Science.gov

Sample records for cooperation apec member

  1. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) - Center for Global Health

    Cancer.gov

    As the leading economic forum in the Asia-Pacific region, APEC facilitates economic growth and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region through trade and investment liberalization, business facilitation, and economic and technical cooperation.

  2. Teacher Preparation and Professional Development in APEC Members: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling-Hammond, Linda, Ed.; Cobb, Velma L., Ed.

    This document is the final report of Phase I of a comparative study of teacher-training practices among 12 nation members of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. The purposes of the study were to: (1) provide concrete, comparable descriptions of teacher-preparation systems useful to educators, researchers, and policymakers in all APEC member…

  3. 77 FR 44582 - Applications To Serve as Accountability Agents in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Applications To Serve as Accountability Agents in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Cross Border Privacy Rules (CBPR) System AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION... Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Cross Border Privacy Rules (CBPR) System. SUMMARY: The...

  4. Radiocarbon-derived source apportionment of fine carbonaceous aerosols before, during, and after the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junwen; Mo, Yangzhi; Li, Jun; Liu, Di; Shen, Chengde; Ding, Ping; Jiang, Haoyu; Cheng, Zhineng; Zhang, Xiangyun; Tian, Chongguo; Chen, Yingjun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-04-01

    The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit took place in Beijing, China, 5-11 November 2014, during which numerous measures were performed to control the air pollution, and consequently, the sky of Beijing was so clean that the public called it "APEC blue." The concentrations before, during, and after the APEC summit are 14.4 ± 6.81 µg C/m3, 6.66 ± 2.99 µg C/m3, and 32.3 ± 10.6 µg C/m3, respectively, for organic carbon (OC), and 2.27 ± 1.17 µg C/m3, 0.76 ± 0.52 µg C/m3, and 4.99 ± 1.74 µg C/m3, respectively, for elemental carbon (EC). We quantify the contributions of fossil and nonfossil sources to the OC and EC using radiocarbon. Results show that the contribution of nonfossil sources is 56 ± 1% (before APEC), 61 ± 1% (during APEC), and 48 ± 1% (after APEC), respectively, for OC, and 36 ± 4% (before APEC), 46 ± 1% (during APEC), and 33 ± 4% (after APEC), respectively, for EC. Comparing to the period before APEC, 70% and 60% of fossil EC and OC and 60% and 50% of nonfossil EC and OC are reduced, respectively, implying that the control on the nonfossil sources has considerable contribution to the good air quality in Beijing. Both EC and OC mass loadings during the APEC summit would have increased by 60% if the biomass-burning activities were not taken into account for control. In such a case, the atmospheric visibility would decrease 20% at least and the blue sky thereby would likely not have been visible during the summit.

  5. 64 FR 16913 - Request for Comments on the Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Electronic Commerce...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-04-07

    ...) Electronic Commerce Steering Group Work Plan AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION... Administration (DOC/ITA) seeks comment on the APEC Electronic Commerce Steering Group work program. DATES... text in the subject line of the message: ``APEC Electronic Commerce Steering Group work...

  6. APEC's greener energy outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isa, A. M.; Samuelson, R. D.

    2013-06-01

    The APEC member economies combined accounts for more than 50% of the world's GDP and consume almost 60% of the world's energy. Under the 2011 Honolulu Declaration, APEC Leaders have set an aspirational goal to reduce APEC's aggregate energy intensity by 45 percent by 2035, compared to 2005 levels. This article summarises the results from an APEC-wide study on APEC energy demand and supply outlook from 2010 to 2035. Our business-as-usual projections show that by 2035, APEC energy demand will have increased by 40% of 2010 levels. We also found that historical trends for declining energy intensity will continue and that APEC will likely achieve its aspirational intensity reduction goal. However, our results also suggest that CO2 emissions will continue to rise and energy security will become less assured. Recognizing these vulnerabilities, APEC has already initiated a broad range of activities to achieve its 'green growth' objectives. While these have been fairly successful in guiding APEC economies towards a path of more sustainable development, these efforts will need to be intensified further to avoid serious environmental degradation.

  7. Cooperative functions: meeting members' needs

    Treesearch

    Mark G. Rickenbach

    2006-01-01

    Cooperatives are effective when they meet the needs of the members. In past and current offerings by cooperatives as a whole and forestry cooperatives in particular, four functional categories cover the typical services a forest landowner might gain access to through joining (Cobia 1989). The four categories - marketing, supply, service, and social - are defined and...

  8. Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment Capabilities in APEC Economies

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P

    2008-11-01

    This survey of biomass resource assessments and assessment capabilities in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies considered various sources: academic and government publications, media reports, and personal communication with contacts in member economies.

  9. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Member cooperatives. 1425.19 Section 1425.19... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf of a member cooperative when the...

  10. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Member cooperatives. 1425.19 Section 1425.19... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf of a member cooperative when the...

  11. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Member cooperatives. 1425.19 Section 1425.19... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf of a member cooperative when the...

  12. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Member cooperatives. 1425.19 Section 1425.19... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf of a member cooperative when the...

  13. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Member cooperatives. 1425.19 Section 1425.19... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf of a member cooperative when the...

  14. Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the 2008 Meetings in Lima, Peru

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-31

    and decides that Individual Action Plans should be updated annually. 1998 - Kuala Lumpur , Malaysia President Clinton does not attend because of the...Resource Conservation, (7) Telecommunications, (8) Transportation, (9) Tourism , and (10) Fisheries. Each working group has one or more shepherds...health problems due to SARS, the economies of both SARS-infected and non-infected members were harmed by the loss of tourism .47 The value of having

  15. Relative impact of emissions controls and meteorology on air pollution mitigation associated with the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuqin; Zhang, Yang; Schauer, James Jay; de Foy, Benjamin; Guo, Bo; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2016-11-15

    The Beijing government and its surrounding provinces implemented a series of measures to ensure haze-free skies during the 22(nd) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference (November 10(th)-11(th), 2014). These measures included restrictions on traffic, construction, and industrial activity. Twelve hour measurements of the concentration and composition of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were performed for 5 consecutive months near the APEC conference site before (September 11(th)-November 2(nd), 2014), during (November 3(rd)-12(th), 2014) and after (November 13(th), 2014-January 31(st), 2015). The measurements are used in a positive matrix factorization model to determine the contributions from seven sources of PM2.5: secondary aerosols, traffic exhaust, industrial emission, road dust, soil dust, biomass burning and residual oil combustion. The source apportionment results are integrated with backward trajectory analysis using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) meteorological simulations, which determine the relative influence of new regulation and meteorology upon improved air quality during the APEC conference. Data show that controls are very effective, but meteorology must be taken into account to determine the actual influence of the controls on pollution reduction. The industry source control is the most effective for reducing concentrations, followed by secondary aerosol and biomass controls, while the least effective control is for the residual oil combustion source. The largest reductions in concentrations occur when air mass transport is from the west-northwest (Ulanqab). Secondary aerosol and traffic exhaust reductions are most significant for air mass transport from the north-northwest (Xilingele League) origin, and least significant for northeast transport (Chifeng via Tangshan conditions). The largest reductions of soil dust, biomass burning, and industrial source are distinctly seen for Ulanqab conditions and least distinct for

  16. Relative Impact of Emissions Controls and Meteorology on Air Pollution Mitigation Associated with the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Conference in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Schauer, J. J.; de Foy, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Beijing government and its surrounding provinces implemented a series of measures to ensure haze-free skies during the 22nd Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference (November 10th - 11th, 2014). These measures included restrictions on traffic, construction, and industrial activity. Twelve hour measurements of the concentration and composition of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were performed for 5 consecutive months near the APEC conference site before (September 11th - November 2nd, 2014), during (November 3rd - 12th, 2014) and after (November 13th, 2014 - January 31st, 2015). The measurements are used in a positive matrix factorization model to determine the contributions from seven sources of PM2.5: secondary aerosols, mobile source, industrial emission, road dust, soil dust, biomass burning and residual oil combustion. The source apportionment results are integrated with backward trajectory analysis using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) meteorological simulations, which determine the relative influence of new regulation and meteorology upon improved air quality during the APEC conference. Data show that controls are very effective, but meteorology must be taken into account to determine the actual influence of the controls on pollution reduction. The Industry source control is the most effective for reducing concentrations, follows by secondary aerosol and biomass controls, while the least effective control is for the residual oil combustion source. The largest reductions in concentrations occur when air mass transport is from the west-northwest (Ulanqab). Secondary aerosol and mobile source reductions are most significant for air mass transport from the north-northwest (Xilingele League) origin, and least significant for northeast transport (Chifeng via Tangshan conditions). The largest reductions of soil dust, biomass burning, and industrial source are distinctly seen for Ulanqab conditions and least distinct for Xilingele League.

  17. Education Standards for the 21st Century: Opening Statements of Ministers at the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Education Ministerial, August 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Policy and Planning (ED), Washington, DC.

    While the member countries of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) have many differences in culture, history, and level of economic development, all APEC representatives who attended this ministerial agreed on the importance of establishing education standards and examination systems to meet the needs of their people in the 21st century.…

  18. 24 CFR 235.325 - Qualified cooperative members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... meets one of the following qualifications: (i) The member's family is displaced from an urban renewal... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Qualified cooperative members. 235.325 Section 235.325 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  19. 24 CFR 235.325 - Qualified cooperative members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... meets one of the following qualifications: (i) The member's family is displaced from an urban renewal... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified cooperative members. 235.325 Section 235.325 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  20. 24 CFR 235.325 - Qualified cooperative members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... meets one of the following qualifications: (i) The member's family is displaced from an urban renewal... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Qualified cooperative members. 235.325 Section 235.325 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  1. 24 CFR 235.325 - Qualified cooperative members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... meets one of the following qualifications: (i) The member's family is displaced from an urban renewal... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Qualified cooperative members. 235.325 Section 235.325 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  2. 24 CFR 235.325 - Qualified cooperative members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... meets one of the following qualifications: (i) The member's family is displaced from an urban renewal... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Qualified cooperative members. 235.325 Section 235.325 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  3. APECS: A Network for Polar Early Career Scientist Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enderlin, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Researchers (APECS) is an international and interdisciplinary organization for undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in the polar regions, alpine regions and the wider Cryosphere. APECS is a scientific, non-profit organization with free individual membership that aims to stimulate research collaborations and develop effective future leaders in polar research, education, and outreach. APECS grew out of the 4th International Polar Year (2007-08), which emphasized the need to stimulate and nurture the next generation of scientists in order to improve the understanding and communication of the polar regions and its global connections. The APECS organizational structure includes a Council and an elected Executive Committee that are supported by a Directorate. These positions are open to all individual members through a democratic process. The APECS Directorate is funded by the Norwegian Research Council, the University of Tromsø and the Norwegian Polar Institute and is hosted by the University of Tromsø. Early career scientists benefit from a range of activities hosted/organized by APECS. Every year, numerous activities are run with partner organizations and in conjunction with major polar conferences and meetings. In-person and online panels and workshops focus on a range of topics, from developing field skills to applying for a job after graduate school. Career development webinars are hosted each fall and topical research webinars are hosted throughout the year and archived online (http://www.apecs.is). The APECS website also contains abundant information on polar news, upcoming conferences and meetings, and job postings for early career scientists. To better respond to members' needs, APECS has national/regional committees that are linked to the international overarching organization. Many of these committees organize regional meetings or

  4. Assessment of Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Economies

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

    2009-08-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the marginal lands in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies and evaluate their biomass productivity potential. Twelve categories of marginal lands are identified using the Global Agro-Ecological Zones system of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

  5. MIF family members cooperatively inhibit p53 expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Brock, Stephanie E; Rendon, Beatriz E; Xin, Dan; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha; Mitchell, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 is induced by genotoxic stress in both normal and transformed cells and serves to transcriptionally coordinate cell cycle checkpoint control and programmed cell death responses. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an autocrine and paracrine acting cytokine/growth factor that promotes lung adenocarcinoma cell motility, anchorage-independence and neo-angiogenic potential. Several recent studies indicate that the only known homolog of MIF, D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT - also referred to as MIF-2), has functionally redundant activities with MIF and cooperatively promotes MIF-dependent pro-tumorigenic phenotypes. We now report that MIF and D-DT synergistically inhibit steady state p53 phosphorylation, stabilization and transcriptional activity in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. The combined loss of MIF and D-DT by siRNA leads to dramatically reduced cell cycle progression, anchorage independence, focus formation and increased programmed cell death when compared to individual loss of MIF or D-DT. Importantly, p53 mutant and p53 null lung adenocarcinoma cell lines were only nominally rescued from the cell growth effects of MIF/D-DT combined deficiency suggesting only a minor role for p53 in these transformed cell growth phenotypes. Finally, increased p53 activation was found to be independent of aberrantly activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that occurs in response to MIF/D-DT-deficiency but is dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) that mediate aberrant AMPK activation in these cells. Combined, these findings suggest that both p53 wildtype and mutant human lung adenocarcinoma tumors rely on MIF family members for maximal cell growth and survival.

  6. APECS - The Atacama Pathfinder Experiment Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muders, D.; Hafok, H.; Wyrowski, F.; Polehampton, E.; Belloche, A.; König, C.; Schaaf, R.

    2006-07-01

    APECS is the CORBA based, distributed control system for the new Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) Telescope located at the Llano de Chajnantor at an altitude of 5100m in the Atacama desert in northern Chile. The telescope has been operational since August 2005 and APECS is now being used for regular science observations. APECS employs a modern, object-oriented design. Generic interfaces facilitate adding new instruments. The IPython based observer command language allows using macros and creating more complex observing modes.

  7. 75 FR 64728 - Cooperative Operating Philosophy-Serving the Members of Farm Credit System Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... Cooperative Operating Philosophy--Serving the Members of Farm Credit System Institutions AGENCY: Farm Credit... (System) institution and identifies three business practices for operating the cooperative with a focus on... which Farm Credit System (System) institutions are required to operate.\\1\\ The FCA emphasizes...

  8. TPPA and tobacco control: threats to APEC countries.

    PubMed

    Sy, Deborah K; Stumberg, Robert K

    2014-11-01

    Twelve-member countries of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) are negotiating the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA), a free trade agreement to facilitate international trade and investment. As reported by multiple sources, the TPPA would grant the same trade benefits and legal protections to tobacco products, services and investments that it would provide to other sectors. Malaysia proposed excluding tobacco control measures from the scope of all TPPA chapters while the US proposed only to establish a consultation process in tobacco-related disputes and to declare that tobacco control measures serve a health objective within the scope of the general exceptions. The article analyses selected TPPA trade and investment rules and shows how they strengthen the ability of tobacco companies or a country to challenge the most progressive tobacco control measures. In the absence of a complete TPPA text, the analysis is based on specific leaked chapters, legal analysis from observers in the negotiations, existing free trade agreements among the TPPA parties and positions of the tobacco industry and its allies. Five TPPA chapters pose the most significant threats to tobacco control measures: Investment, Regulatory Coherence, Services, Intellectual Property and Technical Barriers to Trade. Trade negotiators should expand safeguards to ensure that the TPPA does no harm. The most effective would be to exclude (carve out) tobacco control measures from the scope of all TPPA chapters, as Malaysia has proposed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. APECS - the Atacama pathfinder experiment control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muders, D.; Hafok, H.; Wyrowski, F.; Polehampton, E.; Belloche, A.; König, C.; Schaaf, R.; Schuller, F.; Hatchell, J.; van der Tak, F.

    2006-08-01

    APECS is the distributed control system of the new Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope located on the Llano de Chajnantor at an altitude of 5107 m in the Atacama desert in northern Chile. APECS is based on Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) software and employs a modern, object-oriented design using the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) as the middleware. New generic device interfaces simplify adding instruments to the control system. The Python based observer command scripting language allows using many existing software libraries and facilitates creating more complex observing modes. A new self-descriptive raw data format (Multi-Beam FITS or MBFITS) has been defined to store the multi-beam, multi-frequency data. APECS provides an online pipeline for initial calibration, observer feedback and a quick-look display. APECS is being used for regular science observations in local and remote mode since August 2005.

  10. Future of Liquid Biofuels for APEC Economies

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

    2008-05-01

    This project was initiated by APEC Energy Working Group (EWG) to maximize the energy sector's contribution to the region's economic and social well-being through activities in five areas of strategic importance including liquid biofuels production and development.

  11. Concentrations and stable carbon isotope compositions of oxalic acid and related SOA in Beijing before, during, and after the 2014 APEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Wang, Gehui; Gao, Jian; Wang, Han; Ren, Yanqin; Li, Jianjun; Zhou, Bianhong; Wu, Can; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Shulan; Chai, Fahe

    2017-01-01

    To ensure good air quality for the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit, stringent emission controls were implemented in Beijing and its surrounding regions, leading to a significant reduction in PM2.5 loadings. To investigate the impact of the emission controls on aerosol chemistry, high-volume PM2.5 samples were collected in Beijing from 8 October to 24 November 2014 and determined for secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA, i.e., SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+), dicarboxylic acids, keto-carboxylic acid, and α-dicarbonyls, as well as stable carbon isotope composition of oxalic acid (C2). Our results showed that SIA, C2, and related secondary organic aerosols in PM2.5 during APEC were 2-4 times lower than those before APEC, which is firstly ascribed to the strict emission control measures and secondly attributed to the relatively colder and drier conditions during the event that are unfavorable for secondary aerosol production.C2 in the polluted air masses, which mostly occurred before APEC, are abundant and enriched in 13C. On the contrary, C2 in the clean air masses, which mostly occurred during APEC, is much less abundant but still enriched in 13C. In the mixed type of clean and polluted air masses, which mostly occurred after APEC, C2 is lower than that before APEC but higher than that during APEC and enriched in lighter 12C. A comparison on chemical composition of fine particles and δ13C values of C2 in two events that are characterized by high loadings of PM2.5 further showed that after APEC SIA and the total detected organic compounds (TDOC) are much less abundant and fine aerosols are enriched with primary organics and relatively fresh, compared with those before APEC.

  12. Oxytocin Motivates Non-Cooperation in Intergroup Conflict to Protect Vulnerable In-Group Members

    PubMed Central

    De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Shalvi, Shaul; Greer, Lindred L.; Van Kleef, Gerben A.; Handgraaf, Michel J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Intergroup conflict is often driven by an individual's motivation to protect oneself and fellow group members against the threat of out-group aggression, including the tendency to pre-empt out-group threat through a competitive approach. Here we link such defense-motivated competition to oxytocin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in reproduction and social bonding. An intergroup conflict game was developed to disentangle whether oxytocin motivates competitive approach to protect (i) immediate self-interest, (ii) vulnerable in-group members, or (iii) both. Males self-administered oxytocin or placebo (double-blind placebo-controlled) and made decisions with financial consequences to themselves, their fellow in-group members, and a competing out-group. Game payoffs were manipulated between-subjects so that non-cooperation by the out-group had high vs. low impact on personal payoff (personal vulnerability), and high vs. low impact on payoff to fellow in-group members (in-group vulnerability). When personal vulnerability was high, non-cooperation was unaffected by treatment and in-group vulnerability. When personal vulnerability was low, however, in-group vulnerability motivated non-cooperation but only when males received oxytocin. Oxytocin fuels a defense-motivated competitive approach to protect vulnerable group members, even when personal fate is not at stake. PMID:23144787

  13. Cooperation during cultural group formation promotes trust towards members of out-groups

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaofei Sophia; Houser, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    People often cooperate with members of their own group, and discriminate against members of other groups. Previous research establishes that cultural groups can form endogenously, and that these groups demonstrate in-group favouritism. Given the presence of cultural groups, the previous literature argues that cultural evolution selects for groups that exhibit parochial altruism. The source of initial variation in these traits, however, remains uninformed. We show here that a group's economic production environment may substantially influence parochial tendencies, with groups formed around more cooperative production (CP) displaying less parochialism than groups formed around more independent production (IP) processes. Participants randomized into CP and IP production tasks formed cultural groups, and subsequently played hidden-action trust games with in-group and out-group trustees. We found CP to be associated with significantly greater sharing and exchanging behaviours than IP. In trust games, significant parochial altruism (in-group favouritism combined with out-group discrimination) was displayed by members of IP groups. By contrast, members of CP groups did not engage in either in-group favouritism or out-group discrimination. Further, we found the absence of out-group discrimination in CP to persist even following ‘betrayal’. Finally, belief data suggest that members of CP are not more intrinsically generous than IP members, but rather more likely to believe that out-group trustees will positively reciprocate. Our results have important implications for anyone interested in building cooperative teams, and shed new light on connections between culture and cooperation. PMID:23658200

  14. "APEC Blue" association with emission control and meteorological conditions detected by multi-scale statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Dai, Xin-Gang

    2016-09-01

    The term "APEC Blue" has been created to describe the clear sky days since the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit held in Beijing during November 5-11, 2014. The duration of the APEC Blue is detected from November 1 to November 14 (hereafter Blue Window) by moving t test in statistics. Observations show that APEC Blue corresponds to low air pollution with respect to PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 under strict emission-control measures (ECMs) implemented in Beijing and surrounding areas. Quantitative assessment shows that ECM is more effective on reducing aerosols than the chemical constituents. Statistical investigation has revealed that the window also resulted from intensified wind variability, as well as weakened static stability of atmosphere (SSA). The wind and ECMs played key roles in reducing air pollution during November 1-7 and 11-13, and strict ECMs and weak SSA become dominant during November 7-10 under weak wind environment. Moving correlation manifests that the emission reduction for aerosols can increase the apparent wind cleanup effect, leading to significant negative correlations of them, and the period-wise changes in emission rate can be well identified by multi-scale correlations basing on wavelet decomposition. In short, this case study manifests statistically how human interference modified air quality in the mega city through controlling local and surrounding emissions in association with meteorological condition.

  15. APEC Blue”: Secondary Aerosol Reductions from Emission Controls in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Wild, Oliver; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Fu, Pingqing; Du, Wei; Zhou, Libo; Zhang, Qi; Han, Tingting; Wang, Qingqing; Pan, Xiaole; Zheng, Haitao; Li, Jie; Guo, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jianguo; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2016-02-01

    China implemented strict emission control measures in Beijing and surrounding regions to ensure good air quality during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. We conducted synchronous aerosol particle measurements with two aerosol mass spectrometers at different heights on a meteorological tower in urban Beijing to investigate the variations in particulate composition, sources and size distributions in response to emission controls. Our results show consistently large reductions in secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) of 61–67% and 51–57%, and in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) of 55% and 37%, at 260 m and ground level, respectively, during the APEC summit. These changes were mainly caused by large reductions in accumulation mode particles and by suppression of the growth of SIA and SOA by a factor of 2–3, which led to blue sky days during APEC commonly referred to as “APEC Blue”. We propose a conceptual framework for the evolution of primary and secondary species and highlight the importance of regional atmospheric transport in the formation of severe pollution episodes in Beijing. Our results indicate that reducing the precursors of secondary aerosol over regional scales is crucial and effective in suppressing the formation of secondary particulates and mitigating PM pollution.

  16. APEC Blue”: Secondary Aerosol Reductions from Emission Controls in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Wild, Oliver; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Fu, Pingqing; Du, Wei; Zhou, Libo; Zhang, Qi; Han, Tingting; Wang, Qingqing; Pan, Xiaole; Zheng, Haitao; Li, Jie; Guo, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jianguo; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    China implemented strict emission control measures in Beijing and surrounding regions to ensure good air quality during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. We conducted synchronous aerosol particle measurements with two aerosol mass spectrometers at different heights on a meteorological tower in urban Beijing to investigate the variations in particulate composition, sources and size distributions in response to emission controls. Our results show consistently large reductions in secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) of 61–67% and 51–57%, and in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) of 55% and 37%, at 260 m and ground level, respectively, during the APEC summit. These changes were mainly caused by large reductions in accumulation mode particles and by suppression of the growth of SIA and SOA by a factor of 2–3, which led to blue sky days during APEC commonly referred to as “APEC Blue”. We propose a conceptual framework for the evolution of primary and secondary species and highlight the importance of regional atmospheric transport in the formation of severe pollution episodes in Beijing. Our results indicate that reducing the precursors of secondary aerosol over regional scales is crucial and effective in suppressing the formation of secondary particulates and mitigating PM pollution. PMID:26891104

  17. APECS: A Model Organization for Bridging Past to Present and Developing a New Generation of Polar Scientists (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timm, K.; Baeseman, J. L.; Membership, Association Of Polar Early Career Scientists

    2010-12-01

    One of the greatest legacies of the International Polar Year (IPY) is the creation of APECS, the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists. As a grassroots effort, APECS was proposed, formed, and developed by and for early career polar researchers. While the young investigators who founded APECS had talent, ambition, and the desire to make things happen, partnerships with key organizations and experienced leaders in polar science were essential to provide the funding, leadership, and mentorship that has taken the organization well beyond the IPY and to over 2000 members. In four years, APECS has strived to foster the skills of and develop a group of early career interdisciplinary polar scientists through networking and mentoring among themselves and with senior scientists. Through diverse activities including, panel discussions, career development workshops, online seminars, a comprehensive job listing, formal mentoring, meeting travel support, and the APECS Virtual Poster Session, APECS goal is to support the early career researcher being trained to do the science, to become a well-rounded scientist prepared for 21st century careers in science. As part of that training, APECS members are encouraged to participate in activities and training related to science communication, education, and outreach; working with the media; participating in the science / public policy interface; and working with arctic communities and indigenous peoples. During the IPY, APECS members were guest speakers and presenters on International Polar Day activities; they contributed to resources for education and outreach such as the book: Polar Science and Global Climate: An International Resource for Education and Outreach; and they made connections with educators, community groups, the media through in-person presentations, blogs from the field, videos, and much more. Workshops, panels, and online discussions focusing on these activities helped develop the capacity to conduct such

  18. Advanced Physiological Estimation of Cognitive Status (APECS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-15

    computation as needed for real-time learning or processing.21 Short - and Long - Range EEG Coherence. The theory of short - and long - range coherence is an... short and long - range EEG coherence features in algorithms for estimating cognitive workload improves on algorithms that rely on the EEG power spectrum...conflicting results of these studies are reconciled by a short / long - range coherence model in which local oscillatory APECS Final Report ARO

  19. Diuranl variations and characteristics of organic molecular composition and stable carbon isotope ratios of PM2.5 in Beijing during the "APEC Blue"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, H.; Fan, S.; Fu, P.

    2016-12-01

    Fine particulate matters (PM2.5) were collected before and during the 2014 Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation (2014 APEC) (15 October-12 November) in Beijing to study their sources, diurnal variations, and the effects of region controls on the improving of the air quality. Organic molecular compositions of lipids, saccharides, polyacids, ligin & resin products, aromatic acids, phthalate esters, hopanes, PAHs and sterols were analyzed by GC-MS), while stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) of total carbon (TC) were determination using Gas Isotope Ratio MS (IRMS, MAT 253). Results indicated that five aerosol episodes were founded before and during the APEC event. Concentrations of most organic compounds showed maxima at nighttime and were obviously decreased during the APEC. These features were associated with meteorological conditions (especially high relative humidity and low wind speed), reginal emission controls (carried out during APEC), urban boundary layer movement and mountain/valley breezes in Beijing. Before the APEC, the main sources of organic aerosols in Beijing were long-range transport from surrounding cities together with local emission sources, while local emissions became the dominant source during the APEC. Biomass burning, motor emissions, fossil fuel combustion such as coal and petroleum, open-burning of municipal wastes during night significantly contributed to organic aerosols in Beijing. Our results suggest that anthropogenic emissions are important sources of aerosols in Beijing, and the regional controls is an efficient way to improve the air quality.

  20. Cooperative interactions of LPPR family members in membrane localization and alteration of cellular morphology

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Panpan; Agbaegbu, Chinyere; Malide, Daniela A.; Wu, Xufeng; Katagiri, Yasuhiro; Hammer, John A.; Geller, Herbert M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The lipid phosphate phosphatase-related proteins (LPPRs), also known as plasticity-related genes (PRGs), are classified as a new brain-enriched subclass of the lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP) superfamily. They induce membrane protrusions, neurite outgrowth or dendritic spine formation in cell lines and primary neurons. However, the exact roles of LPPRs and the mechanisms underlying their effects are not certain. Here, we present the results of a large-scale proteome analysis to determine LPPR1-interacting proteins using co-immunoprecipitation coupled to mass spectrometry. We identified putative LPPR1-binding proteins involved in various biological processes. Most interestingly, we identified the interaction of LPPR1 with its family member LPPR3, LPPR4 and LPPR5. Their interactions were characterized by co-immunoprecipitation and colocalization analysis using confocal and super-resolution microscopy. Moreover, co-expressing two LPPR members mutually elevated their protein levels, facilitated their plasma membrane localization and resulted in an increased induction of membrane protrusions as well as the phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein. Taken together, we revealed a new functional cooperation between LPPR family members and discovered for the first time that LPPRs likely exert their function through forming complex with its family members. PMID:26183180

  1. Aerosol Properties under Air Quality Control Measures of APEC 2014 in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Xu, H.; Lv, Y.; Xie, Y.; Li, K.; Li, Z.; Li, D.; Ma, Y.; Mei, X.

    2015-12-01

    Because the economic and society were developing fast in the middle of last century, Los Angeles and London both were polluted by photochemical smog, which massacred thousands of people. Now, many regions are often covered by heavy haze in those large developing countries, especially in China and India. The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) was held in Beijing during 5-11 November 2014. Beijing, Hebei, Tianjin, Shandong, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia reduced air pollution emissions for the APEC 2014 meeting held in Beijing. Only in Hebei province, there were 1028 factories stopped or restricted and 881 construction sites stopped. Half of the cars were prohibited driving even in the Zibo city which is 400 km far from Beijing. For scientific aims, these control measures were indeed a huge and uncommon atmospheric experiment led by the government. During the experiment, what did the "APEC Blue" mean? We analyzed aerosol properties with the data of an AERONET site in Beijing which is located 500m far from the main reception hall of APEC 2014. The Cimel solar photometers can give a series parameters of aerosol and water vapor. In this paper, we used CE318 solar photometer which is the main instrument of NASA AERONET. The CE318 of RADI belongs to the Chinese SONET (Sun-sky radiometer Observation NETwork) too. We analyzed the total, coarse and fine Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Fine-Mode Fraction (FMF) and Ångström exponent, Size Distribution and Real Refractive Index. In conclusion, the aerosol properties were analysed with the measurements of a sun photometer. During the APEC 2014, AOD decreased obviously with a 0.27 mean value compared with the annual mean 0.7. Around Beijing, the southern is polluted emission area including the cross part of Shandong, Shanxi, Hebei, Henan four provinces, and the northern is clean for less fine mode particles emission in the large Inner Mongolia province. In fact, during the APEC 2014, the weather condition was not good for the

  2. How can environmental regulations promote clean coal technology adoption in APEC developing economies?

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The study examines both existing and emerging regulatory frameworks in order to determine which type of regulations that would be most effective at promoting clean coal technology adoption in development Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC) economies and would be practical to implement. regulations targeting air emissions; regulations targeting water use; and regulations concerning coal combustion by-products. When considering the potential effect of existing and new environmental regulations on the adoption of clean coal the analysis of technologies was organised into three categories: environmental control technologies; high efficiency coal combustion technologies; and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). To target the recommendations towards APEC economies that would benefit the most from this analysis, the study focused on developing and transition APEC economies that are expected to rely on coal for a large part of their future generating capacity. These economies include China, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Russian Federation, Thailand, and Vietnam. ACARP provided funding to this study, under Project C15078. 10 figs., 14 tabs., 10 apps.

  3. The "APEC Blue" phenomenon: Regional emission control effects observed from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kan; Zhang, Xingying; Lin, Yanfen

    2015-10-01

    Observations from space were used to evaluate the effect of emission control measures on the changes of air pollutants in Beijing and its surroundings during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Summit held in Beijing. Compared to the past three years (2011-2013), NO2 tropospheric vertical column densities in 2014 were found to exhibit almost across-the-board significant reductions over the North China Plain, suggesting the effectiveness of the national policy on NOx emission reduction during China's 12th "Five-Year-Plan". During the APEC period (Nov. 3-11), AOD and AAOD were found reduced the most in Beijing, followed by Hebei province. Stringent emission control measures implemented in Beijing and the regional joint control over the surroundings especially in Hebei were responsible for the good air quality and so-called "APEC Blue". However, air quality plummeted during the post-APEC period (Nov. 12-30), which was largely related to the lifting of local and regional joint emission control measures. By applying a spatial correlation analysis method, the potential emission source regions impacting air quality of Beijing included widespread areas in Hebei, Shandong, Shanxi, and Tianjin in the past three years (2011-2013). While during the study period in 2014, areas impacting Beijing evidently shrank and were limited within Hebei, suggesting evident effects of intense emission perturbations on lowering the extent of regional transport. This study indicates short-term measures did fix the air pollution problems in China but a permanent solution is still a tremendous challenge.

  4. Lizards cooperatively tunnel to construct a long-term home for family members.

    PubMed

    McAlpin, Steve; Duckett, Paul; Stow, Adam

    2011-05-11

    Constructing a home to protect offspring while they mature is common in many vertebrate groups, but has not previously been reported in lizards. Here we provide the first example of a lizard that constructs a long-term home for family members, and a rare case of lizards behaving cooperatively. The great desert skink, Liopholis kintorei from Central Australia, constructs an elaborate multi-tunnelled burrow that can be continuously occupied for up to 7 years. Multiple generations participate in construction and maintenance of burrows. Parental assignments based on DNA analysis show that immature individuals within the same burrow were mostly full siblings, even when several age cohorts were present. Parents were always captured at burrows containing their offspring, and females were only detected breeding with the same male both within- and across seasons. Consequently, the individual investments made to construct or maintain a burrow system benefit their own offspring, or siblings, over several breeding seasons.

  5. Lizards Cooperatively Tunnel to Construct a Long-Term Home for Family Members

    PubMed Central

    McAlpin, Steve; Duckett, Paul; Stow, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Constructing a home to protect offspring while they mature is common in many vertebrate groups, but has not previously been reported in lizards. Here we provide the first example of a lizard that constructs a long-term home for family members, and a rare case of lizards behaving cooperatively. The great desert skink, Liopholis kintorei from Central Australia, constructs an elaborate multi-tunnelled burrow that can be continuously occupied for up to 7 years. Multiple generations participate in construction and maintenance of burrows. Parental assignments based on DNA analysis show that immature individuals within the same burrow were mostly full siblings, even when several age cohorts were present. Parents were always captured at burrows containing their offspring, and females were only detected breeding with the same male both within- and across seasons. Consequently, the individual investments made to construct or maintain a burrow system benefit their own offspring, or siblings, over several breeding seasons. PMID:21589923

  6. A paradox for air pollution controlling in China revealed by “APEC Blue” and “Parade Blue”

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haoran; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Li, Ying; Huang, Xin; Wang, Shanshan; Xu, Jin; Xie, Pinhua

    2016-01-01

    A series of strict emission control measures were implemented in Beijing and surrounding regions to ensure good air quality during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit and 2015 Grand Military Parade (Parade), which led to blue sky days during these two events commonly referred to as “APEC Blue” and “Parade Blue”. Here we calculated Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 and HCHO results based on well known DOAS trace gas fitting algorithm and WRF-Chem model (with measured climatology parameter and newest emission inventor) simulated trace gases profiles. We found the NO2 columns abruptly decreased both Parade (43%) and APEC (21%) compared with the periods before these two events. The back-trajectory cluster analysis and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) proved regional transport from southern peripheral cities plays a key role in pollutants observed at Beijing. The diminishing transport contribution from southern air mass during Parade manifests the real effect of emission control measures on NO2 pollution. Based on the ratios of HCHO over NO2 we found there were not only limited the NO2 pollutant but also suppress the O3 contaminant during Parade, while O3 increased during the APEC. PMID:27680499

  7. The "APEC Blue" Phenomenon: Impacts of Regional emission control Meteorology Condition and Regional Transport from a Modeling Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Liu, Z.; Ji, D.; Saide, P. E.; Wang, Y.; Xin, J.

    2015-12-01

    On November 5-11, China hosted the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Economic Leaders' Week in Beijing. To ensure good air quality during the APEC week, a series of strict emission control measures were taken in Beijing and surrounding provinces, which provide us with a great opportunity to examine the effectiveness of regional emission control. As important as emissions, meteorology can also significantly affect air quality in Beijing, so it's meaningful to understand the impact of meteorology conditions in the APEC week. Besides, it's important to study the impact of regional transport as its contribution to Beijing pollution levels is controversial. In this study, we investigate the impacts of emission control, meteorology and regional transport on the air quality during APEC week using a fully online coupled meteorology-chemistry model WRF-Chem. Compared to surface observations, the model has very good performance. The conclusions from this study will provide useful insights for government to control aerosol pollution in Beijing.

  8. A paradox for air pollution controlling in China revealed by “APEC Blue” and “Parade Blue”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haoran; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Li, Ying; Huang, Xin; Wang, Shanshan; Xu, Jin; Xie, Pinhua

    2016-09-01

    A series of strict emission control measures were implemented in Beijing and surrounding regions to ensure good air quality during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit and 2015 Grand Military Parade (Parade), which led to blue sky days during these two events commonly referred to as “APEC Blue” and “Parade Blue”. Here we calculated Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 and HCHO results based on well known DOAS trace gas fitting algorithm and WRF-Chem model (with measured climatology parameter and newest emission inventor) simulated trace gases profiles. We found the NO2 columns abruptly decreased both Parade (43%) and APEC (21%) compared with the periods before these two events. The back-trajectory cluster analysis and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) proved regional transport from southern peripheral cities plays a key role in pollutants observed at Beijing. The diminishing transport contribution from southern air mass during Parade manifests the real effect of emission control measures on NO2 pollution. Based on the ratios of HCHO over NO2 we found there were not only limited the NO2 pollutant but also suppress the O3 contaminant during Parade, while O3 increased during the APEC.

  9. Efficiency of Emission Control Measures on Particulate Matter-Related Health Impacts and Economic Cost during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Meeting in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qichen; Huang, Jing; Guo, Bin; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting was held from 5 November to 11 November 2014 in Beijing, and comprehensive emission control measures were implemented. The efficiency of these measures on particulate matter-related health impacts and economic cost need to be evaluated. Methods: The influences of emission control measures during APEC on particulate matter were evaluated, and health economic effects were assessed. Results: Average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 during APEC were reduced by 57.0%, and 50.6% respectively, compared with pre-APEC period. However, the concentrations of particulate matter rebounded after APEC. Compared with the pre-APEC and post-APEC periods, the estimated number of deaths caused by non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases that could be attributed to PM2.5 and PM10 during the APEC were the lowest. The economic cost associated with mortality caused by PM2.5 and PM10 during the APEC were reduced by (61.3% and 66.6%) and (50.3% and 60.8%) respectively, compared with pre-APEC and post-APEC. Conclusions: The emission control measures were effective in improving short term air quality and reducing health risks and medical expenses during 2014 APEC, but more efforts is needed for long term and continuous air quality improvement and health protection. PMID:28036006

  10. Efficiency of Emission Control Measures on Particulate Matter-Related Health Impacts and Economic Cost during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Meeting in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qichen; Huang, Jing; Guo, Bin; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-12-28

    Background: The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting was held from 5 November to 11 November 2014 in Beijing, and comprehensive emission control measures were implemented. The efficiency of these measures on particulate matter-related health impacts and economic cost need to be evaluated. Methods: The influences of emission control measures during APEC on particulate matter were evaluated, and health economic effects were assessed. Results: Average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 during APEC were reduced by 57.0%, and 50.6% respectively, compared with pre-APEC period. However, the concentrations of particulate matter rebounded after APEC. Compared with the pre-APEC and post-APEC periods, the estimated number of deaths caused by non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases that could be attributed to PM2.5 and PM10 during the APEC were the lowest. The economic cost associated with mortality caused by PM2.5 and PM10 during the APEC were reduced by (61.3% and 66.6%) and (50.3% and 60.8%) respectively, compared with pre-APEC and post-APEC. Conclusions: The emission control measures were effective in improving short term air quality and reducing health risks and medical expenses during 2014 APEC, but more efforts is needed for long term and continuous air quality improvement and health protection.

  11. Characteristics of aerosol size distribution and vertical backscattering coefficient profile during 2014 APEC in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiaoshi; Chen, Zhenyi; Lu, Yihuai; Gui, Huaqiao; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Wenqing; Wang, Jie; Yu, Tongzhu; Cheng, Yin; Chen, Yong; Ge, Baozhu; Fan, Yu; Luo, Xisheng

    2017-01-01

    During the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference period, Beijing's air quality was greatly improved as a result of a series of tough emission control measures being implemented in Beijing and its surrounding provinces. However, a moderate haze occurred during the period of 4-5 November. In order to evaluate the emission control measures and study the formation mechanism of the haze, a comprehensive field observation based on a supersite and a lidar network was carried out from 25 October 2014 to 20 January 2015. By investigating the variations in aerosol number concentration and mean backscattering coefficient before, during and after the APEC period, it was found that number concentration of accumulation mode and coarse mode particles experienced the most significant decrease by 47% and 68%, and mean backscattering coefficient below 1 km decreased by 34% during the APEC period. Being characterized as "rapidly accumulating and rapidly dispersing", the moderate haze occurred during the APEC period was probably initiated by a wind direction change to south and an increase of wind speed to 4 m/s. Sulfur dioxide involved plume nucleation without growth in size as well as a burst of particles ranging between 100 and 300 nm were observed simultaneously during the haze episode. The elevation of sulfur dioxide concentration and particle number concentration was highly correlated with the southerly wind, signifying the contribution of regional transport. It was observed by the lidar network that the aerosol backscattering coefficient increased in sequence among three sites along the southwest pathway, suggesting that aerosols might be transported from the southwest to the northeast of Beijing with a speed of approximately 17 km/h, which agreed with the movement of air masses modeled by Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT). The dual-wavelength lidar (355 and 532 nm) observation suggested that transportation of fine particles

  12. Documents About the Approval to Dispose of Less than 50 Parts Per Million (ppm) PCB Remediation Waste Issued to National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) Members

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents About the Approval to Dispose of Less than 50 Parts Per Million (ppm) Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Remediation Waste Issued to National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) Members

  13. [The challenge for dermatologists of early APECED diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Puzenat, E; Bellaud, G; Saugier-Veber, P; Crémillieux, C; Mignot, B; Humbert, P; Aubin, F

    2014-04-01

    Polyglandular auto-immune syndrome type 1 (PAS-1) or auto-immune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder linked to auto-immune regulator (AIRE) gene mutations. Herein, we report the case of a 3-year-old boy with APECED emphasizing the wide phenotypic variability and the extent of skin lesions. A 3-year-old boy with a history of auto-immune hepatitis was referred for a generalized pruriginous urticaria-like eruption present for one month. He was born to non-consanguineous parents. Cutaneous examination revealed twenty-nail dystrophy, which had been present since the age of 2 years. Both direct microscopy and culture of nail samples were negative for Candida albicans. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed esophageal candidiasis. A diagnosis of APECED was suspected and subsequently confirmed by molecular analysis of the AIRE gene, which showed two mutations. No other auto-immune endocrinopathies were found. Our case report illustrates the phenotypic variability of APECED with the absence of typical manifestations such as Addison's disease and hypoparathyroidism. APECED should thus be systematically suspected in young children presenting with cutaneous lesions associated with mucocutaneous candidiasis or auto-immune disease, even in the absence of known endocrinopathies. Dermatologists should be aware of this association since early diagnosis of APECED is critical in preventing life-threatening endocrinological crises. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of rhizobacteria Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC136 and >Bacillus subtilis APEC170 on biocontrol of postharvest pathogens of apple fruits.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Jeon, Yongho

    In this study, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against postharvest pathogens of apple fruits. In vitro bioassays revealed that, out of 30 isolates screened, isolates APEC136 and APEC170 had the most significant inhibitory effects against the mycelial growth of several fungal pathogens. Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences identified the two effective isolates as Paenibacillus polymyxa and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. The two strains showed greater growth in brain-heart infusion broth than in other growth media. Treatment of harvested apples with suspensions of either strain reduced the symptoms of anthracnose disease caused by two fungal pathogens, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum acutatum, and white rot disease caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea. Increased productions of amylase and protease by APEC136, and increased productions of chitinase, amylase, and protease by APEC170 might have been responsible for inhibiting mycelial growth. The isolates caused a greater reduction in the growth of white rot than of anthracnose. These results indicate that the isolates APEC136 and APEC170 are promising agents for the biocontrol of anthracnose and white rot diseases in apples after harvest, and suggest that these isolates may be useful in controlling these diseases under field conditions.

