer information. The Flying Eye robot will receive voice communication to change its attitude, move at a constant velocity, and move to a predefined location along a self generated path. This mobile robot control system requires integration of traditional command and control techniques with a number of AI technologies. Speech recognition, natural language understanding, task and path planning, sensory abstraction and pattern recognition are all required for successful implementation. The interface between the traditional numeric control techniques and the symbolic processing to the AI technologies must be developed, and a distributed computing approach will be needed to meet the real time computing requirements. To study the integration of the elements of this project, a novel mobile robot control architecture and simulation based on the blackboard architecture was developed. The control system operation and structure is discussed.

  16. Distributing Planning and Control for Teams of Cooperating Mobile Robots

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    2004-07-19

    This CRADA project involved the cooperative research of investigators in ORNL's Center for Engineering Science Advanced Research (CESAR) with researchers at Caterpillar, Inc. The subject of the research was the development of cooperative control strategies for autonomous vehicles performing applications of interest to Caterpillar customers. The project involved three Phases of research, conducted over the time period of November 1998 through December 2001. This project led to the successful development of several technologies and demonstrations in realistic simulation that illustrated the effectiveness of our control approaches for distributed planning and cooperation in multi-robot teams. The primary objectives of this research project were to: (1) Develop autonomous control technologies to enable multiple vehicles to work together cooperatively, (2) Provide the foundational capabilities for a human operator to exercise oversight and guidance during the multi-vehicle task execution, and (3) Integrate these capabilities to the ALLIANCE-based autonomous control approach for multi-robot teams. These objectives have been successfully met with the results implemented and demonstrated in a near real-time multi-vehicle simulation of up to four vehicles performing mission-relevant tasks.

  17. ALLIANCE: An architecture for fault tolerant, cooperative control of heterogeneous mobile robots

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control in robot missions involving loosely coupled, largely independent tasks. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, the author describes in detail experimental results of an implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative box pushing demonstration. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes in the capabilities of the robot team.

  18. Cooperative Autonomous Robots for Reconnaissance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-06

    REPORT Cooperative Autonomous Robots for Reconnaissance 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Collaborating mobile robots equipped with WiFi ...Cooperative Autonomous Robots for Reconnaissance Report Title ABSTRACT Collaborating mobile robots equipped with WiFi transceivers are configured as a mobile...equipped with WiFi transceivers are configured as a mobile ad-hoc network. Algorithms are developed to take advantage of the distributed processing

  19. Robust and efficient vision system for group of cooperating mobile robots with application to soccer robots.

    PubMed

    Klancar, Gregor; Kristan, Matej; Kovacic, Stanislav; Orqueda, Omar

    2004-07-01

    In this paper a global vision scheme for estimation of positions and orientations of mobile robots is presented. It is applied to robot soccer application which is a fast dynamic game and therefore needs an efficient and robust vision system implemented. General applicability of the vision system can be found in other robot applications such as mobile transport robots in production, warehouses, attendant robots, fast vision tracking of targets of interest and entertainment robotics. Basic operation of the vision system is divided into two steps. In the first, the incoming image is scanned and pixels are classified into a finite number of classes. At the same time, a segmentation algorithm is used to find corresponding regions belonging to one of the classes. In the second step, all the regions are examined. Selection of the ones that are a part of the observed object is made by means of simple logic procedures. The novelty is focused on optimization of the processing time needed to finish the estimation of possible object positions. Better results of the vision system are achieved by implementing camera calibration and shading correction algorithm. The former corrects camera lens distortion, while the latter increases robustness to irregular illumination conditions.

  20. Robotic automation for space: planetary surface exploration, terrain-adaptive mobility, and multirobot cooperative tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenker, Paul S.; Huntsberger, Terrance L.; Pirjanian, Paolo; Baumgartner, Eric T.; Aghazarian, Hrand; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Leger, Patrick C.; Cheng, Yang; Backes, Paul G.; Tunstel, Edward; Dubowsky, Steven; Iagnemma, Karl D.; McKee, Gerard T.

    2001-10-01

    During the last decade, there has been significant progress toward a supervised autonomous robotic capability for remotely controlled scientific exploration of planetary surfaces. While planetary exploration potentially encompasses many elements ranging from orbital remote sensing to subsurface drilling, the surface robotics element is particularly important to advancing in situ science objectives. Surface activities include a direct characterization of geology, mineralogy, atmosphere and other descriptors of current and historical planetary processes-and ultimately-the return of pristine samples to Earth for detailed analysis. Toward these ends, we have conducted a broad program of research on robotic systems for scientific exploration of the Mars surface, with minimal remote intervention. The goal is to enable high productivity semi-autonomous science operations where available mission time is concentrated on robotic operations, rather than up-and-down-link delays. Results of our work include prototypes for landed manipulators, long-ranging science rovers, sampling/sample return mobility systems, and more recently, terrain-adaptive reconfigurable/modular robots and closely cooperating multiple rover systems. The last of these are intended to facilitate deployment of planetary robotic outposts for an eventual human-robot sustained scientific presence. We overview our progress in these related areas of planetary robotics R&D, spanning 1995-to-present.

  1. Real-time Cooperative Behavior for Tactical Mobile Robot Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-02-01

    level Software Low-level software includes embedded software and firmware that is typically provided by the vendors of robots and sensors in order to...explored due to lack of time. 20 The 2.4 GHz Nokia 802.11 used for the OCU/Robot link is equivalent to the Samsung 2 Mbit/sec product. A casual site...level of comfort exceeding typical fixed display monitors. There is an implicit assumption here, arguably not valid for TMR, that the user will

  2. Simulation of cooperating robot manipulators on a mobile platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Steve H.; Wen, John T.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamic equations of motion for two manipulators holding a common object on a freely moving mobile platform are developed. The full dynamic interactions from arms to platform and arm-tip to arm-tip are included in the formulation. The development of the closed chain dynamics allows for the use of any solution for the open topological tree of base and manipulator links. In particular, because the system has 18 degrees of freedom, recursive solutions for the dynamic simulation become more promising for efficient calculations of the motion. Simulation of the system is accomplished through a MATLAB program, and the response is visualized graphically using the SILMA Cimstation.

  3. Networking a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Gerard T.

    1994-10-01

    Conventional mobile robotic systems are `stand alone'. Program development involves loading programs into the mobile, via an umbilical. Autonomous operation, in this context, means `isolation': the user cannot interact with the program as the robot is moving around. Recent research in `swarm robotics' has exploited wireless networks as a means of providing inter- robot communication, but the population is still isolated from the human user. In this paper we report on research we are conducting into the provision of mobile robots as resources on a local area computer network, and thus breaking the isolation barrier. We are making use of new multimedia workstation and wireless networking technology to link the robots to the network in order to provide a new type of resource for the user. We model the robot as a set of resources and propose a client-server architecture as the basis for providing user access to the robots. We describe the types of resources each robot can provide and we outline the potential for cooperative robotics, human-robot cooperation, and teleoperation and autonomous robot behavior within this context.

  4. A Car Transportation System in Cooperation by Multiple Mobile Robots for Each Wheel: iCART II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwazaki, Koshi; Yonezawa, Naoaki; Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Sugahara, Yusuke; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Endo, Mitsuru; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Shinozuka, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Koki; Ono, Yuki

    The authors proposed a car transportation system, iCART (intelligent Cooperative Autonomous Robot Transporters), for automation of mechanical parking systems by two mobile robots. However, it was difficult to downsize the mobile robot because the length of it requires at least the wheelbase of a car. This paper proposes a new car transportation system, iCART II (iCART - type II), based on “a-robot-for-a-wheel” concept. A prototype system, MRWheel (a Mobile Robot for a Wheel), is designed and downsized less than half the conventional robot. First, a method for lifting up a wheel by MRWheel is described. In general, it is very difficult for mobile robots such as MRWheel to move to desired positions without motion errors caused by slipping, etc. Therefore, we propose a follower's motion error estimation algorithm based on the internal force applied to each follower by extending a conventional leader-follower type decentralized control algorithm for cooperative object transportation. The proposed algorithm enables followers to estimate their motion errors and enables the robots to transport a car to a desired position. In addition, we analyze and prove the stability and convergence of the resultant system with the proposed algorithm. In order to extract only the internal force from the force applied to each robot, we also propose a model-based external force compensation method. Finally, proposed methods are applied to the car transportation system, the experimental results confirm their validity.

  5. Cooperative Relative Localization for Mobile Robot Teams: An Ego-Centric Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Rekleitis et al., 1997) have considered the problem of cooperative localization from a somewhat different perspective. These authors describe active...for environment mapping. Autonomous Robots, 4:333–349. Rekleitis , I. M., Dudek, G., and Milios, E. (1997). Multi-robot exploration of an unknown

  6. Heterogeneous Multi-Robot Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    Approaches to Multi-Robot Cooperative Control ................ 196 8.2.1 " Swarm " Cooperation ....... ...................... 196 8.2.2 "Intentional...involves the study of emergent cooperation in colonies, or swarms , of robots - an approach comparable to differentiating animal societies. This...using intention- ally cooperating robots to guide the activities of smaller groups of swarm robots in a coordinated way. The research presented in this

  7. Controlling Herds of Cooperative Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.

    2006-01-01

    A document poses, and suggests a program of research for answering, questions of how to achieve autonomous operation of herds of cooperative robots to be used in exploration and/or colonization of remote planets. In a typical scenario, a flock of mobile sensory robots would be deployed in a previously unexplored region, one of the robots would be designated the leader, and the leader would issue commands to move the robots to different locations or aim sensors at different targets to maximize scientific return. It would be necessary to provide for this hierarchical, cooperative behavior even in the face of such unpredictable factors as terrain obstacles. A potential-fields approach is proposed as a theoretical basis for developing methods of autonomous command and guidance of a herd. A survival-of-the-fittest approach is suggested as a theoretical basis for selection, mutation, and adaptation of a description of (1) the body, joints, sensors, actuators, and control computer of each robot, and (2) the connectivity of each robot with the rest of the herd, such that the herd could be regarded as consisting of a set of artificial creatures that evolve to adapt to a previously unknown environment. A distributed simulation environment has been developed to test the proposed approaches in the Titan environment. One blimp guides three surface sondes via a potential field approach. The results of the simulation demonstrate that the method used for control is feasible, even if significant uncertainty exists in the dynamics and environmental models, and that the control architecture provides the autonomy needed to enable surface science data collection.

  8. Surgery with cooperative robots.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Amy C; Berg, Kyle A; Dumpert, Jason; Wood, Nathan A; Visty, Abigail Q; Rentschler, Mark E; Platt, Stephen R; Farritor, Shane M; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2008-03-01

    Advances in endoscopic techniques for abdominal procedures continue to reduce the invasiveness of surgery. Gaining access to the peritoneal cavity through small incisions prompted the first significant shift in general surgery. The complete elimination of external incisions through natural orifice access is potentially the next step in reducing patient trauma. While minimally invasive techniques offer significant patient advantages, the procedures are surgically challenging. Robotic surgical systems are being developed that address the visualization and manipulation limitations, but many of these systems remain constrained by the entry incisions. Alternatively, miniature in vivo robots are being developed that are completely inserted into the peritoneal cavity for laparoscopic and natural orifice procedures. These robots can provide vision and task assistance without the constraints of the entry incision, and can reduce the number of incisions required for laparoscopic procedures. In this study, a series of minimally invasive animal-model surgeries were performed using multiple miniature in vivo robots in cooperation with existing laparoscopy and endoscopy tools as well as the da Vinci Surgical System. These procedures demonstrate that miniature in vivo robots can address the visualization constraints of minimally invasive surgery by providing video feedback and task assistance from arbitrary orientations within the peritoneal cavity.

  9. Tandem robot control system and method for controlling mobile robots in tandem

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, David R.; Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.

    2002-01-01

    A control system for controlling mobile robots provides a way to control mobile robots, connected in tandem with coupling devices, to navigate across difficult terrain or in closed spaces. The mobile robots can be controlled cooperatively as a coupled system in linked mode or controlled individually as separate robots.

  10. The Uranus Mobile Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Schematics 26 Wi List of Figures 1 Neptune and Pluto .. .. .. .. .. ... .. ... ... ... ... .... 2 2 Uranus...began building our first mobile robot, Pluto (see Figure 1 a). We envisioned Pluto as the ultimate indoor robot within the grasp of current technology...smooth arced trajectory while rotating about its center. This omni-directionality combined with very precise positioning would allow Pluto to easily

  11. Mobile robot knowledge base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath Pastore, Tracy; Barnes, Mitchell; Hallman, Rory

    2005-05-01

    Robot technology is developing at a rapid rate for both commercial and Department of Defense (DOD) applications. As a result, the task of managing both technology and experience information is growing. In the not-to-distant past, tracking development efforts of robot platforms, subsystems and components was not too difficult, expensive, or time consuming. To do the same today is a significant undertaking. The Mobile Robot Knowledge Base (MRKB) provides the robotics community with a web-accessible, centralized resource for sharing information, experience, and technology to more efficiently and effectively meet the needs of the robot system user. The resource includes searchable information on robot components, subsystems, mission payloads, platforms, and DOD robotics programs. In addition, the MRKB website provides a forum for technology and information transfer within the DOD robotics community and an interface for the Robotic Systems Pool (RSP). The RSP manages a collection of small teleoperated and semi-autonomous robotic platforms, available for loan to DOD and other qualified entities. The objective is to put robots in the hands of users and use the test data and fielding experience to improve robot systems.

  12. Cooperative robotic sentry vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, John T.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Klarer, Paul; Eisler, G. R.; Caprihan, Rahul

    1999-08-01

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories' Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform a surround task. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight 'Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rovers' (RATLER), a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. For the surround task, both potential field and A* search path planners have been added to the base-station and vehicles. At the base-station, the operator specifies goal and exclusion regions on a GIS map. The path planner generates vehicles paths that are previewed by the operator. Once the operator has validated the path, the appropriate information is downloaded t the vehicles. For the potential field path planner, the polygons and line segments that represent the obstacles and goals are downloaded to the vehicles, instead of the simulated paths. On board the vehicles, the same potential field path planner generates the path except that it uses the true location of itself and the nearest neighboring vehicle. For the A* path planner, the actual path is downloaded to the vehicles because of limited on-board computational power.

  13. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  14. Autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Mattaboni, P.J.

    1987-01-20

    This patent describes a mobile robot of the type having (a) a vision system, (b) memory means for storing data derived from the robot vision system, and (c) a computer for processing data derived from the robot's vision system, the improvement wherein the robot's vision system comprises (i) a first array of ranging transducers for obtaining data on the position and distance of far objects in a volume of space, the transducers of the first array being symmetrically disposed on the mobile robot with respect to an axis of symmetry within the mobile robot. Each transducer of the first array is fixed in position with respect to that axis of symmetry and sees a portion of the volume of space seen by its entire array; (ii) a second array of ranging transducers for obtaining data of the position and distance of near objects in the same or an overlapping volume of space, the transducers of the second array being symmetrically disposed on the mobile robot with respect to the axis of symmetry. Each transducer of the second array is fixed in position with respect to the axis of symmetry and sees a portion of the volume of space seen by its entire array, the angle of view of the transducers of the second array being different from the angle of view of the transducers of the first array with respect to the same object in space; and (iii) means for polling the ranging transducers in sequences determined by the computer.

  15. Enhancing mobility via cooperation: analysis and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Ashish D.; Luntz, Jonathan E.

    2003-09-01

    A team of small, low cost robots instead of one large, complex robot is useful in operations such as search and rescue, urban exploration etc. However, the performance of such a team is limited due to restricted mobility of the team members. We propose to overcome the mobility restrictions by physical cooperation among the team members. We carry out a feasibility analysis of a particular behavior of two robots cooperating to cross a gap and also consider the effect of the scaling of the robot dimensions. We simulate the dynamic equations describing the motion which leads to the relaxation the requirements derived from the static analysis. A decentralized control architecture is designed which avoids continuous communication between the robots thus rendering the cooperation to be simple and low cost.

  16. Cooperative Robots to Observe Moving Targets: Review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Asif; Rinner, Bernhard; Cavallaro, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    The deployment of multiple robots for achieving a common goal helps to improve the performance, efficiency, and/or robustness in a variety of tasks. In particular, the observation of moving targets is an important multirobot application that still exhibits numerous open challenges, including the effective coordination of the robots. This paper reviews control techniques for cooperative mobile robots monitoring multiple targets. The simultaneous movement of robots and targets makes this problem particularly interesting, and our review systematically addresses this cooperative multirobot problem for the first time. We classify and critically discuss the control techniques: cooperative multirobot observation of multiple moving targets, cooperative search, acquisition, and track, cooperative tracking, and multirobot pursuit evasion. We also identify the five major elements that characterize this problem, namely, the coordination method, the environment, the target, the robot and its sensor(s). These elements are used to systematically analyze the control techniques. The majority of the studied work is based on simulation and laboratory studies, which may not accurately reflect real-world operational conditions. Importantly, while our systematic analysis is focused on multitarget observation, our proposed classification is useful also for related multirobot applications.

  17. Robotics vehicle mobility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansorge, Kurt H.; Pond, James E.

    2000-07-01

    A nine-month study was conducted under the direction of Tank-Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) in Warren, MI. to determine the best platform design for inherent all-terrain mobility of an unmanned robotic vehicle in the 15000-2500 lb. range. Reference platforms were the DEMO III 4x4 and the Utah State University 6x6 with omni-directional wheels. The study systematically developed desired top- down design-driving capabilities, operational needs, and mobility concepts supported by extensive analysis using the NATO Reference Mobility Model and literature searches. Maximizing mobility over all terrain and resisting immobilization were emphasized in order to minimize sensor computational burdens while maximizing the probability of timely mission accomplishment. Several wheeled, tracked and hybrid platform concepts were evaluated. Significant improvements in cross- country mobility, obstacle negotiation and self-extraction capability were achieved with hybrid solutions. Final concept development focused on an 8x8 swiveling wheeled platform with band track overlays. Conclusions of the study were: a technology demonstrator platform should be built for mobility validation and NRMM II refinemment; a robotic- vehicle-specific NRMM II mobility scenario should be developed; and sensor solutions for unmanned mobility platforms should be revisited.

  18. Integrated mobile robot control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amidi, Omead; Thorpe, Charles

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the structure, implementation, and operation of a real-time mobile robot controller which integrates capabilities such as: position estimation, path specification and tracking, human interfaces, fast communication, and multiple client support. The benefits of such high-level capabilities in a low-level controller was shown by its implementation for the Navlab autonomous vehicle. In addition, performance results from positioning and tracking systems are reported and analyzed.

  19. Guarded Motion for Mobile Robots

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has created codes that ensure that a robot will come to a stop at a precise, specified distance from any obstacle regardless of the robot's initial speed, its physical characteristics, and the responsiveness of the low-level motor control schema. This Guarded Motion for Mobile Robots system iteratively adjusts the robot's action in response to information about the robot's environment.

  20. Mobile robot sense net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konolige, Kurt G.; Gutmann, Steffen; Guzzoni, Didier; Ficklin, Robert W.; Nicewarner, Keith E.

    1999-08-01

    Mobile robot hardware and software is developing to the point where interesting applications for groups of such robots can be contemplated. We envision a set of mobots acting to map and perform surveillance or other task within an indoor environment (the Sense Net). A typical application of the Sense Net would be to detect survivors in buildings damaged by earthquake or other disaster, where human searchers would be put a risk. As a team, the Sense Net could reconnoiter a set of buildings faster, more reliably, and more comprehensibly than an individual mobot. The team, for example, could dynamically form subteams to perform task that cannot be done by individual robots, such as measuring the range to a distant object by forming a long baseline stereo sensor form a pari of mobots. In addition, the team could automatically reconfigure itself to handle contingencies such as disabled mobots. This paper is a report of our current progress in developing the Sense Net, after the first year of a two-year project. In our approach, each mobot has sufficient autonomy to perform several tasks, such as mapping unknown areas, navigating to specific positions, and detecting, tracking, characterizing, and classifying human and vehicular activity. We detail how some of these tasks are accomplished, and how the mobot group is tasked.

  1. ALLIANCE: An architecture for fault tolerant multi-robot cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    ALLIANCE is a software architecture that facilitates the fault tolerant cooperative control of teams of heterogeneous mobile robots performing missions composed of loosely coupled, largely independent subtasks. ALLIANCE allows teams of robots, each of which possesses a variety of high-level functions that it can perform during a mission, to individually select appropriate actions throughout the mission based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and the robot`s own internal states. ALLIANCE is a fully distributed, behavior-based architecture that incorporates the use of mathematically modeled motivations (such as impatience and acquiescence) within each robot to achieve adaptive action selection. Since cooperative robotic teams usually work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, this software architecture allows the robot team members to respond robustly, reliably, flexibly, and coherently to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. The feasibility of this architecture is demonstrated in an implementation on a team of mobile robots performing a laboratory version of hazardous waste cleanup.

  2. On the manipulability of dual cooperative robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiacchio, P.; Chiaverini, S.; Sciavicco, L.; Siciliano, B.

    1989-01-01

    The definition of manipulability ellipsoids for dual robot systems is given. A suitable kineto-static formulation for dual cooperative robots is adopted which allows for a global task space description of external and internal forces, and relative velocities. The well known concepts of force and velocity manipulability ellipsoids for a single robot are formally extended and the contributions of the two single robots to the cooperative system ellipsoids are illustrated. Duality properties are discussed. A practical case study is developed.

  3. Teleautonomous guidance for mobile robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borenstein, J.; Koren, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Teleautonomous guidance (TG), a technique for the remote guidance of fast mobile robots, has been developed and implemented. With TG, the mobile robot follows the general direction prescribed by an operator. However, if the robot encounters an obstacle, it autonomously avoids collision with that obstacle while trying to match the prescribed direction as closely as possible. This type of shared control is completely transparent and transfers control between teleoperation and autonomous obstacle avoidance gradually. TG allows the operator to steer vehicles and robots at high speeds and in cluttered environments, even without visual contact. TG is based on the virtual force field (VFF) method, which was developed earlier for autonomous obstacle avoidance. The VFF method is especially suited to the accommodation of inaccurate sensor data (such as that produced by ultrasonic sensors) and sensor fusion, and allows the mobile robot to travel quickly without stopping for obstacles.

  4. Cooperative Robot Teams Applied to the Site Preparation Task

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, LE

    2001-06-15

    Prior to human missions to Mars, infrastructures on Mars that support human survival must be prepared. robotic teams can assist in these advance preparations in a number of ways. This paper addresses one of these advance robotic team tasks--the site preparation task--by proposing a control structure that allows robot teams to cooperatively solve this aspect of infrastructure preparation. A key question in this context is determining how robots should make decisions on which aspect of the site preparation t6ask to address throughout the mission, especially while operating in rough terrains. This paper describes a control approach to solving this problem that is based upon the ALLIANCE architecture, combined with performance-based rough terrain navigation that addresses path planning and control of mobile robots in rough terrain environments. They present the site preparation task and the proposed cooperative control approach, followed by some of the results of the initial testing of various aspects of the system.

  5. Learning for intelligent mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Ernest L.; Liao, Xiaoqun; Alhaj Ali, Souma M.

    2003-10-01

    Unlike intelligent industrial robots which often work in a structured factory setting, intelligent mobile robots must often operate in an unstructured environment cluttered with obstacles and with many possible action paths. However, such machines have many potential applications in medicine, defense, industry and even the home that make their study important. Sensors such as vision are needed. However, in many applications some form of learning is also required. The purpose of this paper is to present a discussion of recent technical advances in learning for intelligent mobile robots. During the past 20 years, the use of intelligent industrial robots that are equipped not only with motion control systems but also with sensors such as cameras, laser scanners, or tactile sensors that permit adaptation to a changing environment has increased dramatically. However, relatively little has been done concerning learning. Adaptive and robust control permits one to achieve point to point and controlled path operation in a changing environment. This problem can be solved with a learning control. In the unstructured environment, the terrain and consequently the load on the robot"s motors are constantly changing. Learning the parameters of a proportional, integral and derivative controller (PID) and artificial neural network provides an adaptive and robust control. Learning may also be used for path following. Simulations that include learning may be conducted to see if a robot can learn its way through a cluttered array of obstacles. If a situation is performed repetitively, then learning can also be used in the actual application. To reach an even higher degree of autonomous operation, a new level of learning is required. Recently learning theories such as the adaptive critic have been proposed. In this type of learning a critic provides a grade to the controller of an action module such as a robot. The creative control process is used that is "beyond the adaptive critic." A

  6. ARIES: A mobile robot inspector

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System) is a mobile robot inspection system being developed for the Department of Energy (DOE) to survey and inspect drums containing mixed and low-level radioactive waste stored in warehouses at DOE facilities. The drums are typically stacked four high and arranged in rows with three-foot aisle widths. The robot will navigate through the aisles and perform an autonomous inspection operation, typically performed by a human operator. It will make real-time decisions about the condition of the drums, maintain a database of pertinent information about each drum, and generate reports.

  7. Adaptive Behavior for Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2009-01-01

    The term "System for Mobility and Access to Rough Terrain" (SMART) denotes a theoretical framework, a control architecture, and an algorithm that implements the framework and architecture, for enabling a land-mobile robot to adapt to changing conditions. SMART is intended to enable the robot to recognize adverse terrain conditions beyond its optimal operational envelope, and, in response, to intelligently reconfigure itself (e.g., adjust suspension heights or baseline distances between suspension points) or adapt its driving techniques (e.g., engage in a crabbing motion as a switchback technique for ascending steep terrain). Conceived for original application aboard Mars rovers and similar autonomous or semi-autonomous mobile robots used in exploration of remote planets, SMART could also be applied to autonomous terrestrial vehicles to be used for search, rescue, and/or exploration on rough terrain.

  8. Motion vision for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrb, Matthieu

    The problem of using computer vision in mobile robots is dealt with. The datacube specialized cards and a parallel machine using a transputer network are studied. The tracking and localization of a three dimensional object in a sequence of images is examined, using first order prediction of the motion in the image plane and verification by a maximal clique search in the graph of mutually compatible matchings. A dynamic environment modeling module, using numerical fusion between trinocular stereovision and tracking of stereo matched primitives is presented. The integration of this perception system in the control architecture of a mobile robot is examined to achieve various functions, such as vision servo motion and environment modeling. The functional units implementing vision tasks and the data exchanged with other units are outlined. Experiments realized with the mobile robot Hilare 1.5 allowed the proposed algorithms and concepts to be validated.

  9. Cooperative robotics: bringing autonomy to explosive ordnance disposal robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Signore, Michael J.; Czop, Andrew; Hacker, Kurt

    2008-04-01

    An ongoing effort within the US Naval EOD Technology Division (NAVEODTECHDIV) is exploring the integration of autonomous robotic technologies onto current and future Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) robot platforms. The Cooperative Robotics program, though the support of the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise (JGRE), has identified several autonomous robotic technologies useful to the EOD operator, and with the collaboration of academia and industry is in the process of bringing these technologies to EOD robot operators in the field. Initiated in January 2007, the Cooperative Robotics program includes the demonstration of various autonomous technologies to the EOD user community, and the optimization of these technologies for use on small EOD Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) in relevant environments. Through close interaction with actual EOD operators, these autonomous behaviors will be designed to work within the bounds of current EOD Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTP). This paper will detail the ongoing and future efforts encompassing the Cooperative Robotics program including: technology demonstrations of autonomous robotic capabilities, development of autonomous capability requirements based on user focus groups, optimization of autonomous UGV behaviors to enable use in relevant environments based on current EOD TTP, and finally the transition of these technologies to current and future EOD robotic systems.

  10. Coordinated Control Of Mobile Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1995-01-01

    Computationally efficient scheme developed for on-line coordinated control of both manipulation and mobility of robots that include manipulator arms mounted on mobile bases. Applicable to variety of mobile robotic manipulators, including robots that move along tracks (typically, painting and welding robots), robots mounted on gantries and capable of moving in all three dimensions, wheeled robots, and compound robots (consisting of robots mounted on other robots). Theoretical basis discussed in several prior articles in NASA Tech Briefs, including "Increasing the Dexterity of Redundant Robots" (NPO-17801), "Redundant Robot Can Avoid Obstacles" (NPO-17852), "Configuration-Control Scheme Copes With Singularities" (NPO-18556), "More Uses for Configuration Control of Robots" (NPO-18607/NPO-18608).

  11. The effect of action recognition and robot awareness in cooperative robot teams

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-03-01

    Previous research in cooperative robotics has investigated several possible ways of coordinating the actions of cooperative teams -- from implicit cooperation through sensory feedback to explicit cooperation using the exchange of communicated messages. These various approaches differ in the extent to which robot team members arc aware of, or recognize, the actions of their teammates, and the extent to which they use this information to effect their own actions. The research described in this paper investigates this issue of robot awareness of team member actions and its effect on cooperative team performance by examining the results of a series of experiments on teams of physical mobile robots performing a laboratory version of hazardous waste cleanup. In these experiments. we vary the team size (and thus the level of redundancy in team member capabilities) and the level of awareness robots have of their teammates` current actions and evaluate the team`s performance using two metrics: time and energy. The results indicate that the impact of action awareness on cooperative team performance is a function not only of team size and the metric of evaluation. but also on the degree to which the effects of actions can be sensed through the world, the relative amount of work that is available per robot, and the cost of replicated actions. From these empirical studies, we propose a number of principles regarding the use of action recognition and robot awareness of team member actions in cooperative teams -- principles which will help guide engineers in the design and composition of the proper cooperative team for a given robotic mission.

  12. Embodied Computation: An Active-Learning Approach to Mobile Robotics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riek, L. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a newly designed upper-level undergraduate and graduate course, Autonomous Mobile Robots. The course employs active, cooperative, problem-based learning and is grounded in the fundamental computational problems in mobile robotics defined by Dudek and Jenkin. Students receive a broad survey of robotics through lectures, weekly…

  13. Embodied Computation: An Active-Learning Approach to Mobile Robotics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riek, L. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a newly designed upper-level undergraduate and graduate course, Autonomous Mobile Robots. The course employs active, cooperative, problem-based learning and is grounded in the fundamental computational problems in mobile robotics defined by Dudek and Jenkin. Students receive a broad survey of robotics through lectures, weekly…

  14. Cooperative robot assistant for retinal microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Ioana; Balicki, Marcin; Koo, John; Iordachita, Iulian; Mitchell, Ben; Handa, James; Hager, Gregory; Taylor, Russell

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development and results of initial testing of a cooperative robot assistant for retinal microsurgery. In the cooperative control paradigm, the surgeon and the robot share control of a tool attached to the robot through a force sensor. The system senses forces exerted by the operator on the tool and uses this information in various control modes to provide smooth, tremor-free, precise positional control and force scaling. The robot manipulator is specifically designed with retinal microsurgery in mind, having high efficacy, flexibility and ergonomics while meeting the accuracy and safety requirements of microsurgery. We have tested this robot on a biological model and we report the results for reliably cannulating approximately 80 microm diameter veins (equivalent in size to human retinal veins). We also describe improvements to the robot and the experimental setup facilitating more advanced set of experiments.

  15. Semiautonomous navigation of mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsberg, Johan; Hogstrom, Thomas; Wernersson, Ake V.

    1995-01-01

    The paper is on operations for semi-autonomous mobile robots. The robot is assumed to be remotely controlled by an operator. It is difficult for an operator to directly control the robot, especially over a communication link with low bandwidth and/or time delays. Therefore it is necessary to close the control loop in the robot with the operator giving high level commands. The operator is still needed as the fully autonomous robot does not exist today, except for limited scenarios. The scene around the robot is sensed using a scanning range measuring laser and a camera. The high level scene interpretation is done by the operator who also does the high level planning. Which operations the robot are to perform is indicated by pointing in the images or in a map created by the robot. Operations are functions that the robot can perform autonomously. They can be simple, like `Travel 2 m ahead', or more advanced, like `Follow the corridor and take the first door to the right'. Some typical operations are: (1) Lock the heading of the robot when driving on a `straight' line and preprogrammed 90 and 180 turns. (2) Automatically enter a camera defined line; the direction of the camera is used to drop a new coordinate frame at any time (using a knob on the keyboard). The robot will automatically enter this new line and also compensate for the overshoot. (3) Travelling along corridors. The operation is both robust and precise. The precision is about 1 cm at 1 m/s and the robot is not disturbed by people passing it in the corridor. (4) Command for passage through a door works within 1 cm and 0.5 degrees at a speed of 0.5 m/s. The range weighted Hough Transform on laser measurements extracts the walls in an indoor environment. This is used to create an internal map in the robot which is used for operations like corridor following or passing through doors. The map is also useful when presenting information to the operator.

  16. Autonomous mobile robot research using the HERMIES-III robot

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.; Beckerman, M.; Spelt, P.F.; Robinson, J.T.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the status and future directions in the research, development and experimental validation of intelligent control techniques for autonomous mobile robots using the HERMIES-III robot at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced research (CESAR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). HERMIES-III is the fourth robot in a series of increasingly more sophisticated and capable experimental test beds developed at CESAR. HERMIES-III is comprised of a battery powered, onmi-directional wheeled platform with a seven degree-of-freedom manipulator arm, video cameras, sonar range sensors, laser imaging scanner and a dual computer system containing up to 128 NCUBE nodes in hypercube configuration. All electronics, sensors, computers, and communication equipment required for autonomous operation of HERMIES-III are located on board along with sufficient battery power for three to four hours of operation. The paper first provides a more detailed description of the HERMIES-III characteristics, focussing on the new areas of research and demonstration now possible at CESAR with this new test-bed. The initial experimental program is then described with emphasis placed on autonomous performance of human-scale tasks (e.g., valve manipulation, use of tools), integration of a dexterous manipulator and platform motion in geometrically complex environments, and effective use of multiple cooperating robots (HERMIES-IIB and HERMIES- III). The paper concludes with a discussion of the integration problems and safety considerations necessarily arising from the set-up of an experimental program involving human-scale, multi-autonomous mobile robots performance. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Cooperative Mobile Sensing Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R S; Kent, C A; Jones, E D; Cunningham, C T; Armstrong, G W

    2003-02-10

    A cooperative control architecture is presented that allows a fleet of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) to collect data in a parallel, coordinated and optimal manner. The architecture is designed to react to a set of unpredictable events thereby allowing data collection to continue in an optimal manner.

  18. [Mobile autonomous robots-Possibilities and limits].

    PubMed

    Maehle, E; Brockmann, W; Walthelm, A

    2002-02-01

    Besides industrial robots, which today are firmly established in production processes, service robots are becoming more and more important. They shall provide services for humans in different areas of their professional and everyday environment including medicine. Most of these service robots are mobile which requires an intelligent autonomous behaviour. After characterising the different kinds of robots the relevant paradigms of intelligent autonomous behaviour for mobile robots are critically discussed in this paper and illustrated by three concrete examples of robots realized in Lübeck. In addition a short survey of actual kinds of surgical robots as well as an outlook to future developments is given.

  19. Cooperative intelligent robotics in space III; Proceedings of the Meeting, Boston, MA, Nov. 16-18, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume on cooperative intelligent robotics in space discusses sensing and perception, Space Station Freedom robotics, cooperative human/intelligent robot teams, and intelligent space robotics. Attention is given to space robotics reasoning and control, ground-based space applications, intelligent space robotics architectures, free-flying orbital space robotics, and cooperative intelligent robotics in space exploration. Topics addressed include proportional proximity sensing for telerobots using coherent lasar radar, ground operation of the mobile servicing system on Space Station Freedom, teleprogramming a cooperative space robotic workcell for space stations, and knowledge-based task planning for the special-purpose dextrous manipulator. Also discussed are dimensions of complexity in learning from interactive instruction, an overview of the dynamic predictive architecture for robotic assistants, recent developments at the Goddard engineering testbed, and parallel fault-tolerant robot control.

  20. Design principles of a cooperative robot controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayward, Vincent; Hayati, Samad

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes the design of a controller for cooperative robots being designed at McGill University in a collaborative effort with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The first part of the paper discusses the background and motivation for multiple arm control. Then, a set of programming primitives, which are based on the RCCL system and which permit a programmer to specify cooperative tasks are described. The first group of primitives are motion primitives which specify asynchronous motions, master/slave motions, and cooperative motions. In the context of cooperative robots, trajectory generation issues will be discussed and the implementation described. A second set of primitives provides for the specification of spatial relationships. The relations between programming and control in the case of multiple robot are examined. Finally, the paper describes the allocation of various tasks among a set of microprocessors sharing a common bus.

  1. Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robots

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberly, Howard R.; Shipers, Larry R.

    1999-07-14

    Long-term nuclear material storage will require in-vault data verification, sensor testing, error and alarm response, inventory, and maintenance operations. System concept development efforts for a comprehensive nuclear material management system have identified the use of a small flexible mobile automation platform to perform these surveillance and maintenance operations. In order to have near-term wide-range application in the Complex, a mobile surveillance system must be small, flexible, and adaptable enough to allow retrofit into existing special nuclear material facilities. The objective of the Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robot project is to satisfy these needs by development of a human scale mobile robot to monitor the state of health, physical security and safety of items in storage and process; recognize and respond to alarms, threats, and off-normal operating conditions; and perform material handling and maintenance operations. The system will integrate a tool kit of onboard sensors and monitors, maintenance equipment and capability, and SNL developed non-lethal threat response technology with the intelligence to identify threats and develop and implement first response strategies for abnormal signals and alarm conditions. System versatility will be enhanced by incorporating a robot arm, vision and force sensing, robust obstacle avoidance, and appropriate monitoring and sensing equipment.

  2. Mobile Robot Positioning - Sensors and Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    Inertial Navigation Systems Mobile Robots.” IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 11, No. 3, June, pp. 328-342. 4. Battin, R. H., 1987...Results from Internal Odometry Error Correction With the OmniMate Mobile Platform." Submitted to the IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, July 1996

  3. Survey of Mobile Robots.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    STANDARDS-1963-A IMY Techical Report ND. 450-90G-1R-ODWa p. 00 SURVEY OF MOBLE ROBOTS ’ Anita N& Flym Research Scientist !; "IT Artificlal Intelligence...case of an attempt at system building before the technology for the components was available. 1.3 The Stanford Cart 1973-1981 From 1973 to 1981, work...autonomous and yet still exhibit a high level of sophistication. Rapidly changing technology , including both the advent of the home computer and

  4. Certainty grids for mobile robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moravec, H. P.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical representation of uncertain and incomplete sensor knowledge called Certainty Grids has been used successfully in several mobile robot control programs, and has proven itself to be a powerful and efficient unifying solution for sensor fusion, motion planning, landmark identification, and many other central problems. Researchers propose to build a software framework running on processors onboard the new Uranus mobile robot that will maintain a probabilistic, geometric map of the robot's surroundings as it moves. The certainty grid representation will allow this map to be incrementally updated in a uniform way from various sources including sonar, stereo vision, proximity and contact sensors. The approach can correctly model the fuzziness of each reading, while at the same time combining multiple measurements to produce sharper map features, and it can deal correctly with uncertainties in the robot's motion. The map will be used by planning programs to choose clear paths, identify locations (by correlating maps), identify well-known and insufficiently sensed terrain, and perhaps identify objects by shape. The certainty grid representation can be extended in the same dimension and used to detect and track moving objects.

  5. Evolutionary Fuzzy Control and Navigation for Two Wheeled Robots Cooperatively Carrying an Object in Unknown Environments.

    PubMed

    Juang, Chia-Feng; Lai, Min-Ge; Zeng, Wan-Ting

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a method that allows two wheeled, mobile robots to navigate unknown environments while cooperatively carrying an object. In the navigation method, a leader robot and a follower robot cooperatively perform either obstacle boundary following (OBF) or target seeking (TS) to reach a destination. The two robots are controlled by fuzzy controllers (FC) whose rules are learned through an adaptive fusion of continuous ant colony optimization and particle swarm optimization (AF-CACPSO), which avoids the time-consuming task of manually designing the controllers. The AF-CACPSO-based evolutionary fuzzy control approach is first applied to the control of a single robot to perform OBF. The learning approach is then applied to achieve cooperative OBF with two robots, where an auxiliary FC designed with the AF-CACPSO is used to control the follower robot. For cooperative TS, a rule for coordination of the two robots is developed. To navigate cooperatively, a cooperative behavior supervisor is introduced to select between cooperative OBF and cooperative TS. The performance of the AF-CACPSO is verified through comparisons with various population-based optimization algorithms for the OBF learning problem. Simulations and experiments verify the effectiveness of the approach for cooperative navigation of two robots.

  6. Communications Systems for Mobile Robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Futterman, J A; Pao, H

    2003-12-08

    Performance Confirmation is the activity by which the Yucca Mountain Project confirms that the engineered and natural containment barriers of this national nuclear waste repository are performing as predicted, so that an eventual decision to close the repository can be made. This activity involves systems that must be inspected and, in some cases, serviced by mobile robots. This paper discusses systems for underground mobile robot communications, including requirements, environments, options, issues, and down-select criteria. We reviewed a variety of systems, including Slotted Waveguide, Powerline Carrier, Leaky Feeder, Photonic Bandgap Fiber, Free-Space Optics, Millimeter Waves, Terahertz Systems, and RF Systems (including IEEE 802.11 a,b, and g, and Ultra-Wideband radio).

  7. Autonomous mobile robots: Vehicles with cognitive control

    SciTech Connect

    Meystel, A.

    1987-01-01

    This book explores a new rapidly developing area of robotics. It describes the state-of-the-art intelligence control, applied machine intelligence, and research and initial stages of manufacturing of autonomous mobile robots. A complete account of the theoretical and experimental results obtained during the last two decades together with some generalizations on Autonomous Mobile Systems are included in this book. Contents: Introduction; Requirements and Specifications; State-of-the-art in Autonomous Mobile Robots Area; Structure of Intelligent Mobile Autonomous System; Planner, Navigator; Pilot; Cartographer; Actuation Control; Computer Simulation of Autonomous Operation; Testing the Autonomous Mobile Robot; Conclusions; Bibliography.

  8. Mobile robotics research at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, W.D.

    1998-09-01

    Sandia is a National Security Laboratory providing scientific and engineering solutions to meet national needs for both government and industry. As part of this mission, the Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center conducts research and development in robotics and intelligent machine technologies. An overview of Sandia`s mobile robotics research is provided. Recent achievements and future directions in the areas of coordinated mobile manipulation, small smart machines, world modeling, and special application robots are presented.

  9. Mobile robot localization with sparse landmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairfield, Nathaniel J.; Maxwell, Bruce A.

    2002-02-01

    This paper describes a mobile robot system designed to explore and map an indoor area such as is encountered in urban search and rescue mock-ups. The robot uses homogeneous artificial landmarks deployed during exploration for localization as it constructs a map, determining landmark distance and bearing with groundplane calculations from a single camera and using Kalman filtering techniques to perform localization. When implemented on a Magellan II mobile robot, the localization technique correctly localized the robot while exploring and mapping.

  10. Research and development at ORNL/CESAR towards cooperating robotic systems for hazardous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, R. C.; Fujimura, K.; Unseren, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the frontiers in intelligent machine research is the understanding of how constructive cooperation among multiple autonomous agents can be effected. The effort at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) focuses on two problem areas: (1) cooperation by multiple mobile robots in dynamic, incompletely known environments; and (2) cooperating robotic manipulators. Particular emphasis is placed on experimental evaluation of research and developments using the CESAR robot system testbeds, including three mobile robots, and a seven-axis, kinematically redundant mobile manipulator. This paper summarizes initial results of research addressing the decoupling of position and force control for two manipulators holding a common object, and the path planning for multiple robots in a common workspace.

  11. Research and development at ORNL/CESAR towards cooperating robotic systems for hazardous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, R.C.; Fujimura, K.; Unseren, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    One of the frontiers in intelligent machine research is the understanding of how constructive cooperation among multiple autonomous agents can be effected. The effort at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR)at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) focuses on two problem areas: (1) cooperation by multiple mobile robots in dynamic, incompletely known environments; and (2) cooperating robotic manipulators. Particular emphasis is placed on experimental evaluation of research and developments using the CESAR robot system testbeds, including three mobile robots, and a seven-axis, kinematically redundant mobile manipulator. This paper summarizes initial results of research addressing the decoupling of position and force control for two manipulators holding a common object, and the path planning for multiple robots in a common workspace. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Integrated mobile-robot design

    SciTech Connect

    Kortenkamp, D.; Huber, M.; Cohen, C.; Raschke, U.; Bidlack, C.; Congdon, C.B.; Koss, F.; Weymouth, T.

    1993-08-01

    Ten mobile robots entered the AAAI '92 Robot Competition, held at last year's national conference. Carmel, the University of Michigan entry, won. The competition consisted of three stages. The first stage required roaming a 22[times]22-meter arena while avoiding static and dynamic obstacles; the second involved searching for and visiting 10 objects in the same arena. The obstacles were at least 1.5 meters apart, while the objects were spaced roughly evenly throughout the arena. Visiting was defined as moving to within two robot diameters of the object. The last stage was a timed race to visit three of the objects located earlier and return home. Since the first stage was primarily a subset of the second-stage requirements, and the third-stage implementation was very similar to that of the second, the authors' focus here on the second stage. Carmel (Computer-Aided Robotics for Maintenance, Emergency, and Life support) is based on a commercially available Cybermotion K2A mobile-robot platform. It has a top speed of approximately 800 millimeters per second and moves on three synchronously driven wheels. For sensing, Carmel, has a ring of 24 Polaroid sonar sensors and a single black-and-white charge-coupled-device camera mounted on a rotating table. Carmel has three processors: one controls the drive motors, one fires the sonar ring, and the third, a 486-based PC clone, executes all the high-level modules. The 486 also has a frame grabber for acquiring images. All computation and power are contained on-board.

  13. The Terregator Mobile Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Configuration 17 4.3 Locomotor 19 4.3.1 Base Frame 20 4.3.2 Motors and Drive Train 21 4.3.3 Roll Frame 25 4.3.4 Rack Mount Enclosure 26 4.4 On-Board...Constraints The Terregator, designed to support various sensors, supplies a mounting surface on the maneuverable base vehicle. The real-time computer...mobile base to deploy and develop these navigation modes. The vehicle, therefore, had to supply a mounting surface on a maneuverable base vehicle; but

  14. Adaptive mobility for rescue robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blitch, John G.

    2003-09-01

    It has often been observed that the most daunting aspect of any crisis response is managing the "unknown unknowns" that inevitably plague incident commanders and emergency personnel at all levels responsible for life and death decisions on a minute by minute basis. In structural collapse situations, for example, rescue crews rarely have even a coarse picture of the number or disposition of people or material scattered amongst the twisted beams and piles of concrete that typically entomb would-be survivors. How can the incident commander decide which beam to lift or even which section of the building to search first in the absence of information of what lies beneath. Even the slightest tug on a concrete slab can collapse potential life harboring void spaces below killing potential survivors in the process. In deploying mobile robots to assist in rescue operations we combined the traditional advantages of machine immunity to fatigue, hazardous materials and environmental controls, with the mechanical design freedom that allowed small platforms to penetrate deep into rubble to expand both situational awareness and operational influence of rescue services at the World Trade Center and mountainous snow-bound caves in Afghanistan. We learned a great deal from these experiences with regard to robot emloyment and design. This paper endeavors to share a few of our more prominent lessons learned regarding portable robot mobility as a means to manage user expectations and stimulate more innovative and adaptive design.

  15. Portable control device for networked mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Feddema, John T.; Byrne, Raymond H.; Bryan, Jon R.; Harrington, John J.; Gladwell, T. Scott

    2002-01-01

    A handheld control device provides a way for controlling one or multiple mobile robotic vehicles by incorporating a handheld computer with a radio board. The device and software use a personal data organizer as the handheld computer with an additional microprocessor and communication device on a radio board for use in controlling one robot or multiple networked robots.

  16. Analysis Of Control Of Cooperating Robot Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreutz, Kenneth K.; Wen, John Ting-Yung

    1991-01-01

    Paper presents theoretical analysis of general problem of how to control motions of, and forces exerted by, several multiple-rigid-link robot arms that cooperatively manipulate common rigid object. Emphasis mainly on construction, via full-dynamics approach, of control laws relatively independent of dynamical models.

  17. Robotic Cooperative Learning Promotes Student STEM Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosley, Pauline; Ardito, Gerald; Scollins, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    The principal purpose of this investigation is to study the effect of robotic cooperative learning methodologies on middle school students' critical thinking, and STEM interest. The semi-experimental inquiry consisted of ninety four six-grade students (forty nine students in the experimental group, forty five students in the control group), chosen…

  18. Modular Track System For Positioning Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Conceptual system for positioning mobile robotic manipulators on large main structure includes modular tracks and ancillary structures assembled easily along with main structure. System, called "tracked robotic location system" (TROLS), originally intended for application to platforms in outer space, but TROLS concept might also prove useful on Earth; for example, to position robots in factories and warehouses. T-cross-section rail keeps mobile robot on track. Bar codes mark locations along track. Each robot equipped with bar-code-recognizing circuitry so it quickly finds way to assigned location.

  19. Link Quality Estimator for a Mobile Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    several years. This is especially true for Explosive Ordnance Disposal ( EOD ) teams that use robots to investigate and neutralize Improvised Explosive...LINK QUALITY ESTIMATOR FOR A MOBILE ROBOT Narek Pezeshkian, Joseph D. Neff, and Abraham Hart SPAWAR Systems Center, Pacific, San Diego, CA 92152...narek.pezeshkian@navy.mil Keywords: Link Quality: Video Quality: Estimator: Metric: Mobile Robot Abstract: Maintaining link connectivity between a

  20. Rice-obot 1: An intelligent autonomous mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defigueiredo, R.; Ciscon, L.; Berberian, D.

    1989-01-01

    The Rice-obot I is the first in a series of Intelligent Autonomous Mobile Robots (IAMRs) being developed at Rice University's Cooperative Intelligent Mobile Robots (CIMR) lab. The Rice-obot I is mainly designed to be a testbed for various robotic and AI techniques, and a platform for developing intelligent control systems for exploratory robots. Researchers present the need for a generalized environment capable of combining all of the control, sensory and knowledge systems of an IAMR. They introduce Lisp-Nodes as such a system, and develop the basic concepts of nodes, messages and classes. Furthermore, they show how the control system of the Rice-obot I is implemented as sub-systems in Lisp-Nodes.

  1. Precision Manipulation with Cooperative Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroupe, Ashley; Huntsberger, Terry; Okon, Avi; Aghzarian, Hrand

    2005-01-01

    This work addresses several challenges of cooperative transportThis work addresses several challenges of cooperative transport and precision manipulation. Precision manipulation requires a rigid grasp, which places a hard constraint on the relative rover formation that must be accommodated, even though the rovers cannot directly observe their relative poses. Additionally, rovers must jointly select appropriate actions based on all available sensor information. Lastly, rovers cannot act on independent sensor information, but must fuse information to move jointly; the methods for fusing information must be determined.

  2. Precision Manipulation with Cooperative Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroupe, Ashley; Huntsberger, Terry; Okon, Avi; Aghzarian, Hrand

    2005-01-01

    This work addresses several challenges of cooperative transportThis work addresses several challenges of cooperative transport and precision manipulation. Precision manipulation requires a rigid grasp, which places a hard constraint on the relative rover formation that must be accommodated, even though the rovers cannot directly observe their relative poses. Additionally, rovers must jointly select appropriate actions based on all available sensor information. Lastly, rovers cannot act on independent sensor information, but must fuse information to move jointly; the methods for fusing information must be determined.