  15. Effects of rhizobacteria Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC136 and Bacillus subtilis APEC170 on biocontrol of postharvest pathogens of apple fruits*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-01-01

    In this study, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against postharvest pathogens of apple fruits. In vitro bioassays revealed that, out of 30 isolates screened, isolates APEC136 and APEC170 had the most significant inhibitory effects against the mycelial growth of several fungal pathogens. Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences identified the two effective isolates as Paenibacillus polymyxa and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. The two strains showed greater growth in brain-heart infusion broth than in other growth media. Treatment of harvested apples with suspensions of either strain reduced the symptoms of anthracnose disease caused by two fungal pathogens, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum acutatum, and white rot disease caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea. Increased productions of amylase and protease by APEC136, and increased productions of chitinase, amylase, and protease by APEC170 might have been responsible for inhibiting mycelial growth. The isolates caused a greater reduction in the growth of white rot than of anthracnose. These results indicate that the isolates APEC136 and APEC170 are promising agents for the biocontrol of anthracnose and white rot diseases in apples after harvest, and suggest that these isolates may be useful in controlling these diseases under field conditions. PMID:27921398

  16. Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The theme of this month's issue is "cooperation"--related to animal, personal, national, and global cooperation; rules and regulations; and team efforts. K-8 resources on the theme include World Wide Web sites, CD-ROM, software, videos, books, and others. Features include cooperative living, alliances of nations, songs of cooperation, and animals…

  17. The APECS Virtual Poster Session: a virtual platform for science communication and discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, A.; Jochum, K.; Jullion, L.; Pavlov, A.; Liggett, D.; Fugmann, G.; Baeseman, J. L.; Apecs Virtual Poster Session Working Group, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Virtual Poster Session (VPS) of the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) was developed by early career scientists as an online tool for communicating and discussing science and research beyond the four walls of a conference venue. Poster sessions often are the backbone of a conference where especially early career scientists get a chance to communicate their research, discuss ideas, data, and scientific problems with their peers and senior scientists. There, they can hone their 'elevator pitch', discussion skills and presentation skills. APECS has taken the poster session one step further and created the VPS - the same idea but independent from conferences, travel, and location. All that is needed is a computer with internet access. Instead of letting their posters collect dust on the computer's hard drive, scientists can now upload them to the APECS website. There, others have the continuous opportunity to comment, give feedback and discuss the work. Currently, about 200 posters are accessible contributed by authors and co-authors from 34 countries. Since January 2010, researchers can discuss their poster with a broad international audience including fellow researchers, community members, potential colleagues and collaborators, policy makers and educators during monthly conference calls via an internet platform. Recordings of the calls are available online afterwards. Calls so far have included topical sessions on e.g. marine biology, glaciology, or social sciences, and interdisciplinary calls on Arctic sciences or polar research activities in a specific country, e.g. India or Romania. They attracted audiences of scientists at all career stages and from all continents, with on average about 15 persons participating per call. Online tools like the VPS open up new ways for creating collaborations and new research ideas and sharing different methodologies for future projects, pushing aside the boundaries of countries and nations, conferences

  18. Mortality benefits of vigorous air quality improvement interventions during the periods of APEC Blue and Parade Blue in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hualiang; Liu, Tao; Fang, Fang; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xing; Guo, Lingchuan; Tian, Linwei; Schootman, Mario; Stamatakis, Katherine A; Qian, Zhengmin; Ma, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Vigorous air pollution control measures were implemented during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and a large-scale military parade (described here as "APEC Blue" and "Parade Blue" periods) in Beijing, China. A natural experiment was conducted in a health impact assessment framework to estimate the number of deaths attributable to PM2.5, using concentration-response functions derived from previous studies conducted in Beijing, combined with the differences in PM2.5 concentrations between intervention and reference periods. Substantial reductions in daily PM2.5 concentrations were observed during both intervention periods. Using the same dates from the prior year as a reference, daily PM2.5 concentration decreased from 98.57 μg/m(3) to 47.53 μg/m(3) during "APEC Blue", and from 59.15 μg/m(3) to 17.07 μg/m(3) during the "Parade Blue". We estimated that 39-63 all-cause deaths (21-51 cardiovascular, 6-13 respiratory deaths) have been prevented during the APEC period; and 41-65 deaths (22-52 cardiovascular, 6-13 respiratory deaths) have been prevented during the Parade period. This study shows that substantial mortality reductions could be achieved by implementing stringent air pollution mitigation measures.

  19. Impact of various emission control schemes on air quality using WRF-Chem during APEC China 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianping; He, Jing; Liu, Hongli; Miao, Yucong; Liu, Huan; Zhai, Panmao

    2016-09-01

    Emission control measures have been implemented to make air quality good enough for Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014, which provides us with an ideal test-bed to determine how these measures affect air quality in Beijing and surrounding areas. Based on hourly observations at eight monitoring sites of Beijing, the concentrations of other primary atmospheric pollutants during APEC were found to have significantly lower magnitudes than those before APEC, with the exception of a higher O3 concentration. Overall, WRF/Chem reproduced the observed time series of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, CO, and O3 notably well. To investigate the impact of emission control measures on air quality on both local and regional scales, four emission control schemes were developed according to the locations where emission reduction had taken place; the corresponding simulations were subsequently run separately. Scheme S2 (emission control implemented in Beijing) resulted in reductions of 22%, 24%, 10% and 22% for the concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and CO, respectively, compared with 14%, 14%, 8%, and 13% for scheme S3 (emission controls implemented from outside of Beijing). This finding indicates that the local emission reduction in Beijing contributes more to the improved air quality in Beijing during APEC China 2014 than does the emission reduction from outside of Beijing. In terms of the impact on the regional scale, the real emission control scheme led to significant reduction of PM2.5 throughout the whole domain. Although the regional impact cannot be completely ignored, both emission reduction measures implemented in Beijing and those implemented outside of Beijing favor greater reduction in PM2.5 in the domains where measurements are presumably taken, as compared with other domains. Therefore, to improve the air quality in Beijing, more coordinated efforts should be made, particularly in the aspect of more stringent reduction and control strategies on pollutant emission

  20. Pituitary autoantibodies in autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED).

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Damien T; McElduff, Patrick; Peterson, Pärt; Perheentupa, Jaakko; Crock, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is an autosomal recessive disease due to mutations in the AIRE (AutoImmune REgulator) gene. The role of pituitary autoimmunity in APECED is not known. We determined the prevalence of pituitary autoantibodies in a cohort of 67 Finnish patients with APECED from 217 serum samples collected over 26 years by one investigator. Overall, autoantibodies to the 49 kDa cytosolic autoantigen, human pituitary enolase were detected in 39 of the 67 patients (58%). On their first sample, 25 patients had autoantibodies compared to 5 of 68 controls (chi-square, 1df=17.11, p< 0.001; OR=7.32), but subsequently 14 patients seroconverted between 10 and 53 years of age. Once seropositive, all but two of the patients maintained their positive autoantibody status, even over many years. In the current study all but 7 of the 19 patients known to have high titre anti-candidal enolase antibodies had developed autoantibodies directed against human pituitary enolase. Other pituitary autoantibody reactivities were detected against cytosolic proteins of molecular weights 40-, 45-, 60- and 105 kDa in 15%, 16%, 12% and 3% of patients respectively. Autoantibodies to pituitary enolase are markers of neuroendocrine autoimmunity but seem not to be associated with clinical hypopituitarism in APECED patients.

  1. Cooperative Member Education Campaign. Instructions to Learning Group Leaders and Hand-Outs to Learning Group Participants. Course One. Getting Started.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Lands, Resettlement and Rural Development, Harare (Zimbabwe).

    This booklet contains most of the materials needed by the learning group leaders and group participants in Zimbabwe's Cooperative Member Education Campaign. The 10 meetings in this course focus on cooperatives. Detailed instructions for learning group leaders present specific suggestions for conducting the meetings, including what to say,…

  2. Psychiatric Worker and Family Members: Pathways Towards Co-Operation Networks within Psychiatric Assistance Services.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Silvia

    2014-03-04

    The family's role in patient care was greatly altered by Law 180. This law, introduced in Italy in 1978, led to a gradual phasing out of custodial treatment for psychiatric patients. This different mindset, which views the family as an alternative to institutionalization, leads to it being seen as an essential entity in the setting up of community service dynamics. We interviewed health professionals in order to understand obstacles of collaboration between family members and mental health care workers. The goal was to uncover actions that promote collaboration and help build alliances between families and psychiatric workers. Results showed that health professionals view the family as a therapeutic resource. Despite this view, family members were rarely included in patient treatment. The reasons is: the structures have a theoretical orientation of collaboration with the family but, for nurses not are organized a few meeting spaces with family members. Services should create moments, such as multi-family groups or groups of information, managed by nurses and not only by doctors. These occasions it might facilitate the knowledge between professionals and family members.

  3. "APEC blue"--The effects and implications of joint pollution prevention and control program.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongbo; Zhao, Laijun; Xie, Yujing; Hu, Qingmi

    2016-05-15

    To ensure good air quality in Beijing during Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014, Beijing and its neighboring five provinces and the associated cities were combined under the Joint Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution (JPCAP) program, which implemented rigorous cooperative emission reduction measures. The program was a unique and large-scale artificial experiment that showed that such measures can achieve excellent results, and it led to the popular "APEC blue" catchphrase (i.e., Beijing's skies became blue as pollution levels decreased). This artificial experiment provided the means to effectively conduct JPCAP strategies in the future. Accordingly, our research focused on the characteristics of the six primary pollutants in Beijing. We found that the JPCAP measures directly reduced concentrations of all pollutants except O3. Through correlation analysis, we found that the band distribution of the cities with strong correlations in PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations was affected by wind conditions. Therefore, JPCAP measures should account for specific seasonal and climatic conditions. Based on cluster analysis using the results from the correlation analysis, we divided 13 cities within a 300-km radius of Beijing into different groups according to the similarity of their PM2.5 and PM10 correlation coefficients. For JPCAP measures relevant to PM2.5 and PM10, we found differences in the degrees of collaboration among cities. Therefore, depending upon the pollutant type, the JPCAP strategy should account for the cities involved, the scope of the core area, and the optimal cities to involve in the collaborative efforts based on cost-effectiveness and collaborative difficulty among the involved cities.

  4. Distinguishing the roles of meteorology, emission control measures, regional transport, and co-benefits of reduced aerosol feedbacks in ;APEC Blue;

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Meng; Liu, Zirui; Wang, Yuesi; Lu, Xiao; Ji, Dongsheng; Wang, Lili; Li, Meng; Wang, Zifa; Zhang, Qiang; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2017-10-01

    Air quality are strongly influenced by both emissions and meteorological conditions. During the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) week (November 5-11, 2014), the Chinese government implemented unprecedented strict emission control measures in Beijing and surrounding provinces, and then a phenomenon referred to as "APEC Blue" (rare blue sky) occurred. It is challenging to quantify the effectiveness of the implemented strict control measures solely based on observations. In this study, we use the WRF-Chem model to distinguish the roles of meteorology, emission control measures, regional transport, and co-benefits of reduced aerosol feedbacks during APEC week. In general, meteorological variables, PM2.5 concentrations and PM2.5 chemical compositions are well reproduced in Beijing. Positive weather conditions (lower temperature, lower relative humidity, higher wind speeds and enhanced boundary layer heights) play important roles in "APEC Blue". Applying strict emission control measures in Beijing and five surrounding provinces can only explain an average decrease of 17.7 μg/m3 (-21.8%) decreases in PM2.5 concentrations, roughly more than half of which is caused by emission controls that implemented in the five surrounding provinces (12.5 μg/m3). During the APEC week, non-local emissions contributed to 41.3% to PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing, and the effectiveness of implementing emission control measures hinges on dominant pathways and transport speeds. Besides, we also quantified the contribution of reduced aerosol feedbacks due to strict emission control measures in this study. During daytime, co-benefits of reduced aerosol feedbacks account for about 10.9% of the total decreases in PM2.5 concentrations in urban Beijing. The separation of contributions from aerosol absorption and scattering restates the importance of controlling BC to accelerate the effectiveness of aerosol pollution control.

  5. Characteristics and sources of submicron aerosols above the urban canopy (260 m) in Beijing, China, during the 2014 APEC summit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Sun, Y. L.; Xu, W. Q.; Du, W.; Zhou, L. B.; Han, T. T.; Wang, Q. Q.; Fu, P. Q.; Wang, Z. F.; Gao, Z. Q.; Zhang, Q.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-11-01

    The megacity of Beijing has experienced frequent severe fine particle pollution during the last decade. Although the sources and formation mechanisms of aerosol particles have been extensively investigated on the basis of ground measurements, real-time characterization of aerosol particle composition and sources above the urban canopy in Beijing is rare. In this study, we conducted real-time measurements of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) composition at 260 m at the Beijing 325 m meteorological tower (BMT) from 10 October to 12 November 2014, by using an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) along with synchronous measurements of size-resolved NR-PM1 composition near ground level using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The NR-PM1 composition above the urban canopy was dominated by organics (46 %), followed by nitrate (27 %) and sulfate (13 %). The high contribution of nitrate and high NO3- / SO42- mass ratios illustrates an important role of nitrate in particulate matter (PM) pollution during the study period. The organic aerosol (OA) was mainly composed of secondary OA (SOA), accounting for 61 % on an average. Different from that measured at the ground site, primary OA (POA) correlated moderately with SOA, likely suggesting a high contribution from regional transport above the urban canopy. The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit with strict emission controls provides a unique opportunity to study the impacts of emission controls on aerosol chemistry. All aerosol species were shown to have significant decreases of 40-80 % during APEC from those measured before APEC, suggesting that emission controls over regional scales substantially reduced PM levels. However, the bulk aerosol composition was relatively similar before and during APEC as a result of synergetic controls of aerosol precursors. In addition to emission controls, the routine circulations of mountain-valley breezes were also found to play

  6. Characteristics and sources of submicron aerosols above the urban canopy (260 m) in Beijing, China during 2014 APEC summit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Sun, Y. L.; Xu, W. Q.; Du, W.; Zhou, L. B.; Han, T. T.; Wang, Q. Q.; Fu, P. Q.; Wang, Z. F.; Gao, Z. Q.; Zhang, Q.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-08-01

    The megacity of Beijing has experienced frequent severe fine particle pollution during the last decade. Although the sources and formation mechanisms of aerosol particles have been extensively investigated on the basis of ground measurements, real-time characterization of aerosol particle composition and sources above the urban canopy in Beijing is rare. In this study, we conducted real-time measurements of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) composition at 260 m at the 325 m Beijing Meteorological Tower (BMT) from 10 October to 12 November 2014, by using an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) along with synchronous measurements of size-resolved NR-PM1 composition at near ground level using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The NR-PM1 composition above the urban canopy was dominated by organics (46 %), followed by nitrate (27 %) and sulfate (13 %). The high contribution of nitrate and high NO3-/SO42- mass ratios illustrate an important role of nitrate in particulate matter (PM) pollution during the study period. The organic aerosol (OA) was mainly composed by secondary OA (SOA), accounting for 61 % on an average. Different from that measured at the ground site, primary OA (POA) correlated moderately with SOA, likely suggesting a high contribution from regional transport above the urban canopy. The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit with strict emission controls provides a unique opportunity to study the impacts of emission controls on aerosol chemistry. All aerosol species were shown to have significant decreases of 40-80 % during APEC from those measured before APEC, suggesting that emission controls over regional scales substantially reduced PM levels. However, the bulk aerosol composition was relatively similar before and during APEC as a result of synergetic controls of aerosol precursors such as SO2, NOx, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In addition to emission controls, the routine

  7. Characterization of atmospheric oxidants during, and after 2014 APEC summit: a case study of peroxides and ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, H.; Chen, Z.; Huang, L.

    2016-12-01

    Peroxides and ozone (O3) are important atmospheric oxidants, and are directly related to the cycling of radicals in the atmosphere. They have a profound impact on many critical atmospheric chemical processes, and are closely associated with regional air pollution and global climate change. Many filed measurements have been conducted to study their concentrations, budget, and roles in the atmospheric chemistry in the past few decades. However, the characteristic and influencing factors of concentrations of peroxides and O3 are still not fully understood, especially in the polluted area. In this study, measurements for atmospheric peroxides and O3 were conducted simultaneously at PKU site in Beijing, China during, and after the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit when strict pollution control measures were deployed. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was the predominant peroxide observed, and occasionally, hydroxylmethyl hydroperoxide (HMHP) was detected. The average concentrations of H2O2 and O3 were 22.6±23.7pptv and 14.8±13.4ppbv, respectively. Both H2O2 and O3 showed distinct diurnal variations, with a peak between 14:00-16:00 for O3, and 18:00-20:00 for H2O2. However, the emergence of the H2O2 peak shifted to the night further both during, and after APEC compared to summer observations at the same site and in clean areas, but the exact mechanism is not clear. Concentrations of H2O2 and O3 were higher during APEC with A (After APEC)/D (During APEC) ratios of 0.3 and 0.7, respectively, contrary to the changes of most of the other observed trace constituents. We discussed the influencing factors in detail, and confirmed that the reduction of NOx was the decisive factors. Additionally, we found a sudden increase of concentrations of H2O2 and O3 on the early morning of 11 November. By analyzing the changes of related meteorological parameters, backward air mass trajectories, and pressure vertical velocity, we ascribed this to the downward transport of air

  8. Building co-operative bibliographic databases in European bioethics: a contribution from EU New Member States.

    PubMed

    Dimec, Jure; Leskosek, Branimir

    2007-08-01

    The paper presents a web-based application, developed as a part of the Eurethnet database network, which is being used by project partners from EU New Member States to collect bibliographic records from bioethics domains. The application development was focused mainly on records compatibility with other Eurethnet databases, support for all European character sets, minimalisation of network traffic, and security issues. The time window available for the system development was very small and this problem was solved with our own software for automatic application generation.

  9. Overview of the Quality and Completeness of Resource Assessment Data for the APEC Region

    SciTech Connect

    Renne, D. S.; Pilasky, S.

    1998-02-01

    The availability of information and data on the renewable energy resources (solar, wind, biomass, geothermal, and hydro) for renewable energy technologies is a critical element in the successful implementation of these technologies. This paper presents a comprehensive summary of published information on these resources for each of 1 8 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies. In the introductory sections, a discussion of the quality and completeness of this information is presented, along with recommendations on steps that need to be taken to facilitate the further development and deployment of renewable energy technologies throughout the APEC region. These sections are then followed by economy-specific reviews, and a complete bibliography and summary description for each citation. The major results of this survey are that a basis for understanding renewable energy resources is currently available for essentially all the economies, although there is a significant need to apply improved and updated resource assessment techniques in most. For example, most wind resource assessments rely on data collected at national weather stations, which often results in underestimates of the true potential wind resource within an economy. As a second example, solar resource assessments in most economies rely on an analysis of very simple sunshine record data, which results in large uncertainties in accurately quantifying the resource. National surveys of biomass, geothermal, and hydro resources are often lacking; in most cases, resources for these technologies were discussed for site-specific studies only. Thus, the major recommendations in this paper are to: ( 1 ) upgrade current or install new wind and solar measurement systems at key 'benchmark' locations to provide accurate, representative information on these resources; (2) apply advanced wind and solar resource assessment tools that rely on data quality assessment procedures, the use of satellite data, and models

  10. Cooperative medical insurance and the cost of care in Shandong, PR China: perspectives of patients and community members.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal; Raulli, Alexandra; Yan, Wang; Dong, Han; Aiguo, Zhang; Ping, Dong

    2015-03-01

    This research was conducted to identify the cost of care associated with utilization of village clinics and membership of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) in 2 counties of Shandong province, PR China. A total of 397 community members and 297 patients who used the village clinics were interviewed. The average cost for primary care treatment of 1 episode of illness was about 55 yuan (about US$8). Although more than 50% of people had NCMS membership, many consider the monetary reimbursements as insufficient. The low insurance reimbursement rates and inability to pay out-of-pocket expenses compromise access to care. Delays can cause more serious illnesses with potential to overburden the secondary care at the township and county hospitals. Those rural people who have not yet enjoyed the benefits of China's economic development may not benefit from recent health care reform and finance mechanisms unless schemes such as the NCMS provide more substantial subsidies.

  11. F18 Life Support: APECS and EDOX Cockpit Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrick, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Two systems are currently being integrated into the F18 Hornet support aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). The first system is the Aircrew Personal Environmental Control System (APECS). The system is designed to increase aircrew performance by combating heat stress in the cockpit. The second system is the Extended Duration Oxygen System (EDOX). This system will provide additional redundancy and oxygen system duration to the F18 without extensive modification to the current system.

  12. Synergistic cooperation of PDI family members in peroxiredoxin 4-driven oxidative protein folding.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoshimi; Kojima, Rieko; Okumura, Masaki; Hagiwara, Masatoshi; Masui, Shoji; Maegawa, Ken-ichi; Saiki, Masatoshi; Horibe, Tomohisa; Suzuki, Mamoru; Inaba, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian endoplasmic reticulum (ER) harbors disulfide bond-generating enzymes, including Ero1α and peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4), and nearly 20 members of the protein disulfide isomerase family (PDIs), which together constitute a suitable environment for oxidative protein folding. Here, we clarified the Prx4 preferential recognition of two PDI family proteins, P5 and ERp46, and the mode of interaction between Prx4 and P5 thioredoxin domain. Detailed analyses of oxidative folding catalyzed by the reconstituted Prx4-PDIs pathways demonstrated that, while P5 and ERp46 are dedicated to rapid, but promiscuous, disulfide introduction, PDI is an efficient proofreader of non-native disulfides. Remarkably, the Prx4-dependent formation of native disulfide bonds was accelerated when PDI was combined with ERp46 or P5, suggesting that PDIs work synergistically to increase the rate and fidelity of oxidative protein folding. Thus, the mammalian ER seems to contain highly systematized oxidative networks for the efficient production of large quantities of secretory proteins.

  13. [Chemical Characteristics and Sources of Atmospheric Carbonyls During the 2014 Beijing APEC].

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-lang; Tan, Ji-hua; Guo, Song-jun; Ma, Yong-liang; He, Ke-bin

    2016-03-15

    Pollution characteristic and variation trend of atmospheric carbonyls were investigated in November during the 2014 Beijing APEC. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were the dominant carbonyls, accounting for 82.66% of total carbonyls, and especially, formaldehyde accounted for 40.12% of total carbonyls. Atmospheric concentrations of total carbonyls decreased by around 64.10% after the clean air policy was carried out during the Beijing APEC, and the variation trend of carbonyls showed a similar pattern to those of other pollutants like PM₂.₅ during the APEC. Strong correlations (R² of 0.67-0.98) were observed among formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and total carbonyls during and after the APEC, indicating that they had similar sources; however, poor correlations (R² of -0.11-0.42 and 0.16-0.94, respectively) were observed before the APEC, implying different emission sources for ambient carbonyls. The calculated ratios of C1/C2, C2/C3 and OC/EC indicated that both vehicles and coal emissions were responsible for atmospheric carbonyls before the APEC, and emissions from coal burning were the major contributor to atmospheric carbonyls during and after the APEC, especially after the APEC.

  14. From APEC 2011 to APEC 2012: American and Russian Perspectives on Asia-Pacific Security and Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Barros, “Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries,” Quarterly Journal of Economics ( 1991 ) 407–444. 6 D. Adam, “Education and National...Jagdish Bhagwati , “America’s Threat to Trans-Pacific Trade,” Project-Syndicate (December 30, 2011), http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/america...anniversaries” of the recent history of Russia-China relations. Twenty years ago (December 27, 1991 ), Beijing announced the recognition of Russia

  15. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in Health Ministers' Council/Gulf Cooperation Council Member States, 2001-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mulla, Ahmad Moh'd; Helmy, Sahar Abdou; Al-Lawati, Jawad; Nasser, Sami Al; Rahman, Salah Ali Abdel; Almutawa, Ayesha; Saab, Bassam Abi; Al-Bedah, Abdullah Mohammed; Al-Rabeah, Abdullah Mohamed; Bahaj, Ahmed Ali; El-Awa, Fatimah; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Background: This article examines differences and similarities in adolescent tobacco use among Member States of the Health Ministers' Council for the Gulf Cooperation Council (HMC/GCC) using Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data. Methods: Nationally representative samples of students in grades associated with ages 13-15 in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman,…

  16. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in Health Ministers' Council/Gulf Cooperation Council Member States, 2001-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mulla, Ahmad Moh'd; Helmy, Sahar Abdou; Al-Lawati, Jawad; Nasser, Sami Al; Rahman, Salah Ali Abdel; Almutawa, Ayesha; Saab, Bassam Abi; Al-Bedah, Abdullah Mohammed; Al-Rabeah, Abdullah Mohamed; Bahaj, Ahmed Ali; El-Awa, Fatimah; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Background: This article examines differences and similarities in adolescent tobacco use among Member States of the Health Ministers' Council for the Gulf Cooperation Council (HMC/GCC) using Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data. Methods: Nationally representative samples of students in grades associated with ages 13-15 in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman,…

  17. [Analysis on Regional Characteristics of Air Quality Index and Weather Situation in Beijing and Its Surrounding Cities During the APEC].

    PubMed

    Gao, Qing-xian; Lu, Jun-rong; Wang, Ning; Li, Wen-tao; Gao, Wen-kang; Su, Bu-da

    2015-11-01

    Analysis on the revolution and regional characteristics of air quality by hourly monitored readings from 1 to 15 November 2014 released by Environmental Monitoring Station of China and research of the impacts of weather situation and meteorological elements released by China Meteorological Administration towards air quality of Beijing and its surrounding cities during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) indicated that: (1) The air quality was good because of the implementation of mitigation measures, while the Air Quality Index (AQI) increased along with the termination of mitigation measures. Thus it can be seen that mitigation measures made a great contribution to the improvement of air quality of Beijing and its surrounding cities. (2) Affected by thermal inversion layer, AQI of Beijing and its surrounding cities increased quickly during the initial of the implemental of reducing measures which proved that pollutants would accumulate in the context of unfavourable weather, hence the influence of weather situation towards air quality could not be ignored. (3) Although affected by thermal inversion layer, the concentration of pollutants of Beijing was not accumulated to a high degree at the end period of reducing measures, while Tianjin, Tangshan, Baoding and Xingtai suffered from moderate and severe pollution at the same time which further illustrated that the implementation of mitigation measures have made a great contribution to the improvement of air quality in Beijing during APEC.

  18. mcr-1 identified in Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC)

    PubMed Central

    Lima Barbieri, Nicolle; Nielsen, Daniel W.; Wannemuehler, Yvonne; Cavender, Tia; Hussein, Ashraf; Yan, Shi-gan; Nolan, Lisa K.; Logue, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance associated with colistin has emerged as a significant concern worldwide threatening the use of one of the most important antimicrobials for treating human disease. Here, we examined a collection (n = 980) of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolated from poultry with colibacillosis from the US and internationally for the presence of mcr-1 and mcr-2, genes known to encode colistin resistance. Included in the analysis was an additional set of avian fecal E. coli (AFEC) (n = 220) isolates from healthy birds for comparative analysis. The mcr-1 gene was detected in a total of 12 isolates recovered from diseased production birds from China and Egypt. No mcr genes were detected in the healthy fecal isolates. The full mcr-1 gene from positive isolates was sequenced using specifically designed primers and were compared with sequences currently described in NCBI. mcr-1 positive isolates were also assessed for phenotypic colistin resistance and extended spectrum beta lactam phenotypes and genotypes. This study has identified mcr-1 in APEC isolates dating back to at least 2010 and suggests that animal husbandry practices could result in a potential source of resistance to the human food chain in countries where application of colistin in animal health is practiced. PMID:28264015

  19. Biological Control of Apple Anthracnose by Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128, an Antagonistic Rhizobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the suppression of the disease development of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum in harvested apples using an antagonistic rhizobacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128 (APEC128). Out of 30 bacterial isolates from apple rhizosphere screened for antagonistic activity, the most effective strain was APEC128 as inferred from the size of the inhibition zone. This strain showed a greater growth in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth compared to other growth media. There was a reduction in anthracnose symptoms caused by the two fungal pathogens in harvested apples after their treatment with APEC128 in comparison with non-treated control. This effect is explained by the increased production of protease and amylase by APEC128, which might have inhibited mycelial growth. In apples treated with different APEC128 suspensions, the disease caused by C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum was greatly suppressed (by 83.6% and 79%, respectively) in treatments with the concentration of 1 × 108 colony forming units (cfu)/ml compared to other lower dosages, suggesting that the suppression of anthracnose development on harvested apples is dose-dependent. These results indicated that APEC128 is one of the promising agents in the biocontrol of apple anthracnose, which might help to increase the shelf-life of apple fruit during the post-harvest period. PMID:27298600

  20. Biological Control of Apple Anthracnose by Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128, an Antagonistic Rhizobacterium.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the suppression of the disease development of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum in harvested apples using an antagonistic rhizobacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128 (APEC128). Out of 30 bacterial isolates from apple rhizosphere screened for antagonistic activity, the most effective strain was APEC128 as inferred from the size of the inhibition zone. This strain showed a greater growth in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth compared to other growth media. There was a reduction in anthracnose symptoms caused by the two fungal pathogens in harvested apples after their treatment with APEC128 in comparison with non-treated control. This effect is explained by the increased production of protease and amylase by APEC128, which might have inhibited mycelial growth. In apples treated with different APEC128 suspensions, the disease caused by C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum was greatly suppressed (by 83.6% and 79%, respectively) in treatments with the concentration of 1 × 10(8) colony forming units (cfu)/ml compared to other lower dosages, suggesting that the suppression of anthracnose development on harvested apples is dose-dependent. These results indicated that APEC128 is one of the promising agents in the biocontrol of apple anthracnose, which might help to increase the shelf-life of apple fruit during the post-harvest period.

  1. Expression of Immune-Related Genes of Ducks Infected with Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rong; Li, Ning; Zhang, Jinzhou; Wang, Yao; Liu, Jiyuan; Cai, Yumei; Chai, Tongjie; Wei, Liangmeng

    2016-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) can cause severe disease in ducks, characterized by perihepatitis, pericarditis, and airsacculitis. Although the studies of bacteria isolation and methods of detection have been reported, host immune responses to APEC infection remain unclear. In response, we systemically examined the expression of immune-related genes and bacteria distribution in APEC-infected ducks. Results demonstrated that APEC can quickly replicate in the liver, spleen, and brain, with the highest bacteria content at 2 days post infection. The expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs), avian β-defensins (AvBDs) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) were tested in the liver, spleen, and brain of infected ducks. TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR15 showed different expression patterns, which indicated that they all responded to APEC infection. The expression of AvBD2 was upregulated in all tested tissues during the 3 days of testing, whereas the expression of AvBD4, AvBD5, AvBD7, and AvBD9 were downregulated, and though MHC-I was upregulated on all test days, MHC-II was dramatically downregulated. Overall, our results suggest that APEC can replicate in various tissues in a short time, and the activation of host immune responses begins at onset of infection. These findings thus clarify duck immune responses to APEC infection and offer insights into its pathogenesis. PMID:27199963

  2. Viewing the effects of anthropogenic emission control from the change of CO2 concentration observed by GOSAT in China during the 2014 APEC summit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, L.; Zhong, H.; Liu, L.; Yang, S., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    The growth of the global anthropogenic carbon emission stalled in 2014, according to data from International Energy Agency (IEA). This paper presents a practical application of satellite observation for detecting the regional enhancement of CO2 induced by underlying anthropogenic CO2 emissions especially during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. We collected the column averaged dry air mole fraction (XCO2) data from Greenhouse Observation SATellite (GOSAT) from Jan. 2010 to Dec. 2015, which are provided by Japan GOSAT project team. The spatial change of the 5-year averaged XCO2 derived by gap filling [Zeng et al., TGRS, 2014], as shown in Fig.1, demonstrated that high XCO2prefer to correspond to the most intensive power plants. We calculated the regional contrasts between source and almost without emission (Fig.2), which are defined based on emission and potential temperature. The source, which is defined around Beijing, has many big power plants (Fig.1). The regional contrast showed 1-3 ppm with large seasonal variations while it is the lowest in summer due to influence of biospheric fluxes and especially show abnormal fluctuation in autumn 2014 (Fig.3). XCO2 fell from 398.9 ppm in 15-30 Oct. before APEC to 395.7 ppm during 1-11 Nov. 2014 APEC in source area around Beijing, and the contrast decreased from 4.5 ppm to 1.0 ppm (Table 1). This abnormal decline of XCO2 likely indicate the effects of controlling action for strong local source emissions such as closed many small inefficient coal-fired power plants from the beginning of 2014, banned on burning straw, especially in addition to temporally shut down the big coal-power plants and limiting the number of vehicles running during the APEC summit within the large zone covering the six provinces around Beijing. The large reduction was reported in aerosol of 50% above during the APEC summit (Sun et al., Sci. report, 2016). Our results agree to the potential of satellite observations to

  3. The Relationship Between Core Members' Social Capital and Perceived and Externally Evaluated Prestige and Cooperation Among HIV/AIDS-Related Civil Society Organizations in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danni; Xu, Xiaoru; Mei, Guangliang; Ma, Ying; Chen, Ren; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the core members' social capital was associated with individually perceived and externally evaluated prestige and cooperation among the HIV/AIDS-related civil society organizations (CSOs). To accomplish this, a cross-sectional study using multistage sampling was carried out in eight provinces of China. Data were collected from the 327 core members via questionnaires and self-evaluated performance of the respondents were evaluated and measured. The interviews were conducted with all core members and the supervisory staff of the local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that social support (adjusted odds ratio [a OR] = 1.87) and organizational commitment (a OR = 1.57) were significantly associated with a higher odds of prestige performance in self-evaluation. Furthermore, social support (a OR = 1.65), trust (a OR = 1.33), and organizational commitment (a OR = 1.52) were significantly correlated with cooperation performance. Trust was positively associated with the cooperation performance on external evaluation. These findings may provide a new perspective on challenges that the CSOs face in response to a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in China. Social capital may increase performance and accelerate organizational growth, ultimately improving HIV/AIDS prevention and care.

  4. Members of the meis1 and pbx homeodomain protein families cooperatively bind a cAMP-responsive sequence (CRS1) from bovine CYP17.

    PubMed

    Bischof, L J; Kagawa, N; Moskow, J J; Takahashi, Y; Iwamatsu, A; Buchberg, A M; Waterman, M R

    1998-04-03

    The mammalian Pbx homeodomain proteins provide specificity and increased DNA binding affinity to other homeodomain proteins. A cAMP-responsive sequence (CRS1) from bovine CYP17 has previously been shown to be a binding site for Pbx1. A member of a second mammalian homeodomain family, Meis1, is now also demonstrated to be a CRS1-binding protein upon purification using CRS1 affinity chromatography. CRS1 binding complexes from Y1 adrenal cell nuclear extract contain both Pbx1 and Meis1. This is the first transcriptional regulatory element reported as a binding site for members of the Meis1 homeodomain family. Pbx1 and Meis1 bind cooperatively to CRS1, whereas neither protein can bind this element alone. Mutagenesis of the CRS1 element indicates a binding site for Meis1 adjacent to the Pbx site. All previously identified Pbx binding partners have Pbx interacting motifs that contain a tryptophan residue amino-terminal to the homeodomain that is required for cooperative binding to DNA with Pbx. Members of the Meis1 family contain one tryptophan residue amino-terminal to the homeodomain, but site-directed mutagenesis indicates that this residue is not required for cooperative CRS1 binding with Pbx. Thus, the Pbx-Meis1 interaction is unique among Pbx complexes. Meis1 also cooperatively binds CRS1 with the Pbx homologs extradenticle from Drosophila melanogaster and ceh-20 from Caenorhabditis elegans, indicating that this interaction is evolutionarily conserved. Thus, CYP17 CRS1 is a transcriptional regulatory element containing both Pbx and Meis1 binding sites, which permit these two homeodomain proteins to bind and potentially regulate cAMP-dependent transcription through this sequence.

  5. 'CATT' A project on Co-operation and Technology Transfer on Long-Term Radioactive Waste Management for EU Member States with Small Nuclear Programmes

    SciTech Connect

    Mathieson, J.; Lindberg, C.

    2006-07-01

    Many of the European Union's (EU) 25 countries have considerable inventories of long-lived radioactive waste that will remain potentially hazardous for many thousands of years. Of these, several have advanced concepts and programmes for the treatment and disposal (and other long - term management options) for spent fuel and long-lived radioactive waste. Collectively, these Member States have spent the equivalent of many billions of euros in developing such concepts and some have further developed the concepts into proposed operational facilities. Member States with small nuclear programmes, face the expensive and daunting prospect o f developing their own concepts for dealing with their spent fuel and high level waste. One answer would be to seek solutions which could take advantage of the investment costs in the technology and underpinning science already incurred in the more established programmes. Thus technology transfer between Member States in areas of high level waste and spent fuel encapsulation, repository development etc. would allow the establishment of disposal facilities within any Member State for it to deal with its own wastes. The national waste management organisations of the UK (Mirex), Sweden (SKB), German y (DBE), Lithuania (RATA), Bulgaria (DPRAO) and Slovenia (ARAO), together with JRC of the Netherlands, are to undertake a project under the auspices of the EU's 6. R and D Framework Programme (FP6). The 18 month project will examine the technical, intellectual property, legal, financial and societal implications of the idea. It goes by the acronym 'CATT' - 'Cooperation and technology transfer on long term radioactive waste management for Member States with small nuclear programmes'. This paper describes the CATT project which will look at technology transfer methodologies by which Member States could co-operate. It covers the potential issues which may arise and ho w these may be addressed. (authors)

  6. Integration of APECS and VE-Suite for Data Overlay

    SciTech Connect

    McCorkel, Doug; Bivins, Gerrick; Jordan, Terry; Bryden, Mark; Zitney, S.E.; Widmann, John; Osawe, Maxwell

    2008-06-01

    In the design of advanced power generation facilities, process simulation tools are being utilized to model plant behavior and quickly analyze results. While such tools enable investigation of crucial aspects of plant design, typical commercial process simulators still do not explore some plant design information, including high-fidelity data from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of complex thermal and fluid flow phenomena, economics data used for policy decisions, operational data after the plant is constructed, and as-built information for use in as-designed models. Software tools must be created that allow disparate sources of information to be integrated for facilitating accurate and effective plant design. At the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) has been developed as an integrated software suite that combines process simulation (e.g., Aspen Plus®) and high-fidelity equipment simulation (e.g., FLUENT®). In this paper, the integration of the high-fidelity CFD data with overall process data in a virtual power simulation environment will be described. More specifically, we will highlight VE-Suite, an open-source virtual engineering (VE) software toolkit, and its support of Aspen Plus® Hierarchy blocks via the VE-AspenUnit.

  7. Integration of APECS and VE-Suite for data overlay

    SciTech Connect

    McCorkel, D.; Bivins, G.; Jordan, T.; Bryden, M.; Zitney, S.; Widmann, J.; Osawe, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the design of advanced power generation facilities, process simulation tools are being utilized to model plant behavior and quickly analyze results. While such tools enable investigation of crucial aspects of plant design, typical commercial process simulators still do not explore some plant design information, including high-fidelity data from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of complex thermal and fluid flow phenomena, economics data used for policy decisions, operational data after the plant is constructed, and as-built information for use in as-designed models. Software tools must be created that allow disparate sources of information to be integrated for facilitating accurate and effective plant design. At the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) has been developed as an integrated software suite that combines process simulation (e.g., Aspen Plus®) and high-fidelity equipment simulation (e.g., FLUENT®). In this paper, the integration of the high-fidelity CFD data with overall process data in a virtual power simulation environment will be described. More specifically, we will highlight VE-Suite, an open-source virtual engineering (VE) software toolkit, and its support of Aspen Plus® Hierarchy blocks via the VE-AspenUnit.

  8. Change in NO2 reveals Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haoran; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Xie, Pinhua; Xing, Chengzhi; Xu, Jin; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-04-01

    The spectacular Parade Blue (blue sky), and APEC Blue (blue sky) were renowned worldwide caused by the limiting discharge policy of the Chinese government. For evaluating the reduction of these two events, we analyzed the variation of NO2 columns Beijing by looking at a long-term monitoring using Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observations from August 2014 to November 2015, covering Grand Military Parade (GMP, September 2015) and APEC (November 2014) period. We found that the NO2 columns abruptly decreased both GMP and APEC. However, change in the MAX-DOAS and the OMI NO2 during GMP was larger than during APEC via comparison with the same period in 2014, indicating Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue. The spatial distribution of NO2 and backward trajectories together with meterological parameters suggested that GMP Blue may be due to the regional significant decreasing discharge in peripheral cities. No weekend effect during GMP further confirmed the role of controlling discharge. This study provides direct evidence that it is possible to clean air in China.

  9. Unexplained cyanosis caused by hepatopulmonary syndrome in a girl with APECED syndrome.

    PubMed

    Celmeli, Fatih; Kocabas, Abdullah; Isik, Ishak A; Parlak, Mesut; Kisand, Kai; Ceylaner, Serdar; Turkkahraman, Doga

    2017-03-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy, candidiasis and ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare but devastating primary immunodeficiency disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene on chromosome 21q22.3. The clinical spectrum of the disease is characterized by a wide heterogeneity because of autoimmune reactions toward different endocrine and non-endocrine organs. Here, we report a 17-year-old Turkish girl diagnosed with APECED at 9 years in whom a novel homozygote mutation in AIRE gene p.R15H (c.44G>A) was found. In the clinical course of the patient, chronic liver disease due to autoimmune hepatitis has evolved resulting in hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) which has not been reported before in patients with APECED.

  10. CAPE-OPEN compliant stochastic modeling and reduced-order model computation capability for APECS system

    SciTech Connect

    Diwekar, Urmila; Shastri, Yogendra (Vishwamitra Research Institute Clarendon Hills, IL); Subrmanyan, Karthik; Zitney, S.E.

    2007-11-04

    APECS (Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator) is an integrated software suite that combines the power of process simulation with high-fidelity, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for improved design, analysis, and optimization of process engineering systems. The APECS system uses commercial process simulation (e.g., Aspen Plus) and CFD (e.g., FLUENT) software integrated with the process-industry standard CAPE-OPEN (CO) interfaces. This breakthrough capability allows engineers to better understand and optimize the fluid mechanics that drive overall power plant performance and efficiency. The focus of this paper is the CAPE-OPEN complaint stochastic modeling and reduced order model computational capability around the APECS system. The usefulness of capabilities is illustrated with coal fired, gasification based, FutureGen power plant simulation. These capabilities are used to generate efficient reduced order models and optimizing model complexities.

  11. The SH3 domains of two PCH family members cooperate in assembly of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe contractile ring

    PubMed Central

    Roberts-Galbraith, Rachel H.; Chen, Jun-Song; Wang, Jianqiu; Gould, Kathleen L.

    2009-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc15 homology (PCH) family members participate in many cellular processes by bridging the plasma membrane and cytoskeleton. Their F-BAR domains bind and curve membranes, whereas other domains, typically SH3 domains, are expected to provide cytoskeletal links. We tested this prevailing model of functional division in the founding member of the family, Cdc15, which is essential for cytokinesis in S. pombe, and in the related PCH protein, Imp2. We find that the distinct functions of Imp2 and Cdc15 are SH3 domain independent. However, the Cdc15 and Imp2 SH3 domains share an essential role in recruiting proteins to the contractile ring, including Pxl1 and Fic1. Together, Pxl1 and Fic1, a previously uncharacterized C2 domain protein, add structural integrity to the contractile ring and prevent it from fragmenting during division. Our data indicate that the F-BAR proteins Cdc15 and Imp2 contribute to a single biological process with both distinct and overlapping functions. PMID:19139265

  12. Squamous Cell Carcinoma-related Oncogene (SCCRO) Family Members Regulate Cell Growth and Proliferation through Their Cooperative and Antagonistic Effects on Cullin Neddylation*

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Weimin; Sun, Joanne; Huang, Guochang; Liu, Jeffrey C.; Kaufman, Andrew; Ryan, Russell J. H.; Ramanathan, Suresh Y.; Venkatesh, Tadmiri; Singh, Bhuvanesh

    2016-01-01

    SCCRO (squamous cell carcinoma-related oncogene; also known as DCUN1D1) is a highly conserved gene that functions as an E3 in neddylation. Although inactivation of SCCRO in yeast results in lethality, SCCRO−/− mice are viable. The exclusive presence of highly conserved paralogues in higher organisms led us to assess whether compensation by SCCRO paralogues rescues lethality in SCCRO−/− mice. Using murine and Drosophila models, we assessed the in vivo activities of SCCRO and its paralogues in cullin neddylation. We found that SCCRO family members have overlapping and antagonistic activity that regulates neddylation and cell proliferation activities in vivo. In flies, both dSCCRO and dSCCRO3 promote neddylation and cell proliferation, whereas dSCCRO4 negatively regulates these processes. Analysis of somatic clones showed that the effects that these paralogues have on proliferation serve to promote cell competition, leading to apoptosis in clones with a net decrease in neddylation activity. We found that dSCCRO and, to a lesser extent, dSCCRO3 rescue the neddylation and proliferation defects promoted by expression of SCCRO4. dSCCRO and dSCCRO3 functioned cooperatively, with their coexpression resulting in an increase in both the neddylated cullin fraction and proliferation activity. In contrast, human SCCRO and SCCRO4 promote, and human SCCRO3 inhibits, neddylation and proliferation when expressed in flies. Our findings provide the first insights into the mechanisms through which SCCRO family members cooperatively regulate neddylation and cell proliferation. PMID:26792857

  13. [Evaluation on the Effectiveness of Vehicle Exhaust Emission Control Measures During the APEC Conference in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Fan, Shou-bin; Tian, Ling-di; Zhang, Dong-xu; Guo, Jin-jin

    2016-01-15

    Vehicle emission is one of the primary factors affecting the quality of atmospheric environment in Beijing. In order to improve the air quality during APEC conference, strict control measures including vehicle emission control were taken in Beijing during APEC meeting. Based on the activity level data of traffic volume, vehicle speed and vehicle types, the inventory of motor vehicle emissions in Beijing was developed following bottom-up methodology to assess the effectiveness of the control measures. The results showed that the traffic volume of Beijing road network during the APEC meeting decreased significantly, the vehicle speed increased obviously, and the largest decline of traffic volume was car. CO, NOx, HC and PM emissions of vehicle exhaust were reduced by 15.1%, 22.4%, 18.4% and 21.8% for freeways, 29.9%, 36.4%, 32.7% and 35.8% for major arterial, 35.7%, 41.7%, 38.4% and 41.2% for minor arterial, 40.8%, 46.5%, 43.1% and 46.0% for collectors, respectively. The vehicles exhaust emissions inventory before and during APEC conference was developed based on bottom-up emissions inventory method. The results indicated that CO, NOx, HC and PM emissions of vehicle exhaust were reduced by 37.5%, 43.4%, 39.9% and 42.9% in the study area, respectively.