  3. Mobile Robotics Activities in DOE Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Ron Lujan; Jerry Harbour; John T. Feddema; Sharon Bailey; Jacob Barhen; David Reister

    2005-03-01

    This paper will briefly outline major activities in Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratories focused on mobile platforms, both Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV’s) as well as Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV’s). The activities will be discussed in the context of the science and technology construct used by the DOE Technology Roadmap for Robotics and Intelligent Machines (RIM)1 published in 1998; namely, Perception, Reasoning, Action, and Integration. The activities to be discussed span from research and development to deployment in field operations. The activities support customers in other agencies. The discussion of "perception" will include hyperspectral sensors, complex patterns discrimination, multisensor fusion and advances in LADAR technologies, including real-world perception. "Reasoning" activities to be covered include cooperative controls, distributed systems, ad-hoc networks, platform-centric intelligence, and adaptable communications. The paper will discuss "action" activities such as advanced mobility and various air and ground platforms. In the RIM construct, "integration" includes the Human-Machine Integration. Accordingly the paper will discuss adjustable autonomy and the collaboration of operator(s) with distributed UGV’s and UAV’s. Integration also refers to the applications of these technologies into systems to perform operations such as perimeter surveillance, large-area monitoring and reconnaissance. Unique facilities and test beds for advanced mobile systems will be described. Given that this paper is an overview, rather than delve into specific detail in these activities, other more exhaustive references and sources will be cited extensively.

  4. Update on Controlling Herds of Cooperative Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco; Chang, Johnny

    2007-01-01

    A document presents further information on the subject matter of "Controlling Herds of Cooperative Robots". The document describes the results of the computational simulations of a one-blimp, three-surface-sonde herd in various operational scenarios, including sensitivity studies as a function of distributed communication and processing delays between the sondes and the blimp. From results of the simulations, it is concluded that the methodology is feasible, even if there are significant uncertainties in the dynamical models.

  5. Reference test courses for autonomous mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoff, Adam; Messina, Elena; Evans, John

    2001-09-01

    One approach to measuring the performance of intelligent systems is to develop standardized or reproducible tests. These tests may be in a simulated environment or in a physical test course. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed a test course for evaluating the performance of mobile autonomous robots operating in an urban search and rescue mission. The test course is designed to simulate a collapsed building structure at various levels of fidelity. The course will be used in robotic competitions, such as the American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) Mobile Robot Competition and the RoboCup Rescue. Designed to be repeatable and highly reconfigurable, the test course challenges a robot's cognitive capabilities such as perception, knowledge representation, planning, autonomy and collaboration. The goal of the test course is to help define useful performance metrics for autonomous mobile robots which, if widely accepted, could accelerate development of advanced robotic capabilities by promoting the re-use of algorithms and system components. The course may also serve as a prototype for further development of performance testing environments which enable robot developers and purchasers to objectively evaluate robots for a particular application. In this paper we discuss performance metrics for autonomous mobile robots, the use of representative urban search and rescue scenarios as a challenge domain, and the design criteria for the test course.

  6. Automatic learning by an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    de Saussure, G.; Spelt, P.F.; Killough, S.M.; Pin, F.G.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes recent research in automatic learning by the autonomous mobile robot HERMIES-IIB at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR). By acting on the environment and observing the consequences during a set of training examples, the robot learns a sequence of successful manipulations on a simulated control panel. The robot learns to classify panel configurations in order to deal with new configurations that are not part of the original training set. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Mobile robotic sensors for perimeter detection and tracking.

    PubMed

    Clark, Justin; Fierro, Rafael

    2007-02-01

    Mobile robot/sensor networks have emerged as tools for environmental monitoring, search and rescue, exploration and mapping, evaluation of civil infrastructure, and military operations. These networks consist of many sensors each equipped with embedded processors, wireless communication, and motion capabilities. This paper describes a cooperative mobile robot network capable of detecting and tracking a perimeter defined by a certain substance (e.g., a chemical spill) in the environment. Specifically, the contributions of this paper are twofold: (i) a library of simple reactive motion control algorithms and (ii) a coordination mechanism for effectively carrying out perimeter-sensing missions. The decentralized nature of the methodology implemented could potentially allow the network to scale to many sensors and to reconfigure when adding/deleting sensors. Extensive simulation results and experiments verify the validity of the proposed cooperative control scheme.

  8. Employing Omnidirectional Visual Control for Mobile Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, J. R., Jr.; Jung, S.; Steplight, S.; Wright, J. R., Sr.; Das, A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes projects using conventional technologies--incorporation of relatively inexpensive visual control with mobile robots using a simple remote control vehicle platform, a camera, a mirror, and a computer. Explains how technology teachers can apply them in the classroom. (JOW)

  9. Robotic vehicle with multiple tracked mobility platforms

    DOEpatents

    Salton, Jonathan R [Albuquerque, NM; Buttz, James H [Albuquerque, NM; Garretson, Justin [Albuquerque, NM; Hayward, David R [Wetmore, CO; Hobart, Clinton G [Albuquerque, NM; Deuel, Jr., Jamieson K.

    2012-07-24

    A robotic vehicle having two or more tracked mobility platforms that are mechanically linked together with a two-dimensional coupling, thereby forming a composite vehicle of increased mobility. The robotic vehicle is operative in hazardous environments and can be capable of semi-submersible operation. The robotic vehicle is capable of remote controlled operation via radio frequency and/or fiber optic communication link to a remote operator control unit. The tracks have a plurality of track-edge scallop cut-outs that allow the tracks to easily grab onto and roll across railroad tracks, especially when crossing the railroad tracks at an oblique angle.

  10. Evolution of cooperation among mobile agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhuo; Gao, Jianxi; Cai, Yunze; Xu, Xiaoming

    2011-05-01

    We study the effects of mobility on the evolution of cooperation among mobile players, which imitate collective motion of biological flocks and interact with neighbors within a prescribed radius R. Adopting the the prisoner’s dilemma game and the snowdrift game as metaphors, we find that cooperation can be maintained and even enhanced for low velocities and small payoff parameters, when compared with the case that all agents do not move. But such enhancement of cooperation is largely determined by the value of R, and for modest values of R, there is an optimal value of velocity to induce the maximum cooperation level. Besides, we find that intermediate values of R or initial population densities are most favorable for cooperation, when the velocity is fixed. Depending on the payoff parameters, the system can reach an absorbing state of cooperation when the snowdrift game is played. Our findings may help understanding the relations between individual mobility and cooperative behavior in social systems.

  11. Evolving controllers for a homogeneous system of physical robots: structured cooperation with minimal sensors.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Matt; Smith, Lincoln; Mayley, Giles; Husbands, Phil

    2003-10-15

    We report on recent work in which we employed artificial evolution to design neural network controllers for small, homogeneous teams of mobile autonomous robots. The robots were evolved to perform a formation-movement task from random starting positions, equipped only with infrared sensors. The dual constraints of homogeneity and minimal sensors make this a non-trivial task. We describe the behaviour of a successful system in which robots adopt and maintain functionally distinct roles in order to achieve the task. We believe this to be the first example of the use of artificial evolution to design coordinated, cooperative behaviour for real robots.

  12. Extensible Hardware Architecture for Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Eric; Kobayashi, Linda; Lee, Susan Y.

    2005-01-01

    The Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames Research Center has developed a new mobile robot hardware architecture designed for extensibility and reconfigurability. Currently implemented on the k9 rover. and won to be integrated onto the K10 series of human-robot collaboration research robots, this architecture allows for rapid changes in instrumentation configuration and provides a high degree of modularity through a synergistic mix of off-the-shelf and custom designed components, allowing eased transplantation into a wide vane6 of mobile robot platforms. A component level overview of this architecture is presented along with a description of the changes required for implementation on K10 , followed by plans for future work.

  13. Defining proprioceptive behaviors for autonomous mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overholt, James L.; Hudas, Greg R.; Gerhart, Grant R.

    2002-07-01

    Proprioception is a sense of body position and movement that supports the control of many automatic motor functions such as posture and locomotion. This concept, normally relegated to the fields of neural physiology and kinesiology, is being utilized in the field of unmanned mobile robotics. This paper looks at developing proprioceptive behaviors for use in controlling an unmanned ground vehicle. First, we will discuss the field of behavioral control of mobile robots. Next, a discussion of proprioception and the development of proprioceptive sensors will be presented. We will then focus on the development of a unique neural-fuzzy architecture that will be used to incorporate the control behaviors coming directly from the proprioceptive sensors. Finally we will present a simulation experiment where a simple multi-sensor robot, utilizing both external and proprioceptive sensors, is presented with the task of navigating an unknown terrain to a known target position. Results of the mobile robot utilizing this unique fusion methodology will be discussed.

  14. Autonomous Navigation for Mobile Robots with Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, James; Johns, Edward; Valibeik, Salman; Wong, Charence; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    Dynamic and complex indoor environments present a challenge for mobile robot navigation. The robot must be able to simultaneously map the environment, which often has repetitive features, whilst keep track of its pose and location. This chapter introduces some of the key considerations for human guided navigation. Rather than letting the robot explore the environment fully autonomously, we consider the use of human guidance for progressively building up the environment map and establishing scene association, learning, as well as navigation and planning. After the guide has taken the robot through the environment and indicated the points of interest via hand gestures, the robot is then able to use the geometric map and scene descriptors captured during the tour to create a high-level plan for subsequent autonomous navigation within the environment. Issues related to gesture recognition, multi-cue integration, tracking, target pursuing, scene association and navigation planning are discussed.

  15. Distributed control of multi-robot teams: Cooperative baton passing task

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1998-11-01

    This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, they describe the implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative baton passing task. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes during the task.

  16. A framework for robust mobile robot systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchior, Nik A.; Smart, William D.

    2004-12-01

    Fielded mobile robot systems will inevitably suffer hardware and software failures. Failures in a single subsystem can often disable the entire robot, especially if the controlling application does not consider such failures. Often simple measures, such as a software restart or the use of a secondary sensor, can solve the problem. However, these fixes must generally be applied by a human expert, who might not be present in the field. In this paper, we describe a recovery-oriented framework for mobile robot applications which addresses this problem in two ways. First, fault isolation automatically provides graceful degradation of the overall system as individual software and hardware components fail. In addition, subsystems are monitored for known failure modes or aberrant behavior. The framework responds to detected or immanent failures by restarting or replacing the suspect component in a manner transparent to the application programmer and the robot's operator.

  17. Application of mobile robot localization using sonar

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.S.; Hill, K.H.

    1994-12-31

    A sonar-based mobile robot has been developed for inspection of low-level radioactive waste drums. An algorithm was developed which gives the robot the ability to refence itself to cylindrical objects. The drum-following algorithm has been demonstrated in 4-ft drum aisles at the Mobile Robotics Laboratory at the University of South Carolina. The final version has proven to be robust through extensive long-term navigation tests. Future enhancements will employ a narrow-aisle version of the Nav-master to allow navigation in 3-ft drum aisles. The final version of the inspection robot will include the drum-navigation algorithm as a low-level primitive instruction. The onboard management system will be dedicated to more of the high-level functions, such as planning, now provided by the offboard supervisory system.

  18. A Lane Following Mobile Robot Navigation System Using Mono Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yeongcheol; Kim, Seungwoo; Park, Seongkeun

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we develop a lane following mobile robot using mono camera. By using camera, robot can recognize its left and right side lane, and maintain the center line of robot track. We use Hough Transform for detecting lane, and PID controller for control direction of mobile robot. The validity of our robot system is performed in a real world robot track environment which is built up in our laboratory.

  19. JOMAR: Joint Operations with Mobile Autonomous Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-21

    the locations of attenuating materials in the robots’ environment. We also extend prior tomographic and correlation -based approaches to the multi-robot... correlative signal predic- tion techniques to the case of multiple mobile robots without a base station. • A new signal-strength prediction method...be used to predict packet success rates. There are two main approaches to signal prediction in the literature – the first is correlative in nature

  20. Evolutionary neurocontrollers for autonomous mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Floreano, D; Mondada, F

    1998-10-01

    In this article we describe a methodology for evolving neurocontrollers of autonomous mobile robots without human intervention. The presentation, which spans from technological and methodological issues to several experimental results on evolution of physical mobile robots, covers both previous and recent work in the attempt to provide a unified picture within which the reader can compare the effects of systematic variations on the experimental settings. After describing some key principles for building mobile robots and tools suitable for experiments in adaptive robotics, we give an overview of different approaches to evolutionary robotics and present our methodology. We start reviewing two basic experiments showing that different environments can shape very different behaviours and neural mechanisms under very similar selection criteria. We then address the issue of incremental evolution in two different experiments from the perspective of changing environments and robot morphologies. Finally, we investigate the possibility of evolving plastic neurocontrollers and analyse an evolved neurocontroller that relies on fast and continuously changing synapses characterized by dynamic stability. We conclude by reviewing the implications of this methodology for engineering, biology, cognitive science and artificial life, and point at future directions of research.

  1. SIR-1: An autonomous mobile sentry robot

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, J.J.; Klarer, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype mobile robot system configured to function as part of an overall security system at a high security facility. The features of this robot system include specialized software and sensors for navigation without the need for external locator beacons or sign posts, sensors for remote imaging and intruder detection, and data link facilities to communicate information either directly to an electronic security system or to a manned central control center. Other features of the robot system include low weight, compact size, and low power consumption. The robot system can operate either by remote manual control, or it can operate autonomously where the need for direct human control is limited to the global command level. The robot can act as a mobile remote sensing platform for visual alarm assessment or roving patrol, or as an exploratory device in situations potentially hazardous to humans. This robot system may also be used to walk-test intrusion detection sensors as part of a routine test and maintenance program for an interior intrusion detection system (IDS), and to provide a programmable, temporary sensor capability to backup an IDS sensor that has failed. This capability may also be used to provide improved sensor coverage of an area that will be secured on a temporary or short term basis, thereby eliminating the need for a permanent sensor installation. The hardware, software, and operation of this robot system are briefly described.

  2. SIR-1: An autonomous mobile sentry robot

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, J.J.; Klarer, P.R.

    1987-05-01

    This paper describes a prototype mobile robot system configured to function as part of an overall security system at a high security facility. The features of this robot system include specialized software and sensors for navigation without the need for external locator beacons or sign posts, sensors for remote imaging and intruder detection, and data link facilities to communicate information either directly to an electronic security system or to a manned central control center. Other features of the robot system include low weight, compact size, and low power consumption. The robot system can operate either by remote manual control, or it can operate autonomously where the need for direct human control is limited to the global command level. The robot can act as a mobile remote sensing platform for visual alarm assessment or roving patrol, or as an exploratory device in situations potentially hazardous to humans. This robot system may also be used to walk-test intrusion detection sensors as part of a routine test and maintenance program for an interior intrusion detection system (IDS), and to provide a programmable, temporary sensor capability to backup an IDS sensor that has failed. This capability may also be used to provide improved sensor coverage of an area that will be secured on a temporary or short term basis, thereby eliminating the need for a permanent sensor installation. The hardware, software, and operation of this robot system will be briefly described herein.

  3. Intelligent modular manipulation for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culbertson, John

    2008-04-01

    As mobile robots continue to gain acceptance across a variety of applications within the defense and civilian markets, the number of tasks that these robot platforms are expected to accomplish are expanding. Robot operators are asked to do more with the same platforms - from EOD missions to reconnaissance and inspection operations. Due to the fact that a majority of missions are dangerous in nature, it is critical that users are able to make remote adjustments to the systems to ensure that they are kept out of harm's way. An efficient way to expand the capabilities of existing robot platforms, improve the efficiency of robot missions, and to ultimately improve the operator's safety is to integrate JAUS-enabled Intelligent Modular Manipulation payloads. Intelligent Modular Manipulation payloads include both simple and dexterous manipulator arms with plug-and-play end-effector tools that can be changed based on the specific mission. End-effectors that can be swapped down-range provide an added benefit of decreased time-on-target. The intelligence in these systems comes from semi-autonomous mobile manipulation actions that enable the robot operator to perform manipulation task with the touch of a button on the OCU. RE2 is supporting Unmanned Systems Interoperability by utilizing the JAUS standard as the messaging protocol for all of its manipulation systems. Therefore, they can be easily adapted and integrated onto existing JAUS-enabled robot platforms.

  4. Self-awareness in mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Willie Y.

    1992-02-01

    Self-awareness is the ability for a mobile robot to, on its own, detect and deal with operational abnormalities. Such an ability is needed for the robot to operate robustly in an unpredictable environment. For the robot to be self-aware it must be capable of sensing its own internal state (such as detecting hardware failures or a drop in battery charge level), reacting quickly to such internal inputs, and infer the implications of the resulting actions. At the lowest level, the ability to detect hardware failures enables a reactive robot to substitute functionally equivalent behaviors for those that no longer work because of the failures. If the failures are serious, the robot should be able to abort the current and initiate a new task/mission to correct the problem. At the highest level, self-awareness would give the robot a sense of its `well-being,' limitations, capabilities, and needs. This paper describes how the self-awareness ability is being implemented on a mobile robot, called SmartyCat, that uses high level reasoning to coordinate and specialize its low level reactive behaviors to the mission goal. The multilevel mechanisms, ranging from behavior substitution to mission replanning, needed for self- awareness are discussed.

  5. Mobile Robot and Mobile Manipulator Research Towards ASTM Standards Development

    PubMed Central

    Bostelman, Roger; Hong, Tsai; Legowik, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Performance standards for industrial mobile robots and mobile manipulators (robot arms onboard mobile robots) have only recently begun development. Low cost and standardized measurement techniques are needed to characterize system performance, compare different systems, and to determine if recalibration is required. This paper discusses work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and within the ASTM Committee F45 on Driverless Automatic Guided Industrial Vehicles. This includes standards for both terminology, F45.91, and for navigation performance test methods, F45.02. The paper defines terms that are being considered. Additionally, the paper describes navigation test methods that are near ballot and docking test methods being designed for consideration within F45.02. This includes the use of low cost artifacts that can provide alternatives to using relatively expensive measurement systems. PMID:28690359

  6. Mobile Robot and Mobile Manipulator Research Towards ASTM Standards Development.

    PubMed

    Bostelman, Roger; Hong, Tsai; Legowik, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Performance standards for industrial mobile robots and mobile manipulators (robot arms onboard mobile robots) have only recently begun development. Low cost and standardized measurement techniques are needed to characterize system performance, compare different systems, and to determine if recalibration is required. This paper discusses work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and within the ASTM Committee F45 on Driverless Automatic Guided Industrial Vehicles. This includes standards for both terminology, F45.91, and for navigation performance test methods, F45.02. The paper defines terms that are being considered. Additionally, the paper describes navigation test methods that are near ballot and docking test methods being designed for consideration within F45.02. This includes the use of low cost artifacts that can provide alternatives to using relatively expensive measurement systems.

  7. Mobile robot and mobile manipulator research towards ASTM standards development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostelman, Roger; Hong, Tsai; Legowik, Steven

    2016-05-01

    Performance standards for industrial mobile robots and mobile manipulators (robot arms onboard mobile robots) have only recently begun development. Low cost and standardized measurement techniques are needed to characterize system performance, compare different systems, and to determine if recalibration is required. This paper discusses work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and within the ASTM Committee F45 on Driverless Automatic Guided Industrial Vehicles. This includes standards for both terminology, F45.91, and for navigation performance test methods, F45.02. The paper defines terms that are being considered. Additionally, the paper describes navigation test methods that are near ballot and docking test methods being designed for consideration within F45.02. This includes the use of low cost artifacts that can provide alternatives to using relatively expensive measurement systems.

  8. Olfaction and Hearing Based Mobile Robot Navigation for Odor/Sound Source Search

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kai; Liu, Qi; Wang, Qi

    2011-01-01

    Bionic technology provides a new elicitation for mobile robot navigation since it explores the way to imitate biological senses. In the present study, the challenging problem was how to fuse different biological senses and guide distributed robots to cooperate with each other for target searching. This paper integrates smell, hearing and touch to design an odor/sound tracking multi-robot system. The olfactory robot tracks the chemical odor plume step by step through information fusion from gas sensors and airflow sensors, while two hearing robots localize the sound source by time delay estimation (TDE) and the geometrical position of microphone array. Furthermore, this paper presents a heading direction based mobile robot navigation algorithm, by which the robot can automatically and stably adjust its velocity and direction according to the deviation between the current heading direction measured by magnetoresistive sensor and the expected heading direction acquired through the odor/sound localization strategies. Simultaneously, one robot can communicate with the other robots via a wireless sensor network (WSN). Experimental results show that the olfactory robot can pinpoint the odor source within the distance of 2 m, while two hearing robots can quickly localize and track the olfactory robot in 2 min. The devised multi-robot system can achieve target search with a considerable success ratio and high stability. PMID:22319401

  9. An autonomous vision-based mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Eric Thomas

    This dissertation describes estimation and control methods for use in the development of an autonomous mobile robot for structured environments. The navigation of the mobile robot is based on precise estimates of the position and orientation of the robot within its environment. The extended Kalman filter algorithm is used to combine information from the robot's drive wheels with periodic observations of small, wall-mounted, visual cues to produce the precise position and orientation estimates. The visual cues are reliably detected by at least one video camera mounted on the mobile robot. Typical position estimates are accurate to within one inch. A path tracking algorithm is also developed to follow desired reference paths which are taught by a human operator. Because of the time-independence of the tracking algorithm, the speed that the vehicle travels along the reference path is specified independent from the tracking algorithm. The estimation and control methods have been applied successfully to two experimental vehicle systems. Finally, an analysis of the linearized closed-loop control system is performed to study the behavior and the stability of the system as a function of various control parameters.

  10. Herbert: A Second Generation Mobile Robot.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    PROJECT. TASK S Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA A WORK UNIT NUMBERS ’ ~ 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME...AD-AI93 632 WMRT: A SECOND GENERTION MOBILE ROWT(U) / MASSACHUSETTS IMST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB R BROOKS ET AL .JAN l8 Al-M...MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY A. I. Memo 1016 January, 1988 HERBERT: A SECOND GENERATION MOBILE ROBOT Rodney A

  11. Optimal steering of a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Gerald

    2007-04-01

    An interesting problem in the control of mobile robots is the steering. In this paper a mobile robot with front-wheel steering is treated. A third-order kinematic model is developed. The problem of optimally steering the robot from an initial position and heading to a final position and heading is addressed. The performance measure is taken to be elapsed time. Assuming a fixed speed, this corresponds to a path of minimum distance. It is found that the trajectory consists of segments of maximum-curvature turns and segments of straight lines. The straight-line segments are singular arcs. The problem is shown to simplify when final heading is free. Four examples are solved.

  12. Mobile robotics application in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.L.; White, J.R.

    1995-03-01

    Mobile robots have been developed to perform hazardous operations in place of human workers. Applications include nuclear plant inspection/maintenance, decontamination and decommissioning police/military explosive ordinance disposal (EOD), hostage/terrorist negotiations and fire fighting. Nuclear facilities have proven that robotic applications can be cost-effective solutions to reducing personnel exposure and plant downtime. The first applications of mobile robots in the nuclear industry began in the early 1980`s, with the first vehicles being one of a kind machines or adaptations of commercial EOD robots. These activities included efforts by numerous commercial companies, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, EPRI, and several national laboratories. Some of these efforts were driven by the recovery and cleanup activities at TMI which demonstrated the potential and need for a remote means of performing surveillance and maintenance tasks in nuclear plants. The use of these machines is now becoming commonplace in nuclear facilities throughout the world. The hardware maturity and the confidence of the users has progressed to the point where the applications of mobile robots is not longer considered a novelty. These machines are being used in applications where the result is to help achieve more aggressive goals for personnel radiation exposure and plant availability, perform tasks more efficiently, and allow plant operators to retrieve information from areas previously considered inaccessible. Typical examples include surveillance in high radiation areas (during operation and outage activities), radiation surveys, waste handling, and decontamination evolutions. This paper will discuss this evolution including specific applications experiences, examples of currently available technology, and the benefits derived from the use of mobile robotic vehicles in commercial nuclear power facilities.

  13. Mobile robot with retractable claws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safi, Pedram; Varela, Sergio; Villar, Jeff; Bahr, Behnam

    2012-04-01

    Robots are widely used nowadays for tasks that are either impossible or hazardous for humans to perform. Search-andrescue operations are among these, especially in the hazardous environments of nuclear power, chemical and biological plants. These rescue robots are expected to operate well in cases of natural disaster, e.g earthquakes, by overcoming unpredicted obstacles, as well as rough and even slippery surfaces like those associated with oil spills and snow storms. In this paper we discuss a robot which has claws that are normally in the retractable position, and can be activated when the robot encounters slippery surfaces or wants to climb a rough terrain. This combination takes advantage of the locomotion efficiency of wheels, and at the same time uses the retractable paws as legs or even for hooking it to objects that it wants to climb. The results of our simulations have been satisfactory and our goal is to have a working prototype with further test results at the conference.

  14. Modelling cooperation of industrial robots as multi-agent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hryniewicz, P.; Banas, W.; Foit, K.; Gwiazda, A.; Sekala, A.

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, more and more often in a cell is more than one robot, there is also a dual arm robots, because of this cooperation of two robots in the same space becomes more and more important. Programming robotic cell consisting of two or more robots are currently performed separately for each element of the robot and the cell. It is performed only synchronization programs, but no robot movements. In such situations often placed industrial robots so they do not have common space so the robots are operated separately. When industrial robots are a common space this space can occupy only one robot the other one must be outside the common space. It is very difficult to find applications where two robots are in the same workspace. It was tested but one robot did not do of movement when moving the second and waited for permission to move from the second when it sent a permit - stop the move. Such programs are very difficult and require a lot of experience from the programmer and must be tested separately at the beginning and then very slowly under control. Ideally, the operator takes care of exactly one robot during the test and it is very important to take special care.

  15. Cooperative Three-Robot System for Traversing Steep Slopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroupe, Ashley; Huntsberger, Terrance; Aghazarian, Hrand; Younse, Paulo; Garrett, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Teamed Robots for Exploration and Science in Steep Areas (TRESSA) is a system of three autonomous mobile robots that cooperate with each other to enable scientific exploration of steep terrain (slope angles up to 90 ). Originally intended for use in exploring steep slopes on Mars that are not accessible to lone wheeled robots (Mars Exploration Rovers), TRESSA and systems like TRESSA could also be used on Earth for performing rescues on steep slopes and for exploring steep slopes that are too remote or too dangerous to be explored by humans. TRESSA is modeled on safe human climbing of steep slopes, two key features of which are teamwork and safety tethers. Two of the autonomous robots, denoted Anchorbots, remain at the top of a slope; the third robot, denoted the Cliffbot, traverses the slope. The Cliffbot drives over the cliff edge supported by tethers, which are payed out from the Anchorbots (see figure). The Anchorbots autonomously control the tension in the tethers to counter the gravitational force on the Cliffbot. The tethers are payed out and reeled in as needed, keeping the body of the Cliffbot oriented approximately parallel to the local terrain surface and preventing wheel slip by controlling the speed of descent or ascent, thereby enabling the Cliffbot to drive freely up, down, or across the slope. Due to the interactive nature of the three-robot system, the robots must be very tightly coupled. To provide for this tight coupling, the TRESSA software architecture is built on a combination of (1) the multi-robot layered behavior-coordination architecture reported in "An Architecture for Controlling Multiple Robots" (NPO-30345), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 10 (October 2004), page 65, and (2) the real-time control architecture reported in "Robot Electronics Architecture" (NPO-41784), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 1 (January 2008), page 28. The combination architecture makes it possible to keep the three robots synchronized and coordinated, to use data

  16. Development of an excretion care support robot with human cooperative characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yina Wang; Shuoyu Wang

    2015-01-01

    To support care giving in an aging society with a shrinking population, various life support robots are being developed. In the authors' laboratory, an excretion care support robot (ECSR) with human cooperative characteristic has been developed to relieve the burden of caregivers and improve the quality of life for bedridden persons. This robot consists of a portable toilet with storage tank and a mobile robot which can run autonomously to conduct the cooperative work with others. Our research is focused on how to improve the motion accuracy and how the robot can cooperate with users. In this paper, to enable the ECSR could precisely move in the indoor environment, a proper controller is proposed considering the center of gravity shift and load changes. Then, to perform the cooperative task, two acceleration sensors are used to recognize the users' intended posture and position when moving from bed to toilet. The robot's target angle and position are determined by the user's posture. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by a pseudo excretion support experiment.

  17. Exhaustive geographic search with mobile robots along space-filling curves

    SciTech Connect

    Spires, S.V.; Goldsmith, S.Y.

    1998-03-01

    Swarms of mobile robots can be tasked with searching a geographic region for targets of interest, such as buried land mines. The authors assume that the individual robots are equipped with sensors tuned to the targets of interest, that these sensors have limited range, and that the robots can communicate with one another to enable cooperation. How can a swarm of cooperating sensate robots efficiently search a given geographic region for targets in the absence of a priori information about the target`s locations? Many of the obvious approaches are inefficient or lack robustness. One efficient approach is to have the robots traverse a space-filling curve. For many geographic search applications, this method is energy-frugal, highly robust, and provides guaranteed coverage in a finite time that decreases as the reciprocal of the number of robots sharing the search task. Furthermore, it minimizes the amount of robot-to-robot communication needed for the robots to organize their movements. This report presents some preliminary results from applying the Hilbert space-filling curve to geographic search by mobile robots.

  18. Mobile robot Kasia with early vision based on CNN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedkowski, Janusz; Jankowski, Stanislaw

    2006-03-01

    In this paper the construction of low-cost mobile robot set up of LEGO bricks is presented. The robot vision software is based on cellular neural network image processing. The robot is able to find out a target - shining light - in the dedicated environment starting from any initial position. The most severe limitation of the robot functionality is its speed.

  19. Speed control for a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolli, Kaylan C.; Mallikarjun, Sreeram; Kola, Krishnamohan; Hall, Ernest L.

    1997-09-01

    Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) have many potential applications in manufacturing, medicine, space and defense. The purpose of this paper is to describe exploratory research on the design of a speed control for a modular autonomous mobile robot controller. The speed control of the traction motor is essential for safe operation of a mobile robot. The challenges of autonomous operation of a vehicle require safe, runaway and collision free operation. A mobile robot test-bed has been constructed using a golf cart base. The computer controlled speed control has been implemented and works with guidance provided by vision system and obstacle avoidance using ultrasonic sensors systems. A 486 computer through a 3- axis motion controller supervises the speed control. The traction motor is controlled via the computer by an EV-1 speed control. Testing of the system was done both in the lab and on an outside course with positive results. This design is a prototype and suggestions for improvements are also given. The autonomous speed controller is applicable for any computer controlled electric drive mobile vehicle.

  20. Robust performance of multiple tasks by a mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckerman, Martin; Barnett, Deanna L.; Dickens, Mike; Weisbin, Charles R.

    1989-01-01

    While there have been many successful mobile robot experiments, only a few papers have addressed issues pertaining to the range of applicability, or robustness, of robotic systems. The purpose of this paper is to report results of a series of benchmark experiments done to determine and quantify the robustness of an integrated hardware and software system of a mobile robot.

  1. Robust performance of multiple tasks by a mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckerman, Martin; Barnett, Deanna L.; Dickens, Mike; Weisbin, Charles R.

    1989-01-01

    While there have been many successful mobile robot experiments, only a few papers have addressed issues pertaining to the range of applicability, or robustness, of robotic systems. The purpose of this paper is to report results of a series of benchmark experiments done to determine and quantify the robustness of an integrated hardware and software system of a mobile robot.

  2. Cooperative Environment Scans Based on a Multi-Robot System

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ji-Wook

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a cooperative environment scan system (CESS) using multiple robots, where each robot has low-cost range finders and low processing power. To organize and maintain the CESS, a base robot monitors the positions of the child robots, controls them, and builds a map of the unknown environment, while the child robots with low performance range finders provide obstacle information. Even though each child robot provides approximated and limited information of the obstacles, CESS replaces the single LRF, which has a high cost, because much of the information is acquired and accumulated by a number of the child robots. Moreover, the proposed CESS extends the measurement boundaries and detects obstacles hidden behind others. To show the performance of the proposed system and compare this with the numerical models of the commercialized 2D and 3D laser scanners, simulation results are included. PMID:25789491

  3. IED Cleanup: A Cooperative Classroom Robotics Challenge--The Benefits and Execution of a Cooperative Classroom Robotics Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Mark; Kressly, Rich

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a cooperative classroom robotics challenge named "IED Cleanup". This classroom challenge was created to incorporate a humanitarian project with the use of a robotics design system in order to remove simulated IEDs (Improvised Explosive Devices) to a detonation zone within a specified amount of time. Throughout the activity,…

  4. IED Cleanup: A Cooperative Classroom Robotics Challenge--The Benefits and Execution of a Cooperative Classroom Robotics Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Mark; Kressly, Rich

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a cooperative classroom robotics challenge named "IED Cleanup". This classroom challenge was created to incorporate a humanitarian project with the use of a robotics design system in order to remove simulated IEDs (Improvised Explosive Devices) to a detonation zone within a specified amount of time. Throughout the activity,…

  5. Redundant Sensors for Mobile Robot Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    Robot Path Planning Sensors Nvgation Mal) Making 20 ABSTRACT (C.~tfn* On ~ e e14- Of Ro...ew drt Id-ifI ry Mock .abor) Re.dundant se-nsorc- aro ne-dod...on ariob-,il robot so that the accurac wi th;w~ it its surroundings can no increased. Sonar and i nfrarc d s n-or, art, u-s ci he r, in tandem, each...Iated Nork on Intelligent Mobile Robots 11 2 1 Shakc 19o71969 11 2 1c ic Propulsion i.b rmor) Mars Rover 1970-1973 15 2.3 11,: Stant(rd Girt 1973-1981

  6. Infrared People Sensors For Mobile Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viggh, Herbert E.; Flynn, Anita M.

    1989-03-01

    The MIT Mobile Robot Group is developing a new small, low power, autonomous robot which will interact with humans in dynamically changing environments. This paper describes a new sensor system based on a collection of pyroelectric elements which will enable the robot to initiate behaviors that include approaching and following humans. Pyroelectric detectors were chosen because they offer the capability of filtering out human infrared signatures from ambient surroundings, while also providing the advantages of simplicity, small package size, low power consumption and low cost. However, pyroelectric elements require relative motion between the sensor and the human to allow detection. In addition, while pyroelec-tric sensors are able to signal whether or not a target has moved through the field of view, they have no means of determining range or orientation to the targets, capabilities that would be desirable for a mobile robot. This paper describes a sensor configuration which gets around these problems and provides a low power means for a robot to ascertain distance and direction to people in its surroundings. The sensor system provides several information output channels which feed into the control system on different levels, triggering a variety of behaviors. Fixed sensors on the robot are used to detect multiple people or to ascertain the direction of a moving person. Rotating crossed sensors use geometric relationships to determine range and orientation to stationary targets. Using a behavior-based subsumption architecture control system, the sensors and information processing modules are organized so that the required behaviors can be produced without recourse to sensor fusion, enabling very low computational overhead.

  7. Cooperative crossing of traffic intersections in a distributed robot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rausch, Alexander; Oswald, Norbert; Levi, Paul

    1995-09-01

    In traffic scenarios a distributed robot system has to cope with problems like resource sharing, distributed planning, distributed job scheduling, etc. While travelling along a street segment can be done autonomously by each robot, crossing of an intersection as a shared resource forces the robot to coordinate its actions with those of other robots e.g. by means of negotiations. We discuss the issue of cooperation on the design of a robot control architecture. Task and sensor specific cooperation between robots requires the robots' architectures to be interlinked at different hierarchical levels. Inside each level control cycles are running in parallel and provide fast reaction on events. Internal cooperation may occur between cycles of the same level. Altogether the architecture is matrix-shaped and contains abstract control cycles with a certain degree of autonomy. Based upon the internal structure of a cycle we consider the horizontal and vertical interconnection of cycles to form an individual architecture. Thereafter we examine the linkage of several agents and its influence on an interacting architecture. A prototypical implementation of a scenario, which combines aspects of active vision and cooperation, illustrates our approach. Two vision-guided vehicles are faced with line following, intersection recognition and negotiation.

  8. Mobile autonomous robot for radiological surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Dudar, A.M.; Wagner, D.G.; Teese, G.D. )

    1992-01-01

    The robotics development group at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is developing a mobile autonomous robot that performs radiological surveys of potentially contaminated floors. The robot is called SIMON, which stands for Semi-Intelligent Mobile Observing Navigator. Certain areas of SRL are classified as radiologically controlled areas (RCAs). In an RCA, radioactive materials are frequently handled by workers, and thus, the potential for contamination is ever present. Current methods used for floor radiological surveying includes labor-intensive manual scanning or random smearing of certain floor locations. An autonomous robot such as SIMON performs the surveying task in a much more efficient manner and will track down contamination before it is contacted by humans. SIMON scans floors at a speed of 1 in./s and stops and alarms upon encountering contamination. Its environment is well defined, consisting of smooth building floors with wide corridors. The kind of contaminations that SIMON is capable of detecting are alpha and beta-gamma. The contamination levels of interest are low to moderate.

  9. Airborne Chemical Sensing with Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Lilienthal, Achim J.; Loutfi, Amy; Duckett, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Airborne chemical sensing with mobile robots has been an active research area since the beginning of the 1990s. This article presents a review of research work in this field, including gas distribution mapping, trail guidance, and the different subtasks of gas source localisation. Due to the difficulty of modelling gas distribution in a real world environment with currently available simulation techniques, we focus largely on experimental work and do not consider publications that are purely based on simulations.

  10. Multiresolution Path Planning for Mobile Robots,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    present. Further, both *" regular grid search and vertex graph methods generate paths which clip obstacle corners. The methods in the second category make...medial axis transform methods, Voronoi methods, etc., fall into this category. A potential practical shortcoming of such methods for mobile robot...node, would result in inflexible paths which clip obstacle corners. Secondly, when one of the neighbors given by the quadtree neighbor finding algorithm

  11. Neurobiologically Inspired Mobile Robot Navigation and Planning

    PubMed Central

    Cuperlier, Nicolas; Quoy, Mathias; Gaussier, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    After a short review of biologically inspired navigation architectures, mainly relying on modeling the hippocampal anatomy, or at least some of its functions, we present a navigation and planning model for mobile robots. This architecture is based on a model of the hippocampal and prefrontal interactions. In particular, the system relies on the definition of a new cell type “transition cells” that encompasses traditional “place cells”. PMID:18958274

  12. Advances in learning for intelligent mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Ernest L.; Ghaffari, Masoud; Liao, Xiaoqun S.; Alhaj Ali, Souma M.

    2004-10-01

    Intelligent mobile robots must often operate in an unstructured environment cluttered with obstacles and with many possible action paths to accomplish a variety of tasks. Such machines have many potential useful applications in medicine, defense, industry and even the home so that the design of such machines is a challenge with great potential rewards. Even though intelligent systems may have symbiotic closure that permits them to make a decision or take an action without external inputs, sensors such as vision permit sensing of the environment and permit precise adaptation to changes. Sensing and adaptation define a reactive system. However, in many applications some form of learning is also desirable or perhaps even required. A further level of intelligence called understanding may involve not only sensing, adaptation and learning but also creative, perceptual solutions involving models of not only the eyes and brain but also the mind. The purpose of this paper is to present a discussion of recent technical advances in learning for intelligent mobile robots with examples of adaptive, creative and perceptual learning. The significance of this work is in providing a greater understanding of the applications of learning to mobile robots that could lead to important beneficial applications.

  13. Peer-to-peer model for the area coverage and cooperative control of mobile sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jindong; Xi, Ning

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents a novel model and distributed algorithms for the cooperation and redeployment of mobile sensor networks. A mobile sensor network composes of a collection of wireless connected mobile robots equipped with a variety of sensors. In such a sensor network, each mobile node has sensing, computation, communication, and locomotion capabilities. The locomotion ability enhances the autonomous deployment of the system. The system can be rapidly deployed to hostile environment, inaccessible terrains or disaster relief operations. The mobile sensor network is essentially a cooperative multiple robot system. This paper first presents a peer-to-peer model to define the relationship between neighboring communicating robots. Delaunay Triangulation and Voronoi diagrams are used to define the geometrical relationship between sensor nodes. This distributed model allows formal analysis for the fusion of spatio-temporal sensory information of the network. Based on the distributed model, this paper discusses a fault tolerant algorithm for autonomous self-deployment of the mobile robots. The algorithm considers the environment constraints, the presence of obstacles and the nonholonomic constraints of the robots. The distributed algorithm enables the system to reconfigure itself such that the area covered by the system can be enlarged. Simulation results have shown the effectiveness of the distributed model and deployment algorithms.

  14. Two-Armed, Mobile, Sensate Research Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelberger, J. F.; Roberts, W. Nelson; Ryan, David J.; Silverthorne, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The Anthropomorphic Robotic Testbed (ART) is an experimental prototype of a partly anthropomorphic, humanoid-size, mobile robot. The basic ART design concept provides for a combination of two-armed coordination, tactility, stereoscopic vision, mobility with navigation and avoidance of obstacles, and natural-language communication, so that the ART could emulate humans in many activities. The ART could be developed into a variety of highly capable robotic assistants for general or specific applications. There is especially great potential for the development of ART-based robots as substitutes for live-in health-care aides for home-bound persons who are aged, infirm, or physically handicapped; these robots could greatly reduce the cost of home health care and extend the term of independent living. The ART is a fully autonomous and untethered system. It includes a mobile base on which is mounted an extensible torso topped by a head, shoulders, and two arms. All subsystems of the ART are powered by a rechargeable, removable battery pack. The mobile base is a differentially- driven, nonholonomic vehicle capable of a speed >1 m/s and can handle a payload >100 kg. The base can be controlled manually, in forward/backward and/or simultaneous rotational motion, by use of a joystick. Alternatively, the motion of the base can be controlled autonomously by an onboard navigational computer. By retraction or extension of the torso, the head height of the ART can be adjusted from 5 ft (1.5 m) to 6 1/2 ft (2 m), so that the arms can reach either the floor or high shelves, or some ceilings. The arms are symmetrical. Each arm (including the wrist) has a total of six rotary axes like those of the human shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints. The arms are actuated by electric motors in combination with brakes and gas-spring assists on the shoulder and elbow joints. The arms are operated under closed-loop digital control. A receptacle for an end effector is mounted on the tip of the wrist and

  15. Challenges in mobility and robotics for in-situ science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, B.

    2002-01-01

    In-situ science on planetary surfaces such as Mars, Venus, Mercury and Titan pose extreme challenges for mobile robots. Future missions will involve surface, subsurface, and atmospheric mobility which focuses the need for technology development in sensing, autonomy, and mobile robot architectures for solar system exploration.

  16. Autonomous Coordination and Online Motion Modeling for Mobile Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    number of robots. The second goal of this work is to demonstrate a method by which a robot can automatically determine how it is moving...The second goal of this work is to demonstrate a method by which a robot can automatically determine how it is moving. Experiments demonstrate the...to introduce a method for automatically learning a robot’s motion model. The algorithm will be employed on real mobile robots so as to ensure the

  17. Navigation and Control of a Wheeled Mobile Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 16, No. 5, pp. 615- 620, (2000). [10] J. Guldner and...V. I. Utkin, �Sliding Mode Con- trol for Gradient Tracking and Robot Navigation Us- ing ArtiÞcial Potential Fields,� IEEE Transactions on Robotics and...P. Laumond, P. E. Jacobs, M. Taix, and R. M. Murray, �A Motion Planner for Nonholonomic Mobile Robots,� IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automa-

  18. Mobile Robotic Teams Applied to Precision Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Matthew Oley; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Mckay, Mark D; Willis, Walter David; Gunderson, R.W.; Flann, N.S.

    1999-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Utah State University’s Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) have developed a team of autonomous robotic vehicles applicable to precision agriculture. A unique technique has been developed to plan, coordinate, and optimize missions in large structured environments for these autonomous vehicles in realtime. Two generic tasks are supported: 1) Driving to a precise location, and 2) Sweeping an area while activating on-board equipment. Sensor data and task achievement data is shared among the vehicles enabling them to cooperatively adapt to changing environmental, vehicle, and task conditions. This paper discusses the development of the autonomous robotic team, details of the mission-planning algorithm, and successful field demonstrations at the INEEL.

  19. Mobile Robotic Teams Applied to Precision Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    M.D. McKay; M.O. Anderson; N.S. Flann; R.A. Kinoshita; R.W. Gunderson; W.D. Willis

    1999-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Utah State University�s Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) have developed a team of autonomous robotic vehicles applicable to precision agriculture. A unique technique has been developed to plan, coordinate, and optimize missions in large structured environments for these autonomous vehicles in real-time. Two generic tasks are supported: 1) Driving to a precise location, and 2) Sweeping an area while activating on-board equipment. Sensor data and task achievement data is shared among the vehicles enabling them to cooperatively adapt to changing environmental, vehicle, and task conditions. This paper discusses the development of the autonomous robotic team, details of the mission-planning algorithm, and successful field demonstrations at the INEEL.

  20. Mobile autonomous robotic apparatus for radiologic characterization

    DOEpatents

    Dudar, A.M.; Ward, C.R.; Jones, J.D.; Mallet, W.R.; Harpring, L.J.; Collins, M.X.; Anderson, E.K.

    1999-08-10

    A mobile robotic system is described that conducts radiological surveys to map alpha, beta, and gamma radiation on surfaces in relatively level open areas or areas containing obstacles such as stored containers or hallways, equipment, walls and support columns. The invention incorporates improved radiation monitoring methods using multiple scintillation detectors, the use of laser scanners for maneuvering in open areas, ultrasound pulse generators and receptors for collision avoidance in limited space areas or hallways, methods to trigger visible alarms when radiation is detected, and methods to transmit location data for real-time reporting and mapping of radiation locations on computer monitors at a host station. A multitude of high performance scintillation detectors detect radiation while the on-board system controls the direction and speed of the robot due to pre-programmed paths. The operators may revise the preselected movements of the robotic system by ethernet communications to remonitor areas of radiation or to avoid walls, columns, equipment, or containers. The robotic system is capable of floor survey speeds of from 1/2-inch per second up to about 30 inches per second, while the on-board processor collects, stores, and transmits information for real-time mapping of radiation intensity and the locations of the radiation for real-time display on computer monitors at a central command console. 4 figs.

  1. Mobile autonomous robotic apparatus for radiologic characterization

    DOEpatents

    Dudar, Aed M.; Ward, Clyde R.; Jones, Joel D.; Mallet, William R.; Harpring, Larry J.; Collins, Montenius X.; Anderson, Erin K.

    1999-01-01

    A mobile robotic system that conducts radiological surveys to map alpha, beta, and gamma radiation on surfaces in relatively level open areas or areas containing obstacles such as stored containers or hallways, equipment, walls and support columns. The invention incorporates improved radiation monitoring methods using multiple scintillation detectors, the use of laser scanners for maneuvering in open areas, ultrasound pulse generators and receptors for collision avoidance in limited space areas or hallways, methods to trigger visible alarms when radiation is detected, and methods to transmit location data for real-time reporting and mapping of radiation locations on computer monitors at a host station. A multitude of high performance scintillation detectors detect radiation while the on-board system controls the direction and speed of the robot due to pre-programmed paths. The operators may revise the preselected movements of the robotic system by ethernet communications to remonitor areas of radiation or to avoid walls, columns, equipment, or containers. The robotic system is capable of floor survey speeds of from 1/2-inch per second up to about 30 inches per second, while the on-board processor collects, stores, and transmits information for real-time mapping of radiation intensity and the locations of the radiation for real-time display on computer monitors at a central command console.

  2. Mobile robot navigation modulated by artificial emotions.

    PubMed

    Lee-Johnson, C P; Carnegie, D A

    2010-04-01

    For artificial intelligence research to progress beyond the highly specialized task-dependent implementations achievable today, researchers may need to incorporate aspects of biological behavior that have not traditionally been associated with intelligence. Affective processes such as emotions may be crucial to the generalized intelligence possessed by humans and animals. A number of robots and autonomous agents have been created that can emulate human emotions, but the majority of this research focuses on the social domain. In contrast, we have developed a hybrid reactive/deliberative architecture that incorporates artificial emotions to improve the general adaptive performance of a mobile robot for a navigation task. Emotions are active on multiple architectural levels, modulating the robot's decisions and actions to suit the context of its situation. Reactive emotions interact with the robot's control system, altering its parameters in response to appraisals from short-term sensor data. Deliberative emotions are learned associations that bias path planning in response to eliciting objects or events. Quantitative results are presented that demonstrate situations in which each artificial emotion can be beneficial to performance.

  3. Robotic mobile servicing platform for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowenthal, S. H.; Vanerden, L.

    1987-01-01

    The semi-autonomous inspection and servicing of the Space Station's major thermal, electrical, mechanical subsystems are critical needs for the safe and reliable operation of the station. A conceptual design is presented of a self-intelligent, small and highly mobile robotic platform. Equipped with suitable inspection sensors (cameras, ammonia detectors, etc.), this system's primary mission is to perform routine, autonomous inspection of the Station's primary subsystems. Typical tasks include detection of leaks from thermal fluid or refueling lines, as well as detection of micro-meteroid damage to the primary structure. Equipped with stereo cameras and a dexterous manipulator, simple teleoperator repairs and small On-orbit Replacement Unit (ORU) changeout can also be accomplished. More difficult robotic repairs would be left to the larger, more sophisticated Mobile Remote Manipulator System (MRMS). An ancillary function is to ferry crew members and equipment around the station. The primary design objectives were to provide a flexible, but uncomplicated robotic platform, one which caused minimal impact to the design of the Station's primary structure but could accept more advanced telerobotic technology as it evolves.

  4. Autonomous Navigation by a Mobile Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance; Aghazarian, Hrand

    2005-01-01

    ROAMAN is a computer program for autonomous navigation of a mobile robot on a long (as much as hundreds of meters) traversal of terrain. Developed for use aboard a robotic vehicle (rover) exploring the surface of a remote planet, ROAMAN could also be adapted to similar use on terrestrial mobile robots. ROAMAN implements a combination of algorithms for (1) long-range path planning based on images acquired by mast-mounted, wide-baseline stereoscopic cameras, and (2) local path planning based on images acquired by body-mounted, narrow-baseline stereoscopic cameras. The long-range path-planning algorithm autonomously generates a series of waypoints that are passed to the local path-planning algorithm, which plans obstacle-avoiding legs between the waypoints. Both the long- and short-range algorithms use an occupancy-grid representation in computations to detect obstacles and plan paths. Maps that are maintained by the long- and short-range portions of the software are not shared because substantial localization errors can accumulate during any long traverse. ROAMAN is not guaranteed to generate an optimal shortest path, but does maintain the safety of the rover.

  5. Design of a highly maneuverable wheeled mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udengaard, Martin; Iagnemma, Karl

    2008-04-01

    An omnidirectional mobile robot is able, kinematically, to move in any direction regardless of current pose. To date, nearly all designs and analyses of omnidirectional mobile robots have considered the case of motion on flat, smooth terrain. In this paper, an investigation of the design and analysis of an omnidirectional mobile robot for use in rough terrain is presented. Kinematic and geometric properties of the active split offset caster drive mechanism are investigated along with system and subsystem design guidelines. An optimization method is implemented to explore the design space. Use of this method results in a robot that has higher mobility than a robot designed using engineering judgment. A point design generated by the optimization method is shown for a meter-scale mobile robot.

  6. Time optimal movement of cooperating robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. M.; Bobrow, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    The maximization of the speed of movement along a prescribed path, of the system formed by a set of robot arms and the object they hold is examined. The actuator torques that maximize the acceleration of the system are shown to be determined by the solution to a standard linear programming problem. The combination of this result with the known control strategy for time optimal movement of a single robot arm yields an algorithm for time optimal movement of multiple robot arms holding the same workpiece.

  7. Cooperative Motion Control by Human and Mobile Manipulator Using Equivalent Mass Matrix and Virtual Impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Eri; Murakami, Toshiyuki; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    This paper aims at the improvement in a future life using a mobile manipulator. For example, power assistance of old people and cooperative operation with human. For coexistence of robot and human being, it is required that a person can work in cooperation with robot safely. To address this issue, this paper introduces interactive virtual impedance which determines the cooperative motion between robot and human being. The external force by human added to end-effector of manipulator is given into vehicle and manipulator as force command. The equivalent mass of each system is used as a standard which opts for operation of manipulator and vehicle. By determining the impedance input of the vehicle according to equivalent mass, the virtual force input to the vehicle in consideration of the manipulability of manipulator and vehicle can be performed. This is one of the remarkable points in the proposed strategy. The validity of the proposed method was confirmed by numerical simulation and experimental results.

  8. SyRoTek--Distance Teaching of Mobile Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulich, M.; Chudoba, J.; Kosnar, K.; Krajnik, T.; Faigl, J.; Preucil, L.

    2013-01-01

    E-learning is a modern and effective approach for training in various areas and at different levels of education. This paper gives an overview of SyRoTek, an e-learning platform for mobile robotics, artificial intelligence, control engineering, and related domains. SyRoTek provides remote access to a set of fully autonomous mobile robots placed in…

  9. SyRoTek--Distance Teaching of Mobile Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulich, M.; Chudoba, J.; Kosnar, K.; Krajnik, T.; Faigl, J.; Preucil, L.

    2013-01-01

    E-learning is a modern and effective approach for training in various areas and at different levels of education. This paper gives an overview of SyRoTek, an e-learning platform for mobile robotics, artificial intelligence, control engineering, and related domains. SyRoTek provides remote access to a set of fully autonomous mobile robots placed in…

  10. Sensor fusion for mobile robot navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kam, M.; Zhu, X.; Kalata, P.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review techniques for sensor fusion in robot navigation, emphasizing algorithms for self-location. These find use when the sensor suite of a mobile robot comprises several different sensors, some complementary and some redundant. Integrating the sensor readings, the robot seeks to accomplish tasks such as constructing a map of its environment, locating itself in that map, and recognizing objects that should be avoided or sought. The review describes integration techniques in two categories: low-level fusion is used for direct integration of sensory data, resulting in parameter and state estimates; high-level fusion is used for indirect integration of sensory data in hierarchical architectures, through command arbitration and integration of control signals suggested by different modules. The review provides an arsenal of tools for addressing this (rather ill-posed) problem in machine intelligence, including Kalman filtering, rule-based techniques, behavior based algorithms and approaches that borrow from information theory, Dempster-Shafer reasoning, fuzzy logic and neural networks. It points to several further-research needs, including: robustness of decision rules; simultaneous consideration of self-location, motion planning, motion control and vehicle dynamics; the effect of sensor placement and attention focusing on sensor fusion; and adaptation of techniques from biological sensor fusion.

  11. Autonomous environment modeling by a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutarlier, Philippe

    1991-02-01

    Internal geometric representation of the environment is considered. The autonomy of a mobile robot partly relies on its ability to build a reliable representation of its environment. On the other hand, an autonomous environment building process requires that model be adapted to plan motions and perception actions. Therefore, the modeling process must be a reversible interface between perception motion devices and the model itself. Several kinds of models are necessary in order to achieve an autonomous process. Sensors give stochastic information on the surface, navigation needs free-space representation, and perception planning requires aspect graphs. The functions of stochastic surface modeling, free space representation, and topological graph computing are presented through the integrated geometric model builder called 'Yaka.' Since all environment data uncertainties are correlated together through the robot location inaccuracy, classical filtering methods are inadequate. A method of computing a linear variance estimator, that is adapted to the problem, is proposed. This general formalism is validated by a large number of experimentation wherein the robot incrementally builds a surfacic representation of its environment. Free space cannot be deduced directly, at each step, from the surfacic data provided by the sensors. Innacuracies on object surfaces and uncertainties on the visibility of objects by the sensor as well as the possible motion of objects must all be taken into account for building the free space incrementally. Then, motion and perception planning for autonomous environment modeling are achieved using this free space model and topological location and aspect graphs.

  12. Online Stability in Human-Robot Cooperation with Admittance Control.

    PubMed

    Dimeas, Fotios; Aspragathos, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    In the design of a compliant admittance controller for physical human-robot interaction, it is necessary to ensure stable and effective cooperation. The stability of the admittance controller is mainly threatened by a stiff environment. Many methods that guarantee stability in arbitrary environments, impose conservative control gains that limit the effectiveness of the cooperation. Inspired by previous work in frequency domain stability observers, a method is proposed in this paper to detect unstable behavior and stabilize the robot with online adaptation of the admittance control gains. The introduced instability index is based on frequency domain analysis, which very quickly detects unstable behavior by monitoring high frequency oscillation in the force signal. To treat the instability, an adaptation scheme of the admittance parameters is proposed, that relaxes conservative gains and improves the cooperation by considering the effect of variable admittance on the operators' effort. We investigate two human-robot co-manipulation tasks; cooperation within a zero stiffness environment and cooperation in contact with a stiff double-wall virtual environment. The proposed methods are validated experimentally with a number of subjects in cooperation with an LWR manipulator.

  13. A Fully Sensorized Cooperative Robotic System for Surgical Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Arriaga, Saúl; Vargas, José Emilio; Ramos, Juan M.; Aceves, Marco A.; Gorrostieta, Efren; Kalender, Willi A.

    2012-01-01

    In this research a fully sensorized cooperative robot system for manipulation of needles is presented. The setup consists of a DLR/KUKA Light Weight Robot III especially designed for safe human/robot interaction, a FD-CT robot-driven angiographic C-arm system, and a navigation camera. Also, new control strategies for robot manipulation in the clinical environment are introduced. A method for fast calibration of the involved components and the preliminary accuracy tests of the whole possible errors chain are presented. Calibration of the robot with the navigation system has a residual error of 0.81 mm (rms) with a standard deviation of ±0.41 mm. The accuracy of the robotic system while targeting fixed points at different positions within the workspace is of 1.2 mm (rms) with a standard deviation of ±0.4 mm. After calibration, and due to close loop control, the absolute positioning accuracy was reduced to the navigation camera accuracy which is of 0.35 mm (rms). The implemented control allows the robot to compensate for small patient movements. PMID:23012551

  14. Meeting the challenges of installing a mobile robotic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decorte, Celeste

    1994-01-01

    The challenges of integrating a mobile robotic system into an application environment are many. Most problems inherent to installing the mobile robotic system fall into one of three categories: (1) the physical environment - location(s) where, and conditions under which, the mobile robotic system will work; (2) the technological environment - external equipment with which the mobile robotic system will interact; and (3) the human environment - personnel who will operate and interact with the mobile robotic system. The successful integration of a mobile robotic system into these three types of application environment requires more than a good pair of pliers. The tools for this job include: careful planning, accurate measurement data (as-built drawings), complete technical data of systems to be interfaced, sufficient time and attention of key personnel for training on how to operate and program the robot, on-site access during installation, and a thorough understanding and appreciation - by all concerned - of the mobile robotic system's role in the security mission at the site, as well as the machine's capabilities and limitations. Patience, luck, and a sense of humor are also useful tools to keep handy during a mobile robotic system installation. This paper will discuss some specific examples of problems in each of three categories, and explore approaches to solving these problems. The discussion will draw from the author's experience with on-site installations of mobile robotic systems in various applications. Most of the information discussed in this paper has come directly from knowledge learned during installations of Cybermotion's SR2 security robots. A large part of the discussion will apply to any vehicle with a drive system, collision avoidance, and navigation sensors, which is, of course, what makes a vehicle autonomous. And it is with these sensors and a drive system that the installer must become familiar in order to foresee potential trouble areas in the

  15. Laser-Based Pedestrian Tracking in Outdoor Environments by Multiple Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Masataka; Kakimuma, Kei; Hashimoto, Masafumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an outdoors laser-based pedestrian tracking system using a group of mobile robots located near each other. Each robot detects pedestrians from its own laser scan image using an occupancy-grid-based method, and the robot tracks the detected pedestrians via Kalman filtering and global-nearest-neighbor (GNN)-based data association. The tracking data is broadcast to multiple robots through intercommunication and is combined using the covariance intersection (CI) method. For pedestrian tracking, each robot identifies its own posture using real-time-kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS) and laser scan matching. Using our cooperative tracking method, all the robots share the tracking data with each other; hence, individual robots can always recognize pedestrians that are invisible to any other robot. The simulation and experimental results show that cooperating tracking provides the tracking performance better than conventional individual tracking does. Our tracking system functions in a decentralized manner without any central server, and therefore, this provides a degree of scalability and robustness that cannot be achieved by conventional centralized architectures. PMID:23202171

  16. Laser-based pedestrian tracking in outdoor environments by multiple mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Masataka; Kakimuma, Kei; Hashimoto, Masafumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2012-10-29

    This paper presents an outdoors laser-based pedestrian tracking system using a group of mobile robots located near each other. Each robot detects pedestrians from its own laser scan image using an occupancy-grid-based method, and the robot tracks the detected pedestrians via Kalman filtering and global-nearest-neighbor (GNN)-based data association. The tracking data is broadcast to multiple robots through intercommunication and is combined using the covariance intersection (CI) method. For pedestrian tracking, each robot identifies its own posture using real-time-kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS) and laser scan matching. Using our cooperative tracking method, all the robots share the tracking data with each other; hence, individual robots can always recognize pedestrians that are invisible to any other robot. The simulation and experimental results show that cooperating tracking provides the tracking performance better than conventional individual tracking does. Our tracking system functions in a decentralized manner without any central server, and therefore, this provides a degree of scalability and robustness that cannot be achieved by conventional centralized architectures.

  17. A Biologically Inspired Cooperative Multi-Robot Control Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howsman, Tom; Craft, Mike; ONeil, Daniel; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A prototype cooperative multi-robot control architecture suitable for the eventual construction of large space structures has been developed. In nature, there are numerous examples of complex architectures constructed by relatively simple insects, such as termites and wasps, which cooperatively assemble their nests. The prototype control architecture emulates this biological model. Actions of each of the autonomous robotic construction agents are only indirectly coordinated, thus mimicking the distributed construction processes of various social insects. The robotic construction agents perform their primary duties stigmergically i.e., without direct inter-agent communication and without a preprogrammed global blueprint of the final design. Communication and coordination between individual agents occurs indirectly through the sensed modifications that each agent makes to the structure. The global stigmergic building algorithm prototyped during the initial research assumes that the robotic builders only perceive the current state of the structure under construction. Simulation studies have established that an idealized form of the proposed architecture was indeed capable of producing representative large space structures with autonomous robots. This paper will explore the construction simulations in order to illustrate the multi-robot control architecture.

  18. A Stigmergic Cooperative Multi-Robot Control Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howsman, Thomas G.; O'Neil, Daniel; Craft, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    In nature, there are numerous examples of complex architectures constructed by relatively simple insects, such as termites and wasps, which cooperatively assemble their nests. A prototype cooperative multi-robot control architecture which may be suitable for the eventual construction of large space structures has been developed which emulates this biological model. Actions of each of the autonomous robotic construction agents are only indirectly coordinated, thus mimicking the distributed construction processes of various social insects. The robotic construction agents perform their primary duties stigmergically, i.e., without direct inter-agent communication and without a preprogrammed global blueprint of the final design. Communication and coordination between individual agents occurs indirectly through the sensed modifications that each agent makes to the structure. The global stigmergic building algorithm prototyped during the initial research assumes that the robotic builders only perceive the current state of the structure under construction. Simulation studies have established that an idealized form of the proposed architecture was indeed capable of producing representative large space structures with autonomous robots. This paper will explore the construction simulations in order to illustrate the multi-robot control architecture.

  19. Designing a Social Environment for Human-Robot Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amram, Fred M.

    Noting that work is partly a social activity, and that workers' psychological and emotional needs influence their productivity, this paper explores avenues for improving human-robot cooperation and for enhancing worker satisfaction in the environment of flexible automation. The first section of the paper offers a brief overview of the…

  20. Designing a Social Environment for Human-Robot Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amram, Fred M.

    Noting that work is partly a social activity, and that workers' psychological and emotional needs influence their productivity, this paper explores avenues for improving human-robot cooperation and for enhancing worker satisfaction in the environment of flexible automation. The first section of the paper offers a brief overview of the…

  1. Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Steve; Doty, Keith L.

    1999-01-01

    "Why Teach Robotics?" (Waddell) suggests that the United States lags behind Europe and Japan in use of robotics in industry and teaching. "Creating a Course in Mobile Robotics" (Doty) outlines course elements of the Intelligent Machines Design Lab. (SK)

  2. Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Steve; Doty, Keith L.

    1999-01-01

    "Why Teach Robotics?" (Waddell) suggests that the United States lags behind Europe and Japan in use of robotics in industry and teaching. "Creating a Course in Mobile Robotics" (Doty) outlines course elements of the Intelligent Machines Design Lab. (SK)

  3. Teleprogramming a cooperative space robotic workcell for space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haule, Damian D.; Noorhosseini, S. M.; Malowany, Alfred S.

    1992-11-01

    The growing insight into the complexity and cost of in-orbit operations of future space missions strengthens the belief that a significant amount of automation will be needed to operate the orbital laboratories in a safe, efficient, and economic way. Thus, Automation & Robotics (A&R) technology is vital for unmanned exploration missions to comets and planets. While part of the space worksite may be structured, the space environment is generally unstructured. By `structured,' we mean environments that are designed and engineered to somehow `cooperate' with the machine. In addition, the structured part of the space worksite may be damaged or in an unknown condition. This lack of structure, as well as the non- repetitive nature of the tasks, require constant adaptation to the space environment by the robot. This is the motivation for increased space robot autonomy. However, complete autonomy is still beyond the scope of today's state-of-the-art in the case of a system executing a complete mission in a hazardous environment such as space. A systematic approach for the development of A&R technologies will reduce the lead-times and costs of facilities for recurrent basic tasks. A space robotic workcell (SRW) is a collection of robots, sensors, and other industrial equipment grouped in a cooperative environment to perform various complex tasks in space. Due to their distributed nature, the control and programming of SRWs is often a difficult task. The issues involved in order to design a real-time teleprogrammable SRW system that performs intervention tasks at remote unstructured sites are summarized. The concept of `remotely operated autonomous robots' (i.e., robots teleprogrammed and telesupervised at the task level while at a space worksite) is also developed via telepresence for human-machine interface and voice/speech programming. This paper makes an assessment of the role that teleprogramming may have in furthering the automation capabilities of space teleoperated

  4. Finite-time tracking control for multiple non-holonomic mobile robots based on visual servoing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Meiying; Li, Shihua; Wang, Chaoli

    2013-12-01

    This paper investigates finite-time tracking control problem of multiple non-holonomic mobile robots via visual servoing. It is assumed that the pinhole camera is fixed to the ceiling, and camera parameters are unknown. The desired reference trajectory is represented by a virtual leader whose states are available to only a subset of the followers, and the followers have only interaction. First, the camera-objective visual kinematic model is introduced by utilising the pinhole camera model for each mobile robot. Second, a unified tracking error system between camera-objective visual servoing model and desired reference trajectory is introduced. Third, based on the neighbour rule and by using finite-time control method, continuous distributed cooperative finite-time tracking control laws are designed for each mobile robot with unknown camera parameters, where the communication topology among the multiple mobile robots is assumed to be a directed graph. Rigorous proof shows that the group of mobile robots converges to the desired reference trajectory in finite time. Simulation example illustrates the effectiveness of our method.

  5. Distributed Sensing and Cooperating Control for Swarms of Robotic vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, C.R.; Goldsmith, S.Y.; Hurtado, J.E.; Robinett, R.D.

    1998-10-09

    DISTRIBUTED SENSING AND COOPERATING CONTROL FOR SWARMS OF ROBOTIC VEHICLES Key words: Distributed Sensing, Cooperative Control. ABSTRACT We discuss an approach to effectively control a large swarm of autonomous, robotic vehicles, as they per- form a search and tag operation. In particular, the robotic agents are to find the source of a chemical plume. The robotic agents work together through dis- tributed sensing and cooperative control. Distributed sensing is achieved through each agent sampling and sharing his information with others. Cooperative con- trol h accomplished by each agent u-sing its neighbors information to determine an update strategy. INTRODUCTION There is currently considerable interest in expanding the role of robotic vehicles in surveillance and inspec- tion; searching, following and t aggir-g and locating and identifying targets. In particular, researchers are beginning to focus on using small autonomous robotic vehicles for these tasks. This focus has been brought about largely because of the many recent advances in microelectronics and sensors, which include small, low power, CCD cameras; small microprocessors with ex- panded capabilities; autonomous navigation systems using GPS; and severrd types of small sensors. It seems likely that these technological advances will lead to in- expensive, easy to fabricate, autonomous vehicles out- fitted with an array of sensors. This, in turn, will allow researchers to consider teams, or even swarms, of these agents to perform a particular task. It is natural then to wonder how one might effectively control a team, or even a swarm, of robotic agents. In this paper, we discuss an approach to effectively control a large swarm of autonomous, robotic vehicles as they perform a search and tag operation. In par- ticular, the robotic agents are to find the source of a chemical plume. The robotic agents work together through distributed sensing and cooperative control. Distributed sensing is achieved through

  6. Acoustic formation control for nonholonomic mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegedus, Michael James

    Two leader-follower formation controllers are proposed for a group of nonholonomic mobile robots. Each controller is installed on the following robot and requires local sensory stimuli to move the follower into its formation's desired position. As a result, communication between robots is not necessary to maintain a desired formation. The first proposed controller utilizes range and bearing data from an acoustic sensor to move the follower into position. It assumes an acoustic source is attached to the leader and a stationary landmark. The second proposed controller is a landmark-less formation controller that assume two sources are attached to the leader, and the follower is equipped with an acoustic array and inertial sensor. Results show each controller exponentially reduces the tracking error to a steady-state level and can maintain stability, even in regions where the formation kinematics becomes singular. For two-dimensional passive arrays, a general method is described that ranks and selects multiple microphone configurations within the array that are likely to produce accurate position estimates. This method segments a two-dimensional array into various combinations and configurations of microphone pairs and flattens these configurations into one-dimension for comparison. Each configuration is ranked based on the microphones' spatial information (known a-priori) and incoming bearing estimates. These rankings select different microphone pair configurations, whose position estimates are combined in an adaptive weighted-average algorithm. Simulations and experimental results show that this method selects microphone configurations that provide the least position error. Through a fusion algorithm, which combines individual microphone pair data, an array's position accuracy can improve.

  7. Navigation strategies for multiple autonomous mobile robots moving in formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. K. C.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of deriving navigation strategies for a fleet of autonomous mobile robots moving in formation is considered. Here, each robot is represented by a particle with a spherical effective spatial domain and a specified cone of visibility. The global motion of each robot in the world space is described by the equations of motion of the robot's center of mass. First, methods for formation generation are discussed. Then, simple navigation strategies for robots moving in formation are derived. A sufficient condition for the stability of a desired formation pattern for a fleet of robots each equipped with the navigation strategy based on nearest neighbor tracking is developed. The dynamic behavior of robot fleets consisting of three or more robots moving in formation in a plane is studied by means of computer simulation.

  8. Navigation strategies for multiple autonomous mobile robots moving in formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. K. C.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of deriving navigation strategies for a fleet of autonomous mobile robots moving in formation is considered. Here, each robot is represented by a particle with a spherical effective spatial domain and a specified cone of visibility. The global motion of each robot in the world space is described by the equations of motion of the robot's center of mass. First, methods for formation generation are discussed. Then, simple navigation strategies for robots moving in formation are derived. A sufficient condition for the stability of a desired formation pattern for a fleet of robots each equipped with the navigation strategy based on nearest neighbor tracking is developed. The dynamic behavior of robot fleets consisting of three or more robots moving in formation in a plane is studied by means of computer simulation.

  9. Hardware platform for multiple mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parzhuber, Otto; Dolinsky, D.

    2004-12-01

    This work is concerned with software and communications architectures that might facilitate the operation of several mobile robots. The vehicles should be remotely piloted or tele-operated via a wireless link between the operator and the vehicles. The wireless link will carry control commands from the operator to the vehicle, telemetry data from the vehicle back to the operator and frequently also a real-time video stream from an on board camera. For autonomous driving the link will carry commands and data between the vehicles. For this purpose we have developed a hardware platform which consists of a powerful microprocessor, different sensors, stereo- camera and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) for communication. The adoption of IEEE802.11 standard for the physical and access layer protocols allow a straightforward integration with the internet protocols TCP/IP. For the inspection of the environment the robots are equipped with a wide variety of sensors like ultrasonic, infrared proximity sensors and a small inertial measurement unit. Stereo cameras give the feasibility of the detection of obstacles, measurement of distance and creation of a map of the room.

  10. Mobile robot vehicles for physical security

    SciTech Connect

    McGovern, D.E.

    1987-07-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Labs for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. These vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as test beds for developing concepts in the application of robotics to interior and exterior physical security. Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering through manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. With these vehicles, SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided.

  11. Steering control system for a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolli, Kaylan C.; Hall, Ernest L.

    1997-09-01

    Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) have many potential applications in manufacturing, medicine, space and defense. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of a steering mechanism for an autonomous mobile robot. The steering mechanism replaces a manually turned rack and pinion arrangement with a crank mechanism driven by a linear actuator that in turn is powered by a brushless dc motor. The system was modeled, analyzed, and redesigned to meet the requirements. A 486 computer through a 3-axis motion controller supervises the steering control. The steering motor is a brushless dc motor powered by three phase signals. It is run in current loop mode. The steering control system is supervised by a personal computer through a multi-axis motion controller. Testing of these systems has been done in the lab as well as on an outside test track with positive results.

  12. Multisensor detection schemes for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatemi, A.; Lecocq, H.

    1996-10-01

    In this work, mobile robot distributed detection systems are described that use multiple sources of information to construct an internal representation of its environment. We begin by considering a decision fusion model employing the parallel fusion topology. Based on their observations, local sensors make local binary decisions and transmit them to the decision fusion center where they are combined to yield the global decision. Decisions rules are obtained by using different probabilistic methods. The optimal decision scheme at the fusion center is derived, by optimizing three criterions: the mean square error, the maximum a posterior error, and the Bayesian risk. We, then, consider an optimal data fusion where the local decisions are simply added. Finally, an application to the fusion of ultrasound sonar data is presented and discussed.

  13. Embedded mobile farm robot for identification of diseased plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadistap, S. S.; Botre, B. A.; Pandit, Harshavardhan; Chandrasekhar; Rao, Adesh

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a mobile robot used in farms for identification of diseased plants. It puts forth two of the major aspects of robotics namely automated navigation and image processing. The robot navigates on the basis of the GPS (Global Positioning System) location and data obtained from IR (Infrared) sensors to avoid any obstacles in its path. It uses an image processing algorithm to differentiate between diseased and non-diseased plants. A robotic platform consisting of an ARM9 processor, motor drivers, robot mechanical assembly, camera and infrared sensors has been used. Mini2440 microcontroller has been used wherein Embedded linux OS (Operating System) is implemented.

  14. Person identification for mobile robot using audio-visual modality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Ouk; Chin, Sehoon; Lee, Jihoon; Paik, Joonki

    2005-10-01

    Recently, we experienced significant advancement in intelligent service robots. The remarkable features of an intelligent robot include tracking and identification of person using biometric features. The human-robot interaction is very important because it is one of the final goals of an intelligent service robot. Many researches are concentrating in two fields. One is self navigation of a mobile robot and the other is human-robot interaction in natural environment. In this paper we will present an effective person identification method for HRI (Human Robot Interaction) using two different types of expert systems. However, most of mobile robots run under uncontrolled and complicated environment. It means that face and speech information can't be guaranteed under varying conditions, such as lighting, noisy sound, orientation of a robot. According to a value of illumination and signal to noise ratio around mobile a robot, our proposed fuzzy rule make a reasonable person identification result. Two embedded HMM (Hidden Marhov Model) are used for each visual and audio modality to identify person. The performance of our proposed system and experimental results are compared with single modality identification and simply mixed method of two modality.

  15. Mamdani Fuzzy System for Indoor Autonomous Mobile Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. K. A. Ahamed; Rashid, Razif; Elamvazuthi, I.

    2011-06-01

    Several control algorithms for autonomous mobile robot navigation have been proposed in the literature. Recently, the employment of non-analytical methods of computing such as fuzzy logic, evolutionary computation, and neural networks has demonstrated the utility and potential of these paradigms for intelligent control of mobile robot navigation. In this paper, Mamdani fuzzy system for an autonomous mobile robot is developed. The paper begins with the discussion on the conventional controller and then followed by the description of fuzzy logic controller in detail.

  16. Cooperative multi-robot observation of multiple moving targets

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.; Emmons, B.A.

    1997-03-01

    An important issue that arises in the automation of many security, surveillance, and reconnaissance tasks is that of monitoring, or observing, the movements of targets navigating in a bounded area of interest. A key research issue in these problems is that of sensor placement--determining where sensors should be located to maintain the targets in view. In complex applications of this type, the use of multiple sensors dynamically moving over time is required. In this paper, the authors investigate the sue of a cooperative team of autonomous sensor-based robots for multi-robot observation of multiple moving targets. They focus primarily on developing the distributed control strategies that allow the robot team to attempt to maximize the collective tie during which each object is being observed by at least one robot in the area of interest. The initial efforts in this problem address the aspects of distributed control in homogeneous robot teams with equivalent sensing and movement capabilities working in an uncluttered, bounded area. This paper first formalizes the problem, discusses related work, and then shows that this problem is NP-hard. They then present a distributed approximate approach to solving this problem that combines low-level multi-robot control with higher-level control.

  17. Mode Switching Control for Personal Mobility Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Noriaki; Sukigara, Kazutoshi; Kajima, Hideki; Yamaoka, Masaaki

    The present paper introduces a novel standing-up control strategy based on Initial Value Compensation (IVC) for a Personal Mobility Robot (PMR). PMRs, which are wheeled-inverted-pendulum-type mobility-assist devices, offer the following advantages: (1) they can turn at a point; (2) they can maintain a level seating posture on a slope; and (3) they have a smaller footprint than conventional electric wheelchairs with four wheels. On the other hand, the user must maintain the posture of the PMR by using additional assist wheels on the ground when mounting/dismounting the PMR and working while seated on the PMR. In order to satisfy these requirements, we propose the following approach. First, the PMR accelerates to lift its assist wheels off the ground and determines whether the assist wheels are in contact with the ground. The feedback controller is then switched to wheeled-inverted-pendulum mode using the proposed IVC. The proposed IVC is designed such that the transient responses are improved and the amplitude of the control input and the jerk component are suppressed, in order to reduce the shock felt by the driver. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been verified by conducting numerical simulations and experiments using a prototype PMR.

  18. 79 FR 24450 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-04-30

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Robotics... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Robotics... Robotics Foundation, Inc., Mountain View, CA; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Stratford, CT; and...

  19. 74 FR 62599 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-11-30

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Robotics... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Robotics... are: 5D Robotics, Inc., Boise, ID; Adaptive Materials, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI; Advanced...

  20. 77 FR 34067 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Robotics... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Robotics..., Inc., Burke, VA; Lithos Robotics Corporation, Amherst, NY; Mechatron Inc., Somerville, MA; Mercedes...

  1. 78 FR 13896 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Robotics... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Robotics...; Humanistic Robotics, Inc., Philadelphia, PA; Polaris Sales, Inc., Medina, MN; TDC Acquisition Holdings, Inc...

  2. 75 FR 54914 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Robotics... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Robotics... Robotics Inc., Pittsburgh, PA; Energetics Technology Center, Inc., La Plata, MD; Expertise Applications Inc...

  3. Experiments in augmented teleoperation for mobile robots: I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witus, Gary; Hunt, Shawn; Ellis, R. Darrin

    2007-04-01

    Teleoperated mobile robots are beginning to be used for a variety of tasks that require movement in close quarters in the vicinity of moving and parked vehicles, buildings and other man-made structures, and the target object for inspection or manipulation. The robots must be close enough to deploy short-range sensors and manipulators, and must be able to maneuver without potentially damaging collisions. Teleoperation is fatiguing and stressful even without the requirement for close positioning. In cooperation with the TARDEC Robotic Mobility Laboratory (TRML), we are investigating approaches to reduce workload and improve performance through augmented teleoperation. Human-robot interfaces for teleoperation commonly provide two degrees-of-freedom (DoF) motion control with visual feedback from an on-board egocentric camera and no supplemental distance or orientation cueing. This paper reports on the results of preliminary experiments to assess the effects on man-machine task performance of several options for augmented teleoperation: (a) 3 DoF motion control (rotation and omni-directional translation) versus 2 DoF control (rotation and forward/reverse motion), (b) on-board egocentric camera versus fixed-position overwatch camera versus dual egocentric-and-overwatch cameras, and (c) presence or absence of distance and orientation visual cueing. We examined three dimensions of performance: completion time, spatial accuracy, and workspace area. We investigated effects on the expected completion time and on the variance in completion time. Spatial accuracy had three components: orientation, aimpoint, and distance. We collected performance under different task conditions: (a) three position-and-orientation tolerance or accuracy objectives, and (b) four travel distances between successive inspection points. We collected data from three subjects. We analyzed the main effects and conditional interaction effects among the teleoperation options and task conditions. We were

  4. Mars Exploration Rover mobility and robotic arm operational performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tunstel, Edward; Maimone, Mark; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Yen, Jeng; Petras, Richard; Wilson, Reg

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an actual instance of a practical human-robot system used on a NASA Mars rover mission that has been underway since January 2004 involving daily intercation between humans on Earth and mobile robots on Mars.

  5. Speed Daemon: Experience-Based Mobile Robot Speed Scheduling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    a wheeled mobile robot. Robotica , 20(2): 181–193, 2002. [7] O. Purwin and R. D‘Andrea. Trajectory generation and control for four wheeled...robot on an uneven surface. Robotica , 27(4):481–498, 2009. [9] S. Thrun, M. Montemerlo, H. Dahlkamp, D. Stavens, A. Aron, J. Diebel, P. Fong, J. Gale

  6. A Contest-Oriented Project for Learning Intelligent Mobile Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsin-Hsiung; Su, Juing-Huei; Lee, Chyi-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    A contest-oriented project for undergraduate students to learn implementation skills and theories related to intelligent mobile robots is presented in this paper. The project, related to Micromouse, Robotrace (Robotrace is the title of Taiwanese and Japanese robot races), and line-maze contests was developed by the embedded control system research…

  7. Modular control systems for teleoperated and autonomous mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadonoff, Mark B.; Parish, David W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will discuss components of a modular hardware and software architecture for mobile robots that supports both teleoperation and autonomous control. The Modular Autonomous Robot System architecture enables rapid development of control systems for unmanned vehicles for a wide variety of commercial and military applications.

  8. Concurrent algorithms for a mobile robot vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.P.; Mann, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    The application of computer vision to mobile robots has generally been hampered by insufficient on-board computing power. The advent of VLSI-based general purpose concurrent multiprocessor systems promises to give mobile robots an increasing amount of on-board computing capability, and to allow computation intensive data analysis to be performed without high-bandwidth communication with a remote system. This paper describes the integration of robot vision algorithms on a 3-dimensional hypercube system on-board a mobile robot developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The vision system is interfaced to navigation and robot control software, enabling the robot to maneuver in a laboratory environment, to find a known object of interest and to recognize the object's status based on visual sensing. We first present the robot system architecture and the principles followed in the vision system implementation. We then provide some benchmark timings for low-level image processing routines, describe a concurrent algorithm with load balancing for the Hough transform, a new algorithm for binary component labeling, and an algorithm for the concurrent extraction of region features from labeled images. This system analyzes a scene in less than 5 seconds and has proven to be a valuable experimental tool for research in mobile autonomous robots. 9 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. Integrating Mobile Robotics and Vision with Undergraduate Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cielniak, G.; Bellotto, N.; Duckett, T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the integration of robotics education into an undergraduate Computer Science curriculum. The proposed approach delivers mobile robotics as well as covering the closely related field of Computer Vision and is directly linked to the research conducted at the authors' institution. The paper describes the most relevant details of…

  10. A Contest-Oriented Project for Learning Intelligent Mobile Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsin-Hsiung; Su, Juing-Huei; Lee, Chyi-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    A contest-oriented project for undergraduate students to learn implementation skills and theories related to intelligent mobile robots is presented in this paper. The project, related to Micromouse, Robotrace (Robotrace is the title of Taiwanese and Japanese robot races), and line-maze contests was developed by the embedded control system research…

  11. An Autonomous Mobile Robot for Tsukuba Challenge: JW-Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Katsuharu; Kaji, Hirotaka; Negoro, Masanori; Yoshida, Makoto; Mizutani, Hiroyuki; Saitou, Tomoya; Nakamura, Katsu

    “Tsukuba Challenge” is the only of its kind to require mobile robots to work autonomously and safely on public walkways. In this paper, we introduce the outline of our robot “JW-Future”, developed for this experiment based on an electric wheel chair. Additionally, the significance of participation to such a technical trial is discussed from the viewpoint of industries.

  12. Mars Exploration Rover mobility and robotic arm operational performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tunstel, Edward; Maimone, Mark; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Yen, Jeng; Petras, Richard; Wilson, Reg

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an actual instance of a practical human-robot system used on a NASA Mars rover mission that has been underway since January 2004 involving daily intercation between humans on Earth and mobile robots on Mars.

  13. Integrating Mobile Robotics and Vision with Undergraduate Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cielniak, G.; Bellotto, N.; Duckett, T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the integration of robotics education into an undergraduate Computer Science curriculum. The proposed approach delivers mobile robotics as well as covering the closely related field of Computer Vision and is directly linked to the research conducted at the authors' institution. The paper describes the most relevant details of…

  14. Object Detection Techniques Applied on Mobile Robot Semantic Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Astua, Carlos; Barber, Ramon; Crespo, Jonathan; Jardon, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The future of robotics predicts that robots will integrate themselves more every day with human beings and their environments. To achieve this integration, robots need to acquire information about the environment and its objects. There is a big need for algorithms to provide robots with these sort of skills, from the location where objects are needed to accomplish a task up to where these objects are considered as information about the environment. This paper presents a way to provide mobile robots with the ability-skill to detect objets for semantic navigation. This paper aims to use current trends in robotics and at the same time, that can be exported to other platforms. Two methods to detect objects are proposed, contour detection and a descriptor based technique, and both of them are combined to overcome their respective limitations. Finally, the code is tested on a real robot, to prove its accuracy and efficiency. PMID:24732101

  15. Interaction dynamics of multiple mobile robots with simple navigation strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. K. C.

    1989-01-01

    The global dynamic behavior of multiple interacting autonomous mobile robots with simple navigation strategies is studied. Here, the effective spatial domain of each robot is taken to be a closed ball about its mass center. It is assumed that each robot has a specified cone of visibility such that interaction with other robots takes place only when they enter its visibility cone. Based on a particle model for the robots, various simple homing and collision-avoidance navigation strategies are derived. Then, an analysis of the dynamical behavior of the interacting robots in unbounded spatial domains is made. The article concludes with the results of computer simulations studies of two or more interacting robots.

  16. Object detection techniques applied on mobile robot semantic navigation.

    PubMed

    Astua, Carlos; Barber, Ramon; Crespo, Jonathan; Jardon, Alberto

    2014-04-11

    The future of robotics predicts that robots will integrate themselves more every day with human beings and their environments. To achieve this integration, robots need to acquire information about the environment and its objects. There is a big need for algorithms to provide robots with these sort of skills, from the location where objects are needed to accomplish a task up to where these objects are considered as information about the environment. This paper presents a way to provide mobile robots with the ability-skill to detect objets for semantic navigation. This paper aims to use current trends in robotics and at the same time, that can be exported to other platforms. Two methods to detect objects are proposed, contour detection and a descriptor based technique, and both of them are combined to overcome their respective limitations. Finally, the code is tested on a real robot, to prove its accuracy and efficiency.

  17. ARK: Autonomous mobile robot in an industrial environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, S. B.; Jasiobedzki, P.; Jenkin, M.; Jepson, A.; Milios, E.; Down, B.; Service, J. R. R.; Terzopoulos, D.; Tsotsos, J.; Wilkes, D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes research on the ARK (Autonomous Mobile Robot in a Known Environment) project. The technical objective of the project is to build a robot that can navigate in a complex industrial environment using maps with permanent structures. The environment is not altered in any way by adding easily identifiable beacons and the robot relies on naturally occurring objects to use as visual landmarks for navigation. The robot is equipped with various sensors that can detect unmapped obstacles, landmarks and objects. In this paper we describe the robot's industrial environment, it's architecture, a novel combined range and vision sensor and our recent results in controlling the robot in the real-time detection of objects using their color and in the processing of the robot's range and vision sensor data for navigation.

  18. Multi-robot motion control for cooperative observation

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1997-06-01

    An important issue that arises in the automation of many security, surveillance, and reconnaissance tasks is that of monitoring (or observing) the movements of targets navigating in a bounded area of interest. A key research issue in these problems is that of sensor placement--determining where sensors should be located to maintain the targets in view. In complex applications involving limited-range sensors, the use of multiple sensors dynamically moving over time is required. In this paper, the authors investigate the use of a cooperative team of autonomous sensor-based robots for the observation of multiple moving targets. They focus primarily on developing the distributed control strategies that allow the robot team to attempt to minimize the total time in which targets escape observation by some robot team member in the area of interest. This paper first formalizes the problem and discusses related work. The authors then present a distributed approximate approach to solving this problem that combines low-level multi-robot control with higher-level reasoning control based on the ALLIANCE formalism. They analyze the effectiveness of the approach by comparing it to 3 other feasible algorithms for cooperative control, showing the superiority of the approach for a large class of problems.

  19. Collaborative gaze channelling for improved cooperation during robotic assisted surgery.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Ka-Wai; Sun, Loi-Wah; Mylonas, George P; James, David R C; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2012-10-01

    The use of multiple robots for performing complex tasks is becoming a common practice for many robot applications. When different operators are involved, effective cooperation with anticipated manoeuvres is important for seamless, synergistic control of all the end-effectors. In this paper, the concept of Collaborative Gaze Channelling (CGC) is presented for improved control of surgical robots for a shared task. Through eye tracking, the fixations of each operator are monitored and presented in a shared surgical workspace. CGC permits remote or physically separated collaborators to share their intention by visualising the eye gaze of their counterparts, and thus recovers, to a certain extent, the information of mutual intent that we rely upon in a vis-à-vis working setting. In this study, the efficiency of surgical manipulation with and without CGC for controlling a pair of bimanual surgical robots is evaluated by analysing the level of coordination of two independent operators. Fitts' law is used to compare the quality of movement with or without CGC. A total of 40 subjects have been recruited for this study and the results show that the proposed CGC framework exhibits significant improvement (p < 0.05) on all the motion indices used for quality assessment. This study demonstrates that visual guidance is an implicit yet effective way of communication during collaborative tasks for robotic surgery. Detailed experimental validation results demonstrate the potential clinical value of the proposed CGC framework.

  20. An Integrated Testbed for Cooperative Perception with Heterogeneous Mobile and Static Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-González, Adrián; Martínez-De Dios, José Ramiro; Ollero, Aníbal

    2011-01-01

    Cooperation among devices with different sensing, computing and communication capabilities provides interesting possibilities in a growing number of problems and applications including domotics (domestic robotics), environmental monitoring or intelligent cities, among others. Despite the increasing interest in academic and industrial communities, experimental tools for evaluation and comparison of cooperative algorithms for such heterogeneous technologies are still very scarce. This paper presents a remote testbed with mobile robots and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) equipped with a set of low-cost off-the-shelf sensors, commonly used in cooperative perception research and applications, that present high degree of heterogeneity in their technology, sensed magnitudes, features, output bandwidth, interfaces and power consumption, among others. Its open and modular architecture allows tight integration and interoperability between mobile robots and WSN through a bidirectional protocol that enables full interaction. Moreover, the integration of standard tools and interfaces increases usability, allowing an easy extension to new hardware and software components and the reuse of code. Different levels of decentralization are considered, supporting from totally distributed to centralized approaches. Developed for the EU-funded Cooperating Objects Network of Excellence (CONET) and currently available at the School of Engineering of Seville (Spain), the testbed provides full remote control through the Internet. Numerous experiments have been performed, some of which are described in the paper. PMID:22247679

  1. An integrated testbed for cooperative perception with heterogeneous mobile and static sensors.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-González, Adrián; Martínez-De Dios, José Ramiro; Ollero, Aníbal

    2011-01-01

    Cooperation among devices with different sensing, computing and communication capabilities provides interesting possibilities in a growing number of problems and applications including domotics (domestic robotics), environmental monitoring or intelligent cities, among others. Despite the increasing interest in academic and industrial communities, experimental tools for evaluation and comparison of cooperative algorithms for such heterogeneous technologies are still very scarce. This paper presents a remote testbed with mobile robots and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) equipped with a set of low-cost off-the-shelf sensors, commonly used in cooperative perception research and applications, that present high degree of heterogeneity in their technology, sensed magnitudes, features, output bandwidth, interfaces and power consumption, among others. Its open and modular architecture allows tight integration and interoperability between mobile robots and WSN through a bidirectional protocol that enables full interaction. Moreover, the integration of standard tools and interfaces increases usability, allowing an easy extension to new hardware and software components and the reuse of code. Different levels of decentralization are considered, supporting from totally distributed to centralized approaches. Developed for the EU-funded Cooperating Objects Network of Excellence (CONET) and currently available at the School of Engineering of Seville (Spain), the testbed provides full remote control through the Internet. Numerous experiments have been performed, some of which are described in the paper.

  2. Robust mobile robot localization: From single-robot uncertainties to multi-robot interdependencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumeliotis, Stergios I.

    2000-10-01

    Robust localization is the problem of determining the position of a mobile robot with respect to a global or local frame of reference in the presence of sensor noise, uncertainties and potential failures. Previous work in this field has used Kalman filters to reduce the effects of sensor noise on updates of the vehicle position estimate or Bayesian multiple hypothesis to resolve the ambiguity associated with the identification of detected landmarks. This dissertation introduces a general framework for localization that subsumes both approaches in a single architecture and applies it to the general problem of localizing a mobile robot within a known environment. Odometric and/or inertial sensors are fused with data obtained from exteroceptive sensors. The approach is validated by solution of the "kidnapped robot" problem. The second problem treated in this dissertation concerns the common assumption that all sensors provide information at the same rate. This assumption is relaxed by allowing high rate noisy odometric or inertial data from kinetic sensors while absolute attitude and/or position data (e.g., from sun sensors) are obtained infrequently. We address the resulting observability limitation by incorporating a Smoother in the attitude estimation algorithm. Smoothing of the attitude estimates reduces the overall uncertainty and allows for longer traverses before a new absolute orientation measurement is required. Simulation examples also show the ability of this method to increase the accuracy of robot mapping. The third problem concerns multiple robots collaborating on a single task. In prior research with a group of, say M, robots the group localization problem is usually approached by independently solving M pose estimation problems. When collaboration among robots exists, current methods usually require that at least one member of the group holds a fixed position while visual contact with all the other members of the team is maintained. If these two

  3. Verification hybrid control of a wheeled mobile robot and manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muszynska, Magdalena; Burghardt, Andrzej; Kurc, Krzysztof; Szybicki, Dariusz

    2016-04-01

    In this article, innovative approaches to realization of the wheeled mobile robots and manipulator tracking are presented. Conceptions include application of the neural-fuzzy systems to compensation of the controlled system's nonlinearities in the tracking control task. Proposed control algorithms work on-line, contain structure, that adapt to the changeable work conditions of the controlled systems, and do not require the preliminary learning. The algorithm was verification on the real object which was a Scorbot - ER 4pc robotic manipulator and a Pioneer - 2DX mobile robot.

  4. A Mobile Service Robot for Life Science Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulenburg, Erik; Elkmann, Norbert; Fritzsche, Markus; Teutsch, Christian

    In this paper we presents a project that is developing a mobile service robot to assist users in biological and pharmaceutical laboratories by executing routine jobs such as filling and transporting microplates. A preliminary overview of the design of the mobile platform with a robotic arm is provided. Safety aspects are one focus of the project since the robot and humans will share a common environment. Hence, several safety sensors such as laser scanners, thermographie components and artificial skin are employed. These are described along with the approaches to object recognition.

  5. Simulation and Experimental Elaboration of Acoustic Sensors for Mobile Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Wheeled mobile robot “ Argonaut -2” equipped with acoustic audition systems is shown on Fig. 1. The left picture shows the 1st release of a system, and the...2 RTO-MP-SET-092 UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED Figure 1: The “ Argonaut -2” Mobile Robot Equipped with Audition Sensors. 2.1...onboard part of control system is given on Fig. 2. Figure 2: Control System of a Robot “ Argonaut -2”. Simulation and Experimental Elaboration of

  6. 77 FR 64411 - Safety Zone; Cooper T. Smith Fireworks Event; Mobile River; Mobile, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cooper T. Smith Fireworks Event; Mobile... during the Cooper T. Smith Fireworks Event. Entry into, transiting or anchoring in this zone is... Cooper T. Smith Corp. has hired Pyro Tecnico to conduct a fireworks display on the Mobile River,...

  7. Towards Principled Experimental Study of Autonomous Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Erann

    1995-01-01

    We review the current state of research in autonomous mobile robots and conclude that there is an inadequate basis for predicting the reliability and behavior of robots operating in unengineered environments. We present a new approach to the study of autonomous mobile robot performance based on formal statistical analysis of independently reproducible experiments conducted on real robots. Simulators serve as models rather than experimental surrogates. We demonstrate three new results: 1) Two commonly used performance metrics (time and distance) are not as well correlated as is often tacitly assumed. 2) The probability distributions of these performance metrics are exponential rather than normal, and 3) a modular, object-oriented simulation accurately predicts the behavior of the real robot in a statistically significant manner.

  8. Towards Principled Experimental Study of Autonomous Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Erann

    1995-01-01

    We review the current state of research in autonomous mobile robots and conclude that there is an inadequate basis for predicting the reliability and behavior of robots operating in unengineered environments. We present a new approach to the study of autonomous mobile robot performance based on formal statistical analysis of independently reproducible experiments conducted on real robots. Simulators serve as models rather than experimental surrogates. We demonstrate three new results: 1) Two commonly used performance metrics (time and distance) are not as well correlated as is often tacitly assumed. 2) The probability distributions of these performance metrics are exponential rather than normal, and 3) a modular, object-oriented simulation accurately predicts the behavior of the real robot in a statistically significant manner.

  9. Laser-Camera Vision Sensing for Spacecraft Mobile Robot Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Khalil, Ahmad S.; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gawdiak, Yuri

    2002-01-01

    The advent of spacecraft mobile robots-free-flyng sensor platforms and communications devices intended to accompany astronauts or remotely operate on space missions both inside and outside of a spacecraft-has demanded the development of a simple and effective navigation schema. One such system under exploration involves the use of a laser-camera arrangement to predict relative positioning of the mobile robot. By projecting laser beams from the robot, a 3D reference frame can be introduced. Thus, as the robot shifts in position, the position reference frame produced by the laser images is correspondingly altered. Using normalization and camera registration techniques presented in this paper, the relative translation and rotation of the robot in 3D are determined from these reference frame transformations.

  10. BALI development environment for small mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Willie Y.

    1995-12-01

    The design and prototyping of a development environment, called BALI, for a small robot, viz., the MIT 6.270 robot, is presented in this paper. BALI is being developed and used for research work using a 6.270-based robot. Building on the experience with IC (interactive-C) for programming the 6.270 robot and new technologies like Java, a more powerful and low cost robot development environment is possible. The goal of BALI is to provide a flexible, customizable, and extensible development environment so that robot researchers can quickly tailor BALI to their robots. Given that the 6.270 robot is really a building kit made up of LEGO blocks (or similar kinds of physical building blocks), the 68HC11-based motherboard, and a variety of sensors, BALI cannot be specially built for one 'instance' of the 6.270 robot. Rather the guiding principles for building BALI should be to provide the GUI (graphical user interface) 'primitives' from which one can assemble and build his or her development environment. Thus GUI primitives for displaying status information, sensor readings, robot orientation, and environment maps must be provided. Much of these primitives are already provided in Java. It is the robot-specific ones that have to be developed for BALI. The Java- like language that forms the core of BALI is the main focus of this paper.

  11. Hazardous materials emergency response mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Henry W. (Inventor); Lloyd, James W. (Inventor); Alahuzos, George A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A simple or unsophisticated robot incapable of effecting straight-line motion at the end of its arm is presented. This robot inserts a key held in its end effector or hand into a door lock with nearly straight-line motion by gently thrusting its back heels downwardly so that it pivots forwardly on its front toes while holding its arm stationary. The relatively slight arc traveled by the robot's hand is compensated by a complaint tool with which the robot hand grips the door key. A visible beam is projected through the axis of the hand or gripper on the robot arm end at an angle to the general direction in which the robot thrusts the gripper forward. As the robot hand approaches a target surface, a video camera on the robot wrist watches the beam spot on the target surface fall from a height proportional to the distance between the robot hand and the target surface until the beam spot is nearly aligned with the top of the robot hand. Holes in the front face of the hand are connected through internal passages inside the arm to an on-board chemical sensor. Full rotation of the hand or gripper about the robot arm's wrist is made possible by slip rings in the wrist which permit passage of the gases taken in through the nose holes in the front of the hand through the wrist regardless of the rotational orientation of the wrist.

  12. Hazardous materials emergency response mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Henry W.; Lloyd, James W.; Alahuzos, George A.

    1995-08-01

    A simple or unsophisticated robot incapable of effecting straight-line motion at the end of its arm is presented. This robot inserts a key held in its end effector or hand into a door lock with nearly straight-line motion by gently thrusting its back heels downwardly so that it pivots forwardly on its front toes while holding its arm stationary. The relatively slight arc traveled by the robot's hand is compensated by a complaint tool with which the robot hand grips the door key. A visible beam is projected through the axis of the hand or gripper on the robot arm end at an angle to the general direction in which the robot thrusts the gripper forward. As the robot hand approaches a target surface, a video camera on the robot wrist watches the beam spot on the target surface fall from a height proportional to the distance between the robot hand and the target surface until the beam spot is nearly aligned with the top of the robot hand. Holes in the front face of the hand are connected through internal passages inside the arm to an on-board chemical sensor. Full rotation of the hand or gripper about the robot arm's wrist is made possible by slip rings in the wrist which permit passage of the gases taken in through the nose holes in the front of the hand through the wrist regardless of the rotational orientation of the wrist.

  13. Hands-free operation of a small mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    AMAI,WENDY A.; FAHRENHOLTZ,JILL C.; LEGER,CHRIS L.

    2000-03-14

    The Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center of Sandia National laboratories has an ongoing research program in advanced user interfaces. As part of this research, promising new transduction devices, particularly hands-free devices, are being explored for the control of mobile and floor-mounted robotic systems. Brainwave control has been successfully demonstrated by other researchers in a variety of fields. In the research described here, Sandia developed and demonstrated a proof-of-concept brainwave-controlled mobile robot system. Preliminary results were encouraging. Additional work required to turn this into a reliable. fieldable system for mobile robotic control is identified. Used in conjunction with other controls, brainwave control could be an effective control method in certain circumstances.