  14. DNA Sequence and Comparative Genomics of pAPEC-O2-R, an Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Transmissible R Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Siek, Kylie E.; Johnson, Sara J.; Nolan, Lisa K.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a 101-kb IncF plasmid from an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strain (APEC O2) was sequenced and analyzed, providing the first completed APEC plasmid sequence. This plasmid, pAPEC-O2-R, has functional transfer and antimicrobial resistance-encoding regions. The resistance-encoding region encodes resistance to eight groups of antimicrobial agents, including silver and other heavy metals, quaternary ammonium compounds, tetracycline, sulfonamides, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim, and beta-lactam antimicrobial agents. This region of the plasmid is unique among previously described IncF plasmids in that it possesses a class 1 integron that harbors three gene cassettes and a heavy metal resistance operon. This region spans 33 kb and is flanked by the RepFII plasmid replicon and an assortment of plasmid maintenance genes. pAPEC-O2-R also contains a 32-kb transfer region that is nearly identical to that found in the E. coli F plasmid, rendering it transferable by conjugation to plasmid-less strains of bacteria, including an APEC strain, a fecal E. coli strain from an apparently healthy bird, a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain, and a uropathogenic E. coli strain from humans. Differences in the G+C contents of individual open reading frames suggest that various regions of pAPEC-O2-R had dissimilar origins. The presence of pAPEC-O2-R-like plasmids that encode resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents and that are readily transmissible from APEC to other bacteria suggests the possibility that such plasmids may serve as a reservoir of resistance genes for other bacteria of animal and human health significance. PMID:16251312

  15. Prevalence of hypertension in member countries of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC): systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Dinesh; McLachlan, Craig S; Sharma, Rajan; Gyawali, Bishal; Khanal, Vishnu; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Christensen, Bo; Kallestrup, Per

    2014-09-01

    Hypertension is a leading attributable risk factor for mortality in South Asia. However, a systematic review on prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in the region of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) has not carried out before.The study was conducted according to the Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Guideline. A literature search was performed with a combination of medical subject headings terms, "hypertension" and "Epidemiology/EP". The search was supplemented by cross-references. Thirty-three publications that met the inclusion criteria were included in the synthesis and meta-analyses. Hypertension is defined when an individual had a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg, was taking antihypertensive drugs, or had previously been diagnosed as hypertensive by health care professionals. Prehypertension is defined as SBP 120-139 mm Hg and DBP 80-89 mm Hg.The overall prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension from the studies was found to be 27% and 29.6%, respectively. Hypertension varied between the studies, which ranged from 13.6% to 47.9% and was found to be higher in the studies conducted in urban areas than in rural areas. The prevalence of hypertension from the latest studies was: Bangladesh: 17.9%; Bhutan: 23.9%; India: 31.4%; Maldives: 31.5%; Nepal: 33.8%; Pakistan: 25%; and Sri Lanka: 20.9%. Eight out of 19 studies with information about prevalence of hypertension in both sexes showed that the prevalence was higher among women than men. Meta-analyses showed that sex (men: odds ratio [OR] 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02, 1.37), obesity (OR 2.33; 95% CI: 1.87, 2.78), and central obesity (OR 2.16; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.95) were associated with hypertension.Our study found a variable prevalence of hypertension across SAARC countries, with a number of countries with blood pressure above the global average. We also noted that studies are

  16. Cooperative Effects of FOXL2 with the Members of TGF-β Superfamily on FSH Receptor mRNA Expression and Granulosa Cell Proliferation from Hen Prehierarchical Follicles.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ning; Fan, Xian-Cong; Xu, Xiao-Xing; Tyasi, Thobela Louis; Li, Shi-Jun; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Wei, Man-Li; Xu, Ri-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) is a member of the forkhead nuclear factor 3 gene family and plays an essential role in ovarian growth and maturation in mammals. However, its potential effects and regulative mechanism in development of chicken ovarian prehierarchical follicles remain unexplored. In this study, the cooperative effects of FOXL2 with activin A, growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9) and follistatin, three members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily that were previously suggested to exert a critical role in follicle development was investigated. We demonstrated herein, using in-situ hybridization, Northern blot and immunohistochemical analyses of oocytes and granulosa cells in various sizes of prehierarchical follicles that both FOXL2 transcripts and FOXL2 proteins are predominantly expressed in a highly similar expression pattern to that of GDF9 gene. In addition, the FOXL2 transcript was found at lower levels in theca cells in the absence of GDF9. Furthermore, culture of granulosa cells (GCs) from the prehierarchical follicles (6-8 mm) in conditioned medium revealed that in the pcDNA3.0-FOXL2 transfected GCs, there was a more dramatic increase in FSHR mRNA expression after treatment with activin A (10 ng/ml) or GDF9 (100 ng/ml) for 24 h which caused a stimulatory effect on the GC proliferation. In contrast, a significant decrease of FSHR mRNA was detected after treatment with follistatin (50 ng/ml) and resulted in an inhibitory effect on the cell proliferation. The results of this suggested that FOXL2 plays a bidirectional modulating role involved in the intracellular FSHR transcription and GC proliferation via an autocrine regulatory mechanism in a positive or negative manner through cooperation with activin A and/or GDF9, and follistatin in the hen follicle development. This cooperative action may be mediated by the examined Smad signals and simultaneously implicated in modulation of the StAR, CCND2, and CYP11A1 expression.

  17. Cooperative Effects of FOXL2 with the Members of TGF-β Superfamily on FSH Receptor mRNA Expression and Granulosa Cell Proliferation from Hen Prehierarchical Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ning; Fan, Xian-Cong; Xu, Xiao-Xing; Tyasi, Thobela Louis; Li, Shi-Jun; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Wei, Man-Li; Xu, Ri-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) is a member of the forkhead nuclear factor 3 gene family and plays an essential role in ovarian growth and maturation in mammals. However, its potential effects and regulative mechanism in development of chicken ovarian prehierarchical follicles remain unexplored. In this study, the cooperative effects of FOXL2 with activin A, growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9) and follistatin, three members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily that were previously suggested to exert a critical role in follicle development was investigated. We demonstrated herein, using in-situ hybridization, Northern blot and immunohistochemical analyses of oocytes and granulosa cells in various sizes of prehierarchical follicles that both FOXL2 transcripts and FOXL2 proteins are predominantly expressed in a highly similar expression pattern to that of GDF9 gene. In addition, the FOXL2 transcript was found at lower levels in theca cells in the absence of GDF9. Furthermore, culture of granulosa cells (GCs) from the prehierarchical follicles (6–8 mm) in conditioned medium revealed that in the pcDNA3.0-FOXL2 transfected GCs, there was a more dramatic increase in FSHR mRNA expression after treatment with activin A (10 ng/ml) or GDF9 (100 ng/ml) for 24 h which caused a stimulatory effect on the GC proliferation. In contrast, a significant decrease of FSHR mRNA was detected after treatment with follistatin (50 ng/ml) and resulted in an inhibitory effect on the cell proliferation. The results of this suggested that FOXL2 plays a bidirectional modulating role involved in the intracellular FSHR transcription and GC proliferation via an autocrine regulatory mechanism in a positive or negative manner through cooperation with activin A and/or GDF9, and follistatin in the hen follicle development. This cooperative action may be mediated by the examined Smad signals and simultaneously implicated in modulation of the StAR, CCND2, and CYP11A1 expression. PMID

  18. Prevalence of tobacco use among students aged 13-15 years in Health Ministers' Council/Gulf Cooperation Council Member States, 2001-2004.

    PubMed

    Moh'd Al-Mulla, Ahmad; Abdou Helmy, Sahar; Al-Lawati, Jawad; Al Nasser, Sami; Ali Abdel Rahman, Salah; Almutawa, Ayesha; Abi Saab, Bassam; Al-Bedah, Abdullah Mohammed; Al-Rabeah, Abdullah Mohamed; Ali Bahaj, Ahmed; El-Awa, Fatimah; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira

    2008-06-01

    This article examines differences and similarities in adolescent tobacco use among Member States of the Health Ministers' Council for the Gulf Cooperation Council (HMC/GCC) using Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data. Nationally representative samples of students in grades associated with ages 13-15 in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Schools were selected proportional to enrollment size, classes were randomly selected within participating schools, and all students in selected classes were eligible to participate. GYTS results confirmed that boys are significantly more likely than girls to smoke cigarettes or use shisha (water pipe). Students had higher rates of tobacco use than adults in Bahrain, Oman, and United Arab Emirates. For boys and girls, shisha use was higher than cigarette smoking in almost all countries. Susceptibility to initiate smoking among never smokers was higher than current cigarette smoking in all countries. Exposure to secondhand smoke in public places was greater than 30%, direct protobacco advertising exposure was greater than 70% on billboards and in newspapers, and more than 10% of students were influenced by indirect advertising. Finally, less than half of the students were taught in school about the dangers of tobacco use in the past year. For boys and girls, high prevalence of cigarette smoking, high prevalence of shisha use, and high susceptibility of never smokers to initiate smoking in the next year are troubling indicators for the future of chronic disease and tobacco-related mortality in the Member States of the HMC/GCC.

  19. Ras association domain family member 10 suppresses gastric cancer growth by cooperating with GSTP1 to regulate JNK/c-Jun/AP-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Liang, Q; Liu, W; Zhang, N; Xu, L; Zhang, X; Zhang, J; Sung, J J Y; Yu, J

    2016-05-12

    The Ras association domain family (RASSF) encodes several members with tumor-suppressive potentials. We aimed to investigate the biological function and clinical implication of RASSF10 in gastric cancer (GC). We found that RASSF10 was silenced in six of seven GC cell lines and in primary GC tissues, but was highly expressed in normal gastric tissues. The silence of RASSAF10 was mediated by promoter methylation as evaluated by bisulfite genomic sequencing. RASSF10 expression could be restored by demethylation treatment. A negative correlation between methylation and mRNA expression of RASSF10 was observed in 223 gastric samples of The Cancer Genome Atlas study (P<0.0001). Re-expression of RASSF10 in GC cell lines (AGS and MKN45) significantly suppressed cell viability, colony formation, migration and invasion, reduced cells in S phase, accumulated cells in G2 phase and induced cell apoptosis in vitro, and inhibited tumorigenicity in nude mice. These were confirmed by decreased expression of proliferation markers (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, p-CDC2 and p-CDC25) and increased apoptotic cascades (cleaved caspases-9, -8, -3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase). Conversely, RASSF10 knockdown in normal gastric cell line yielded an opposing effect. Co-immunoprecipitation combined with mass spectrometry analyses were performed to reveal the downstream effectors of RASSF10. The result revealed that glutathione S-transferase Pi 1 (GSTP1) was a direct cooperator of RASSF10. The tumor-suppressive effect of RASSF10 was partially mediated by cooperating with GSTP1 to deregulate Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/c-Jun/AP-1 pathway. Importantly, RASSF10 methylation was detected in 56.6% (98/173) of primary GCs and is an independent risk factor for poor survival of GC patients (P=0.001). In conclusions, RASSF10 functions as a tumor suppressor by cooperating with GSTP1 to deregulate JNK/c-Jun/AP-1 pathway in GC. Promoter methylation of RASSF10 is associated with poor survival

  20. Scapula development is governed by genetic interactions of Pbx1 with its family members and with Emx2 via their cooperative control of Alx1

    PubMed Central

    Capellini, Terence D.; Vaccari, Giulia; Ferretti, Elisabetta; Fantini, Sebastian; He, Mu; Pellegrini, Massimo; Quintana, Laura; Di Giacomo, Giuseppina; Sharpe, James; Selleri, Licia; Zappavigna, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    The genetic pathways underlying shoulder blade development are largely unknown, as gene networks controlling limb morphogenesis have limited influence on scapula formation. Analysis of mouse mutants for Pbx and Emx2 genes has suggested their potential roles in girdle development. In this study, by generating compound mutant mice, we examined the genetic control of scapula development by Pbx genes and their functional relationship with Emx2. Analyses of Pbx and Pbx1;Emx2 compound mutants revealed that Pbx genes share overlapping functions in shoulder development and that Pbx1 genetically interacts with Emx2 in this process. Here, we provide a biochemical basis for Pbx1;Emx2 genetic interaction by showing that Pbx1 and Emx2 can bind specific DNA sequences as heterodimers. Moreover, the expression of genes crucial for scapula development is altered in these mutants, indicating that Pbx genes act upstream of essential pathways for scapula formation. In particular, expression of Alx1, an effector of scapula blade patterning, is absent in all compound mutants. We demonstrate that Pbx1 and Emx2 bind in vivo to a conserved sequence upstream of Alx1 and cooperatively activate its transcription via this potential regulatory element. Our results establish an essential role for Pbx1 in genetic interactions with its family members and with Emx2 and delineate novel regulatory networks in shoulder girdle development. PMID:20627960

  1. Effectiveness of a group outpatient visit model for chronically ill older health maintenance organization members: a 2-year randomized trial of the cooperative health care clinic.

    PubMed

    Scott, John C; Conner, Douglas A; Venohr, Ingrid; Gade, Glenn; McKenzie, Marlene; Kramer, Andrew M; Bryant, Lucinda; Beck, Arne

    2004-09-01

    To compare the effectiveness of Cooperative Health Care Clinic ((CHCC) group outpatient model for chronically ill, older health maintenance organization (HMO) patients) with usual care. Two-year, randomized, controlled trial conducted with recruitment from February 1995 through July of 1996. Nonprofit group model HMO. Two hundred ninety-four adults (145 intervention and 149 usual care), aged 60 and older (mean age 74.1) with 11 or more outpatient visits in the prior 18 months, one or more self-reported chronic conditions, and expressed interest in participating in a group clinic. Monthly group meetings held by patients' primary care physicians. Differences in clinic visits, inpatient admissions, emergency room visits, hospital outpatient services, professional services, home health, and skilled nursing facility admissions; measures of patient satisfaction, quality of life, self-efficacy, and activities of daily living (ADLs). Outpatient, pharmacy services, home health, and skilled nursing facility use did not differ between groups, but CHCC patients had fewer hospital admissions (P=.012), emergency visits (P=.008), and professional services (P=.005). CHCC patients' costs were $41.80 per member per month less than those of control patients. CHCC patients reported higher satisfaction with their primary care physician (P=.022), better quality of life (P=.002), and greater self-efficacy (P=.03). Health status and ADLs did not differ between groups. The CHCC model resulted in fewer hospitalizations and emergency visits, increased patient satisfaction, and self-efficacy, but no effect on outpatient use, health, or functional status. Copyright 2004 American Geriatrics Society

  2. A systematic review of cost-sharing strategies used within publicly-funded drug plans in member countries of the organisation for economic co-operation and development.

    PubMed

    Barnieh, Lianne; Clement, Fiona; Harris, Anthony; Blom, Marja; Donaldson, Cam; Klarenbach, Scott; Husereau, Don; Lorenzetti, Diane; Manns, Braden

    2014-01-01

    Publicly-funded drug plans vary in strategies used and policies employed to reduce continually increasing pharmaceutical expenditures. We systematically reviewed the utilization of cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations in publicly-funded formularies within member nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Using the OECD nations as the sampling frame, a search for cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations was done using published and grey literature. Collected data was verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country, to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across plans. Significant variation in the use of cost-sharing mechanisms was seen. Copayments were the most commonly used cost-containment measure, though their use and amount varied for those with certain conditions, most often chronic diseases (in 17 countries), and by socio-economic status (either income or employment status), or with age (in 15 countries). Caps and deductibles were only used by five systems. Drug cost-containment strategies targeting physicians were also identified in 24 countries, including guideline-based prescribing, prescription monitoring and incentive structures. There was variable use of cost-containment strategies to limit pharmaceutical expenditures in publicly funded formularies within OECD countries. Further research is needed to determine the best approach to constrain costs while maintaining access to pharmaceutical drugs.

  3. A Systematic Review of Cost-Sharing Strategies Used within Publicly-Funded Drug Plans in Member Countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development

    PubMed Central

    Barnieh, Lianne; Clement, Fiona; Harris, Anthony; Blom, Marja; Donaldson, Cam; Klarenbach, Scott; Husereau, Don; Lorenzetti, Diane; Manns, Braden

    2014-01-01

    Background Publicly-funded drug plans vary in strategies used and policies employed to reduce continually increasing pharmaceutical expenditures. We systematically reviewed the utilization of cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations in publicly-funded formularies within member nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Methods & Findings Using the OECD nations as the sampling frame, a search for cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations was done using published and grey literature. Collected data was verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country, to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across plans. Significant variation in the use of cost-sharing mechanisms was seen. Copayments were the most commonly used cost-containment measure, though their use and amount varied for those with certain conditions, most often chronic diseases (in 17 countries), and by socio-economic status (either income or employment status), or with age (in 15 countries). Caps and deductibles were only used by five systems. Drug cost-containment strategies targeting physicians were also identified in 24 countries, including guideline-based prescribing, prescription monitoring and incentive structures. Conclusions There was variable use of cost-containment strategies to limit pharmaceutical expenditures in publicly funded formularies within OECD countries. Further research is needed to determine the best approach to constrain costs while maintaining access to pharmaceutical drugs. PMID:24618721

  4. IL‐6‐specific autoantibodies among APECED and thymoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Pihlap, Maire; Ranki, Annamari; Krohn, Kai; Trebusak Podkrajsek, Katarina; Bratanic, Nina; Battelino, Tadej; Willcox, Nick; Peterson, Pärt; Kisand, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Both autoimmune polyendocrinopathy‐candidiasis‐ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) and the rare thymoma patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) have neutralizing autoantibodies to Th17 cytokines and significant defects in production of IL‐22 and IL‐17F by their T cells. The cause of these defects is unknown. We hypothesized that they might result from autoimmunity against upstream cytokines normally responsible for generating and maintaining Th17 cells. Methods Luciferase immunoprecipitation (LIPS) was used to screen for autoantibodies to IL‐6, IL‐1β, TGF‐β3, IL‐21, and IL‐23 in patients with APECED or thymoma. We used Western blotting to assess the conformation‐dependence of the IL‐6 autoantibodies and flow cytometric analysis of intracellular phospho‐STAT3 induction to assess IL‐6‐neutralizing capacity in IgGs isolated from patient and control sera. We also used Luminex xMAP to measure serum cytokine levels. Results We found autoantibodies binding to conformational epitopes of IL‐6 in 19.5% of 41 patients with APECED and 12.5% of 104 with thymoma—especially in those with long disease durations. The autoantibodies were predominantly of IgG1 subclass and failed to neutralize IL‐6 activity. Notably, serum levels of the IL‐6 and IL‐17A cytokines were higher in anti‐IL‐6 seropositive than—negative APECED patients or healthy controls. We also detected autoantibody binding to IL‐23 in 27.9% of thymoma patients, resulting from cross‐recognition through the p40 subunit it shares with IL‐12. Conclusions IL‐6 and IL‐17A elevation in these seropositive patients suggests that antibody‐binding may protect IL‐6 from degradation and prolong its half‐life in vivo. PMID:27957331

  5. Towards the Integration of APECS and VE-Suite for Virtual Power Plant Co-Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.E.; McCorkle, D.; Yang, C.; Jordan, T.; Swensen, D.; Bryden, M.

    2007-05-01

    Process modeling and simulation tools are widely used for the design and operation of advanced power generation systems. These tools enable engineers to solve the critical process systems engineering problems that arise throughout the lifecycle of a power plant, such as designing a new process, troubleshooting a process unit or optimizing operations of the full process. To analyze the impact of complex thermal and fluid flow phenomena on overall power plant performance, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has developed the Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS). The APECS system is an integrated software suite that combines process simulation (e.g., Aspen Plus) and high-fidelity equipment simulations such as those based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD), together with advanced analysis capabilities including case studies, sensitivity analysis, stochastic simulation for risk/uncertainty analysis, and multi-objective optimization. In this paper we discuss the initial phases of the integration of the APECS system with the immersive and interactive virtual engineering software, VE-Suite, developed at Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory. VE-Suite uses the ActiveX (OLE Automation) controls in the Aspen Plus process simulator wrapped by the CASI library developed by Reaction Engineering International to run process/CFD co-simulations and query for results. This integration represents a necessary step in the development of virtual power plant co-simulations that will ultimately reduce the time, cost, and technical risk of developing advanced power generation systems.

  6. Investigating the impact of regional transport on PM2.5 formation using vertical observation during APEC 2014 Summit in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Yang; Wang, Shuxiao; Wang, Jiandong; Jiang, Jingkun; Zhang, Tianshu; Song, Yu; Kang, Ling; Zhou, Wei; Cai, Runlong; Wu, Di; Fan, Siwei; Wang, Tong; Tang, Xiaoqing; Wei, Qiang; Sun, Feng; Xiao, Zhimei

    2016-12-01

    During the APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) Economic Leaders' 2014 Summit in Beijing, strict regional air emission controls were implemented, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the transport and formation mechanism of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). This study explores the use of vertical observation methods to investigate the influence of regional transport on PM2.5 pollution in Beijing before and during the APEC Summit. Vertical profiles of extinction coefficient, wind, temperature and relative humidity were monitored at a rural site on the border of Beijing and Hebei Province. Three PM2.5 pollution episodes were analyzed. In episode 1 (27 October to 1 November), regional transport accompanied by the accumulation of pollutants under unfavorable meteorological conditions led to the pollution. In episode 2 (2-5 November), pollutants left from episode 1 were retained in the boundary layer of the region for 2 days and then settled down to the surface, leading to an explosive increase of PM2.5. The regional transport of aged aerosols played a crucial role in the heavy PM2.5 pollution. In episode 3 (6-11 November), emissions from large point sources had been controlled for several days while primary emissions from diesel vehicles might have led to the pollution. It is found that ground-level observation of meteorological conditions and air quality could not fully explain the pollution process, while vertical parameters (aerosol optical properties, winds, relative humidity and temperature) improved the understanding of regional transport influence on heavy pollution processes. Future studies may consider including vertical observations to aid investigation of pollutant transport, especially during episodic events of rapidly increasing concentrations.

  7. Evaluating the effectiveness of joint emission control policies on the reduction of ambient VOCs: Implications from observation during the 2014 APEC summit in suburban Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kun; Li, Junling; Wang, Weigang; Tong, Shengrui; Liggio, John; Ge, Maofa

    2017-09-01

    Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at a suburban Beijing site were on-line detected using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) during autumn of 2014, near the location of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. During the APEC summit, the Chinese government enacted strict emission control policies. It was found that VOC concentrations only slightly decreased during the first emission control period (EC I), when control policies were performed in Beijing and 5 cities along the Tai-hang Mountains. However, most of the VOCs (10 out of 12 non-biogenic species) significantly decreased (more than 40%) during the second emission control period (EC II), when control policies were carried out in 16 cities including Beijing, Tianjin, 8 cities of Hebei province and 6 cities of Shandong province. Also the ratio of toluene and benzene decreased during EC II, likely because the emission control policies changed the proportions of different anthropogenic sources. Using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) source apportionment method, five factors are analyzed: (1) vehicle + fuel, (2) solvent, (3) biomass burning, (4) secondary, and (5) background + long-lived. Among them, vehicle + fuel, solvent and biomass burning contribute most of the VOCs concentrations (60%-80%) during the polluted periods and are affected most by emission control policies. During EC II, the reductions of vehicle + fuel, solvent, biomass burning and secondary species were all no less than 50%. Overall, when emission control policies were carried out in many North China Plain (NCP) cities (i.e. EC II), the VOC concentrations of suburban Beijing markedly decreased. This indicates the cross-regional joint-control policies have a large influence on reductions of organic gas species. The findings of this study have vital implications for helping formulate effective emission control policies in China and other countries.

  8. Reduction in population exposure to PM2.5 and cancer risk due to PM2.5-bound PAHs exposure in Beijing, China during the APEC meeting.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yangyang; Zhao, Bin; Zhao, Yuejing; Luo, Qinzi; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhao, Bin; Bai, Shunhua

    2017-03-08

    Radical measures for controlling ambient air pollution sources were employed by the Chinese government during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting in 2014, providing a unique case to evaluate the health effect benefits from such measures. To examine the cancer risk reduction from the source control measures during the APEC meeting, we estimated the reduction in population exposure to PM2.5 and PAHs and the reduction in PAHs-associated cancer risk if the control measures were sustained over time. We determined the population exposure to PM2.5 and PM2.5-bound PAHs for the 21.52 million Beijing residents using a Land Use Regression model to determine the spatial distribution of PM2.5 and a Monte Carlo approach to revise indoor/outdoor infiltration factor and time activity patterns. Into the model and approach, we incorporated the spatial variance and indoor/outdoor differences in the PM2.5 and PM2.5-bound PAHs concentrations, based on measurements. We then estimated lung cancer risk using the population attributable fraction (PAF), assuming the control measures were sustained over time. The mean PM2.5 exposure concentration decreased from 37.5 μg/m3 (CI:17.1-74.9 μg/m3) to 24.0 μg/m3 (CI:10.2-47.7 μg/m3), whereas the mean PM2.5-bound equivalent benzo[a]pyrene (BaPeq) exposure concentration decreased from 7.1 ng/m(3) (CI:3.3-14.2 ng/m(3)) to 4.2 ng/m(3) (CI:1.8-7.7 ng/m(3)), resulting in a reduction in the lung cancer PAF from 0.75% to 0.45%, if the measures were sustained over time.

  9. Variation of temporal and spatial patterns of NO2 in Beijing using mobile DOAS during the APEC in 2014 and the Victory Day Parade in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ang; Xie, Pinhua; Wu, Fengcheng; Hu, Zhaokun; Xu, Jin; Qin, Min

    2016-04-01

    Recently Chinese cities have suffered severe haze events, especially in North China Plain (NCP). It has the characteristics of regional scale and complex components with high concentration level. In order to learn the haze formation, it is necessary to investigate temporal and spatial distribution of pollutants, emissions and pollution transport for better understanding of the impact of various sources on air quality. Control policies such as "odd-and-even license plate rule" were implemented by the Chinese government to restrict traffic and suspend factory production in Beijing and neighboring cities during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit (APEC) in 2014 and Victory Parade in 2015. We use mobile differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) and multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) to measure the variation of the spatial and temporal patterns of NO2 column densities from October 24, 2014 to December 31, 2014 and from August 25, 2015 to September 7, 2015. It is found that the NO2 column densities during the episode of control policies are significantly lower than those during other periods, and the emission flux of NO2 calculated by mobile DOAS is also lower than the results from other periods. There was a further 45.5% decline of the emission flux of NO2 in Beijing fifth ring road during the Victory Day Parade in 2015 than during APEC period. The low NO2 column densities that occur during the episode of control policies are affected by the control policies as well as meteorological conditions.

  10. Choosing the cooperative option

    SciTech Connect

    English, G. )

    1999-06-01

    Cooperatives do not ask to be exempted from the law. They do ask that laws and regulations be designed to allow them to meet the needs of their consumer-owners in accordance with cooperative principles, at a time that the marginal consumers being abandoned by for-profit utilities may be ready to gravitate toward cooperatives. The cooperative principles are worth reviewing because they explain the focus on the consumer and the cooperative concept of service: cooperatives are voluntary organizations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership; cooperatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting policies and making decisions, the elected representatives are accountable to the membership; members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their cooperative; cooperatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members, if they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their cooperative autonomy; cooperatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their cooperatives, they inform the general public, particularly young people and opinion leaders, about the nature and benefits of cooperation; cooperatives serve their members most effectively and strength the cooperative movement by working together through local, national, regional, and international structures; and while focusing on member needs, cooperatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies accepted by their members.

  11. Towards the Integration of APECS with VE-Suite to Create a Comprehensive Virtual Engineering Environment

    SciTech Connect

    McCorkle, D.; Yang, C.; Jordan, T.; Swensen, D.; Zitney, S.E.; Bryden, M.

    2007-06-01

    Modeling and simulation tools are becoming pervasive in the process engineering practice of designing advanced power generation facilities. These tools enable engineers to explore many what-if scenarios before cutting metal or constructing a pilot scale facility. While such tools enable investigation of crucial plant design aspects, typical commercial process simulation tools such as Aspen Plus®, gPROMS®, and HYSYS® still do not explore some plant design information, including computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for complex thermal and fluid flow phenomena, economics models for policy decisions, operational data after the plant is constructed, and as-built information for use in as-designed models. Software tools must be created that allow disparate sources of information to be integrated if environments are to be constructed where process simulation information can be accessed. At the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) has been developed as an integrated software suite that combines process simulation (e.g., Aspen Plus) and high-fidelity equipment simulation (e.g., Fluent® CFD), together with advanced analysis capabilities including case studies, sensitivity analysis, stochastic simulation for risk/uncertainty analysis, and multi-objective optimization. In this paper, we discuss the initial phases of integrating APECS with the immersive and interactive virtual engineering software, VE-Suite, developed at Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory. VE-Suite utilizes the ActiveX (OLE Automation) controls in Aspen Plus wrapped by the CASI library developed by Reaction Engineering International to run the process simulation and query for unit operation results. This integration permits any application that uses the VE-Open interface to integrate with APECS co-simulations, enabling construction of the comprehensive virtual engineering environment needed for the

  12. The blue skies in Beijing during APEC 2014: A quantitative assessment of emission control efficiency and meteorological influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongli; He, Jing; Guo, Jianping; Miao, Yucong; Yin, Jinfang; Wang, Yuan; Xu, Hui; Liu, Huan; Yan, Yan; Li, Yuan; Zhai, Panmao

    2017-10-01

    Most previous studies attributed the alleviation of aerosol pollution to either emission control measures or favorable meteorological conditions. However, our understanding of their quantitative contribution is far from complete. In this study, based on model simulation using the CMA (China Meteorological Administration) Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environment for aerosols (CUACE/Aero), in combination with simultaneous ground-based hourly PM2.5 observations, we aim to quantify the relative contributions of the emission control measures and meteorology to the blue-skies seen in Beijing during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit held in November of 2014. A series of model simulations have been performed over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region by implementing nine different emission control schemes. To investigate the relative contributions of the emission control measures and meteorology, the study period has been divided into five episodes. Overall, the CUACE/Aero model can reasonably well reproduce the temporal and spatial evolution of PM2.5 during APEC 2014, although the model performance varies by different time periods and regions of interest. Model results show the emission control measures on average reduced the PM2.5 concentration by 41.3% in urban areas of Beijing and 39.7% in Huairou district, respectively, indicating emission control plays a significant role for the blue skies observed. Among all the emission control measures under investigation, local emission control in Beijing contributed the largest to the reduction of PM2.5 concentrations with a reduction of 35.5% in urban area of Beijing and 34.8% in Huairou, in contrast with the vehicle emission control in Hebei that contributed the least with a reduction of less than 1%. The emission control efficiency in five episodes has been assessed quantitatively, which falls in the range of 36.2%-41.2% in urban area of Beijing and 34.9%-40.7% in Huairou, indicative of no significant episode

  13. A Comparison of Telecollaborative Classes between Japan and Asian-Pacific Countries--Asian-Pacific Exchange Collaboration (APEC) Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimizu, Yoshihiko; Pack, Dwayne; Kano, Mikio; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Yamamura, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare the effects of "telecollaborative classes" between students in Japan and those in Asian-Pacific countries such as Taiwan, Thailand, and the United States (Hawaii). The telecollaborative classes are part of the Asian-Pacific Exchange Collaboration (APEC) project, a 4-year project involving students…

  14. The Link Between Pre-School and Primary Education: Report on Visits to Pilot Projects in 8 Member States of the Council for Cultural Co-operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumer-Strucksberg, M.

    This report presents a summary of visits to pilot projects which focused on the link between preschool and primary education in eight European countries of the Council for Cultural Cooperation. A brief overview of the problem of the relationships between preschool and primary education identifies priorities in the development of preschool…

  15. Chemical and optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols in Beijing during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation China 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jun; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Leiming; Wang, Han; Qiu, Xionghui; Zhang, Zhisheng; Wu, Yunfei; Chai, Fahe; Wang, Shulan

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of regional pollution control measures for improving visibility imposed during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) period, day- and nighttime PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected at an urban site in Beijing from October to November, 2014. PM2.5 and PM10 samples were subject to chemical analysis for major water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), element carbon (EC), and biomass burning tracers - anhydrosugar levoglucosan (LG). In addition, aerosol scattering coefficient (bsp) and aerosol absorption coefficient (bap) at dry condition were measured. PM2.5 mass concentration was 190 ± 125, 88 ± 60, 199 ± 142 μg m-3 during the pre-, during- and post-APEC period, respectively, while the concentration of the sum of (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3 was 75 ± 69, 19 ± 22 and 40 ± 46 μg m-3, respectively. The sum of (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3 accounted for 49 ± 24%, 19 ± 12% and 24 ± 12% of bext (the sum of bsp and bap) at ambient condition during the pre-, during- and post-APEC period, respectively, and the corresponding numbers are 39 ± 18%, 62 ± 8% and 61 ± 10% for the sum of OM and EC. Reduction of secondary inorganic aerosols played a key role in the "APEC blue", especially under moisture conditions due to their hygroscopic properties. As a result, visibility was improved significantly during the APEC period with five out of the 12 days having a visibility higher than 20 km. Control of biomass burning, especially during the nighttime, was not performed well during the APEC period, which should be paid more attention in making future emission control measures.

  16. Genotypes and Pathogenicity of Cellulitis Isolates Reveal Traits That Modulate APEC Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Nicolle Lima; de Oliveira, Aline Luísa; Tejkowski, Thiago Moreira; Pavanelo, Daniel Brisotto; Rocha, Débora Assumpção; Matter, Letícia Beatriz; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia Maria; de Brito, Benito Guimarães; Horn, Fabiana

    2013-01-01

    We characterized 144 Escherichia coli isolates from severe cellulitis lesions in broiler chickens from South Brazil. Analysis of susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials revealed frequencies of resistance of less than 30% for most antimicrobials except tetracycline (70%) and sulphonamides (60%). The genotyping of 34 virulence-associated genes revealed that all the isolates harbored virulence factors related to adhesion, iron acquisition and serum resistance, which are characteristic of the avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) pathotype. ColV plasmid-associated genes (cvi/cva, iroN, iss, iucD, sitD, traT, tsh) were especially frequent among the isolates (from 66.6% to 89.6%). According to the Clermont method of ECOR phylogenetic typing, isolates belonged to group D (47.2%), to group A (27.8%), to group B2 (17.4%) and to group B1 (7.6%); the group B2 isolates contained the highest number of virulence-associated genes. Clonal relationship analysis using the ARDRA method revealed a similarity level of 57% or higher among isolates, but no endemic clone. The virulence of the isolates was confirmed in vivo in one-day-old chicks. Most isolates (72.9%) killed all infected chicks within 7 days, and 65 isolates (38.1%) killed most of them within 24 hours. In order to analyze differences in virulence among the APEC isolates, we created a pathogenicity score by combining the times of death with the clinical symptoms noted. By looking for significant associations between the presence of virulence-associated genes and the pathogenicity score, we found that the presence of genes for invasins ibeA and gimB and for group II capsule KpsMTII increased virulence, while the presence of pic decreased virulence. The fact that ibeA, gimB and KpsMTII are characteristic of neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC) suggests that genes of NMEC in APEC increase virulence of strains. PMID:23977279

  17. Deciphering alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated decay modulate expression in primary lymphoid tissues of birds infected with avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC).

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongyan

    2017-03-07

    Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) can lead to a loss in millions of dollars in poultry annually because of mortality and produce contamination. Studies have verified that many immune-related genes undergo changes in alternative splicing (AS), along with nonsense mediated decay (NMD), to regulate the immune system under different conditions. Therefore, the splicing profiles of primary lymphoid tissues with systemic APEC infection need to be comprehensively examined. Gene expression in RNAseq data were obtained for three different immune tissues (bone marrow, thymus, and bursa) from three phenotype birds (non-challenged, resistant, and susceptible birds) at two time points. Alternative 5' splice sites and exon skipping/inclusion were identified as the major alternative splicing events in avian primary immune organs under systemic APEC infection. In this study, we detected hundreds of differentially-expressed-transcript-containing genes (DETs) between different phenotype birds at 5 days post-infection (dpi). DETs, PSAP and STT3A, with NMD have important functions under systemic APEC infection. DETs, CDC45, CDK1, RAG2, POLR1B, PSAP, and DNASE1L3, from the same transcription start sites (TSS) indicate that cell death, cell cycle, cellular function, and maintenance were predominant in host under systemic APEC. With the use of RNAseq technology and bioinformatics tools, this study provides a portrait of the AS event and NMD in primary lymphoid tissues, which play critical roles in host homeostasis under systemic APEC infection. According to this study, AS plays a pivotal regulatory role in the immune response in chicken under systemic APEC infection via either NMD or alternative TSSs. This study elucidates the regulatory role of AS for the immune complex under systemic APEC infection.

  18. Autoantibodies to IL-17A may be correlated with the severity of mucocutaneous candidiasis in APECED patients.

    PubMed

    Sarkadi, Adrien Katalin; Taskó, Szilvia; Csorba, Gabriella; Tóth, Beáta; Erdős, Melinda; Maródi, László

    2014-02-01

    The relative roles of various autoantibodies against IL-17-type cytokines in susceptibility to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) in patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) remain poorly defined. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to analyze the relationship between the occurrence of mucocutaneous candidiasis and levels of anti-IL-17A, anti-IL-17F and anti-IL-22 autoantibodies. We studied six APECED patients from four families with various disease manifestations. Clinical data were collected during regular follow-up. Anti-endocrine organ antibody levels and clinical chemistry and immunology parameters were determined in routine laboratory assays on freshly isolated serum. Levels of autoantibodies against IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, IFN-α, IFN-ω and TNF-α, and cytokine release by Candida-exposed blood cells were determined by ELISA. Mutations were analyzed by sequencing genomic DNA. Four patients carried the germline c.769C > T homozygous nonsense mutation, which results in R257X truncation of the AIRE protein, and two patients from the same family were compound heterozygous for the c.769C > T/c.1344delC mutation. We found persistently high levels of antibodies against IL-17A in the serum samples of one patient presenting CMC since infancy and low or undetectable anti-IL-17A antibody levels in the sera of five patients with no candidiasis or without severe candidiasis. By contrast, levels of autoantibodies against IL-17F and IL-22 were higher in all patients than in healthy controls. Release of IL-17-type cytokines by Candida-exposed blood mononuclear cells was low or negligible in all patients tested. We suggest that anti-IL-17A antibodies may play an important role in the predisposition to candidiasis of APECED patients. However, the lack of severe CMC in APECED patients with high levels of IL-17F and anti-IL-22 autoantibodies clearly calls into question the role of these antibodies as the principal

  19. Impact of emission control on PM2.5 and the chemical composition change in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei during the APEC summit 2014.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wei; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Chen, Xufeng; Wang, Gang; Li, Song; Wang, Xiaoqi; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2016-03-01

    The success of the emission reduction measures undertaken by authorities in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit 2014 demonstrated that the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei air quality can be improved by introducing integrated emission reduction measures. This paper combines observation data, emission reduction measures, and air quality simulations that were applied before, during, and after the emission control measure implement to analyze the chemical composition change and relationship between emissions and concentrations of pollutants in region. The 24-h PM2.5 samples were collected in the city Beijing, Shijiazhuang, and Tangshan during the period of 20 October to 25 November, 2014. The total PM2.5 mass was measured. PM2.5 samples were used for the analysis of inorganic elements, selected ions, and organic carbon (OC) and element carbon (EC). PM2.5 concentrations during the emission control period were decreased. Total PM2.5 concentrations were reduced by 54, 26, and 39 % when compared to non-emission control period in Beijing, Shijiazhuang, and Tangshan. The average element concentrations were reduced significantly by 75 % in Beijing, 37 % in Shijiazhuang, and 36 % in Tangshan. After the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference, the average element concentration increased. At both cities, the concentration secondary water-soluble ions, primary carbon, and element carbon were reduced. However, the concentration of secondary carbon species increased in Beijing due to photochemical oxidants change. More stringent control of regional emissions will be needed for significant reductions of fine particulate pollution in the region to continue to improve air quality.

  20. Education Standards in the Asia-Pacific Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Lenore Yaffee

    This report presents an overview of some of the similarities and differences in education standards in the Asia-Pacific region that are revealed in survey responses of members of APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation). All 14 member states of APEC submitted responses to the survey; the members are: Australia, Brunei, Darussalam, Canada, People's…

  1. Toward molecular pathogenesis of an autoimmune disease: Refined genetic mapping of autoimmune polyglandular disease type I (APECED)

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, J.; Bjoerses, P.; Peltonen, L.

    1994-09-01

    Autoimmune reactions encoupled to many human diseases are still only partially understood. Unravelling the molecular pathogenesis of inherited diseases with a strong autoimmune component in their clinical expression could help to dissect individual components in the molecular background of abnormal immune response. One such genetic disorder is autosomal recessive autoimmune polyglandular disease type I (PGD I), also known as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED, MIM 240300). The disease is especially enriched in the genetically isolated population of Finland and we have assigned the APECED locus to human chromosome 21q22.3 in 14 Finnish families by linkage analyses. The best positional lod score of 6.49 was observed with marker D21S49. Based on the history of the Finns, the gene pool of this population clearly demonstrates the consequences of a founder effect and consequent isolation. In the Finnish population, we can take advantage of linkage disequilibrium and allelic association studies to more precisely define the critical DNA region for our disease gene of interest than would be possible by linkage analyses alone. We are now able to define the chromosomal region of interest between two flanking markers locating 1 cM apart. Linkage disequilibrium is observed with three of the markers used in the analyses and this suggests a distance of less than 500 kb to the disease locus, well approachable with molecular cloning techniques. Overlapping YAC and cosmid clones spanning our region of interest will facilitate the cloning of APECED gene in the near future.

  2. Type 1 Diabetes in Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-Ectodermal Dystrophy Syndrome (APECED): A "Rare" Manifestation in a "Rare" Disease.

    PubMed

    Fierabracci, Alessandra

    2016-07-12

    Type 1 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS1) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE); the encoded Aire protein plays an important role in the establishment of the immunological tolerance acting as a transcriptional regulator of the expression of organ-specific antigens within the thymus in perinatal age. While a high prevalence for this rare syndrome is reported in Finland and Scandinavia (Norway), autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy syndrome (APECED) cohorts of patients are also detected in continental Italy and Sardinia, among Iranian Jews, as well as in other countries. The syndrome is diagnosed when patients present at least two out of the three fundamental disorders including chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison's disease. Among the associated conditions insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 1 diabetes) has been rarely reported in different series of patients and occurring more frequently in Finnish APECED patients. In this review, we analyze the incidence of Type 1 diabetes as a clinical manifestation of APECED in different populations highlighting the peculiar genetic and immunological features of the disease when occurring in the context of this syndrome.

  3. Deep Sequencing-Based Transcriptome Analysis of Chicken Spleen in Response to Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Qinghua; Sandford, Erin E.; Zhang, Xiquan; Nolan, Lisa K.; Lamont, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) leads to economic losses in poultry production and is also a threat to human health. The goal of this study was to characterize the chicken spleen transcriptome and to identify candidate genes for response and resistance to APEC infection using Solexa sequencing. We obtained 14422935, 14104324, and 14954692 Solexa read pairs for non-challenged (NC), challenged-mild pathology (MD), and challenged-severe pathology (SV), respectively. A total of 148197 contigs and 98461 unigenes were assembled, of which 134949 contigs and 91890 unigenes match the chicken genome. In total, 12272 annotated unigenes take part in biological processes (11664), cellular components (11927), and molecular functions (11963). Summing three specific contrasts, 13650 significantly differentially expressed unigenes were found in NC Vs. MD (6844), NC Vs. SV (7764), and MD Vs. SV (2320). Some unigenes (e.g. CD148, CD45 and LCK) were involved in crucial pathways, such as the T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathway and microbial metabolism in diverse environments. This study facilitates understanding of the genetic architecture of the chicken spleen transcriptome, and has identified candidate genes for host response to APEC infection. PMID:22860004

  4. Cooperative Purchasing Reduces Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kula, Edwin J.

    1981-01-01

    Several suburban Chicago (Illinois) school districts are members of the South Suburban School Purchasing Cooperative, which serves as a conduit for volume purchases of educational supplies. (Author/MLF)

  5. The apoptotic members CD95, BclxL, and Bcl-2 cooperate to promote cell migration by inducing Ca2+ flux from the endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Fouqué, A; Lepvrier, E; Debure, L; Gouriou, Y; Malleter, M; Delcroix, V; Ovize, M; Ducret, T; Li, C; Hammadi, M; Vacher, P; Legembre, P

    2016-01-01

    Metalloprotease-processed CD95L (cl-CD95L) is a soluble cytokine that implements a PI3K/Ca2+ signaling pathway in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Accordingly, high levels of cl-CD95L in TNBC women correlate with poor prognosis, and administration of this ligand in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model accelerates the metastatic dissemination of TNBC cells. The molecular mechanism underlying CD95-mediated cell migration remains unknown. Here, we present genetic and pharmacologic evidence that the anti-apoptotic molecules BclxL and Bcl-2 and the pro-apoptotic factors BAD and BID cooperate to promote migration of TNBC cells stimulated with cl-CD95L. BclxL was distributed in both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrion membranes. The mitochondrion-localized isoform promoted cell migration by interacting with voltage-dependent anion channel 1 to orchestrate Ca2+ transfer from the ER to mitochondria in a BH3-dependent manner. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter contributed to this flux, which favored ATP production and cell migration. In conclusion, this study reveals a novel molecular mechanism controlled by BclxL to promote cancer cell migration and supports the use of BH3 mimetics as therapeutic options not only to kill tumor cells but also to prevent metastatic dissemination in TNBCs. PMID:27367565

  6. 7 CFR 1000.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1000.18 Section 1000.18... Definitions § 1000.18 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative marketing... milk products for its members. A federation of 2 or more cooperatives incorporated under the laws...