  14. Using Dynamic Capability Evaluation to Organize a Team of Cooperative, Autonomous Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Using Dynamic Capability Evaluation to Organize a Team of Cooperative, Autonomous Robots Eric Matson Scott DeLoach Multi-agent and Cooperative...00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Using Dynamic Capability Evaluation to Organize a Team of Cooperative, Autonomous Robots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...company structure. Agent: Equivalent to autonomous robots in this instance. Agents coordinate through the organization via conversations and act

  15. Cooperative Multi-Agent Systems in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    COOPERATIVE MULTI - AGENT SYSTEMS IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS Joseph P. Macker William Chao Myriam Abramson Ian Downard Information Technology Division...are, mobile ad hoc networking (MANET) and Multi - Agent Systems (MAS). Despite their value in enabling more autonomous network system operation...2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cooperative Multi - Agent Systems in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  16. Google glass-based remote control of a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Song; Wen, Xi; Li, Wei; Chen, Genshe

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to remote control of a mobile robot via a Google Glass with the multi-function and compact size. This wearable device provides a new human-machine interface (HMI) to control a robot without need for a regular computer monitor because the Google Glass micro projector is able to display live videos around robot environments. In doing it, we first develop a protocol to establish WI-FI connection between Google Glass and a robot and then implement five types of robot behaviors: Moving Forward, Turning Left, Turning Right, Taking Pause, and Moving Backward, which are controlled by sliding and clicking the touchpad located on the right side of the temple. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed Google Glass-based remote control system, we navigate a virtual Surveyor robot to pass a maze. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed control system achieves the desired performance.

  17. Object guided autonomous exploration for mobile robots in indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto-Granda, Carlos; Choudhary, Siddarth; Rogers, John G.; Twigg, Jeff; Murali, Varun; Christensen, Henrik I.

    2014-06-01

    Autonomous mobile robotic teams are increasingly used in exploration of indoor environments. Accurate modeling of the world around the robot and describing the interaction of the robot with the world greatly increases the ability of the robot to act autonomously. This paper demonstrates the ability of autonomous robotic teams to find objects of interest. A novel feature of our approach is the object discovery and the use of it to augment the mapping and navigation process. The generated map can then be decomposed into semantic regions while also considering the distance and line of sight to anchor points. The advantage of this approach is that the robot can return a dense map of the region around an object of interest. The robustness of this approach is demonstrated in indoor environments with multiple platforms with the objective of discovering objects of interest.

  18. Online Tracking Control of Autonomous Mobile Robot Utilizing Optimal Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirakoso, Nobuto; Takizawa, Takahiro; Ishihara, Masaaki; Aoki, Kouzou

    In this study, the objective is to build a wheeled mobile robot which can move independently avoiding obstacles. To move autonomously, this robot is enabled to detect obstacles' shapes and conduct self-localization. Also, this robot can move by tracking trajectories designed by the robot itself, based on the information about the obstacles' shapes and the robot's position and attitude angle. The optimal trajectories which lead the robot to its destination are designed by using a unique optimization method. As convergent calculation is performed by setting the variables within a certain range in this proposed optimization method, the optimal solutions can be obtained approximately, even in cases where there is a difference between the number of input and output variables, and when the nonlinearity is strong with restraint conditions. In this thesis, the effectiveness of the optimal track designing method used is proven and the method deemed as appropriate.

  19. How do walkers avoid a mobile robot crossing their way?

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Christian; Olivier, Anne-Hélène; Souères, Philippe; Crétual, Armel; Stasse, Olivier; Pettré, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Robots and Humans have to share the same environment more and more often. In the aim of steering robots in a safe and convenient manner among humans it is required to understand how humans interact with them. This work focuses on collision avoidance between a human and a robot during locomotion. Having in mind previous results on human obstacle avoidance, as well as the description of the main principles which guide collision avoidance strategies, we observe how humans adapt a goal-directed locomotion task when they have to interfere with a mobile robot. Our results show differences in the strategy set by humans to avoid a robot in comparison with avoiding another human. Humans prefer to give the way to the robot even when they are likely to pass first at the beginning of the interaction.

  20. Hazardous materials emergency response mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Henry W. (Inventor); Lloyd, James (Inventor); Alahuzos, George (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A simple or unsophisticated robot incapable of effecting straight-line motion at the end of its arm inserts a key held in its end effector or hand into a door lock with nearly straight-line motion by gently thrusting its back heels downwardly so that it pivots forwardly on its front toes while holding its arm stationary. The relatively slight arc traveled by the robot's hand is compensated by a complaint tool with which the robot hand grips the door key. A visible beam is projected through the axis of the hand or gripper on the robot arm end at an angle to the general direction in which the robot thrusts the gripper forward. As the robot hand approaches a target surface, a video camera on the robot wrist watches the beam spot on the target surface fall from a height proportional to the distance between the robot hand and the target surface until the beam spot is nearly aligned with the top of the robot hand. Holes in the front face of the hand are connected through internal passages inside the arm to an on-board chemical sensor. Full rotation of the hand or gripper about the robot arm's wrist is made possible by slip rings in the wrist which permit passage of the gases taken in through the nose holes in the front of the hand through the wrist regardless of the rotational orientation of the wrist.

  1. Hazardous materials emergency response mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Henry W.; Lloyd, James; Alahuzos, George

    1992-07-01

    A simple or unsophisticated robot incapable of effecting straight-line motion at the end of its arm inserts a key held in its end effector or hand into a door lock with nearly straight-line motion by gently thrusting its back heels downwardly so that it pivots forwardly on its front toes while holding its arm stationary. The relatively slight arc traveled by the robot's hand is compensated by a complaint tool with which the robot hand grips the door key. A visible beam is projected through the axis of the hand or gripper on the robot arm end at an angle to the general direction in which the robot thrusts the gripper forward. As the robot hand approaches a target surface, a video camera on the robot wrist watches the beam spot on the target surface fall from a height proportional to the distance between the robot hand and the target surface until the beam spot is nearly aligned with the top of the robot hand. Holes in the front face of the hand are connected through internal passages inside the arm to an on-board chemical sensor. Full rotation of the hand or gripper about the robot arm's wrist is made possible by slip rings in the wrist which permit passage of the gases taken in through the nose holes in the front of the hand through the wrist regardless of the rotational orientation of the wrist.

  2. A Cooperatively Controlled Robot for Ultrasound Monitoring of Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tutkun Şen, H.; Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Iordachita, Iulian; Wong, John; Kazanzides, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) involves two main procedures, performed in different rooms on different days: (1) treatment planning in the simulator room on the first day, and (2) radiotherapy in the linear accelerator room over multiple subsequent days. Both the simulator and the linear accelerator include CT imaging capabilities, which enables both treatment planning and reproducible patient setup, but does not provide good soft tissue contrast or allow monitoring of the target during treatment. We propose a cooperatively-controlled robot to reproducibly position an ultrasound (US) probe on the patient during simulation and treatment, thereby improving soft tissue visualization and allowing real-time monitoring of the target. A key goal of the robotic system is to produce consistent tissue deformations for both CT and US imaging, which simplifies registration of these two modalities. This paper presents the robotic system design and describes a novel control algorithm that employs virtual springs to implement guidance virtual fixtures during “hands on” cooperative control. PMID:26823988

  3. Mobile robots: motor challenges and materials solutions.

    PubMed

    Madden, John D

    2007-11-16

    Bolted-down robots labor in our factories, performing the same task over and over again. Where are the robots that run and jump? Equaling human performance is very difficult for many reasons, including the basic challenge of demonstrating motors and transmissions that efficiently match the power per unit mass of muscle. In order to exceed animal agility, new actuators are needed. Materials that change dimension in response to applied voltage, so-called artificial muscle technologies, outperform muscle in most respects and so provide a promising means of improving robots. In the longer term, robots powered by atomically perfect fibers will outrun us all.

  4. A Mobile Robot for Small Object Handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fišer, Ondřej; Szűcsová, Hana; Grimmer, Vladimír; Popelka, Jan; Vonásek, Vojtěch; Krajník, Tomáš; Chudoba, Jan

    The aim of this paper is to present an intelligent autonomous robot capable of small object manipulation. The design of the robot is influenced mainly by the rules of EUROBOT 09 competition. In this challenge, two robots pick up objects scattered on a planar rectangular playfield and use these elements to build models of Hellenistic temples. This paper describes the robot hardware, i.e. electro-mechanics of the drive, chassis and manipulator, as well as the software, i.e. localization, collision avoidance, motion control and planning algorithms.

  5. Intelligent wheeled mobile robot for spherical tank welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junbo; Sun, Zhenguo; Ji, Meng; Chen, Qiang; Jiang, Lipei; Jiao, Xiangdong; Xue, Long

    2002-02-01

    At present, spherical tank manufacture is still staying at the level of manual welding or semi-automation. In order to improve quality of weld seam and guarantee safe operating of spherical tank, automatic welding equipment is needed urgently. A intelligent wheeled mobile robot equipped with CCD based visual sensor has been developed to acquire better weld quality in this research. Special mechanical structure has been proposed based a wheeled mobile robot body to realize reliably and flexibly absorbing and moving on the surface of spherical tank. A 3-DOF welding manipulator has been fixed on the robot to carry out welding tasks. A CCD sensor has been used to detect weld seam for the trajectory planing of both the mobile robot and the welding torch, control strategy for nonholonomic system with redundant DOF has been put forward to realize the accurate tracing of weld torch, an intelligent controller has been designed. In this paper, mechanical structure of robot, principle of CCD sensor, tracing model for robot and welding torch, and intelligent controller have been presented in details respectively. Experiments show that this robot can fulfill all-position welding tasks freely on the surface of tank with high weld torch tracing accuracy(up to +/- 0.5mm).

  6. On-Line Method and Apparatus for Coordinated Mobility and Manipulation of Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A simple and computationally efficient approach is disclosed for on-line coordinated control of mobile robots consisting of a manipulator arm mounted on a mobile base. The effect of base mobility on the end-effector manipulability index is discussed. The base mobility and arm manipulation degrees-of-freedom are treated equally as the joints of a kinematically redundant composite robot. The redundancy introduced by the mobile base is exploited to satisfy a set of user-defined additional tasks during the end-effector motion. A simple on-line control scheme is proposed which allows the user to assign weighting factors to individual degrees-of-mobility and degrees-of-manipulation, as well as to each task specification. The computational efficiency of the control algorithm makes it particularly suitable for real-time implementations. Four case studies are discussed in detail to demonstrate the application of the coordinated control scheme to various mobile robots.

  7. Trajectory generation for two robots cooperating to perform a task

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.L.

    1995-10-01

    This paper formulates an algorithm for trajectory generation for two robots cooperating to perform an assembly task. Treating the two robots as a single redundant system, this paper derives two Jacobian matrices which relate the joint rates of the entire system to the relative motion of the grippers with respect to one another. The advantage of this formulation over existing methods is that a variety of secondary criteria can be conveniently satisfied using motion in the null-space of the relative Jacobian. This paper presents methods for generating dual-arm joint trajectories which perform assembly tasks while at the same time avoiding obstacles and joint limits, and also maintaining constraints on the absolute position and orientation of the end-effectors.

  8. Robotic and Sensor Technologies for Mobility in Older People.

    PubMed

    Penteridis, Lazaros; D'Onofrio, Grazia; Sancarlo, Daniele; Giuliani, Francesco; Ricciardi, Francesco; Cavallo, Filippo; Greco, Antonio; Trochidis, Ilias; Gkiokas, Alexander

    2017-06-28

    Maintaining independent mobility is fundamental to independent living and to the quality of life of older people. Robotic and sensor technologies may offer a lot of potential and can make a significant difference in the lives of older people and to their primary caregivers. The aim of this study was to provide a presentation of the methods that are used up till now for analysis and evaluation of human mobility utilizing sensor technologies and to give the state of the art in robotic platforms for supporting older people with mobility limitations. The literature was reviewed and systematic reviews of cohort studies and other authoritative reports were identified. The selection criteria included (1) patients with age ≥60 years; (2) patients with unstable gait, with or without recurrent falls; (3) patients with slow movements, short strides, and little trunk movement; (4) sensor technologies that are currently used for mobility evaluation; and (5) robotic technologies that can serve as a supporting companion for older people with mobility limitations. One hundred eighty-one studies published up until February 2017 were identified, of which 36 were included. Two categories of research were identified from the review regarding the robot and sensor technologies: (1) sensor technologies for mobility analysis and (2) robots for supporting older people with mobility limitations. Potential for robotic and sensor technologies can be taken advantage of for evaluation and support at home for elder persons with mobility limitations in an automated way without the need of the physical presence of any medical personnel, reducing the stress of caregivers.

  9. Real Time System Architecture For A Mobile Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Uma K.; McTamaney, Louis S.

    1987-01-01

    An intelligent mobile robot must be able to accept a mission statement and constraints, plan its actions, execute its plans, perceive and adapt to its environment, and report its successes and failures. In this paper we describe a modular system architecture for such a complex mobile robot system. On-board versus off-board processing is a key system-level issue. We have selected off-board processing because the anticipated computer quantity, size, power requirement, and lack of robustness made on-board processing impractical if not impossible. Our system includes a transportable command center and a computer-controllable M113 armored personnel carrier, our mobile robot. The command center contains communication and computer hardware necessary for receiving and processing robot motion and sensor information, and for generating and transmitting mobility and sensor commands in real time to the robot. All control and status data transmission, between the robot and the command center, is accomplished through microwave links using a wide band, auto-tracking antenna. Under development since 1982, this system has demonstrated the capability of mission and route planning with execution at 8 km/hr, obstacle detection and avoidance at 15 km/hr, autonomous road following at 24 km/hr, and a remotely managed route reconnaissance mission at vehicle speeds of up to 40 km/hr.

  10. Autonomous mobile robot for radiologic surveys

    DOEpatents

    Dudar, A.M.; Wagner, D.G.; Teese, G.D.

    1994-06-28

    An apparatus is described for conducting radiologic surveys. The apparatus comprises in the main a robot capable of following a preprogrammed path through an area, a radiation monitor adapted to receive input from a radiation detector assembly, ultrasonic transducers for navigation and collision avoidance, and an on-board computer system including an integrator for interfacing the radiation monitor and the robot. Front and rear bumpers are attached to the robot by bumper mounts. The robot may be equipped with memory boards for the collection and storage of radiation survey information. The on-board computer system is connected to a remote host computer via a UHF radio link. The apparatus is powered by a rechargeable 24-volt DC battery, and is stored at a docking station when not in use and/or for recharging. A remote host computer contains a stored database defining paths between points in the area where the robot is to operate, including but not limited to the locations of walls, doors, stationary furniture and equipment, and sonic markers if used. When a program consisting of a series of paths is downloaded to the on-board computer system, the robot conducts a floor survey autonomously at any preselected rate. When the radiation monitor detects contamination, the robot resurveys the area at reduced speed and resumes its preprogrammed path if the contamination is not confirmed. If the contamination is confirmed, the robot stops and sounds an alarm. 5 figures.

  11. Autonomous mobile robot for radiologic surveys

    DOEpatents

    Dudar, Aed M.; Wagner, David G.; Teese, Gregory D.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for conducting radiologic surveys. The apparatus comprises in the main a robot capable of following a preprogrammed path through an area, a radiation monitor adapted to receive input from a radiation detector assembly, ultrasonic transducers for navigation and collision avoidance, and an on-board computer system including an integrator for interfacing the radiation monitor and the robot. Front and rear bumpers are attached to the robot by bumper mounts. The robot may be equipped with memory boards for the collection and storage of radiation survey information. The on-board computer system is connected to a remote host computer via a UHF radio link. The apparatus is powered by a rechargeable 24-volt DC battery, and is stored at a docking station when not in use and/or for recharging. A remote host computer contains a stored database defining paths between points in the area where the robot is to operate, including but not limited to the locations of walls, doors, stationary furniture and equipment, and sonic markers if used. When a program consisting of a series of paths is downloaded to the on-board computer system, the robot conducts a floor survey autonomously at any preselected rate. When the radiation monitor detects contamination, the robot resurveys the area at reduced speed and resumes its preprogrammed path if the contamination is not confirmed. If the contamination is confirmed, the robot stops and sounds an alarm.

  12. A mobile autonomous robot for radiological surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Dudar, A.M.; Wagner, D.G.; Teese, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Robotics Development Group at the Savannah River Site is developing an autonomous robot (SIMON) to perform radiological surveys of potentially contaminated floors. The robot scans floors at a speed of one-inch/second and stops, sounds an alarm, and flashes lights when contamination in a certain area is detected. The contamination of interest here is primarily alpha and beta-gamma. The robot, a Cybermotion K2A base, is radio controlled, uses dead reckoning to determine vehicle position, and docks with a charging station to replenish its batteries and calibrate its position. It uses an ultrasonic ranging system for collision avoidance. In addition, two safety bumpers located in the front and the back of the robot will stop the robots motion when they are depressed. Paths for the robot are preprogrammed and the robots motion can be monitored on a remote screen which shows a graphical map of the environment. The radiation instrument being used is an Eberline RM22A monitor. This monitor is microcomputer based with a serial I/0 interface for remote operation. Up to 30 detectors may be configured with the RM22A.

  13. A mobile autonomous robot for radiological surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Dudar, A.M.; Wagner, D.G.; Teese, G.D.

    1992-10-01

    The Robotics Development Group at the Savannah River Site is developing an autonomous robot (SIMON) to perform radiological surveys of potentially contaminated floors. The robot scans floors at a speed of one-inch/second and stops, sounds an alarm, and flashes lights when contamination in a certain area is detected. The contamination of interest here is primarily alpha and beta-gamma. The robot, a Cybermotion K2A base, is radio controlled, uses dead reckoning to determine vehicle position, and docks with a charging station to replenish its batteries and calibrate its position. It uses an ultrasonic ranging system for collision avoidance. In addition, two safety bumpers located in the front and the back of the robot will stop the robots motion when they are depressed. Paths for the robot are preprogrammed and the robots motion can be monitored on a remote screen which shows a graphical map of the environment. The radiation instrument being used is an Eberline RM22A monitor. This monitor is microcomputer based with a serial I/0 interface for remote operation. Up to 30 detectors may be configured with the RM22A.

  14. Adaptive neural networks for mobile robotic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Jeff R.; Dagli, Cihan H.

    2001-03-01

    Movement of a differential drive robot has non-linear dependence on the current position and orientation. A controller must be able to deal with the non-linearity of the plant. The controller must either linearize the plant and deal with special cases, or be non-linear itself. Once the controller is designed, implementation on a real robotic platform presents challenges due to the varying parameters of the plant. Robots of the same model may have different motor frictions. The surface the robot maneuvers on may change e.g. carpet to tile. Batteries will drain, providing less power over time. A feed-forward neural network controller could overcome these challenges. The network could learn the non- linearities of the plant and monitor the error for parameter changes and adapt to them. In this manner, a single controller can be designed for an ideal robot, and then used to populate a multi-robot colony without manually fine tuning the controller for each robot. This paper shall demonstrate such a controller, outlining design in simulation and implementation on Khepera robotic platforms.

  15. Evaluation of a Home Biomonitoring Autonomous Mobile Robot

    PubMed Central

    Dorronzoro Zubiete, Enrique; Nakahata, Keigo; Imamoglu, Nevrez; Sekine, Masashi; Sun, Guanghao; Gomez, Isabel; Yu, Wenwei

    2016-01-01

    Increasing population age demands more services in healthcare domain. It has been shown that mobile robots could be a potential solution to home biomonitoring for the elderly. Through our previous studies, a mobile robot system that is able to track a subject and identify his daily living activities has been developed. However, the system has not been tested in any home living scenarios. In this study we did a series of experiments to investigate the accuracy of activity recognition of the mobile robot in a home living scenario. The daily activities tested in the evaluation experiment include watching TV and sleeping. A dataset recorded by a distributed distance-measuring sensor network was used as a reference to the activity recognition results. It was shown that the accuracy is not consistent for all the activities; that is, mobile robot could achieve a high success rate in some activities but a poor success rate in others. It was found that the observation position of the mobile robot and subject surroundings have high impact on the accuracy of the activity recognition, due to the variability of the home living daily activities and their transitional process. The possibility of improvement of recognition accuracy has been shown too. PMID:27212940

  16. A dragline-forming mobile robot inspired by spiders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liyu; Culha, Utku; Iida, Fumiya

    2014-03-01

    Mobility of wheeled or legged machines can be significantly increased if they are able to move from a solid surface into a three-dimensional space. Although that may be achieved by addition of flying mechanisms, the payload fraction will be the limiting factor in such hybrid mobile machines for many applications. Inspired by spiders producing draglines to assist locomotion, the paper proposes an alternative mobile technology where a robot achieves locomotion from a solid surface into a free space. The technology resembles the dragline production pathway in spiders to a technically feasible degree and enables robots to move with thermoplastic spinning of draglines. As an implementation, a mobile robot has been prototyped with thermoplastic adhesives as source material of the draglines. Experimental results show that a dragline diameter range of 1.17-5.27 mm was achievable by the 185 g mobile robot in descending locomotion from the solid surface of a hanging structure with a power consumption of 4.8 W and an average speed of 5.13 cm min(-1). With an open-loop controller consisting of sequences of discrete events, the robot has demonstrated repeatable dragline formation with a relative deviation within -4% and a length close to the metre scale.

  17. Evaluation of a Home Biomonitoring Autonomous Mobile Robot.

    PubMed

    Dorronzoro Zubiete, Enrique; Nakahata, Keigo; Imamoglu, Nevrez; Sekine, Masashi; Sun, Guanghao; Gomez, Isabel; Yu, Wenwei

    2016-01-01

    Increasing population age demands more services in healthcare domain. It has been shown that mobile robots could be a potential solution to home biomonitoring for the elderly. Through our previous studies, a mobile robot system that is able to track a subject and identify his daily living activities has been developed. However, the system has not been tested in any home living scenarios. In this study we did a series of experiments to investigate the accuracy of activity recognition of the mobile robot in a home living scenario. The daily activities tested in the evaluation experiment include watching TV and sleeping. A dataset recorded by a distributed distance-measuring sensor network was used as a reference to the activity recognition results. It was shown that the accuracy is not consistent for all the activities; that is, mobile robot could achieve a high success rate in some activities but a poor success rate in others. It was found that the observation position of the mobile robot and subject surroundings have high impact on the accuracy of the activity recognition, due to the variability of the home living daily activities and their transitional process. The possibility of improvement of recognition accuracy has been shown too.

  18. The case for planetary surface mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giralt, G.; Boissier, L.; Lamboley, M.; Moura, D.

    1992-08-01

    Concepts for an automated planetary vehicle (APV) are examined in the context of mission characteristics, resources and system constraints, and operational robot concepts. Both lunar and Martian missions are discussed in terms of exploratory missions and work-site development that require distance and time goals of 1000 km and several years, respectively. Resource and system constraints emphasized in the areas of: rover material technologies, terrain characteristics, and communications. Operational robot concepts are described and compared in light of the constraints and mission requirements, and four candidate classes of robots are given: master-slave teleoperation, advanced teleprogramming, autonomous reactive machines, and autonomous task-level programmable robots. It is shown that these robotic concepts can provide the foundation for implementing lunar and martian exploratory missions.

  19. SMARBot: a modular miniature mobile robot platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yan; Johnson, Kerry; Simms, Brian; Conforth, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Miniature robots have many advantages over their larger counterparts, such as low cost, low power, and easy to build a large scale team for complex tasks. Heterogeneous multi miniature robots could provide powerful situation awareness capability due to different locomotion capabilities and sensor information. However, it would be expensive and time consuming to develop specific embedded system for different type of robots. In this paper, we propose a generic modular embedded system architecture called SMARbot (Stevens Modular Autonomous Robot), which consists of a set of hardware and software modules that can be configured to construct various types of robot systems. These modules include a high performance microprocessor, a reconfigurable hardware component, wireless communication, and diverse sensor and actuator interfaces. The design of all the modules in electrical subsystem, the selection criteria for module components, and the real-time operating system are described. Some proofs of concept experimental results are also presented.

  20. Remote radioactive waste drum inspection with an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.; Wagner, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    An autonomous mobile robot is being developed to perform remote surveillance and inspection task on large numbers of stored radioactive waste drums. The robot will be self guided through narrow storage aisles and record the visual image of each viewable drum for subsequent off line analysis and archiving. The system will remove the personnel from potential exposure to radiation, perform the require inspections, and improve the ability to assess the long term trends in drum conditions.

  1. Remote radioactive waste drum inspection with an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.; Wagner, D.G.

    1992-11-01

    An autonomous mobile robot is being developed to perform remote surveillance and inspection task on large numbers of stored radioactive waste drums. The robot will be self guided through narrow storage aisles and record the visual image of each viewable drum for subsequent off line analysis and archiving. The system will remove the personnel from potential exposure to radiation, perform the require inspections, and improve the ability to assess the long term trends in drum conditions.

  2. A Mobile Robot Sonar System with Obstacle Avoidance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    vehicle, robot, obstacle avoidance, sonar sensing 102 17. SECURITY CLASSWIFCATION 1S. SECURITY CLASINFICATION I& SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 20. UMITATION...WITH OBSTACLE - AVOIDANCE __ by __ Patrick Gerard Byrne March 1994 Thesis Advisor: Yutaka Kanayama Approved for public release; distribution is...SEOLY(Lae anO r Iff TDT, Master’s Thesis _____________ 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE L FUMNING NUMBR A Mobile Robot Sonar System With Obstacle Avoidance (U

  3. Object Transportation by Two Mobile Robots with Hand Carts

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Tatsunori

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology by which two small mobile robots can grasp, lift, and transport large objects using hand carts. The specific problems involve generating robot actions and determining the hand cart positions to achieve the stable loading of objects onto the carts. These problems are solved using nonlinear optimization, and we propose an algorithm for generating robot actions. The proposed method was verified through simulations and experiments using actual devices in a real environment. The proposed method could reduce the number of robots required to transport large objects with 50–60%. In addition, we demonstrated the efficacy of this task in real environments where errors occur in robot sensing and movement. PMID:27433499

  4. Efficient Control Law Simulation for Multiple Mobile Robots

    SciTech Connect

    Driessen, B.J.; Feddema, J.T.; Kotulski, J.D.; Kwok, K.S.

    1998-10-06

    In this paper we consider the problem of simulating simple control laws involving large numbers of mobile robots. Such simulation can be computationally prohibitive if the number of robots is large enough, say 1 million, due to the 0(N2 ) cost of each time step. This work therefore uses hierarchical tree-based methods for calculating the control law. These tree-based approaches have O(NlogN) cost per time step, thus allowing for efficient simulation involving a large number of robots. For concreteness, a decentralized control law which involves only the distance and bearing to the closest neighbor robot will be considered. The time to calculate the control law for each robot at each time step is demonstrated to be O(logN).

  5. Passivity-based control of an omnidirectional mobile robot.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chao; Sun, Yi; Ma, Shugen

    This paper studies passivity-based trajectory tracking control of an omnidirectional mobile robot. The proposed control design is simple to be implemented in practice, because of an effective exploitation of the structure of robot dynamics. First, the passivity property of the prototype robot is analyzed. Then the control system is designed based on the energy shaping plus damping approach. We find that the prototype robot itself has enough damping forces. As a result, only energy shaping is needed in our proposed controller, while the damping injection is unnecessary for our robot. In other words, the disadvantages of differential feedback, such as amplifying the measurement noise, can be avoided. Globally asymptotic stability is guaranteed. Both simulations and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed control design.

  6. Navigating a mobile robot by a traversability field histogram.

    PubMed

    Ye, Cang

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents an autonomous terrain navigation system for a mobile robot. The system employs a two-dimensional laser range finder (LRF) for terrain mapping. A so-called "traversability field histogram" (TFH) method is proposed to guide the robot. The TFH method first transforms a local terrain map surrounding the robot's momentary position into a traversability map by extracting the slope and roughness of a terrain patch through least-squares plane fitting. It then computes a so-called "polar traversability index" (PTI) that represents the overall difficulty of traveling along the corresponding direction. The PTIs are represented in a form of histogram. Based on this histogram, the velocity and steering commands of the robot are determined. The concept of a virtual valley and an exit condition are proposed and used to direct the robot such that it can reach the target with a finite-length path. The algorithm is verified by simulation and experimental results.

  7. Development of mobile robot for pipe welding with visual sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Suga, Yasuo; Saito, Keishin; Ishii, Hideaki

    1994-12-31

    An autonomous mobile robot with visual sensor and four driving axes for pipe welding was constructed. The robot can move along a pipe, and detect the weld line to be welded by visual sensor. Moreover, in order to perform welding automatically, the welding torch can track the weld line of the pipes by rotating the robot head. In the case of welding of T-joint of pipes, the robot can detect the contact angle between the two base metals to be welded, and the torch angle changes according to the contact angle. As the result of tracking test by the robot system, it was made clear that the recognition of the geometry of the T-joint by the laser lighting method and automatic seam tracking were possible. The average tracking error was 0.4 mm approximately and the torch angle could be always kept at the optimum angle.

  8. Sensor Fusion Based Model for Collision Free Mobile Robot Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Almasri, Marwah; Elleithy, Khaled; Alajlan, Abrar

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous mobile robots have become a very popular and interesting topic in the last decade. Each of them are equipped with various types of sensors such as GPS, camera, infrared and ultrasonic sensors. These sensors are used to observe the surrounding environment. However, these sensors sometimes fail and have inaccurate readings. Therefore, the integration of sensor fusion will help to solve this dilemma and enhance the overall performance. This paper presents a collision free mobile robot navigation based on the fuzzy logic fusion model. Eight distance sensors and a range finder camera are used for the collision avoidance approach where three ground sensors are used for the line or path following approach. The fuzzy system is composed of nine inputs which are the eight distance sensors and the camera, two outputs which are the left and right velocities of the mobile robot’s wheels, and 24 fuzzy rules for the robot’s movement. Webots Pro simulator is used for modeling the environment and the robot. The proposed methodology, which includes the collision avoidance based on fuzzy logic fusion model and line following robot, has been implemented and tested through simulation and real time experiments. Various scenarios have been presented with static and dynamic obstacles using one robot and two robots while avoiding obstacles in different shapes and sizes. PMID:26712766

  9. Using advanced computer vision algorithms on small mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogut, G.; Birchmore, F.; Biagtan Pacis, E.; Everett, H. R.

    2006-05-01

    The Technology Transfer project employs a spiral development process to enhance the functionality and autonomy of mobile robot systems in the Joint Robotics Program (JRP) Robotic Systems Pool by converging existing component technologies onto a transition platform for optimization. An example of this approach is the implementation of advanced computer vision algorithms on small mobile robots. We demonstrate the implementation and testing of the following two algorithms useful on mobile robots: 1) object classification using a boosted Cascade of classifiers trained with the Adaboost training algorithm, and 2) human presence detection from a moving platform. Object classification is performed with an Adaboost training system developed at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Computer Vision Lab. This classification algorithm has been used to successfully detect the license plates of automobiles in motion in real-time. While working towards a solution to increase the robustness of this system to perform generic object recognition, this paper demonstrates an extension to this application by detecting soda cans in a cluttered indoor environment. The human presence detection from a moving platform system uses a data fusion algorithm which combines results from a scanning laser and a thermal imager. The system is able to detect the presence of humans while both the humans and the robot are moving simultaneously. In both systems, the two aforementioned algorithms were implemented on embedded hardware and optimized for use in real-time. Test results are shown for a variety of environments.

  10. Scarecrow: An Implementation of Behavioral Control on a Mobile Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbott, James R.; Anderson, Tracy L.; Donath, Max

    1990-03-01

    Traditional planning and programming techniques for mobile robot control do not do well in unknown and unstructured environments. The successful implementation of a control strategy for an autonomous mobile robot is presented where the motion of the vehicle is strictly based upon the integrated response of multiple uncoupled primitive reflexive behaviors which incorporate no planning. We previously demonstrated the resulting motion of a robot based upon this approach by using computer simulation. Those results show that such a robot is capable of performing many relatively complex tasks in unknown environments, with only a limited set of such primitive behaviors. In this paper, the hardware and software implementation issues required to bring these concepts into reality on an actual machine are discussed. These issues include range sensor interfacing, communications between multiple on board processors, real time control within an object-oriented environment, robot safety, and robustness in the presence of sensor error. The resulting motion of an actual mobile robot, Scarecrow, is then compared with the simulation results for a number of different higher level behaviors. The observed behavior was found to be similar to that predicted by simulation, despite significant sensor limitations.

  11. Path Relaxation: Path Planning for a Mobile Robot.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    15213 April 1984 JUN 5 1984 Copyright © 1984 Mobile Robot Laboratory, Carnegie-Mellon University The CMU Rover has been supported at the Carnegie-Mellon...particular robot or mission. Path Relaxation is part of Fido, the vision and navigation system of the CM L Rover mol)ile robot. [29, 411 The Rover , under...their 31) positions relative to the Rover . The Rover will then move about half a meter, take a new pair of pictires, find the 40 tracked points in each of

  12. Lattice Independent Component Analysis for Mobile Robot Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaverde, Ivan; Fernandez-Gauna, Borja; Zulueta, Ekaitz

    This paper introduces an approach to appearance based mobile robot localization using Lattice Independent Component Analysis (LICA). The Endmember Induction Heuristic Algorithm (EIHA) is used to select a set of Strong Lattice Independent (SLI) vectors, which can be assumed to be Affine Independent, and therefore candidates to be the endmembers of the data. Selected endmembers are used to compute the linear unmixing of the robot's acquired images. The resulting mixing coefficients are used as feature vectors for view recognition through classification. We show on a sample path experiment that our approach can recognise the localization of the robot and we compare the results with the Independent Component Analysis (ICA).

  13. Optical flow based velocity estimation for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiuzhi; Zhao, Guanrong; Jia, Songmin; Qin, Baoling; Yang, Ailin

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents an optical flow based novel technique to perceive the instant motion velocity of mobile robots. The primary focus of this study is to determine the robot's ego-motion using displacement field in temporally consecutive image pairs. In contrast to most previous approaches for estimating velocity, we employ a polynomial expansion based dense optical flow approach and propose a quadratic model based RANSAC refinement of flow fields to render our method more robust with respect to noise and outliers. Accordingly, techniques for geometrical transformation and interpretation of the inter-frame motion are presented. Advantages of our proposal are validated by real experimental results conducted on Pioneer robot.

  14. Mobile robot navigation and control: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, N.; Dudek, G.; Daum, M.

    1996-12-31

    Robotic systems (and in particular mobile autonomous agents) embody a complex interaction of computational processes, mechanical systems, sensors, and communications hardware. System integration can present significant difficulties to the construction of a real system, because the hardware is often built around convenience of design rather than convenience of system integration. Nonetheless, in order for robots to perform real-world tasks such as navigation, localization and exploration, the different subsystems of motion, sensing and computation must be merged into a single, realisable unit. Our group is investigating particular problems in the domain of computational perception, in the context of mobile robotics. In particular, we are concerned with environment exploration, position estimation, and map construction. We have several mobile platforms integrating different sensing modalities, which we are able to control simultaneously from a single source.

  15. Intelligent mobility for robotic vehicles in the army after next

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhart, Grant R.; Goetz, Richard C.; Gorsich, David J.

    1999-07-01

    The TARDEC Intelligent Mobility program addresses several essential technologies necessary to support the army after next (AAN) concept. Ground forces in the AAN time frame will deploy robotic unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) in high-risk missions to avoid exposing soldiers to both friendly and unfriendly fire. Prospective robotic systems will include RSTA/scout vehicles, combat engineering/mine clearing vehicles, indirect fire artillery and missile launch platforms. The AAN concept requires high on-road and off-road mobility, survivability, transportability/deployability and low logistics burden. TARDEC is developing a robotic vehicle systems integration laboratory (SIL) to evaluate technologies and their integration into future UGV systems. Example technologies include the following: in-hub electric drive, omni-directional wheel and steering configurations, off-road tires, adaptive tire inflation, articulated vehicles, active suspension, mine blast protection, detection avoidance and evasive maneuver. This paper will describe current developments in these areas relative to the TARDEC intelligent mobility program.

  16. 76 FR 79218 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Robotics...''), Robotics Technology Consortium, Inc. (``RTC'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the...; Jaybridge Robotics, Cambridge, MA; Klett Consulting Group, Inc., Virginia Beach, VA; and Next Wave Systems...

  17. 76 FR 59160 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Robotics... Robotics Technology Consortium (``RTC'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney... Robotics LLC, Pittsburgh, PA; Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL; EMSolutions, Inc...

  18. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Researchers conduct underwater acoustic research in the Launch Complex 39 turn basin. Several government agencies, including NASA, NOAA, the Navy, the Coast Guard, and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission are involved in the testing. The research involves demonstrations of passive and active sensor technologies, with applications in fields ranging from marine biological research to homeland security. The work is also serving as a pilot project to assess the cooperation between the agencies involved. Equipment under development includes a passive acoustic monitor developed by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and mobile robotic sensors from the Navy’s Mobile Diving and Salvage Unit.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Researchers conduct underwater acoustic research in the Launch Complex 39 turn basin. Several government agencies, including NASA, NOAA, the Navy, the Coast Guard, and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission are involved in the testing. The research involves demonstrations of passive and active sensor technologies, with applications in fields ranging from marine biological research to homeland security. The work is also serving as a pilot project to assess the cooperation between the agencies involved. Equipment under development includes a passive acoustic monitor developed by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and mobile robotic sensors from the Navy’s Mobile Diving and Salvage Unit.

  19. Flexible Virtual Structure Consideration in Dynamic Modeling of Mobile Robots Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kamel, A. Essghaier; Beji, L.; Lerbet, J.; Abichou, A.

    2009-03-01

    In cooperative mobile robotics, we look for formation keeping and maintenance of a geometric configuration during movement. As a solution to these problems, the concept of a virtual structure is considered. Based on this idea, we have developed an efficient flexible virtual structure, describing the dynamic model of n vehicles in formation and where the whole formation is kept dependant. Notes that, for 2D and 3D space navigation, only a rigid virtual structure was proposed in the literature. Further, the problem was limited to a kinematic behavior of the structure. Hence, the flexible virtual structure in dynamic modeling of mobile robots formation presented in this paper, gives more capabilities to the formation to avoid obstacles in hostile environment while keeping formation and avoiding inter-agent collision.

  20. Robotic Technology Applied to Army Mobility Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    side it necessary and Identify by block number) Robotics Sensors Microprocessor Control Control Theory Robotic Technology /. _ 2& ABSTRACT (Cae a...optical encoders mounted on the bucket, dipper, boom, and swing assembly of the backhoe. (See Figure 2.) 4 i side view top view Angle Encoderf 2 * 3 b...zero into these registers which are subsequently incremented within the actual data transmision portion of the code amid the multiple transfer portion

  1. Experimentation and concept formation by an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.; deSaussure, G.; Oliver, G.; Silliman, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) conducts basic research in the area of intelligent machines. In this paper, we describe our approach to a class of machine learning which involves autonomous concept formation using feedback from trial-and-error experimentation with the environment. Our formulation was experimentally validated on an autonomous mobile robot, which learned the task of control panel monitoring and manipulation for effective process control. Conclusions are drawn concerning the applicability of the system to a more general class of learning problems, and implications for the use of autonomous mobile robots in hostile and unknown environments are discussed. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Advanced Fuzzy Potential Field Method for Mobile Robot Obstacle Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Wook; Kwak, Hwan-Joo; Kang, Young-Chang; Kim, Dong W.

    2016-01-01

    An advanced fuzzy potential field method for mobile robot obstacle avoidance is proposed. The potential field method primarily deals with the repulsive forces surrounding obstacles, while fuzzy control logic focuses on fuzzy rules that handle linguistic variables and describe the knowledge of experts. The design of a fuzzy controller—advanced fuzzy potential field method (AFPFM)—that models and enhances the conventional potential field method is proposed and discussed. This study also examines the rule-explosion problem of conventional fuzzy logic and assesses the performance of our proposed AFPFM through simulations carried out using a mobile robot. PMID:27123001

  3. Advanced Fuzzy Potential Field Method for Mobile Robot Obstacle Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Wook; Kwak, Hwan-Joo; Kang, Young-Chang; Kim, Dong W

    2016-01-01

    An advanced fuzzy potential field method for mobile robot obstacle avoidance is proposed. The potential field method primarily deals with the repulsive forces surrounding obstacles, while fuzzy control logic focuses on fuzzy rules that handle linguistic variables and describe the knowledge of experts. The design of a fuzzy controller--advanced fuzzy potential field method (AFPFM)--that models and enhances the conventional potential field method is proposed and discussed. This study also examines the rule-explosion problem of conventional fuzzy logic and assesses the performance of our proposed AFPFM through simulations carried out using a mobile robot.

  4. Collective search by mobile robots using alpha-beta coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.Y.; Robinett, R. III

    1998-04-01

    One important application of mobile robots is searching a geographical region to locate the origin of a specific sensible phenomenon. Mapping mine fields, extraterrestrial and undersea exploration, the location of chemical and biological weapons, and the location of explosive devices are just a few potential applications. Teams of robotic bloodhounds have a simple common goal; to converge on the location of the source phenomenon, confirm its intensity, and to remain aggregated around it until directed to take some other action. In cases where human intervention through teleoperation is not possible, the robot team must be deployed in a territory without supervision, requiring an autonomous decentralized coordination strategy. This paper presents the alpha beta coordination strategy, a family of collective search algorithms that are based on dynamic partitioning of the robotic team into two complementary social roles according to a sensor based status measure. Robots in the alpha role are risk takers, motivated to improve their status by exploring new regions of the search space. Robots in the beta role are motivated to improve but are conservative, and tend to remain aggregated and stationary until the alpha robots have identified better regions of the search space. Roles are determined dynamically by each member of the team based on the status of the individual robot relative to the current state of the collective. Partitioning the robot team into alpha and beta roles results in a balance between exploration and exploitation, and can yield collective energy savings and improved resistance to sensor noise and defectors. Alpha robots waste energy exploring new territory, and are more sensitive to the effects of ambient noise and to defectors reporting inflated status. Beta robots conserve energy by moving in a direct path to regions of confirmed high status.

  5. Control of Human-Following Robot Based on Cooperative Positioning with an Intelligent Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morioka, Kazuyuki; Oinaga, Yudai; Nakamura, Yuichi

    This paper proposes the localization method based on interactive communication between a mobile robot and a networked laser range scanner installed in an intelligent space and achieves human-following control of a mobile robot with the method. Generally, human tracking with cameras or laser range scanners on board the robots has been utilized for control of mobile robots to follow human walking. In addition to human tracking, mobile robots have to perform position estimation simultaneously. There is constraints in measurement for landmark detection or SLAM, because target human walks close to the robot while human following. Then, proposed system consiers to utilize an intelligent environment where sensors are distributed. The proposed system exchanges position and heading information estimated in the mobile robot and the networked laser range scanner with each other. The networked laser range scanner searches and detects target human and the robot based on the position information sent from the robot. The robot receives the detection results from the networked laser range scanner. Then, the estimate position is updated and reference velocities for human-following control are calculated with them. Estimation errors with odometry in the robot and unstable tracking of target in the networked laser range scanner are compensated with this system. In this paper, communication timing between the robot and the networked laser range scanners while human-following is discussed. Human-following experiments are performed and the results are shown.

  6. Tactical mobile robots for urban search and rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blitch, John; Sidki, Nahid; Durkin, Tim

    2000-07-01

    Few disasters can inspire more compassion for victims and families than those involving structural collapse. Video clips of children's bodies pulled from earthquake stricken cities and bombing sties tend to invoke tremendous grief and sorrow because of the totally unpredictable nature of the crisis and lack of even the slightest degree of negligence (such as with those who choose to ignore storm warnings). Heartbreaking stories of people buried alive for days provide a visceral and horrific perspective of some of greatest fears ever to be imagined by human beings. Current trends toward urban sprawl and increasing human discord dictates that structural collapse disasters will continue to present themselves at an alarming rate. The proliferation of domestic terrorism, HAZMAT and biological contaminants further complicates the matter further and presents a daunting problem set for Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) organizations around the world. This paper amplifies the case for robot assisted search and rescue that was first presented during the KNOBSAR project initiated at the Colorado School of Mines in 1995. It anticipates increasing technical development in mobile robot technologies and promotes their use for a wide variety of humanitarian assistance missions. Focus is placed on development of advanced robotic systems that are employed in a complementary tool-like fashion as opposed to traditional robotic approaches that portend to replace humans in hazardous tasks. Operational challenges for USAR are presented first, followed by a brief history of mobiles robot development. The paper then presents conformal robotics as a new design paradigm with emphasis on variable geometry and volumes. A section on robot perception follows with an initial attempt to characterize sensing in a volumetric manner. Collaborative rescue is then briefly discussed with an emphasis on marsupial operations and linked mobility. The paper concludes with an emphasis on Human Robot Interface

  7. Searching Dynamic Agents with a Team of Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Juliá, Miguel; Gil, Arturo; Reinoso, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm that allows a team of robots to cooperatively search for a set of moving targets. An estimation of the areas of the environment that are more likely to hold a target agent is obtained using a grid-based Bayesian filter. The robot sensor readings and the maximum speed of the moving targets are used in order to update the grid. This representation is used in a search algorithm that commands the robots to those areas that are more likely to present target agents. This algorithm splits the environment in a tree of connected regions using dynamic programming. This tree is used in order to decide the destination for each robot in a coordinated manner. The algorithm has been successfully tested in known and unknown environments showing the validity of the approach. PMID:23012519

  8. Intelligent mobility research for robotic locomotion in complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trentini, Michael; Beckman, Blake; Digney, Bruce; Vincent, Isabelle; Ricard, Benoit

    2006-05-01

    The objective of the Autonomous Intelligent Systems Section of Defence R&D Canada - Suffield is best described by its mission statement, which is "to augment soldiers and combat systems by developing and demonstrating practical, cost effective, autonomous intelligent systems capable of completing military missions in complex operating environments." The mobility requirement for ground-based mobile systems operating in urban settings must increase significantly if robotic technology is to augment human efforts in these roles and environments. The intelligence required for autonomous systems to operate in complex environments demands advances in many fields of robotics. This has resulted in large bodies of research in areas of perception, world representation, and navigation, but the problem of locomotion in complex terrain has largely been ignored. In order to achieve its objective, the Autonomous Intelligent Systems Section is pursuing research that explores the use of intelligent mobility algorithms designed to improve robot mobility. Intelligent mobility uses sensing, control, and learning algorithms to extract measured variables from the world, control vehicle dynamics, and learn by experience. These algorithms seek to exploit available world representations of the environment and the inherent dexterity of the robot to allow the vehicle to interact with its surroundings and produce locomotion in complex terrain. The primary focus of the paper is to present the intelligent mobility research within the framework of the research methodology, plan and direction defined at Defence R&D Canada - Suffield. It discusses the progress and future direction of intelligent mobility research and presents the research tools, topics, and plans to address this critical research gap. This research will create effective intelligence to improve the mobility of ground-based mobile systems operating in urban settings to assist the Canadian Forces in their future urban operations.

  9. Curb Mounting, Vertical Mobility, and Inverted Mobility on Rough Surfaces Using Microspine-Enabled Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Three robots that extend microspine technology to enable advanced mobility are presented. First, the Durable Reconnaissance and Observation Platform (DROP) and the ReconRobotics Scout platform use a new rotary configuration of microspines to provide improved soldier-portable reconnaissance by moving rapidly over curbs and obstacles, transitioning from horizontal to vertical surfaces, climbing rough walls and surviving impacts. Next, the four-legged LEMUR robot uses new configurations of opposed microspines to anchor to both manmade and natural rough surfaces. Using these anchors as feet enables mobility in unstructured environments, from urban disaster areas to deserts and caves.

  10. A fuzzy logic controller for an autonomous mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, John; Pfluger, Nathan

    1993-01-01

    The ability of a mobile robot system to plan and move intelligently in a dynamic system is needed if robots are to be useful in areas other than controlled environments. An example of a use for this system is to control an autonomous mobile robot in a space station, or other isolated area where it is hard or impossible for human life to exist for long periods of time (e.g., Mars). The system would allow the robot to be programmed to carry out the duties normally accomplished by a human being. Some of the duties that could be accomplished include operating instruments, transporting objects, and maintenance of the environment. The main focus of our early work has been on developing a fuzzy controller that takes a path and adapts it to a given environment. The robot only uses information gathered from the sensors, but retains the ability to avoid dynamically placed obstacles near and along the path. Our fuzzy logic controller is based on the following algorithm: (1) determine the desired direction of travel; (2) determine the allowed direction of travel; and (3) combine the desired and allowed directions in order to determine a direciton that is both desired and allowed. The desired direction of travel is determined by projecting ahead to a point along the path that is closer to the goal. This gives a local direction of travel for the robot and helps to avoid obstacles.

  11. A fuzzy logic controller for an autonomous mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, John; Pfluger, Nathan

    1993-01-01

    The ability of a mobile robot system to plan and move intelligently in a dynamic system is needed if robots are to be useful in areas other than controlled environments. An example of a use for this system is to control an autonomous mobile robot in a space station, or other isolated area where it is hard or impossible for human life to exist for long periods of time (e.g., Mars). The system would allow the robot to be programmed to carry out the duties normally accomplished by a human being. Some of the duties that could be accomplished include operating instruments, transporting objects, and maintenance of the environment. The main focus of our early work has been on developing a fuzzy controller that takes a path and adapts it to a given environment. The robot only uses information gathered from the sensors, but retains the ability to avoid dynamically placed obstacles near and along the path. Our fuzzy logic controller is based on the following algorithm: (1) determine the desired direction of travel; (2) determine the allowed direction of travel; and (3) combine the desired and allowed directions in order to determine a direciton that is both desired and allowed. The desired direction of travel is determined by projecting ahead to a point along the path that is closer to the goal. This gives a local direction of travel for the robot and helps to avoid obstacles.

  12. Sensor-based navigation of air duct inspection mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Kyoungchul; Choi, H. J.; Kim, Jae-Seon; Ko, Kuk Won; Cho, Hyungsuck

    2001-02-01

    12 This paper deals with an image sensor system and its position estimation algorithm for autonomous duct cleaning and inspection mobile robots. For the real application, a hierarchical control structure that consists of robot motion controller and image sensor system is designed considering the efficient and autonomous motion behaviors in narrow space such as air ducts. The sensor's system consists of a CCD camera and two laser sources to generate slit beams. The image of the structured lights is used for calculating the geometric parameters of the air ducts which are usually designed with a rectangular section. With the acquired 3D information about the environment, the mobile robot with two differential driving wheels is able to autonomously navigates along the duct path without any human intervention. For real time navigation, the relative position estimation of the robot are performed from 3D image reconstructed by the sensor system. The calibration and image processing methods used for the sensor system are presented with the experimental data. The experimental results show the possibility of the sensor based navigation which is important for effective duct cleaning by small mobile robots.

  13. Soft mobile robots driven by foldable dielectric elastomer actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Wenjie; Liu, Fan; Ma, Ziqi; Li, Chenghai; Zhou, Jinxiong

    2016-08-28

    A cantilever beam with elastic hinge pulled antagonistically by two dielectric elastomer (DE) membranes in tension forms a foldable actuator if one DE membrane is subject to a voltage and releases part of tension. Simply placing parallel rigid bars on the prestressed DE membranes results in enhanced actuators working in a pure shear state. We report design, analysis, fabrication, and experiment of soft mobile robots that are moved by such foldable DE actuators. We describe systematic measurement of the foldable actuators and perform theoretical analysis of such actuators based on minimization of total energy, and a good agreement is achieved between model prediction and measurement. We develop two versions of prototypes of soft mobile robots driven either by two sets of DE membranes or one DE membrane and elastic springs. We demonstrate locomotion of these soft mobile robots and highlight several key design parameters that influence locomotion of the robots. A 45 g soft robot driven by a cyclic triangle voltage with amplitude 7.4 kV demonstrates maximal stroke 160 mm or maximal rolling velocity 42 mm/s. The underlying mechanics and physics of foldable DE actuators can be leveraged to develop other soft machines for various applications.

  14. Soft mobile robots driven by foldable dielectric elastomer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenjie; Liu, Fan; Ma, Ziqi; Li, Chenghai; Zhou, Jinxiong

    2016-08-01

    A cantilever beam with elastic hinge pulled antagonistically by two dielectric elastomer (DE) membranes in tension forms a foldable actuator if one DE membrane is subject to a voltage and releases part of tension. Simply placing parallel rigid bars on the prestressed DE membranes results in enhanced actuators working in a pure shear state. We report design, analysis, fabrication, and experiment of soft mobile robots that are moved by such foldable DE actuators. We describe systematic measurement of the foldable actuators and perform theoretical analysis of such actuators based on minimization of total energy, and a good agreement is achieved between model prediction and measurement. We develop two versions of prototypes of soft mobile robots driven either by two sets of DE membranes or one DE membrane and elastic springs. We demonstrate locomotion of these soft mobile robots and highlight several key design parameters that influence locomotion of the robots. A 45 g soft robot driven by a cyclic triangle voltage with amplitude 7.4 kV demonstrates maximal stroke 160 mm or maximal rolling velocity 42 mm/s. The underlying mechanics and physics of foldable DE actuators can be leveraged to develop other soft machines for various applications.

  15. Cooperative Robotics and the Search for Extraterrestrial Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupisella, M. L.

    2000-01-01

    If we think tenuous abodes of life may be hiding in remote extraterrestrial environmental niches, and if we want to assess the biological status of a given locale or entire planet before sending humans (perhaps because of contamination concerns or other motivations) then we face the challenge of robotically exploring a large space efficiently and in enough detail to have confidence in our assessment of the biological status of the environment in question. On our present schedule of perhaps two or so missions per opportunity, we will likely need a different exploratory approach than singular stationary landers or singular rover missions or sample return, because there appear to be fundamental limitations in these mission profiles to obtain the many samples we will likely need if we want to have confidence in assessing the biological status of an environment in which life could be hiding in remote environmental niches. Singular rover missions can potentially accommodate sampling over a fairly large area, but are still limited by range and can be a single point of failure. More importantly, such mission profiles have limited payload capabilities which are unlikely to meet the demanding requirements of life-detection. Sample return has the advantage of allowing sophisticated analysis of the sample, but also has the severe limitations associated with only being able to bring back a few samples. This presentation will suggest two cooperative robotic approaches for exploration that have the potential to overcome these difficulties and facilitate efficient and thorough life-detecting exploration of a large space. Given the two premises stated above, it appears at least two fundamental challenges have to be met simultaneously: (1) coverage of a large space and (2) bringing to bear a sophisticated suite of detection and experimental payloads on any specific location in order to address a major challenge in looking for extraterrestrial life: namely, executing a wide variety

  16. Cooperative Robotics and the Search for Extraterrestrial Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupisella, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    If we think tenuous abodes of life may be hiding in remote extraterrestrial environmental niches, and if we want to assess the biological status of a given locale or entire planet before sending humans (perhaps because of contamination concerns or other motivations) then we face the challenge of robotically exploring a large space efficiently and in enough detail to have confidence in our assessment of the biological status of the environment in question. On our present schedule of perhaps two or so missions per opportunity, we will likely need a different exploratory approach than singular stationary landers or singular rover missions or sample return, because there appear to be fundamental limitations in these mission profiles to-obtain the many samples we will likely need if we want to have confidence in assessing the biological status of an environment in which life could be hiding in remote environmental niches. Singular rover missions can potentially accommodate sampling over a fairly large area, but are still limited by range and can be a single point of failure. More importantly, such mission profiles have limited payload capabilities which are unlikely to meet the demanding requirements of life-detection. Sample return has the advantage of allowing sophisticated analysis of the sample, but also has the severe limitations associated with only being able to bring back a few samples. This presentation will suggest two cooperative robotic approaches for exploration that have the potential to overcome these difficulties and facilitate efficient and thorough life-detecting exploration of a large space. Given the two premises state above, it appears at least two fundamental challenges have to be met simultaneously: coverage of a large space and bringing to bear a sophisticated suite of detection and experimental payloads on any specific location in order to address a major challenge in looking for extraterrestrial life: namely, executing a wide variety of

  17. Cooperative Robotics and the Search for Extraterrestrial Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupisella, M. L.

    2000-01-01

    If we think tenuous abodes of life may be hiding in remote extraterrestrial environmental niches, and if we want to assess the biological status of a given locale or entire planet before sending humans (perhaps because of contamination concerns or other motivations) then we face the challenge of robotically exploring a large space efficiently and in enough detail to have confidence in our assessment of the biological status of the environment in question. On our present schedule of perhaps two or so missions per opportunity, we will likely need a different exploratory approach than singular stationary landers or singular rover missions or sample return, because there appear to be fundamental limitations in these mission profiles to obtain the many samples we will likely need if we want to have confidence in assessing the biological status of an environment in which life could be hiding in remote environmental niches. Singular rover missions can potentially accommodate sampling over a fairly large area, but are still limited by range and can be a single point of failure. More importantly, such mission profiles have limited payload capabilities which are unlikely to meet the demanding requirements of life-detection. Sample return has the advantage of allowing sophisticated analysis of the sample, but also has the severe limitations associated with only being able to bring back a few samples. This presentation will suggest two cooperative robotic approaches for exploration that have the potential to overcome these difficulties and facilitate efficient and thorough life-detecting exploration of a large space. Given the two premises stated above, it appears at least two fundamental challenges have to be met simultaneously: (1) coverage of a large space and (2) bringing to bear a sophisticated suite of detection and experimental payloads on any specific location in order to address a major challenge in looking for extraterrestrial life: namely, executing a wide variety

  18. Application of a Chaotic Oscillator in an Autonomous Mobile Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlelo-Cuautle, Esteban; Ramos-López, Hugo C.; Sánchez-Sánchez, Mauro; Pano-Azucena, Ana D.; Sánchez-Gaspariano, Luis A.; Núñez-Pérez, José C.; Camas-Anzueto, Jorge L.

    2014-05-01

    Terrain exploration robots can be of great usefulness in critical navigation circumstances. However, the challenge is how to guarantee a control for covering a full terrain area. That way, the application of a chaotic oscillator to control the wheels of an autonomous mobile robot, is introduced herein. Basically, we describe the realization of a random number generator (RNG) based on a double-scroll chaotic oscillator, which is used to guide the robot to cover a full terrain area. The resolution of the terrain exploration area is determined by both the number of bits provided by the RNG and the characteristics of step motors. Finally, the experimental results highlight the covered area by painting the trajectories that the robot explores.

  19. Mobile robot localization based on fixation vision geometric constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao; Zhang, Hongyue

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents a feasible algorithm for mobile robot localization. Localization system is composed of an encoder, an electronical compass, a fixation vision system including a CCD camera and a stepping motor. Multisensor information fusion technology, extended information filter, is adopted for estimating the position and heading of robot. New measurement equation which is based on fixation vision geometric constraint is proposed in this paper. The coordinates of the landmark is not needed to know in this method, in other words, any point in the observed scene can be selected as a landmark. The results of simulation show the algorithm validity. The comparative results show this algorithm has advantage in autonomous mobile robot localization application than Dead-Reckoning.

  20. Mobile robots exploration through cnn-based reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Tai, Lei; Liu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Exploration in an unknown environment is an elemental application for mobile robots. In this paper, we outlined a reinforcement learning method aiming for solving the exploration problem in a corridor environment. The learning model took the depth image from an RGB-D sensor as the only input. The feature representation of the depth image was extracted through a pre-trained convolutional-neural-networks model. Based on the recent success of deep Q-network on artificial intelligence, the robot controller achieved the exploration and obstacle avoidance abilities in several different simulated environments. It is the first time that the reinforcement learning is used to build an exploration strategy for mobile robots through raw sensor information.

  1. Automatic Welding System Using Speed Controllable Autonomous Mobile Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taewon; Suto, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Junya; Kim, Jongcheol; Suga, Yasuo

    A prototype of autonomous mobile robot with two vision sensors for automatic welding of steel plates was constructed. The robot can move straight, steer and turn around the robot center by controlling the driving speed of the two wheels respectively. At the tip of the movable arm, two CCD cameras are fixed. A local camera observes the welding line near the welding torch and another wide camera observes relatively wide area in front of the welding part. The robot controls the traveling speed in accordance with the shape of the welding line. In the case of straight welding line, the speed of the robot is accelerated and the welding efficiency is improved. However, if the robot finds a corner of welding line, the speed is decelerated in order to realize the precise seam tracking and stable welding. Therefore, the robot can realize precise and high speed seam-tracking by controlling the travel speed. The effectiveness of the control system is confirmed by welding experiments.

  2. High-level modes for controlling mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Willie Y.; Breul, Harry T.; Peck, Alex N.

    1992-02-01

    This paper discusses how the operation of a mobile robot in a real environment can be decomposed into three concurrent modes -- the reflexive, deliberate action, and self-awareness modes. In the reflexive mode, the robot reacts quickly to changes in the environment (e.g., the robot pauses when objects cross its path). When the robot needs to carry out more deliberate actions, such as moving between rooms of a large building or within a space colony structure, it has to invoke the deliberate action mode in order to be able to plan and reason about what it wants to do and how to go about doing it. Both these modes use the robot's ability to sense and interact with its external environment. The robot must also have a sense of what it can and cannot do given its current internal conditions. Such an ability is provided for by the self- awareness mode in which the robot's internal states (e.g., power pack energy level) are continually sensed and monitored to determine if the current mission or task should be completed, suspended, or aborted (e.g., suspend the current task and replace/recharge the power pack when the energy level is too low).

  3. An emergency response mobile robot for operations in combustible atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Henry W. (Inventor); Ohm, Timothy R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A mobile, self-powered, self-contained, and remote-controlled robot is presented. The robot is capable of safely operating in a combustible atmosphere and providing information about the atmosphere to the operator. The robot includes non-sparking and non-arcing electro-mechanical and electronic components designed to prevent the robot from igniting the combustible atmosphere. The robot also includes positively pressurized enclosures that house the electromechanical and electronic components of the robot and prevent intrusion of the combustible atmosphere into the enclosures. The enclosures are interconnected such that a pressurized gas injected into any one of the enclosures is routed to all the other enclosures through the interconnections. It is preferred that one or more sealed internal channels through structures intervening between the enclosures be employed. Pressure transducers for detecting if the pressure within the enclosures falls below a predetermined level are included. The robot also has a sensing device for determining the types of combustible substances in the surrounding atmosphere, as well as the concentrations of each type of substance relative to a pre-determined lower explosive limit (LEL). In addition, the sensing device can determine the percent level of oxygen present in the surrounding atmosphere.

  4. Emergency response mobile robot for operations in combustible atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Henry W. (Inventor); Ohm, Timothy R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A mobile, self-powered, self-contained, and remote-controlled robot is presented. The robot is capable of safely operating in a combustible atmosphere and providing information about the atmosphere to the operator. The robot includes non-sparking and non-arcing electro-mechanical and electronic components designed to prevent the robot from igniting the combustible atmosphere. The robot also includes positively pressurized enclosures that house the electromechanical and electronic components of the robot and prevent intrusion of the combustible atmosphere into the enclosures. The enclosures are interconnected such that a pressurized gas injected into any one of the enclosures is routed to all the other enclosures through the interconnections. It is preferred that one or more sealed internal channels through structures intervening between the enclosures be employed. Pressure transducers for detecting if the pressure within the enclosures falls below a predetermined level are included. The robot also has a sensing device for determining the types of combustible substances in the surrounding atmosphere, as well as the concentrations of each type of substance relative to a pre-determined lower explosive limit (LEL). In addition, the sensing device can determine the percent level of oxygen present in the surrounding atmosphere.

  5. Teaching Robotics Software with the Open Hardware Mobile Manipulator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vona, M.; Shekar, N. H.

    2013-01-01

    The "open hardware mobile manipulator" (OHMM) is a new open platform with a unique combination of features for teaching robotics software and algorithms. On-board low- and high-level processors support real-time embedded programming and motor control, as well as higher-level coding with contemporary libraries. Full hardware designs and…

  6. Remote-controlled vision-guided mobile robot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ande, Raymond; Samu, Tayib; Hall, Ernest L.

    1997-09-01

    Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) have many potential applications in manufacturing, medicine, space and defense. The purpose of this paper is to describe exploratory research on the design of the remote controlled emergency stop and vision systems for an autonomous mobile robot. The remote control provides human supervision and emergency stop capabilities for the autonomous vehicle. The vision guidance provides automatic operation. A mobile robot test-bed has been constructed using a golf cart base. The mobile robot (Bearcat) was built for the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems (AUVS) 1997 competition. The mobile robot has full speed control with guidance provided by a vision system and an obstacle avoidance system using ultrasonic sensors systems. Vision guidance is accomplished using two CCD cameras with zoom lenses. The vision data is processed by a high speed tracking device, communicating with the computer the X, Y coordinates of blobs along the lane markers. The system also has three emergency stop switches and a remote controlled emergency stop switch that can disable the traction motor and set the brake. Testing of these systems has been done in the lab as well as on an outside test track with positive results that show that at five mph the vehicle can follow a line and at the same time avoid obstacles.

  7. Homography-based visual servo regulation of mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yongchun; Dixon, Warren E; Dawson, Darren M; Chawda, Prakash

    2005-10-01

    A monocular camera-based vision system attached to a mobile robot (i.e., the camera-in-hand configuration) is considered in this paper. By comparing corresponding target points of an object from two different camera images, geometric relationships are exploited to derive a transformation that relates the actual position and orientation of the mobile robot to a reference position and orientation. This transformation is used to synthesize a rotation and translation error system from the current position and orientation to the fixed reference position and orientation. Lyapunov-based techniques are used to construct an adaptive estimate to compensate for a constant, unmeasurable depth parameter, and to prove asymptotic regulation of the mobile robot. The contribution of this paper is that Lyapunov techniques are exploited to craft an adaptive controller that enables mobile robot position and orientation regulation despite the lack of an object model and the lack of depth information. Experimental results are provided to illustrate the performance of the controller.

  8. Teaching Robotics Software with the Open Hardware Mobile Manipulator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vona, M.; Shekar, N. H.

    2013-01-01

    The "open hardware mobile manipulator" (OHMM) is a new open platform with a unique combination of features for teaching robotics software and algorithms. On-board low- and high-level processors support real-time embedded programming and motor control, as well as higher-level coding with contemporary libraries. Full hardware designs and…

  9. Mobile app for human-interaction with sitter robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sumit Kumar; Sahu, Ankita; Popa, Dan O.

    2017-05-01

    Human environments are often unstructured and unpredictable, thus making the autonomous operation of robots in such environments is very difficult. Despite many remaining challenges in perception, learning, and manipulation, more and more studies involving assistive robots have been carried out in recent years. In hospital environments, and in particular in patient rooms, there are well-established practices with respect to the type of furniture, patient services, and schedule of interventions. As a result, adding a robot into semi-structured hospital environments is an easier problem to tackle, with results that could have positive benefits to the quality of patient care and the help that robots can offer to nursing staff. When working in a healthcare facility, robots need to interact with patients and nurses through Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs) that are intuitive to use, they should maintain awareness of surroundings, and offer safety guarantees for humans. While fully autonomous operation for robots is not yet technically feasible, direct teleoperation control of the robot would also be extremely cumbersome, as it requires expert user skills, and levels of concentration not available to many patients. Therefore, in our current study we present a traded control scheme, in which the robot and human both perform expert tasks. The human-robot communication and control scheme is realized through a mobile tablet app that can be customized for robot sitters in hospital environments. The role of the mobile app is to augment the verbal commands given to a robot through natural speech, camera and other native interfaces, while providing failure mode recovery options for users. Our app can access video feed and sensor data from robots, assist the user with decision making during pick and place operations, monitor the user health over time, and provides conversational dialogue during sitting sessions. In this paper, we present the software and hardware framework that

  10. System safety analysis of an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Bartos, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    Analysis of the safety of operating and maintaining the Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI) II in a hazardous environment at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) was completed. The SWAMI II is a version of a commercial robot, the HelpMate{trademark} robot produced by the Transitions Research Corporation, which is being updated to incorporate the systems required for inspecting mixed toxic chemical and radioactive waste drums at the FEMP. It also has modified obstacle detection and collision avoidance subsystems. The robot will autonomously travel down the aisles in storage warehouses to record images of containers and collect other data which are transmitted to an inspector at a remote computer terminal. A previous study showed the SWAMI II has economic feasibility. The SWAMI II will more accurately locate radioactive contamination than human inspectors. This thesis includes a System Safety Hazard Analysis and a quantitative Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). The objectives of the analyses are to prevent potentially serious events and to derive a comprehensive set of safety requirements from which the safety of the SWAMI II and other autonomous mobile robots can be evaluated. The Computer-Aided Fault Tree Analysis (CAFTA{copyright}) software is utilized for the FTA. The FTA shows that more than 99% of the safety risk occurs during maintenance, and that when the derived safety requirements are implemented the rate of serious events is reduced to below one event per million operating hours. Training and procedures in SWAMI II operation and maintenance provide an added safety margin. This study will promote the safe use of the SWAMI II and other autonomous mobile robots in the emerging technology of mobile robotic inspection.

  11. Mobile robot on-board vision system

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, V.W.; Nai-Yung Chen.

    1993-06-15

    An automatic robot system is described comprising: an AGV transporting and transferring work piece, a control computer on board the AGV, a process machine for working on work pieces, a flexible robot arm with a gripper comprising two gripper fingers at one end of the arm, wherein the robot arm and gripper are controllable by the control computer for engaging a work piece, picking it up, and setting it down and releasing it at a commanded location, locating beacon means mounted on the process machine, wherein the locating beacon means are for locating on the process machine a place to pick up and set down work pieces, vision means, including a camera fixed in the coordinate system of the gripper means, attached to the robot arm near the gripper, such that the space between said gripper fingers lies within the vision field of said vision means, for detecting the locating beacon means, wherein the vision means provides the control computer visual information relating to the location of the locating beacon means, from which information the computer is able to calculate the pick up and set down place on the process machine, wherein said place for picking up and setting down work pieces on the process machine is a nest means and further serves the function of holding a work piece in place while it is worked on, the robot system further comprising nest beacon means located in the nest means detectable by the vision means for providing information to the control computer as to whether or not a work piece is present in the nest means.

  12. Development of robotic mobility for infants: rationale and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Larin, Hélène M; Dennis, Carole W; Stansfield, Sharon

    2012-09-01

    To assess the feasibility of a robotic mobility device for infants using alternative control interfaces aimed at promoting early self-initiated mobility, and to assess the effects of a training protocol and robot experience. Observational and pre-post quantitative case studies. Standardised, research laboratory and day-care centres with toys and individuals familiar to infants. Children with and without disabilities, aged 5 months to 3 years. In each study, infants were seated over a Pioneer™ 3-DX mobile robot. Some infants controlled the directional movement of the robot by weight shifting their body on a Nintendo® Wii™ Balance Board (the WeeBot), while others used a modified joystick. Infants participated in five sessions over 2 to 5 weeks. Sessions consisted of administering a 10-minute training protocol preceded and followed by 2 to 3 minutes of free play. One child with motor impairment used a button switch array and a different experimental design. From the videotaped free-play periods, goal-directed behaviours were coded and time in motion was measured. In the training period, a scoring system was developed to measure the infants' driving performance. Preliminary outcomes indicate that infants without disabilities, aged 5 to 10 months, demonstrated significant improvement in driving performance and goal-directed movement using the WeeBot. Infants who used the joystick were less successful on all measures. Results for infants with disabilities using the WeeBot were mixed. Mobile robots offer promise to enhance the development of early self-mobility. Novel types of interfaces, such as the WeeBot, warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2012 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrasound guided robotic biopsy using augmented reality and human-robot cooperative control.

    PubMed

    Freschi, C; Troia, E; Ferrari, V; Megali, G; Pietrabissa, A; Mosca, F

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided biopsy is a proficient mininvasive approach for tumors staging but requires very long training and particular manual and 3D space perception abilities of the physician, for the planning of the needle trajectory and the execution of the procedure. In order to simplify this difficult task, we have developed an integrated system that provides the clinician two types of assistance: an augmented reality visualization allows accurate and easy planning of needle trajectory and target reaching verification; a robot arm with a six-degree-of-freedom force sensor allows the precise positioning of the needle holder and allows the clinician to adjust the planned trajectory (cooperative control) to overcome needle deflection and target motion. Preliminary tests have been executed on an ultrasound phantom showing high precision of the system in static conditions and the utility and usability of the cooperative control in simulated no-rigid conditions.

  14. Cooperative mobile agents search using beehive partitioned structure and Tabu Random search algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramazani, Saba; Jackson, Delvin L.; Selmic, Rastko R.

    2013-05-01

    In search and surveillance operations, deploying a team of mobile agents provides a robust solution that has multiple advantages over using a single agent in efficiency and minimizing exploration time. This paper addresses the challenge of identifying a target in a given environment when using a team of mobile agents by proposing a novel method of mapping and movement of agent teams in a cooperative manner. The approach consists of two parts. First, the region is partitioned into a hexagonal beehive structure in order to provide equidistant movements in every direction and to allow for more natural and flexible environment mapping. Additionally, in search environments that are partitioned into hexagons, mobile agents have an efficient travel path while performing searches due to this partitioning approach. Second, we use a team of mobile agents that move in a cooperative manner and utilize the Tabu Random algorithm to search for the target. Due to the ever-increasing use of robotics and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms, the field of cooperative multi-agent search has developed many applications recently that would benefit from the use of the approach presented in this work, including: search and rescue operations, surveillance, data collection, and border patrol. In this paper, the increased efficiency of the Tabu Random Search algorithm method in combination with hexagonal partitioning is simulated, analyzed, and advantages of this approach are presented and discussed.

  15. A natural-language interface to a mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalowski, S.; Crangle, C.; Liang, L.

    1987-01-01

    The present work on robot instructability is based on an ongoing effort to apply modern manipulation technology to serve the needs of the handicapped. The Stanford/VA Robotic Aid is a mobile manipulation system that is being developed to assist severely disabled persons (quadriplegics) in performing simple activities of everyday living in a homelike, unstructured environment. It consists of two major components: a nine degree-of-freedom manipulator and a stationary control console. In the work presented here, only the motions of the Robotic Aid's omnidirectional motion base have been considered, i.e., the six degrees of freedom of the arm and gripper have been ignored. The goal has been to develop some basic software tools for commanding the robot's motions in an enclosed room containing a few objects such as tables, chairs, and rugs. In the present work, the environmental model takes the form of a two-dimensional map with objects represented by polygons. Admittedly, such a highly simplified scheme bears little resemblance to the elaborate cognitive models of reality that are used in normal human discourse. In particular, the polygonal model is given a priori and does not contain any perceptual elements: there is no polygon sensor on board the mobile robot.

  16. Multiple mobile robots real-time visual search algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Caixia; Zhan, Qiang

    2010-08-01

    A multiple mobile robots visual real-time locating system is introduced, in which the global search algorithm and track search algorithm are combined together to identify the real-time position and orientation(pose) of multiple mobile robots. The switching strategy between the two algorithms is given to ensure the accuracy and improve retrieval speed. The grid search approach is used to identify target while searching globally. By checking the location in the previous frame, the maximum speed and the frame time interval, thus the track search can determine the area target robot may appear in the next frame. Then, a new search will be performed in the certain area. The global search is used if target robot is not found in the previous search otherwise track search will be used. With the experiment on the static and dynamic recognition of three robots, the search method here is proved to be high precise, fast, stable and easy to extend, all the design requirements can be well met.

  17. Recognizing and interpreting gestures on a mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Kortenkamp, D.; Huber, E.; Bonasso, R.P.

    1996-12-31

    Gesture recognition is an important skill for robots that work closely with humans. Gestures help to clarify spoken commands and are a compact means of relaying geometric information. We have developed a real-time, three-dimensional gesture recognition system that resides on-board a mobile robot. Using a coarse three-dimensional model of a human to guide stereo measurements of body parts, the system is capable of recognizing six distinct gestures made by an unadorned human in an unaltered environment. An active vision approach focuses the vision system`s attention on small, moving areas of space to allow for frame rate processing even when the person and/or the robot are moving. This paper describes the gesture recognition system, including the coarse model and the active vision approach. This paper also describes how the gesture recognition system is integrated with an intelligent control architecture to allow for complex gesture interpretation and complex robot action. Results from experiments with an actual mobile robot are given.

  18. Improving mobile robot localization: grid-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Junchi

    2012-02-01

    Autonomous mobile robots have been widely studied not only as advanced facilities for industrial and daily life automation, but also as a testbed in robotics competitions for extending the frontier of current artificial intelligence. In many of such contests, the robot is supposed to navigate on the ground with a grid layout. Based on this observation, we present a localization error correction method by exploring the geometric feature of the tile patterns. On top of the classical inertia-based positioning, our approach employs three fiber-optic sensors that are assembled under the bottom of the robot, presenting an equilateral triangle layout. The sensor apparatus, together with the proposed supporting algorithm, are designed to detect a line's direction (vertical or horizontal) by monitoring the grid crossing events. As a result, the line coordinate information can be fused to rectify the cumulative localization deviation from inertia positioning. The proposed method is analyzed theoretically in terms of its error bound and also has been implemented and tested on a customary developed two-wheel autonomous mobile robot.

  19. A Qualitative Approach to Mobile Robot Navigation Using RFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M.; Rashid, M. M.; Bhuiyan, M. M. I.; Ahmed, S.; Akhtaruzzaman, M.

    2013-12-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system allows automatic identification of items with RFID tags using radio-waves. As the RFID tag has its unique identification number, it is also possible to detect a specific region where the RFID tag lies in. Recently it is widely been used in mobile robot navigation, localization, and mapping both in indoor and outdoor environment. This paper represents a navigation strategy for autonomous mobile robot using passive RFID system. Conventional approaches, such as landmark or dead-reckoning with excessive number of sensors, have complexities in establishing the navigation and localization process. The proposed method satisfies less complexity in navigation strategy as well as estimation of not only the position but also the orientation of the autonomous robot. In this research, polar coordinate system is adopted on the navigation surface where RFID tags are places in a grid with constant displacements. This paper also presents the performance comparisons among various grid architectures through simulation to establish a better solution of the navigation system. In addition, some stationary obstacles are introduced in the navigation environment to satisfy the viability of the navigation process of the autonomous mobile robot.

  20. Multiagent collaboration for experimental calibration of an autonomous mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachon, Bertrand; Berge-Cherfaoui, Veronique

    1991-03-01

    This paper presents an action in mission SOCRATES whose aim is the development of a self-calibration method for an autonomous mobile robot. The robot has to determine the precise location of the coordinate system shared by its sensors. Knowledge of this system is a sine qua non condition for efficient multisensor fusion and autonomous navigation in an unknown environment. But, as perceptions and motions are not accurate, this knowledge can only be achieved by multisensor fusion. The application described highlights this kind of problem. Multisensor fusion is used here especially in its symbolic aspect. Useful knowledge includes both numerous data coming from various sensors and suitable ways to process these data. A blackboard architecture has been chosen to manage useful information. Knowledge sources are called agents and the implement physical sensors (perceptors or actuators) as well as logical sensors (high level data processors). The problem to solve is self- calibration which includes the determination of the coordinate system R of the robot and the transformations necessary to convert data from sensor reference to R. The origin of R has been chosen to be O, the rotation center of the robot. As its genuine location may vary due to robot or ground characteristics, an experimental determination of O is attempted. A strategy for measuring distances in approximate positions is proposed. This strategy must take into account the fact that motions of the robot as well as perceptions may be inaccurate. Results obtained during experiments and future extensions of the system are discussed.

  1. An autonomous mobil robot to perform waste drum inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.D.; Ward, C.R.

    1994-03-01

    A mobile robot is being developed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Robotics Group of Westinghouse Savannah River company (WSRC) to perform mandated inspections of waste drums stored in warehouse facilities. The system will reduce personnel exposure and create accurate, high quality documentation to ensure regulatory compliance. Development work is being coordinated among several DOE, academic and commercial entities in accordance with DOE`s technology transfer initiative. The prototype system was demonstrated in November of 1993. A system is now being developed for field trails at the Fernald site.

  2. Some Novel Design Principles for Collective Behaviors in Mobile Robots

    SciTech Connect

    OSBOURN, GORDON C.

    2002-09-01

    We present a set of novel design principles to aid in the development of complex collective behaviors in fleets of mobile robots. The key elements are: the use of a graph algorithm that we have created, with certain proven properties, that guarantee scalable local communications for fleets of arbitrary size; the use of artificial forces to simplify the design of motion control; the use of certain proximity values in the graph algorithm to simplify the sharing of robust navigation and sensor information among the robots. We describe these design elements and present a computer simulation that illustrates the behaviors readily achievable with these design tools.

  3. Systems of Geo Positioning of the Mobile Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momot, M. V.; Proskokov, A. V.; Nesteruk, D. N.; Ganiyev, M.; Biktimirov, A. S.

    2017-07-01

    Article is devoted to the analysis of opportunities of electronic instruments, such as a gyroscope, the accelerometer, the magnetometer together, the video system of image identification and system of infrared indicators during creation of system of exact positioning of the mobile robot. Results of testing and the operating algorithms are given. Possibilities of sharing of these devices and their association in a single system are analyzed. Conclusions on development of opportunities and elimination of shortcomings of the received end-to-end system of positioning of the robot are drawn.

  4. Locomotion of an all-terrain mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iagolnitzer, M.; Richard, F.; Samson, J. F.; Tournassoud, P.

    The authors introduce a framework and prospective solutions for intelligent locomotion, defined as the ability for a mobile robot to cross over obstacles along a path roughly determined either through teleoperation or by a navigation path-finder. Then, they present a simple but efficient control scheme derived from these concepts, taking into account ground clearance, vehicle safety, and possible occlusions in the vision field. This control scheme is applied to Rami, a four tiltable track robot equipped with force sensors, an inertial reference system, a laser-stripe range finder, and extensive real-time computing facilities based on a decentralized architecture.

  5. Dynamic World Modeling for an Intelligent Mobile Robot Using a Rotating Ultra-Sonic Ranging Device.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    RD-Ai149 979 DYNAMIC WRLD MODELING FOR AN INTELLIGENT MOBILE ROBOT i/i USING A ROTATING U_.(U) CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIV PITTSBURGH PA ROBOTICS INST J L...Intelligent Mobile Robot Using a Rotating Ultra-Sonic flanging Device James L. Crowley CMU-RI-TR-84-27 The Laboratory for Household Robotics The Robotics ...sponsored 1’, (Cotnmodore Business Machines. Inc., Denning Mobile Robotics , Inc., and the Commonwealth of P,.ris𔃻lvania. * .Re Unclassiflied. *SECURITY

  6. Active objects programming for military autonomous mobile robots software prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozien, Roger F.

    2001-09-01

    While designing mobile robots, we do think that the prototyping phase is really critical. Good and clever choices have to be made. Indeed, we may not easily upgrade such robots, and most of all, when the robot is on its own, any change in both the software and the physical body is going to be very difficult, if not impossible. Thus, a great effort has to be made when prototyping the robot. Furthermore, I think that the kind of programming is very important. If your programming model is not expressive enough, you may experience a great deal of difficulties to add all the features you want, in order to give your robot reactiveness and decision making autonomy. Moreover, designing, and prototyping the on-board software of a reactive robot brings other difficulties. A reactive robot does not include any matter of rapidity. A reactive system is a system able to respond to a huge pannel of situations of which it does not have the schedule. In other words, for instance, the robot does not know when a particular situation may occur, and overall, what it would be doing at this time, and what would be its internal state. This kind of robot must be able to take a decision and to act even if they do not have all the contextual information. To do so, we use a computer language named oRis featuring object and active object oriented programming, but also parallel and dynamic code, (the code can be changed during its own execution). This last point has been made possible because oRis is fully interpreted. However oRis may call fully compiled code, but also Prolog and Java code. An oRis program may be distributed on several computers using TCP/IP network connections. The main issue in this paper is to show how active objet oriented programming, as a modern extension of object oriented programming, may help us in designing autonomous mobile robots. Based on a fully parallel software programming, an active object code allows us to give many features to a robot, and to easily solve

  7. Active object programming for military autonomous mobile robot software prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozien, Roger F.

    2001-10-01

    While designing mobile robots, we do think that the prototyping phase is really critical. Good and clever choices have to be made. Indeed, we may not easily upgrade such robots, and most of all, when the robot is on its own, any change in both the software and the physical body is going to be very difficult, if not impossible. Thus, a great effort has to be made when prototyping the robot. Furthermore, I think that the kind of programming is very important. If your programming model is not expressive enough, you may experience a great deal of difficulties to add all the features you want, in order to give your robot reactiveness and decision making autonomy. Moreover, designing, and prototyping the on-board software of a reactive robot brings other difficulties. A reactive robot does not include any matter of rapidity. A reactive system is a system able to respond to a huge panel of situations of which it does not have the schedule. In other words, for instance, the robot does not know when a particular situation may occur, and overall, what it would be doing at this time, and what would be its internal state. This kind of robot must be able to take a decision and to act even if they do not have all the contextual information. To do so, we use a computer language named oRis featuring object and active object oriented programming, but also parallel and dynamic code, (the code can be changed during its own execution). This last point has been made possible because oRis is fully interpreted. However oRis may call fully compiled code, but also Prolog and Java code. An oRis program may be distributed on several computers using TCP/IP network connections. The main issue in this paper is to show how active objet oriented programming, as a modern extension of object oriented programming, may help us in designing autonomous mobile robots. Based on a fully parallel software programming, an active object code allows us to give many features to a robot, and to easily solve

  8. Investigation of the Impedance Characteristic of Human Arm for Development of Robots to Cooperate with Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md. Mozasser; Ikeura, Ryojun; Mizutani, Kazuki

    In the near future many aspects of our lives will be encompassed by tasks performed in cooperation with robots. The application of robots in home automation, agricultural production and medical operations etc. will be indispensable. As a result robots need to be made human-friendly and to execute tasks in cooperation with humans. Control systems for such robots should be designed to work imitating human characteristics. In this study, we have tried to achieve these goals by means of controlling a simple one degree-of-freedom cooperative robot. Firstly, the impedance characteristic of the human arm in a cooperative task is investigated. Then, this characteristic is implemented to control a robot in order to perform cooperative task with humans. A human followed the motion of an object, which is moved through desired trajectories. The motion is actuated by the linear motor of the one degree-of-freedom robot system. Trajectories used in the experiments of this method were minimum jerk (the rate of change of acceleration) trajectory, which was found during human and human cooperative task and optimum for muscle movement. As the muscle is mechanically analogous to a spring-damper system, a simple second-order equation is used as models for the arm dynamics. In the model, we considered mass, stiffness and damping factor. Impedance parameter is calculated from the position and force data obtained from the experiments and based on the “Estimation of Parametric Model”. Investigated impedance characteristic of human arm is then implemented to control a robot, which performed cooperative task with human. It is observed that the proposed control methodology has given human like movements to the robot for cooperating with human.

  9. Intelligent control in mobile robotics: the PANORAMA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenway, Phil

    1994-03-01

    The European Community's strategic research initiative in information technology has been in place for seven years. A good example of the pan-European collaborative projects conducted under this initiative is PANORAMA: Perception and Navigation for Autonomous Mobile Robot Applications. This four-and-a-half-year project, completed in October 1993, aimed to prove the feasibility of an autonomous mobile robotic system replacing a human-operated vehicle working outdoors in a partially structured environment. The autonomous control of a mobile rock drilling machine was chosen as a challenging and representative test scenario. This paper presents an overview of intelligent mobile robot control architectures. Goals and objectives of the project are described, together with the makeup of the consortium and the roles of the members within it. The main technical achievements from PANORAMA are then presented, with emphasis given to the problems of realizing intelligent control. In particular, the planning and replanning of a mission, and the corresponding architectural choices and infrastructure required to support the chosen task oriented approach, are discussed. Specific attention is paid to the functional decomposition of the system, and how the requirements for `intelligent control' impact on the organization of the identified system components. Future work and outstanding problems are considered in some concluding remarks.

  10. RoCoMAR: Robots' Controllable Mobility Aided Routing and Relay Architecture for Mobile Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Van Le, Duc; Oh, Hoon; Yoon, Seokhoon

    2013-01-01

    In a practical deployment, mobile sensor network (MSN) suffers from a low performance due to high node mobility, time-varying wireless channel properties, and obstacles between communicating nodes. In order to tackle the problem of low network performance and provide a desired end-to-end data transfer quality, in this paper we propose a novel ad hoc routing and relaying architecture, namely RoCoMAR (Robots' Controllable Mobility Aided Routing) that uses robotic nodes' controllable mobility. RoCoMAR repeatedly performs link reinforcement process with the objective of maximizing the network throughput, in which the link with the lowest quality on the path is identified and replaced with high quality links by placing a robotic node as a relay at an optimal position. The robotic node resigns as a relay if the objective is achieved or no more gain can be obtained with a new relay. Once placed as a relay, the robotic node performs adaptive link maintenance by adjusting its position according to the movements of regular nodes. The simulation results show that RoCoMAR outperforms existing ad hoc routing protocols for MSN in terms of network throughput and end-to-end delay. PMID:23881134

  11. RoCoMAR: robots' controllable mobility aided routing and relay architecture for mobile sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Le, Duc Van; Oh, Hoon; Yoon, Seokhoon

    2013-07-05

    In a practical deployment, mobile sensor network (MSN) suffers from a low performance due to high node mobility, time-varying wireless channel properties, and obstacles between communicating nodes. In order to tackle the problem of low network performance and provide a desired end-to-end data transfer quality, in this paper we propose a novel ad hoc routing and relaying architecture, namely RoCoMAR (Robots' Controllable Mobility Aided Routing) that uses robotic nodes' controllable mobility. RoCoMAR repeatedly performs link reinforcement process with the objective of maximizing the network throughput, in which the link with the lowest quality on the path is identified and replaced with high quality links by placing a robotic node as a relay at an optimal position. The robotic node resigns as a relay if the objective is achieved or no more gain can be obtained with a new relay. Once placed as a relay, the robotic node performs adaptive link maintenance by adjusting its position according to the movements of regular nodes. The simulation results show that RoCoMAR outperforms existing ad hoc routing protocols for MSN in terms of network throughput and end-to-end delay.

  12. Camera space control system for a mobile robot forklift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Richard K.; Stewart, D. G.; Brockman, W. H.; Skaar, Steven B.

    1993-05-01

    In this paper we present the method of camera space manipulation for control of a mobile cart with an on-board robot. The objective is to do three dimensional object placement. The robot- cart system is operated as a forklift. The cart has a rear wheel for steering and driving, two front wheels, and a tether allowing control from a remote computer. Two remotely placed CCTV cameras provide images for use by the control system. The method is illustrated experimentally by a box stacking task. None of the components-cameras, robot-cart, or target box are prepositioned. 'Ring cues' are placed on both boxes in order to simplify the image processing. A sequential estimation scheme solves the placement problem. This scheme produces the control necessary to place the image of the grasped box at the relevant target image position in each of the two dimensional camera planes. This results in a precise and robust manipulation strategy.

  13. Vision based object pose estimation for mobile robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Annie; Bidlack, Clint; Katkere, Arun; Feague, Roy; Weymouth, Terry

    1994-01-01

    Mobile robot navigation using visual sensors requires that a robot be able to detect landmarks and obtain pose information from a camera image. This paper presents a vision system for finding man-made markers of known size and calculating the pose of these markers. The algorithm detects and identifies the markers using a weighted pattern matching template. Geometric constraints are then used to calculate the position of the markers relative to the robot. The selection of geometric constraints comes from the typical pose of most man-made signs, such as the sign standing vertical and the dimensions of known size. This system has been tested successfully on a wide range of real images. Marker detection is reliable, even in cluttered environments, and under certain marker orientations, estimation of the orientation has proven accurate to within 2 degrees, and distance estimation to within 0.3 meters.

  14. Virtual Door-Based Coverage Path Planning for Mobile Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Hyun; Jeon, Hae-Min; Jeong, Woo-Yeon; Bang, Seok-Won

    This paper presents a novel coverage path planning method in indoor environment for a mobile robot such as cleaning robot. Overall region is divided into several sub-regions based on the virtually extracted doors. The algorithm is inspired from the usual way of dividing an indoor environment into sub-regions, i.e., rooms based on the identification of doors. The virtual door algorithm extracts the virtual doors by combining a Generalized Voronoi Diagram (GVD) and a configuration space eroded by the half of the door size. The region to region cleaning algorithm is also proposed based on the closing and opening operations of virtual doors. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on various real indoor environments using a commercially available cleaning robot.

  15. Modelling of cooperating robotized systems with the use of object-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foit, K.; Gwiazda, A.; Banas, W.; Sekala, A.; Hryniewicz, P.

    2015-11-01

    Today's robotized manufacturing systems are characterized by high efficiency. The emphasis is placed mainly on the simultaneous work of machines. It could manifest in many ways, where the most spectacular one is the cooperation of several robots, during work on the same detail. What's more, recently a dual-arm robots are used that could mimic the manipulative skills of human hands. As a result, it is often hard to deal with the situation, when it is necessary not only to maintain sufficient precision, but also the coordination and proper sequence of movements of individual robots’ arms. The successful completion of this task depends on the individual robot control systems and their respective programmed, but also on the well-functioning communication between robot controllers. A major problem in case of cooperating robots is the possibility of collision between particular links of robots’ kinematic chains. This is not a simple case, because the manufacturers of robotic systems do not disclose the details of the control algorithms, then it is hard to determine such situation. Another problem with cooperation of robots is how to inform the other units about start or completion of part of the task, so that other robots can take further actions. This paper focuses on communication between cooperating robotic units, assuming that every robot is represented by object-based model. This problem requires developing a form of communication protocol that the objects can use for collecting the information about its environment. The approach presented in the paper is not limited to the robots and could be used in a wider range, for example during modelling of the complete workcell or production line.

  16. Classifying and recovering from sensing failures in autonomous mobile robots

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, R.R.; Hershberger, D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a characterization of sensing failures in autonomous mobile robots, a methodology for classification and recovery, and a demonstration of this approach on a mobile robot performing landmark navigation. A sensing failure is any event leading to defective perception, including sensor malfunctions, software errors, environmental changes, and errant expectations. The approach demonstrated in this paper exploits the ability of the robot to interact with its environment to acquire additional information for classification (i.e., active perception). A Generate and Test strategy is used to generate hypotheses to explain the symptom resulting from the sensing failure. The recovery scheme replaces the affected sensing processes with an alternative logical sensor. The approach is implemented as the Sensor Fusion Effects Exception Handling (SFX-EH) architecture. The advantages of SFX-EH are that it requires only a partial causal model of sensing failure, the control scheme strives for a fast response, tests are constructed so as to prevent confounding from collaborating sensors which have also failed, and the logical sensor organization allows SFX-EH to be interfaced with the behavioral level of existing robot architectures.

  17. Autonomous navigation and speech in the mobile robot of MAIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprile, Bruno; Lazzari, Gianni; Stringa, Luigi

    1993-05-01

    MAIA (acronym for Modello Avanzato di Intelligenza Artificiale) is a project aimed at the integration of several AI resources being presently developed at IRST. The overall approach to the design of intelligent artificial systems that MAIA proposes is experimental not less than theoretical, and an experimental setup (that we call the experimental platform) has consequently been defined in which a variety of mutually interacting functionalities can be tested in a common framework. The experimental platform of MAIA consists of 'brains' and 'tentacles', and it is to one of such tentacles--the Mobile Robot--that the present paper is devoted to. At present, the mobile robot is equipped with two main modules: the Navigation Module, which gives the robot the capability of moving autonomously in an indoor environment, and the Speech Module, which allows the robot to communicate with humans by voice. Here the overall architecture of the system is described in detail and potentialities arising from the combined use of speech and navigation are considered.

  18. The Challenge of Planning and Execution for Spacecraft Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.; Gawdiak, Yuri; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The need for spacecraft mobile robots continues to grow. These robots offer the potential to increase the capability, productivity, and duration of space missions while decreasing mission risk and cost. Spacecraft Mobile Robots (SMRs) can serve a number of functions inside and outside of spacecraft from simpler tasks, such as performing visual diagnostics and crew support, to more complex tasks, such as performing maintenance and in-situ construction. One of the predominant challenges to deploying SMRs is to reduce the need for direct operator interaction. Teleoperation is often not practical due to the communication latencies incurred because of the distances involved and in many cases a crewmember would directly perform a task rather than teleoperate a robot to do it. By integrating a mixed-initiative constraint-based planner with an executive that supports adjustably autonomous control, we intend to demonstrate the feasibility of autonomous SMRs by deploying one inside the International Space Station (ISS) and demonstrate in simulation one that operates outside of the ISS. This paper discusses the progress made at NASA towards this end, the challenges ahead, and concludes with an invitation to the research community to participate.

  19. Kinematic evaluation of mobile robotic platforms for overground gait neurorehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alias, N. Akmal; Huq, M. Saiful; Ibrahim, B. S. K. K.; Omar, Rosli

    2017-09-01

    Gait assistive devices offer a great solution to the walking re-education which reduce patients theoretical limit by aiding the anatomical joints to be in line with the rehabilitation session. Overground gait training, which is differs significantly from body-weight supported treadmill training in many aspects, essentially consists of a mobile robotic base to support the subject securely (usually with overhead harness) while its motion and orientation is controlled seamlessly to facilitate subjects free movement. In this study, efforts have been made for evaluation of both holonomic and nonholonomic drives, the outcome of which may constitute the primarily results to the effective approach in designing a robotic platform for the mobile rehabilitation robot. The sets of kinematic equations are derived using typical geometries of two different drives. The results indicate that omnidirectional mecanum wheel platform is capable for more sophisticated discipline. Although the differential drive platform happens to be more simple and easy to construct, but it is less desirable as it has limited number of motions applicable to the system. The omnidirectional robot consisting of mecanum wheels, which is classified as holonomic is potentially the best solution in terms of its capability to move in arbitrary direction without concerning the changing of wheel's direction.

  20. Fuzzy Logic Based Control for Autonomous Mobile Robot Navigation.

    PubMed

    Omrane, Hajer; Masmoudi, Mohamed Slim; Masmoudi, Mohamed

    This paper describes the design and the implementation of a trajectory tracking controller using fuzzy logic for mobile robot to navigate in indoor environments. Most of the previous works used two independent controllers for navigation and avoiding obstacles. The main contribution of the paper can be summarized in the fact that we use only one fuzzy controller for navigation and obstacle avoidance. The used mobile robot is equipped with DC motor, nine infrared range (IR) sensors to measure the distance to obstacles, and two optical encoders to provide the actual position and speeds. To evaluate the performances of the intelligent navigation algorithms, different trajectories are used and simulated using MATLAB software and SIMIAM navigation platform. Simulation results show the performances of the intelligent navigation algorithms in terms of simulation times and travelled path.

  1. Dynamic map building for an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.J.; Durrant-Whyte, H.F. ); Cox, I.J. )

    1992-08-01

    This article presents an algorithm for autonomous map building and maintenance for a mobile robot. The authors believe that mobile robot navigation can be treated as a problem of tracking geometric features that occur naturally in the environment. They represent each feature in the map by a location estimate (the feature state vector) and two distinct measures of uncertainty: a covariance matrix to represent uncertainty in feature location, and a credibility measure to represent their belief in the validity of the feature. During each position update cycle, predicted measurements are generated for each geometric feature in the map and compared with actual sensor observations. Successful matches cause a feature's credibility to be increased. Unpredicted observations are used to initialize new geometric features, while unobserved predictions result in a geometric feature's credibility being decreased. They also describe experimental results obtained with the algorithm that demonstrate successful map building using real sonar data.

  2. Fuzzy Logic Based Control for Autonomous Mobile Robot Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Masmoudi, Mohamed Slim; Masmoudi, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the implementation of a trajectory tracking controller using fuzzy logic for mobile robot to navigate in indoor environments. Most of the previous works used two independent controllers for navigation and avoiding obstacles. The main contribution of the paper can be summarized in the fact that we use only one fuzzy controller for navigation and obstacle avoidance. The used mobile robot is equipped with DC motor, nine infrared range (IR) sensors to measure the distance to obstacles, and two optical encoders to provide the actual position and speeds. To evaluate the performances of the intelligent navigation algorithms, different trajectories are used and simulated using MATLAB software and SIMIAM navigation platform. Simulation results show the performances of the intelligent navigation algorithms in terms of simulation times and travelled path. PMID:27688748

  3. An iterative learning controller for nonholonomic mobile robots

    SciTech Connect

    Oriolo, G.; Panzieri, S.; Ulivi, G.

    1998-09-01

    The authors present an iterative learning controller that applies to nonholonomic mobile robots, as well as other systems that can be put in chained form. The learning algorithm exploits the fact that chained-form. The learning algorithm exploits the fact that chained-form systems are linear under piecewise-constant inputs. The proposed control scheme requires the execution of a small number of experiments to drive the system to the desired state in finite time, with nice convergence and robustness properties with respect to modeling inaccuracies as well as disturbances. To avoid the necessity of exactly reinitializing the system at each iteration, the basic method is modified so as to obtain a cyclic controller, by which the system is cyclically steered through an arbitrary sequence of states. As a case study, a carlike mobile robot is considered. Both simulation and experimental results are reported to show the performance of the method.

  4. Using insects to drive mobile robots - hybrid robots bridge the gap between biological and artificial systems.

    PubMed

    Ando, Noriyasu; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2017-09-01

    The use of mobile robots is an effective method of validating sensory-motor models of animals in a real environment. The well-identified insect sensory-motor systems have been the major targets for modeling. Furthermore, mobile robots implemented with such insect models attract engineers who aim to avail advantages from organisms. However, directly comparing the robots with real insects is still difficult, even if we successfully model the biological systems, because of the physical differences between them. We developed a hybrid robot to bridge the gap. This hybrid robot is an insect-controlled robot, in which a tethered male silkmoth (Bombyx mori) drives the robot in order to localize an odor source. This robot has the following three advantages: 1) from a biomimetic perspective, the robot enables us to evaluate the potential performance of future insect-mimetic robots; 2) from a biological perspective, the robot enables us to manipulate the closed-loop of an onboard insect for further understanding of its sensory-motor system; and 3) the robot enables comparison with insect models as a reference biological system. In this paper, we review the recent works regarding insect-controlled robots and discuss the significance for both engineering and biology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hierarchical loop detection for mobile outdoor robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Dagmar; Winkens, Christian; Häselich, Marcel; Paulus, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Loop closing is a fundamental part of 3D simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) that can greatly enhance the quality of long-term mapping. It is essential for the creation of globally consistent maps. Conceptually, loop closing is divided into detection and optimization. Recent approaches depend on a single sensor to recognize previously visited places in the loop detection stage. In this study, we combine data of multiple sensors such as GPS, vision, and laser range data to enhance detection results in repetitively changing environments that are not sufficiently explained by a single sensor. We present a fast and robust hierarchical loop detection algorithm for outdoor robots to achieve a reliable environment representation even if one or more sensors fail.

  6. Sensing and modelling concepts for autonomous and remote mobile robot control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, S. K.; McMath, W. S.; Necsulescu, D.; Petriu, E. M.

    1993-01-01

    Sensing functions and modeling concepts for autonomous and remote mobile robot control in an unstructured environment are discussed. Sensing methods for robot position recovery, object recognition, and tactile teleoperator feedback are presented.