  7. 7 CFR 1000.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1000.18 Section 1000.18... Definitions § 1000.18 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative marketing... milk products for its members. A federation of 2 or more cooperatives incorporated under the laws...

  8. 7 CFR 1000.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1000.18 Section 1000.18... Definitions § 1000.18 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative marketing... milk products for its members. A federation of 2 or more cooperatives incorporated under the laws...

  9. 7 CFR 1000.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1000.18 Section 1000.18... Definitions § 1000.18 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative marketing... milk products for its members. A federation of 2 or more cooperatives incorporated under the laws...

  10. 7 CFR 1000.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1000.18 Section 1000.18... Definitions § 1000.18 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative marketing... milk products for its members. A federation of 2 or more cooperatives incorporated under the laws...

  11. Helping Children Cooperate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2011-01-01

    There are occasions in life when the competitive process is appropriate. But when people consider the relationships in their lives--with friends, family members, coworkers, and the larger community--they realize the value of cooperation. When adults give children the chance to cooperate, to work together toward a solution or a common goal like…

  12. A Longitudinal Study Simultaneously Exploring the Carriage of APEC Virulence Associated Genes and the Molecular Epidemiology of Faecal and Systemic E. coli in Commercial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kemmett, Kirsty; Humphrey, Tom; Rushton, Steven; Close, Andrew; Wigley, Paul; Williams, Nicola J.

    2013-01-01

    Colibacillosis is an economically important syndromic disease of poultry caused by extra-intestinal avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) but the pathotype remains poorly defined. Combinations of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) have aided APEC identification. The intestinal microbiota is a potential APEC reservoir. Broiler chickens are selectively bred for fast, uniform growth. Here we simultaneously investigate intestinal E. coli VAG carriage in apparently healthy birds and characterise systemic E. coli from diseased broiler chickens from the same flocks. Four flocks were sampled longitudinally from chick placement until slaughter. Phylogrouping, macro-restriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) were performed on an isolate subset from one flock to investigate the population structure of faecal and systemic E. coli. Early in production, VAG carriage among chick intestinal E. coli populations was diverse (average Simpson's D value  = 0.73); 24.05% of intestinal E. coli (n = 160) from 1 day old chicks were carrying ≥5 VAGs. Generalised Linear models demonstrated VAG prevalence in potential APEC populations declined with age; 1% of E. coli carrying ≥5 VAGs at slaughter and demonstrated high strain diversity. A variety of VAG profiles and high strain diversity were observed among systemic E. coli. Thirty three new MLST sequence types were identified among 50 isolates and a new sequence type representing 22.2% (ST-2999) of the systemic population was found, differing from the pre-defined pathogenic ST-117 at a single locus. For the first time, this study takes a longitudinal approach to unravelling the APEC paradigm. Our findings, supported by other studies, highlight the difficulty in defining the APEC pathotype. Here we report a high genetic diversity among systemic E. coli between and within diseased broilers, harbouring diverse VAG profiles rather than single and/or highly related pathogenic clones

  13. A longitudinal study simultaneously exploring the carriage of APEC virulence associated genes and the molecular epidemiology of faecal and systemic E. coli in commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kemmett, Kirsty; Humphrey, Tom; Rushton, Steven; Close, Andrew; Wigley, Paul; Williams, Nicola J

    2013-01-01

    Colibacillosis is an economically important syndromic disease of poultry caused by extra-intestinal avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) but the pathotype remains poorly defined. Combinations of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) have aided APEC identification. The intestinal microbiota is a potential APEC reservoir. Broiler chickens are selectively bred for fast, uniform growth. Here we simultaneously investigate intestinal E. coli VAG carriage in apparently healthy birds and characterise systemic E. coli from diseased broiler chickens from the same flocks. Four flocks were sampled longitudinally from chick placement until slaughter. Phylogrouping, macro-restriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) were performed on an isolate subset from one flock to investigate the population structure of faecal and systemic E. coli. Early in production, VAG carriage among chick intestinal E. coli populations was diverse (average Simpson's D value  = 0.73); 24.05% of intestinal E. coli (n = 160) from 1 day old chicks were carrying ≥5 VAGs. Generalised Linear models demonstrated VAG prevalence in potential APEC populations declined with age; 1% of E. coli carrying ≥5 VAGs at slaughter and demonstrated high strain diversity. A variety of VAG profiles and high strain diversity were observed among systemic E. coli. Thirty three new MLST sequence types were identified among 50 isolates and a new sequence type representing 22.2% (ST-2999) of the systemic population was found, differing from the pre-defined pathogenic ST-117 at a single locus. For the first time, this study takes a longitudinal approach to unravelling the APEC paradigm. Our findings, supported by other studies, highlight the difficulty in defining the APEC pathotype. Here we report a high genetic diversity among systemic E. coli between and within diseased broilers, harbouring diverse VAG profiles rather than single and/or highly related pathogenic clones

  14. The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS): A Model for the Professional Development of Scientists (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeseman, J. L.; Apecs Leadership Team

    2010-12-01

    Efforts like the International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY) have helped to increase research efforts as well as enhancing the integration of education and outreach into research projects and developing the next generation of researchers. One of the major legacies of the IPY was the creation of the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS), which was developed in 2006 by young researchers and focuses on helping each other develop the skills needed for successful careers in research by working with senior mentors. APECS is an international and interdisciplinary organization of over 2000 early career researchers and educators with interests in the Polar Regions and the wider cryosphere from 45 countries. APECS aims to stimulate interdisciplinary and international research collaborations, and develop effective future leaders in polar research, education and outreach. This is achieved by - Facilitating international and interdisciplinary networking opportunities to share ideas and experiences and to develop new research directions and collaborations, - Providing opportunities for professional career development for both academic and alternative research professions, and - Promoting education and outreach as an integral component of polar research and to stimulate future generations of polar researchers. Since its inception, APECS has strived to develop a strong network of partnerships with senior international organizations and scientific bodies to provide career development opportunities for young researchers. These partnerships have led to early-career representation on science planning bodies at an international level, the mandate of early career researchers serving as co-chairs at science conferences, the development of a mentorship program, field schools and techniques workshops, mentor panel discussions at conferences and increased funding for young researchers to attend conferences. APECS has also worked with an international teachers network to develop

  15. Summary of the APEC coal trade and investment liberalization and facilitation workshop: Facilitating trade and investment in Indonesia`s coal energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-08-01

    The Workshop brought together experts from APEC economies to discuss important issues related to coal development, trade and consumption in the APEC region, with a focus on Indonesia. Papers ranged from broad regional coal-related issues to specific policy and contract terms. The host, Indonesia, was selected as the focus of the workshop because it: (a) has APEC`s fastest growing electricity sector, (b) is in the process of switching from oil based electricity generation to coal and natural gas-based generation, (c) is among the fastest growing coal exporters in APEC, and (d) has a contract system for coal development that has been widely accepted by foreign investors. In addition, Indonesia is in the process of revising its coal policies, and might benefit from the timely discussions in this workshop. The papers presented in the workshop spanned the coal chain from coal resources and reserves, conversion technologies, economics and markets, legal and policy issues, to community and cultural concerns. Participants represented government, industry and academic interests, and provided perspectives of coal and technology suppliers, consumers, energy policy makers and legal experts.

  16. Source apportionment of atmospheric ammonia before, during, and after the 2014 APEC summit in Beijing using stable nitrogen isotope signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yunhua; Liu, Xuejun; Deng, Congrui; Dore, Anthony J.; Zhuang, Guoshun

    2016-09-01

    Stable nitrogen isotope composition (δ15N) offers new opportunities to address the long-standing and ongoing controversy regarding the origins of ambient ammonia (NH3), a vital precursor of PM2.5 (particulate matters with aerodynamic diameter equal or less than 2.5 µm) inorganic components, in the urban atmosphere. In this study, the δ15N values of NH3 samples collected from various sources were constrained using a novel and robust chemical method coupled with standard elemental analysis procedures. Independent of the wide variation in mass concentrations (ranging from 33 (vehicle) to over 6000 (human excreta) µg m-3), different NH3 sources have generally different δ15N values (ranging from -52.0 to -9.6 ‰). Significantly high δ15N values are seen as a characteristic feature of all vehicle-derived NH3 samples (-14.2 ± 2.8 ‰), which can be distinguished from other sources emitted at environmental temperature (-29.1 ± 1.7, -37.8 ± 3.6, and -50.0 ± 1.8 ‰ for livestock, waste, and fertilizer, respectively). The isotope δ15N signatures for a range of NH3 emission sources were used to evaluate the contributions of the different sources within measured ambient NH3 in Beijing, using an isotope mixing model (IsoSource). The method was used to quantify the sources of ambient NH3 before, during and after the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit, when a set of stringent air quality control measures were implemented. Results show that the average NH3 concentrations (the overall contributions of traffic, waste, livestock, and fertilizer) during the three periods were 9.1 (20.3, 28.3, 23.6, and 27.7 %), 7.3 (8.8, 24.9, 14.3, and 52.0 %), and 12.7 (29.4, 23.6, 31.7, and 15.4 %) µg m-3, respectively, representing a 20.0 % decrease first and then a 74.5 % increase in overall NH3 mass concentrations. During (after) the summit, the contributions of traffic, waste, livestock, and fertilizer decreased (increased) by 56.7 (234.2), 12.0 (-5.0), 39.4 (120

  17. Futures for energy cooperatives

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    A listing of Federal agencies and programs with potential funding for community-scale cooperatives using conservation measures and solar technologies is presented in Section 1. Section 2 presents profiles of existing community energy cooperatives describing their location, history, membership, services, sources of finance and technical assistance. A condensed summary from a recent conference on Energy Cooperatives featuring notes on co-op members' experiences, problems, and opportunities is presented in Section 3. Section 4 lists contacts for additional information. A National Consumer Cooperative Bank Load Application is shown in the appendix.

  18. Union Members Are Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

  19. CAPE-OPEN compliant stochastic modeling and reduced-order model coputation capaability for APECS system. ORIGINAL TITLE: CAPE-OPEN compliant stochastic modeling capability

    SciTech Connect

    Diwekar, U.; Shastri, Y.; Subramanayan, K.; Zitney, S.

    2007-01-01

    APECS (Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator) is an integrated software suite that combines the power of process simulation with high-fidelity, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for improved design, analysis, and optimization of process engineering systems. The APECS system uses commercial process simulation (e.g., Aspen Plus) and CFD (e.g., FLUENT) software integrated with the process-industry standard CAPE-OPEN (CO) interfaces. This breakthrough capability allows engineers to better understand and optimize the fluid mechanics that drive overall power plant performance and efficiency. The focus of this paper is the CAPE-OPEN complaint stochastic modeling and reduced order model computational capability around the APECS system. The usefulness of capabilities is illustrated with coal fired, gasification based, FutureGen power plant simulation. These capabilities are used to generate efficient reduced order models and optimizing model complexities.

  20. The Autism Psychodynamic Evaluation of Changes (APEC) scale: a reliability and validity study on a newly developed standardized psychodynamic assessment for youth with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Haag, Geneviève; Botbol, Michel; Graignic, Rozenn; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Bronsard, Guillaume; Kermarrec, Solenn; Clement, Marie-Christine; Cukierman, Annick; Druon, Catherine; Duprat, Andrée; Jardin, Françoise; du Chatellier, Anik Maufras; Tricaud, Jacqueline; Urwand, Simone; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Cohen, David; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2010-12-01

    The present study was designed to examine the reliability and validity of the Autism Psychodynamic Evaluation of Changes (APEC) scale, developed to assess the evolution in individuals with autism under treatment. The APEC scale focuses on the key role of impairment in body image construction, which requires cross-modal sensory integration through emotional communication with motor representations. Thus, the body image construction is associated simultaneously with spatial and temporal organization and allows the emergence of self- and others-representations. The use of the APEC scale, with its seven domains (expression of emotion in relationships, eye contact, body image, graphic productions, exploration of space and objects, time perception, and verbal language), underlines the importance in autistic disorder of anxieties related to body and spatial representations, and of impairment in the body ego construction which is closely linked to the emergence of individuation/separation processes. This study was conducted on 73 children and adolescents with autistic disorder. They were recruited in day care facilities where two caregivers independently gave their ratings based on their clinical observation on a daily basis during the same month. Analyses included assessing construct validity through correspondence analyses and inter-rater reliability using kappa coefficients. The APEC scale offers a reliable and validated psychodynamic assessment of interest for professionals (such as child psychiatrists, caregivers, therapists or teachers) and researchers working with children, adolescents and adults with autistic disorder, especially in the follow-up of their evolution. The APEC scale provides an approach at the interface of psychoanalysis and neuroscience, and is also of interest for clinical and developmental psychology. Using the APEC scale in a range of different practical and research settings will foster links between psychoanalytic perspectives and educational

  1. A Model of Computation for Bit-Level Concurrent Computing and Programming: APEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajiro, Takashi; Tsuchida, Kensei

    A concurrent model of computation and a language based on the model for bit-level operation are useful for developing asynchronous and concurrent programs compositionally, which frequently use bit-level operations. Some examples are programs for video games, hardware emulation (including virtual machines), and signal processing. However, few models and languages are optimized and oriented to bit-level concurrent computation. We previously developed a visual programming language called A-BITS for bit-level concurrent programming. The language is based on a dataflow-like model that computes using processes that provide serial bit-level operations and FIFO buffers connected to them. It can express bit-level computation naturally and develop compositionally. We then devised a concurrent computation model called APEC (Asynchronous Program Elements Connection) for bit-level concurrent computation. This model enables precise and formal expression of the process of computation, and a notion of primitive program elements for controlling and operating can be expressed synthetically. Specifically, the model is based on a notion of uniform primitive processes, called primitives, that have three terminals and four ordered rules at most, as well as on bidirectional communication using vehicles called carriers. A new notion is that a carrier moving between two terminals can briefly express some kinds of computation such as synchronization and bidirectional communication. The model's properties make it most applicable to bit-level computation compositionally, since the uniform computation elements are enough to develop components that have practical functionality. Through future application of the model, our research may enable further research on a base model of fine-grain parallel computer architecture, since the model is suitable for expressing massive concurrency by a network of primitives.

  2. Best practices in environmental monitoring for coal-fired power plants: lessons for developing Asian APEC economies

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, N.; Findsen, J.

    2008-11-15

    The report assesses environmental monitoring and reporting by individual coal-fired power plants, makes recommendations regarding how monitoring should be applied, and evaluates the interrelationship of monitoring and regulation in promoting CCTs. Effective monitoring is needed to ensure that power plants are performing as expected, and to confirm that they are complying with applicable environmental regulations. Older coal-fired power plants in APEC economies often have limited monitoring capabilities, making their environmental performance difficult to measure. 585 refs., 5 figs., 85 tabs.

  3. Lessons learned in upgrading and refurbishing older coal-fired power plants - a best practices guide for developing APEC economies

    SciTech Connect

    Lusica, N.; Xie, T.; Lu, Y.

    2008-10-15

    The report reviews upgrading and refurbishment projects recently implemented by coal-fired power plants in developing APEC economies, and includes a Best Practice Guide for 15 classes of upgrade and refurbishment items to aid in decision making. There is an urgent need to optimize the performance of older coal-fired power plants in the Asia Pacific region. Refurbished power plants are more efficient and emit less CO{sub 2}. Plants can also be upgraded with new pollution control equipment to emit less CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} NOx, particulates and other emissions, including mercury. 20 figs., 6 tabs., 4 apps.

  4. Development of an Apparatus for High-Resolution Auger Photoelectron Coincidence Spectroscopy (APECS) and Electron Ion Coincidence (EICO) Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakiuchi, Takuhiro; Hashimoto, Shogo; Fujita, Narihiko; Mase, Kazuhiko; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Okusawa, Makoto

    We have developed an electron electron ion coincidence (EEICO) apparatus for high-resolution Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy (APECS) and electron ion coincidence (EICO) spectroscopy. It consists of a coaxially symmetric mirror electron energy analyzer (ASMA), a miniature double-pass cylindrical mirror electron energy analyzer (DP-CMA), a miniature time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), a magnetic shield, an xyz stage, a tilt-adjustment mechanism, and a conflat flange with an outer diameter of 203 mm. A sample surface was irradiated by synchrotron radiation, and emitted electrons were energy-analyzed and detected by the ASMA and the DP-CMA, while desorbed ions were mass-analyzed and detected by the TOF-MS. The performance of the new EEICO analyzer was evaluated by measuring Si 2p photoelectron spectra of clean Si(001)-2×1 and Si(111)-7×7, and by measuring Si-L23VV-Si-2p Auger photoelectron coincidence spectra (Si-L23VV-Si-2p APECS) of clean Si(001)-2×1.

  5. Synchrony and cooperation.

    PubMed

    Wiltermuth, Scott S; Heath, Chip

    2009-01-01

    Armies, churches, organizations, and communities often engage in activities-for example, marching, singing, and dancing-that lead group members to act in synchrony with each other. Anthropologists and sociologists have speculated that rituals involving synchronous activity may produce positive emotions that weaken the psychological boundaries between the self and the group. This article explores whether synchronous activity may serve as a partial solution to the free-rider problem facing groups that need to motivate their members to contribute toward the collective good. Across three experiments, people acting in synchrony with others cooperated more in subsequent group economic exercises, even in situations requiring personal sacrifice. Our results also showed that positive emotions need not be generated for synchrony to foster cooperation. In total, the results suggest that acting in synchrony with others can increase cooperation by strengthening social attachment among group members.

  6. Overlapped sequence types (STs) and serogroups of avian pathogenic (APEC) and human extra-intestinal pathogenic (ExPEC) Escherichia coli isolated in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maluta, Renato Pariz; Logue, Catherine Mary; Casas, Monique Ribeiro Tiba; Meng, Ting; Guastalli, Elisabete Aparecida Lopes; Rojas, Thaís Cabrera Galvão; Montelli, Augusto Cezar; Sadatsune, Teruê; de Carvalho Ramos, Marcelo; Nolan, Lisa Kay; da Silveira, Wanderley Dias

    2014-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains belong to a category that is associated with colibacillosis, a serious illness in the poultry industry worldwide. Additionally, some APEC groups have recently been described as potential zoonotic agents. In this work, we compared APEC strains with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains isolated from clinical cases of humans with extra-intestinal diseases such as urinary tract infections (UTI) and bacteremia. PCR results showed that genes usually found in the ColV plasmid (tsh, iucA, iss, and hlyF) were associated with APEC strains while fyuA, irp-2, fepC sitDchrom, fimH, crl, csgA, afa, iha, sat, hlyA, hra, cnf1, kpsMTII, clpVSakai and malX were associated with human ExPEC. Both categories shared nine serogroups (O2, O6, O7, O8, O11, O19, O25, O73 and O153) and seven sequence types (ST10, ST88, ST93, ST117, ST131, ST155, ST359, ST648 and ST1011). Interestingly, ST95, which is associated with the zoonotic potential of APEC and is spread in avian E. coli of North America and Europe, was not detected among 76 APEC strains. When the strains were clustered based on the presence of virulence genes, most ExPEC strains (71.7%) were contained in one cluster while most APEC strains (63.2%) segregated to another. In general, the strains showed distinct genetic and fingerprint patterns, but avian and human strains of ST359, or ST23 clonal complex (CC), presented more than 70% of similarity by PFGE. The results demonstrate that some "zoonotic-related" STs (ST117, ST131, ST10CC, ST23CC) are present in Brazil. Also, the presence of moderate fingerprint similarities between ST359 E. coli of avian and human origin indicates that strains of this ST are candidates for having zoonotic potential.

  7. Suppression subtractive hybridization identifies an autotransporter adhesin gene of E. coli IMT5155 specifically associated with avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC).

    PubMed

    Dai, Jianjun; Wang, Shaohui; Guerlebeck, Doreen; Laturnus, Claudia; Guenther, Sebastian; Shi, Zhenyu; Lu, Chengping; Ewers, Christa

    2010-09-09

    Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) represent a phylogenetically diverse group of bacteria which are implicated in a large range of infections in humans and animals. Although subgroups of different ExPEC pathotypes, including uropathogenic, newborn meningitis causing, and avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) share a number of virulence features, there still might be factors specifically contributing to the pathogenesis of a certain subset of strains or a distinct pathotype. Thus, we made use of suppression subtractive hybridization and compared APEC strain IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5; sequence type complex 95) with human uropathogenic E. coli strain CFT073 (O6:K2:H5; sequence type complex 73) to identify factors which may complete the currently existing model of APEC pathogenicity and further elucidate the position of this avian pathotype within the whole ExPEC group. Twenty-eight different genomic loci were identified, which are present in IMT5155 but not in CFT073. One of these loci contained a gene encoding a putative autotransporter adhesin. The open reading frame of the gene spans a 3,498 bp region leading to a putative 124-kDa adhesive protein. A specific antibody was raised against this protein and expression of the adhesin was shown under laboratory conditions. Adherence and adherence inhibition assays demonstrated a role for the corresponding protein in adhesion to DF-1 chicken fibroblasts. Sequence analyses revealed that the flanking regions of the chromosomally located gene contained sequences of mobile genetic elements, indicating a probable spread among different strains by horizontal gene transfer. In accordance with this hypothesis, the adhesin was found to be present not only in different phylogenetic groups of extraintestinal pathogenic but also of commensal E. coli strains, yielding a significant association with strains of avian origin. We identified a chromosomally located autotransporter gene in a highly virulent APEC strain which confers increased

  8. Cooperative Activities for the Home: Parents Working with Teachers to Support Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Audray; And Others

    A collection of activities is presented for use at home to foster cooperative attitudes and build social skills. The activities are aimed at strengthening the cooperative bond in a family and giving family members practice in the skills needed to cooperate effectively. This handbook explains the cooperative learning concept, outlines the rules for…

  9. Novel insight into Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polineuropathy in APECED syndrome: molecular mechanisms and clinical implications in children.

    PubMed

    Valenzise, Mariella; Aversa, Tommaso; Salzano, Giuseppina; Zirilli, Giuseppina; De Luca, Filippo; Su, Maureen

    2017-01-19

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal-dystrophy (APECED) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder typically caused by homozygous AIRE gene mutation. It is characterized by the association of multiple autoimmune diseases, with a classical triad including chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism and adrenocortical failure. Its clinical spectrum has significantly enlarged in the last years with the apparence of new entities. One of these novel manifestations is the chronic inflammatory demyelinating polineuropathy (CIDP), that is characterized by involvement of peripheral nervous system, with nerve demyelination, progressive muscular weakness of both arms and legs and sensory loss. The identification of myelin protein zero as an important autoantigen (Ag) in CIDP may suggest the development of Ag-based therapies, such as Ag-specific DNA vaccination or infusion of Ag-coupled cells.

  10. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Escherichia coli Phages, vB_EcoM_ ESCO5 and vB_EcoM_ESCO13, Which Are Related to phAPEC8

    PubMed Central

    Trotereau, Angélina; Gonnet, Mathieu; Viardot, Antoine; Lalmanach, Anne-Christine; Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Chanteloup, Nathalie Katy

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the complete genome sequences of two Myoviridae phages that infect various avian-pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and that are closely related to phage phAPEC8. PMID:28360172

  11. Science & Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehret, Betty

    This is an activity book designed for students in grades 3 through 6. These activities incorporate science themes and cooperative learning. Students explore topics by working with others as team members to complete the science activities. This book contains five units on the following topics: weather, insects, plants, dinosaurs, and space. Each…

  12. Early biliary decompression versus conservative treatment in acute biliary pancreatitis (APEC trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schepers, Nicolien J; Bakker, Olaf J; Besselink, Marc G H; Bollen, Thomas L; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; van Eijck, Casper H J; Fockens, Paul; van Geenen, Erwin J M; van Grinsven, Janneke; Hallensleben, Nora D L; Hansen, Bettina E; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Timmer, Robin; Anten, Marie-Paule G F; Bolwerk, Clemens J M; van Delft, Foke; van Dullemen, Hendrik M; Erkelens, G Willemien; van Hooft, Jeanin E; Laheij, Robert; van der Hulst, René W M; Jansen, Jeroen M; Kubben, Frank J G M; Kuiken, Sjoerd D; Perk, Lars E; de Ridder, Rogier J J; Rijk, Marno C M; Römkens, Tessa E H; Schoon, Erik J; Schwartz, Matthijs P; Spanier, B W Marcel; Tan, Adriaan C I T L; Thijs, Willem J; Venneman, Niels G; Vleggaar, Frank P; van de Vrie, Wim; Witteman, Ben J; Gooszen, Hein G; Bruno, Marco J

    2016-01-05

    Acute pancreatitis is mostly caused by gallstones or sludge. Early decompression of the biliary tree by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) with sphincterotomy may improve outcome in these patients. Whereas current guidelines recommend early ERC in patients with concomitant cholangitis, early ERC is not recommended in patients with mild biliary pancreatitis. Evidence on the role of routine early ERC with endoscopic sphincterotomy in patients without cholangitis but with biliary pancreatitis at high risk for complications is lacking. We hypothesize that early ERC with sphincterotomy improves outcome in these patients. The APEC trial is a randomized controlled, parallel group, superiority multicenter trial. Within 24 hours after presentation to the emergency department, patients with biliary pancreatitis without cholangitis and at high risk for complications, based on an Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE-II) score of 8 or greater, Modified Glasgow score of 3 or greater, or serum C-reactive protein above 150 mg/L, will be randomized. In 27 hospitals of the Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group, 232 patients will be allocated to early ERC with sphincterotomy or to conservative treatment. The primary endpoint is a composite of major complications (that is, organ failure, pancreatic necrosis, pneumonia, bacteremia, cholangitis, pancreatic endocrine, or exocrine insufficiency) or death within 180 days after randomization. Secondary endpoints include ERC-related complications, infected necrotizing pancreatitis, length of hospital stay and an economical evaluation. The APEC trial investigates whether an early ERC with sphincterotomy reduces the composite endpoint of major complications or death compared with conservative treatment in patients with biliary pancreatitis at high risk of complications. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN97372133 (date registration: 17-12-2012).

  13. Variation of airborne quartz in air of Beijing during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Economic Leaders' Meeting.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Li, Yingming; Zhang, Hongxing; Li, Honghua; Gao, Guanjun; Zhou, Qian; Gao, Yuan; Li, Wenjuan; Sun, Huizhong; Wang, Xiaoke; Zhang, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Quartz particles are a toxic component of airborne particulate matter (PM). Quartz concentrations were analyzed by X-ray diffraction in eighty-seven airborne PM samples collected from three locations in Beijing before, during, and after the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Leaders' Meeting in 2014. The results showed that the mean concentrations of quartz in PM samples from the two urban sites were considerably higher than those from the rural site. The quartz concentrations in samples collected after the APEC meeting, when the pollution restriction lever was lifted, were higher than those in the samples collected before or during the APEC meeting. The quartz concentrations ranged from 0.97 to 13.2 μg/m(3), which were among the highest values amid those reported from other countries. The highest quartz concentration exceeded the Californian Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment reference exposure level and was close to the occupational threshold limit values for occupational settings. Moreover, a correlation analysis showed that quartz concentrations were positively correlated with concentrations of pollution parameters PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NOx, but were negatively correlated with O3 concentration. The results suggest that the airborne quartz particles may potentially pose health risks to the general population of Beijing.

  14. Elastomeric member

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, L.O.

    1985-07-30

    An energy storage device is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member disposed within a tubular housing, which elastomeric member is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section, and transition end sections, attached to rigid end piece assemblies of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member, a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing. Each of the transition sections are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond there between. During manufacture, the sleeves are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section to provide the correct profile and helix angle. 12 figs.

  15. Elastomeric member

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O.

    1985-01-01

    An energy storage device (10) is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member (16) disposed within a tubular housing (14), which elastomeric member (16) is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member (16) is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section (74), and transition end sections (76, 78), attached to rigid end piece assemblies (22, 24) of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections (76, 78) are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member (16), a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing (14). Each of the transition sections (76, 78) are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve (26, 28) having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve (26, 28) also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween. During manufacture, the sleeves (26, 28) are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section (76, 78) to provide the correct profile and helix angle.

  16. Putting Research to Work: Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Outlines the views of three scholars on cooperative learning: cooperation in content areas (team-assisted individualization and cooperative integrated reading and composition); grading techniques (e.g., individual score plus group bonus points, group scores, and scoring only one member's paper); and structuring social interaction (round robin,…

  17. Co-Operation Metaphors for Virtual Museums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Thimoty; Paolini, Paolo

    Cooperation Metaphors are sets of rules to support interaction and collaboration between users who want to explore complex content and information together. The rules determine how the collaborative community can be created and managed, how members of the community can operate on their own, or cooperate with other members. Different types of…

  18. Development of a miniature double-pass cylindrical mirror electron energy analyzer (DPCMA), and its application to Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy (APECS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Eiichi; Seo, Junya; Nambu, Akira; Mase, Kazuhiko

    2007-09-01

    We have developed a miniature double-pass cylindrical mirror electron energy analyzer (DPCMA) with an outer diameter of 26 mm. The DPCMA consists of a shield for the electric field, inner and outer cylinders, two pinholes with a diameter of 2.0 mm, and an electron multiplier. By assembling the DPCMA in a coaxially symmetric mirror electron energy analyzer (ASMA) coaxially and confocally we developed an analyzer for Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy (APECS). The performance was estimated by measuring the Si-LVV-Auger Si-1s-photoelectron coincidence spectra of clean Si(1 1 1). The electron-energy resolution of the DPCMA was estimated to be E/Δ E = 20. This value is better than that of the miniature single-pass CMA ( E/Δ E = 12) that was used in the previous APECS analyzer.

  19. Supporting members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Life Supporting Members L. Thomas Aldrich Thomas D. Barrow Hugh J . A. Chivers Allan V. Cox Samuel S. Goldich Pembroke J. Hart A. Ivan Johnson Helmut E. Landsberg Paolo Lanzano Murli H. Manghnani L. L. Nettleton Charles B. Officer Hyman Orlin Ned A. Ostenso Erick O. Schonstedt Waldo E. Smith Athelstan Spilhaus A. F. Spilhaus, Jr. John W. Townsend, Jr. James A. Van Allen Leonard W. Weis Charles A. Whitten J. Tuzo Wilson

  20. Diversity of Multi-Drug Resistant Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) Causing Outbreaks of Colibacillosis in Broilers during 2012 in Spain.

    PubMed

    Solà-Ginés, Marc; Cameron-Veas, Karla; Badiola, Ignacio; Dolz, Roser; Majó, Natalia; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Viso, Susana; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jorge; Piedra-Carrasco, Nuria; González-López, Juan José; Migura-Garcia, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are the major cause of colibacillosis in poultry production. In this study, a total of 22 E. coli isolated from colibacillosis field cases and 10 avian faecal E. coli (AFEC) were analysed. All strains were characterised phenotypically by susceptibility testing and molecular typing methods such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). The presence of 29 virulence genes associated to APEC and human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) was also evaluated. For cephalosporin resistant isolates, cephalosporin resistance genes, plasmid location and replicon typing was assessed. Avian isolates belonged to 26 O:H serotypes and 24 sequence types. Out of 22 APEC isolates, 91% contained the virulence genes predictors of APEC; iutA, hlyF, iss, iroN and ompT. Of all strains, 34% were considered ExPEC. PFGE analysis demonstrated a high degree of genetic polymorphism. All strains were multi-resistant, including those isolated from healthy animals. Eleven strains were resistant to cephalosporins; six contained blaCTX-M-14, two blaSHV-12, two blaCMY-2 and one blaSHV-2. Two strains harboured qnrA, and two qnrA together with aac(6')-Ib-cr. Additionally, the emergent clone O25b:H4-B2-ST131 was isolated from a healthy animal which harboured blaCMY-2 and qnrS genes. Cephalosporin resistant genes were mainly associated to the presence of IncK replicons. This study demonstrates a very diverse population of multi-drug resistant E. coli containing a high number of virulent genes. The E. coli population among broilers is a reservoir of resistance and virulence-associated genes that could be transmitted into the community through the food chain. More epidemiological studies are necessary to identify clonal groups and resistance mechanisms with potential relevance to public health.

  1. Diversity of Multi-Drug Resistant Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) Causing Outbreaks of Colibacillosis in Broilers during 2012 in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Solà-Ginés, Marc; Cameron-Veas, Karla; Badiola, Ignacio; Dolz, Roser; Majó, Natalia; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Viso, Susana; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jorge; Piedra-Carrasco, Nuria; González-López, Juan José; Migura-Garcia, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are the major cause of colibacillosis in poultry production. In this study, a total of 22 E. coli isolated from colibacillosis field cases and 10 avian faecal E. coli (AFEC) were analysed. All strains were characterised phenotypically by susceptibility testing and molecular typing methods such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). The presence of 29 virulence genes associated to APEC and human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) was also evaluated. For cephalosporin resistant isolates, cephalosporin resistance genes, plasmid location and replicon typing was assessed. Avian isolates belonged to 26 O:H serotypes and 24 sequence types. Out of 22 APEC isolates, 91% contained the virulence genes predictors of APEC; iutA, hlyF, iss, iroN and ompT. Of all strains, 34% were considered ExPEC. PFGE analysis demonstrated a high degree of genetic polymorphism. All strains were multi-resistant, including those isolated from healthy animals. Eleven strains were resistant to cephalosporins; six contained blaCTX-M-14, two blaSHV-12, two blaCMY-2 and one blaSHV-2. Two strains harboured qnrA, and two qnrA together with aac(6’)-Ib-cr. Additionally, the emergent clone O25b:H4-B2-ST131 was isolated from a healthy animal which harboured blaCMY-2 and qnrS genes. Cephalosporin resistant genes were mainly associated to the presence of IncK replicons. This study demonstrates a very diverse population of multi-drug resistant E. coli containing a high number of virulent genes. The E. coli population among broilers is a reservoir of resistance and virulence-associated genes that could be transmitted into the community through the food chain. More epidemiological studies are necessary to identify clonal groups and resistance mechanisms with potential relevance to public health. PMID:26600205

  2. Type 1 Diabetes in Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-Ectodermal Dystrophy Syndrome (APECED): A “Rare” Manifestation in a “Rare” Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fierabracci, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS1) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE); the encoded Aire protein plays an important role in the establishment of the immunological tolerance acting as a transcriptional regulator of the expression of organ-specific antigens within the thymus in perinatal age. While a high prevalence for this rare syndrome is reported in Finland and Scandinavia (Norway), autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy syndrome (APECED) cohorts of patients are also detected in continental Italy and Sardinia, among Iranian Jews, as well as in other countries. The syndrome is diagnosed when patients present at least two out of the three fundamental disorders including chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison’s disease. Among the associated conditions insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 1 diabetes) has been rarely reported in different series of patients and occurring more frequently in Finnish APECED patients. In this review, we analyze the incidence of Type 1 diabetes as a clinical manifestation of APECED in different populations highlighting the peculiar genetic and immunological features of the disease when occurring in the context of this syndrome. PMID:27420045

  3. Judgments about Cooperators and Freeriders on a Shuar Work Team: An Evolutionary Psychological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    Evolutionary biological theories of group cooperation predict that (1) group members will tend to judge cooperative co-members favorably, and freeriding co-members negatively and (2) members who themselves cooperate more frequently will be especially likely to make these social judgments. An experiment tested these predictions among Shuar…

  4. Resources Available to Member States for the Advancement of Women through Technical Co-operation Programmes of the United Nations System and through Programmes of Non-Governmental Organizations in Consultative Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Part One contains information on United Nations technical cooperation programs which provide assistance on the request of the government concerned and are intended to help to prepare more people to contribute toward the progress of their countries by advising, showing, or teaching them or by giving them the opportunity to exchange and develop the…

  5. 43 CFR 1784.3 - Member service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Member service. 1784.3 Section 1784.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) COOPERATIVE RELATIONS Advisory Committees § 1784.3 Member service. (a) Appointments to advisory...

  6. The air quality forecast about PM2.5 before and during APEC 2014 in Beijing by WRF-CMAQ model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qizhong; Xu, Wenshuai; Wang, Zifa

    2015-04-01

    In the past year 2014, the APEC meeting was hold in Beijing, where the particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration is high and worried. In such a heavily air-polluted environment, people want access to reasonable air quality predictions, that the government can take necessary short-term emissions reduction measures to improve air quality. According to Wu et al. (2014), the enhanced model domain and the updated emissions inventory will improve the model performance of particulate matter concentration obviously, a new model system, with the enhanced 9km-domain and latest emission inventory in WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ model, was established in October 2014, before APEC. As a result, the model system plays good performance in the whole October: 1) the model catches four air pollution episodes in October, and has a high correlation coefficient of 0.89, 2) the daily forecast of PM2.5 concentration reaches 277 \\unit{{μ}g m-3} and close to the observed value (320 \\unit{{μ}g m-3}), but still a little underestimated, 3) the mean bias(MB) of the forecast to observed is 1.03 \\unit{{μ}g m-3} and the normalized mean bias(NMB) is 24.9{%}, 4) the normalized mean square error (NMSE) between the forecast and observed is 0.137 in October. The forecast results, with well performance, indicate the emissions inventory used in the model system is reasonable as baseline scenario, which scenario without any emission-sources reduction. From 3 to 12 November, the emission-sources reduction measures(e.g. the traffic restriction, factory cut production and closures) are carried step by step in Beijing and its surrounding areas. Those measures information is collected and used in the SMOKE model with growth/project module, to prepared as a reduced emissions inventory as APEC scenario. The same WRF-CMAQ model system, but be driven by the emission inventory of APEC scenario, was added from 3 November, to forecast the air quality under such emission-sources reduction measures, and evaluate the effect of

  7. Transatlantic Relations: The Role of Nationalism in Multinational Space Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    cooperative agreements: Canada, Hungary, Romania, and Poland .76 With eighteen member states and four periphery members, common goals and cooperation...ERS), Earth Explorers, Meteosat Second Generation (MSG), MetOp, and Project for On-Board Autonomy (Proba). All of these projects are geared toward...Artemis99 Plan for European Cooperating States (PECS) Member Hungary Rosetta, Mars Express, ISS100 Poland Ulysses, SOHO, Mars Express101

  8. Cooperative Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-23

    than the traditional direct transmission and full cooperation schemes. B. OFDM-Based Cooperation Relay and Subchannel Assignment and Combining We... subchannel assignment and combining schemes. Based on the amount of CSI, resources, such as subchannels , can be allocated to relays to improve the end-to-end...relay node uses the same subchannel to relay the information transmitted by the source node. To further improve the performance gain, subchannel

  9. International Cooperation at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawney, Timothy; Feldstein, Karen

    Advisory Group (SMPAG), NASA is placing an ever greater emphasis on sharing information among members and working to avoid duplication of effort for the betterment of all humanity. International cooperation at NASA takes many forms. In some cases NASA leads, while in other cases it follows the lead of our many international partners, all in the name of obtaining the best science. In many cases, truly stellar partnerships emerge. In a few cases, the partnership is ended before it can flourish. But in all cases, the partners are learning to work more closely together so that in the future, our partnerships will yield ever better results.

  10. Submicron aerosols during the Beijing Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation conference in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, Y. H.; Wang, Y. S.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 30%-40% of industrial practices and 50% of vehicles in operation were limited in Beijing and its surroundings regions during the Beijing Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference in 2014. Compared with values obtained prior to the APEC conference, the atmospheric concentration of submicron aerosol particles (PM1) decreased from 101 to 36.9 μg m-3, or 63%. Of all the inorganic species and black carbon present, the concentrations of nitrate to the total concentration of PM1 decreased the most in terms of both mass concentration, from 25.5 to 7.1 μg m-3, and relative contribution, from 21% to 14%. In addition, both sulfate and ammonium decreased substantially by 9.5 and 8.5 μg m-3, respectively. Accordingly, the relative contributions of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate to light extinction decreased by 10% and 5%, respectively, as a result of the pollution control measures implemented during that period. In addition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vehicle emissions were reduced significantly.

  11. Educational Cooperation: An Examination of Fourteen Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepchenske, George L.

    The development of consortia and cooperative educational services in higher education in response to financial pressures and social and governmental influences is examined. Consortia or cooperatives may be multi-channeled efforts, with each member struggling to advance its own self-interest at the cost of united goals and efforts, or thriving…

  12. 27 CFR 6.52 - Cooperative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative advertising. 6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.52 Cooperative advertising. An arrangement in which an industry member...

  13. 27 CFR 6.52 - Cooperative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cooperative advertising. 6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.52 Cooperative advertising. An arrangement in which an industry member...

  14. 27 CFR 6.52 - Cooperative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooperative advertising. 6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.52 Cooperative advertising. An arrangement in which an industry member...

  15. 27 CFR 6.52 - Cooperative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cooperative advertising. 6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.52 Cooperative advertising. An arrangement in which an industry member...

  16. 27 CFR 6.52 - Cooperative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cooperative advertising. 6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.52 Cooperative advertising. An arrangement in which an industry member...

  17. Educational Cooperation: An Examination of Fourteen Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepchenske, George L.

    The development of consortia and cooperative educational services in higher education in response to financial pressures and social and governmental influences is examined. Consortia or cooperatives may be multi-channeled efforts, with each member struggling to advance its own self-interest at the cost of united goals and efforts, or thriving…

  18. The cytolethal distending toxin-IV cdt coding region in an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strain shows instability and irregular excision pattern.

    PubMed

    Tóth, István; Schneider, György

    2015-12-01

    Cytolethal distending toxins (CDT) represent an emerging toxin family, widely distributed among pathogenic bacteria. The cdtABC genes in E. coli are either part of the genome of prophages, plasmid or pathogenicity island. In order to investigate the stability and the transfer potential of cdt-IV genes cdtB gene was replaced by chloramphenicol (Cm) resistance encoding cat gene in the avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strain E250. After consecutive passages in non-selective medium at 37 °C 7.6% (219/2900) of the investigated colonies of E250::cat strain became Cm-sensitive (Cm(S)). To reveal deletion mechanism 177 Cm(S) colonies were investigated for presence of cdtA, cdtC and cdtC associated gene by PCR. One hundred and sixteen colonies of the Cm(S) colonies (65.5%) showed partial or complete deletion in the cdt-IV region. Progressive loss of the upstream genes of the cdt cluster in E250 compared to other CDT-IV producing APEC strains and the fact that all the potential deletion patterns were identified, suggests the presence of an unstable hitherto unknown genomic region. The failure of in vitro transfer of cdt genes into a porcine EPEC E. coli strain suggests that the deletion of cdt-IV flanking genes alone do not promote the spread of cdt-IV.

  19. Australian Circuses as Cooperative Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Beverley J.

    2000-01-01

    Studied how circus personnel of all ages interact in Australian circuses to preserve traditional circus lifestyles and entertainment. Interviews with 30 personnel from 4 circuses show the importance of learning to be a member of a cooperative society through immersion. Results provide information about the education of a community of occupational…

  20. Making Cooperative Learning Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of cooperative learning, focusing on what is and is not a cooperative effort; types of cooperative learning; an example of integrated use of cooperative learning; cooperative schools; basic elements of cooperation; and what is known about cooperative efforts (related to achievement, interpersonal relationship, and…

  1. Reciprocity Outperforms Conformity to Promote Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Romano, Angelo; Balliet, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have proposed two processes that could give rise to the pervasiveness of human cooperation observed among individuals who are not genetically related: reciprocity and conformity. We tested whether reciprocity outperformed conformity in promoting cooperation, especially when these psychological processes would promote a different cooperative or noncooperative response. To do so, across three studies, we observed participants' cooperation with a partner after learning (a) that their partner had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials and (b) that their group members had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials with that same partner. Although we found that people both reciprocate and conform, reciprocity has a stronger influence on cooperation. Moreover, we found that conformity can be partly explained by a concern about one's reputation-a finding that supports a reciprocity framework.

  2. Teacher Cooperatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Twenty years ago, when the late Albert Shanker endorsed the notion of innovative schools operating outside conventional district bureaucracies, his aim was to put teachers at the helm. Today there are nearly 80 teacher-governed charter schools around the country. Although most are legally constituted as worker cooperatives, they better resemble…

  3. Teacher Cooperatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Twenty years ago, when the late Albert Shanker endorsed the notion of innovative schools operating outside conventional district bureaucracies, his aim was to put teachers at the helm. Today there are nearly 80 teacher-governed charter schools around the country. Although most are legally constituted as worker cooperatives, they better resemble…

  4. Cooperative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert L.

    Cooperative education involves on-campus instruction and off-campus work experience. These programs can be referred to as work study, field work, or work experience. The student has the advantage of applying his knowledge in a work situation; the college gains financial benefits; and the employer has the opportunity to influence the student to…

  5. Recovery- Cooper

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-05-16

    S63-07853 (16 May 1963) --- Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr., pilot of the Mercury-Atlas 9 (MA-9) mission, stands supported by strong hands after climbing out of his spacecraft "Faith 7" after a 600,000-mile, 22-orbit journey around Earth. He elected to remain in the spacecraft until it was hoisted to the deck of the USS Kearsarge, as did astronaut Walter Schirra during the previous mission. Photo credit: NASA

  6. Novel cooperation experimentally evolved between species.

    PubMed

    Harcombe, William

    2010-07-01

    Cooperation violates the view of "nature red in tooth and claw" that prevails in our understanding of evolution, yet examples of cooperation abound. Most work has focused on maintenance of cooperation within a single species through mechanisms such as kin selection. The factors necessary for the evolutionary origin of aiding unrelated individuals such as members of another species have not been experimentally tested. Here, I demonstrate that cooperation between species can be evolved in the laboratory if (1) there is preexisting reciprocation or feedback for cooperation, and (2) reciprocation is preferentially received by cooperative genotypes. I used a two species system involving Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium and an Escherichia coli mutant unable to synthesize an essential amino acid. In lactose media Salmonella consumes metabolic waste from E. coli, thus creating a mechanism of reciprocation for cooperation. Growth in a spatially structured environment assured that the benefits of cooperation were preferentially received by cooperative genotypes. Salmonella evolved to aid E. coli by excreting a costly amino acid, however this novel cooperation disappeared if the waste consumption or spatial structure were removed. This study builds on previous work to demonstrate an experimental origin of interspecific cooperation, and to test the factors necessary for such interactions to arise.

  7. Co-Operation: The Antidote to Isolated Misery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This is a case study demonstrating the impact the co-operative movement has had on one co-operative school in south-west England. Lipson Co-operative Academy in Plymouth was one of the first schools to convert to become a co-operative school in 2009. The article has been co-written by members of the Academy and focuses on three transformational…

  8. Co-Operation: The Antidote to Isolated Misery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This is a case study demonstrating the impact the co-operative movement has had on one co-operative school in south-west England. Lipson Co-operative Academy in Plymouth was one of the first schools to convert to become a co-operative school in 2009. The article has been co-written by members of the Academy and focuses on three transformational…

  9. Gossip and ostracism promote cooperation in groups.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb; Schultz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The widespread existence of cooperation is difficult to explain because individuals face strong incentives to exploit the cooperative tendencies of others. In the research reported here, we examined how the spread of reputational information through gossip promotes cooperation in mixed-motive settings. Results showed that individuals readily communicated reputational information about others, and recipients used this information to selectively interact with cooperative individuals and ostracize those who had behaved selfishly, which enabled group members to contribute to the public good with reduced threat of exploitation. Additionally, ostracized individuals responded to exclusion by subsequently cooperating at levels comparable to those who were not ostracized. These results suggest that the spread of reputational information through gossip can mitigate egoistic behavior by facilitating partner selection, thereby helping to solve the problem of cooperation even in noniterated interactions.

  10. Dark matters: exploitation as cooperation.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Partha

    2012-04-21

    The empirical literature on human cooperation contains studies of communitarian institutions that govern the provision of public goods and management of common property resources in poor countries. Scholars studying those institutions have frequently used the Prisoners' Dilemma game as their theoretical tool-kit. But neither the provision of local public goods nor the management of local common property resources involves the Prisoners' Dilemma. That has implications for our reading of communitarian institutions. By applying a fundamental result in the theory of repeated games to a model of local common property resources, it is shown that communitarian institutions can harbour exploitation of fellow members, something that would not be possible in societies where cooperation amounts to overcoming the Prisoners' Dilemma. The conclusion we should draw is that exploitation can masquerade as cooperation.

  11. Cooperative program for Asian pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Sakakihara, Y; Nakamura, Y

    1993-12-01

    The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians (CPAP) is a non-government organization established in 1989 to promote mutual understanding and friendship among young pediatricians in Asian countries. Unlike other government programs and non-government organizations, CPAP is solely facilitating mutual relationships among young inexperienced pediatricians who would otherwise have no chance to travel overseas. It has been funded by donations from members of the alumni association of the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Tokyo and many private companies and individuals. The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians has so far invited 36 Asian pediatricians from 11 countries. By constructing a human network among Asian pediatricians, it is hoped that CPAP will contribute to making international cooperation in the Asian region easier and smoother.

  12. The effects of reputational and social knowledge on cooperation.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Edoardo; Yan, Chang

    2015-03-24

    The emergence and sustenance of cooperative behavior is fundamental for a society to thrive. Recent experimental studies have shown that cooperation increases in dynamic networks in which subjects can choose their partners. However, these studies did not vary reputational knowledge, or what subjects know about other's past actions, which has long been recognized as an important factor in supporting cooperation. They also did not give subjects access to global social knowledge, or information on who is connected to whom in the group. As a result, it remained unknown how reputational and social knowledge foster cooperative behavior in dynamic networks both independently and by complementing each other. In an experimental setting, we show that global reputational knowledge is crucial to sustaining a high level of cooperation and welfare. Cooperation is associated with the emergence of dense and clustered networks with highly cooperative hubs. Global social knowledge has no effect on the aggregate level of cooperation. A community analysis shows that the addition of global social knowledge to global reputational knowledge affects the distribution of cooperative activity: cooperators form a separate community that achieves a higher cooperation level than the community of defectors. Members of the community of cooperators achieve a higher payoff from interactions within the community than members of the less cooperative community.

  13. The effects of reputational and social knowledge on cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Edoardo; Yan, Chang

    2015-01-01

    The emergence and sustenance of cooperative behavior is fundamental for a society to thrive. Recent experimental studies have shown that cooperation increases in dynamic networks in which subjects can choose their partners. However, these studies did not vary reputational knowledge, or what subjects know about other’s past actions, which has long been recognized as an important factor in supporting cooperation. They also did not give subjects access to global social knowledge, or information on who is connected to whom in the group. As a result, it remained unknown how reputational and social knowledge foster cooperative behavior in dynamic networks both independently and by complementing each other. In an experimental setting, we show that global reputational knowledge is crucial to sustaining a high level of cooperation and welfare. Cooperation is associated with the emergence of dense and clustered networks with highly cooperative hubs. Global social knowledge has no effect on the aggregate level of cooperation. A community analysis shows that the addition of global social knowledge to global reputational knowledge affects the distribution of cooperative activity: cooperators form a separate community that achieves a higher cooperation level than the community of defectors. Members of the community of cooperators achieve a higher payoff from interactions within the community than members of the less cooperative community. PMID:25775544

  14. Cooperative breeding and monogamy in mammalian societies

    PubMed Central

    Lukas, Dieter; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Comparative studies of social insects and birds show that the evolution of cooperative and eusocial breeding systems has been confined to species where females mate completely or almost exclusively with a single male, indicating that high levels of average kinship between group members are necessary for the evolution of reproductive altruism. In this paper, we show that in mammals, the evolution of cooperative breeding has been restricted to socially monogamous species which currently represent 5 per cent of all mammalian species. Since extra-pair paternity is relatively uncommon in socially monogamous and cooperatively breeding mammals, our analyses support the suggestion that high levels of average kinship between group members have played an important role in the evolution of cooperative breeding in non-human mammals, as well as in birds and insects. PMID:22279167

  15. Group bias in cooperative norm enforcement.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, Katherine; Dunham, Yarrow

    2016-01-19

    A hallmark of human social cognition is the tendency for both adults and children to favour members of their own groups. Critically, this in-group bias exerts a strong influence on cooperative decision-making: people (i) tend to share more with members of their in-group and (ii) differentially enforce fairness norms depending on the group membership of their interaction partners. But why do people show these group biases in cooperation? One possibility is that the enforcement of cooperative norm violations is an evolved mechanism supporting within-group cooperation (Norms-Focused Hypothesis). Alternatively, group bias in cooperation could be a by-product of more general affective preferences for in-group members (Mere Preferences Hypothesis). Here, we appraise evidence from studies of both adults and children with the goal of understanding whether one of these two accounts is better supported by existing data. While the pattern of evidence is complex, much of it is broadly consistent with the Mere Preferences Hypothesis and little is uniquely supportive of the Norms-Focused Hypothesis. We highlight possible reasons for this complexity and suggest ways that future work can continue to help us understand the important relationship between group bias and cooperation. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Group bias in cooperative norm enforcement

    PubMed Central

    McAuliffe, Katherine; Dunham, Yarrow

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of human social cognition is the tendency for both adults and children to favour members of their own groups. Critically, this in-group bias exerts a strong influence on cooperative decision-making: people (i) tend to share more with members of their in-group and (ii) differentially enforce fairness norms depending on the group membership of their interaction partners. But why do people show these group biases in cooperation? One possibility is that the enforcement of cooperative norm violations is an evolved mechanism supporting within-group cooperation (Norms-Focused Hypothesis). Alternatively, group bias in cooperation could be a by-product of more general affective preferences for in-group members (Mere Preferences Hypothesis). Here, we appraise evidence from studies of both adults and children with the goal of understanding whether one of these two accounts is better supported by existing data. While the pattern of evidence is complex, much of it is broadly consistent with the Mere Preferences Hypothesis and little is uniquely supportive of the Norms-Focused Hypothesis. We highlight possible reasons for this complexity and suggest ways that future work can continue to help us understand the important relationship between group bias and cooperation. PMID:26644592

  17. Fluctuation driven fixation of cooperative behavior.

    PubMed

    Houchmandzadeh, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative behaviors are defined as the production of common goods benefitting all members of the community at the producer's cost. They could seem to be in contradiction with natural selection, as non-cooperators have an increased fitness compared to cooperators. Understanding the emergence of cooperation has necessitated the development of concepts and models (inclusive fitness, multilevel selection, etc.) attributing deterministic advantages to this behavior. In contrast to these models, we show here that cooperative behaviors can emerge by taking into account only the stochastic nature of evolutionary dynamics: when cooperative behaviors increase the population size, they also increase the genetic drift against non-cooperators. Using the Wright-Fisher models of population genetics, we compute exactly this increased genetic drift and its consequences on the fixation probability of both types of individuals. This computation leads to a simple criterion: cooperative behavior dominates when the relative increase in population size caused by cooperators is higher than the selection pressure against them. This is a purely stochastic effect with no deterministic interpretation.

  18. Evolutionary explanations for cooperation.

    PubMed

    West, Stuart A; Griffin, Ashleigh S; Gardner, Andy

    2007-08-21

    Natural selection favours genes that increase an organism's ability to survive and reproduce. This would appear to lead to a world dominated by selfish behaviour. However, cooperation can be found at all levels of biological organisation: genes cooperate in genomes, organelles cooperate to form eukaryotic cells, cells cooperate to make multicellular organisms, bacterial parasites cooperate to overcome host defences, animals breed cooperatively, and humans and insects cooperate to build societies. Over the last 40 years, biologists have developed a theoretical framework that can explain cooperation at all these levels. Here, we summarise this theory, illustrate how it may be applied to real organisms and discuss future directions.

  19. 2-[2-[4-[2-[2-[ 1,3-Dihydro- 1,1-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-oxo-5-isobenzofuranthioureidyl]ethylaminocarbonyl]ethyl]phenyl] ethylamino]-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (FITC-APEC): A Fluorescent Ligand For A2a-Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, R. Tyler; Skolnick, Phil; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    The fluorescein conjugate, FITC-APEC (2-[2-[4-[2-[2-[1,3-dihydro-l,l-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-oxo-5-isobenzofuranthioureidyl]ethylaminocarbonyl]ethyl]phenyl]ethylamino]-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine), is a novel ligand derived from a series of functionalized congeners that act as selective A2a-adenosine receptor agonists. The binding of FITC-APEC to bovine striatal A2a,-adenosine receptors measured by fluorescence techniques was saturable and of a high affinity, with a Bmax, of 2.3 ± 0.3 pmol/mg protein and KD of 57 ± 2 nM. The KD value estimated by fluorescence was consistent with the Ki (11 ± 0.3 nM) obtained by competition studies with [3H]CGS 21680. Additionally, the Bmax, value found by FITC-APEC measurement was in agreement with Bmax, values obtained using radioligand binding. FITC-APEC exhibited rapid and reversible binding to bovine striatum. The potencies of chemically diverse A2a-adenosine receptor ligands estimated by inhibition of FITC-APEC binding were in good agreement with their potencies determined using radioligand binding techniques (r = 0.97, P = 0.0003). FITC-APEC binding was not altered by purine derivatives that do not recognize A2a-adenosine receptors. These findings demonstrate that the novel fluorescent ligand FITC-APEC can be used in the quantitative characterization of ligand binding to A2a-adenosine receptors. PMID:23772170

  20. Comparative Analysis of Phylogenetic Assignment of Human and Avian ExPEC and Fecal Commensal Escherichia coli Using the (Previous and Revised) Clermont Phylogenetic Typing Methods and its Impact on Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) Classification.

    PubMed

    Logue, Catherine M; Wannemuehler, Yvonne; Nicholson, Bryon A; Doetkott, Curt; Barbieri, Nicolle L; Nolan, Lisa K

    2017-01-01

    The Clermont scheme has been used for subtyping of Escherichia coli since it was initially described in early 2000. Since then, researchers have used the scheme to type and sub-type commensal E. coli and pathogenic E. coli, such as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), and compare their phylogenetic assignment by pathogenicity, serogroup, distribution among ExPEC of different host species and complement of virulence and resistance traits. Here, we compare assignments of human and avian ExPEC and commensal E. coli using the old and revised Clermont schemes to determine if the new scheme provides a refined snapshot of isolate classification. 1,996 E. coli from human hosts and poultry, including 84 human neonatal meningitis E. coli isolates, 88 human vaginal E. coli, 696 human uropathogenic E. coli, 197 healthy human fecal E. coli, 452 avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), 200 retail poultry E. coli, 80 crop and gizzard E. coli from healthy poultry at slaughter and 199 fecal E. coli from healthy birds at slaughter. All isolates were subject to phylogenetic analysis using the Clermont et al. (2000, 2013) schemes and compared to determine the effect of the new classification on strain designation. Most of the isolates' strain designation remained where they were originally assigned. Greatest designation change occurred in APEC where 53.8% of isolates were reclassified; while classification rates among human strains ranged from 8 to 14%. However, some significant changes were observed for UPEC associated strains with significant (P < 0.05) designation changes observed from A to C and D to E or F phylogenetic types; a similar designation change was noted among NMEC for D to F designation change. Among the APEC significant designation changes were observed from A to C and D to E and F. These studies suggest that the new scheme provides a tighter and more meaningful definition of some ExPEC; while the new typing scheme has a significant impact on APEC classification. A

  1. Comparative Analysis of Phylogenetic Assignment of Human and Avian ExPEC and Fecal Commensal Escherichia coli Using the (Previous and Revised) Clermont Phylogenetic Typing Methods and its Impact on Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) Classification

    PubMed Central

    Logue, Catherine M.; Wannemuehler, Yvonne; Nicholson, Bryon A.; Doetkott, Curt; Barbieri, Nicolle L.; Nolan, Lisa K.

    2017-01-01

    The Clermont scheme has been used for subtyping of Escherichia coli since it was initially described in early 2000. Since then, researchers have used the scheme to type and sub-type commensal E. coli and pathogenic E. coli, such as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), and compare their phylogenetic assignment by pathogenicity, serogroup, distribution among ExPEC of different host species and complement of virulence and resistance traits. Here, we compare assignments of human and avian ExPEC and commensal E. coli using the old and revised Clermont schemes to determine if the new scheme provides a refined snapshot of isolate classification. 1,996 E. coli from human hosts and poultry, including 84 human neonatal meningitis E. coli isolates, 88 human vaginal E. coli, 696 human uropathogenic E. coli, 197 healthy human fecal E. coli, 452 avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), 200 retail poultry E. coli, 80 crop and gizzard E. coli from healthy poultry at slaughter and 199 fecal E. coli from healthy birds at slaughter. All isolates were subject to phylogenetic analysis using the Clermont et al. (2000, 2013) schemes and compared to determine the effect of the new classification on strain designation. Most of the isolates’ strain designation remained where they were originally assigned. Greatest designation change occurred in APEC where 53.8% of isolates were reclassified; while classification rates among human strains ranged from 8 to 14%. However, some significant changes were observed for UPEC associated strains with significant (P < 0.05) designation changes observed from A to C and D to E or F phylogenetic types; a similar designation change was noted among NMEC for D to F designation change. Among the APEC significant designation changes were observed from A to C and D to E and F. These studies suggest that the new scheme provides a tighter and more meaningful definition of some ExPEC; while the new typing scheme has a significant impact on APEC classification. A

  2. Plant cooperation.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Susan A

    2015-09-25

    The study of plant behaviour will be aided by conceptual approaches and terminology for cooperation, altruism and helping. The plant literature has a rich discussion of helping between species while the animal literature has an extensive and somewhat contentious discussion of within-species helping. Here, I identify and synthesize concepts, terminology and some practical methodology for speaking about helping in plant populations and measuring the costs and benefits. I use Lehmann and Keller's (2006) classification scheme for animal helping and McIntire and Fajardo's (2014) synthesis of facilitation to provide starting points for classifying the mechanisms of how and why organisms help each other. Contextual theory is discussed as a mechanism for understanding and measuring the fitness consequences of helping. I synthesize helping into four categories. The act of helping can be costly to the helper. If the helper gains indirect fitness by helping relatives but loses direct fitness, this is altruism, and it only occurs within species. Helpers can exchange costly help, which is called mutualism when between species, and reciprocation when within a species. The act of helping can directly benefit the helper as well as the recipient, either as an epiphenomenon resulting from behaviours under natural selection for other reasons, or because the helper is creating a mutual benefit, such as satiating predators or supporting a mutualism. Facilitation between species by stress amelioration, creation of novel ecosystems and habitat complexity often meets the definition of epiphenomenon helping. Within species, this kind of helping is called by-product mutualism. If the helping is under selection to create a mutual benefit shared by others, between species this is facilitation with service sharing or access to resources and within species, direct benefits by mutual benefits. These classifications provide a clear starting point for addressing the subject of helping behaviours.

  3. Plant cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The study of plant behaviour will be aided by conceptual approaches and terminology for cooperation, altruism and helping. The plant literature has a rich discussion of helping between species while the animal literature has an extensive and somewhat contentious discussion of within-species helping. Here, I identify and synthesize concepts, terminology and some practical methodology for speaking about helping in plant populations and measuring the costs and benefits. I use Lehmann and Keller's (2006) classification scheme for animal helping and McIntire and Fajardo's (2014) synthesis of facilitation to provide starting points for classifying the mechanisms of how and why organisms help each other. Contextual theory is discussed as a mechanism for understanding and measuring the fitness consequences of helping. I synthesize helping into four categories. The act of helping can be costly to the helper. If the helper gains indirect fitness by helping relatives but loses direct fitness, this is altruism, and it only occurs within species. Helpers can exchange costly help, which is called mutualism when between species, and reciprocation when within a species. The act of helping can directly benefit the helper as well as the recipient, either as an epiphenomenon resulting from behaviours under natural selection for other reasons, or because the helper is creating a mutual benefit, such as satiating predators or supporting a mutualism. Facilitation between species by stress amelioration, creation of novel ecosystems and habitat complexity often meets the definition of epiphenomenon helping. Within species, this kind of helping is called by-product mutualism. If the helping is under selection to create a mutual benefit shared by others, between species this is facilitation with service sharing or access to resources and within species, direct benefits by mutual benefits. These classifications provide a clear starting point for addressing the subject of helping behaviours

  4. The Evolution of Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugatkin, Lee Alan

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the four paths to the evolution and maintenance of cooperative behavior and provides two stories highlighting each path. Discusses reciprocity, byproduct mutualism, kin-selected cooperation, and group-selected cooperation. Presents some thoughts on where the study of animal cooperation might head in the future. Contains 67 references.…

  5. PREFACE: Cooperative dynamics Cooperative dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gov, Nir

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics within living cells are dominated by non-equilibrium processes that consume chemical energy (usually in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate) and convert it into mechanical forces and motion. The mechanisms that allow this conversion process are mostly driven by the components of the cytoskeleton: (i) directed (polar) polymerization of filaments (either actin or microtubules) and (ii) molecular motors. The forces and motions produced by these two components of the cytoskeleton give rise to the formation of cellular shapes, and drive the intracellular transport and organization. It is clear that these systems present a multi-scale challenge, from the physics of the molecular processes to the organization of many interacting units. Understanding the physical nature of these systems will have a large impact on many fundamental problems in biology and break new grounds in the field of non-equilibrium physics. This field of research has seen a rapid development over the last ten years. Activities in this area range from theoretical and experimental work on the underlying fundamental (bio)physics at the single-molecule level, to investigations (in vivo and in vitro) of the dynamics and patterns of macroscopic pieces of 'living matter'. In this special issue we have gathered contributions that span the whole spectrum of length- and complexity-scales in this field. Some of the works demonstrate how active forces self-organize within the polymerizing cytoskeleton, on the level of cooperative cargo transport via motors or due to active fluxes at the cell membrane. On a larger scale, it is shown that polar filaments coupled to molecular motors give rise to a huge variety of surprising dynamics and patterns: spontaneously looping rings of gliding microtubules, and emergent phases of self-organized filaments and motors in different geometries. All of these articles share the common feature of being out-of-equilibrium, driven by metabolism. As demonstrated here

  6. The Cooperative Groups: past and future.

    PubMed

    Comis, R L

    1998-01-01

    conducting trials can be established; to enhance international cooperation in clinical trials; to encourage greater involvement of third-party payers in clinical trials; to build on the scientific breadth of the members; to identify the most appropriate therapies to consider for reimbursement; to establish a framework which builds on the strengths of each of the members; and to integrate health outcomes and economic measures into the protocol activities. The Cooperative Groups are making changes to ensure they remain the leaders in cancer clinical trials well into the 21st century. The benefits of these adjustments will be realized not only by patients, but also by health professionals and the healthcare industry.

  7. Enhancing Military Cooperation Among ’ASEAN’ Countries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-15

    extension of military cooperation among the ASEAN members. It is an attempt to convince political and military leaders in ASEAN countries that such proper...It is an attempt to convince political and military leaders in ASEAN countries that such proper application of military cooperation should be fostered...serious political disputes among its three members that ruined this fragile organization. ASEAN’s declared objectives, set out in its founding charter

  8. Social Networks-Based Adaptive Pairing Strategy for Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Po-Jen; Chiang, Ming-Chao; Yang, Chu-Sing; Tsai, Chun-Wei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a grouping strategy to enhance the learning and testing results of students, called Pairing Strategy (PS). The proposed method stems from the need of interactivity and the desire of cooperation in cooperative learning. Based on the social networks of students, PS provides members of the groups to learn from or mimic…

  9. Cooperative Language Learning: Increasing Opportunities for Learning in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichadee, Saovapa; Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

    2012-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes cooperative language learning, group instruction which is under the learner-centered approach where the groups are formed in such a way that each member performs his or her task to achieve the goal. Previous research indicates that cooperative language learning doesn't only improve learners' language skills, but also…

  10. A Computer-Assisted Approach to Conducting Cooperative Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Pei-Jin; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tseng, Judy C. R.; Hwang, Gwo-Haur

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative learning has been proven to be helpful in enhancing the learning performance of students. The goal of a cooperative learning group is to maximize all members' learning, which is accomplished via promoting each other's success, through assisting, sharing, mentoring, explaining, and encouragement. To achieve the goal of cooperative…

  11. Cooperative Language Learning: Increasing Opportunities for Learning in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichadee, Saovapa; Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

    2012-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes cooperative language learning, group instruction which is under the learner-centered approach where the groups are formed in such a way that each member performs his or her task to achieve the goal. Previous research indicates that cooperative language learning doesn't only improve learners' language skills, but also…

  12. Cooperative Learning and Achievement in Social Studies: Jigsaw II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattingly, Robert M.; VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a study of the cooperative learning method "Jigsaw II." Reports superior academic achievement effects are inconsistent with poorer results reported in earlier studies. Discusses a modification incorporating a group goal achievable only by contribution of all group members. Concludes that cooperative learning must include a group…

  13. PSI Member Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Professional Secretaries International, Kansas City, MO.

    A survey of 2,700 of the 27,000 members of Professional Secretaries International received 755 responses yielding the following profile of secretarial workers: (1) the average member is female, about 45 years old, married with no dependents living at home, and owns a single-family home in the suburbs; (2) most respondents have worked in office or…

  14. Collapsable seal member

    DOEpatents

    Sherrell, Dennis L.

    1990-01-01

    A hollow, collapsable seal member normally disposed in a natural expanded state offering fail-safe pressure sealing against a seating surface and adapted to be evacuated by a vacuum force for collapsing the seal member to disengage the same from said seating surface.

  15. User Working Group Members

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-29

    User Working Group Members   Mail for the entire group may be directed to:  larc-asdc-uwg@lists.nasa.gov   Member Status Affiliation E-mail Contact Bob Holz (Co-Chair in 2010) Co-Chair University of ...

  16. Advisory Council Member.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Vocational Education and Rehabilitation, Springfield. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    The pamphlet is directed toward the new member of a career education advisory council. It explains why advisory councils are needed and why an individual should join one. An advisory council is defined as a group of persons selected to collectively advise regarding career education efforts within the community, whose members are predominantly from…

  17. A Cooperative Approach to Student Teaching (CAST).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    A proposed teacher education program would provide more diversified student teacher training through the cooperation of the ten members of the College Center of the Finger Lakes and the school districts of the Southern Tier of New York State. The program has three major objectives: 1) to increase the utilization of objective evaluation techniques…

  18. Using Cooperatives to Transport Rural Passengers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stommes, Eileen S.; Byrne, Robert J.

    A study of two rural New York counties--Cortland and Otsego--was undertaken to identify innovative ways to provide public passenger transportation services in rural areas by using transportation cooperatives. Information about current transportation services was obtained from staff members of the human service agencies and county government…

  19. Cooperation Between Library Schools and the Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stueart, Robert D.

    There are a number of ways library educators and librarians cooperate. Some libraries participate in library schools' internship and fieldwork programs, while others allow their organizations to be used as laboratories for special projects, to the benefit of both parties. Library school faculty members are available to nearby libraries as resource…

  20. Cooperative Education Programs in CPA Firms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibadoux, Gregory M.; Greenberg, Ira S.

    1986-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the background of employed students in a sampling of accounting cooperative education programs, the nature of the final selection process made by the firms, the value of the students to the firm, and the value of the program to the students as perceived by members of the firm. (CT)

  1. Cooperative endeavors: A case study of success

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.

    1997-12-31

    Partnerships and cooperative agreements abound in the environmental arena today. This paper briefly highlights the collaborative approach used by the International Cooperative for Ozone Layer Protection (ICOLP). ICOLP has helped international members and non-members to eliminate most of the ozone-depleting solvents from manufacturing processes through the exchange of technical information in a non-proprietary manner. By using alternatives, companies and governments have realized savings in the multiple millions of dollars. Advantages of participating in cooperative environmental partnerships may include: (1) improved access and exchange of information, (2) cost minimization, (3) promotion and facilitation of business opportunities, (4) improved dialogue between groups, (5) coordinated approach to complex issues, and (6) technology development and transfer opportunities.

  2. Enhancing mobility via cooperation: analysis and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Ashish D.; Luntz, Jonathan E.

    2003-09-01

    A team of small, low cost robots instead of one large, complex robot is useful in operations such as search and rescue, urban exploration etc. However, the performance of such a team is limited due to restricted mobility of the team members. We propose to overcome the mobility restrictions by physical cooperation among the team members. We carry out a feasibility analysis of a particular behavior of two robots cooperating to cross a gap and also consider the effect of the scaling of the robot dimensions. We simulate the dynamic equations describing the motion which leads to the relaxation the requirements derived from the static analysis. A decentralized control architecture is designed which avoids continuous communication between the robots thus rendering the cooperation to be simple and low cost.

  3. Cooperative Program In Space Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David

    2003-01-01

    The mission of this activity, know as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, USRA recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members.

  4. Cooperative Projects - Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubotz, Wiebke; Brücher, Tim; Vamborg, Freja

    2017-04-01

    Today's research in Germany is often organized in large projects and collaborations, so-called cooperative projects ("Verbundprojekte" in German). These projects are defined by a large number of members (more than 50) and participating institutes, e.g. institutes of research organizations such as the Max-Planck society and the Leibniz association, Helmholtz centres, and universities. For coordination purposes these projects usually have a general project manager or project coordinator close to the speaker of the project. Despite this overarching position, it is often challenging for the project manager to really overview the entire project as he is, for example, not involved in the individual institute's recruitment processes or research connections to other institutes via other projects. Additionally, there is neither a formal obligation for the principal investigators and project scientists to report changes within their sub-projects, nor any formal dependency between these sub-projects and the coordination office to ensure a contemporary update of changes and progress in their specific tasks of the project. Therefore, the idea of a coordinating position to oversee the entire cooperative project is sometimes difficult to reach. Furthermore, project managers usually have no formal connection to other project managers. This means that recurrent tasks, for which cooperation between project managers would be helpful, need to be reinvented for each project anew. Due to the lack of this more formalized cooperation between project managers, acquired expertise is often lost. We will illustrate the challenges of this kind of project management based on projects at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (Hamburg) and the Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research (GEOMAR, Kiel), but also point out opportunities that arise within a large collaboration of partners. Moreover, we present an approach to coordinate management processes in order to overcome some of the aforementioned

  5. The increased risk of joint venture promotes social cooperation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long

    2013-01-01

    The joint venture of many members is common both in animal world and human society. In these public enterprizes, highly cooperative groups are more likely to while low cooperative groups are still possible but not probable to succeed. Existent literature mostly focuses on the traditional public goods game, in which cooperators create public wealth unconditionally and benefit all group members unbiasedly. We here institute a model addressing this public goods dilemma with incorporating the public resource foraging failure risk. Risk-averse individuals tend to lead a autarkic life, while risk-preferential ones tend to participate in the risky public goods game. For participants, group's success relies on its cooperativeness, with increasing contribution leading to increasing success likelihood. We introduce a function with one tunable parameter to describe the risk removal pattern and study in detail three representative classes. Analytical results show that the widely replicated population dynamics of cyclical dominance of loner, cooperator and defector disappear, while most of the time loners act as savors while eventually they also disappear. Depending on the way that group's success relies on its cooperativeness, either cooperators pervade the entire population or they coexist with defectors. Even in the later case, cooperators still hold salient superiority in number as some defectors also survive by parasitizing. The harder the joint venture succeeds, the higher level of cooperation once cooperators can win the evolutionary race. Our work may enrich the literature concerning the risky public goods games.

  6. The Increased Risk of Joint Venture Promotes Social Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long

    2013-01-01

    The joint venture of many members is common both in animal world and human society. In these public enterprizes, highly cooperative groups are more likely to while low cooperative groups are still possible but not probable to succeed. Existent literature mostly focuses on the traditional public goods game, in which cooperators create public wealth unconditionally and benefit all group members unbiasedly. We here institute a model addressing this public goods dilemma with incorporating the public resource foraging failure risk. Risk-averse individuals tend to lead a autarkic life, while risk-preferential ones tend to participate in the risky public goods game. For participants, group's success relies on its cooperativeness, with increasing contribution leading to increasing success likelihood. We introduce a function with one tunable parameter to describe the risk removal pattern and study in detail three representative classes. Analytical results show that the widely replicated population dynamics of cyclical dominance of loner, cooperator and defector disappear, while most of the time loners act as savors while eventually they also disappear. Depending on the way that group's success relies on its cooperativeness, either cooperators pervade the entire population or they coexist with defectors. Even in the later case, cooperators still hold salient superiority in number as some defectors also survive by parasitizing. The harder the joint venture succeeds, the higher level of cooperation once cooperators can win the evolutionary race. Our work may enrich the literature concerning the risky public goods games. PMID:23750204

  7. Comparative Genomic Analysis Shows That Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Isolate IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5; ST Complex 95, ST140) Shares Close Relationship with ST95 APEC O1:K1 and Human ExPEC O18:K1 Strains

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zihao; Hu, Lin; Wang, Shaohui; Wang, Haojin; Leung, Frederick C.; Dai, Jianjun; Fan, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Avian pathogenic E. coli and human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli serotypes O1, O2 and O18 strains isolated from different hosts are generally located in phylogroup B2 and ST complex 95, and they share similar genetic characteristics and pathogenicity, with no or minimal host specificity. They are popular objects for the study of ExPEC genetic characteristics and pathogenesis in recent years. Here, we investigated the evolution and genetic blueprint of APEC pathotype by performing phylogenetic and comparative genome analysis of avian pathogenic E. coli strain IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5; ST complex 95, ST140) with other E. coli pathotypes. Phylogeny analyses indicated that IMT5155 has closest evolutionary relationship with APEC O1, IHE3034, and UTI89. Comparative genomic analysis showed that IMT5155 and APEC O1 shared significant genetic overlap/similarities with human ExPEC dominant O18:K1 strains (IHE3034 and UTI89). Furthermore, the unique PAI I5155 (GI-12) was identified and found to be conserved in APEC O2 serotype isolates. GI-7 and GI-16 encoding two typical T6SSs in IMT5155 might be useful markers for the identification of ExPEC dominant serotypes (O1, O2, and O18) strains. IMT5155 contained a ColV plasmid p1ColV5155, which defined the APEC pathotype. The distribution analysis of 10 sequenced ExPEC pan-genome virulence factors among 47 sequenced E. coli strains provided meaningful information for B2 APEC/ExPEC-specific virulence factors, including several adhesins, invasins, toxins, iron acquisition systems, and so on. The pathogenicity tests of IMT5155 and other APEC O1:K1 and O2:K1 serotypes strains (isolated in China) through four animal models showed that they were highly virulent for avian colisepticemia and able to cause septicemia and meningitis in neonatal rats, suggesting zoonotic potential of these APEC O1:K1 and O2:K1 isolates. PMID:25397580

  8. What is a cooperative?

    Treesearch

    Kimberly Zeuli

    2006-01-01

    Groups of individuals throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. The earliest forms of hunting and agriculture required a great deal of cooperation among humans. Although the word "cooperative" can be applied to many different types of group activities, in this publication it refers to a formal business model. Cooperative businesses are...

  9. Cooperative Learning: Professional's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham, Dana L.; Molinelli, Paul M.

    Noting that since the 1970s cooperative learning has been widely investigated regarding its implementation and efficacy, this booklet is designed to introduce the teaching strategy of cooperative learning to classroom teachers. The booklet first provides an overview and supplies a context for cooperative learning and then defines cooperative…

  10. Learning to Learn Cooperatively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Anne Hammond

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative learning, put quite simply, is a type of instruction whereby students work together in small groups to achieve a common goal. Cooperative learning has become increasingly popular as a feature of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) with benefits that include increased student interest due to the quick pace of cooperative tasks,…

  11. Advising People about Cooperatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkman, C. H., Jr.; Mohn, Paul O.

    This document provides background and references for educational programs on cooperatives. Seven major topics are covered: Cooperatives Are Distinctive Business Corporations, Types of Cooperatives (such as agricultural, credit, housing, crafts, health, memorial association, fishing, forestry, recreation, labor, buying clubs, consumer, student, and…

  12. Interlibrary Cooperation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Edwin E.

    The major dimensions of interlibrary cooperation which have implications for manpower development in librarianship are identified, categorized and described. These dimensions include: (1) the "power budget" of a cooperative; that is, the capability of a cooperative as represented by its structure, resources, and decision-making processes to…

  13. Cooperation Among State Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenbarger, James L.; Hansen, Dean M.

    1975-01-01

    Most states have separate agencies to deal with vocational education, adult education, and community colleges. Because current procedures for interagency cooperation are inadequate and often nonproductive, there is a need for a national or extra-state catalyst to encourage cooperation in a positive way. Five strategies for cooperation are…

  14. How to Organize a Babysitting Cooperative and Get Some "Free" Time Away From the Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Carole Terwilliger

    This book is intended primarily as a guide for parents interested in setting up a babysittint cooperative. Some material presented may be useful to existing co-ops. Chapter headings are as follows: (1) What is a Babysitting Cooperative? (2) Reasons to Form or Join a Babysitting Cooperative, (3) Ways to Recruit Members, (4) First Meeting - Getting…

  15. Otsego Forest Products Cooperative Association of Cooperstown, New York: An evaluation

    Treesearch

    James C. Rettie; Frank A. Ineson

    1950-01-01

    The Otsego Forest Products Cooperative Association is one of the most successful of the farmers' cooperatives that have attempted to deal with forest products. Now including about 1,000 members, it serves owners of woodlands in the rolling dairy country in and about Otsego County in central New York. The operations of the Otsego cooperative are centered at...

  16. Use of a Cooperative to Interlock Contingencies and Balance the Commonwealth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavosius, Mark; Getting, Jim; Dagen, Joseph; Newsome, William; Hopkins, Bill

    2009-01-01

    Cooperatives are systems organized along key principles to balance the distribution of wealth across organizational members. The cooperative movement has an extensive history and has contributed to the design and operation of a large variety of endeavors that seek to maximize returns to a maximum number of stakeholders. While cooperatives are…

  17. Informal Learning Processes in a Worker Co-Operative. NALL Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarter, Jack; Midha, Harish

    A study was conducted to understand the informal learning processes of the members of a worker natural foods store cooperative, The Big Carrot, in Toronto. Eight members with central roles in the natural foods retailer were interviewed. In addition, key documents and other writings on the cooperative were examined. The data indicate that members…

  18. Together We Do More: Cost-Effectiveness Through Interinstitutional Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grupe, Fritz H.; Sukanek, Kathleen L.

    Results of a project designed to extend the level of academic cooperation among four member colleges of the Associated Colleges of the St. Lawrence Valley are presented. The specific goal of the project, which was funded by the Carnegie Corporation of New York, was to initiate activities that were cost beneficial. Members of the consortia are:…

  19. U.S. Nuclear Cooperation With India: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-27

    Cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 1 For an excellent analysis of the proliferation...non-nuclear material for reactors; (iv) plant and equipment for reprocessing, enrichment and conversion of nuclear material and for fuel fabrication and...member, exported fuel, citing a safety exception, but NSG members objected so strongly that Russia suspended supply in 2004. Russia agreed to resupply

  20. Effect of cooperation level of group on punishment for non-cooperators: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Kodaka, Fumitoshi; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Yamada, Makiko; Takano, Harumasa; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Ito, Hiroshi; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes we punish non-cooperators in our society. Such behavior could be derived from aversive emotion for inequity (inequity aversion) to make non-cooperators cooperative. Thus, punishing behavior derived from inequity is believed to be important for maintaining our society. Meanwhile, our daily experiences suggest that the degree of cooperation by the members of society (cooperation level of the group) could change the punishing behavior for non-cooperators even if the inequity were equal. Such effect of the cooperation level of the group cannot be explained by simple inequity aversion. Although punishment-related brain regions have been reported in previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, little is known about such regions affected by the cooperation level of the group. In the present fMRI study, we investigated the effect of the cooperation level of the group on the punishing behavior for non-cooperators and its related brain activations by a paradigm in which the degree of the cooperative state varied from low to high. Punishment-related activations were observed in brain regions such as the anterior insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The quantity of punishment in a high cooperation context was greater than in a low cooperation context, and activation in the right DLPFC and ACC in a high cooperation context showed greater activity than in a low cooperation context. This indicates that the cooperation level of the group, as well as aversive emotion for inequity, is the important factor of punishing behavior.

  1. Effect of Cooperation Level of Group on Punishment for Non-Cooperators: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Kodaka, Fumitoshi; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Yamada, Makiko; Takano, Harumasa; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Ito, Hiroshi; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes we punish non-cooperators in our society. Such behavior could be derived from aversive emotion for inequity (inequity aversion) to make non-cooperators cooperative. Thus, punishing behavior derived from inequity is believed to be important for maintaining our society. Meanwhile, our daily experiences suggest that the degree of cooperation by the members of society (cooperation level of the group) could change the punishing behavior for non-cooperators even if the inequity were equal. Such effect of the cooperation level of the group cannot be explained by simple inequity aversion. Although punishment-related brain regions have been reported in previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, little is known about such regions affected by the cooperation level of the group. In the present fMRI study, we investigated the effect of the cooperation level of the group on the punishing behavior for non-cooperators and its related brain activations by a paradigm in which the degree of the cooperative state varied from low to high. Punishment-related activations were observed in brain regions such as the anterior insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The quantity of punishment in a high cooperation context was greater than in a low cooperation context, and activation in the right DLPFC and ACC in a high cooperation context showed greater activity than in a low cooperation context. This indicates that the cooperation level of the group, as well as aversive emotion for inequity, is the important factor of punishing behavior. PMID:22844462

  2. Dilemmas of partial cooperation.

    PubMed

    Stark, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    Related to the often applied cooperation models of social dilemmas, we deal with scenarios in which defection dominates cooperation, but an intermediate fraction of cooperators, that is, "partial cooperation," would maximize the overall performance of a group of individuals. Of course, such a solution comes at the expense of cooperators that do not profit from the overall maximum. However, because there are mechanisms accounting for mutual benefits after repeated interactions or through evolutionary mechanisms, such situations can constitute "dilemmas" of partial cooperation. Among the 12 ordinally distinct, symmetrical 2 x 2 games, three (barely considered) variants are correspondents of such dilemmas. Whereas some previous studies investigated particular instances of such games, we here provide the unifying framework and concisely relate it to the broad literature on cooperation in social dilemmas. Complementing our argumentation, we study the evolution of partial cooperation by deriving the respective conditions under which coexistence of cooperators and defectors, that is, partial cooperation, can be a stable outcome of evolutionary dynamics in these scenarios. Finally, we discuss the relevance of such models for research on the large biodiversity and variation in cooperative efforts both in biological and social systems.

  3. Escherichia coli ghosts or live E. coli expressing the ferri-siderophore receptors FepA, FhuE, IroN and IutA do not protect broiler chickens against avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC).

    PubMed

    Tuntufye, Huruma Nelwike; Ons, Ellen; Pham, Anh Dao Nguyen; Luyten, Tom; Van Gerven, Nani; Bleyen, Nele; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria

    2012-10-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate if immunization with the ferri-siderophore receptors FepA, FhuE, IroN and IutA could protect chickens against avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) infection. The antigens were administered as recombinant proteins in the outer membrane (OM) of E. coli strain BL21 Star DE3. In a first immunization experiment, live E. coli expressing all 4 recombinant ferri-siderophore receptors (BL21(L)) were given intranasally. In a second immunization experiment, a mixture of E. coli ghosts containing recombinant FepA and IutA and ghosts containing recombinant FhuE and IroN was evaluated. For both experiments non-recombinant counterparts of the tentative vaccines were administered as placebo. At the time of challenge, the IgG antibody response for BL21(L) and a mixture of E. coli ghosts containing recombinant FepA and IutA and ghosts containing recombinant FhuE and IroN was significantly higher in all immunized groups as compared to the negative control groups (LB or PBS) confirming successful immunization. Although neither of the tentative vaccines could prevent lesions and mortality upon APEC infection, immunization with bacterial ghosts resulted in a decrease in mortality from 50% (PBS) to 31% (non-recombinant ghosts) or 20% (recombinant ghosts) and these differences were not found to be significant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The OECD Member Countries--1984 Edition--20th Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Observer, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Lists Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries with corresponding data on: area; agricultural area; population; labor force; unemployment rate; civilian employment; gross domestic produce; currency; imports; exports; consumer prices; industrial production change for 1983; infant mortality; public expenditure…

  5. 7 CFR 4284.699 - Member delegate clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Member delegate clause. 4284.699 Section 4284.699 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRANTS Rural Business Opportunity Grants § 4284.699...

  6. Ethics Commission Member's Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Sue Spayth

    1988-01-01

    Presents a National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) Ethics Commission member's comments and suggestions about how early childhood educators can best make sound decisions about the ethical dilemma of the welfare of the child and the confidentiality of its divorced parents. (BB)

  7. CERN welcomes new members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-08-01

    Lithuania is on course to become an associate member of CERN, pending final approval by the Lithuanian parliament. Associate membership will allow representatives of the Baltic nation to take part in meetings of the CERN Council, which oversees the Geneva-based physics lab.

  8. Glued structural members

    Treesearch

    Russell C. Moody; Jen Y. Liu

    1999-01-01

    Glued structural members are manufactured in a variety of configurations. Structural composite lumber (SCL) products consist of small pieces of wood glued together into sizes common for solid-sawn lumber. Glued-laminated timber (glulam) is an engineered stress-rated product that consists of two or more layers of lumber in which the grain of all layers is oriented...

  9. Mistakes Board Members Make.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Nicholas D., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Board members should avoid 10 common errors: losing patience, behaving badly, challenging the board after a vote, acting like inspectors, micromanaging school administrators, springing surprise questions at meetings, putting politics before children, representing special interests, violating executive session, and putting the board before family…

  10. Survey of NARC Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Retarded Citizens, Arlington, TX. Research and Demonstration Inst.

    The booklet presents results from a survey completed by 5,316 members of the National Association of Retarded Citizens. Findings are discussed for the following topics (sample findings in parentheses): membership characteristics (the two largest classes of occupations were professional/technical and homemakers, households had an annual average…

  11. Registered Nurses working together with family members of older people.

    PubMed

    Weman, Karin; Fagerberg, Ingegerd

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study was to reach a more profound understanding, through looking at nurses' working situation, of those factors that influence how nurses are able to work together with family members of older people living in nursing homes or similar facilities. Working with the care of older people as a Registered Nurse provides a varied job with many challenges. Nurses have to co-operate with family members of those in community health care. Co-operation is important and necessary for all involved. Nurses working in elder care in a geographically defined area received a questionnaire with three open-ended questions, on the difficulties and/or problems involved with working together with family members, and the positive or negative aspects of this co-operation. Analysis was carried out using the latent content analysis method. Three themes, problems within the system, interaction with families and caring in nursing work, are presented with categories and their subcategories. The nurses wanted their superior to be a nurse so that their working situation would be better understood. Appreciation from their superior and family members was also a very important part of their work as nurses in community health care. The frequent changes and the lack of time in the work of elder care often put nurses under considerable psychological pressure. For the most part family members are a resource for the elder, but sometimes they will avoid contact, which will make co-operating difficult. Registered Nurses and family members are dependent on each other in their care of the elder. Relevance to clinical practice. More attention should be paid to the working situation of Registered Nurses in community health care, and their ability to work together with family members of older people.