  7. Model-based description of environment interaction for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Carlo; Pagello, Enrico; Vianello, Marco

    1999-01-01

    We consider a mobile robot that attempts to accomplish a task by reaching a given goal, and interacts with its environment through a finite set of actions and observations. The interaction between robot and environment is modeled by Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes (POMDP). The robot takes its decisions in presence of uncertainty about the current state, by maximizing its reward gained during interactions with the environment. It is able to self-locate into the environment by collecting actions and perception histories during the navigation. To make the state estimation more reliable, we introduce an additional information in the model without adding new states and without discretizing the considered measures. Thus, we associate to the state transition probabilities also a continuous metric given through the mean and the variance of some significant sensor measurements suitable to be kept under continuous form, such as odometric measurements, showing that also such unreliable data can supply a great deal of information to the robot. The overall control system of the robot is structured as a two-levels layered architecture, where the low level implements several collision avoidance algorithms, while the upper level takes care of the navigation problem. In this paper, we concentrate on how to use POMDP models at the upper level.

  8. Wheel rolling constraints and slip in mobile robots

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhar, S.

    1997-03-01

    It is widely accepted that dead reckoning based on the rolling with no slip condition on wheels is not a reliable method to ascertain the position and orientation of a mobile robot for any reasonable distance. We establish that wheel slip is inevitable under the dynamic model of motion using classical results on the accessibility and controllability in nonlinear control theory and an analytical model of rolling of two linearly elastic bodies.

  9. Wheel rolling constraints and slip in mobile robots

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhar, S.

    1996-06-01

    It is widely accepted that dead-reckoning based on the rolling with no-slip condition on the wheels is not a reliable method to ascertain the position and orientation of a mobile robot for any reasonable distance. The authors establish that wheel slip is inevitable under the dynamic model of motion using classical results on the accessibility and controllability in nonlinear control theory and an analytical model of rolling of two linearly elastic bodies.

  10. Wheel rolling constraints and slip in mobile robots

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhar, S.

    1997-03-01

    It is widely accepted that dead reckoning based on the rolling with no slip condition on wheels is not a reliable method to ascertain the position and orientation of a mobile robot for any reasonable distance. The author establishes that wheel slip is inevitable under the dynamic model of motion using classical results on the accessibility and controllability in nonlinear control theory and an analytical model of rolling of two linearly elastic bodies.

  11. Learning sensor-based navigation of a real mobile robot in unknown worlds.

    PubMed

    Araujo, R; de Almeida, A T

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of navigating an autonomous mobile robot in an unknown indoor environment. The parti-game multiresolution learning approach is applied for simultaneous and cooperative construction of a world model, and learning to navigate through an obstacle-free path from a starting position to a known goal region. The paper introduces a new approach, based on the application of the fuzzy ART neural architecture, for on-line map building from actual sensor data. This method is then integrated, as a complement, on the parti-game world model, allowing the system to make a more efficient use of collected sensor information. Then, a predictive on-line trajectory filtering method, is introduced in the learning approach. Instead of having a mechanical device moving to search the world, the idea is to have the system analyzing trajectories in a predictive mode, by taking advantage of the improved world model. The real robot will only move to try trajectories that have been predicted to be successful, allowing lower exploration costs. This results in an overall improved new method for goal-oriented navigation. It is assumed that the robot knows its own current world location-a simple dead-reckoning method is used for localization in our experiments. It is also assumed that the robot is able to perform sensor-based obstacle detection (not avoidance) and straight-line motions. Results of experiments with a real Nomad 200 mobile robot are presented, demonstrating the effectiveness of the discussed methods.

  12. [Telepsychiatry and cooperation between professionnals in a mobile team].

    PubMed

    Boutbien, Élodie; Copin, Sabrina; Veyres-Broquin, Karine; Wendel, Yann

    2016-11-01

    Telepsychiatry in a mobile team uses advanced technology for the benefit of healthcare. It requires a high level of cooperation between the different players. In a nursing home, ilt provides patients with access to psyhiatric care despite the distance or the difficulties involved in travelling to an appointment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Collaboration of Miniature Multi-Modal Mobile Smart Robots over a Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-14

    of Miniature Multi-Modal Mobile Smart Robots over a Network The Pennsylvania State University has developed the Networked Robotic Systems Laboratory...theoretical research on mathematics of failures in sensor-network-based miniature multimodal mobile robots and electromechanical systems. The views...P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Robots , Computer Network REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S

  14. Cooperation between humans and robots in fine assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalba, C. K.; Konold, P.; Rapp, I.; Mann, C.; Muminovic, A.

    2017-01-01

    The development of ever smaller components in manufacturing processes require handling, assembling and testing of miniature similar components. The human eye meets its optical limits with ongoing miniaturization of parts, due to the fact that it is not able to detect particles with a size smaller than 0.11 mm or register distances below 0.07 mm - like separating gaps. After several hours of labour, workers cannot accurately differentiate colour nuances as well as constant quality of work cannot be guaranteed. Assembly is usually done with tools, such as microscopes, magnifiers or digital measuring devices. Due to the enormous mental concentration, quickly a fatigue process sets in. This requires breaks or change of task and reduces productivity. Dealing with handling devices such as grippers, guide units and actuators for component assembling, requires a time consuming training process. Often productivity increase is first achieved after years of daily training. Miniaturizations are ubiquitously needed, for instance in the surgery. Very small add-on instruments must be provided. In measurement, e.g. it is a technological must and a competitive advantage, to determine required data with a small-as-possible, highest-possible-resolution sensor. Solution: The realization of a flexible universal workstation, using standard robotic systems and image processing devices in cooperation with humans, where workers are largely freed up from highly strenuous physical and fine motoric work, so that they can do productive work monitoring and adjusting the machine assisted production process.

  15. Cooperative control of a squad of mobile vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.; Feddema, J.; Klarer, P.

    1998-09-01

    Tasks such as the localization of chemical sources, demining, perimeter control, surveillance and search and rescue missions are usually performed by teams of people. At least conceptually, large groups of relatively cheap mobile vehicles outfitted with sensors should be able to automatically accomplish some of these tasks. Sandia National Labs is currently developing a swarm of semi-autonomous all terrain vehicles for remote cooperative sensing applications. This paper will describe the capabilities of this system and outline some of its possible applications. Cooperative control and sensing strategies will also be described. Eight Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rovers (RATLERs) have been built at Sandia as a test platform for cooperative control and sensing applications. This paper will first describe the hardware capabilities of the RATLER system. Then it will describe the basic control algorithm for GPS based navigation and obstacle avoidance. A higher level cooperative control task will then be described.

  16. Performance Analysis and Odometry Improvement of an Omnidirectional Mobile Robot for Outdoor Terrain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    omnidirectional mobile robot can perform complex maneuvers (i.e. extremely sharp turning) that cannot be achieved by typical Ackermann steered wheeled vehicles...for the ASOC-driven omnidirectional mobile robot is described as follows: First, the wheel angular velocities of each ASOC [ωi,L , ωi,R] and the...terrain. This is due to wheel slippage that causes miscounts of wheel rotation. In particular, the ASOC-driven omnidirectional mobile robot experiences

  17. Dynamics modelling and Hybrid Suppression Control of space robots performing cooperative object manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarafshan, P.; Moosavian, S. Ali A.

    2013-10-01

    Dynamics modelling and control of multi-body space robotic systems composed of rigid and flexible elements is elaborated here. Control of such systems is highly complicated due to severe under-actuated condition caused by flexible elements, and an inherent uneven nonlinear dynamics. Therefore, developing a compact dynamics model with the requirement of limited computations is extremely useful for controller design, also to develop simulation studies in support of design improvement, and finally for practical implementations. In this paper, the Rigid-Flexible Interactive dynamics Modelling (RFIM) approach is introduced as a combination of Lagrange and Newton-Euler methods, in which the motion equations of rigid and flexible members are separately developed in an explicit closed form. These equations are then assembled and solved simultaneously at each time step by considering the mutual interaction and constraint forces. The proposed approach yields a compact model rather than common accumulation approach that leads to a massive set of equations in which the dynamics of flexible elements is united with the dynamics equations of rigid members. To reveal such merits of this new approach, a Hybrid Suppression Control (HSC) for a cooperative object manipulation task will be proposed, and applied to usual space systems. A Wheeled Mobile Robotic (WMR) system with flexible appendages as a typical space rover is considered which contains a rigid main body equipped with two manipulating arms and two flexible solar panels, and next a Space Free Flying Robotic system (SFFR) with flexible members is studied. Modelling verification of these complicated systems is vigorously performed using ANSYS and ADAMS programs, while the limited computations of RFIM approach provides an efficient tool for the proposed controller design. Furthermore, it will be shown that the vibrations of the flexible solar panels results in disturbing forces on the base which may produce undesirable errors

  18. Integrated Backstepping Mobile Robot Controller Design by Applying Sum of Squares Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shun-Hung; Juang, Jyh-Ching

    The paper presents a sum of squares (SOS) based backstepping control design method for a three wheels omni-directional mobile robot. The characteristic of the strict-feedback system associated with mobile robots is considered to construct the backstepping controller. To account for the saturation problem in the mobile robot, the SOS conditions are developed based on the backstepping controller framework to achieve stability and enlarge the guaranteed region of convergence. Computer simulations for mobile robots demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed SOS-based backstepping controller design method.

  19. Embodying a cognitive model in a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, D. Paul; Lyons, Damian; Lonsdale, Deryle

    2006-10-01

    The ADAPT project is a collaboration of researchers in robotics, linguistics and artificial intelligence at three universities to create a cognitive architecture specifically designed to be embodied in a mobile robot. There are major respects in which existing cognitive architectures are inadequate for robot cognition. In particular, they lack support for true concurrency and for active perception. ADAPT addresses these deficiencies by modeling the world as a network of concurrent schemas, and modeling perception as problem solving. Schemas are represented using the RS (Robot Schemas) language, and are activated by spreading activation. RS provides a powerful language for distributed control of concurrent processes. Also, The formal semantics of RS provides the basis for the semantics of ADAPT's use of natural language. We have implemented the RS language in Soar, a mature cognitive architecture originally developed at CMU and used at a number of universities and companies. Soar's subgoaling and learning capabilities enable ADAPT to manage the complexity of its environment and to learn new schemas from experience. We describe the issues faced in developing an embodied cognitive architecture, and our implementation choices.

  20. Navigating a Mobile Robot Across Terrain Using Fuzzy Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Howard, Ayanna; Bon, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    A strategy for autonomous navigation of a robotic vehicle across hazardous terrain involves the use of a measure of traversability of terrain within a fuzzy-logic conceptual framework. This navigation strategy requires no a priori information about the environment. Fuzzy logic was selected as a basic element of this strategy because it provides a formal methodology for representing and implementing a human driver s heuristic knowledge and operational experience. Within a fuzzy-logic framework, the attributes of human reasoning and decision- making can be formulated by simple IF (antecedent), THEN (consequent) rules coupled with easily understandable and natural linguistic representations. The linguistic values in the rule antecedents convey the imprecision associated with measurements taken by sensors onboard a mobile robot, while the linguistic values in the rule consequents represent the vagueness inherent in the reasoning processes to generate the control actions. The operational strategies of the human expert driver can be transferred, via fuzzy logic, to a robot-navigation strategy in the form of a set of simple conditional statements composed of linguistic variables. These linguistic variables are defined by fuzzy sets in accordance with user-defined membership functions. The main advantages of a fuzzy navigation strategy lie in the ability to extract heuristic rules from human experience and to obviate the need for an analytical model of the robot navigation process.

  1. Using real-time stereopsis for mobile robot control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonasso, R. P.; Nishihara, H. K.

    1991-02-01

    This paper describes on-going work in using range and motion data generated at video-frame rates as the basis for long-range perception in a mobile robot. A current approach in the artificial intelligence community to achieve timecritical perception for situated reasoning is to use low-level perception for motor reflex-like activity and higher-level but more computationally intense perception for path planning reconnaissance and retrieval activities. Typically inclinometers and a compass or an infra-red beacon system provide stability and orientation maintenance and ultrasonic or infra-red sensors serve as proximity detectors for obstacle avoidance. For distant ranging and area occupancy determination active imaging systems such as laser scanners can be prohibitivtly expensive and heretofore passive systems typically performed more slowly than the cycle time of the control system causing the robot to halt periodically along its way. However a recent stereo system developed by Nishihara known as PRISM (Practical Real-time Imaging Stereo Matcher) matches stereo pairs using a sign-correlation technique that gives range and motion at video frame rates. We are integrating this technique with constant-time control software for distant ranging and object detection at a speed that is comparable with the cycle-times of the low-level sensors. Possibilities for a variety of uses in a leader-follower mobile robot situation are discussed.

  2. Context recognition and situation assessment in autonomous mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavnai, Arie

    1993-05-01

    The capability to recognize the operating context and to assess the situation in real-time is needed, if a high functionality autonomous mobile robot has to react properly and effectively to continuously changing situations and events, either external or internal, while the robot is performing its assigned tasks. A new approach and architecture for context recognition and situation assessment module (CORSA) is presented in this paper. CORSA is a multi-level information processing module which consists of adaptive decision and classification algorithms. It performs dynamic mapping from the data space to the context space, and dynamically decides on the context class. Learning mechanism is employed to update the decision variables so as to minimize the probability of misclassification. CORSA is embedded within the Mission Manager module of the intelligent autonomous hyper-controller (IAHC) of the mobile robot. The information regarding operating context, events and situation is then communicated to other modules of the IAHC where it is used to: (a) select the appropriate action strategy; (b) support the processes to arbitration and conflict resolution between reflexive behaviors and reasoning-driven behaviors; (c) predict future events and situations; and (d) determine criteria and priorities for planning, replanning, and decision making.

  3. Viewing and controlling a mobile robot with common Web technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon, Eric; Baudoin, Yvan

    1998-08-01

    Despite enthusiastic researches all over the world, completely autonomous robots are yet today an utopia. But pure teleoperated Robotics System, as generally used in unknown or dangerous environment, have also their limitations and drawbacks. The introduction of a partial autonomy, where appropriate, could greatly enhance the performances of the man-machine systems. The interactive autonomy objective is to hide sophisticated systems behind simple interfaces and to transparently provide help to the user. These principles can be implemented to control a manipulation arm or a mobile vehicle. Telecontrol is generally associated with video images, nevertheless in specific applications or under special circumstances, the images have a poor quality, can be degraded when using the systems or are not available. This implies the introduction of a 3D model that can be used as stand alone or as augmented reality display. Existing internet technologies can be used for interfacing the real and the virtual worlds. VRML provides the 3D aspects, Java is the unifying language between different computer system, browsers and plug-ins are completing the team. Using these technologies we have developed a multi client/server application to remotely view and control a mobile robot. In this paper we give the description of this application and we provide a basic presentation of the tools.

  4. Design, characterization and control of the Unique Mobility Corporation robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velasco, Virgilio B., Jr.; Newman, Wyatt S.; Steinetz, Bruce; Kopf, Carlo; Malik, John

    1994-01-01

    Space and mass are at a premium on any space mission, and thus any machinery designed for space use should be lightweight and compact, without sacrificing strength. It is for this reason that NASA/LeRC contracted Unique Mobility Corporation to exploit their novel actuator designs to build a robot that would advance the present state of technology with respect to these requirements. Custom-designed motors are the key feature of this robot. They are compact, high-performance dc brushless servo motors with a high pole count and low inductance, thus permitting high torque generation and rapid phase commutation. Using a custom-designed digital signal processor-based controller board, the pulse width modulation power amplifiers regulate the fast dynamics of the motor currents. In addition, the programmable digital signal processor (DSP) controller permits implementation of nonlinear compensation algorithms to account for motoring vs. regeneration, torque ripple, and back-EMF. As a result, the motors produce a high torque relative to their size and weight, and can do so with good torque regulation and acceptably high velocity saturation limits. This paper presents the Unique Mobility Corporation robot prototype: its actuators, its kinematic design, its control system, and its experimental characterization. Performance results, including saturation torques, saturation velocities and tracking accuracy tests are included.

  5. The damage assessment methodology in cooperation with smart sensors and inspection robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Yoshihiro; Ishida, Masami; Onai, Toshio; Watakabe, Morimasa; Nishitani, Akira; Matsui, Chisa

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes a damage assessment methodology for the non-structural elements, especially the ceiling, in cooperation with the smart sensors and the inspection blimp robot with the Wi-Fi camera. The developed smart sensors use the infrared LEDs in sending the measured data to the inspection blimp robot. The inspection blimp robot integrated in the proposed system has a Wi-Fi camera and an infrared remote control receiver for receiving the data from the smart sensor. In the proposed methodology, the distributed smart sensors firstly detect the damage occurrence. Next, the inspection blimp robots can gather the data from the smart sensors, which transmit the measured data by using an infrared remote control receiver and LED signals. The inspection blimp robot also can inspect the damage location and captures the photographic image of the damage condition. The inspection blimp robot will be able to estimate the damage condition without any process of engineers' on-site-inspection involved. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the inspection blimp robot, the blimp robot is utilized to estimate the aging ceiling of a real structure. For demonstrating the feasibility or possibility of the proposed damage assessment methodology in cooperation with the smart sensors and the inspection blimp robot, the conceptual laboratory experiment is conducted. The proposed methodology will provide valuable information for the repair and maintenance decision making of a damaged structure.

  6. Cooperative 3D and 2D mapping with heterogenous ground robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, John G., III; Baran, David; Stump, Ethan; Young, Stuart; Christensen, Henrik I.

    2012-06-01

    Efficient and accurate 3D mapping is desirable in disaster recovery as well as urban warfare situations. The speed with which these maps can be generated is vital to provide situational awareness in these situations. A team of mobile robots can work together to build maps more quickly. We present an algorithm by which a team of mobile robots can merge 2D and 3D measurements to build a 3D map, together with experiments performed at a military test facility.

  7. Novel Trajectory Control for Human Cooperation Robot Based on Behavior Mode Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Kazuki; Tadakuma, Susumu

    This paper describes a novel trajectory control system for human cooperation robots based on behavior mode switching. Human cooperation robots have the great possibility to serve as useful support systems for elderly people and physically handicapped people and it is expected to realize the smooth and human-friendly support movements. This study defines three behavior modes in human cooperation motion and their respective trajectory control system are designed. In the trajectory design, minimum jerk model is introduced to realize the smooth and human-friendly cooperation movements. In addition, the initial value compensation at the mode switching is also developed. Some experiments on two-axis plane robot and performance evaluation by trial subjects show the effectiveness of the proposed trajectory control system.

  8. A Case-Study for Life-Long Learning and Adaptation in Cooperative Robot Teams

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1999-09-19

    While considerable progress has been made in recent years toward the development of multi-robot teams, much work remains to be done before these teams are used widely in real-world applications. Two particular needs toward this end are the development of mechanisms that enable robot teams to generate cooperative behaviors on their own, and the development of techniques that allow these teams to autonomously adapt their behavior over time as the environment or the robot team changes. This paper proposes the use of the Cooperative Multi-Robot Observation of Multiple Moving Targets (CMOMMT) application as a rich domain for studying the issues of multi-robot learning and adaptation. After discussing the need for learning and adaptation in multi-robot teams, this paper describes the CMOMMT application and its relevance to multi-robot learning. We discuss the results of the previously- developed, hand-generated algorithm for CMOMMT and the potential for learning that was discovered from the hand-generated approach. We then describe the early work that has been done (by us and others) to generate multi- robot learning techniques for the CMOMMT application, as well as our ongoing research to develop approaches that give performance as good, or better, than the hand-generated approach. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop techniques for multi-robot learning and adaptation in the CMOMMT application domain that will generalize to cooperative robot applications in other domains, thus making the practical use of multi-robot teams in a wide variety of real-world applications much closer to reality.

  9. A Mobile Robot Operation with Instruction of Neck Movement using Laser Pointer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Satoru; Yamamoto, Tomonori; Jindai, Mitsuru

    A human-robot system in which a mobile robot follows the movement of the laser spot projected on the floor by the laser pointer attached at the human head is considered. Human gives instruction of desired movement to the omni-directional mobile robot by rotating his or her head. The mobile robot can realize intended movement by following the movement of the laser spot on the floor. By projecting an instructive point to be followed by the mobile robot, the user can clearly recognize the relation between the direction being faced and the desired position of the mobile robot. In addition, the user can convey a motion trajectory to the mobile robot continuously. Kansei transfer function is introduced between the instruction movement of the laser spot and following motion of the robot to realize psychologically acceptable motion of the robot. In addition, three modes, stopping mode, following mode, and autonomous motion mode to the target, are considered. The effectiveness of the proposed system was discussed experimentally, and confirmed by the smooth trajectory of the following motion of the mobile robot and good psychological evaluations.

  10. Positional estimation techniques for an autonomous mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nandhakumar, N.; Aggarwal, J. K.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques for positional estimation of a mobile robot navigation in an indoor environment are described. A comprehensive review of the various positional estimation techniques studied in the literature is first presented. The techniques are divided into four different types and each of them is discussed briefly. Two different kinds of environments are considered for positional estimation; mountainous natural terrain and an urban, man-made environment with polyhedral buildings. In both cases, the robot is assumed to be equipped with single visual camera that can be panned and tilted and also a 3-D description (world model) of the environment is given. Such a description could be obtained from a stereo pair of aerial images or from the architectural plans of the buildings. Techniques for positional estimation using the camera input and the world model are presented.

  11. Narrow-aisle mobile robot navigation in hazardous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, T.R.; Henshaw, A.M.; Arkin, R.C.; Wester, W.D.

    1994-12-31

    Routine monitoring of stored radioactive materials can be performed safely by mobile robots. In order to accomplish this in an environment consisting of aisles of drums, it is necessary to have a reliable means of aisle-following. This work describes the adaptation of successful road-following methods based on visual recognition of road boundaries to the waste storage problem. Since the effort is targeted for near-term usage in normal operating conditions, special emphasis has been given to the implementation of the visual processing on practical (i.e., small, low-cost, and low-power) hardware platforms. The system described here has been implemented onboard a robot in our laboratory.

  12. Development of a mobile robot for the 1995 AUVS competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Bradley O.; Ruthemeyer, Michael A.; Perdue, David; Hall, Ernest L.

    1995-12-01

    Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) have many potential applications in manufacturing, medicine, space and defense. The purpose of this paper is to describe exploratory research on the design of a modular autonomous mobile robot controller. The advantages of a modular system are related to portability and the fact that any vehicle can become autonomous with minimal modifications. A mobile robot test-bed has been constructed using a golf cart base. This cart has full speed control with guidance provided by a vision system and obstacle avoidance using ultrasonic sensors systems. The speed and steering control are supervised by a 486 computer through a 3-axis motion controller. The obstacle avoidance system is based on a micro-controller interfaced with six ultrasonic transducers. The is micro-controller independently handles all timing and distance calculations and sends a steering angle correction back to the computer via the serial line. This design yields a portable independent system, where even computer communication is not necessary. Vision guidance is accomplished with a CCD camera with a zoom lens. The data is collected through a commercial tracking device, communicating with the computer the X,Y coordinates of the lane marker. Testing of these systems yielded positive results by showing that at five mph the vehicle can follow a line and at the same time avoid obstacles. This design, in its modularity, creates a portable autonomous controller applicable for any mobile vehicle with only minor adaptations.

  13. Lévy flights and cooperation among mobile individuals.

    PubMed

    Tomassini, Marco; Antonioni, Alberto

    2015-01-07

    Mobility is a general feature of human and animal populations living in physical space. In particular, it has been observed that often these movements are of the Lévy flight type. In this paper we study the effect of such power-law distributed displacements on the evolution of cooperation in simple games played on diluted two-dimensional grids. Using numerical simulations, our results show that unconditional Lévy flights do not favor the evolution of cooperation. However, when Lévy jumps are performed as a reaction to a growing number of defectors in an individual׳s neighborhood, all games studied here, including the harder Prisoner׳s Dilemma, remarkably benefit from this simple heuristics and cooperation can evolve in the population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Innovative Mobile Robot Method: Improving the Learning of Programming Languages in Engineering Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Octavio Ortiz; Pastor Franco, Juan Ángel; Alcover Garau, Pedro María; Herrero Martín, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a study of teaching a programming language in a C programming course by having students assemble and program a low-cost mobile robot. Writing their own programs to define the robot's behavior raised students' motivation. Working in small groups, students programmed the robots by using the control structures of structured…

  15. Modeling, Control and Simulation of a Novel Mobile Robotic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xiaoli; Davis, Jeremy; Doebbler, James; Turner, James D.; Junkins, John L.

    We in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at Texas A&M University are developing an autonomous mobile robotic system to emulate six degree of freedom (DOF) relative spacecraft motion during proximity operations. The base uses an active split offset castor (ASOC) drive train to achieve omni-directional planar motion with desired tracking position errors in the ± 1 cm range and heading angle error in the ±0.5° range. With six independently controlled wheels, we achieve a nominally uniform motor torque distribution and reduce the total disturbances with system control redundancy. A CAD (Computer-aided Design) sketch of our onethird scale model prototype is shown.

  16. Sonar Sensor Models and Their Application to Mobile Robot Localization

    PubMed Central

    Burguera, Antoni; González, Yolanda; Oliver, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to mobile robot localization using sonar sensors. This approach is based on the use of particle filters. Each particle is augmented with local environment information which is updated during the mission execution. An experimental characterization of the sonar sensors used is provided in the paper. A probabilistic measurement model that takes into account the sonar uncertainties is defined according to the experimental characterization. The experimental results quantitatively evaluate the presented approach and provide a comparison with other localization strategies based on both the sonar and the laser. Some qualitative results are also provided for visual inspection. PMID:22303171

  17. Sonar sensor models and their application to mobile robot localization.

    PubMed

    Burguera, Antoni; González, Yolanda; Oliver, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to mobile robot localization using sonar sensors. This approach is based on the use of particle filters. Each particle is augmented with local environment information which is updated during the mission execution. An experimental characterization of the sonar sensors used is provided in the paper. A probabilistic measurement model that takes into account the sonar uncertainties is defined according to the experimental characterization. The experimental results quantitatively evaluate the presented approach and provide a comparison with other localization strategies based on both the sonar and the laser. Some qualitative results are also provided for visual inspection.

  18. Non linear predictive control of a LEGO mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merabti, H.; Bouchemal, B.; Belarbi, K.; Boucherma, D.; Amouri, A.

    2014-10-01

    Metaheuristics are general purpose heuristics which have shown a great potential for the solution of difficult optimization problems. In this work, we apply the meta heuristic, namely particle swarm optimization, PSO, for the solution of the optimization problem arising in NLMPC. This algorithm is easy to code and may be considered as alternatives for the more classical solution procedures. The PSO- NLMPC is applied to control a mobile robot for the tracking trajectory and obstacles avoidance. Experimental results show the strength of this approach.

  19. A Mobile Robots Experimental Environment with Event-Based Wireless Communication

    PubMed Central

    Guinaldo, María; Fábregas, Ernesto; Farias, Gonzalo; Dormido-Canto, Sebastián; Chaos, Dictino; Sánchez, José; Dormido, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    An experimental platform to communicate between a set of mobile robots through a wireless network has been developed. The mobile robots get their position through a camera which performs as sensor. The video images are processed in a PC and a Waspmote card sends the corresponding position to each robot using the ZigBee standard. A distributed control algorithm based on event-triggered communications has been designed and implemented to bring the robots into the desired formation. Each robot communicates to its neighbors only at event times. Furthermore, a simulation tool has been developed to design and perform experiments with the system. An example of usage is presented. PMID:23881139

  20. International space station mobile servicing system robotic workstation displays and overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Susan H.

    1997-07-01

    The International Space Station (ISSP) currently under development is equipped with robotic workstations to perform and provide information on the mobile servicing system robotic functions in use. The workstations include conventional and special developed hardware, software displays, and control software configurations. The robotic activities are critical to the ISSP during assembly and maintenance activities resulting in detailed crew interface requirements. Operational scenarios were used to develop the requirements of the ISSP Robotic activities resulting in the specification and configuration of the Mobile Servicing System Robotic Workstation.

  1. A mobile robots experimental environment with event-based wireless communication.

    PubMed

    Guinaldo, María; Fábregas, Ernesto; Farias, Gonzalo; Dormido-Canto, Sebastián; Chaos, Dictino; Sánchez, José; Dormido, Sebastián

    2013-07-22

    An experimental platform to communicate between a set of mobile robots through a wireless network has been developed. The mobile robots get their position through a camera which performs as sensor. The video images are processed in a PC and a Waspmote card sends the corresponding position to each robot using the ZigBee standard. A distributed control algorithm based on event-triggered communications has been designed and implemented to bring the robots into the desired formation. Each robot communicates to its neighbors only at event times. Furthermore, a simulation tool has been developed to design and perform experiments with the system. An example of usage is presented.

  2. Ant-like task allocation and recruitment in cooperative robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Michael J. B.; Billeter, Jean-Bernard; Keller, Laurent

    2000-08-01

    One of the greatest challenges in robotics is to create machines that are able to interact with unpredictable environments in real time. A possible solution may be to use swarms of robots behaving in a self-organized manner, similar to workers in an ant colony. Efficient mechanisms of division of labour, in particular series-parallel operation and transfer of information among group members, are key components of the tremendous ecological success of ants. Here we show that the general principles regulating division of labour in ant colonies indeed allow the design of flexible, robust and effective robotic systems. Groups of robots using ant-inspired algorithms of decentralized control techniques foraged more efficiently and maintained higher levels of group energy than single robots. But the benefits of group living decreased in larger groups, most probably because of interference during foraging. Intriguingly, a similar relationship between group size and efficiency has been documented in social insects. Moreover, when food items were clustered, groups where robots could recruit other robots in an ant-like manner were more efficient than groups without information transfer, suggesting that group dynamics of swarms of robots may follow rules similar to those governing social insects.

  3. Ant-like task allocation and recruitment in cooperative robots.

    PubMed

    Krieger, M J; Billeter, J B; Keller, L

    2000-08-31

    One of the greatest challenges in robotics is to create machines that are able to interact with unpredictable environments in real time. A possible solution may be to use swarms of robots behaving in a self-organized manner, similar to workers in an ant colony. Efficient mechanisms of division of labour, in particular series-parallel operation and transfer of information among group members, are key components of the tremendous ecological success of ants. Here we show that the general principles regulating division of labour in ant colonies indeed allow the design of flexible, robust and effective robotic systems. Groups of robots using ant-inspired algorithms of decentralized control techniques foraged more efficiently and maintained higher levels of group energy than single robots. But the benefits of group living decreased in larger groups, most probably because of interference during foraging. Intriguingly, a similar relationship between group size and efficiency has been documented in social insects. Moreover, when food items were clustered, groups where robots could recruit other robots in an ant-like manner were more efficient than groups without information transfer, suggesting that group dynamics of swarms of robots may follow rules similar to those governing social insects.

  4. 3D position measurement using square marker for automatic mobile robot control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Ohmori, Koji

    2010-11-01

    A mobile robot is an automatic machine that is capable of movement in a given environment. Many techniques of automatic control are proposed. A line tracer is one of the most popular robots. The line tracer goes along a white line on the floor. The authors developed a mobile robot which moves to indicated point automatically. All you have to do is to indicate a goal point. In this paper, we propose an automatic mobile robot system controlled by an invisible marker and remote indication using the augmented reality technology.

  5. First results in the development of a mobile robot with trajectory planning and object recognition capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islamgozhayev, Talgat; Kalimoldayev, Maksat; Eleusinov, Arman; Mazhitov, Shokan; Mamyrbayev, Orken

    2016-11-01

    The use of mobile robots is becoming popular in many areas of service because they ensure safety and good performance while working in dangerous or unreachable locations. Areas of application of mobile robots differ from educational research to detection of bombs and their disposal. Based on the mission of the robot they have different configurations and abilities - some of them have additional arms, cranes and other tools, others use sensors and built-in image processing and object recognition systems to perform their missions. The robot that is described in this paper is mobile robot with a turret mounted on top of it. Different approaches have been tested while searching for best method suitable for image processing and template matching goals. Based on the information from image processing unit the system executes appropriate actions for planning motions and trajectory of the mobile robot.

  6. A monocular leader-follower system for small mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, Camille S.; German, Stan; Ostapchenko, Andrey

    2012-06-01

    Current generation UGV control systems typically require operators to physically control a platform through teleoperation, even for simple tasks such as travelling from one location to another. While vision-based control technologies promise to significantly reduce the burden on UGV operators, most schemes rely on specialized sensing hardware, such as LIDAR or stereo cameras, or require additional operator-worn equipment or markers to differentiate the leader from nearby pedestrians. We present a system for robust leader-follower control of small UGVs using only a single monocular camera, which is ubiquitous on mobile platforms. The system allows a user to control a mobile robot by leading the way and issuing commands through arm/hand gestures, and differentiates between the leader and nearby pedestrians. The software achieves this by integrating efficient algorithms for pedestrian detection, online appearance learning, and kinematic tracking with a lightweight technique for camera-based gesture recognition.

  7. Sensor fusion by pseudo information measure: a mobile robot application.

    PubMed

    Asharif, Mohammad Reza; Moshiri, Behzad; HoseinNezhad, Reza

    2002-07-01

    In any autonomous mobile robot, one of the most important issues to be designed and implemented is environment perception. In this paper, a new approach is formulated in order to perform sensory data integration for generation of an occupancy grid map of the environment. This method is an extended version of the Bayesian fusion method for independent sources of information. The performance of the proposed method of fusion and its sensitivity are discussed. Map building simulation for a cylindrical robot with eight ultrasonic sensors and mapping implementation for a Khepera robot have been separately tried in simulation and experimental works. A new neural structure is introduced for conversion of proximity data that are given by Khepera IR sensors to occupancy probabilities. Path planning experiments have also been applied to the resulting maps. For each map, two factors are considered and calculated: the fitness and the augmented occupancy of the map with respect to the ideal map. The length and the least distance to obstacles were the other two factors that were calculated for the routes that are resulted by path planning experiments. Experimental and simulation results show that by using the new fusion formulas, more informative maps of the environment are obtained. By these maps more appropriate routes could be achieved. Actually, there is a tradeoff between the length of the resulting routes and their safety and by choosing the proper fusion function, this tradeoff is suitably tuned for different map building applications.

  8. A 3D world model builder with a mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Faugeras, O. )

    1992-08-01

    This article describes a system to incrementally build a world model with a mobile robot in an unknown environment. The model is, for the moment, segment based. A trinocular stereo system is used to build a local map about the environment. A global map is obtained by integrating a sequence of stereo frames taken when the robot navigates in the environment. The emphasis of this article is on the representation of the uncertainty of 3D segments from stereo and on the integration of segments from multiple views. The proposed representation is simple and very convenient to characterize the uncertainty of segment. A Kalman filter is used to merge matched line segments. An important characteristic of this integration strategy is that a segment observed by the stereo system corresponds only to one part of the segment in space, so the union of the different observations gives a better estimate on the segment in space. The authors have succeeded in integrating 35 stereo frames taken in their robot room.

  9. Knowledge/geometry-based Mobile Autonomous Robot Simulator (KMARS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Linfu; Mckendrick, John D.; Liu, Jeffrey

    1990-01-01

    Ongoing applied research is focused on developing guidance system for robot vehicles. Problems facing the basic research needed to support this development (e.g., scene understanding, real-time vision processing, etc.) are major impediments to progress. Due to the complexity and the unpredictable nature of a vehicle's area of operation, more advanced vehicle control systems must be able to learn about obstacles within the range of its sensor(s). A better understanding of the basic exploration process is needed to provide critical support to developers of both sensor systems and intelligent control systems which can be used in a wide spectrum of autonomous vehicles. Elcee Computek, Inc. has been working under contract to the Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright Research and Development Center, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio to develop a Knowledge/Geometry-based Mobile Autonomous Robot Simulator (KMARS). KMARS has two parts: a geometry base and a knowledge base. The knowledge base part of the system employs the expert-system shell CLIPS ('C' Language Integrated Production System) and necessary rules that control both the vehicle's use of an obstacle detecting sensor and the overall exploration process. The initial phase project has focused on the simulation of a point robot vehicle operating in a 2D environment.

  10. Generating Self-Reliant Teams of Autonomous Cooperating Robots: Desired design Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1999-05-01

    The difficulties in designing a cooperative team are significant. Several of the key questions that must be resolved when designing a cooperative control architecture include: How do we formulate, describe, decompose, and allocate problems among a group of intelligent agents? How do we enable agents to communicate and interact? How do we ensure that agents act coherently in their actions? How do we allow agents to recognize and reconcile conflicts? However, in addition to these key issues, the software architecture must be designed to enable multi-robot teams to be robust, reliable, and flexible. Without these capabilities, the resulting robot team will not be able to successfully deal with the dynamic and uncertain nature of the real world. In this extended abstract, we first describe these desired capabilities. We then briefly describe the ALLIANCE software architecture that we have previously developed for multi-robot cooperation. We then briefly analyze the ALLIANCE architecture in terms of the desired design qualities identified.

  11. A virtual structure approach to formation control of unicycle mobile robots using mutual coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowska, Anna; van den Broek, Thijs; Huijberts, Henri; van de Wouw, Nathan; Kostić, Dragan; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2011-11-01

    In this article, the formation control problem for unicycle mobile robots is studied. A distributed virtual structure control strategy with mutual coupling between the robots is proposed. The rationale behind the introduction of the coupling terms is the fact that these introduce additional robustness of the formation with respect to perturbations as compared to typical leader-follower approaches. The applicability of the proposed approach is shown in simulations and experiments with a group of wirelessly controlled mobile robots.

  12. Insect-controlled Robot: A Mobile Robot Platform to Evaluate the Odor-tracking Capability of an Insect.

    PubMed

    Ando, Noriyasu; Emoto, Shuhei; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2016-12-19

    Robotic odor source localization has been a challenging area and one to which biological knowledge has been expected to contribute, as finding odor sources is an essential task for organism survival. Insects are well-studied organisms with regard to odor tracking, and their behavioral strategies have been applied to mobile robots for evaluation. This "bottom-up" approach is a fundamental way to develop biomimetic robots; however, the biological analyses and the modeling of behavioral mechanisms are still ongoing. Therefore, it is still unknown how such a biological system actually works as the controller of a robotic platform. To answer this question, we have developed an insect-controlled robot in which a male adult silkmoth (Bombyx mori) drives a robot car in response to odor stimuli; this can be regarded as a prototype of a future insect-mimetic robot. In the cockpit of the robot, a tethered silkmoth walked on an air-supported ball and an optical sensor measured the ball rotations. These rotations were translated into the movement of the two-wheeled robot. The advantage of this "hybrid" approach is that experimenters can manipulate any parameter of the robot, which enables the evaluation of the odor-tracking capability of insects and provides useful suggestions for robotic odor-tracking. Furthermore, these manipulations are non-invasive ways to alter the sensory-motor relationship of a pilot insect and will be a useful technique for understanding adaptive behaviors.

  13. Graphical analysis of power systems for mobile robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raade, Justin William

    The field of mobile robotics places stringent demands on the power system. Energetic autonomy, or the ability to function for a useful operation time independent of any tether, refueling, or recharging, is a driving force in a robot designed for a field application. The focus of this dissertation is the development of two graphical analysis tools, namely Ragone plots and optimal hybridization plots, for the design of human scale mobile robotic power systems. These tools contribute to the intuitive understanding of the performance of a power system and expand the toolbox of the design engineer. Ragone plots are useful for graphically comparing the merits of different power systems for a wide range of operation times. They plot the specific power versus the specific energy of a system on logarithmic scales. The driving equations in the creation of a Ragone plot are derived in terms of several important system parameters. Trends at extreme operation times (both very short and very long) are examined. Ragone plot analysis is applied to the design of several power systems for high-power human exoskeletons. Power systems examined include a monopropellant-powered free piston hydraulic pump, a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine with hydraulic actuators, and a fuel cell with electric actuators. Hybrid power systems consist of two or more distinct energy sources that are used together to meet a single load. They can often outperform non-hybrid power systems in low duty-cycle applications or those with widely varying load profiles and long operation times. Two types of energy sources are defined: engine-like and capacitive. The hybridization rules for different combinations of energy sources are derived using graphical plots of hybrid power system mass versus the primary system power. Optimal hybridization analysis is applied to several power systems for low-power human exoskeletons. Hybrid power systems examined include a fuel cell and a solar panel coupled with

  14. Small, Untethered, Mobile Robots for Inspecting Gas Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian

    2003-01-01

    Small, untethered mobile robots denoted gas-pipe explorers (GPEXs) have been proposed for inspecting the interiors of pipes used in the local distribution natural gas. The United States has network of gas-distribution pipes with a total length of approximately 109 m. These pipes are often made of iron and steel and some are more than 100 years old. As this network ages, there is a need to locate weaknesses that necessitate repair and/or preventive maintenance. The most common weaknesses are leaks and reductions in thickness, which are caused mostly by chemical reactions between the iron in the pipes and various substances in soil and groundwater. At present, mobile robots called pigs are used to inspect and clean the interiors of gas-transmission pipelines. Some carry magnetic-flux-leakage (MFL) sensors for measuring average wall thicknesses, some capture images, and some measure sizes and physical conditions. The operating ranges of pigs are limited to fairly straight sections of wide transmission- type (as distinguished from distribution- type) pipes: pigs are too large to negotiate such obstacles as bends with radii comparable to or smaller than pipe diameters, intrusions of other pipes at branch connections, and reductions in diameter at valves and meters. The GPEXs would be smaller and would be able to negotiate sharp bends and other obstacles that typically occur in gas-distribution pipes.

  15. Mobile robot GPS/DR integrated navigation positioning technique research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingkun; Zhang, Yuanliang; Li, Bifu; Chong, Kil To

    2010-01-01

    GPS is widely used for global positioning system. But GPS signal is easily interrupted when it is used alone. DR (dead reckoning) can calculate the position of mobile robots by using direction and speed sensors. However, DR system error can accumulate over time due to the error of electronic compass and odometer sensors. So DR system can't be used separately for a long time. The integrated navigation system combined GPS with DR will effectively integrated advantages of these two systems, higher positioning precision and reliability. In this paper Kalman filter model for GPS/DR integrated navigation system is set up to filter the GPS and DR data. And then the outputs of Kalman filter are inputted to a BP neural network for training. BP neural network is employed to predict next sampling time GPS output and a new Kalman filter based data fusion method is proposed to do the navigation information fusion with encoders and compass system. Simulation is done to validate the proposed fusion method. The simulation result shows the potential of this fusion method for outside used mobile robot navigation. Finally experiments are done to validate the proposed fusion method.

  16. Mobile robot GPS/DR integrated navigation positioning technique research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingkun; Zhang, Yuanliang; Li, Bifu; Chong, Kil To

    2009-12-01

    GPS is widely used for global positioning system. But GPS signal is easily interrupted when it is used alone. DR (dead reckoning) can calculate the position of mobile robots by using direction and speed sensors. However, DR system error can accumulate over time due to the error of electronic compass and odometer sensors. So DR system can't be used separately for a long time. The integrated navigation system combined GPS with DR will effectively integrated advantages of these two systems, higher positioning precision and reliability. In this paper Kalman filter model for GPS/DR integrated navigation system is set up to filter the GPS and DR data. And then the outputs of Kalman filter are inputted to a BP neural network for training. BP neural network is employed to predict next sampling time GPS output and a new Kalman filter based data fusion method is proposed to do the navigation information fusion with encoders and compass system. Simulation is done to validate the proposed fusion method. The simulation result shows the potential of this fusion method for outside used mobile robot navigation. Finally experiments are done to validate the proposed fusion method.

  17. Computer vision system for an autonomous mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xiaoqun; Cao, Jin; Cao, Ming; Samu, Tayib; Hall, Ernest L.

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare three methods for 3- D measurements of line position used for the vision guidance to navigate an autonomous mobile robot. A model is first developed to map 3-D ground points into image points to be developed using homogeneous coordinates. Then using the ground plane constraint, the inverse transformation that maps image points into 3-D ground points is determined. And then the system identification problem is solved using a calibration device. Calibration data is used to determine the model parameters by minimizing the mean square error between model and calibration points. A novel simplification is then presented which provides surprisingly accurate results. This method is called the magic matrix approach and uses only the calibration data. A more standard variation of this approach is also considered. The significance of this work is that it shows that three methods that are based on 3-D measurements may be used for mobile robot navigation and that a simple method can achieve accuracy to a fraction of an inch which is sufficient in some applications.

  18. Perception for mobile robot navigation: A survey of the state of the art

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kortenkamp, David

    1994-01-01

    In order for mobile robots to navigate safely in unmapped and dynamic environments they must perceive their environment and decide on actions based on those perceptions. There are many different sensing modalities that can be used for mobile robot perception; the two most popular are ultrasonic sonar sensors and vision sensors. This paper examines the state-of-the-art in sensory-based mobile robot navigation. The first issue in mobile robot navigation is safety. This paper summarizes several competing sonar-based obstacle avoidance techniques and compares them. Another issue in mobile robot navigation is determining the robot's position and orientation (sometimes called the robot's pose) in the environment. This paper examines several different classes of vision-based approaches to pose determination. One class of approaches uses detailed, a prior models of the robot's environment. Another class of approaches triangulates using fixed, artificial landmarks. A third class of approaches builds maps using natural landmarks. Example implementations from each of these three classes are described and compared. Finally, the paper presents a completely implemented mobile robot system that integrates sonar-based obstacle avoidance with vision-based pose determination to perform a simple task.

  19. Dynamic, cooperative multi-robot patrolling with a team of UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pippin, Charles E.; Christensen, Henrik; Weiss, Lora

    2013-05-01

    The multi-robot patrolling task has practical relevance in surveillance, search and rescue, and security appli- cations. In this task, a team of robots must repeatedly visit areas in the environment, minimizing the time in-between visits to each. A team of robots can perform this task efficiently; however, challenges remain related to team formation and task assignment. This paper presents an approach for monitoring patrolling performance and dynamically adjusting the task assignment function based on observations of teammate performance. Experimental results are presented from realistic simulations of a cooperative patrolling scenario, using a team of UAVs.

  20. SWARMs Ontology: A Common Information Model for the Cooperation of Underwater Robots

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Bilbao, Sonia; Martín-Wanton, Tamara; Bastos, Joaquim; Rodriguez, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    In order to facilitate cooperation between underwater robots, it is a must for robots to exchange information with unambiguous meaning. However, heterogeneity, existing in information pertaining to different robots, is a major obstruction. Therefore, this paper presents a networked ontology, named the Smart and Networking Underwater Robots in Cooperation Meshes (SWARMs) ontology, to address information heterogeneity and enable robots to have the same understanding of exchanged information. The SWARMs ontology uses a core ontology to interrelate a set of domain-specific ontologies, including the mission and planning, the robotic vehicle, the communication and networking, and the environment recognition and sensing ontology. In addition, the SWARMs ontology utilizes ontology constructs defined in the PR-OWL ontology to annotate context uncertainty based on the Multi-Entity Bayesian Network (MEBN) theory. Thus, the SWARMs ontology can provide both a formal specification for information that is necessarily exchanged between robots and a command and control entity, and also support for uncertainty reasoning. A scenario on chemical pollution monitoring is described and used to showcase how the SWARMs ontology can be instantiated, be extended, represent context uncertainty, and support uncertainty reasoning. PMID:28287468

  1. SWARMs Ontology: A Common Information Model for the Cooperation of Underwater Robots.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Bilbao, Sonia; Martín-Wanton, Tamara; Bastos, Joaquim; Rodriguez, Jonathan

    2017-03-11

    In order to facilitate cooperation between underwater robots, it is a must for robots to exchange information with unambiguous meaning. However, heterogeneity, existing in information pertaining to different robots, is a major obstruction. Therefore, this paper presents a networked ontology, named the Smart and Networking Underwater Robots in Cooperation Meshes (SWARMs) ontology, to address information heterogeneity and enable robots to have the same understanding of exchanged information. The SWARMs ontology uses a core ontology to interrelate a set of domain-specific ontologies, including the mission and planning, the robotic vehicle, the communication and networking, and the environment recognition and sensing ontology. In addition, the SWARMs ontology utilizes ontology constructs defined in the PR-OWL ontology to annotate context uncertainty based on the Multi-Entity Bayesian Network (MEBN) theory. Thus, the SWARMs ontology can provide both a formal specification for information that is necessarily exchanged between robots and a command and control entity, and also support for uncertainty reasoning. A scenario on chemical pollution monitoring is described and used to showcase how the SWARMs ontology can be instantiated, be extended, represent context uncertainty, and support uncertainty reasoning.

  2. Conduction Electrohydrodynamics with Mobile Electrodes: A Novel Actuation System for Untethered Robots.

    PubMed

    Cacucciolo, Vito; Shigemune, Hiroki; Cianchetti, Matteo; Laschi, Cecilia; Maeda, Shingo

    2017-09-01

    Electrohydrodynamics (EHD) refers to the direct conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy of a fluid. Through the use of mobile electrodes, this principle is exploited in a novel fashion for designing and testing a millimeter-scale untethered robot, which is powered harvesting the energy from an external electric field. The robot is designed as an inverted sail-boat, with the thrust generated on the sail submerged in the liquid. The diffusion constant of the robot is experimentally computed, proving that its movement is not driven by thermal fluctuations, and then its kinematic and dynamic responses are characterized for different applied voltages. The results show the feasibility of using EHD with mobile electrodes for powering untethered robots and provide new evidences for the further development of this actuation system for both mobile robots and compliant actuators in soft robotics.

  3. System design of a hand-held mobile robot for craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Kane, Gavin; Eggers, Georg; Boesecke, Robert; Raczkowsky, Jörg; Wörn, Heinz; Marmulla, Rüdiger; Mühling, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This contribution reports the development and initial testing of a Mobile Robot System for Surgical Craniotomy, the Craniostar. A kinematic system based on a unicycle robot is analysed to provide local positioning through two spiked wheels gripping directly onto a patients skull. A control system based on a shared control system between both the Surgeon and Robot is employed in a hand-held design that is tested initially on plastic phantom and swine skulls. Results indicate that the system has substantially lower risk than present robotically assisted craniotomies, and despite being a hand-held mobile robot, the Craniostar is still capable of sub-millimetre accuracy in tracking along a trajectory and thus achieving an accurate transfer of pre-surgical plan to the operating room procedure, without the large impact of current medical robots based on modified industrial robots.

  4. Perspectives on mobile robots as tools for child development and pediatric rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Michaud, François; Salter, Tamie; Duquette, Audrey; Laplante, Jean-François

    2007-01-01

    Mobile robots (i.e., robots capable of translational movements) can be designed to become interesting tools for child development studies and pediatric rehabilitation. In this article, the authors present two of their projects that involve mobile robots interacting with children: One is a spherical robot deployed in a variety of contexts, and the other is mobile robots used as pedagogical tools for children with pervasive developmental disorders. Locomotion capability appears to be key in creating meaningful and sustained interactions with children: Intentional and purposeful motion is an implicit appealing factor in obtaining children's attention and engaging them in interaction and learning. Both of these projects started with robotic objectives but are revealed to be rich sources of interdisciplinary collaborations in the field of assistive technology. This article presents perspectives on how mobile robots can be designed to address the requirements of child-robot interactions and studies. The authors also argue that mobile robot technology can be a useful tool in rehabilitation engineering, reaching its full potential through strong collaborations between roboticists and pediatric specialists.

  5. Development of an advanced mobile base for personal mobility and manipulation appliance generation II robotic wheelchair

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongwu; Candiotti, Jorge; Shino, Motoki; Chung, Cheng-Shiu; Grindle, Garrett G.; Ding, Dan; Cooper, Rory A.