  12. Human cooperation by lethal group competition.

    PubMed

    Egas, Martijn; Kats, Ralph; van der Sar, Xander; Reuben, Ernesto; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2013-01-01

    Why humans are prone to cooperate puzzles biologists, psychologists and economists alike. Between-group conflict has been hypothesized to drive within-group cooperation. However, such conflicts did not have lasting effects in laboratory experiments, because they were about luxury goods, not needed for survival ("looting"). Here, we find within-group cooperation to last when between-group conflict is implemented as "all-out war" (eliminating the weakest groups). Human subjects invested in helping group members to avoid having the lowest collective pay-off, whereas they failed to cooperate in control treatments with random group elimination or with no subdivision in groups. When the game was repeated, experience was found to promote helping. Thus, not within-group interactions alone, not random group elimination, but pay-off-dependent group elimination was found to drive within-group cooperation in our experiment. We suggest that some forms of human cooperation are maintained by multi-level selection: reciprocity within groups and lethal competition among groups acting together.

  13. Life histories and the evolution of cooperative breeding in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Lukas, Dieter; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2012-01-01

    While the evolution of cooperative breeding systems (where non-breeding helpers participate in rearing young produced by dominant females) has been restricted to lineages with socially monogamous mating systems where coefficients of relatedness between group members are usually high, not all monogamous lineages have produced species with cooperative breeding systems, suggesting that other factors constrain the evolution of cooperative breeding. Previous studies have suggested that life-history parameters, including longevity, may constrain the evolution of cooperative breeding. Here, we show that transitions to cooperative breeding across the mammalian phylogeny have been restricted to lineages where females produce multiple offspring per birth. We find no support for effects of longevity or of other life-history parameters. We suggest that the evolution of cooperative breeding has been restricted to monogamous lineages where helpers have the potential to increase the reproductive output of breeders. PMID:22874752

  14. Life histories and the evolution of cooperative breeding in mammals.

    PubMed

    Lukas, Dieter; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2012-10-07

    While the evolution of cooperative breeding systems (where non-breeding helpers participate in rearing young produced by dominant females) has been restricted to lineages with socially monogamous mating systems where coefficients of relatedness between group members are usually high, not all monogamous lineages have produced species with cooperative breeding systems, suggesting that other factors constrain the evolution of cooperative breeding. Previous studies have suggested that life-history parameters, including longevity, may constrain the evolution of cooperative breeding. Here, we show that transitions to cooperative breeding across the mammalian phylogeny have been restricted to lineages where females produce multiple offspring per birth. We find no support for effects of longevity or of other life-history parameters. We suggest that the evolution of cooperative breeding has been restricted to monogamous lineages where helpers have the potential to increase the reproductive output of breeders.

  15. Supporting Members and Friends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    Thank you! Over the past year, AGU has received 12,104 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from the National Oceanographic Partnership Program and National Association of Geoscience Teachers. Together their generosity has benefited AGU non revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5,000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000 or more) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major gifts and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($200-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$199). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are among our most loyal Supporters.

  16. Supporting Members and Friends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    Thank you! Over the past 20 months AGU has received a record 22,159 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from four federal agencies (NASA, NOAA, EPA, and USGS). Together their generosity has benefited AGU non-revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000+) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($250-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$249). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are recognized as our most loyal Supporters.

  17. Synthetic Yeast Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, Wenying; Burton, Justin

    2010-03-01

    Cooperation is wide-spread and has been postulated to drive major transitions in evolution. However, Darwinian selection favors ``cheaters'' that consume benefits without paying a fair cost. How did cooperation evolve against the threat of cheaters? To investigate the evolutionary trajectories of cooperation, we created a genetically tractable system that can be observed as it evolves from inception. The system consists of two engineered yeast strains -- a red-fluorescent strain that requires adenine and releases lysine and a yellow-fluorescent strain that requires lysine and releases adenine. Cells that consume but not supply metabolites would be cheaters. From the properties of two cooperating strains, we calculated and experimentally verified the minimal initial cell densities required for the viability of the cooperative system in the absence of exogenously added adenine and lysine. Strikingly, evolved cooperative systems were viable at 100-fold lower initial cell densities than their ancestors. We are investigating the nature and diversity of pro-cooperation changes, the dynamics of cooperator-cheater cocultures, and the effects of spatial environment on cooperation and cheating.

  18. [Comment on] BOSP members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The new Board on Ocean Science and Policy (BOSP) (Eos, June 7, 1983, p. 402) met for the first time on May 4. John B. Slaughter, former director of the National Science Foundation and now chancellor of the University of Maryland in College Park, is the board's chairman. Other board members are D. James Baker, Jr. (University of Washington, Seattle); Kirk Bryan (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton University); John P. Craven (University of Hawaii); Charles L. Drake (Dartmouth College); Paul M. Fye (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Edward D. Goldberg (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); G. Ross Heath (Oregon State University); Judith T. Kildow (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); John A. Knauss (University of Rhode Island); James J. McCarthy (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University); H. William Menard (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); C. Barry Raleigh (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory); Roger Revelle (University of California, San Diego); David A. Ross (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Brian J. Rothschild (University of Maryland); William M. Sackett (University of South Florida); John H. Steele (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); and Carl Wunsch (MIT). Wallace Broecker (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory), an original board member, resigned after the first meeting. Broecker told Eos that combining the science and policy boards resulted in a new board whose mission is too broad. A new board member will be appointed in Broecker's place

  19. Collaborative action research: implementation of cooperative learning.

    PubMed

    Smith-Stoner, Marilyn; Molle, Mary E

    2010-06-01

    Nurse educators must continually improve their teaching skills through innovation. However, research about the process used by faculty members to transform their teaching methods is limited. This collaborative study uses classroom action research to describe, analyze, and address problems encountered in implementing cooperative learning in two undergraduate nursing courses. After four rounds of action and reflection, the following themes emerged: students did not understand the need for structured cooperative learning; classroom structure and seating arrangement influenced the effectiveness of activities; highly structured activities engaged the students; and short, targeted activities that involved novel content were most effective. These findings indicate that designing specific activities to prepare students for class is critical to cooperative learning.

  20. Lifelong Learning: Workforce Development and Economic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice

    Lifelong learning through a strong, policy-supported information technology (IT) infrastructure is critical to the success of Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) member economies. There is a great need to upgrade the quality of skills within the workforce, and there have been unprecedented investments in infrastructure and advanced…

  1. Strategic Aspects of Pacific Cooperation Proposals,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    been mixed with early Indian 65 and indigenous Javanese beliefs. 65. The current forms of defence cooperation between Malaysia * and Indonesia comprise...USA has defence links with the Philippines and Thailand,and provides some military support for Indonesia and Malaysia. These connections are...Southeast Asian Nations when protesting against Vietnamese border attacks,and,with those members,opposes the Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia. Indonesia and

  2. Cellular cooperation: insights from microbes.

    PubMed

    Celiker, Hasan; Gore, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation between cells is a widespread phenomenon in nature, found across diverse systems ranging from microbial populations to multicellular organisms. For cooperation to evolve and be maintained within a population of cells, costs due to competition have to be outweighed by the benefits gained through cooperative actions. Because cooperation generally confers a cost to the cooperating cells, defector cells that do not cooperate but reap the benefits of cooperation can thrive and eventually drive the cooperating phenotypes to extinction. Here we summarize recent advances made in understanding how cooperation and multicellularity can evolve in microbial populations in the face of such conflicts and discuss parallels with cell populations within multicellular organisms.

  3. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Buckley; O'Farrell, Gail

    1990-01-01

    Presents essential characteristics and types of cooperative learning strategies for use in elementary social studies. Outlines exercises for forming teams and building team spirit. Points out such methods promote group interdependence and student responsibility for learning and teaching others. Highlights two cooperative group strategies, Jigsaw…

  4. Educational Cooperatives. PREP-23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Communication (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    Dr. Larry W. Hughes and Dr. C. M. Achilles of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, conducted a national survey for the Office of Education on educational cooperatives--studying and reporting on the nature and kind of cooperative endeavors, their organization, governance, financial arrangements, services, and personnel. Their study focused upon…

  5. Cooperative Learning and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Rebecca; Smith, Philip J.

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative learning has been used as an educational technique for some time, and recently researchers have been exploring technology as a mechanism to further this educational method. Presents several examples of the use of technology to support cooperative learning episodes and examines the underlying design concepts and principles embedded in…

  6. Testimony: Writing Cooperatively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasser, Linda; Cromwell, Carole

    A lesson plan and supportive materials for an exercise in reading comprehension and cooperative writing are presented. The exercise is based on a story entitled "Testimony," in which a writer expresses feelings about a boxing match. The lesson plan outlines procedures for presentation of the exercise to the class, for the cooperative teams to…

  7. Achieving cooperative success

    Treesearch

    Kimberly Zeuli

    2006-01-01

    Success of a cooperative depends on the foundation built during its organization. Successful businesses are not started overnight. Careful and deliberate planning must be started long before the co-op opens its doors. This chapter begins with an outline of six fundamental steps that should be followed when organizing any cooperative. From initial concept to the start...

  8. Making Cooperative Learning Powerful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Just about everyone loves the "idea" of cooperative learning, children working productively and excitedly in groups, everyone getting along and enthusiastically helping one another learn. This article presents five strategies that teachers can use to get the greatest benefit possible from cooperative learning and ensure that…

  9. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Buckley; O'Farrell, Gail

    1990-01-01

    Presents essential characteristics and types of cooperative learning strategies for use in elementary social studies. Outlines exercises for forming teams and building team spirit. Points out such methods promote group interdependence and student responsibility for learning and teaching others. Highlights two cooperative group strategies, Jigsaw…

  10. Cooperative Vocational Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    Cooperative education, said to be a "sleeping giant" in vocational education, received special authorization in Public Law 90 576 and was made a priority in vocational education. This publication summarizes information to assist the states in planning development of cooperative vocational education: definitions, funding sources, program…

  11. Montana Cooperative Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ron, Ed.

    This revised handbook was developed to help teachers and administrators in Montana conduct cooperative education programs. The handbook is organized in 13 sections. In narrative style, the first 11 sections cover the following topics: introduction to cooperative education, advisory committees, related instruction, coordination of activities,…

  12. Cooperative Science Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooperative Learning, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Offers several elementary level cooperative science lesson plans. The article includes a recipe for cooperative class learning, instructions for making a compost pile, directions for finding evidence of energy, experiments in math and science using oranges to test density, and discussions of buoyancy using eggs. (SM)

  13. Distinguished Cooperating Teacher Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago State Univ., IL.

    The Distinguished Cooperating Teacher Program at Chicago State University was developed to train cooperating teachers to supervise student teachers. The program departs from traditional practice by changing the roles of the classroom teacher and the university field supervisor. The supervisor's role becomes that of coordinator while the teacher…

  14. Cooperative Science Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooperative Learning, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Offers several elementary level cooperative science lesson plans. The article includes a recipe for cooperative class learning, instructions for making a compost pile, directions for finding evidence of energy, experiments in math and science using oranges to test density, and discussions of buoyancy using eggs. (SM)

  15. Making Cooperative Learning Powerful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Just about everyone loves the "idea" of cooperative learning, children working productively and excitedly in groups, everyone getting along and enthusiastically helping one another learn. This article presents five strategies that teachers can use to get the greatest benefit possible from cooperative learning and ensure that…

  16. Cryogenic support member

    DOEpatents

    Niemann, Ralph C.; Gonczy, John D.; Nicol, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    A cryogenic support member is comprised of a non-metallic rod having a depression in at least one end and a metallic end connection assembled to the rod. The metallic end connection comprises a metallic plug which conforms to the shape and is disposed in the depression and a metallic sleeve is disposed over the rod and plug. The plug and the sleeve are shrink-fitted to the depression in the rod to form a connection good in compression, tension and bending.

  17. Culture and cooperation.

    PubMed

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-09-12

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities.

  18. Culture and cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities. PMID:20679109

  19. Cooperation and Defection in Ghetto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    We consider ghetto as a community of people ruled against their will by an external power. Members of the community feel that their laws are broken. However, attempts to leave ghetto makes their situation worse. We discuss the relation of the ghetto inhabitants to the ruling power in context of their needs, organized according to the Maslow hierarchy. Decisions how to satisfy successive needs are undertaken in cooperation with or defection the ruling power. This issue allows to construct the tree of decisions and to adopt the pruning technique from the game theory. Dynamics of decisions can be described within the formalism of fundamental equations. The result is that the strategy of defection is stabilized by the estimated payoff.

  20. The Essential Elements of Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Scott B.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses four elements of cooperative learning in science classrooms: cooperative task structures; cooperative incentive structures; individual accountability; and heterogeneous grouping. Presents and describes seven cooperative learning methods. (MDH)

  1. Rashba Splitting of Cooper Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhter, R. I.; Entin-Wohlman, O.; Jonson, M.; Aharony, A.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate theoretically the properties of a weak link between two superconducting leads, which has the form of a nonsuperconducting nanowire with a strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling caused by an electric field. In the Coulomb-blockade regime of single-electron tunneling, we find that such a weak link acts as a "spin splitter" of the spin states of Cooper pairs tunneling through the link, to an extent that depends on the direction of the electric field. We show that the Josephson current is sensitive to interference between the resulting two transmission channels, one where the spins of both members of a Cooper pair are preserved and one where they are both flipped. As a result, the current is a periodic function of the strength of the spin-orbit interaction and of the bending angle of the nanowire (when mechanically bent); an identical effect appears due to strain-induced spin-orbit coupling. In contrast, no spin-orbit induced interference effect can influence the current through a single weak link connecting two normal metals.

  2. What drives cooperative breeding?

    PubMed

    Koenig, Walter D

    2017-06-01

    Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  3. Globalization and human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-03-17

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "globalized" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods.

  4. Globalization and human cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Nancy R.; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, “globalized” individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods. PMID:19255433

  5. Collective-Goal Ascription Increases Cooperation in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Sørensen, Jesper; Nielbo, Kristoffer L.; Andersen, Marc; Lienard, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Background Cooperation is necessary in many types of human joint activity and relations. Evidence suggests that cooperation has direct and indirect benefits for the cooperators. Given how beneficial cooperation is overall, it seems relevant to investigate the various ways of enhancing individuals' willingness to invest in cooperative endeavors. We studied whether ascription of a transparent collective goal in a joint action promotes cooperation in a group. Methods A total of 48 participants were assigned in teams of 4 individuals to either a “transparent goal-ascription” or an “opaque goal-ascription” condition. After the manipulation, the participants played an anonymous public goods game with another member of their team. We measured the willingness of participants to cooperate and their expectations about the other player's contribution. Results Between subjects analyses showed that transparent goal ascription impacts participants' likelihood to cooperate with each other in the future, thereby greatly increasing the benefits from social interactions. Further analysis showed that this could be explained with a change in expectations about the partner's behavior and by an emotional alignment of the participants. Conclusion The study found that a transparent goal ascription is associated with an increase of cooperation. We propose several high-level mechanisms that could explain the observed effect: general affect modulation, trust, expectation and perception of collective efficacy. PMID:23705011

  6. Collective-goal ascription increases cooperation in humans.

    PubMed

    Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Sørensen, Jesper; Nielbo, Kristoffer L; Andersen, Marc; Lienard, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation is necessary in many types of human joint activity and relations. Evidence suggests that cooperation has direct and indirect benefits for the cooperators. Given how beneficial cooperation is overall, it seems relevant to investigate the various ways of enhancing individuals' willingness to invest in cooperative endeavors. We studied whether ascription of a transparent collective goal in a joint action promotes cooperation in a group. A total of 48 participants were assigned in teams of 4 individuals to either a "transparent goal-ascription" or an "opaque goal-ascription" condition. After the manipulation, the participants played an anonymous public goods game with another member of their team. We measured the willingness of participants to cooperate and their expectations about the other player's contribution. Between subjects analyses showed that transparent goal ascription impacts participants' likelihood to cooperate with each other in the future, thereby greatly increasing the benefits from social interactions. Further analysis showed that this could be explained with a change in expectations about the partner's behavior and by an emotional alignment of the participants. The study found that a transparent goal ascription is associated with an increase of cooperation. We propose several high-level mechanisms that could explain the observed effect: general affect modulation, trust, expectation and perception of collective efficacy.

  7. The infamous among us: Enhanced reputational memory for uncooperative ingroup members.

    PubMed

    Hechler, Stefanie; Neyer, Franz J; Kessler, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    People remember uncooperative individuals better than cooperative ones. We hypothesize that this is particularly true when uncooperative individuals belong to one's ingroup, as their behavior violates positive expectations. Two studies examined the effect of minimal group categorization on reputational memory of the social behavior of particular ingroup and outgroup members. We manipulated uncooperative behavior as the unfair sharing of resources with ingroup members (Study 1), or as descriptions of cheating (Study 2). Participants evaluated several uncooperative and cooperative (and neutral) ingroup and outgroup members. In a surprise memory test, they had to recognize target faces and recall their behavior. We disentangled face recognition, reputational memory, and guessing biases with multinomial models of source monitoring. The results show enhanced reputational memory for uncooperative ingroup members, but not uncooperative outgroup members. In contrast, guessing behavior indicated that participants assumed more ingroup cooperation than outgroup cooperation. Our findings integrate prior research on memory for uncooperative person behavior and person memory in group contexts. We suggest that the ability to remember the uncooperative amidst the supposedly cooperative ingroup could stabilize intragroup cooperation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Melt containment member

    SciTech Connect

    Rieken, Joel R.; Heidloff, Andrew J.

    2014-09-09

    A tubular melt containment member for transient containment of molten metals and alloys, especially reactive metals and alloys, includes a melt-contacting layer or region that comprises an oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide material that is less reactive as compared to the counterpart stoichiometric rare earth oxide. The oxygen-deficient (sub-stoichiometric) rare earth oxide can comprise oxygen-deficient yttria represented by Y.sub.2O.sub.3-x wherein x is from 0.01 to 0.1. Use of the oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide as the melt-contacting layer or region material reduces reaction with the melt for a given melt temperature and melt contact time.

  9. Personality characteristics of Wikipedia members.

    PubMed

    Amichai-Hamburger, Yair; Lamdan, Naama; Madiel, Rinat; Hayat, Tsahi

    2008-12-01

    Wikipedia is an online, free access, volunteer-contributed encyclopedia. This article focuses on the Wikipedians' (Wikipedia users) personality characteristics, studying Wikipedians' conceptions of Real-Me and BFI dimensions. To survey these aspects, we posted links to two online web questionnaires; one was targeted at Wikipedians and the second to non-Wikipedia users. One hundred and thirty-nine subjects participated in the study, of which 69 were active Wikipedia members. It was found that Wikipedia members locate their real me on the Internet more frequently as compared to non-Wikipedia members. Variance analysis revealed significant differences between Wikipedia members and non-Wikipedia members in agreeableness, openness, and conscientiousness, which were lower for the Wikipedia members. An interaction was found between Wikipedia membership and gender: introverted women were more likely to be Wikipedia members as compared with extroverted women. The results of this study are discussed with special emphasis on the understanding of the motivators of Wikipedia members.

  10. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effectiveness of cooperative learning on discipline problems, interdependence between students, and teacher-student interactions. Explains how to group students and introduces a laboratory activity on covalent and ionic bonds. (YDS)

  11. Cooperative processing data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  12. How Myxobacteria Cooperate.

    PubMed

    Cao, Pengbo; Dey, Arup; Vassallo, Christopher N; Wall, Daniel

    2015-11-20

    Prokaryotes often reside in groups where a high degree of relatedness has allowed the evolution of cooperative behaviors. However, very few bacteria or archaea have made the successful transition from unicellular to obligate multicellular life. A notable exception is the myxobacteria, in which cells cooperate to perform group functions highlighted by fruiting body development, an obligate multicellular function. Like all multicellular organisms, myxobacteria face challenges in how to organize and maintain multicellularity. These challenges include maintaining population homeostasis, carrying out tissue repair and regulating the behavior of non-cooperators. Here, we describe the major cooperative behaviors that myxobacteria use: motility, predation and development. In addition, this review emphasizes recent discoveries in the social behavior of outer membrane exchange, wherein kin share outer membrane contents. Finally, we review evidence that outer membrane exchange may be involved in regulating population homeostasis, thus serving as a social tool for myxobacteria to make the cyclic transitions from unicellular to multicellular states.

  13. Cooperative Learning in Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Carolyn M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Formal use of cooperative learning techniques proved effective in improving student performance and retention in a freshman level statistics course. Lectures interspersed with group activities proved effective in increasing conceptual understanding and overall class performance. (11 references) (Author)

  14. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effectiveness of cooperative learning on discipline problems, interdependence between students, and teacher-student interactions. Explains how to group students and introduces a laboratory activity on covalent and ionic bonds. (YDS)

  15. Cooperative Education: Industry Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Geoffrey; McClelland, Alan L.

    1980-01-01

    Contains information from three large chemical companies having a long-standing interest in cooperative education with chemistry students. Questions and answers are provided for specific information regarding DuPont, 3M, and Dow Chemical. (CS)

  16. Cooperating mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  17. Cooperation and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Brendan Clark, C; Thorne, Christopher B; Hardy, Sonya; Cropsey, Karen L

    2013-09-25

    Deficits in pro-social cooperation are common in many individuals with mental illnesses such as depression. For decades, researchers have used economic game paradigms to compare cross-cultural cooperative behavior. However, research using economic games to assess cooperative behavior in clinical populations is in the early stages. We hypothesized that individuals with greater depressive symptoms would struggle to maintain reciprocity in iterative games, but not in single-iteration games measuring personal values. Participants (n=41) played four computer-based economic games (prisoner's dilemma, the public goods game, the ultimatum game, and the trust game) measuring different aspects of cooperation. Participants completed the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and other measures of personality and demographics. Analyses assessed the relationships between game performance and psychological distress as measured by the DASS. Significant correlations were found between game performance and depressive symptoms, but not symptoms of anxiety or stress. Performance in the prisoner's dilemma and public goods game was significantly related to depression in a linear regression even when known associations with depressive affect such as age, gender, race, education, marital status, and neuroticism were controlled for. Depressive symptoms were associated with an inability to sustain reciprocal cooperation. Participants showed the predicted deficits in cooperation in these economic games. Economic games show the potential for assessing the social deficits associated with depressive symptoms. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Members' sensemaking in a multi-professional team.

    PubMed

    Rovio-Johansson, Airi; Liff, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate sensemaking as interaction among team members in a multi-professional team setting in a new public management context at a Swedish Child and Youth Psychiatric Unit. A discursive pragmatic approach grounded in ethonomethodology is taken in the analysis of a treatment conference (TC). In order to interpret and understand the multi-voiced complexity of discourse and of talk-in-interaction, the authors use dialogism in the analysis of the members' sensemaking processes. The analysis is based on the theoretical assumption that language and texts are the primary tools actors use to comprehend the social reality and to make sense of their multi-professional discussions. Health care managers are offered insights, derived from theory and empirical evidence, into how professionals' communications influence multi-professional cooperation. The team leader and members are interviewed before and after the observed TC. Team members create their identities and positions in the group by interpreting and "misinterpreting" talk-in-interaction. The analyses reveal the ways the team members relate to their treatment methods in the discussion of a patient; advocating a treatment method means that the team member and the method are intertwined. The findings may be valuable to health care professionals and managers working in teams by showing them how to achieve greater cooperation through the use of verbal abilities. The findings and methods contribute to the international research on cooperation problems in multi-professional teams and to the empirical research on institutional discourse through text and talk.

  19. Cooperative Learning in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Cecile Burnett

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for cooperative learning and examines the teacher's role in creating groups. Provides examples of cooperative learning experiences in an integrated unit and as applied to computer education. Lists the advantages of using cooperative learning, while noting its pitfalls. Cautions that cooperative learning should be used in…

  20. Impact of Group Processing on Achievement in Cooperative Groups.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David W; Johnson, Roger T; Stanne, Mary Beth; Garibaldi, Antoine

    1990-08-01

    Group processing was examined as a variable mediating the relationship between cooperative learning and achievement. Group processing may be defined as a review of a group session to describe the member actions that were helpful and unhelpful and to decide what actions to continue or change. Four conditions were included in the study: cooperative learning with no processing, cooperative learning with teacher-led processing (the teacher specified what cooperative skills to use, observed, and gave whole-class feedback about how well students were using the skills), cooperative learning with teacher- and student-led processing (the teacher specified what cooperative skills to use, observed, gave whole-class feedback about how well students were using the skills, and had groups discuss how well they interacted as a group), and individual learning. Forty-eight high-ability Black American high-school seniors and entering college freshmen at Xavier University were given a complex computer-assisted problem-solving assignment. Students in the three cooperative conditions performed better than those in the individual condition. The combination of teacher- and student-led processing resulted in greater problem-solving success and achievement in the cooperative conditions.

  1. Cooper Pair Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valles, James

    One of the recent advances in the field of the Superconductor to Insulator Transition (SIT) has been the discovery and characterization of the Cooper Pair Insulator phase. This bosonic insulator, which consists of localized Cooper pairs, exhibits activated transport and a giant magneto-resistance peak. These features differ markedly from the weakly localized transport that emerges as pairs break at a ``fermionic'' SIT. I will describe how our experiments on films nano-patterned with a nearly triangular array of holes have enabled us to 1) distinguish bosonic insulators from fermionic insulators, 2) show that Cooper pairs, rather than quasi-particles dominate the transport in the Cooper Pair insulator phase, 3) demonstrate that very weak, sub nano-meter thickness inhomogeneities control whether a bosonic or fermionic insulator forms at an SIT and 4) reveal that Cooper pairs disintegrate rather than becoming more tightly bound deep in the localized phase. We have also developed a method, using a magnetic field, to tune flux disorder reversibly in these films. I will present our latest results on the influence of magnetic flux disorder and random gauge fields on phenomena near bosonic SITs. This work was performed in collaboration with M. D. Stewart, Jr., Hung Q. Nguyen, Shawna M. Hollen, Jimmy Joy, Xue Zhang, Gustavo Fernandez, Jeffrey Shainline and Jimmy Xu. It was supported by NSF Grants DMR 1307290 and DMR-0907357.

  2. Meeting the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation's (SCO) Challenges: What Role Can Technology Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grainger, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Facing a collection of challenges, how can the Shanghai cooperation organisation (SCO) use technology to help improve cohesion, cope with enlargement, manage relations better with external parties, develop resources, advance economic cooperation between members, improve their speed of decision making and upgrade their quality of decision…

  3. Cooperative context is a determinant of the social influence on outcome evaluation: An electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kenta; Katayama, Jun'ichi

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined whether or not a cooperative context is a determinant of the social influence on the evaluation of two action outcomes: a monetary outcome and a conflict of opinion with other group members. In the present study, three-person groups were randomly assigned to be either a cooperative or individual group and asked to perform a gambling task. The monetary outcomes in the cooperative group were interrelated among group members, whereas those in the individual group did not influence each other. The present results showed that monetary outcomes elicited feedback-related negativity (FRN) and a conflict of opinion with other group members elicited FRN-like negativity, which reflect an evaluation of the motivational significance of action outcomes. The FRN elicited by monetary outcomes was reduced when participants shared decisions with other group members only in the cooperative group, indicating that the cooperative context reduced the motivational significance of monetary outcomes through the diffusion of responsibility. The FRN-like negativity elicited by a conflict of opinion showed a different pattern between the cooperative and individual groups, indicating that the cooperative context can influence the evaluation of a conflict of opinion, possibly via the modulation of group cohesiveness or conflict processing. The present results suggest that a cooperative context, rather than the social setting, is a determinant of the social influence on outcome evaluation.

  4. Social Behavior in Cooperative Groups: Students at Risk for ADHD and Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentall, Sydney S.; Kuester, Deitra A.; Craig, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative learning has broad support as an instructional strategy to improve achievement. If the social behavior of students at risk for ADHD could be documented, cooperative groups could also provide a context for intervention. To this purpose, we observed 22 same-gender triads, with or without a member at risk for ADHD during problem-solving…

  5. Meeting the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation's (SCO) Challenges: What Role Can Technology Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grainger, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Facing a collection of challenges, how can the Shanghai cooperation organisation (SCO) use technology to help improve cohesion, cope with enlargement, manage relations better with external parties, develop resources, advance economic cooperation between members, improve their speed of decision making and upgrade their quality of decision…

  6. Cooperative Learning Strategies for Teaching Small Group Communication: Research and Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, Kay; Gimple, Debbie

    Research has shown that cooperative learning rather than competitive behavior enhances students' achievement, self-esteem, and satisfaction while reducing performance anxiety. Although cooperation within a small group results in greater productivity and member satisfaction, it should be considered only as a means to an end, not an end in itself. A…

  7. 7 CFR 1951.231 - Special provisions applicable to Economic Opportunity (EO) Cooperative Loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Special provisions applicable to Economic Opportunity... Special provisions applicable to Economic Opportunity (EO) Cooperative Loans. (a) Withdrawal of member and... for Economic Opportunity Cooperative loans must be handled under the Federal Claims Collection...

  8. An Enhanced Genetic Approach to Composing Cooperative Learning Groups for Multiple Grouping Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yin, Peng-Yeng; Hwang, Chi-Wei; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative learning is known to be an effective educational strategy in enhancing the learning performance of students. The goal of a cooperative learning group is to maximize all members' learning efficacy. This is accomplished via promoting each other's success, through assisting, sharing, mentoring, explaining, and encouragement. To achieve…

  9. Social Behavior in Cooperative Groups: Students at Risk for ADHD and Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentall, Sydney S.; Kuester, Deitra A.; Craig, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative learning has broad support as an instructional strategy to improve achievement. If the social behavior of students at risk for ADHD could be documented, cooperative groups could also provide a context for intervention. To this purpose, we observed 22 same-gender triads, with or without a member at risk for ADHD during problem-solving…

  10. Effects of Representative Status and Decision Style on Cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Margaret G.; Kogan, Nathan

    Level of cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) is examined for opponents acting in their own behalf or as members of a reference group consisting of strangers or friends. This subject classification interacted with trials, representatives of friend groups manifesting a consistently high level of cooperation throughout, and representatives of…

  11. Relations among College Supervisors, Cooperating Teachers, and Student Teachers in a Reflective Teacher Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Barbara Slater

    This qualitative study examined the personal practical theories (PPTs) of the members of the supervisory triad--college supervisor, cooperating teacher, and student teacher--to discover whether PPTs could provide information about relationships within the triad. Three preservice teachers, three college supervisors, and five cooperating teachers…

  12. An Enhanced Genetic Approach to Composing Cooperative Learning Groups for Multiple Grouping Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yin, Peng-Yeng; Hwang, Chi-Wei; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative learning is known to be an effective educational strategy in enhancing the learning performance of students. The goal of a cooperative learning group is to maximize all members' learning efficacy. This is accomplished via promoting each other's success, through assisting, sharing, mentoring, explaining, and encouragement. To achieve…

  13. Ulysses - An ESA/NASA cooperative programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, W.; Eaton, D.

    1990-01-01

    Cooperation between ESA and NASA is discussed, noting that the Memorandum of Understanding lays the framework for this relationship, defining the responsibilities of ESA and NASA and providing for appointment of leadership and managers for the project. Members of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and ESA's ESTEC staff have been appointed to leadership positions within the project and ultimate control of the project rests with the Joint Working Group consisting of two project managers and two project scientists, equally representing both organizations. Coordination of time scales and overall mission design is discussed, including launch cooperation, public relations, and funding of scientific investigations such as Ulysses. Practical difficulties of managing an international project are discussed such as differing documentation requirements and communication techniques, and assurance of equality on projects.

  14. Cooper Pairs in Insulators?!

    ScienceCinema

    James Valles

    2016-07-12

    Nearly 50 years elapsed between the discovery of superconductivity and the emergence of the microscopic theory describing this zero resistance state. The explanation required a novel phase of matter in which conduction electrons joined in weakly bound pairs and condensed with other pairs into a single quantum state. Surprisingly, this Cooper pair formation has also been invoked to account for recently uncovered high-resistance or insulating phases of matter. To address this possibility, we have used nanotechnology to create an insulating system that we can probe directly for Cooper pairs. I will present the evidence that Cooper pairs exist and dominate the electrical transport in these insulators and I will discuss how these findings provide new insight into superconductor to insulator quantum phase transitions. 

  15. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation.

    PubMed

    Bateson, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  16. Functionality of Cooperative Business Education in Development of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoli, Constance I.

    2016-01-01

    Cooperatives without doubt are seen as major players in the development process especially in developing countries; for the mobilization of citizens and building them into formidable groups for productive purposes. The ability of this organization to achieve objectives depends greatly on the public, its members, management and leadership, in…

  17. A Literature-Based Cooperative Lesson for ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromwell-Hoffman, Carole; Sasser, Linda

    This cooperative lesson for students of English as a Second Language (ESL) has students from different cultural and language backgrounds write folk tales from their native cultures and compile them into a book. Each four-member team is constructed based on student variables, including ethnicity, personality, academic ability, language functioning,…

  18. Cooperative Extension Answers the Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Michelle F.

    2016-01-01

    Extension has many opportunities to promote breastfeeding, one of the most highly effective preventive measures a mother can take to protect the health of her infant and herself. This article describes how and why Cooperative Extension can and should partner with federal and state efforts to promote breastfeeding. Members of Rutgers' Family and…

  19. 26 CFR 1.199-6 - Agricultural and horticultural cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... account by the patron for purposes of section 199. (m) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this section: Example 1. (i) Cooperative X markets corn grown by its members within the United... section 199(d)(3) and this section. Example 2. (i) The facts are the same as in Example 1 except that...

  20. Cooperative Extension Answers the Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Michelle F.

    2016-01-01

    Extension has many opportunities to promote breastfeeding, one of the most highly effective preventive measures a mother can take to protect the health of her infant and herself. This article describes how and why Cooperative Extension can and should partner with federal and state efforts to promote breastfeeding. Members of Rutgers' Family and…

  1. People Caring about People--The Prairie Housing Cooperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kappel, Bruce; Wetherow, David

    1986-01-01

    The Prairie Housing Cooperative has purchased 20 homes which provide 60 people (12 of whom are mentally retarded) with decent affordable housing in five neighborhoods in Winnipeg, Canada. Needed special services are provided by the non-handicapped members when possible or by outside contracts. (DB)

  2. Consultants and Cooperative Education: The Northeastern English Department Business Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Michael B.

    The advantages of cooperative education for English departments and the role of the faculty member as a consultant for the program are discussed, based on the experience of Northeastern University. Attention is directed to starting this type of program in the English department, the consultant's role as a catalyst, placing English majors, and…

  3. A Study of Attitudes Toward Regional Cooperation in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, John W.; Heller, Robert W.

    Following a discussion of Federal legislation as related to regional programs, this 1970 report presents an assessment of attitudes toward regional educational cooperation. The 4 groups of respondents (n=426) were school administrators, teachers, school board members, and influential laymen from 25 school districts in Washington, Fayette, and…

  4. Neural basis of conditional cooperation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shinsuke; Niki, Kazuhisa; Fujisaki, Syoken; Akiyama, Eizo

    2011-06-01

    Cooperation among genetically unrelated individuals is a fundamental aspect of society, but it has been a longstanding puzzle in biological and social sciences. Recently, theoretical studies in biology and economics showed that conditional cooperation-cooperating only with those who have exhibited cooperative behavior-can spread over a society. Furthermore, experimental studies in psychology demonstrated that people are actually conditional cooperators. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural system underlying conditional cooperation by scanning participants during interaction with cooperative, neutral and non-cooperative opponents in prisoner's dilemma games. The results showed that: (i) participants cooperated more frequently with both cooperative and neutral opponents than with non-cooperative opponents; and (ii) a brain area related to cognitive inhibition of pre-potent responses (right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) showed greater activation, especially when participants confronted non-cooperative opponents. Consequently, we suggest that cognitive inhibition of the motivation to cooperate with non-cooperators drives the conditional behavior.

  5. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-08-04

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation.

  6. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner’s dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation. PMID:26238521

  7. To Cooperate or Not to Cooperate: Why Behavioural Mechanisms Matter

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mutualistic cooperation often requires multiple individuals to behave in a coordinated fashion. Hence, while the evolutionary stability of mutualistic cooperation poses no particular theoretical difficulty, its evolutionary emergence faces a chicken and egg problem: an individual cannot benefit from cooperating unless other individuals already do so. Here, we use evolutionary robotic simulations to study the consequences of this problem for the evolution of cooperation. In contrast with standard game-theoretic results, we find that the transition from solitary to cooperative strategies is very unlikely, whether interacting individuals are genetically related (cooperation evolves in 20% of all simulations) or unrelated (only 3% of all simulations). We also observe that successful cooperation between individuals requires the evolution of a specific and rather complex behaviour. This behavioural complexity creates a large fitness valley between solitary and cooperative strategies, making the evolutionary transition difficult. These results reveal the need for research on biological mechanisms which may facilitate this transition. PMID:27148874

  8. Simulating social dilemmas: promoting cooperative behavior through imagined group discussion.

    PubMed

    Meleady, Rose; Hopthrow, Tim; Crisp, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    A robust finding in social dilemmas research is that individual group members are more likely to act cooperatively if they are given the chance to discuss the dilemma with one another. The authors investigated whether imagining a group discussion may represent an effective means of increasing cooperative behavior in the absence of the opportunity for direct negotiation among decision makers. Five experiments, utilizing a range of task variants, tested this hypothesis. Participants engaged in a guided simulation of the progressive steps required to reach a cooperative consensus within a group discussion of a social dilemma. Results support the conclusion that imagined group discussion enables conscious processes that parallel those underlying the direct group discussion and is a strategy that can effectively elicit cooperative behavior. The applied potential of imagined group discussion techniques to encourage more socially responsible behavior is discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Reputation can enhance or suppress cooperation through positive feedback.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John M; Doodson, Polly

    2015-01-20

    One possible explanation for the widespread existence of cooperation in nature is that individuals cooperate to establish reputations and so benefit in future interactions with others. We consider a class of games in which individuals contribute to a common good at a cost to themselves. Population members vary in type, that is, in the cost paid for a given level of contribution. We consider a form of indirect reciprocity in which the contribution of an individual depends on their partner's reputation and their own type. Here we show that for such games, reputation destabilizes the selfish equilibrium through a novel and robust feedback mechanism. For those games in which the selfish optimal contribution to the common good increases as the contribution of the partner increases, the feedback mechanism enhances cooperation levels. In contrast, when the optimal contribution decreases as partner's contribution increases, cooperation levels are reduced still further.

  10. Cooperative Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, G. M.; Kimura, H.

    2013-01-01

    In and out of the classroom, life would be unthinkable without interacting with fellow humans. This book urges more cooperative and group activities in the English language classroom for all the advantages: students use the target language more, help each other with comprehension, receive attention from peers as well as the teacher, are motivated…

  11. Cooperative Education Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas County Community Coll. District, TX.

    Designed for students in the Dallas County Community College District's (DCCCD's) cooperative education program, this guide provides information on obtaining college credit for the development and achievement of learning objectives through current work experience. After introductory material on the benefits of participating in the program,…

  12. Cooper pairs and bipolarons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhno, Victor

    2016-11-01

    It is shown that Cooper pairs are a solution of the bipolaron problem for model Fröhlich Hamiltonian. The total energy of a pair for the initial Fröhlich Hamiltonian is found. Differences between the solutions for the model and initial two-particle problems are discussed.

  13. Foundations of Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.

    Five cooperative learning methods are described with the theories that support them. The five methods are: (1) Group Investigation (GI), developed by S. Sharan and others; (2) Jigsaw, developed by E. Aronson and others; (3) Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD), developed by R. E. Slavin and others; (4) Learning Together, developed by D. W.…

  14. Educating for World Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Louise M.; Miel, Alice

    This booklet presents a variety of perspectives on educating for world cooperation. Section 1 discusses major world problems and calls for the reorientation of education as a potential solution. Section 2 deals with the design of such a reorientation and offers three approaches to teaching and curriculum development--knowing, being, and doing. In…

  15. Cooperative Performance Incentive Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raham, Helen

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what is known about cooperative performance incentive (CPI) plans, which are award programs that offer teachers and other school staff pay bonuses for achievement of specific schoolwide educational objectives. The paper describes and compares existing CPI models worldwide, analyzes their impact on student learning and school practices,…

  16. The Power of Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, John A.

    2010-01-01

    In "The Power of Cooperation," Tony Nevin tells how the townspeople of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, are attempting to replicate a successful alternative-energy project in Samso, Denmark, where thinking about ways to reduce fossil-fuel use "became a kind of sport." Nevin says that thinking and acting locally helps people to…

  17. Educating for World Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Louise M.; Miel, Alice

    This booklet presents a variety of perspectives on educating for world cooperation. Section 1 discusses major world problems and calls for the reorientation of education as a potential solution. Section 2 deals with the design of such a reorientation and offers three approaches to teaching and curriculum development--knowing, being, and doing. In…

  18. Cooperative Electronics Program Credit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wayne

    The Cooperative Electronics Program was developed through the joint efforts of Linn-Benton Community College (LBCC), West Albany High, and Lebanon High, all of which are in the Linn-Benton Education Service District serving Albany, Oregon. The project, which was undertaken in the spring of 1988, is intended to result in a program whereby high…

  19. Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory

    Treesearch

    Thomas Malone; Jingjing Liang; Edmond C. Packee

    2009-01-01

    The Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory (CAFI) is a comprehensive database of boreal forest conditions and dynamics in Alaska. The CAFI consists of field-gathered information from numerous permanent sample plots distributed across interior and south-central Alaska including the Kenai Peninsula. The CAFI currently has 570 permanent sample plots on 190 sites...

  20. Combat or Cooperation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Thomas F.; Copas, Randall L.

    2010-01-01

    The best intentioned efforts of adults are often sabotaged by coercive climates of bullying among peers and conflict with adults. The solution is to create cultures where youth cooperate with authority and treat one another with respect. In this article, the authors stress the task of the staff to create a condition in which students see more…

  1. Cooperative Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauber, Dick T.

    In order to investigate the feasibility of adding a cooperative education option to the curricular offerings of Moraine Park Technical Institute (MPTI), interviews were conducted with randomly selected representatives of 12 industries and 17 employers in the marketing and merchandising businesses located in the MPTI service area. In addition,…

  2. Space Cooperation Working Group

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-18

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, and NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver, welcome Head of the Russian Federal Space Agency Anatoly Perminov, right, for the third Space Cooperation Working Group meeting of the U.S. – Russia Bilateral Presidential Commission on Thursday, Nov. 18, 2010 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Morality and Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korthals, Michiel

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that Piaget's early theory on moral development and moral education can elucidate the discussion about broad or narrow definitions of morality. Explores the connection between interaction and morality, mutual respect, and cooperation. Argues that Piaget's concept of mutual respect is an important educational device for dealing with…

  4. Cooperative Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, G. M.; Kimura, H.

    2013-01-01

    In and out of the classroom, life would be unthinkable without interacting with fellow humans. This book urges more cooperative and group activities in the English language classroom for all the advantages: students use the target language more, help each other with comprehension, receive attention from peers as well as the teacher, are motivated…

  5. Cooperative Mobile Sensing Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R S; Kent, C A; Jones, E D; Cunningham, C T; Armstrong, G W

    2003-02-10

    A cooperative control architecture is presented that allows a fleet of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) to collect data in a parallel, coordinated and optimal manner. The architecture is designed to react to a set of unpredictable events thereby allowing data collection to continue in an optimal manner.

  6. Predicting Human Cooperation

    DOE PAGES

    Nay, John J.; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Xia, Cheng -Yi

    2016-05-12

    The Prisoner’s Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner’s Dilemma (defection), when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner’s Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner’s Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational modelmore » of human behavior in repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. As a result, we demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation.« less

  7. Predicting Human Cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Nay, John J.; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Xia, Cheng -Yi

    2016-05-12

    The Prisoner’s Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner’s Dilemma (defection), when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner’s Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner’s Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. As a result, we demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation.

  8. Consortia and Interinstitutional Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Donn C., Ed.

    Opportunities for cooperation in higher education are described in this book, particularly how institutional linkages through a consortium can help colleges and universities improve the quality of instruction, deal with rising costs, meet the demands of new institutional roles, and confront such challenges as incorporating new technologies. Ways…

  9. Cooperative Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauber, Dick T.

    In order to investigate the feasibility of adding a cooperative education option to the curricular offerings of Moraine Park Technical Institute (MPTI), interviews were conducted with randomly selected representatives of 12 industries and 17 employers in the marketing and merchandising businesses located in the MPTI service area. In addition,…

  10. Communication, Coordination, Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Nancy Oft; Wiper, Kathie Tippens

    Speech communication teachers at both secondary and postsecondary school levels must cooperate to improve oral communication education. Despite the importance of oral communication skills, speech courses are rarely required in high school. Teachers must tell school boards, higher education boards, and faculties of the importance of speaking and…

  11. The Power of Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, John A.

    2010-01-01

    In "The Power of Cooperation," Tony Nevin tells how the townspeople of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, are attempting to replicate a successful alternative-energy project in Samso, Denmark, where thinking about ways to reduce fossil-fuel use "became a kind of sport." Nevin says that thinking and acting locally helps people to…

  12. Cooperative Office Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This manual, intended for inexperienced and experienced coordinators, school administrators, and guidance personnel, is designed to provide practical suggestions for initiating, developing, operating, coordinating, improving, and evaluating cooperative office education programs. Major content is presented primarily in outline form under the…

  13. Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii)

    Treesearch

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Patricia L. Kennedy; Rob Yaksich; Scott H. Stoleson

    2010-01-01

    The Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) is intermediate in size between the Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and the Sharp-shinned Hawk (A. striatus), northern North America's other two accipiters. The two sexes are almost alike in plumage, but as in both of the other species, the female is noticeably larger. According to Wheeler and Clark (1995), a...