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper describes the development of a mobile base for the Personal Mobility and Manipulation Appliance Generation II (PerMMA Gen II robotic wheelchair), an obstacle-climbing wheelchair able to move in structured and unstructured environments, and to climb over curbs as high as 8 inches. The mechanical, electrical, and software systems of the mobile base are presented in detail, and similar devices such as the iBOT mobility system, TopChair, and 6X6 Explorer are described. Findings The mobile base of PerMMA Gen II has two operating modes: “advanced driving mode” on flat and uneven terrain, and “automatic climbing mode” during stair climbing. The different operating modes are triggered either by local and dynamic conditions or by external commands from users. A step-climbing sequence, up to 0.2 m, is under development and to be evaluated via simulation. The mathematical model of the mobile base is introduced. A feedback and a feed-forward controller have been developed to maintain the posture of the passenger when driving over uneven surfaces or slopes. The effectiveness of the controller has been evaluated by simulation using the open dynamics engine tool. Conclusion Future work for PerMMA Gen II mobile base is implementation of the simulation and control on a real system and evaluation of the system via further experimental tests. PMID:23820149

  6. Behavior-based cooperative robotics applied to multi-target observation

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1996-12-31

    An important issue that arises in the automation of many security, surveillance, and reconnaissance tasks is that of monitoring (or observing) the movements of targets navigating in a bounded area of interest. A key research issue in these problems is that of sensor placement - determining where sensors should be located to maintain the targets in view. In complex applications involving limited-range sensors, the use of multiple sensors dynamically moving over time is required. In this paper, the author investigates the use of a cooperative team of autonomous sensor-based robots for the observation of multiple moving targets. The author focuses primarily on developing the distributed control strategies that allow the robot team to attempt to minimize the total time in which targets escape observation by some robot team member in the area of interest. The initial efforts on this problem address the aspects of distributed control in homogeneous robot teams with equivalent sensing and movement capabilities working in an uncluttered, bounded area. This paper first formalizes the problem, discusses related work, and then shows that this problem is NP-hard. The author then presents a distributed approximate approach to solving this problem that combines low-level multi-robot control with higher-level control. The low-level control is described in terms of force fields emanating from the targets and the robots. The higher level control is presented in the ALLIANCE formalism, which provides mechanisms for fault tolerant cooperative control, and allows robot team members to adjust their low-level actions based upon the actions of their teammates. The author then presents the results of the ongoing implementation of this approach, both in simulation and on physical robots. To the authors knowledge, this is the first paper addressing this research problem that has been implemented on physical robot teams.

  7. What Role for Emotions in Cooperating Robots? - The Case of RH3-Y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessimoz, Jean-Daniel; Gauthey, Pierre-François

    The paper reviews key aspects of emotions in the context of cooperating robots (mostly, robots cooperating with humans), and gives numerous concrete examples from RH-Y robots. Emotions have been first systematically studied in relation to human expressions, and then the shift has come towards a machine-based replication. Emotions appear to result from changes, from convergence or deviation between status and goals; they trigger appropriate activities, are commonly represented in 2D or 3D affect space, and can be made visible by facial expressions. While specific devices are sometimes created, emotive expressions seem to be conveniently rendered by a set of facial images or more simply by some icons; they can also possibly be parameterized in a few dimensions for continuous modulation. In fact however, internal forces for activities and changes may be expressed in many ways other than faces: screens, panels, and operational behaviors. Relying on emotions ensures useful aspects, such as experience reuse, legibility or communication. But it also includes limits such as due to the nature of robots, of interactive media, and even of the very domain of emotions. For our goal, the design of effective and efficient, cooperating robots, in domestic applications, communication and interaction play key roles; best practices become evident after experimental verification; and our experience gained so far, over 10 years and more, points at a variety of successful strategic attitudes and expression modes, much beyond classic human emotions and facial or iconic images.

  8. GENERAL: Collision avoidance for a mobile robot based on radial basis function hybrid force control technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Shu-Huan

    2009-10-01

    Collision avoidance is always difficult in the planning path for a mobile robot. In this paper, the virtual force field between a mobile robot and an obstacle is formed and regulated to maintain a desired distance by hybrid force control algorithm. Since uncertainties from robot dynamics and obstacle degrade the performance of a collision avoidance task, intelligent control is used to compensate for the uncertainties. A radial basis function (RBF) neural network is used to regulate the force field of an accurate distance between a robot and an obstacle in this paper and then simulation studies are conducted to confirm that the proposed algorithm is effective.

  9. A Survey of Space Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, L.; Kortenkamp, D.; Wettergreen, D.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we summarize a survey conducted by NASA to determine the state-of-the-art in space robotics and to predict future robotic capabilities under either nominal and intensive development effort. The space robotics assessment study examined both in-space operations including assembly, inspection, and maintenance and planetary surface operations like mobility and exploration. Applications of robotic autonomy and human-robot cooperation were considered. The study group devised a decomposition of robotic capabilities and then suggested metrics to specify the technical challenges associated with each. The conclusion of this paper identifies possible areas in which investment in space robotics could lead to significant advances of important technologies.

  10. A Vision-Based Emergency Response System with a Paramedic Mobile Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Il-Woong; Choi, Jin; Cho, Kyusung; Seo, Yong-Ho; Yang, Hyun Seung

    Detecting emergency situation is very important to a surveillance system for people like elderly live alone. A vision-based emergency response system with a paramedic mobile robot is presented in this paper. The proposed system is consisted of a vision-based emergency detection system and a mobile robot as a paramedic. A vision-based emergency detection system detects emergency by tracking people and detecting their actions from image sequences acquired by single surveillance camera. In order to recognize human actions, interest regions are segmented from the background using blob extraction method and tracked continuously using generic model. Then a MHI (Motion History Image) for a tracked person is constructed by silhouette information of region blobs and model actions. Emergency situation is finally detected by applying these information to neural network. When an emergency is detected, a mobile robot can help to diagnose the status of the person in the situation. To send the mobile robot to the proper position, we implement mobile robot navigation algorithm based on the distance between the person and a mobile robot. We validate our system by showing emergency detection rate and emergency response demonstration using the mobile robot.

  11. 75 FR 57502 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Robotics Technology Consortium, Inc. Correction In notice document 2010-22215 beginning on page 54914 in the issue of...

  12. Incremental inverse kinematics based vision servo for autonomous robotic capture of non-cooperative space debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Gangqi; Zhu, Z. H.

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposed a new incremental inverse kinematics based vision servo approach for robotic manipulators to capture a non-cooperative target autonomously. The target's pose and motion are estimated by a vision system using integrated photogrammetry and EKF algorithm. Based on the estimated pose and motion of the target, the instantaneous desired position of the end-effector is predicted by inverse kinematics and the robotic manipulator is moved incrementally from its current configuration subject to the joint speed limits. This approach effectively eliminates the multiple solutions in the inverse kinematics and increases the robustness of the control algorithm. The proposed approach is validated by a hardware-in-the-loop simulation, where the pose and motion of the non-cooperative target is estimated by a real vision system. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed estimation approach for the target and the incremental control strategy for the robotic manipulator.

  13. Mechanical deployment system on aries an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Rocheleau, D.N.

    1995-12-01

    ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System) is under development for the Department of Energy (DOE) to survey and inspect drums containing low-level radioactive waste stored in warehouses at DOE facilities. This paper focuses on the mechanical deployment system-referred to as the camera positioning system (CPS)-used in the project. The CPS is used for positioning four identical but separate camera packages consisting of vision cameras and other required sensors such as bar-code readers and light stripe projectors. The CPS is attached to the top of a mobile robot and consists of two mechanisms. The first is a lift mechanism composed of 5 interlocking rail-elements which starts from a retracted position and extends upward to simultaneously position 3 separate camera packages to inspect the top three drums of a column of four drums. The second is a parallelogram special case Grashof four-bar mechanism which is used for positioning a camera package on drums on the floor. Both mechanisms are the subject of this paper, where the lift mechanism is discussed in detail.

  14. Obstacle avoidance and motion control for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Konyaly, El-Sayed H.; Enab, Yehia M.; Abdel-Kareem, El-Sayed M.

    1995-01-01

    Autonomous mobile robot is an intelligent machine that is capable of navigating in an obstacle- cluttered environment without collision and without human intervention. The robot uses information provided by its sensors to build a map using graph or grid representation. In this paper the environment is spatial and temporally varying. To find a safe path among obstacles, a map must be created and updated each time an obstacle is encountered. We present an algorithmic work based on virtual force field concept for obstacle detection and avoidance. As a result a collision free path between a start point and a goal position through a flat 2D environment is obtained. The obstacle avoidance technique generates a sequence of speed and steering commands for a vehicle with two front wheels separately driven using two dc motors. A new cross coupled computer control scheme for the two drive motors of the vehicle wheels is proposed. The continuous motion of the vehicle is executed using this control scheme. The new control scheme accounts for drives mismatch. Extensive simulation results are conducted to illustrate the useful aspects of the proposed integrated system.

  15. Development and enhancement of mobile robot arms for EOD applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkemeier, Matthew; Poulson, Eric; Aston, Eric; Johnston, Josh; Smith, Brian

    2008-04-01

    Autonomous Solutions has multiple projects involving mobile robot arms for EOD applications. This paper will describe 3 such projects. In the first, a 5 DOF robot arm of our own design is mounted on a 4-wheeled omni-directional platform. The arm is capable of lifting 100 pounds at close to full extension, and it can lift significantly more at shorter distances. The operator can specify either individual joint control or "fly the gripper" control, where the individual joint velocities are automatically calculated in response to commanded gripper velocities. In the second project, 3D data of a scene of interest is gathered and then presented to the EOD technician, along with a representation of the arm. The technician can then rotate the scene and arm to obtain the best possible view for the task. In the final project, a 3 DOF arm will be mounted to an omni-directional platform. The arm and platform will be treated as a single 6 DOF manipulator, and the operator will specify 6 DOF gripper velocity commands using a 6-axis input device, such as those used for solid modeling programs.

  16. Navigable points estimation for mobile robots using binary image skeletonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez S., Fernando; Jacinto G., Edwar; Montiel A., Holman

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes the use of image skeletonization for the estimation of all the navigable points, inside a scene of mobile robots navigation. Those points are used for computing a valid navigation path, using standard methods. The main idea is to find the middle and the extreme points of the obstacles in the scene, taking into account the robot size, and create a map of navigable points, in order to reduce the amount of information for the planning algorithm. Those points are located by means of the skeletonization of a binary image of the obstacles and the scene background, along with some other digital image processing algorithms. The proposed algorithm automatically gives a variable number of navigable points per obstacle, depending on the complexity of its shape. As well as, the way how the algorithm can change some of their parameters in order to change the final number of the resultant key points is shown. The results shown here were obtained applying different kinds of digital image processing algorithms on static scenes.

  17. Control of a nonholonomic mobile robot using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Fierro, R; Lewis, F L

    1998-01-01

    A control structure that makes possible the integration of a kinematic controller and a neural network (NN) computed-torque controller for nonholonomic mobile robots is presented. A combined kinematic/torque control law is developed using backstepping and stability is guaranteed by Lyapunov theory. This control algorithm can be applied to the three basic nonholonomic navigation problems: tracking a reference trajectory, path following, and stabilization about a desired posture. Moreover, the NN controller proposed in this work can deal with unmodeled bounded disturbances and/or unstructured unmodeled dynamics in the vehicle. On-line NN weight tuning algorithms do no require off-line learning yet guarantee small tracking errors and bounded control signals are utilized.

  18. Calibration and control for range imaging in mobile robot navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Dorum, O.H.; Hoover, A.; Jones, J.P.

    1994-06-01

    This paper addresses some issues in the development of sensor-based systems for mobile robot navigation which use range imaging sensors as the primary source for geometric information about the environment. In particular, we describe a model of scanning laser range cameras which takes into account the properties of the mechanical system responsible for image formation and a calibration procedure which yields improved accuracy over previous models. In addition, we describe an algorithm which takes the limitations of these sensors into account in path planning and path execution. In particular, range imaging sensors are characterized by a limited field of view and a standoff distance -- a minimum distance nearer than which surfaces cannot be sensed. These limitations can be addressed by enriching the concept of configuration space to include information about what can be sensed from a given configuration, and using this information to guide path planning and path following.

  19. Steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Feddema, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots that less complex and requires less power than two degree of freedom tilt mechanisms. The present invention comprises an end effector that, when mounted with a hopping actuator, translates along axis (typically vertical) actuation into combined vertical and horizontal motion. The end effector, or foot, mounts with an end of the actuator that moves toward the support surface (typically a floor or the earth). The foot is shaped so that the first contact with the support surface is off the axis of the actuator. Off-axis contact with the support surface generates an on-axis force (typically resulting in vertical motion) and a moment orthogonal to the axis. The moment initiates a horizontal tumbling motion, and tilts the actuator so that its axis is oriented with a horizontal component and continued actuation generates both vertical and horizontal force.

  20. Mobile robot dynamic path planning based on improved genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Zhou, Heng; Wang, Ying

    2017-08-01

    In dynamic unknown environment, the dynamic path planning of mobile robots is a difficult problem. In this paper, a dynamic path planning method based on genetic algorithm is proposed, and a reward value model is designed to estimate the probability of dynamic obstacles on the path, and the reward value function is applied to the genetic algorithm. Unique coding techniques reduce the computational complexity of the algorithm. The fitness function of the genetic algorithm fully considers three factors: the security of the path, the shortest distance of the path and the reward value of the path. The simulation results show that the proposed genetic algorithm is efficient in all kinds of complex dynamic environments.

  1. Global path planning of mobile robots using a memetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zexuan; Wang, Fangxiao; He, Shan; Sun, Yiwen

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a memetic algorithm for global path planning (MAGPP) of mobile robots is proposed. MAGPP is a synergy of genetic algorithm (GA) based global path planning and a local path refinement. Particularly, candidate path solutions are represented as GA individuals and evolved with evolutionary operators. In each GA generation, the local path refinement is applied to the GA individuals to rectify and improve the paths encoded. MAGPP is characterised by a flexible path encoding scheme, which is introduced to encode the obstacles bypassed by a path. Both path length and smoothness are considered as fitness evaluation criteria. MAGPP is tested on simulated maps and compared with other counterpart algorithms. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of MAGPP and it is shown to obtain better solutions than the other compared algorithms.

  2. HAZBOT - A hazardous materials emergency response mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, H. W.; Edmonds, G.

    The authors describe the progress that has been made towards the development of a mobile robot that can be used by hazardous materials emergency response teams to perform a variety of tasks including incident localization and characterization, hazardous material identification/classification, site surveillance and monitoring, and ultimately incident mitigation. In September of 1991, the HAZBOT II vehicle performed its first end-to-end demonstration involving a scenario in which the vehicle: navigated to the incident location from a distant (150-200 ft.) deployment site; entered a building through a door with thumb latch style handle and door closer; located and navigated to the suspected incident location (a chemical storeroom); unlocked and opened the storeroom's door; climbed over the storeroom's 12 in. high threshold to enter the storeroom; and located and identified a broken container of benzene.

  3. Passive Infrared Thermographic Imaging for Mobile Robot Object Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinders, M. K.; Fehlman, W. L.

    2010-02-01

    The usefulness of thermal infrared imaging as a mobile robot sensing modality is explored, and a set of thermal-physical features used to characterize passive thermal objects in outdoor environments is described. Objects that extend laterally beyond the thermal camera's field of view, such as brick walls, hedges, picket fences, and wood walls as well as compact objects that are laterally within the thermal camera's field of view, such as metal poles and tree trunks, are considered. Classification of passive thermal objects is a subtle process since they are not a source for their own emission of thermal energy. A detailed analysis is included of the acquisition and preprocessing of thermal images, as well as the generation and selection of thermal-physical features from these objects within thermal images. Classification performance using these features is discussed, as a precursor to the design of a physics-based model to automatically classify these objects.

  4. Experiments in mobile robot navigation and range imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.P.; Dorum, O.H.; Andersen, C.S.; Jacobsen, S.V.; Jensen, M.S.; Kierkeby, N.O.S.; Kristensen, S.; Madsen, C.B.; Nielsen, H.M.; Sorensen, E.; Sorensen, J.J.; Christensen, H.I.

    1993-06-01

    This paper describes some experiments in sensor-based mobile robot navigation conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory over the past several years. Two implemented systems are described. One uses a laser range camera as the sole sensor. The other uses, in addition, an array of sonars and a stereo vision system. We discuss a communication system for heterogeneous LAN-connected multiprocessor systems, useful in reasonably large development projects such as these. We also describe some work on the estimation of curvature in range images which introduces a new variational principle motivated by minimization of the change of curvature. Application of this principle is shown to produce results which are more desirable in some respects than those obtained using standard quadratic variation.

  5. Experiments in mobile robot navigation and range imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.P. ); Dorum, O.H. . Div. of Computer Systems and Telematics); Andersen, C.S.; Jacobsen, S.V.; Jensen, M.S.; Kierkeby, N.O.S.; Kristensen, S.; Madsen, C.B.; Nielsen, H.M.; Sorensen, E.; Sorensen, J.J.; Christensen, H.I. . Lab. of Image Analysis)

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes some experiments in sensor-based mobile robot navigation conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory over the past several years. Two implemented systems are described. One uses a laser range camera as the sole sensor. The other uses, in addition, an array of sonars and a stereo vision system. We discuss a communication system for heterogeneous LAN-connected multiprocessor systems, useful in reasonably large development projects such as these. We also describe some work on the estimation of curvature in range images which introduces a new variational principle motivated by minimization of the change of curvature. Application of this principle is shown to produce results which are more desirable in some respects than those obtained using standard quadratic variation.

  6. A Self-Position Recognition Method for Mobile Robots Based on Robot Calling by a User Using a Cellular Phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yasuo; Choi, Yongwoon; Iyota, Taketoshi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Yuzuru

    A service robot system consisting of a cellular phone available to common users and mobile robots has been investigated and developed for the purpose of supporting such human activities as the delivering documents and goods, guiding visitors and patrolling an indoor environment. The system has the feature that is spontaneously able to recognize the robot location on it using the notion of Map-matching, by complying with the request called by a user with a cellular phone. This is possible because the robot's location can be corrected with a barcode of simple structure which is detected by a slit-ray sensor on the robot and a QR-code including location information to be read by a cellular phone. These codes also have the features that are simple to install them in the environment and easy to operate because users don't use an exclusive controller like keyboard on computers, but their own accustomed cellular phone for calling the robot. From the repeated experiments performed with the robot in an indoor corridor, the proposed system was successfully evaluated in the measurement accuracy for some self-positions of the robot called and the reliability for practical navigation. In addition, when the robot was called at a certain location, its behaviors to unexpected action of the user and the effect affected on it are discussed.

  7. Development and validation of a low-cost mobile robotics testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Michael; Hayes, Martin

    2012-03-01

    This paper considers the design, construction and validation of a low-cost experimental robotic testbed, which allows for the localisation and tracking of multiple robotic agents in real time. The testbed system is suitable for research and education in a range of different mobile robotic applications, for validating theoretical as well as practical research work in the field of digital control, mobile robotics, graphical programming and video tracking systems. It provides a reconfigurable floor space for mobile robotic agents to operate within, while tracking the position of multiple agents in real-time using the overhead vision system. The overall system provides a highly cost-effective solution to the topical problem of providing students with practical robotics experience within severe budget constraints. Several problems encountered in the design and development of the mobile robotic testbed and associated tracking system, such as radial lens distortion and the selection of robot identifier templates are clearly addressed. The testbed performance is quantified and several experiments involving LEGO Mindstorm NXT and Merlin System MiaBot robots are discussed.

  8. Co-robotic ultrasound imaging: a cooperative force control approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finocchi, Rodolfo; Aalamifar, Fereshteh; Fang, Ting Yun; Taylor, Russell H.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound (US) imaging remains one of the most commonly used imaging modalities in medical practice. However, due to the physical effort required to perform US imaging tasks, 63-91% of ultrasonographers develop musculoskeletal disorders throughout their careers. The goal of this work is to provide ultrasonographers with a system that facilitates and reduces strain in US image acquisition. To this end, we propose a system for admittance force robot control that uses the six-degree-of-freedom UR5 industrial robot. A six-axis force sensor is used to measure the forces and torques applied by the sonographer on the probe. As the sonographer pushes against the US probe, the robot complies with these forces, following the user's desired path. A one-axis load cell is used to measure contact forces between the patient and the probe in real time. When imaging, the robot augments the axial forces applied by the user, lessening the physical effort required. User studies showed an overall decrease in hand tremor while imaging at high forces, improvements in image stability, and a decrease in difficulty and strenuousness.

  9. Model predictive control for cooperative control of space robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Somasundar; Alamdari, Seyed Amin Sajadi; Dentler, Jan; Olivares-Mendez, Miguel A.; Voos, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The problem of Orbital Manipulation of Passive body is discussed here. Two scenarios including passive object rigidly attached to robotic servicers and passive body attached to servicers through manipulators are discussed. The Model Predictive Control (MPC) technique is briefly presented and successfully tested through simulations on two cases of position control of passive body in the orbit.

  10. The Embudito Mission: A Case Study of the Systematics of Autonomous Ground Mobile Robots

    SciTech Connect

    EICKER,PATRICK J.

    2001-02-01

    Ground mobile robots are much in the mind of defense planners at this time, being considered for a significant variety of missions with a diversity ranging from logistics supply to reconnaissance and surveillance. While there has been a very large amount of basic research funded in the last quarter century devoted to mobile robots and their supporting component technologies, little of this science base has been fully developed and deployed--notable exceptions being NASA's Mars rover and several terrestrial derivatives. The material in this paper was developed as a first exemplary step in the development of a more systematic approach to the R and D of ground mobile robots.

  11. A novel traveling wave piezoelectric actuated tracked mobile robot utilizing friction effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Shu, Chengyou; Jin, Jiamei; Zhang, Jianhui

    2017-03-01

    A novel traveling wave piezoelectric-actuated tracked mobile robot with potential application to robotic rovers was proposed and investigated in this study. The proposed tracked mobile robot is composed of a parallelogram-frame-structure piezoelectric transducer with four rings and a metal track. Utilizing the converse piezoelectric and friction effects, traveling waves were propagated in the rings and then the metal track was actuated by the piezoelectric transducer. Compared with traditional tracked mechanisms, the proposed tracked mobile robot has a simpler and more compact structure without lubricant, which eliminates the problem of lubricant volatilization and deflation, thus, it could be operated in the vacuum environment. Dynamic characteristics were simulated and measured to reveal the mechanism of actuating track of the piezoelectric transducer. Experimental investigations of the traveling wave piezoelectric-actuated tracked mobile robot were then carried out, and the results indicated that the robot prototype with a pair of exciting voltages of 460 Vpp is able to achieve a maximum velocity of 57 mm s-1 moving on the foam plate and possesses the obstacle crossing capability with a maximum height of 27 mm. The proposed tracked mobile robot exhibits potential to be the driving system of robotic rovers.

  12. A Novel Dual Force Sensing Instrument with Cooperative Robotic Assistant for Vitreoretinal Surgery.

    PubMed

    He, Xingchi; Balicki, Marcin; Gehlbach, Peter; Handa, James; Taylor, Russell; Iordachita, Iulian

    2013-12-31

    Robotic assistants and smart surgical instruments have been developed to overcome many significant physiological limitations faced by vitreoretinal surgeons, one of which is lack of force perception below 7.5 mN. This paper reports the development of a new force sensor based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with the ability to sense forces at the tip of the surgical instrument located inside the eye and also provide information about instrument interaction with the sclera. The sclera section provides vital feedback for cooperative robot control to minimize potentially dangerous forces on the eye. Preliminary results with 2×2 degree-of-freedom (DOF) sensor and force scaling robot control demonstrate significant reduction of forces on the sclera. The design and analysis of the sensor is presented along with a simulated robot assisted retinal membrane peeling on a phantom with sclera constraints and audio feedback.

  13. A Novel Dual Force Sensing Instrument with Cooperative Robotic Assistant for Vitreoretinal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    He, Xingchi; Balicki, Marcin; Gehlbach, Peter; Handa, James; Taylor, Russell; Iordachita, Iulian

    2013-01-01

    Robotic assistants and smart surgical instruments have been developed to overcome many significant physiological limitations faced by vitreoretinal surgeons, one of which is lack of force perception below 7.5 mN. This paper reports the development of a new force sensor based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with the ability to sense forces at the tip of the surgical instrument located inside the eye and also provide information about instrument interaction with the sclera. The sclera section provides vital feedback for cooperative robot control to minimize potentially dangerous forces on the eye. Preliminary results with 2×2 degree-of-freedom (DOF) sensor and force scaling robot control demonstrate significant reduction of forces on the sclera. The design and analysis of the sensor is presented along with a simulated robot assisted retinal membrane peeling on a phantom with sclera constraints and audio feedback. PMID:24795831

  14. Man-Robot Symbiosis: A Framework For Cooperative Intelligence And Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Lynne E.; Pin, Francois G.

    1988-10-01

    The man-robot symbiosis concept has the fundamental objective of bridging the gap between fully human-controlled and fully autonomous systems to achieve true man-robot cooperative control and intelligence. Such a system would allow improved speed, accuracy, and efficiency of task execution, while retaining the man in the loop for innovative reasoning and decision-making. The symbiont would have capabilities for supervised and unsupervised learning, allowing an increase of expertise in a wide task domain. This paper describes a robotic system architecture facilitating the symbiotic integration of teleoperative and automated modes of task execution. The architecture reflects a unique blend of many disciplines of artificial intelligence into a working system, including job or mission planning, dynamic task allocation, man-robot communication, automated monitoring, and machine learning. These disciplines are embodied in five major components of the symbiotic framework: the Job Planner, the Dynamic Task Allocator, the Presenter/Interpreter, the Automated Monitor, and the Learning System.

  15. A cognitive approach to vision for a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, D. Paul; Funk, Christopher; Lyons, Damian

    2013-05-01

    We describe a cognitive vision system for a mobile robot. This system works in a manner similar to the human vision system, using saccadic, vergence and pursuit movements to extract information from visual input. At each fixation, the system builds a 3D model of a small region, combining information about distance, shape, texture and motion. These 3D models are embedded within an overall 3D model of the robot's environment. This approach turns the computer vision problem into a search problem, with the goal of constructing a physically realistic model of the entire environment. At each step, the vision system selects a point in the visual input to focus on. The distance, shape, texture and motion information are computed in a small region and used to build a mesh in a 3D virtual world. Background knowledge is used to extend this structure as appropriate, e.g. if a patch of wall is seen, it is hypothesized to be part of a large wall and the entire wall is created in the virtual world, or if part of an object is recognized, the whole object's mesh is retrieved from the library of objects and placed into the virtual world. The difference between the input from the real camera and from the virtual camera is compared using local Gaussians, creating an error mask that indicates the main differences between them. This is then used to select the next points to focus on. This approach permits us to use very expensive algorithms on small localities, thus generating very accurate models. It also is task-oriented, permitting the robot to use its knowledge about its task and goals to decide which parts of the environment need to be examined. The software components of this architecture include PhysX for the 3D virtual world, OpenCV and the Point Cloud Library for visual processing, and the Soar cognitive architecture, which controls the perceptual processing and robot planning. The hardware is a custom-built pan-tilt stereo color camera. We describe experiments using both

  16. Prototyping a Hybrid Cooperative and Tele-robotic Surgical System for Retinal Microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Balicki, Marcin; Xia, Tian; Jung, Min Yang; Deguet, Anton; Vagvolgyi, Balazs; Kazanzides, Peter; Taylor, Russell

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the design of a tele-robotic microsurgical platform designed for development of cooperative and tele-operative control schemes, sensor based smart instruments, user interfaces and new surgical techniques with eye surgery as the driving application. The system is built using the distributed component-based cisst libraries and the Surgical Assistant Workstation framework. It includes a cooperatively controlled EyeRobot2, a da Vinci Master manipulator, and a remote stereo visualization system. We use constrained optimization based virtual fixture control to provide Virtual Remote-Center-of-Motion (vRCM) and haptic feedback. Such system can be used in a hybrid setup, combining local cooperative control with remote tele-operation, where an experienced surgeon can provide hand-over-hand tutoring to a novice user. In another scheme, the system can provide haptic feedback based on virtual fixtures constructed from real-time force and proximity sensor information.

  17. Prototyping a Hybrid Cooperative and Tele-robotic Surgical System for Retinal Microsurgery

    PubMed Central

    Balicki, Marcin; Xia, Tian; Jung, Min Yang; Deguet, Anton; Vagvolgyi, Balazs; Kazanzides, Peter; Taylor, Russell

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a tele-robotic microsurgical platform designed for development of cooperative and tele-operative control schemes, sensor based smart instruments, user interfaces and new surgical techniques with eye surgery as the driving application. The system is built using the distributed component-based cisst libraries and the Surgical Assistant Workstation framework. It includes a cooperatively controlled EyeRobot2, a da Vinci Master manipulator, and a remote stereo visualization system. We use constrained optimization based virtual fixture control to provide Virtual Remote-Center-of-Motion (vRCM) and haptic feedback. Such system can be used in a hybrid setup, combining local cooperative control with remote tele-operation, where an experienced surgeon can provide hand-over-hand tutoring to a novice user. In another scheme, the system can provide haptic feedback based on virtual fixtures constructed from real-time force and proximity sensor information. PMID:24398557

  18. Design and simulation of an image-based fuzzy tracking controller for a wheeled mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiao, Ying Shing; Wu, Ching Wei

    2011-12-01

    Image processing algorithms and fuzzy logic method are used to design a visual tracking controller for mobile robot navigation. In this paper, a wheeled mobile robot is equipped with a camera for detecting its task space. The grabbed environmental images are treated using image recognition processing to obtain target's size and position. The images are treated using input membership functions as the fuzzy logic controller input. The recognized target's size and position are input into a fuzzy logic controller in which fuzzy rules are used for inference. The inference results are output to the defuzzifier to obtain a physical control signal to control the mobile robot's movement. The velocity and direction of the mobile robot are the output of fuzzy logic controller. The differences in velocities for two wheels are used to control the robot's movement directions. The fuzzy logic controller outputs the control commands to drive the mobile robot to reach a position 50cm front of the target location. The simulation results verify that the proposed FLC is effective in navigating the mobile robot to track a moving target.

  19. Applications of tactical mobile robot technology to urban search and rescue: lessons learned at the World Trade Center disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, S. S.; Alibozek, Fred; Frost, Thomas; Norman, Christopher O.; Shein, Andrew M.; Smith, Christopher

    2002-07-01

    In the wake of the World Trade Center tragedy on Sept. 11th 2001, robots developed for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Tactical Mobile Robot program were used under the direction of CRASAR, the Center for Robot-Assisted Search and Rescue, to provide technical support to the relief effort. The TMR's (Tactical Mobile Robots) were used to search the disaster scene for casualties, locate victims, and assess building integrity. During the effort the Tactical Mobile Robots were presented with unprecedented obstacles and challenges. This paper serves to outline lessons learned at the WTC (World Trade Center) disaster and provide information for the development of more capable search and rescue robots.

  20. Patient-cooperative control increases active participation of individuals with SCI during robot-aided gait training

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Manual body weight supported treadmill training and robot-aided treadmill training are frequently used techniques for the gait rehabilitation of individuals after stroke and spinal cord injury. Current evidence suggests that robot-aided gait training may be improved by making robotic behavior more patient-cooperative. In this study, we have investigated the immediate effects of patient-cooperative versus non-cooperative robot-aided gait training on individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Methods Eleven patients with iSCI participated in a single training session with the gait rehabilitation robot Lokomat. The patients were exposed to four different training modes in random order: During both non-cooperative position control and compliant impedance control, fixed timing of movements was provided. During two variants of the patient-cooperative path control approach, free timing of movements was enabled and the robot provided only spatial guidance. The two variants of the path control approach differed in the amount of additional support, which was either individually adjusted or exaggerated. Joint angles and torques of the robot as well as muscle activity and heart rate of the patients were recorded. Kinematic variability, interaction torques, heart rate and muscle activity were compared between the different conditions. Results Patients showed more spatial and temporal kinematic variability, reduced interaction torques, a higher increase of heart rate and more muscle activity in the patient-cooperative path control mode with individually adjusted support than in the non-cooperative position control mode. In the compliant impedance control mode, spatial kinematic variability was increased and interaction torques were reduced, but temporal kinematic variability, heart rate and muscle activity were not significantly higher than in the position control mode. Conclusions Patient-cooperative robot-aided gait training with free timing of movements

  1. Patient-cooperative control increases active participation of individuals with SCI during robot-aided gait training.

    PubMed

    Duschau-Wicke, Alexander; Caprez, Andrea; Riener, Robert

    2010-09-10

    Manual body weight supported treadmill training and robot-aided treadmill training are frequently used techniques for the gait rehabilitation of individuals after stroke and spinal cord injury. Current evidence suggests that robot-aided gait training may be improved by making robotic behavior more patient-cooperative. In this study, we have investigated the immediate effects of patient-cooperative versus non-cooperative robot-aided gait training on individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Eleven patients with iSCI participated in a single training session with the gait rehabilitation robot Lokomat. The patients were exposed to four different training modes in random order: During both non-cooperative position control and compliant impedance control, fixed timing of movements was provided. During two variants of the patient-cooperative path control approach, free timing of movements was enabled and the robot provided only spatial guidance. The two variants of the path control approach differed in the amount of additional support, which was either individually adjusted or exaggerated. Joint angles and torques of the robot as well as muscle activity and heart rate of the patients were recorded. Kinematic variability, interaction torques, heart rate and muscle activity were compared between the different conditions. Patients showed more spatial and temporal kinematic variability, reduced interaction torques, a higher increase of heart rate and more muscle activity in the patient-cooperative path control mode with individually adjusted support than in the non-cooperative position control mode. In the compliant impedance control mode, spatial kinematic variability was increased and interaction torques were reduced, but temporal kinematic variability, heart rate and muscle activity were not significantly higher than in the position control mode. Patient-cooperative robot-aided gait training with free timing of movements made individuals with iSCI participate

  2. Vision-Based Real-Time Traversable Region Detection for Mobile Robot in the Outdoors.

    PubMed

    Deng, Fucheng; Zhu, Xiaorui; He, Chao

    2017-09-13

    Environment perception is essential for autonomous mobile robots in human-robot coexisting outdoor environments. One of the important tasks for such intelligent robots is to autonomously detect the traversable region in an unstructured 3D real world. The main drawback of most existing methods is that of high computational complexity. Hence, this paper proposes a binocular vision-based, real-time solution for detecting traversable region in the outdoors. In the proposed method, an appearance model based on multivariate Gaussian is quickly constructed from a sample region in the left image adaptively determined by the vanishing point and dominant borders. Then, a fast, self-supervised segmentation scheme is proposed to classify the traversable and non-traversable regions. The proposed method is evaluated on public datasets as well as a real mobile robot. Implementation on the mobile robot has shown its ability in the real-time navigation applications.

  3. Human-robot cooperative movement training: Learning a novel sensory motor transformation during walking with robotic assistance-as-needed

    PubMed Central

    Emken, Jeremy L; Benitez, Raul; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2007-01-01

    Background A prevailing paradigm of physical rehabilitation following neurologic injury is to "assist-as-needed" in completing desired movements. Several research groups are attempting to automate this principle with robotic movement training devices and patient cooperative algorithms that encourage voluntary participation. These attempts are currently not based on computational models of motor learning. Methods Here we assume that motor recovery from a neurologic injury can be modelled as a process of learning a novel sensory motor transformation, which allows us to study a simplified experimental protocol amenable to mathematical description. Specifically, we use a robotic force field paradigm to impose a virtual impairment on the left leg of unimpaired subjects walking on a treadmill. We then derive an "assist-as-needed" robotic training algorithm to help subjects overcome the virtual impairment and walk normally. The problem is posed as an optimization of performance error and robotic assistance. The optimal robotic movement trainer becomes an error-based controller with a forgetting factor that bounds kinematic errors while systematically reducing its assistance when those errors are small. As humans have a natural range of movement variability, we introduce an error weighting function that causes the robotic trainer to disregard this variability. Results We experimentally validated the controller with ten unimpaired subjects by demonstrating how it helped the subjects learn the novel sensory motor transformation necessary to counteract the virtual impairment, while also preventing them from experiencing large kinematic errors. The addition of the error weighting function allowed the robot assistance to fade to zero even though the subjects' movements were variable. We also show that in order to assist-as-needed, the robot must relax its assistance at a rate faster than that of the learning human. Conclusion The assist-as-needed algorithm proposed here can

  4. Human-robot cooperative movement training: learning a novel sensory motor transformation during walking with robotic assistance-as-needed.

    PubMed

    Emken, Jeremy L; Benitez, Raul; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2007-03-28

    A prevailing paradigm of physical rehabilitation following neurologic injury is to "assist-as-needed" in completing desired movements. Several research groups are attempting to automate this principle with robotic movement training devices and patient cooperative algorithms that encourage voluntary participation. These attempts are currently not based on computational models of motor learning. Here we assume that motor recovery from a neurologic injury can be modelled as a process of learning a novel sensory motor transformation, which allows us to study a simplified experimental protocol amenable to mathematical description. Specifically, we use a robotic force field paradigm to impose a virtual impairment on the left leg of unimpaired subjects walking on a treadmill. We then derive an "assist-as-needed" robotic training algorithm to help subjects overcome the virtual impairment and walk normally. The problem is posed as an optimization of performance error and robotic assistance. The optimal robotic movement trainer becomes an error-based controller with a forgetting factor that bounds kinematic errors while systematically reducing its assistance when those errors are small. As humans have a natural range of movement variability, we introduce an error weighting function that causes the robotic trainer to disregard this variability. We experimentally validated the controller with ten unimpaired subjects by demonstrating how it helped the subjects learn the novel sensory motor transformation necessary to counteract the virtual impairment, while also preventing them from experiencing large kinematic errors. The addition of the error weighting function allowed the robot assistance to fade to zero even though the subjects' movements were variable. We also show that in order to assist-as-needed, the robot must relax its assistance at a rate faster than that of the learning human. The assist-as-needed algorithm proposed here can limit error during the learning of a

  5. Object Detection Applied to Indoor Environments for Mobile Robot Navigation.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Alejandra Carolina; Gómez, Clara; Crespo, Jonathan; Barber, Ramón

    2016-07-28

    To move around the environment, human beings depend on sight more than their other senses, because it provides information about the size, shape, color and position of an object. The increasing interest in building autonomous mobile systems makes the detection and recognition of objects in indoor environments a very important and challenging task. In this work, a vision system to detect objects considering usual human environments, able to work on a real mobile robot, is developed. In the proposed system, the classification method used is Support Vector Machine (SVM) and as input to this system, RGB and depth images are used. Different segmentation techniques have been applied to each kind of object. Similarly, two alternatives to extract features of the objects are explored, based on geometric shape descriptors and bag of words. The experimental results have demonstrated the usefulness of the system for the detection and location of the objects in indoor environments. Furthermore, through the comparison of two proposed methods for extracting features, it has been determined which alternative offers better performance. The final results have been obtained taking into account the proposed problem and that the environment has not been changed, that is to say, the environment has not been altered to perform the tests.

  6. Object Detection Applied to Indoor Environments for Mobile Robot Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Alejandra Carolina; Gómez, Clara; Crespo, Jonathan; Barber, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    To move around the environment, human beings depend on sight more than their other senses, because it provides information about the size, shape, color and position of an object. The increasing interest in building autonomous mobile systems makes the detection and recognition of objects in indoor environments a very important and challenging task. In this work, a vision system to detect objects considering usual human environments, able to work on a real mobile robot, is developed. In the proposed system, the classification method used is Support Vector Machine (SVM) and as input to this system, RGB and depth images are used. Different segmentation techniques have been applied to each kind of object. Similarly, two alternatives to extract features of the objects are explored, based on geometric shape descriptors and bag of words. The experimental results have demonstrated the usefulness of the system for the detection and location of the objects in indoor environments. Furthermore, through the comparison of two proposed methods for extracting features, it has been determined which alternative offers better performance. The final results have been obtained taking into account the proposed problem and that the environment has not been changed, that is to say, the environment has not been altered to perform the tests. PMID:27483264

  7. Participatory design and validation of mobility enhancement robotic wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Daveler, Brandon; Salatin, Benjamin; Grindle, Garrett G; Candiotti, Jorge; Wang, Hongwu; Cooper, Rory A

    2015-01-01

    The design of the mobility enhancement robotic wheelchair (MEBot) was based on input from electric powered wheelchair (EPW) users regarding the conditions they encounter when driving in both indoor and outdoor environments that may affect their safety and result in them becoming immobilized, tipping over, or falling out of their wheelchair. Phase I involved conducting a participatory design study to understand the conditions and barriers EPW users found to be difficult to drive in/over. Phase II consisted of creating a computer-aided design (CAD) prototype EPW to provide indoor and outdoor mobility that addressed these conditions with advanced applications. Phase III involved demonstrating the advanced applications and gathering feedback from end users about the likelihood they would use the advanced applications. The CAD prototype incorporated advanced applications, including self-leveling, curb climbing, and traction control, that addressed the challenging conditions and barriers discussed with EPW users (n = 31) during the participatory design study. Feedback of the CAD design and applications in phase III from end users (n = 12) showed a majority would use self-leveling (83%), traction control (83%), and curb climbing (75%). The overall design of MEBot received positive feedback from EPW users. However, these opinions will need to be reevaluated through user trials as the design advances.

  8. Symbolic dynamic filtering and language measure for behavior identification of mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Mallapragada, Goutham; Ray, Asok; Jin, Xin

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a procedure for behavior identification of mobile robots, which requires limited or no domain knowledge of the underlying process. While the features of robot behavior are extracted by symbolic dynamic filtering of the observed time series, the behavior patterns are classified based on language measure theory. The behavior identification procedure has been experimentally validated on a networked robotic test bed by comparison with commonly used tools, namely, principal component analysis for feature extraction and Bayesian risk analysis for pattern classification.

  9. Tool for Experimenting with Concepts of Mobile Robotics as Applied to Children's Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez Jojoa, E. M.; Bravo, E. C.; Bacca Cortes, E. B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a tool for experimenting with mobile robotics concepts, primarily for use by children and teenagers, or by the general public, without previous experience in robotics. This tool helps children learn about science in an approachable and interactive way, using scientific research principles in…

  10. From Sci-Fi to Reality--Mobile Robots Get the Job Done

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2006-01-01

    Robots are simply computers that can interact with their environment. Some are fixed in place in industrial assembly plants for cars, appliances, micro electronic circuitry, and pharmaceuticals. Another important category of robots is the mobiles, machines that can be driven to the workplace, often designed for hazardous duty operation or…

  11. SNEAKY: a small highly mobile vision-enabled IP-ready tele-operable robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Vin J.; Natarajan, Narasimhamurthi; Lakshmanan, Sridhar

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes a desirable set of features for small mobile robotic vehicles-features that are desirable both in terms of usefulness and versatility. A generic robotic architecture with these desirable features is discussed. The paper concludes by presenting SNEAKY, a commercial product available from M-Bots, that possesses most of the features included in the architecture.

  12. Tool for Experimenting with Concepts of Mobile Robotics as Applied to Children's Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez Jojoa, E. M.; Bravo, E. C.; Bacca Cortes, E. B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a tool for experimenting with mobile robotics concepts, primarily for use by children and teenagers, or by the general public, without previous experience in robotics. This tool helps children learn about science in an approachable and interactive way, using scientific research principles in…

  13. Dynamic modelling and link mechanism design of four-legged mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung-Ho

    In order to apply the advanced biological phenomena to the leg design of mobile robots, the structural and locomotive characteristics of several selected animals and insects are studied, and the four-legged mobile robot which can cover all existing leg arrangements and locomotion patterns is modeled by a rigid multibody system consisting of links and joints. The model is simulated to prove that the given structure or locomotive conditions satisfy the requirement of minimum energy expenditure. According to the first simulation, there exist ideal forward and backward stroke distances for each pair leg. Therefore, the walking volume and link lengths of existing legged mobile robots should be modified. Also, for other structural and locomotive characteristics which have been used by living creatures, the model is simulated to determine whether or not the actual or possible biological phenomena can be applied to the leg mechanism design of mobile robot.

  14. Differential-Drive Mobile Robot Control Design based-on Linear Feedback Control Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurmaini, Siti; Dewi, Kemala; Tutuko, Bambang

    2017-04-01

    This paper deals with the problem of how to control differential driven mobile robot with simple control law. When mobile robot moves from one position to another to achieve a position destination, it always produce some errors. Therefore, a mobile robot requires a certain control law to drive the robot’s movement to the position destination with a smallest possible error. In this paper, in order to reduce position error, a linear feedback control is proposed with pole placement approach to regulate the polynoms desired. The presented work leads to an improved understanding of differential-drive mobile robot (DDMR)-based kinematics equation, which will assist to design of suitable controllers for DDMR movement. The result show by using the linier feedback control method with pole placement approach the position error is reduced and fast convergence is achieved.

  15. Fuzzy variable impedance control based on stiffness identification for human-robot cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Dachao; Yang, Wenlong; Du, Zhijiang

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a dynamic fuzzy variable impedance control algorithm for human-robot cooperation. In order to estimate the intention of human for co-manipulation, a fuzzy inference system is set up to adjust the impedance parameter. Aiming at regulating the output fuzzy universe based on the human arm’s stiffness, an online stiffness identification method is developed. A drag interaction task is conducted on a 5-DOF robot with variable impedance control. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is superior.

  16. Vision-Based Leader/Follower Tracking for Nonholonomic Mobile Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    06/#1 Title: Vision-based Leader / Follower Tracking for Nonholonomic Mobile Robots Authors: Hariprasad Kannan, Vilas. K. Chitrakaran, Darren. M...number. 1. REPORT DATE 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Vision-Based Leader / Follower Tracking...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Vision-Based Leader / Follower Tracking for Nonholonomic Mobile Robots Hariprasad Kannan, Vilas K

  17. Mobile robots II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cambridge, MA, Nov. 5, 6, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.J.; Chun, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Topics discussed are autonomous vehicle guidance, three-dimensional systems, the Mars rover, motion analysis, and planning and navigation. Particular papers are presented on a real-time system architecture for a mobile robot, distributed scene analysis for autonomous road vehicle guidance, the vision system for a Mars rover, the recovery of motion parameters using optical flow, and Prolog-based world models for mobile robot navigation.

  18. Automating CapCom Using Mobile Agents and Robotic Assistants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhaus, Maarten; Alena, Richard L.; Berrios, Daniel; Dowding, John; Graham, Jeffrey S.; Tyree, Kim S.; Hirsh, Robert L.; Garry, W. Brent; Semple, Abigail

    2005-01-01

    We have developed and tested an advanced EVA communications and computing system to increase astronaut self-reliance and safety, reducing dependence on continuous monitoring and advising from mission control on Earth. This system, called Mobile Agents (MA), is voice controlled and provides information verbally to the astronauts through programs called personal agents. The system partly automates the role of CapCom in Apollo-including monitoring and managing EVA navigation, scheduling, equipment deployment, telemetry, health tracking, and scientific data collection. EVA data are stored automatically in a shared database in the habitat/vehicle and mirrored to a site accessible by a remote science team. The program has been developed iteratively in the context of use, including six years of ethnographic observation of field geology. Our approach is to develop automation that supports the human work practices, allowing people to do what they do well, and to work in ways they are most familiar. Field experiments in Utah have enabled empirically discovering requirements and testing alternative technologies and protocols. This paper reports on the 2004 system configuration, experiments, and results, in which an EVA robotic assistant (ERA) followed geologists approximately 150 m through a winding, narrow canyon. On voice command, the ERA took photographs and panoramas and was directed to move and wait in various locations to serve as a relay on the wireless network. The MA system is applicable to many space work situations that involve creating and navigating from maps (including configuring equipment for local topology), interacting with piloted and unpiloted rovers, adapting to environmental conditions, and remote team collaboration involving people and robots.

  19. Mobile robot worksystem (Rosie). Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) have developed a Large Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate potentially beneficial Deactivation and Decommissioning (D and D) technologies in comparison with current baseline technologies. Rosie is a mobile robot worksystem developed for nuclear facilities D and D. Rosie performs mechanical dismantlement of radiologically contaminated structures by remotely deploying other tools or systems. At the CP-5 reactor site, Rosie is a mobile platform used to support reactor assembly demolition through its long reach, heavy lift capability and its deployment and positioning of a Kraft Predator dexterous manipulator arm. Rosie is a tethered, 50 m (165 ft) long, robotic system controlled via teleoperation from a control console that is located outside of the radiological containment area. The operator uses Rosie to move, lift or offload radioactive materials using its integral lifting hook or to position the Kraft Predator arm in locations where the arm can be used to dismantle parts of the CP-5 reactor. The specific operating areas were concentrated in two high radiation areas, one at the top of the reactor structure atop and within the reactor tank assembly and the second at a large opening on the west side of the reactor`s biological shield called the west thermal column. In the first of these areas, low level radioactive waste size previously segmented or dismantled by the Dual Arm Work Platform (DAWP) and placed into a steel drum or transfer can were moved to a staging area for manual packaging. In the latter area, the manipulator arm removed and transferred shielding blocks from the west thermal column area of the reactor into waste containers. Rosie can also deploy up to twelve remotely controlled television cameras, some with microphones, which can be used

  20. Towards Autonomous Inspection of Space Systems Using Mobile Robotic Sensor Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Edmond; Saad, Ashraf; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    The space transportation systems required to support NASA's Exploration Initiative will demand a high degree of reliability to ensure mission success. This reliability can be realized through autonomous fault/damage detection and repair capabilities. It is crucial that such capabilities are incorporated into these systems since it will be impractical to rely upon Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA), visual inspection or tele-operation due to the costly, labor-intensive and time-consuming nature of these methods. One approach to achieving this capability is through the use of an autonomous inspection system comprised of miniature mobile sensor platforms that will cooperatively perform high confidence inspection of space vehicles and habitats. This paper will discuss the efforts to develop a small scale demonstration test-bed to investigate the feasibility of using autonomous mobile sensor platforms to perform inspection operations. Progress will be discussed in technology areas including: the hardware implementation and demonstration of robotic sensor platforms, the implementation of a hardware test-bed facility, and the investigation of collaborative control algorithms.

  1. Promotion of Cooperation in a Spatial Public Goods Game with Long Range Learning and Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yao; Hua, Da-Yin

    2012-11-01

    We studied the effect of population density in a spatial public goods game. We found that the effect on the evolution of cooperation is very complex when the strategy learning and mobility of players in a long range are considered in a two-dimensional lattice. As the learning range is larger than the mobility range, the system is driven to enter into a cooperation state for a low population density, because a small local group is beneficial to sustain a high level of cooperation. As population density increases to a moderate range, the mobility of players from a domain invaded by defectors supports the evolution stability of cooperation. When the mobility range is larger than the learning range, a formation of compact domains of cooperators promotes cooperation as the population density becomes high.

  2. Control of autonomous mobile robots using custom-designed qualitative reasoning VLSI chips and boards

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.; Pattay, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    Two types of computer boards including custom-designed VLSI chips have been developed to provide a qualitative reasoning capability for the real-time control of autonomous mobile robots. The design and operation of these boards are described and an example of application of qualitative reasoning for the autonomous navigation of a mobile robot in a-priori unknown environments is presented. Results concerning consistency and modularity in the development of qualitative reasoning schemes as well as the general applicability of these techniques to robotic control domains are also discussed. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  3. a Novel Obstacle Avoidance Approach for Mobile Robot System Including Target Capturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kamel, M. A.; Beji, L.; Abichou, A.; Mammar, S.

    2009-03-01

    In this work we focused on the study of how a mobile robot with kinematic model can reach a target in an hostile environment, with one obstacle. We developed a new approach which breaks up the control law into the sum of a repulsive part ur and an attractive part ua to make a mobile robot converge to the target, while avoiding the obstacle. Our approach is based on Lyapunov technique and transformation to polar coordinates in order to built a control law without analytic switch among different cases of robot's navigation. Simulations are carried out for two scenarios of navigation for target capturing.

  4. Obstacle negotiation control for a mobile robot suspended on overhead ground wires by optoelectronic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Li; Yi, Ruan

    2009-11-01

    Power line inspection and maintenance already benefit from developments in mobile robotics. This paper presents mobile robots capable of crossing obstacles on overhead ground wires. A teleoperated robot realizes inspection and maintenance tasks on power transmission line equipment. The inspection robot is driven by 11 motor with two arms, two wheels and two claws. The inspection robot is designed to realize the function of observation, grasp, walk, rolling, turn, rise, and decline. This paper is oriented toward 100% reliable obstacle detection and identification, and sensor fusion to increase the autonomy level. An embedded computer based on PC/104 bus is chosen as the core of control system. Visible light camera and thermal infrared Camera are both installed in a programmable pan-and-tilt camera (PPTC) unit. High-quality visual feedback rapidly becomes crucial for human-in-the-loop control and effective teleoperation. The communication system between the robot and the ground station is based on Mesh wireless networks by 700 MHz bands. An expert system programmed with Visual C++ is developed to implement the automatic control. Optoelectronic laser sensors and laser range scanner were installed in robot for obstacle-navigation control to grasp the overhead ground wires. A novel prototype with careful considerations on mobility was designed to inspect the 500KV power transmission lines. Results of experiments demonstrate that the robot can be applied to execute the navigation and inspection tasks.

  5. A Simple Interface for 3D Position Estimation of a Mobile Robot with Single Camera

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chun-Tang; Chung, Ming-Hsuan; Chiou, Juing-Shian; Wang, Chi-Jo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of mobile robots controlled by a smart phone or tablet. This paper proposes a visual control interface for a mobile robot with a single camera to easily control the robot actions and estimate the 3D position of a target. In this proposal, the mobile robot employed an Arduino Yun as the core processor and was remote-controlled by a tablet with an Android operating system. In addition, the robot was fitted with a three-axis robotic arm for grasping. Both the real-time control signal and video transmission are transmitted via Wi-Fi. We show that with a properly calibrated camera and the proposed prototype procedures, the users can click on a desired position or object on the touchscreen and estimate its 3D coordinates in the real world by simple analytic geometry instead of a complicated algorithm. The results of the measurement verification demonstrates that this approach has great potential for mobile robots. PMID:27023556

  6. An intelligent hybrid behavior coordination system for an autonomous mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chaomin; Krishnan, Mohan; Paulik, Mark; Fallouh, Samer

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, development of a low-cost PID controller with an intelligent behavior coordination system for an autonomous mobile robot is described that is equipped with IR sensors, ultrasonic sensors, regulator, and RC filters on the robot platform based on HCS12 microcontroller and embedded systems. A novel hybrid PID controller and behavior coordination system is developed for wall-following navigation and obstacle avoidance of an autonomous mobile robot. Adaptive control used in this robot is a hybrid PID algorithm associated with template and behavior coordination models. Software development contains motor control, behavior coordination intelligent system and sensor fusion. In addition, the module-based programming technique is adopted to improve the efficiency of integrating the hybrid PID and template as well as behavior coordination model algorithms. The hybrid model is developed to synthesize PID control algorithms, template and behavior coordination technique for wall-following navigation with obstacle avoidance systems. The motor control, obstacle avoidance, and wall-following navigation algorithms are developed to propel and steer the autonomous mobile robot. Experiments validate how this PID controller and behavior coordination system directs an autonomous mobile robot to perform wall-following navigation with obstacle avoidance. Hardware configuration and module-based technique are described in this paper. Experimental results demonstrate that the robot is successfully capable of being guided by the hybrid PID controller and behavior coordination system for wall-following navigation with obstacle avoidance.

  7. Methods in the analysis of mobile robots behavior in unstructured environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondoc, Alina; Dolga, Valer; Gorie, Nina

    2012-11-01

    A mobile robot can be described as a mechatronic system that must execute an application in a working environment. From mechatronic concept, the authors highlight mechatronic system structure based on its secondary function. Mobile robot will move, either in a known environment - structured environment may be described in time by an appropriate mathematical model or in an unfamiliar environment - unstructured - the random aspects prevail. Starting from a point robot must reach a START STOP point in the context of functional constraints imposed on the one hand, the application that, on the other hand, the working environment. The authors focus their presentation on unstructured environment. In this case the evolution of mobile robot is based on obtaining information in the work environment, their processing and integration results in action strategy. Number of sensory elements used is subject to optimization parameter. Starting from a known structure of mobile robot, the authors analyze the possibility of developing a mathematical model variants mathematical contact wheel - ground. It analyzes the various types of soil and the possibility of obtaining a "signature" on it based on sensory information. Theoretical aspects of the problem are compared to experimental results obtained in robot evolution. The mathematical model of the robot system allowed the simulation environment and its evolution in comparison with the experimental results estimated.

  8. Full-state tracking control of a mobile robot using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Chaitanya, V Sree Krishna

    2005-10-01

    In this paper a nonholonomic mobile robot with completely unknown dynamics is discussed. A mathematical model has been considered and an efficient neural network is developed, which ensures guaranteed tracking performance leading to stability of the system. The neural network assumes a single layer structure, by taking advantage of the robot regressor dynamics that expresses the highly nonlinear robot dynamics in a linear form in terms of the known and unknown robot dynamic parameters. No assumptions relating to the boundedness is placed on the unmodeled disturbances. It is capable of generating real-time smooth and continuous velocity control signals that drive the mobile robot to follow the desired trajectories. The proposed approach resolves speed jump problem existing in some previous tracking controllers. Further, this neural network does not require offline training procedures. Lyapunov theory has been used to prove system stability. The practicality and effectiveness of the proposed tracking controller are demonstrated by simulation and comparison results.

  9. A new efficient optimal path planner for mobile robot based on Invasive Weed Optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Prases K.; Parhi, Dayal R.

    2014-12-01

    Planning of the shortest/optimal route is essential for efficient operation of autonomous mobile robot or vehicle. In this paper Invasive Weed Optimization (IWO), a new meta-heuristic algorithm, has been implemented for solving the path planning problem of mobile robot in partially or totally unknown environments. This meta-heuristic optimization is based on the colonizing property of weeds. First we have framed an objective function that satisfied the conditions of obstacle avoidance and target seeking behavior of robot in partially or completely unknown environments. Depending upon the value of objective function of each weed in colony, the robot avoids obstacles and proceeds towards destination. The optimal trajectory is generated with this navigational algorithm when robot reaches its destination. The effectiveness, feasibility, and robustness of the proposed algorithm has been demonstrated through series of simulation and experimental results. Finally, it has been found that the developed path planning algorithm can be effectively applied to any kinds of complex situation.

  10. Space-time modeling using environmental constraints in a mobile robot system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Marc G.

    1990-01-01

    Grid-based models of a robot's local environment have been used by many researchers building mobile robot control systems. The attraction of grid-based models is their clear parallel between the internal model and the external world. However, the discrete nature of such representations does not match well with the continuous nature of actions and usually serves to limit the abilities of the robot. This work describes a spatial modeling system that extracts information from a grid-based representation to form a symbolic representation of the robot's local environment. The approach makes a separation between the representation provided by the sensing system and the representation used by the action system. Separation allows asynchronous operation between sensing and action in a mobile robot, as well as the generation of a more continuous representation upon which to base actions.

  11. Mobile robots IV; Proceedings of the Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, Nov. 6, 7, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.J.; Chun, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on mobile robot systems discusses high-speed machine perception based on passive sensing, wide-angle optical ranging, three-dimensional path planning for flying/crawling robots, navigation of autonomous mobile intelligence in an unstructured natural environment, mechanical models for the locomotion of a four-articulated-track robot, a rule-based command language for a semiautonomous Mars rover, and a computer model of the structured light vision system for a Mars rover. Also discussed are optical flow and three-dimensional information for navigation, feature-based reasoning trail detection, a symbolic neural-net production system for obstacle avoidance and navigation, intelligent path planning for robot navigation in an unknown environment, behaviors from a hierarchical control system, stereoscopic TV systems, the REACT language for autonomous robots, and a man-amplifying exoskeleton.

  12. Space-time modeling using environmental constraints in a mobile robot system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Marc G.

    1990-01-01

    Grid-based models of a robot's local environment have been used by many researchers building mobile robot control systems. The attraction of grid-based models is their clear parallel between the internal model and the external world. However, the discrete nature of such representations does not match well with the continuous nature of actions and usually serves to limit the abilities of the robot. This work describes a spatial modeling system that extracts information from a grid-based representation to form a symbolic representation of the robot's local environment. The approach makes a separation between the representation provided by the sensing system and the representation used by the action system. Separation allows asynchronous operation between sensing and action in a mobile robot, as well as the generation of a more continuous representation upon which to base actions.

  13. Mobile robot trajectory tracking using noisy RSS measurements: an RFID approach.

    PubMed

    Miah, M Suruz; Gueaieb, Wail

    2014-03-01

    Most RF beacons-based mobile robot navigation techniques rely on approximating line-of-sight (LOS) distances between the beacons and the robot. This is mostly performed using the robot's received signal strength (RSS) measurements from the beacons. However, accurate mapping between the RSS measurements and the LOS distance is almost impossible to achieve in reverberant environments. This paper presents a partially-observed feedback controller for a wheeled mobile robot where the feedback signal is in the form of noisy RSS measurements emitted from radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The proposed controller requires neither an accurate mapping between the LOS distance and the RSS measurements, nor the linearization of the robot model. The controller performance is demonstrated through numerical simulations and real-time experiments. ©2013 Published by ISA. All rights reserved.

  14. Surface Support Systems for Co-Operative and Integrated Human/Robotic Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    Human and robotic partnerships to realize space goals can enhance space missions and provide increases in human productivity while decreasing the hazards that the humans are exposed to. For lunar exploration, the harsh environment of the moon and the repetitive nature of the tasks involved with lunar outpost construction, maintenance and operation as well as production tasks associated with in-situ resource utilization, make it highly desirable to use robotic systems in co-operation with human activity. A human lunar outpost is functionally examined and concepts for selected human/robotic tasks are discussed in the context of a lunar outpost which will enable the presence of humans on the moon for extended periods of time.

  15. Sustainable Cooperative Robotic Technologies for Human and Robotic Outpost Infrastructure Construction and Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroupe, Ashley W.; Okon, Avi; Robinson, Matthew; Huntsberger, Terry; Aghazarian, Hrand; Baumgartner, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Robotic Construction Crew (RCC) is a heterogeneous multi-robot system for autonomous acquisition, transport, and precision mating of components in construction tasks. RCC minimizes resources constrained in a space environment such as computation, power, communication and, sensing. A behavior-based architecture provides adaptability and robustness despite low computational requirements. RCC successfully performs several construction related tasks in an emulated outdoor environment despite high levels of uncertainty in motions and sensing. Quantitative results are provided for formation keeping in component transport, precision instrument placement, and construction tasks.

  16. Sustainable Cooperative Robotic Technologies for Human and Robotic Outpost Infrastructure Construction and Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroupe, Ashley W.; Okon, Avi; Robinson, Matthew; Huntsberger, Terry; Aghazarian, Hrand; Baumgartner, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Robotic Construction Crew (RCC) is a heterogeneous multi-robot system for autonomous acquisition, transport, and precision mating of components in construction tasks. RCC minimizes resources constrained in a space environment such as computation, power, communication and, sensing. A behavior-based architecture provides adaptability and robustness despite low computational requirements. RCC successfully performs several construction related tasks in an emulated outdoor environment despite high levels of uncertainty in motions and sensing. Quantitative results are provided for formation keeping in component transport, precision instrument placement, and construction tasks.

  17. Meeting the Complex 21 challenge: Autonomous mobile robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, J.M.

    1993-12-31

    Complex 21 focuses attention on developing the technology to store, inventory, account for, protect, and maintain nuclear material into the 21st Century. The optimum nuclear storage facility would be one operated by a minimum number of on-site personnel. ``As many people as necessary and as few as possible,`` would be a good rule of thumb for staffing a nuclear storage site. Human presence adds certain safety and security considerations to the technology equation. It is no small chore to fashion a technological solution that meets the combined challenges of nuclear material handling, physical protection, inventory management, fire watch, security, and personnel safety. What is needed is a multi-purpose technology with industrial, military, scientific, and security applications; a technology that can pull and carry; one that can autonomously patrol large facilities, monitor environmental conditions, detect smoke, gas, flame, heat, humidity, intrusion, chemical, and radiation hazards; one that can survey inventory and keep accurate, detailed data logs; one that can react to and interact with people, material, equipment, conditions, and events in its work environment. Cybermotion Inc., of Roanoke, VA, has been designing, manufacturing, selling and supporting mobile robotic systems since 1984. The company`s systems are at work in research, industrial, military, nuclear, security, and hazardous environment applications around the world. This paper describes some of these applications and especially the type of instruments they carry to perform monitoring and security patrols.

  18. Improvement in Visual Target Tracking for a Mobile Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won; Ansar, Adnan; Madison, Richard

    2006-01-01

    In an improvement of the visual-target-tracking software used aboard a mobile robot (rover) of the type used to explore the Martian surface, an affine-matching algorithm has been replaced by a combination of a normalized- cross-correlation (NCC) algorithm and a template-image-magnification algorithm. Although neither NCC nor template-image magnification is new, the use of both of them to increase the degree of reliability with which features can be matched is new. In operation, a template image of a target is obtained from a previous rover position, then the magnification of the template image is based on the estimated change in the target distance from the previous rover position to the current rover position (see figure). For this purpose, the target distance at the previous rover position is determined by stereoscopy, while the target distance at the current rover position is calculated from an estimate of the current pose of the rover. The template image is then magnified by an amount corresponding to the estimated target distance to obtain a best template image to match with the image acquired at the current rover position.

  19. Automating CapCom Using Mobile Agents and Robotic Assistants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Alena, Richard L.; Graham, Jeffrey S.; Tyree, Kim S.; Hirsh, Robert L.; Garry, W. Brent; Semple, Abigail; Shum, Simon J. Buckingham; Shadbolt, Nigel; hide

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Agents (MA) is an advanced Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) communications and computing system to increase astronaut self-reliance and safety, reducing dependence on continuous monitoring and advising from mission control on Earth. MA is voice controlled and provides information verbally to the astronauts through programs called "personal agents." The system partly automates the role of CapCom in Apollo-including monitoring and managing navigation, scheduling, equipment deployment, telemetry, health tracking, and scientific data collection. Data are stored automatically in a shared database in the habitat/vehicle and mirrored to a site accessible by a remote science team. The program has been developed iteratively in authentic work contexts, including six years of ethnographic observation of field geology. Analog field experiments in Utah enabled empirically discovering requirements and testing alternative technologies and protocols. We report on the 2004 system configuration, experiments, and results, in which an EVA robotic assistant (ERA) followed geologists approximately 150 m through a winding, narrow canyon. On voice command, the ERA took photographs and panoramas and was directed to serve as a relay on the wireless network.

  20. Multihierarchical interactive task planning: application to mobile robotics.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Cipriano; Fernández-Madrigal, Juan-Antonio; González, Javier

    2008-06-01

    To date, no solution has been proposed to human-machine interactive task planning that deals simultaneously with two important issues: 1) the capability of processing large amounts of information in planning (as it is needed in any real application) and 2) being efficient in human-machine communication (a proper set of symbols for human-machine interaction may not be suitable for efficient automatic planning and vice versa). In this paper, we formalize a symbolic model of the environment to solve these issues in a natural form through a human-inspired mechanism that structures knowledge in multiple hierarchies. Planning with a hierarchical model may be efficient even in cases where the lack of hierarchical information would make it intractable. However, in addition, our multihierarchical model is able to use the symbols that are most familiar to each human user for interaction, thus achieving efficiency in human-machine communication without compromising the task-planning performance. We formalize here a general interactive task-planning process which is then particularized to be applied to a mobile robotic application. The suitability of our approach has been demonstrated with examples and experiments.

  1. A Scalable Distributed Approach to Mobile Robot Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuipers, Benjamin; Browning, Robert L.; Gribble, William S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper documents our progress during the first year of work on our original proposal entitled 'A Scalable Distributed Approach to Mobile Robot Vision'. We are pursuing a strategy for real-time visual identification and tracking of complex objects which does not rely on specialized image-processing hardware. In this system perceptual schemas represent objects as a graph of primitive features. Distributed software agents identify and track these features, using variable-geometry image subwindows of limited size. Active control of imaging parameters and selective processing makes simultaneous real-time tracking of many primitive features tractable. Perceptual schemas operate independently from the tracking of primitive features, so that real-time tracking of a set of image features is not hurt by latency in recognition of the object that those features make up. The architecture allows semantically significant features to be tracked with limited expenditure of computational resources, and allows the visual computation to be distributed across a network of processors. Early experiments are described which demonstrate the usefulness of this formulation, followed by a brief overview of our more recent progress (after the first year).

  2. Cooperative Exploration of Rough Martian Terrains with the "Scorpion" Legged Robot as an Adjunct to a Rover.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano P.; Kirchner, Frank; Spenneberg, Dirk; Starman, Jared; Hanratty, James; Kovsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    NASA needs autonomous robotic exploration of difficult (rough and/or steep) scientifically interesting Martian terrains. Concepts involving distributed autonomy for cooperative robotic exploration are key to enabling new scientific objectives in robotic missions. We propose to utilize a legged robot as an adjunct scout to a rover for access to difficult - scientifically interesting - terrains (rocky areas, slopes, cliffs). Our final mission scenario involves the Ames rover platform "K9" and Scorpion acting together to explore a steep cliff, with the Scorpion robot rappelling down using the K9 as an anchor as well as mission planner and executive. Cooperation concepts, including wheeled rappelling robots have been proposed before. Now we propose to test the combined advantages of a wheeled vehicle with a legged scout as well as the advantages of merging of high level planning and execution with biologically inspired, behavior based robotics. We propose to use the 8-legged, multifunctional autonomous robot platform Scorpion that is currently capable of: Walking on different terrains (rocks, sand, grass, ...). Perceiving its environment and modifying its behavioral pattern accordingly. These capabilities would be extended to enable the Scorpion to: communicate and cooperate with a partner robot; climb over rocks, rubble piles, and objects with structural features. This will be done in the context of exploration of rough terrains in the neighborhood of the rover, but inaccessible to it, culminating in the added capability of rappelling down a steep cliff for both vertical and horizontal terrain observation.

  3. Cooperative Exploration of Rough Martian Terrains with the "Scorpion" Legged Robot as an Adjunct to a Rover.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano P.; Kirchner, Frank; Spenneberg, Dirk; Starman, Jared; Hanratty, James; Kovsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    NASA needs autonomous robotic exploration of difficult (rough and/or steep) scientifically interesting Martian terrains. Concepts involving distributed autonomy for cooperative robotic exploration are key to enabling new scientific objectives in robotic missions. We propose to utilize a legged robot as an adjunct scout to a rover for access to difficult - scientifically interesting - terrains (rocky areas, slopes, cliffs). Our final mission scenario involves the Ames rover platform "K9" and Scorpion acting together to explore a steep cliff, with the Scorpion robot rappelling down using the K9 as an anchor as well as mission planner and executive. Cooperation concepts, including wheeled rappelling robots have been proposed before. Now we propose to test the combined advantages of a wheeled vehicle with a legged scout as well as the advantages of merging of high level planning and execution with biologically inspired, behavior based robotics. We propose to use the 8-legged, multifunctional autonomous robot platform Scorpion that is currently capable of: Walking on different terrains (rocks, sand, grass, ...). Perceiving its environment and modifying its behavioral pattern accordingly. These capabilities would be extended to enable the Scorpion to: communicate and cooperate with a partner robot; climb over rocks, rubble piles, and objects with structural features. This will be done in the context of exploration of rough terrains in the neighborhood of the rover, but inaccessible to it, culminating in the added capability of rappelling down a steep cliff for both vertical and horizontal terrain observation.

  4. The design of mobile robot control system for the aged and the disabled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Wang; Lei, Shi; Xiang, Gao; Jin, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    This paper designs a control system of mobile robot for the aged and the disabled, which consists of two main parts: human-computer interaction and drive control module. The data of the two parts is transferred via universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter. In the former part, the speed and direction information of the mobile robot is obtained by hall joystick. In the latter part, the electronic differential algorithm is developed to implement the robot mobile function by driving two-wheel motors. In order to improve the comfort of the robot when speed or direction is changed, the least squares algorithm is used to optimize the speed characteristic curves of the two motors. Experimental results have verified the effectiveness of the designed system.

  5. Indoor Mobile Robot Navigation by Central Following Based on Monocular Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Takeshi; Tada, Naoya; Konishi, Ryosuke

    This paper develops the indoor mobile robot navigation by center following based on monocular vision. In our method, based on the frontal image, two boundary lines between the wall and baseboard are detected. Then, the appearance based obstacle detection is applied. When the obstacle exists, the avoidance or stop movement is worked according to the size and position of the obstacle, and when the obstacle does not exist, the robot moves at the center of the corridor. We developed the wheelchair based mobile robot. We estimated the accuracy of the boundary line detection, and obtained fast processing speed and high detection accuracy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our mobile robot by the stopping experiments with various obstacles and moving experiments.

  6. Controlling of a mobile robot with a trailer and its nilpotent approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardentov, Andrey A.

    2016-12-01

    This work studies a number of approaches to solving the motion planning problem for a mobile robot with a trailer. Different control models of car-like robots are considered from the differential-geometric point of view. The same models can also be used for controlling a mobile robot with a trailer. However, in cases where the position of the trailer is of importance, i.e., when it is moving backward, a more complex approach should be applied. At the end of the article, such an approach, based on recent works in sub-Riemannian geometry, is described. It is applied to the problem of reparking a trailer and implemented in the algorithm for parking a mobile robot with a trailer.

  7. An integrated collision prediction and avoidance scheme for mobile robots in non-stationary environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyriakopoulos, K. J.; Saridis, G. N.

    1993-01-01

    A formulation that makes possible the integration of collision prediction and avoidance stages for mobile robots moving in general terrains containing moving obstacles is presented. A dynamic model of the mobile robot and the dynamic constraints are derived. Collision avoidance is guaranteed if the distance between the robot and a moving obstacle is nonzero. A nominal trajectory is assumed to be known from off-line planning. The main idea is to change the velocity along the nominal trajectory so that collisions are avoided. A feedback control is developed and local asymptotic stability is proved if the velocity of the moving obstacle is bounded. Furthermore, a solution to the problem of inverse dynamics for the mobile robot is given. Simulation results verify the value of the proposed strategy.

  8. Speed Control of a Sonar-Based Mobile Robot by Considering the Limitation of Accelerated Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emaru, Takanori; Hoshino, Yohei; Kobayashi, Yukinori

    In an autonomous mobile robot, ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) ranging systems are widely used for distance measurements. However, ultrasonic TOF ranging systems tend to neglect infinitesimal reflected waves below a threshold level. Therefore, we have proposed an integration-type ultrasonic wave sensor that utilizes the integration value of the sonar's reflected wave to recognize a traversable area for an autonomous mobile robot. The proposed method simultaneously determines the path and velocity; however, the calculated velocity varies significantly because of sensor noise or error. This paper presents a novel approach to filter the velocity by considering the accelerated velocity. This enables us to consider the limitation of the force exerted by the robot. The validity of the proposed method is investigated in various environments by applying this method to an autonomous mobile robot.

  9. Path optimisation of a mobile robot using an artificial neural network controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M. K.; Parhi, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    This article proposed a novel approach for design of an intelligent controller for an autonomous mobile robot using a multilayer feed forward neural network, which enables the robot to navigate in a real world dynamic environment. The inputs to the proposed neural controller consist of left, right and front obstacle distance with respect to its position and target angle. The output of the neural network is steering angle. A four layer neural network has been designed to solve the path and time optimisation problem of mobile robots, which deals with the cognitive tasks such as learning, adaptation, generalisation and optimisation. A back propagation algorithm is used to train the network. This article also analyses the kinematic design of mobile robots for dynamic movements. The simulation results are compared with experimental results, which are satisfactory and show very good agreement. The training of the neural nets and the control performance analysis has been done in a real experimental setup.

  10. Numerical evaluation of mobile robot navigation in static indoor environment via EGAOR Iteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahalan, A. A.; Saudi, A.; Sulaiman, J.; Din, W. R. W.

    2017-09-01

    One of the key issues in mobile robot navigation is the ability for the robot to move from an arbitrary start location to a specified goal location without colliding with any obstacles while traveling, also known as mobile robot path planning problem. In this paper, however, we examined the performance of a robust searching algorithm that relies on the use of harmonic potentials of the environment to generate smooth and safe path for mobile robot navigation in a static known indoor environment. The harmonic potentials will be discretized by using Laplacian’s operator to form a system of algebraic approximation equations. This algebraic linear system will be computed via 4-Point Explicit Group Accelerated Over-Relaxation (4-EGAOR) iterative method for rapid computation. The performance of the proposed algorithm will then be compared and analyzed against the existing algorithms in terms of number of iterations and execution time. The result shows that the proposed algorithm performed better than the existing methods.

  11. Hybrid position/force control of multi-arm cooperating robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, Samad

    1986-01-01

    This paper extends the theory of hybrid position/force control to the case of multi-arm cooperating robots. Cooperation between n robot arms is achieved by controlling each arm such that the burden of actuation is shared between the arms in a nonconflicting way as they control the position of and force on a designated point on an object. The object, which may or may not be in contact with a rigid environment, is assumed to be held rigidly by n robot end-effectors. Natural and artificial position and force constraints are defined for a point on the object and two selection matrices are obtained to control the arms. The position control loops are designed based on each manipulator's Cartesian space dynamic equations. In the position control subspace, a feature is provided which allows the robot arms to exert additional forces/torques to achieve compression, tension, or torsion in the object without affecting the execution of the motion trajectories. In the force control subspace, a method is introduced to minimize the total force/torque magnitude square while realizing the net desired force/torque on the environment.

  12. Autonomous robotic capture of non-cooperative target by adaptive extended Kalman filter based visual servo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Gangqi; Zhu, Zheng H.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a real-time, vision-based algorithm for the pose and motion estimation of non-cooperative targets and its application in visual servo robotic manipulator to perform autonomous capture. A hybrid approach of adaptive extended Kalman filter and photogrammetry is developed for the real-time pose and motion estimation of non-cooperative targets. Based on the pose and motion estimates, the desired pose and trajectory of end-effector is defined and the corresponding desired joint angles of the robotic manipulator are derived by inverse kinematics. A close-loop visual servo control scheme is then developed for the robotic manipulator to track, approach and capture the target. Validating experiments are designed and performed on a custom-built six degrees of freedom robotic manipulator with an eye-in-hand configuration. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility, effectiveness and robustness of the proposed adaptive extended Kalman filter enabled pose and motion estimation and visual servo strategy.

  13. Evolving homogeneous neurocontrollers for a group of heterogeneous robots: coordinated motion, cooperation, and acoustic communication.

    PubMed

    Tuci, Elio; Ampatzis, Christos; Vicentini, Federico; Dorigo, Marco

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a simulation model in which artificial evolution is used to design homogeneous control structures and adaptive communication protocols for a group of three autonomous simulated robots. The agents are required to cooperate in order to approach a light source while avoiding collisions. The robots are morphologically different: Two of them are equipped with infrared sensors, one with light sensors. Thus, the two morphologically identical robots should take care of obstacle avoidance; the other one should take care of phototaxis. Since all of the agents can emit and perceive sound, the group's coordination of actions is based on acoustic communication. The results of this study are a proof of concept: They show that dynamic artificial neural networks can be successfully synthesized by artificial evolution to design the neural mechanisms required to underpin the behavioral strategies and adaptive communication capabilities demanded by this task. Postevaluation analyses unveil operational aspects of the best evolved behavior. Our results suggest that the building blocks and the evolutionary machinery detailed in the article should be considered in future research work dealing with the design of homogeneous controllers for groups of heterogeneous cooperating and communicating robots.

  14. Mobile satellite services: International co-ordination, co-operation and competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundberg, Olof

    1988-01-01

    In the context of a discussion of international cooperation, coordination and competition regarding mobile satellite services, it is asserted that: there will be more than one civil mobile satellite service in the 1990's; competition between these separate mobile satellite systems is inevitable; no system should enjoy monopoly protection or subsidies; and coordination and cooperation are desirable and necessary, since the available L-band spectrum is in short supply.

  15. Localization of Mobile Robots Using an Extended Kalman Filter in a LEGO NXT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, M.; Moreira, A. P.; Matos, A.

    2012-01-01

    The inspiration for this paper comes from a successful experiment conducted with students in the "Mobile Robots" course in the fifth year of the integrated Master's program in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto (FEUP), Porto, Portugal. One of the topics in this Mobile Robots…

  16. Localization of Mobile Robots Using an Extended Kalman Filter in a LEGO NXT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, M.; Moreira, A. P.; Matos, A.

    2012-01-01

    The inspiration for this paper comes from a successful experiment conducted with students in the "Mobile Robots" course in the fifth year of the integrated Master's program in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto (FEUP), Porto, Portugal. One of the topics in this Mobile Robots…

  17. Movement Simulation for Wheeled Mobile Robot Based on Stereo Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hongwei; Chen, Fuguo; Li, Dong; Yu, Yang

    According to the application of the planet detection, the kinematics model of six wheels rock-bogie robot was studied in this paper. A corresponding robot movement simulation system based on stereo vision and virtual reality was developed. The system provided motion parameters of virtual robot to real robot by means of out-line teaching, which ensured the robot's safety. The visual orientation theory and the simulation system realization based on OpenGL were introduced in detail. The simulation was finished based on synthesis terrain and real terrain, and the results show that the system possesses preferable interactive characteristic, and will provide some key techniques for virtual navigation, teleoperation of planetary exploration robot.

  18. Sensor and Guidance Technology Related to Mobile Robots.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    interior finish is applied. Finish Work Finish work involves insulating, drywalling , painting, and installing floor coverings, roofing, and any type of final...Purpose Robot would do the interior connecting and finishing work, such as insulating, drywalling , and painting. An Exterior Wall Robot would not be needed...on the interior of an Army building under construction. Typical tasks envisioned for such a robot are nailing sheets of drywall or plywood, taping

  19. Passive mapping and intermittent exploration for mobile robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engleson, Sean P.

    1994-01-01

    An adaptive state space architecture is combined with diktiometric representation to provide the framework for designing a robot mapping system with flexible navigation planning tasks. This involves indexing waypoints described as expectations, geometric indexing, and perceptual indexing. Matching and updating the robot's projected position and sensory inputs with indexing waypoints involves matchers, dynamic priorities, transients, and waypoint restructuring. The robot's map learning can be opganized around the principles of passive mapping.

  20. A mobile robot system for ground servicing operations on the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, K.; Bennett, R.; Blackwell, M.; Graham, T.; Gatrall, S.; O'Toole, R.; Schempf, H.

    1992-01-01

    A mobile system for space shuttle servicing, the Tessellator, has been configured, designed and is currently being built and integrated. Robot tasks include chemical injection and inspection of the shuttle's thermal protection system. This paper outlines tasks, rationale, and facility requirements for the development of this system. A detailed look at the mobile system and manipulator follow with a look at mechanics, electronics, and software. Salient features of the mobile robot include omnidirectionality, high reach, high stiffness and accuracy with safety and self-reliance integral to all aspects of the design. The robot system is shown to meet task, facility, and NASA requirements in its design resulting in unprecedented specifications for a mobile-manipulation system.

  1. A mobile robot system for ground servicing operations on the space shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, K.; Bennett, R.; Blackwell, M.; Graham, T.; Gatrall, S.; O'Toole, R.; Schempf, H.

    1992-11-01

    A mobile system for space shuttle servicing, the Tessellator, has been configured, designed and is currently being built and integrated. Robot tasks include chemical injection and inspection of the shuttle's thermal protection system. This paper outlines tasks, rationale, and facility requirements for the development of this system. A detailed look at the mobile system and manipulator follow with a look at mechanics, electronics, and software. Salient features of the mobile robot include omnidirectionality, high reach, high stiffness and accuracy with safety and self-reliance integral to all aspects of the design. The robot system is shown to meet task, facility, and NASA requirements in its design resulting in unprecedented specifications for a mobile-manipulation system.

  2. A Mobile Robot Localization via Indoor Fixed Remote Surveillance Cameras.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae Hong; Cho, Young Im

    2016-02-04

    Localization, which is a technique required by service robots to operate indoors, has been studied in various ways. Most localization techniques have the robot measure environmental information to obtain location information; however, this is a high-cost option because it uses extensive equipment and complicates robot development. If an external device is used to determine a robot's location and transmit this information to the robot, the cost of internal equipment required for location recognition can be reduced. This will simplify robot development. Thus, this study presents an effective method to control robots by obtaining their location information using a map constructed by visual information from surveillance cameras installed indoors. With only a single image of an object, it is difficult to gauge its size due to occlusion. Therefore, we propose a localization method using several neighboring surveillance cameras. A two-dimensional map containing robot and object position information is constructed using images of the cameras. The concept of this technique is based on modeling the four edges of the projected image of the field of coverage of the camera and an image processing algorithm of the finding object's center for enhancing the location estimation of objects of interest. We experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by analyzing the resulting movement of a robot in response to the location information obtained from the two-dimensional map. The accuracy of the multi-camera setup was measured in advance.

  3. Introduction to autonomous mobile robotics using Lego Mindstorms NXT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akın, H. Levent; Meriçli, Çetin; Meriçli, Tekin

    2013-12-01

    Teaching the fundamentals of robotics to computer science undergraduates requires designing a well-balanced curriculum that is complemented with hands-on applications on a platform that allows rapid construction of complex robots, and implementation of sophisticated algorithms. This paper describes such an elective introductory course where the Lego Mindstorms NXT kits are used as the robot platform. The aims, scope and contents of the course are presented, and the design of the laboratory sessions as well as the term projects, which address several core problems of robotics and artificial intelligence simultaneously, are explained in detail.

  4. A satellite orbital testbed for SATCOM using mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Dan; Lu, Wenjie; Wang, Zhonghai; Jia, Bin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Tao; Chen, Genshe; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops and evaluates a satellite orbital testbed (SOT) for satellite communications (SATCOM). SOT can emulate the 3D satellite orbit using the omni-wheeled robots and a robotic arm. The 3D motion of satellite is partitioned into the movements in the equatorial plane and the up-down motions in the vertical plane. The former actions are emulated by omni-wheeled robots while the up-down motions are performed by a stepped-motor-controlled-ball along a rod (robotic arm), which is attached to the robot. The emulated satellite positions will go to the measure model, whose results will be used to perform multiple space object tracking. Then the tracking results will go to the maneuver detection and collision alert. The satellite maneuver commands will be translated to robots commands and robotic arm commands. In SATCOM, the effects of jamming depend on the range and angles of the positions of satellite transponder relative to the jamming satellite. We extend the SOT to include USRP transceivers. In the extended SOT, the relative ranges and angles are implemented using omni-wheeled robots and robotic arms.

  5. Feasibility and effects of patient-cooperative robot-aided gait training applied in a 4-week pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Functional training is becoming the state-of-the-art therapy approach for rehabilitation of individuals after stroke and spinal cord injury. Robot-aided treadmill training reduces personnel effort, especially when treating severely affected patients. Improving rehabilitation robots towards more patient-cooperative behavior may further increase the effects of robot-aided training. This pilot study aims at investigating the feasibility of applying patient-cooperative robot-aided gait rehabilitation to stroke and incomplete spinal cord injury during a therapy period of four weeks. Short-term effects within one training session as well as the effects of the training on walking function are evaluated. Methods Two individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury and two with chronic stroke trained with the Lokomat gait rehabilitation robot which was operated in a new, patient-cooperative mode for a period of four weeks with four training sessions of 45 min per week. At baseline, after two and after four weeks, walking function was assessed with the ten meter walking test. Additionally, muscle activity of the major leg muscles, heart rate and the Borg scale were measured under different walking conditions including a non-cooperative position control mode to investigate the short-term effects of patient-cooperative versus non-cooperative robot-aided gait training. Results Patient-cooperative robot-aided gait training was tolerated well by all subjects and performed without difficulties. The subjects trained more actively and with more physiological muscle activity than in a non-cooperative position-control mode. One subject showed a significant and relevant increase of gait speed after the therapy, the three remaining subjects did not show significant changes. Conclusions Patient-cooperative robot-aided gait training is feasible in clinical practice and overcomes the main points of criticism against robot-aided gait training: It enables patients to train

  6. Feasibility and effects of patient-cooperative robot-aided gait training applied in a 4-week pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Schück, Alex; Labruyère, Rob; Vallery, Heike; Riener, Robert; Duschau-Wicke, Alexander

    2012-05-31

    Functional training is becoming the state-of-the-art therapy approach for rehabilitation of individuals after stroke and spinal cord injury. Robot-aided treadmill training reduces personnel effort, especially when treating severely affected patients. Improving rehabilitation robots towards more patient-cooperative behavior may further increase the effects of robot-aided training. This pilot study aims at investigating the feasibility of applying patient-cooperative robot-aided gait rehabilitation to stroke and incomplete spinal cord injury during a therapy period of four weeks. Short-term effects within one training session as well as the effects of the training on walking function are evaluated. Two individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury and two with chronic stroke trained with the Lokomat gait rehabilitation robot which was operated in a new, patient-cooperative mode for a period of four weeks with four training sessions of 45 min per week. At baseline, after two and after four weeks, walking function was assessed with the ten meter walking test. Additionally, muscle activity of the major leg muscles, heart rate and the Borg scale were measured under different walking conditions including a non-cooperative position control mode to investigate the short-term effects of patient-cooperative versus non-cooperative robot-aided gait training. Patient-cooperative robot-aided gait training was tolerated well by all subjects and performed without difficulties. The subjects trained more actively and with more physiological muscle activity than in a non-cooperative position-control mode. One subject showed a significant and relevant increase of gait speed after the therapy, the three remaining subjects did not show significant changes. Patient-cooperative robot-aided gait training is feasible in clinical practice and overcomes the main points of criticism against robot-aided gait training: It enables patients to train in an active, variable and more natural

  7. Hybrid FES-robot cooperative control of ambulatory gait rehabilitation exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    del-Ama, Antonio J; Gil-Agudo, Angel; Pons, José L; Moreno, Juan C

    2014-03-04

    Robotic and functional electrical stimulation (FES) approaches are used for rehabilitation of walking impairment of spinal cord injured individuals. Although devices are commercially available, there are still issues that remain to be solved. Control of hybrid exoskeletons aims at blending robotic exoskeletons and electrical stimulation to overcome the drawbacks of each approach while preserving their advantages. Hybrid actuation and control have a considerable potential for walking rehabilitation but there is a need of novel control strategies of hybrid systems that adequately manage the balance between FES and robotic controllers. Combination of FES and robotic control is a challenging issue, due to the non-linear behavior of muscle under stimulation and the lack of developments in the field of hybrid control. In this article, a cooperative control strategy of a hybrid exoskeleton is presented. This strategy is designed to overcome the main disadvantages of muscular stimulation: electromechanical delay and change in muscle performance over time, and to balance muscular and robotic actuation during walking.Experimental results in healthy subjects show the ability of the hybrid FES-robot cooperative control to balance power contribution between exoskeleton and muscle stimulation. The robotic exoskeleton decreases assistance while adequate knee kinematics are guaranteed. A new technique to monitor muscle performance is employed, which allows to estimate muscle fatigue and implement muscle fatigue management strategies. Kinesis is therefore the first ambulatory hybrid exoskeleton that can effectively balance robotic and FES actuation during walking. This represents a new opportunity to implement new rehabilitation interventions to induce locomotor activity in patients with paraplegia.Acronym list: 10 mWT: ten meters walking test; 6 MWT: six minutes walking test; FSM: finite-state machine; t-FSM: time-domain FSM; c-FSM: cycle-domain FSM; FES: functional electrical

  8. Hybrid FES-robot cooperative control of ambulatory gait rehabilitation exoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Robotic and functional electrical stimulation (FES) approaches are used for rehabilitation of walking impairment of spinal cord injured individuals. Although devices are commercially available, there are still issues that remain to be solved. Control of hybrid exoskeletons aims at blending robotic exoskeletons and electrical stimulation to overcome the drawbacks of each approach while preserving their advantages. Hybrid actuation and control have a considerable potential for walking rehabilitation but there is a need of novel control strategies of hybrid systems that adequately manage the balance between FES and robotic controllers. Combination of FES and robotic control is a challenging issue, due to the non-linear behavior of muscle under stimulation and the lack of developments in the field of hybrid control. In this article, a cooperative control strategy of a hybrid exoskeleton is presented. This strategy is designed to overcome the main disadvantages of muscular stimulation: electromechanical delay and change in muscle performance over time, and to balance muscular and robotic actuation during walking. Experimental results in healthy subjects show the ability of the hybrid FES-robot cooperative control to balance power contribution between exoskeleton and muscle stimulation. The robotic exoskeleton decreases assistance while adequate knee kinematics are guaranteed. A new technique to monitor muscle performance is employed, which allows to estimate muscle fatigue and implement muscle fatigue management strategies. Kinesis is therefore the first ambulatory hybrid exoskeleton that can effectively balance robotic and FES actuation during walking. This represents a new opportunity to implement new rehabilitation interventions to induce locomotor activity in patients with paraplegia. Acronym list: 10mWT: ten meters walking test; 6MWT: six minutes walking test; FSM: finite-state machine; t-FSM: time-domain FSM; c-FSM: cycle-domain FSM; FES: functional electrical

  9. Remote wave measurements using autonomous mobile robotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurkin, Andrey; Zeziulin, Denis; Makarov, Vladimir; Belyakov, Vladimir; Tyugin, Dmitry; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2016-04-01

    The project covers the development of a technology for monitoring and forecasting the state of the coastal zone environment using radar equipment transported by autonomous mobile robotic systems (AMRS). Sought-after areas of application are the eastern and northern coasts of Russia, where continuous collection of information on topographic changes of the coastal zone and carrying out hydrodynamic measurements in inaccessible to human environment are needed. The intensity of the reflection of waves, received by radar surveillance, is directly related to the height of the waves. Mathematical models and algorithms for processing experimental data (signal selection, spectral analysis, wavelet analysis), recalculation of landwash from data on heights of waves far from the shore, determination of the threshold values of heights of waves far from the shore have been developed. There has been developed the program complex for functioning of the experimental prototype of AMRS, comprising the following modules: data loading module, reporting module, module of georeferencing, data analysis module, monitoring module, hardware control module, graphical user interface. Further work will be connected with carrying out tests of manufactured experimental prototype in conditions of selected routes coastline of Sakhalin Island. Conducting field tests will allow to reveal the shortcomings of development and to identify ways of optimization of the structure and functioning algorithms of AMRS, as well as functioning the measuring equipment. The presented results have been obtained in Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University n.a. R. Alekseev in the framework of the Federal Target Program «Research and development on priority directions of scientific-technological complex of Russia for 2014 - 2020 years» (agreement № 14.574.21.0089 (unique identifier of agreement - RFMEFI57414X0089)).

  10. Cooperative Wall-climbing Robots in 3D Environments for Surveillance and Target Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-08

    distribution of impeller vanes, volume of the chamber, and sealing effect , etc. Fig. 5 and 6 show some exemplary simulation results. In paper [11], we...Environments for Surveillance and Target Tracking 11 multiple nonholonomic mobile robots using Cartesian coordinates. Based on the special feature...gamma-ray or x-ray cargo inspection system. Three-dimensional (3D) measurements of the objects inside a cargo can be obtained by effectively

  11. Introduction to Autonomous Mobile Robotics Using "Lego Mindstorms" NXT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, H. Levent; Meriçli, Çetin; Meriçli, Tekin

    2013-01-01

    Teaching the fundamentals of robotics to computer science undergraduates requires designing a well-balanced curriculum that is complemented with hands-on applications on a platform that allows rapid construction of complex robots, and implementation of sophisticated algorithms. This paper describes such an elective introductory course where the…

  12. Introduction to Autonomous Mobile Robotics Using "Lego Mindstorms" NXT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, H. Levent; Meriçli, Çetin; Meriçli, Tekin

    2013-01-01

    Teaching the fundamentals of robotics to computer science undergraduates requires designing a well-balanced curriculum that is complemented with hands-on applications on a platform that allows rapid construction of complex robots, and implementation of sophisticated algorithms. This paper describes such an elective introductory course where the…

  13. Maneuverability and mobility in palm-sized legged robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohut, Nicholas J.; Birkmeyer, Paul M.; Peterson, Kevin C.; Fearing, Ronald S.

    2012-06-01

    Palm sized legged robots show promise for military and civilian applications, including exploration of hazardous or difficult to reach places, search and rescue, espionage, and battlefield reconnaissance. However, they also face many technical obstacles, including- but not limited to- actuator performance, weight constraints, processing power, and power density. This paper presents an overview of several robots from the Biomimetic Millisystems Laboratory at UC Berkeley, including the OctoRoACH, a steerable, running legged robot capable of basic navigation and equipped with a camera and active tail; CLASH, a dynamic climbing robot; and BOLT, a hybrid crawling and flying robot. The paper also discusses, and presents some preliminary solutions to, the technical obstacles listed above plus issues such as robustness to unstructured environments, limited sensing and communication bandwidths, and system integration.

  14. Motion generation of peristaltic mobile robot with particle swarm optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homma, Takahiro; Kamamichi, Norihiro

    2015-03-01

    In developments of robots, bio-mimetics is attracting attention, which is a technology for the design of the structure and function inspired from biological system. There are a lot of examples of bio-mimetics in robotics such as legged robots, flapping robots, insect-type robots, fish-type robots. In this study, we focus on the motion of earthworm and aim to develop a peristaltic mobile robot. The earthworm is a slender animal moving in soil. It has a segmented body, and each segment can be shorted and lengthened by muscular actions. It can move forward by traveling expanding motions of each segment backward. By mimicking the structure and motion of the earthworm, we can construct a robot with high locomotive performance against an irregular ground or a narrow space. In this paper, to investigate the motion analytically, a dynamical model is introduced, which consist of a series-connected multi-mass model. Simple periodic patterns which mimic the motions of earthworms are applied in an open-loop fashion, and the moving patterns are verified through numerical simulations. Furthermore, to generate efficient motion of the robot, a particle swarm optimization algorithm, one of the meta-heuristic optimization, is applied. The optimized results are investigated by comparing to simple periodic patterns.

  15. A maintenance scheme of communication link in mobile robot ad hoc networks based on potential field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hong; Jin, WenPing; Yang, GyoYing; Li, LeiMin

    2007-12-01

    Maintaining communication link in mobile robot networks between task robots and a control center is very important in some urgent application occasions such as remote danger detections. To offer a reliable multi-hop communication link, a link maintaining scheme based on artificial potential field is presented. The scheme is achieved by a task robot and communication relay ones. The task robot performs predefined tasks, and relay ones are simple robots which form a communication relay chain. When robots move towards destination in formation, a kind of attractive force created by communication quality is added to traditional potential field, and relay robots follow the task robot and automatically stop at adequate locations to form a relay chain from the control station to the task robot. In order to increase relay usage efficiency, when some relays are replaced by other short cut relays, the redundant relays can be reused by initiating another moving toward specified location. Simulation results show that the scheme can provide a reliable multi-hop communication link, and that the communication connection can be obtained through minimal number of relays.

  16. Mobile robot based electrostatic spray system for controlling pests on cotton plants in Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mamury, M.; Manivannan, N.; Al-Raweshidy, H.; Balachandran, W.

    2015-10-01

    A mobile robot based electrostatic spray system was developed to combat pest infestation on cotton plants in Iraq. The system consists of a charged spray nozzle, a CCD camera, a mobile robot (vehicle and arm) and Arduino microcontroller. Arduino microcontroller is used to control the spray nozzle and the robot. Matlab is used to process the image from the CCD camera and to generate the appropriate control signals to the robot and the spray nozzle. COMSOL multi-physics FEM software was used to design the induction electrodes to achieve maximum charge transfer onto the fan spray liquid film resulting in achieving the desired charge/mass ratio of the spray. The charged spray nozzle was operated on short duration pulsed spray mode. Image analysis was employed to investigate the spray deposition on improvised insect targets on an artificial plant.

  17. Evaluation of unmanned airborne vehicles and mobile robotic telesurgery in an extreme environment.

    PubMed

    Harnett, Brett M; Doarn, Charles R; Rosen, Jacob; Hannaford, Blake; Broderick, Timothy J

    2008-08-01

    As unmanned extraction vehicles become a reality in the military theater, opportunities to augment medical operations with telesurgical robotics become more plausible. This project demonstrated an experimental surgical robot using an unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) as a network topology. Because battlefield operations are dynamic and geographically challenging, the installation of wireless networks is not a feasible option at this point. However, to utilize telesurgical robotics to assist in the urgent medical care of wounded soldiers, a robust, high bandwidth, low latency network is requisite. For the first time, a mobile surgical robotic system was deployed to an austere environment and surgeons were able to remotely operate the systems wirelessly using a UAV. Two University of Cincinnati surgeons were able to remotely drive the University of Washington's RAVEN robot's end effectors. The network topology demonstrated a highly portable, quickly deployable, bandwidth-sufficient and low latency wireless network required for battlefield use.

  18. Event-Based Control Strategy for Mobile Robots in Wireless Environments.

    PubMed

    Socas, Rafael; Dormido, Sebastián; Dormido, Raquel; Fabregas, Ernesto

    2015-12-02

    In this paper, a new event-based control strategy for mobile robots is presented. It has been designed to work in wireless environments where a centralized controller has to interchange information with the robots over an RF (radio frequency) interface. The event-based architectures have been developed for differential wheeled robots, although they can be applied to other kinds of robots in a simple way. The solution has been checked over classical navigation algorithms, like wall following and obstacle avoidance, using scenarios with a unique or multiple robots. A comparison between the proposed architectures and the classical discrete-time strategy is also carried out. The experimental results shows that the proposed solution has a higher efficiency in communication resource usage than the classical discrete-time strategy with the same accuracy.

  19. Connectivity-Preserving Approach for Distributed Adaptive Synchronized Tracking of Networked Uncertain Nonholonomic Mobile Robots.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sung Jin; Park, Bong Seok

    2017-09-06

    This paper addresses a distributed connectivity-preserving synchronized tracking problem of multiple uncertain nonholonomic mobile robots with limited communication ranges. The information of the time-varying leader robot is assumed to be accessible to only a small fraction of follower robots. The main contribution of this paper is to introduce a new distributed nonlinear error surface for dealing with both the synchronized tracking and the preservation of the initial connectivity patterns among nonholonomic robots. Based on this nonlinear error surface, the recursive design methodology is presented to construct the approximation-based local adaptive tracking scheme at the robot dynamic level. Furthermore, a technical lemma is established to analyze the stability and the connectivity preservation of the total closed-loop control system in the Lyapunov sense. An example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  20. Deployment Control of Wireless Multi-Hop-Relay Mobile Robots Based on Voronoi Partition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaizumi, Takaaki; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Uchimura, Yutaka

    This paper describes a new method for the deployment of wireless relay nodes. When using rescue robots in a building or underground city, the wireless radio signal is attenuated significantly, and therefore, multi-hop extension involving wireless communication relays is required. The goal of this research is to deploy wireless relay nodes to maintain connectivity between the base station and the leader robot that explores around the front line. To move the relay robot autonomously, a distributed algorithm is required. The proposed method is suitable when it is applied for wireless relay purposes. In the method, a virtual force drives a node to the centroid of Voronoi neighbors, and it maintains the connectivity of wireless communication. The proposed method is evaluated by conducting numerical simulations and experiments. In the simulation, one or two leader robots are assumed. In the experiment, a mobile robot equipped with omni-wheels is used.