  14. Group size adjustment to ecological demand in a cooperative breeder.

    PubMed

    Zöttl, Markus; Frommen, Joachim G; Taborsky, Michael

    2013-04-07

    Environmental factors can determine which group size will maximize the fitness of group members. This is particularly important in cooperative breeders, where group members often serve different purposes. Experimental studies are yet lacking to check whether ecologically mediated need for help will change the propensity of dominant group members to accept immigrants. Here, we manipulated the perceived risk of predation for dominant breeders of the cooperatively breeding cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher to test their response to unrelated and previously unknown immigrants. Potential immigrants were more readily accepted if groups were exposed to fish predators or egg predators than to herbivorous fish or control situations lacking predation risk. Our data are consistent with both risk dilution and helping effects. Egg predators were presented before spawning, which might suggest that the fish adjust acceptance rates also to a potential future threat. Dominant group members of N. pulcher apparently consider both present and future need of help based on ecological demand. This suggests that acceptance of immigrants and, more generally, tolerance of group members on demand could be a widespread response to ecological conditions in cooperatively breeding animals.

  15. Group size adjustment to ecological demand in a cooperative breeder

    PubMed Central

    Zöttl, Markus; Frommen, Joachim G.; Taborsky, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Environmental factors can determine which group size will maximize the fitness of group members. This is particularly important in cooperative breeders, where group members often serve different purposes. Experimental studies are yet lacking to check whether ecologically mediated need for help will change the propensity of dominant group members to accept immigrants. Here, we manipulated the perceived risk of predation for dominant breeders of the cooperatively breeding cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher to test their response to unrelated and previously unknown immigrants. Potential immigrants were more readily accepted if groups were exposed to fish predators or egg predators than to herbivorous fish or control situations lacking predation risk. Our data are consistent with both risk dilution and helping effects. Egg predators were presented before spawning, which might suggest that the fish adjust acceptance rates also to a potential future threat. Dominant group members of N. pulcher apparently consider both present and future need of help based on ecological demand. This suggests that acceptance of immigrants and, more generally, tolerance of group members on demand could be a widespread response to ecological conditions in cooperatively breeding animals. PMID:23390105

  16. Evolution of group-wise cooperation: Is direct reciprocity insufficient?

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Shun; Ihara, Yasuo

    2017-02-21

    Group-wise cooperation, or cooperation among three or more individuals, is an integral part of human societies. It is likely that group-wise cooperation also played a crucial role in the survival of early hominins, who were confronted with novel environmental challenges, long before the emergence of Homo sapiens. However, previous theoretical and empirical studies, focusing mainly on modern humans, have tended to suggest that evolution of cooperation in sizable groups cannot be explained by simple direct reciprocity and requires some additional mechanisms (reputation, punishment, etc.), which are cognitively too demanding for early hominins. As a partial resolution of the paradox, our recent analysis of a stochastic evolutionary model, which considers the effect of random drift, has revealed that evolution of group-wise cooperation is more likely to occur in larger groups when an individual's share of the benefit produced by one cooperator does not decrease with increasing group size (i.e., goods are non-rivalrous). In this paper, we further extend our previous analysis to explore possible consequences of introducing rare mistakes in behavior or imperfect information about behavior of others on the model outcome. Analyses of the extended models show that evolution of group-wise cooperation can be facilitated by large group size even when individuals intending to cooperate sometimes fail to do so or when all the information about the past behavior of group members is not available. We argue, therefore, that evolution of cooperation in sizable groups does not necessarily require other mechanisms than direct reciprocity if the goods to be produced via group-wise cooperation are non-rivalrous. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Administrative Support for Board Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Donald R.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the need of administrative support for board members. An effective board services office can help a lot in attracting and retaining community leaders. Board members need administrative support to help them manage events, records, communications, scheduling, correspondence and constituent service. In small to…

  18. Life Expectancy of Kibbutz Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviatan, Uri; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented demonstrating that the life expectancy of kibbutz members--both men and women--is higher than that of the overall Jewish population in Israel. These data add to and support other research findings illustrating the more positive mental health and well-being found among kibbutz members than among other comparative populations.…

  19. Life Expectancy of Kibbutz Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviatan, Uri; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented demonstrating that the life expectancy of kibbutz members--both men and women--is higher than that of the overall Jewish population in Israel. These data add to and support other research findings illustrating the more positive mental health and well-being found among kibbutz members than among other comparative populations.…

  20. Neural basis of conditional cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Niki, Kazuhisa; Fujisaki, Syoken; Akiyama, Eizo

    2011-01-01

    Cooperation among genetically unrelated individuals is a fundamental aspect of society, but it has been a longstanding puzzle in biological and social sciences. Recently, theoretical studies in biology and economics showed that conditional cooperation—cooperating only with those who have exhibited cooperative behavior—can spread over a society. Furthermore, experimental studies in psychology demonstrated that people are actually conditional cooperators. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural system underlying conditional cooperation by scanning participants during interaction with cooperative, neutral and non-cooperative opponents in prisoner's dilemma games. The results showed that: (i) participants cooperated more frequently with both cooperative and neutral opponents than with non-cooperative opponents; and (ii) a brain area related to cognitive inhibition of pre-potent responses (right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) showed greater activation, especially when participants confronted non-cooperative opponents. Consequently, we suggest that cognitive inhibition of the motivation to cooperate with non-cooperators drives the conditional behavior. PMID:20501484

  1. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    PubMed

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  2. A Course of Study in Cooperation and Cooperatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjoraker, Walter T., Ed.

    Designed for teachers with limited experience in cooperatives, this course of study was prepared by seminar students for use in high school or adult education programs, and emphasizes the principles of cooperation, the operation and management of cooperatives, and the communication required for their effective functioning. Units requiring a total…

  3. Cooperatives for “fair globalization”? Indigenous people, cooperatives, and corporate social responsibility in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Burke, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Cooperatives and socially responsible corporations are being hailed as possible correctives to the socioeconomic and ecological exploitation of transnational capitalism. AmazonCoop—a cooperative linking indigenous Brazil nut harvesters and the multinational firm The Body Shop through trade and development projects—capitalized on indigenous symbolism to generate significant material benefits for both parties. At the same time, however, it made indigenous people more vulnerable and dependent, failed to promote participatory development, masked the effects of unfavorable state policies, and perpetuated discriminatory distinctions among indigenous people. Furthermore, the cooperative did not provide an organizational framework to ameliorate the vulnerabilities of indigenous identity politics or transform symbolic capital into enduring political-economic change. This case strongly supports arguments that cooperatives must be rooted in participation, democratic member control, and autonomy if they are to promote “fair globalization” or social transformation rather than institutionalize existing patterns of exploitation.

  4. Cooperative neural processes involved in stereoscopic acuity.

    PubMed

    Westheimer, G

    1979-08-01

    Results of psychophysical experiments are reported showing that synchrony, appropriate relative placement, and absence of standing disparity are important conditions to be met by members of a target configuration if they are to participate in the cooperative neural processes leading to the best disparity discrimination. Consecutive binocular presentation of the members of a stereo target decreases stereoacuity by a factor of about 10, and a step disparity displacement of a single line target needs to be larger still to be detected as a depth stimulus. A standing disaprity of even one minute of arc at least doubles the disaprity disxrimination threshold. It is postulated that a differencing mechanism operates on the depth signal of individual features; the temporal and spatial optima of target presentation for stereoscopic acuity outline the character of the concerned operations.

  5. Robustness of norm-driven cooperation in the commons.

    PubMed

    Schlüter, Maja; Tavoni, Alessandro; Levin, Simon

    2016-01-13

    Sustainable use of common-pool resources such as fish, water or forests depends on the cooperation of resource users that restrain their individual extraction to socially optimal levels. Empirical evidence has shown that under certain social and biophysical conditions, self-organized cooperation in the commons can evolve. Global change, however, may drastically alter these conditions. We assess the robustness of cooperation to environmental variability in a stylized model of a community that harvests a shared resource. Community members follow a norm of socially optimal resource extraction, which is enforced through social sanctioning. Our results indicate that both resource abundance and a small increase in resource variability can lead to collapse of cooperation observed in the no-variability case, while either scarcity or large variability have the potential to stabilize it. The combined effects of changes in amount and variability can reinforce or counteract each other depending on their size and the initial level of cooperation in the community. If two socially separate groups are ecologically connected through resource leakage, cooperation in one can destabilize the other. These findings provide insights into possible effects of global change and spatial connectivity, indicating that there is no simple answer as to their effects on cooperation and sustainable resource use.

  6. Robustness of norm-driven cooperation in the commons

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable use of common-pool resources such as fish, water or forests depends on the cooperation of resource users that restrain their individual extraction to socially optimal levels. Empirical evidence has shown that under certain social and biophysical conditions, self-organized cooperation in the commons can evolve. Global change, however, may drastically alter these conditions. We assess the robustness of cooperation to environmental variability in a stylized model of a community that harvests a shared resource. Community members follow a norm of socially optimal resource extraction, which is enforced through social sanctioning. Our results indicate that both resource abundance and a small increase in resource variability can lead to collapse of cooperation observed in the no-variability case, while either scarcity or large variability have the potential to stabilize it. The combined effects of changes in amount and variability can reinforce or counteract each other depending on their size and the initial level of cooperation in the community. If two socially separate groups are ecologically connected through resource leakage, cooperation in one can destabilize the other. These findings provide insights into possible effects of global change and spatial connectivity, indicating that there is no simple answer as to their effects on cooperation and sustainable resource use. PMID:26740611

  7. Benefits of cooperation with genetic kin in a subsocial spider.

    PubMed

    Schneider, J M; Bilde, T

    2008-08-05

    Interaction within groups exploiting a common resource may be prone to cheating by selfish actions that result in disadvantages for all members of the group, including the selfish individuals. Kin selection is one mechanism by which such dilemmas can be resolved. This is because selfish acts toward relatives include the cost of lowering indirect fitness benefits that could otherwise be achieved through the propagation of shared genes. Kin selection theory has been proved to be of general importance for the origin of cooperative behaviors, but other driving forces, such as direct fitness benefits, can also promote helping behavior in many cooperatively breeding taxa. Investigating transitional systems is therefore particularly suitable for understanding the influence of kin selection on the initial spread of cooperative behaviors. Here we investigated the role of kinship in cooperative feeding. We used a cross-fostering design to control for genetic relatedness and group membership. Our study animal was the periodic social spider Stegodyphus lineatus, a transitional species that belongs to a genus containing both permanent social and periodic social species. In S. lineatus, the young cooperate in prey capture and feed communally. We provide clear experimental evidence for net benefits of cooperating with kin. Genetic relatedness within groups and not association with familiar individuals directly improved feeding efficiency and growth rates, demonstrating a positive effect of kin cooperation. Hence, in communally feeding spiders, nepotism favors group retention and reduces the conflict between selfish interests and the interests of the group.

  8. Benefits of cooperation with genetic kin in a subsocial spider

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, J. M.; Bilde, T.

    2008-01-01

    Interaction within groups exploiting a common resource may be prone to cheating by selfish actions that result in disadvantages for all members of the group, including the selfish individuals. Kin selection is one mechanism by which such dilemmas can be resolved This is because selfish acts toward relatives include the cost of lowering indirect fitness benefits that could otherwise be achieved through the propagation of shared genes. Kin selection theory has been proved to be of general importance for the origin of cooperative behaviors, but other driving forces, such as direct fitness benefits, can also promote helping behavior in many cooperatively breeding taxa. Investigating transitional systems is therefore particularly suitable for understanding the influence of kin selection on the initial spread of cooperative behaviors. Here we investigated the role of kinship in cooperative feeding. We used a cross-fostering design to control for genetic relatedness and group membership. Our study animal was the periodic social spider Stegodyphus lineatus, a transitional species that belongs to a genus containing both permanent social and periodic social species. In S. lineatus, the young cooperate in prey capture and feed communally. We provide clear experimental evidence for net benefits of cooperating with kin. Genetic relatedness within groups and not association with familiar individuals directly improved feeding efficiency and growth rates, demonstrating a positive effect of kin cooperation. Hence, in communally feeding spiders, nepotism favors group retention and reduces the conflict between selfish interests and the interests of the group. PMID:18658236

  9. Nonlinear analysis of the cooperation of strategic alliances through stochastic catastrophe theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Hu, Bin; Wu, Jiang; Zhang, Jianhua

    2014-04-01

    The excitation intervention of strategic alliance may change with the changes in the parameters of circumstance (e.g., external alliance tasks). As a result, the stable cooperation between members may suffer a complete unplanned betrayal at last. However, current perspectives on strategic alliances cannot adequately explain this transition mechanism. This study is a first attempt to analyze this nonlinear phenomenon through stochastic catastrophe theory (SCT). A stochastic dynamics model is constructed based on the cooperation of strategic alliance from the perspective of evolutionary game theory. SCT explains the discontinuous changes caused by the changes in environmental parameters. Theoretically, we identify conditions where catastrophe can occur in the cooperation of alliance members.

  10. [Multiprofessional family-system training programme in psychiatry--effects on team cooperation and staff strain].

    PubMed

    Zwack, Julika; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2008-01-01

    How does the interdisciplinary cooperation of psychiatric staff members change after a multiprofessional family systems training programme? Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 49 staff members. Quantitative questionnaires were used to assess burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI) and team climate (Team-Klima-Inventar, TKI). The multiprofessional training intensifies interdisciplinary cooperation. It results in an increased appreciation of the nurses involved and in a redistribution of therapeutic tasks between nurses, psychologists and physicians. Staff burnout decreased during the research period, while task orientation and participative security within teams increased. The multiprofessional family systems training appears suitable to improve quality of patient care and interdisciplinary cooperation and to reduce staff burnout.

  11. Can Cooperative Learning Be Evaluated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Dan; Rangel, Lyle

    1989-01-01

    The most frequently used cooperative learning models feature five common components: heterogeneous teams, teammate interdependence, team interdependence, accountability, and activity appropriateness. These elements are explained to assist supervisors desiring to evaluate teachers using cooperative learning methods. Includes seven references. (MLH)

  12. Cooperation and cheating in microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the cooperative and competitive dynamics within and between species is a central challenge in evolutionary biology. Microbial model systems represent a unique opportunity to experimentally test fundamental theories regarding the evolution of cooperative behaviors. In this talk I will describe our experiments probing cooperation in microbes. In particular, I will compare the cooperative growth of yeast in sucrose and the cooperative inactivation of antibiotics by bacteria. In both cases we find that cheater strains---which don't contribute to the public welfare---are able to take advantage of the cooperator strains. However, this ability of cheaters to out-compete cooperators occurs only when cheaters are present at low frequency, thus leading to steady-state coexistence. These microbial experiments provide fresh insight into the evolutionary origin of cooperation.

  13. Heterogeneous Multi-Robot Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    Approaches to Multi-Robot Cooperative Control ................ 196 8.2.1 " Swarm " Cooperation ....... ...................... 196 8.2.2 "Intentional...involves the study of emergent cooperation in colonies, or swarms , of robots - an approach comparable to differentiating animal societies. This...using intention- ally cooperating robots to guide the activities of smaller groups of swarm robots in a coordinated way. The research presented in this

  14. Cooperative Learning for Effective Mainstreaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Male, Mary

    1986-01-01

    Reviews benefits of using cooperative learning strategies and computer assisted instruction (CAI) in classrooms with mainstreamed students; describes teacher's role in implementing cooperative learning; presents examples demonstrating potential of cooperative learning and CAI in language and social skills development; and outlines steps in…

  15. Cooperative Learning for LEP Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Margarita

    1989-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that students working together in small cooperative groups can master material better than students working on their own, and that cooperative learning structures higher self-esteem and learning motivation. Cooperative learning (CL) has been proposed for use with language minority children, as well as with other…

  16. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  17. An Odyssey into Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, Thomas L.; Basile, Carole

    1997-01-01

    An experiment using cooperative learning in a introductory pharmacy course in medicinal chemistry revealed general acceptance of the cooperative learning approach by students, and some perceived advantages for both students and teachers. Although quantitative evidence supporting superiority of the cooperative learning approach was not found,…

  18. Enlightening Advantages of Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faryadi, Qais

    2007-01-01

    This appraisal discusses the notion that cooperative learning enhances learners' emotional and social performance. It also observes the perception that cooperative learning dramatically improves students' academic accomplishment. This review also examines the definition of cooperative learning and attempts to define it through the lens of renowned…

  19. International Cooperation: A Positive Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Oscar

    Conditions for developing international university cooperation are identified, along with stages of international cooperation in education. Guidelines to promote cooperation are provided. The dominant focus and new role of universities has become problem-solving and community development, as distinct from the previous institutional-building…

  20. An Odyssey into Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, Thomas L.; Basile, Carole

    1997-01-01

    An experiment using cooperative learning in a introductory pharmacy course in medicinal chemistry revealed general acceptance of the cooperative learning approach by students, and some perceived advantages for both students and teachers. Although quantitative evidence supporting superiority of the cooperative learning approach was not found,…

  1. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  2. Cooperative Learning and Student Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Joe D.; Miller, Raymond B.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of cooperative group learning on students' motivation and achievement were studied for 62 high school students assigned to cooperative learning or traditional lecture groups. Greater gains were made in achievement, efficacy, valuing of algebra, and learning goal orientation for the cooperative-learning group. (SLD)

  3. Forestry cooperatives: past and present

    Treesearch

    Mark G. Rickenbach

    2006-01-01

    Forest landowner cooperatives are not a new phenomenon, but past efforts to create and sustain these businesses have been largely unsuccessful in the U.S. Before and just after World War II saw significant investment in cooperative development that failed to create durable business. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly describe the history of forestry cooperatives...

  4. Cooperative Learning: Developments in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from kindergarten through to college level and across different subject areas. Cooperative learning involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks. Interest in cooperative learning has…

  5. Efficacy and Maintenance of an Education Program for a Consumer Cooperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altus, Deborah E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the effects of contingency management on participation in an education program by new members of a student housing cooperative. With credit and fine contingencies in place, the percentage of participants completing study guides was five times higher than without the contingencies. Members continued to implement the program for…

  6. Successful Group Work: Using Cooperative Learning and Team-Based Learning in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant-Vallone, E. J.

    2011-01-01

    This research study examined student perceptions of group experiences in the classroom. The author used cooperative learning and team-based learning to focus on three characteristics that are critical for the success of groups: structure of activities, relationships of group members, and accountability of group members. Results indicated that…

  7. Instructional Uses of Podcasting in Online Learning Environments: A Cooperative Inquiry Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abbie; Brown, Carol; Fine, Bethann; Luterbach, Kenneth; Sugar, William; Vinciguerra, David C.

    2009-01-01

    A report on the results of a year-long cooperative inquiry study in which 11 faculty members at a southeastern university examined their various uses of podcasting for instruction. Through participation in the study, members developed insights into what technologies are most commonly applied to the task of podcast production and dissemination as…

  8. Procedural justice in punishment systems: inconsistent punishment procedures have detrimental effects on cooperation.

    PubMed

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Gallucci, Marcello; Toeset, Gaby

    2008-06-01

    The current research examines a moderator who predicts in what situations punishment can have detrimental effects on cooperation. We hypothesized that when a punishment system is perceived as procedurally unfair, people's cooperation level decreases. Results of two experiments indicated that participants cooperated less in a group-based trust game when punishment was inconsistent between persons (i.e. not all group members would be punished for defection) than when punishment was consistent between persons (i.e. any group member who defected would be punished) or when there was no punishment. These effects were mediated by perceived belongingness. The authors conclude that an unfair punishment system leads people to feel marginalized as a group member, and this prompts them to display less cooperation.

  9. The evolution of cooperative breeding through group augmentation.

    PubMed Central

    Kokko, H; Johnstone, R A; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2001-01-01

    Some individuals (helpers) in cooperatively breeding species provide alloparental care and often suppress their own reproduction. Kin selection is clearly an important explanation for such behaviour, but a possible alternative is group augmentation where individuals survive or reproduce better in large groups and where it therefore pays to recruit new members to the group. The evolutionary stability of group augmentation is currently disputed. We model evolutionarily stable helping strategies by following the dynamics of social groups with varying degrees of subordinate help. We also distinguish between passive augmentation, where a group member benefits from the mere presence of others, and active augmentation, where their presence as such is neutral or harmful, but where helping to recruit new group members may still be beneficial if they in turn actively provide help for the current reproductives ('delayed reciprocity'). The results show that group augmentation (either passive or active) can be evolutionarily stable and explain costly helping by non-reproductive subordinates, either alone or leading to elevated help levels when acting in concert with kin selection. Group augmentation can thus potentially explain the weak relationships between relatedness and helping behaviour that are observed in some cooperatively breeding species. In some cases, the superior mutualistic performance of cooperatively behaving groups can generate an incentive to stay and help which is strong enough to make ecological constraints unnecessary for explaining the stability of cooperatively breeding groups. PMID:11209890

  10. Cooperation in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guastaferro, A.

    1992-01-01

    The topics from the Technical Interchange Meeting for the NASA Space Exploration Initiative are presented in viewgraph form. The objective is to share a perspective of a cost-effective cooperation management structure of NASA and industry as we move towards the 21st century and the national commitment to continue our exploration in space with humans. Some of the topics covered include a personal background, today's culture, new approaches, congressional oversight, programmatic impact, and recommendations.

  11. Cooperative disease management programs.

    PubMed

    Jedrey, C M; Chaurette, K A; Winn, L B

    2001-01-01

    Cooperative disease management programs sponsored by pharmaceutical companies and managed care organizations or health care providers can offer significant benefits to patients. They can be structured so as to comply with applicable OIG, FDA, and IRS regulations. Such programs must be structured for the benefit of patients, and not to require the use of or otherwise directly promote the selection of the sponsoring pharmaceutical company's products.

  12. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  13. Hydrodynamics of Bacterial Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroff, A.; Libchaber, A.

    2012-12-01

    Over the course of the last several decades, the study of microbial communities has identified countless examples of cooperation between microorganisms. Generally—as in the case of quorum sensing—cooperation is coordinated by a chemical signal that diffuses through the community. Less well understood is a second class of cooperation that is mediated through physical interactions between individuals. To better understand how the bacteria use hydrodynamics to manipulate their environment and coordinate their actions, we study the sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Thiovulum majus. These bacteria live in the diffusive boundary layer just above the muddy bottoms of ponds. As buried organic material decays, sulfide diffuses out of the mud. Oxygen from the pond diffuses into the boundary layer from above. These bacteria form communities—called veils— which are able to transport nutrients through the boundary layer faster than diffusion, thereby increasing their metabolic rate. In these communities, bacteria attach to surfaces and swim in place. As millions of bacteria beat their flagella, the community induces a macroscopic fluid flow, which mix the boundary layer. Here we present experimental observations and mathematical models that elucidate the hydrodynamics linking the behavior of an individual bacterium to the collective dynamics of the community. We begin by characterizing the flow of water around an individual bacterium swimming in place. We then discuss the flow of water and nutrients around a small number of individuals. Finally, we present observations and models detailing the macroscopic dynamics of a Thiovulum veil.

  14. Endogenous Cooperation Network Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, S.

    This paper employs insights from Complex Systems literature to develop a computational model of endogenous strategic network formation. Artificial Adaptive Agents (AAAs), implemented as finite state automata, play a modified two-player Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game with an option to further develop the interaction space as part of their strategy. Several insights result from this relatively minor modification: first, I find that network formation is a necessary condition for cooperation to be sustainable but that both the frequency of interaction and the degree to which edge formation impacts agent mixing are both necessary conditions for cooperative networks. Second, within the FSA-modified IPD frame-work, a rich ecology of agents and network topologies is observed, with consequent payoff symmetry and network 'purity' seen to be further contributors to robust cooperative networks. Third, the dynamics of the strategic system under network formation show that initially simple dynamics with small interaction length between agents gives way to complex, a-periodic dynamics when interaction lengths are increased by a single step.

  15. Endogenous Cooperation Network Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, S.

    This paper employs insights from Complex Systems literature to develop a computational model of endogenous strategic network formation. Artificial Adaptive Agents (AAAs), implemented as finite state automata, play a modified two-player Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game with an option to further develop the interaction space as part of their strategy. Several insights result from this relatively minor modification: first, I find that network formation is a necessary condition for cooperation to be sustainable but that both the frequency of interaction and the degree to which edge formation impacts agent mixing are both necessary conditions for cooperative networks. Second, within the FSA-modified IPD frame-work, a rich ecology of agents and network topologies is observed, with consequent payoff symmetry and network `purity' seen to be further contributors to robust cooperative networks. Third, the dynamics of the strategic system under network formation show that initially simple dynamics with small interaction length between agents gives way to complex, a-periodic dynamics when interaction lengths are increased by a single step.

  16. The CSCE forum for security cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Borawski, J.; George, B.

    1993-10-01

    What are the next steps for arms control in Europe, given the tectonic changes that have shaken the continent over the past four years? Negotiators in Europe, who labored for nearly two decades on the details of conventional force reductions and confidence-building measures, are grappling with that question. On September 22, 1992, a fresh, if perhaps belated, attempt to adapt to the new conditions of the post-Cold War era began in Vienna with the creation of the 54-member Forum for Security Cooperation (FSC). The FSC is the security component of the multifaceted Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCEO), which deals with a range of issues, including human rights, in addition to the various items on the security agenda. The forum is facing a task unprecedented in the scope of the CSCE: it is simultaneously trying to address arms control negotiations, security enhancement and cooperation, and conflict prevention. The primary objective of the forum will be to adapt the traditional tools of arms control, including those applied to military activity, to the contemporary {open_quotes}security parlance{close_quotes} of preventive diplomacy, peacemaking, peacekeeping, peace enforcement and peace building.

  17. Life expectancy of kibbutz members.

    PubMed

    Leviatan, U; Cohen, J; Jaffe-Katz, A

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented demonstrating that the life expectancy (LE) of kibbutz members--both men and women--is higher than that of the overall Jewish population in Israel. Closer inspection of the death rates at various ages reveals that, from age thirty, those of kibbutz women are lower than those of the Jewish population. Although those of kibbutz men are actually higher until age forty-nine, nevertheless the LE of kibbutz members (based on death rates) surpasses that of Jews in Israel. These data add to and support other research findings illustrating the more positive mental health and well-being found among kibbutz members than among other comparative populations. Similarly, the factors contributing to kibbutz members' life expectancy evolve from this quality of life, especially as this quality of life affects old age.

  18. The Enforcement of Moral Boundaries Promotes Cooperation and Prosocial Behavior in Groups

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Brent; Willer, Robb; Harrell, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    The threat of free-riding makes the marshalling of cooperation from group members a fundamental challenge of social life. Where classical social science theory saw the enforcement of moral boundaries as a critical way by which group members regulate one another’s self-interest and build cooperation, moral judgments have most often been studied as processes internal to individuals. Here we investigate how the interpersonal expression of positive and negative moral judgments encourages cooperation in groups and prosocial behavior between group members. In a laboratory experiment, groups whose members could make moral judgments achieved greater cooperation than groups with no capacity to sanction, levels comparable to those of groups featuring costly material sanctions. In addition, members of moral judgment groups subsequently showed more interpersonal trust, trustworthiness, and generosity than all other groups. These findings extend prior work on peer enforcement, highlighting how the enforcement of moral boundaries offers an efficient solution to cooperation problems and promotes prosocial behavior between group members. PMID:28211503

  19. Cross-sector cooperation in health-enhancing physical activity policymaking: more potential than achievements?

    PubMed

    Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija; Aro, Arja R; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Rus, Diana; Cori, Liliana; Syed, Ahmed M

    2016-04-29

    The cooperation of actors across policy fields and the need for cross-sector cooperation as well as recommendations on how to implement cross-sector cooperation have been addressed in many national and international policies that seek to solve complex issues within societies. For such a purpose, the relevant governance structure between policy sectors is cross-sector cooperation. Therefore, cross-sector cooperation and its structures need to be better understood for improved implementation. This article reports on the governance structures and processes of cross-sector cooperation in health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) policies in six European Union (EU) member states. Qualitative content analysis of HEPA policies and semi-structured interviews with key policymakers in six European countries. Cross-sector cooperation varied between EU member states within HEPA policies. The main issues of the cross-sector policy process can be divided into stakeholder involvement, governance structures and coordination structures and processes. Stakeholder involvement included citizen hearings and gatherings of stakeholders from various non-governmental organisations and citizen groups. Governance structures with policy and political discussions included committees, working groups and consultations for HEPA policymaking. Coordination structures and processes included administrative processes with various stakeholders, such as ministerial departments, research institutes and private actors for HEPA policymaking. Successful cross-sector cooperation required joint planning and evaluation, financial frameworks, mandates based on laws or agreed methods of work, communication lines, and valued processes of cross-sector cooperation. Cross-sector cooperation required participation with the co-production of goals and sharing of resources between stakeholders, which could, for example, provide mechanisms for collaborative decision-making through citizen hearing. Clearly stated

  20. Czech Republic to Become Member of ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Today, an agreement was signed in Prague between ESO and the Czech Republic, aiming to make the latter become a full member of ESO as of 1 January 2007. "The future membership of the Czech Republic in ESO opens for the Czech astronomers completely new opportunities and possibilities. It will foster this discipline on the highest quality level and open new opportunities for Czech industry to actively cooperate in research and development of high-tech instruments for astronomical research," said Miroslava Kopicová, Minister of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic. ESO PR Photo 52/06 ESO PR Photo 52/06 Signing Ceremony "We warmly welcome the Czech Republic as the thirteenth member of ESO," said Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General. "The timing couldn't be better chosen: with the Very Large Telescope, Europe is now at the forefront of ground-based astronomy, and with the construction of ALMA and the final studies for the European Extremely Large Telescope, we will ensure that this will remain so for several decades. We look forward to working together with our Czech colleagues towards these successes." The signing event took place at the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports in Prague. Following ratification by the Czech Parliament, the Czech Republic with thus join the twelve present member states of ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere: Belgium, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The Czech Republic is the first country from Central and Eastern Europe to join ESO. Astronomy in the Czech Republic has a very long tradition that dates from as far back as 3500 BC. Four centuries ago, Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler established themselves in Prague at the invitation of the emperor Rudolph II, laying the ground for the first golden age in astronomy. Later, eminent scientists such as Christian Doppler, Ernst Mach and

  1. Increased costs of cooperation help cooperators in the long run.

    PubMed

    Smaldino, Paul E; Schank, Jeffrey C; McElreath, Richard

    2013-04-01

    It has long been proposed that cooperation should increase in harsh environments, but this claim still lacks theoretical underpinnings. We modeled a scenario in which benefiting from altruistic behavior was essential to survival and reproduction. We used a spatial agent-based model to represent mutual cooperation enforced by environmental adversity. We studied two factors, the cost of unreciprocated cooperation and the environmental cost of living, which highlight a conflict between the short- and long-term rewards of cooperation. In the long run, cooperation is favored because only groups with a sufficient number of cooperators will survive. In the short run, however, harsh environmental costs increase the advantage of defectors in cooperator-defector interactions because the loss of resources leads to death. Our analysis sheds new light on the evolution of cooperation via interdependence and illustrates how selfish groups can incur short-term benefits at the cost of their eventual demise. We demonstrate how harsh environments select for cooperative phenotypes and suggest an explanation for the adoption of cooperative breeding strategies in human evolution. We also highlight the importance of variable population size and the role of socio-spatial organization in harsh environments.

  2. From Additivity to Cooperativity in Chemistry: Can Cooperativity Be Measured?

    PubMed

    Tebben, Ludger; Mück-Lichtenfeld, Christian; Fernández, Gustavo; Grimme, Stefan; Studer, Armido

    2017-05-02

    Cooperative effects can be observed in various research areas in chemistry; cooperative catalysis is well-established, the assembly of compounds on surfaces can be steered by cooperative effects, and supramolecular polymerization can proceed in a cooperative manner. In biological systems, cooperativity is observed in protein-protein, protein-lipid and protein-molecule interactions. Synergistic effects are relevant in frustrated Lewis pairs, organic multispin systems, multimetallic clusters and also in nanoparticles. However, a general approach to determine cooperativity in the different chemical systems is currently not known. In the present concept paper it is suggested that, at least for simpler systems that can be described at the molecular level, cooperativity can be defined based on energy considerations. For systems in which no chemical transformation occurs, determination of interaction energies of the whole system with respect to the interaction energies between all individual component pairs (subsystems) will allow determination of cooperativity. For systems comprising of chemical transformations, cooperativity can be evaluated by determining the activation energy of the synergistic system and by comparing this with activation energies of the corresponding subsystems that lack an activating moiety. For more complex systems, cooperativity is generally determined at a qualitative level. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Cooperative Interference Alignment for the Multiple Access Channel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    1 Cooperative Interference Alignment for the Multiple Access Channel Theodoros Tsiligkaridis, Member, IEEE Abstract—Interference alignment (IA) has...resources for large number of users. To combat these problems, we propose a novel technique for the K-user multiple access (MAC) channel with N receivers...called Cooperative Interference Alignment (C-IA) and derive bounds on the DoF for each user. Assuming K 2 ≤ N ≤ K, we show that C-IA is sum-DoF optimal

  4. Evolution of cooperation in rotating indivisible goods game.

    PubMed

    Koike, Shimpei; Nakamaru, Mayuko; Tsujimoto, Masahiro

    2010-05-07

    Collective behavior is theoretically and experimentally studied through a public goods game in which players contribute resources or efforts to produce goods (or pool), which are then divided equally among all players regardless of the amount of their contribution. However, if goods are indivisible, only one player can receive the goods. In this case, the problem is how to distribute indivisible goods, and here therefore we propose a new game, namely the "rotating indivisible goods game." In this game, the goods are not divided but distributed by regular rotation. An example is rotating savings and credit associations (ROSCAs), which exist all over the world and serve as efficient and informal institutions for collecting savings for small investments. In a ROSCA, members regularly contribute money to produce goods and to distribute them to each member on a regular rotation. It has been pointed out that ROSCA members are selected based on their reliability or reputation, and that defectors who stop contributing are excluded. We elucidate mechanisms that sustain cooperation in rotating indivisible goods games by means of evolutionary simulations. First, we investigate the effect of the peer selection rule by which the group chooses members based on the players reputation, also by which players choose groups based on their reputation. Regardless of the peer selection rule, cooperation is not sustainable in a rotating indivisible goods game. Second, we introduce the forfeiture rule that forbids a member who has not contributed earlier from receiving goods. These analyses show that employing these two rules can sustain cooperation in the rotating indivisible goods game, although employing either of the two cannot. Finally, we prove that evolutionary simulation can be a tool for investigating institutional designs that promote cooperation.

  5. 'Part of the solution': Developing sustainable energy through co-operatives and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguid, Fiona C. B.

    After five years of development, WindShare Co-operative in Toronto, Ontario became the first urban wind turbine in North America and the first co-operatively owned and operated wind turbine in Canada. The development of WindShare Co-operative has spurred the growth of a green energy co-operative sector in Ontario. This study, which included 27 interviews and a focus group with members of WindShare Co-operative, focuses on the roles of community-based green energy co-operatives in advancing sustainable energy development and energy literacy. Sustainable energy development is firmly rooted in the triple bottom line of environmental, social and economic success, and green energy co-operatives can be a way to help achieve those successes. Green energy co-operatives are structures for providing renewable energy generation or energy conservation practices, both of which have important environmental impacts regarding climate change and pollution levels. Co-operative structures are supported by processes that include local ownership, democracy, participation, community organizing, learning and social change. These processes have a significant social impact by creating a venue for people to be directly involved in the energy industry, by involving learning through participation in a community-based organization, and by advancing energy literacy within the membership and the general public. In regards to the economic impacts, green energy co-operatives foster a local economy and local investment opportunities, which have repercussions regarding building expertise within Ontario's green energy and co-operative development future, and more generally, captures members' interest because they have a direct stake in the co-operative. This thesis shows that green energy co-operatives, like WindShare, play an important role in advancing sustainable energy development, energy literacy and the triple bottom line. Members of WindShare expressed resounding feelings of pride, efficacy

  6. Inter-group cooperation in humans and other animals.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Elva J H; Barker, Jessica L

    2017-03-01

    Social interactions are often characterized by cooperation within groups and conflict or competition between groups. In certain circumstances, however, cooperation can arise between social groups. Here, we examine the circumstances under which inter-group cooperation is expected to emerge and present examples with particular focus on groups in two well-studied but dissimilar taxa: humans and ants. Drivers for the evolution of inter-group cooperation include overarching threats from predators, competitors or adverse conditions, and group-level resource asymmetries. Resources can differ between groups in both quantity and type. Where the difference is in type, inequalities can lead to specialization and division of labour between groups, a phenomenon characteristic of human societies, but rarely seen in other animals. The ability to identify members of one's own group is essential for social coherence; we consider the proximate roles of identity effects in shaping inter-group cooperation and allowing membership of multiple groups. Finally, we identify numerous valuable avenues for future research that will improve our understanding of the processes shaping inter-group cooperation.

  7. Cooperation in microbial communities and their biotechnological applications

    PubMed Central

    Cavaliere, Matteo; Feng, Song; Soyer, Orkun S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Microbial communities are increasingly utilized in biotechnology. Efficiency and productivity in many of these applications depends on the presence of cooperative interactions between members of the community. Two key processes underlying these interactions are the production of public goods and metabolic cross‐feeding, which can be understood in the general framework of ecological and evolutionary (eco‐evo) dynamics. In this review, we illustrate the relevance of cooperative interactions in microbial biotechnological processes, discuss their mechanistic origins and analyse their evolutionary resilience. Cooperative behaviours can be damaged by the emergence of ‘cheating’ cells that benefit from the cooperative interactions but do not contribute to them. Despite this, cooperative interactions can be stabilized by spatial segregation, by the presence of feedbacks between the evolutionary dynamics and the ecology of the community, by the role of regulatory systems coupled to the environmental conditions and by the action of horizontal gene transfer. Cooperative interactions enrich microbial communities with a higher degree of robustness against environmental stress and can facilitate the evolution of more complex traits. Therefore, the evolutionary resilience of microbial communities and their ability to constraint detrimental mutants should be considered to design robust biotechnological applications. PMID:28447371

  8. The evolution of cooperation within the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Rakoff-Nahoum, Seth; Foster, Kevin R; Comstock, Laurie E

    2016-05-12

    Cooperative phenotypes are considered central to the functioning of microbial communities in many contexts, including communication via quorum sensing, biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, and pathogenesis. The human intestine houses a dense and diverse microbial community critical to health, yet we know little about cooperation within this important ecosystem. Here we test experimentally for evolved cooperation within the Bacteroidales, the dominant Gram-negative bacteria of the human intestine. We show that during growth on certain dietary polysaccharides, the model member Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron exhibits only limited cooperation. Although this organism digests these polysaccharides extracellularly, mutants lacking this ability are outcompeted. In contrast, we discovered a dedicated cross-feeding enzyme system in the prominent gut symbiont Bacteroides ovatus, which digests polysaccharide at a cost to itself but at a benefit to another species. Using in vitro systems and gnotobiotic mouse colonization models, we find that extracellular digestion of inulin increases the fitness of B. ovatus owing to reciprocal benefits when it feeds other gut species such as Bacteroides vulgatus. This is a rare example of naturally-evolved cooperation between microbial species. Our study reveals both the complexity and importance of cooperative phenotypes within the mammalian intestinal microbiota.

  9. Does cooperation mean kinship between spatially discrete ant nests?

    PubMed

    Procter, Duncan S; Cottrell, Joan E; Watts, Kevin; A'Hara, Stuart W; Hofreiter, Michael; Robinson, Elva J H

    2016-12-01

    Eusociality is one of the most complex forms of social organization, characterized by cooperative and reproductive units termed colonies. Altruistic behavior of workers within colonies is explained by inclusive fitness, with indirect fitness benefits accrued by helping kin. Members of a social insect colony are expected to be more closely related to one another than they are to other conspecifics. In many social insects, the colony can extend to multiple socially connected but spatially separate nests (polydomy). Social connections, such as trails between nests, promote cooperation and resource exchange, and we predict that workers from socially connected nests will have higher internest relatedness than those from socially unconnected, and noncooperating, nests. We measure social connections, resource exchange, and internest genetic relatedness in the polydomous wood ant Formica lugubris to test whether (1) socially connected but spatially separate nests cooperate, and (2) high internest relatedness is the underlying driver of this cooperation. Our results show that socially connected nests exhibit movement of workers and resources, which suggests they do cooperate, whereas unconnected nests do not. However, we find no difference in internest genetic relatedness between socially connected and unconnected nest pairs, both show high kinship. Our results suggest that neighboring pairs of connected nests show a social and cooperative distinction, but no genetic distinction. We hypothesize that the loss of a social connection may initiate ecological divergence within colonies. Genetic divergence between neighboring nests may build up only later, as a consequence rather than a cause of colony separation.

  10. The evolution of cooperation within the gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Rakoff-Nahoum, Seth; Foster, Kevin R.; Comstock, Laurie E.

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative phenotypes are considered central to the functioning of microbial communities in many contexts, including communication via quorum sensing, biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, and pathogenesis1-5. The human intestine houses a dense and diverse microbial community critical to health1,2,4-9, yet we know little about cooperation within this important ecosystem. Here we experimentally test for evolved cooperation within the Bacteroidales, the dominant Gram-negative bacteria of the human intestine. We show that during growth on certain dietary polysaccharides, the model member Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron exhibits only limited cooperation. Although this organism digests these polysaccharides extracellularly, mutants lacking this ability are outcompeted. In contrast, we discovered a dedicated cross-feeding enzyme system in the prominent gut symbiont Bacteroides ovatus, which digests polysaccharide at a cost to itself but at a benefit to another species. Using in vitro systems and gnotobiotic mouse colonization models, we find that extracellular digestion of inulin increases the fitness of B.ovatus due to reciprocal benefits when it feeds other gut species such as Bacteroides vulgatus. This is a rare example of naturally-evolved cooperation between microbial species. Our study reveals both the complexity and importance of cooperative phenotypes within the mammalian intestinal microbiota. PMID:27111508

  11. How is human cooperation different?

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Alicia P.; Semmann, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Although cooperation is a widespread phenomenon in nature, human cooperation exceeds that of all other species with regard to the scale and range of cooperative activities. Here we review and discuss differences between humans and non-humans in the strategies employed to maintain cooperation and control free-riders. We distinguish forms of cooperative behaviour based on their influence on the immediate payoffs of actor and recipient. If the actor has immediate costs and only the recipient obtains immediate benefits, we term this investment. If the behaviour has immediate positive effects for both actor and recipient, we call this a self-serving mutually beneficial behaviour or mutual cooperation. We argue that humans, in contrast to all other species, employ a wider range of enforcement mechanisms, which allow higher levels of cooperation to evolve and stabilize among unrelated individuals and in large groups. We also discuss proximate mechanisms underlying cooperative behaviour and focus on our experimental work with humans and our closest primate relatives. Differences in the proximate mechanisms also seem to contribute to explaining humans' greater ability to cooperate and enforce cooperation. PMID:20679110

  12. How is human cooperation different?

    PubMed

    Melis, Alicia P; Semmann, Dirk

    2010-09-12

    Although cooperation is a widespread phenomenon in nature, human cooperation exceeds that of all other species with regard to the scale and range of cooperative activities. Here we review and discuss differences between humans and non-humans in the strategies employed to maintain cooperation and control free-riders. We distinguish forms of cooperative behaviour based on their influence on the immediate payoffs of actor and recipient. If the actor has immediate costs and only the recipient obtains immediate benefits, we term this investment. If the behaviour has immediate positive effects for both actor and recipient, we call this a self-serving mutually beneficial behaviour or mutual cooperation. We argue that humans, in contrast to all other species, employ a wider range of enforcement mechanisms, which allow higher levels of cooperation to evolve and stabilize among unrelated individuals and in large groups. We also discuss proximate mechanisms underlying cooperative behaviour and focus on our experimental work with humans and our closest primate relatives. Differences in the proximate mechanisms also seem to contribute to explaining humans' greater ability to cooperate and enforce cooperation.

  13. Extended cooperative control synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Schmidt, David K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on research for extending the Cooperative Control Synthesis methodology to include a more accurate modeling of the pilot's controller dynamics. Cooperative Control Synthesis (CCS) is a methodology that addresses the problem of how to design control laws for piloted, high-order, multivariate systems and/or non-conventional dynamic configurations in the absence of flying qualities specifications. This is accomplished by emphasizing the parallel structure inherent in any pilot-controlled, augmented vehicle. The original CCS methodology is extended to include the Modified Optimal Control Model (MOCM), which is based upon the optimal control model of the human operator developed by Kleinman, Baron, and Levison in 1970. This model provides a modeling of the pilot's compensation dynamics that is more accurate than the simplified pilot dynamic representation currently in the CCS methodology. Inclusion of the MOCM into the CCS also enables the modeling of pilot-observation perception thresholds and pilot-observation attention allocation affects. This Extended Cooperative Control Synthesis (ECCS) allows for the direct calculation of pilot and system open- and closed-loop transfer functions in pole/zero form and is readily implemented in current software capable of analysis and design for dynamic systems. Example results based upon synthesizing an augmentation control law for an acceleration command system in a compensatory tracking task using the ECCS are compared with a similar synthesis performed by using the original CCS methodology. The ECCS is shown to provide augmentation control laws that yield more favorable, predicted closed-loop flying qualities and tracking performance than those synthesized using the original CCS methodology.

  14. Cooperativity in beryllium bonds.

    PubMed

    Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José; Yáñez, Manuel; Mó, Otilia

    2014-03-07

    A theoretical study of the beryllium bonded clusters of the (iminomethyl)beryllium hydride and (iminomethyl)beryllium fluoride [HC(BeX)=NH, X = H, F] molecules has been carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p) level of theory. Linear and cyclic clusters have been characterized up to the decamer. The geometric, energetic, electronic and NMR properties of the clusters clearly indicate positive cooperativity. The evolution of the molecular properties, as the size of the cluster increases, is similar to those reported in polymers held together by hydrogen bonds.

  15. Cooperation and the common good

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Rufus A.; Rodrigues, António M. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we draw the attention of biologists to a result from the economic literature, which suggests that when individuals are engaged in a communal activity of benefit to all, selection may favour cooperative sharing of resources even among non-relatives. Provided that group members all invest some resources in the public good, they should refrain from conflict over the division of these resources. The reason is that, given diminishing returns on investment in public and private goods, claiming (or ceding) a greater share of total resources only leads to the actor (or its competitors) investing more in the public good, such that the marginal costs and benefits of investment remain in balance. This cancels out any individual benefits of resource competition. We illustrate how this idea may be applied in the context of biparental care, using a sequential game in which parents first compete with one another over resources, and then choose how to allocate the resources they each obtain to care of their joint young (public good) versus their own survival and future reproductive success (private good). We show that when the two parents both invest in care to some extent, they should refrain from any conflict over the division of resources. The same effect can also support asymmetric outcomes in which one parent competes for resources and invests in care, whereas the other does not invest but refrains from competition. The fact that the caring parent gains higher fitness pay-offs at these equilibria suggests that abandoning a partner is not always to the latter's detriment, when the potential for resource competition is taken into account, but may instead be of benefit to the ‘abandoned’ mate. PMID:26729926

  16. Cooperation and the common good.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Rufus A; Rodrigues, António M M

    2016-02-05

    In this paper, we draw the attention of biologists to a result from the economic literature, which suggests that when individuals are engaged in a communal activity of benefit to all, selection may favour cooperative sharing of resources even among non-relatives. Provided that group members all invest some resources in the public good, they should refrain from conflict over the division of these resources. The reason is that, given diminishing returns on investment in public and private goods, claiming (or ceding) a greater share of total resources only leads to the actor (or its competitors) investing more in the public good, such that the marginal costs and benefits of investment remain in balance. This cancels out any individual benefits of resource competition. We illustrate how this idea may be applied in the context of biparental care, using a sequential game in which parents first compete with one another over resources, and then choose how to allocate the resources they each obtain to care of their joint young (public good) versus their own survival and future reproductive success (private good). We show that when the two parents both invest in care to some extent, they should refrain from any conflict over the division of resources. The same effect can also support asymmetric outcomes in which one parent competes for resources and invests in care, whereas the other does not invest but refrains from competition. The fact that the caring parent gains higher fitness pay-offs at these equilibria suggests that abandoning a partner is not always to the latter's detriment, when the potential for resource competition is taken into account, but may instead be of benefit to the 'abandoned' mate. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Upcrowding energy co-operatives - Evaluating the potential of crowdfunding for business model innovation of energy co-operatives.

    PubMed

    Dilger, Mathias Georg; Jovanović, Tanja; Voigt, Kai-Ingo

    2017-08-01

    Practice and theory have proven the relevance of energy co-operatives for civic participation in the energy turnaround. However, due to a still low awareness and changing regulation, there seems an unexploited potential of utilizing the legal form 'co-operative' in this context. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the crowdfunding implementation in the business model of energy co-operatives in order to cope with the mentioned challenges. Based on a theoretical framework, we derive a Business Model Innovation (BMI) through crowdfunding including synergies and differences. A qualitative study design, particularly a multiple-case study of energy co-operatives, was chosen to prove the BMI and to reveal barriers. The results show that although most co-operatives are not familiar with crowdfunding, there is strong potential in opening up predominantly local structures to a broader group of members. Building on this, equity-based crowdfunding is revealed to be suitable for energy co-operatives as BMI and to accompany other challenges in the same way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Resource heterogeneity can facilitate cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Kun, Ádám; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Although social structure is known to promote cooperation, by locally exposing selfish agents to their own deeds, studies to date assumed that all agents have access to the same level of resources. This is clearly unrealistic. Here we find that cooperation can be maintained when some agents have access to more resources than others. Cooperation can then emerge even in populations in which the temptation to defect is so strong that players would act fully selfishly if their resources were distributed uniformly. Resource heterogeneity can thus be crucial for the emergence and maintenance of cooperation. We also show that resource heterogeneity can hinder cooperation once the temptation to defect is significantly lowered. In all cases, the level of cooperation can be maximized by managing resource heterogeneity. PMID:24088665

  19. The paradox of cooperation benefits.

    PubMed

    Németh, A; Takács, K

    2010-05-21

    It seems obvious that as the benefits of cooperation increase, the share of cooperators in the population should also increase. It is well known that positive assortment between cooperative types, for instance in spatially structured populations, provide better conditions for the evolution of cooperation than complete mixing. This study demonstrates that, assuming positive assortment, under most conditions higher cooperation benefits also increase the share of cooperators. On the other hand, under a specified range of payoff values, when at least two payoff parameters are modified, the reverse is true. The conditions for this paradox are determined for two-person social dilemmas: the Prisoner's Dilemma, the Hawks and Doves game, and the Stag Hunt game, assuming global selection and positive assortment.

  20. Resource heterogeneity can facilitate cooperation.

    PubMed

    Kun, Ádám; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Although social structure is known to promote cooperation, by locally exposing selfish agents to their own deeds, studies to date assumed that all agents have access to the same level of resources. This is clearly unrealistic. Here we find that cooperation can be maintained when some agents have access to more resources than others. Cooperation can then emerge even in populations in which the temptation to defect is so strong that players would act fully selfishly if their resources were distributed uniformly. Resource heterogeneity can thus be crucial for the emergence and maintenance of cooperation. We also show that resource heterogeneity can hinder cooperation once the temptation to defect is significantly lowered. In all cases, the level of cooperation can be maximized by managing resource heterogeneity.

  1. Participatory management: Maintaining staff performance in a university housing cooperative

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Steven P.; Welsh, Thomas M.; Miller, L. Keith; Altus, Deborah E.

    1991-01-01

    To apply behavior analysis to normal adults in non institutional settings, we may have to encourage their participation in the design and implementation of behavioral technology. This study evaluates a technology by which the members of a student housing cooperative manage their own staff with a minimum of supervision by one of the program designers. This staff management system consisted of prompts, self-reports, spot checks, and contingent rent reductions. Six resident staff members performed substantially more of their assigned tasks when this system was used. In addition, the management system was acceptable to the members, was affordable, and maintained high levels of staff performance during a 5-year follow-up. Participation by the members in the design and implementation of this system appears to have been useful in helping the behavior analysts to develop an unusually durable management system. PMID:16795739

  2. Optical Circuitry Cooperative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, H. M.; Gibson, U.; Peyghambarian, N.; Sarid, D.; Stegeman, G.

    1985-01-01

    An Optical Circuitry Cooperative (OCC) has been formed as an NSF cooperative research center in which six or more companies contribute financial support; NSF provides support which declines to zero in five years. Companies benefit from a center by early access to research results, leverage for their research dollars, participation in research selection, and improved relations with faculty and students. The university receives support for a major research program that increases its research capability, provides reasonably stable funding, and opens more opportunities for graduate students. The potential of optical circuitry has been discussed for many years, but the excitement is growing rapidly on the strength of the success of optical fibers for optical transmission, the generation of subpicosecond opitcal pulses, and the development of promising optical logic elements, such as optical bistable devices. And yet, much research remains to be done to discover the best nonlinear optical materials and fabrication techniques. OCC will perform research to provide a data base to allow the development of optical circuitry devices. The areas encompassed by OCC include all-optical logic, picosecond decision-making, guided-wave preprocessors, opti-cal interconnects within computers (both fiber and whole-array imaging), optical storage, and optical computer architecture and devices.

  3. Regional technical cooperation.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P H

    1997-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic threatens economic development in Asia because Asia offers fertile conditions for unchecked transmission and because the epidemic has the most impact on young adults who make up a large sector of the work force. Prevention is still possible, however, and should be viewed as an investment in the future. Effective prevention strategies will have regional as well as domestic components and will recognize the hierarchy of interventions and spread the burden among the public sector, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and the private sector in each country. The public sector should 1) ensure that markets function well and do not discriminate against infected individuals; 2) provide a supportive macroeconomic framework of fiscal, trade, and credit policies; and 3) provide public and quasipublic goods, such as information and training. The contribution of NGOs should are vital for reducing the suffering involved with HIV/AIDS. Private sector contributions can include care facilities, research and development, and funding. The private sector must realize that the threat to the stock of human capital posed by HIV/AIDS will reduce profits. The regional dimensions of the HIV/AIDS epidemic relate 1) to factors that contribute to transmission and 2) to approaches that can be taken to prevent transmission and curb its impact. The Greater Mekong Subregion Work Program on HIV/AIDS is a good example of a cooperative regional effort to prevent and control HIV/AIDS. The epidemic requires cooperation among sectors and among countries.

  4. Financial problems and cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Izquierdo, J.

    1994-12-31

    For a Bank, an usual way to attract new clients is by offering better interest rates depending on the amount of money that the client deposits in an account: {open_quotes}The more money you have the higher interest rate you get{close_quotes}. For a company is also a common practice to offer their clients discounts connected with the number of units of the product they order: {open_quotes}The more you order, the lower price per unit you pay{close_quotes}. From these situations arises the possibility to take profit if the clients cooperate and join their money or their orders. Hence, we define a new class of cooperative games called Financial Games. We study basic properties and necessary conditions for a game to belong to this class of games and we define the concept of duality for Financial games. The core is always non-empty and, moreover, Financial games are always totally balanced. We look at some special amputations lying in the Core and we study the reduced game on the j{sup th} player at {rvec x} where x{sub j} = b{sub j} = v(N) {minus} v(N {minus} j).

  5. Mir Cooperative Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skor, Mike; Hoffman, Dave J.

    1997-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA), produced jointly by the United States and Russia, was deployed on the Mir Russian space station on May 25, 1996. The MCSA is a photovoltaic electrical power system that can generate up to 6 kW. The power from the MCSA is needed to extend Mir's lifetime and to support experiments conducted there by visiting U.S. astronauts. The MCSA was brought to Mir via the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-74 mission, launched November 12, 1995. This cooperative venture combined the best technology of both countries: the United States provided high-efficiency, lightweight photovoltaic panel modules, whereas Russia provided the array structure and deployment mechanism. Technology developed in the Space Station Freedom Program, and now being used in the International Space Station, was used to develop MCSA's photovoltaic panel. Performance data obtained from MCSA operation on Mir will help engineers better understand the performance of the photovoltaic panel modules in orbit. This information will be used to more accurately predict the performance of the International Space Station solar arrays. Managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center for NASA's International Space Station Program Office in Houston, Texas, the MCSA Project was completed on time and under budget despite a very aggressive schedule.

  6. Cooperatives as a social enterprise in Italy: a place for social integration and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Savio, M; Righetti, A

    1993-10-01

    This article analyses the history and development of an integrated cooperative established in 1981 in northern Italy. Integrated cooperatives, otherwise known as social enterprises, are among the most interesting activities developed in the area of social assistance and rehabilitation in recent years in Italy. In particular, they acquired relevance in the care of mentally disordered people by providing them with job opportunities, which is an important rehabilitative and integrative factor. The aim of social enterprises is two-fold. They have the economic goal of offering remunerative work just as any other commercial enterprise, as well as the social mandate of promoting the physical, social, and mental health of their members. A positive coexistence between market competition and rehabilitation is therefore constantly pursued. This research aimed at analysing the working and social experience of people employed by the cooperative during its 10-year life. The study was limited to those who had a social or health problem when entering the cooperative. The investigation was promoted by cooperative members, who felt the need to document their experience and to undertake initiatives towards evaluating the rehabilitative value of the social enterprise. The results show that cooperative members come from different marginalized areas of social and health distress, of which the two largest are social service users and psychiatric service users. There is a noticeable turn-over rate, which underlines one function of the cooperative as being a transitional working context from which users can gain access to other more rewarding job opportunities in the labour market.

  7. Evolutionary routes to non-kin cooperative breeding in birds

    PubMed Central

    Riehl, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Cooperatively breeding animals live in social groups in which some individuals help to raise the offspring of others, often at the expense of their own reproduction. Kin selection—when individuals increase their inclusive fitness by aiding genetic relatives—is a powerful explanation for the evolution of cooperative breeding, particularly because most groups consist of family members. However, recent molecular studies have revealed that many cooperative groups also contain unrelated immigrants, and the processes responsible for the formation and maintenance of non-kin coalitions are receiving increasing attention. Here, I provide the first systematic review of group structure for all 213 species of cooperatively breeding birds for which data are available. Although the majority of species (55%) nest in nuclear family groups, cooperative breeding by unrelated individuals is more common than previously recognized: 30% nest in mixed groups of relatives and non-relatives, and 15% nest primarily with non-relatives. Obligate cooperative breeders are far more likely to breed with non-kin than are facultative cooperators, indicating that when constraints on independent breeding are sufficiently severe, the direct benefits of group membership can substitute for potential kin-selected benefits. I review three patterns of dispersal that give rise to social groups with low genetic relatedness, and I discuss the selective pressures that favour the formation of such groups. Although kin selection has undoubtedly been crucial to the origin of most avian social systems, direct benefits have subsequently come to play a predominant role in some societies, allowing cooperation to persist despite low genetic relatedness. PMID:24132311

  8. 17 CFR 190.09 - Member property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Member property. 190.09... Member property. (a) Member property. “Member property” means, in connection with a clearing organization bankruptcy, the property which may be used to pay that portion of the net equity claim of a member which is...

  9. 77 FR 31040 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Cooperative Research Group on Mechanical Stratigraphy and... Institute-- Cooperative Research Group on Mechanical Stratigraphy and Natural Deformation in Eagle Ford...

  10. 77 FR 73676 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative Research Group on Mechanical... Research Institute--Cooperative Research Group on Mechanical Stratigraphy and Natural Deformation in Eagle...

  11. How To Incorporate Cooperative Learning Principles in the Classroom: It's More than Just Putting Students in Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siciliano, Julie I.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a technique for structuring cooperative learning that enables teams to work together meaningfully on in-class exercises. Includes incentives for students to assist one another, team role survey, skills and duties of team members, and a description of the exercises and the cooperative learning principles they are designed to develop. (SK)

  12. Influence of Voluntary Coffee Certifications on Cooperatives' Advisory Services and Agricultural Practices of Smallholder Farmers in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Anna; Kraus, Eva; Sibelet, Nicole; Bosselmann, Aske Skovmand; Faure, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores how voluntary certifications influence the way cooperatives provide advisory services to their members and the influence of these services on agricultural practices. Design/Methodology/Approach: Case studies were conducted in four representative Costa Rican cooperatives interviewing twenty interviewed cooperative…

  13. 78 FR 22297 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Advanced Media...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Advanced...) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act..., Aultbeau, Achnasheen, UNITED KINGDOM; Quantum, Englewood, CO; and Patrick Cusack (individual member),...

  14. Influence of Voluntary Coffee Certifications on Cooperatives' Advisory Services and Agricultural Practices of Smallholder Farmers in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Anna; Kraus, Eva; Sibelet, Nicole; Bosselmann, Aske Skovmand; Faure, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores how voluntary certifications influence the way cooperatives provide advisory services to their members and the influence of these services on agricultural practices. Design/Methodology/Approach: Case studies were conducted in four representative Costa Rican cooperatives interviewing twenty interviewed cooperative…

  15. Cooperative Group Performance in Graduate Research Methodology Courses: The Role of Study Coping and Examination-Taking Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Qun G.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the extent to which cooperative group members' levels of coping strategies (study and examination-taking coping strategies) and the degree that heterogeneity (variability of study coping strategies and examination-taking coping strategies) predict cooperative groups' levels of achievement in research methodology…

  16. 78 FR 73884 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Joint Task-Force...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Joint...) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act...; Harman International, Stamford, CT; Janet West (individual member), Reading, United Kingdom, Nicole...

  17. International Grants and Cooperative Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA provides grants and enters into cooperative agreements that support protecting human health and the environment while advancing U.S. national interests through international environmental collaboration.

  18. Mechanisms for similarity based cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traulsen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Cooperation based on similarity has been discussed since Richard Dawkins introduced the term “green beard” effect. In these models, individuals cooperate based on an aribtrary signal (or tag) such as the famous green beard. Here, two different models for such tag based cooperation are analysed. As neutral drift is important in both models, a finite population framework is applied. The first model, which we term “cooperative tags” considers a situation in which groups of cooperators are formed by some joint signal. Defectors adopting the signal and exploiting the group can lead to a breakdown of cooperation. In this case, conditions are derived under which the average abundance of the more cooperative strategy exceeds 50%. The second model considers a situation in which individuals start defecting towards others that are not similar to them. This situation is termed “defective tags”. It is shown that in this case, individuals using tags to cooperate exclusively with their own kind dominate over unconditional cooperators.

  19. Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation.

    PubMed

    Rand, David G; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Kraft-Todd, Gordon T; Newman, George E; Wurzbacher, Owen; Nowak, Martin A; Greene, Joshua D

    2014-04-22

    Cooperation is central to human societies. Yet relatively little is known about the cognitive underpinnings of cooperative decision making. Does cooperation require deliberate self-restraint? Or is spontaneous prosociality reined in by calculating self-interest? Here we present a theory of why (and for whom) intuition favors cooperation: cooperation is typically advantageous in everyday life, leading to the formation of generalized cooperative intuitions. Deliberation, by contrast, adjusts behaviour towards the optimum for a given situation. Thus, in one-shot anonymous interactions where selfishness is optimal, intuitive responses tend to be more cooperative than deliberative responses. We test this 'social heuristics hypothesis' by aggregating across every cooperation experiment using time pressure that we conducted over a 2-year period (15 studies and 6,910 decisions), as well as performing a novel time pressure experiment. Doing so demonstrates a positive average effect of time pressure on cooperation. We also find substantial variation in this effect, and show that this variation is partly explained by previous experience with one-shot lab experiments.

  20. The effect of ostracism and optional participation on the evolution of cooperation in the voluntary public goods game.

    PubMed

    Nakamaru, Mayuko; Yokoyama, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Not only animals, plants and microbes but also humans cooperate in groups. The evolution of cooperation in a group is an evolutionary puzzle, because defectors always obtain a higher benefit than cooperators. When people participate in a group, they evaluate group member's reputations and then decide whether to participate in it. In some groups, membership is open to all who are willing to participate in the group. In other groups, a candidate is excluded from membership if group members regard the candidate's reputation as bad. We developed an evolutionary game model and investigated how participation in groups and ostracism influence the evolution of cooperation in groups when group members play the voluntary public goods game, by means of computer simulation. When group membership is open to all candidates and those candidates can decide whether to participate in a group, cooperation cannot be sustainable. However, cooperation is sustainable when a candidate cannot be a member unless all group members admit them to membership. Therefore, it is not participation in a group but rather ostracism, which functions as costless punishment on defectors, that is essential to sustain cooperation in the voluntary public goods game.

  1. The Position of Turkey among OECD Member and Candidate Countries According to PISA 2009 Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Tulin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the status of Turkey among OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) members and candidate countries through cluster and discriminant analyses according to PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) 2009 results. The study includes 475460 fifteen year-old students from 65…

  2. 18 CFR 806.7 - Concurrent project review by member jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concurrent project review by member jurisdictions. 806.7 Section 806.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA... by an agency or the Commission, or any other matter to support cooperative review activities. Permits...

  3. 18 CFR 806.7 - Concurrent project review by member jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concurrent project review by member jurisdictions. 806.7 Section 806.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA... by an agency or the Commission, or any other matter to support cooperative review activities. Permits...

  4. 18 CFR 806.7 - Concurrent project review by member jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Concurrent project review by member jurisdictions. 806.7 Section 806.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA... by an agency or the Commission, or any other matter to support cooperative review activities. Permits...

  5. [International cooperation in combatting illicit drugs in Mozambique].

    PubMed

    Buvana, Flávia; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena

    2011-06-01

    Countries from Southern Africa have formed a Development Community (SADC) to stimulate common actions in several areas, among them illicit drugs combat. In this context, the goal of this qualitative study was to identify information and perception about the cooperation set up between Mozambique and other SADC members in combatting illicit drugs. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with public employees developing actions directed at the implementation of the Protocol to Combat Drugs in SADC. After transcriptions, the interviews were analyzed by content analysis and resulted in the categories: "Mozambique as a drugs corridor", "Cooperation Initiatives on Drugs among African countries", "Cooperation Difficulties in Africa", "Problems in Protocol Implementation" and "Difficulties to implement a control policy". As a consequence, there is a need to review and update the policies and strategies in the drugs area, as they are not contextualized in the country's current reality.

  6. Individual contributions to babysitting in a cooperative mongoose, Suricata suricatta.

    PubMed

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Brotherton, P N; O'Riain, M J; Griffin, A S; Gaynor, D; Sharpe, L; Kansky, R; Manser, M B; McIlrath, G M

    2000-02-07

    Evolutionary explanations of cooperative breeding based on kin selection have predicted that the individual contributions made by different helpers to rearing young should be correlated with their degree of kinship to the litter or brood they are raising. In the cooperative mongoose or meerkat, Suricata suricatta, helpers babysit pups at the natal burrow for the first month of pup life and frequent babysitters suffer substantial weight losses over the period of babysitting. Large differences in contributions exist between helpers, which are correlated with their age, sex and weight but not with their kinship to the young they are raising. Provision of food to some group members raises the contributions of individuals to babysitting. We discuss the implications of these results for evolutionary explanations of cooperative behaviour.

  7. Recovery Act:Rural Cooperative Geothermal development Electric & Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, Elzie Lynn

    2016-01-12

    Surprise Valley Electric, a small rural electric cooperative serving northeast California and southern Oregon, developed a 3mw binary geothermal electric generating plant on a cooperative member's ranch. The geothermal resource had been discovered in 1980 when the ranch was developing supplemental irrigation water wells. The 240°F resource was used for irrigation until developed through this project for generation of electricity. A portion of the spent geothermal fluid is now used for irrigation in season and is available for other purposes, such as greenhouse agriculture, aquaculture and direct heating of community buildings. Surprise Valley Electric describes many of the challenges a small rural electric cooperative encountered and managed to develop a geothermal generating plant.

  8. Individual contributions to babysitting in a cooperative mongoose, Suricata suricatta.

    PubMed Central

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Brotherton, P N; O'Riain, M J; Griffin, A S; Gaynor, D; Sharpe, L; Kansky, R; Manser, M B; McIlrath, G M

    2000-01-01

    Evolutionary explanations of cooperative breeding based on kin selection have predicted that the individual contributions made by different helpers to rearing young should be correlated with their degree of kinship to the litter or brood they are raising. In the cooperative mongoose or meerkat, Suricata suricatta, helpers babysit pups at the natal burrow for the first month of pup life and frequent babysitters suffer substantial weight losses over the period of babysitting. Large differences in contributions exist between helpers, which are correlated with their age, sex and weight but not with their kinship to the young they are raising. Provision of food to some group members raises the contributions of individuals to babysitting. We discuss the implications of these results for evolutionary explanations of cooperative behaviour. PMID:10714885

  9. Member Takes Action Against Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertholf, Deedrick

    1999-01-01

    An ASBO member and chair of New York's School Emergency Response to Violent Events (SERVE) explains how this program tackles violence and teen suicide. SERVE teaches the basic principles of hostage situations, uses a confidential reporting system, and advocates safety audits and risk-reduction strategies. (MLH)

  10. New members of Datura family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosaev, A.; Plávalová, E.

    2017-06-01

    Asteroid families are groups of minor planets which have a common origin in catastrophic disruptions. Young asteroid families are very interesting because they represent the product of their parent body's fragmentation before orbital and physical evolutionary processes could have changed them. A group of minor asteroids associated with the largest body (1270) Datura is of particular interest because it has enough known members and resides in the inner part of the main asteroid belt and is easier to observe than families (with similar physical characteristics on their surfaces) at further distances. Up to now, 7 members of this family are known. Here we discuss three new members of the Datura Family: (338309) 2002 VR17, 2002 RH291 and 2014 OE206. To prove that these recently-discovered members belong to the Datura family, we conducted numerical orbit integrations with all gravitational perturbation over the last 800 kyrs. In the results, we have found that (338309) 2002 VR17 and 2002 RH291 are very close to the mean orbit of this family throughout the calculation. In the case of 2014 OE206, it has a strongly chaotic orbit.

  11. Member Takes Action Against Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertholf, Deedrick

    1999-01-01

    An ASBO member and chair of New York's School Emergency Response to Violent Events (SERVE) explains how this program tackles violence and teen suicide. SERVE teaches the basic principles of hostage situations, uses a confidential reporting system, and advocates safety audits and risk-reduction strategies. (MLH)

  12. Kentucky Hispanic School Board Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballestero, Victor; Wright, Sam

    2009-01-01

    The study was designed to provide information on Kentucky Hispanic school board members. The data was obtained from Kentucky school superintendents or their designees in the 174 public school districts through a survey mailed in the spring, 2009. The survey was mailed to Kentucky Superintendents on March 12, 2009. The follow-up survey was mailed…

  13. Communication Among Melanoma Family Members.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Deborah J; Albrecht, Terrance; Hay, Jennifer; Eggly, Susan; Harris-Wei, Julie; Meischke, Hendrika; Burke, Wylie

    2017-03-01

    Interventions to improve communication among family members may facilitate information flow about familial risk and preventive health behaviors. This is a secondary analysis of the effects of an interactive website intervention aimed at increasing communication frequency and agreement about health risk among melanoma families. Participants were family units, consisting of one family member with melanoma identified from a previous research study (the Case) and an additional first degree relative and a parent of a child 0-17. Family triads were randomized to receive access to the website intervention or to serve as control families. Family communication frequency and agreement about melanoma prevention behaviors and beliefs were measured at baseline and again at 1 year post randomization. Intervention participants of all three types significantly increased the frequency of communication to their first degree relatives (Parents, siblings, children; range = 14-18 percentage points; all p < .05). At baseline, approximately two-thirds of all three family members talked with at least some member of the family about cancer risk. Agreement between Cases and First Degree Relatives and between Cases and Parents increased from pre to post intervention in the intervention participants compared to the control participants (p < .05). These findings provide support for interventions to improve family communication about cancer risk.

  14. Ethics: views from IACUC members.

    PubMed

    Houde, Lisa; Dumas, Claude; Leroux, Thérèse

    2009-07-01

    Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) members were interviewed on various ethical matters, including ethics, animal ethics, science and ethics, and the use of animals in research, in order to explore their implicit ethical framework. The results revealed that IACUC members entertain rich and diverse beliefs about ethics, that are part of an implicit ethical framework which relates to different domains of knowledge, such as biology (differences between human and animals), psychology (e.g. affective relationships with pets), and so on. The results also revealed that IACUC members hold quite a restrictive view on both animal ethics and animal use in research, and that they apply implicit ethical notions, such as respect and justice, to some elements (e.g. ethical rules) of the explicit ethical framework they are provided with when performing ethical evaluations of animal use. The study suggests that IACUC members should be provided with more up-to-date information on topics such as animal ethics and animal use in research. 2009 FRAME.

  15. A consumer cooperative association specializing in services for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Oka, Masato

    2002-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, a Japanese cooperative association named Fukushi Club Seikyo (FCS) has developed a unique, non-profit business specializing in services for the elderly. It aims to promote a reciprocal support system among neighborhood community members. FCS has successively organized its active members, mainly homemakers, into workers' collectives and successfully provided various life support services at a very small charge. Their human-touch service appears in sharp contrast to bureaucratic public services and profit-making private services. The civil initiative presented by FCS suggests a potential for a community-based social service system that may guarantee quality services without raising taxes and premiums for social insurance.

  16. A simple rule for the evolution of contingent cooperation in large groups.

    PubMed

    Schonmann, Roberto H; Boyd, Robert

    2016-02-05

    Humans cooperate in large groups of unrelated individuals, and many authors have argued that such cooperation is sustained by contingent reward and punishment. However, such sanctioning systems can also stabilize a wide range of behaviours, including mutually deleterious behaviours. Moreover, it is very likely that large-scale cooperation is derived in the human lineage. Thus, understanding the evolution of mutually beneficial cooperative behaviour requires knowledge of when strategies that support such behaviour can increase when rare. Here, we derive a simple formula that gives the relatedness necessary for contingent cooperation in n-person iterated games to increase when rare. This rule applies to a wide range of pay-off functions and assumes that the strategies supporting cooperation are based on the presence of a threshold fraction of cooperators. This rule suggests that modest levels of relatedness are sufficient for invasion by strategies that make cooperation contingent on previous cooperation by a small fraction of group members. In contrast, only high levels of relatedness allow the invasion by strategies that require near universal cooperation. In order to derive this formula, we introduce a novel methodology for studying evolution in group structured populations including local and global group-size regulation and fluctuations in group size.

  17. A simple rule for the evolution of contingent cooperation in large groups

    PubMed Central

    Schonmann, Roberto H.; Boyd, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Humans cooperate in large groups of unrelated individuals, and many authors have argued that such cooperation is sustained by contingent reward and punishment. However, such sanctioning systems can also stabilize a wide range of behaviours, including mutually deleterious behaviours. Moreover, it is very likely that large-scale cooperation is derived in the human lineage. Thus, understanding the evolution of mutually beneficial cooperative behaviour requires knowledge of when strategies that support such behaviour can increase when rare. Here, we derive a simple formula that gives the relatedness necessary for contingent cooperation in n-person iterated games to increase when rare. This rule applies to a wide range of pay-off functions and assumes that the strategies supporting cooperation are based on the presence of a threshold fraction of cooperators. This rule suggests that modest levels of relatedness are sufficient for invasion by strategies that make cooperation contingent on previous cooperation by a small fraction of group members. In contrast, only high levels of relatedness allow the invasion by strategies that require near universal cooperation. In order to derive this formula, we introduce a novel methodology for studying evolution in group structured populations including local and global group-size regulation and fluctuations in group size. PMID:26729938

  18. Cooperative Education: A Guide for Maine Cooperative Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Curriculum Resource Center of Maine, Fairfield.

    This handbook has been compiled for coordinators of cooperative education programs at the secondary level in Maine. The handbook includes in-school classroom instruction relating to specific jobs and the world of work. Introductory material includes the Maine Association for Cooperative Education Constitution, By-Laws, and 1991 officers. The…

  19. Silviculture in cooperation with hunters: The Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative

    Treesearch

    Scott Reitz; Andrea Hille; Susan Stout

    2004-01-01

    The long history of deer overabundance in Pennsylvania is associated with very high reforestation costs and substantial threats to diversity and sustainability. In response to this legacy, several landowners and agency personnel formed the Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative (KQDC) in partnership with the Sand County Foundation. This Cooperative focuses on about 74,000...

  20. Dignity therapy: family member perspectives.

    PubMed

    McClement, Susan; Chochinov, Harvey Max; Hack, Thomas; Hassard, Thomas; Kristjanson, Linda Joan; Harlos, Mike

    2007-10-01

    Dignity Therapy is a novel therapeutic intervention designed to address psychosocial and existential distress among the terminally ill. This brief, individualized approach to end-of-life care invites patients to discuss issues that are most important to them and to articulate things they would most want remembered as death draws near. These discussions and recollections are recorded, transcribed, and edited into a generativity document, which are usually given to family or loved ones. While the marked benefits of Dignity Therapy on patients' psychosocial and existential distress have been reported elsewhere, this paper presents data on bereft family members' perspectives regarding the impact of dignity therapy on patients and themselves. Sixty family members of deceased terminally ill patients who previously took part in Dignity Therapy completed a questionnaire to elicit feedback about the impact of Dignity Therapy on both the dying patient and themselves. Ninety-five percent of participants reported that Dignity Therapy helped the patient; 78% reported that it heightened the patient's sense of dignity; 72% reported that it heightened the patient's sense of purpose; 65% reported that it helped the patient prepare for death; 65% reported that it was as important as any other aspect of the patient's care; and 43% reported that Dignity Therapy reduced the patient's suffering. Regarding family members, 78% reported that the generativity document helped them during their time of grief; 77% reported that the document would continue to be a source of comfort for their families and themselves; and 95% reported they would recommend Dignity Therapy to other patients of family members confronting a terminal illness. Family members endorse Dignity Therapy as a therapeutic intervention that moderates their bereavement experiences and lessens suffering and distress in terminally ill relatives.

  1. The Evolution of European Security: From Confrontation to Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    leading U.S. companies such as Boeing and Lockheed Martin , just to name a few.77 But more robust cooperation is still limited by the member states...Common Security and Defense Policy: Intersecting Trajectories”, 4. 63 Gustav Lindstrom , Enter the EU Battlegroups, (Paris: Institute for Security...Battlegroups, Strategy Research Project (Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, January 22, 2009), 4. 67 Lindstrom , Enter the EU Battlegroups

  2. Cooperative phenomena in swarms

    SciTech Connect

    Millonas, M.M.

    1992-12-01

    A model of the cooperative behavior of a large number of locally acting organisms is proposed. The space in which the organisms move is discretized, and is modeled by a lattice of nodes, or cells. Each cell has a specified volume, and is connected to other cells in the space in a definite way. Organisms move probabilistically between local cells in this space, but with weights dependent on local morphogenic substances, or morphogens. The morphogens are in turn are effected by the passage of an organism. The evolution of the morphogens, and the corresponding flow of the organisms constitutes the collective behavior of the group. The generic properties of such systems are analyzed, and a number of results are obtained. The model has various types of phase transitions and self-organizing properties controlled both by the level of the noise, and other parameters.

  3. Cooperative phenomena in swarms

    SciTech Connect

    Millonas, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    A model of the cooperative behavior of a large number of locally acting organisms is proposed. The space in which the organisms move is discretized, and is modeled by a lattice of nodes, or cells. Each cell has a specified volume, and is connected to other cells in the space in a definite way. Organisms move probabilistically between local cells in this space, but with weights dependent on local morphogenic substances, or morphogens. The morphogens are in turn are effected by the passage of an organism. The evolution of the morphogens, and the corresponding flow of the organisms constitutes the collective behavior of the group. The generic properties of such systems are analyzed, and a number of results are obtained. The model has various types of phase transitions and self-organizing properties controlled both by the level of the noise, and other parameters.

  4. Junctionless Cooper pair transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutyunov, K. Yu.; Lehtinen, J. S.

    2017-02-01

    Quantum phase slip (QPS) is the topological singularity of the complex order parameter of a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor: momentary zeroing of the modulus and simultaneous 'slip' of the phase by ±2π. The QPS event(s) are the dynamic equivalent of tunneling through a conventional Josephson junction containing static in space and time weak link(s). Here we demonstrate the operation of a superconducting single electron transistor (Cooper pair transistor) without any tunnel junctions. Instead a pair of thin superconducting titanium wires in QPS regime was used. The current-voltage characteristics demonstrate the clear Coulomb blockade with magnitude of the Coulomb gap modulated by the gate potential. The Coulomb blockade disappears above the critical temperature, and at low temperatures can be suppressed by strong magnetic field.

  5. Allostery and cooperativity revisited

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Qiang; Karplus, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Although phenomenlogical models that account for cooperativity in allosteric systems date back to the early and mid-60's (e.g., the KNF and MWC models), there is resurgent interest in the topic due to the recent experimental and computational studies that attempted to reveal, at an atomistic level, how allostery actually works. In this review, using systems for which atomistic simulations have been carried out in our groups as examples, we describe the current understanding of allostery, how the mechanisms go beyond the classical MWC/Pauling-KNF descriptions, and point out that the “new view” of allostery, emphasizing “population shifts,” is, in fact, an “old view.” The presentation offers not only an up-to-date description of allostery from a theoretical/computational perspective, but also helps to resolve several outstanding issues concerning allostery. PMID:18560010

  6. Cooperative runtime monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallé, Sylvain

    2013-11-01

    Requirements on message-based interactions can be formalised as an interface contract that specifies constraints on the sequence of possible messages that can be exchanged by multiple parties. At runtime, each peer can monitor incoming messages and check that the contract is correctly being followed by their respective senders. We introduce cooperative runtime monitoring, where a recipient 'delegates' its monitoring task to the sender, which is required to provide evidence that the message it sends complies with the contract. In turn, this evidence can be quickly checked by the recipient, which is then guaranteed of the sender's compliance to the contract without doing the monitoring computation by itself. A particular application of this concept is shown on web services, where service providers can monitor and enforce contract compliance of third-party clients at a small cost on the server side, while avoiding to certify or digitally sign them.

  7. Cooperative surmounting of bottlenecks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, D.; Mulhern, C.; Schimansky-Geier, L.; Tsironis, G. P.; Hänggi, P.

    2015-07-01

    The physics of activated escape of objects out of a metastable state plays a key role in diverse scientific areas involving chemical kinetics, diffusion and dislocation motion in solids, nucleation, electrical transport, motion of flux lines superconductors, charge density waves, and transport processes of macromolecules and astrophysics, to name but a few. The underlying activated processes present the multidimensional extension of the Kramers problem of a single Brownian particle. In comparison to the latter case, however, the dynamics ensuing from the interactions of many coupled units can lead to intriguing novel phenomena that are not present when only a single degree of freedom is involved. In this review we report on a variety of such phenomena that are exhibited by systems consisting of chains of interacting units in the presence of potential barriers. In the first part we consider recent developments in the case of a deterministic dynamics driving cooperative escape processes of coupled nonlinear units out of metastable states. The ability of chains of coupled units to undergo spontaneous conformational transitions can lead to a self-organised escape. The mechanism at work is that the energies of the units become re-arranged, while keeping the total energy conserved, in forming localised energy modes that in turn trigger the cooperative escape. We present scenarios of significantly enhanced noise-free escape rates if compared to the noise-assisted case. The second part of the review deals with the collective directed transport of systems of interacting particles overcoming energetic barriers in periodic potential landscapes. Escape processes in both time-homogeneous and time-dependent driven systems are considered for the emergence of directed motion. It is shown that ballistic channels immersed in the associated mixed high-dimensional phase space are at the source for the directed long-range transport. Open problems and future directions are discussed in

  8. Cooperative Learning and Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenman, Simon; van Benthum, Niek; Bootsma, Dolly; van Dieren, Jildau; van der Kemp, Nicole

    2002-01-01

    Examined the implementation effects of a course on cooperative learning for Dutch student teachers. Data from surveys, pre- and post-course observations, and comparison of treatment of control groups indicated the course was effective in teaching participants to implement cooperative learning. The course positively affected the engagement rates of…

  9. Does Facial Resemblance Enhance Cooperation?

    PubMed Central

    Giang, Trang; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces). A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system. PMID:23094095

  10. Implementation of Cooperative Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James W.; And Others

    This report is addressed principally to college personnel who may have direct program responsibilities or who may otherwise have an impact upon the development of cooperative education. The aim of this report is twofold: first, to describe the research undertaken by the staff of Northeastern University Cooperative Education Research Center…

  11. Cooperative Education. Instructor Coordinator's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrow, Shirley

    Designed to provide an introduction to North Lake College's (NLC's) Cooperative Education Program, this manual contains information for the instructor/coordinator regarding the Dallas County Community College District's co-op policies and NLC's operational procedures and forms. First, section 1 defines cooperative education, states NLC's…

  12. Cooperative answers in database systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaasterland, Terry; Godfrey, Parke; Minker, Jack; Novik, Lev

    1993-01-01

    A major concern of researchers who seek to improve human-computer communication involves how to move beyond literal interpretations of queries to a level of responsiveness that takes the user's misconceptions, expectations, desires, and interests into consideration. At Maryland, we are investigating how to better meet a user's needs within the framework of the cooperative answering system of Gal and Minker. We have been exploring how to use semantic information about the database to formulate coherent and informative answers. The work has two main thrusts: (1) the construction of a logic formula which embodies the content of a cooperative answer; and (2) the presentation of the logic formula to the user in a natural language form. The information that is available in a deductive database system for building cooperative answers includes integrity constraints, user constraints, the search tree for answers to the query, and false presuppositions that are present in the query. The basic cooperative answering theory of Gal and Minker forms the foundation of a cooperative answering system that integrates the new construction and presentation methods. This paper provides an overview of the cooperative answering strategies used in the CARMIN cooperative answering system, an ongoing research effort at Maryland. Section 2 gives some useful background definitions. Section 3 describes techniques for collecting cooperative logical formulae. Section 4 discusses which natural language generation techniques are useful for presenting the logic formula in natural language text. Section 5 presents a diagram of the system.

  13. Cooperative processes in image segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, L. S.

    1982-01-01

    Research into the role of cooperative, or relaxation, processes in image segmentation is surveyed. Cooperative processes can be employed at several levels of the segmentation process as a preprocessing enhancement step, during supervised or unsupervised pixel classification and, finally, for the interpretation of image segments based on segment properties and relations.

  14. Peter Cooper, the Workingman's Advocate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemanne, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    During the 19th century, America was transformed from an agrarian to an urban-industrial society. America became divided into a nation of rich and poor. Peter Cooper assumed the role of a reformer and became the spokesman for the poor. Cooper's reform efforts and his views on unions are discussed. (RM)

  15. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  16. School Effectiveness: Cooperative Learning Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.

    Cooperative learning is a generic classroom technique that requires students to work and talk together about academic material while learning effective interpersonal skills. This packet, prepared in conjunction with the Minnesota School Effectiveness Program, describes the benefits of cooperative learning and defines its critical attributes,…

  17. Enhancing Thinking through Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Neil, Ed.; Worsham, Toni, Ed.

    This collection of papers provides a theoretical foundation on current practice in cooperative thinking. The papers offer many practical methods that can be applied to a full range of classroom settings. After an introduction, "HOTSICLE: Higher Order Thinking Skills in Cooperative Learning Environments" (Neil Davidson and Toni Worsham),…

  18. Teaching Geography Using Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Larry

    Cooperative learning is a teaching strategy that promotes the positive interaction of children in small, heterogeneous groups. Each group contain three or four students of varying achievement levels, backgrounds, socio-economic status, and sex. Cooperative learning processes promote student motivation, build group skills, foster social and…

  19. Cooperative Learning in Communication Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patricia L.; And Others

    This paper presents 14 cooperative learning lesson plans and related handouts suitable for use in communication courses. The paper begins with 8 handouts that deal with objectives; criteria; differences between the old paradigm and the new paradigm based on cooperative learning; positive interdependences; group differences between cooperative…

  20. Cooperative Teaching: Portraits of Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauwens, Jeanne; Hourcade, Jack

    This paper describes the use of cooperative teaching to teach all students in the general education classroom and the three most promising approaches to implementing cooperative teaching: team teaching, supportive learning activities, and complementary instruction. The first method, team teaching, is defined as having the initial presentation of…

  1. Cooperative Learning: Making "Groupwork" Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karl A.

    1996-01-01

    Cooperative learning is the use of small student groups as teams to accomplish a common goal, emphasizing positive interdependence, individual and group accountability, face-to-face interaction, team skills, and group processing. Using formal cooperative learning groups at the college level requires planning, monitoring of students' learning,…

  2. Teacher Preparation through Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaith, Ghazi M.

    Seven class activities using cooperative learning techniques are proposed as appropriate for second language teacher training. The activities draw on the pro-social aspect of cooperative learning that offers second language learners maximum opportunities for active communication, reinforcement, and development of cognitive skills. Background is…

  3. Enhancing Thinking through Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Neil, Ed.; Worsham, Toni, Ed.

    This collection of papers provides a theoretical foundation on current practice in cooperative thinking. The papers offer many practical methods that can be applied to a full range of classroom settings. After an introduction, "HOTSICLE: Higher Order Thinking Skills in Cooperative Learning Environments" (Neil Davidson and Toni Worsham),…

  4. Interinstitutional Cooperation Among Educational Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, J. Patrick

    1973-01-01

    Educational institutions deciding whether to carry on a cooperative venture with another educational institution (to reduce costs) must consider the tax consequences. This article discusses the tax considerations involved in such cooperative arrangements for the various organizational forms: principal-agent, co-ownership, partnership or joint…

  5. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadderman, Margaret

    1992-01-01

    Cooperative learning is being recommended as a solution for numerous education problems, from enhancing disadvantaged children's self-esteem to ensuring academic success for all students. Cooperative learning has great potential as a supplement or alternative to traditional teaching methods when students are adequately socialized and motivated.…

  6. Cooperative processes in image segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, L. S.

    1982-01-01

    Research into the role of cooperative, or relaxation, processes in image segmentation is surveyed. Cooperative processes can be employed at several levels of the segmentation process as a preprocessing enhancement step, during supervised or unsupervised pixel classification and, finally, for the interpretation of image segments based on segment properties and relations.

  7. Effective Strategies for Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder, Richard M.; Brent, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes ideas gathered from classroom experiences and from colleagues encountered in cooperative learning workshops and presents them as answers to questions from workshop participants who have been exposed to the basic principles and methods of cooperative learning. Information for college instructors covers forming teams, dealing with…

  8. Cooperative Learning and Student Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Joe D.; Miller, Raymond B.

    The effects of a form of cooperative group instruction called Team Assisted Individualization on students in a high school Algebra II class were examined. Sixty-two (31 female and 31 male) 11th-grade students were randomly assigned to either a cooperative learning (32 students) or traditional lecture (30 students) group. Students completed an…

  9. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  10. Cooperative Education in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Commission on Higher Education.

    In 1988, the State Legislature created the New Mexico Cooperative Program to develop and expand cooperative education (co-op) programs. The Commission on Higher Education (CHE) was designated to help institutions establish and expand programs and collect information. For reporting purposes, CHE required that, in order to be considered co-op, work…

  11. Cooperative Collection Management in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorst, Thomas J., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Twelve articles focusing on the issue of cooperative collection management describe the history and current status of specific projects within the Illinois Library and Information Network. The last article summarizes the status of coordinated cooperative collection management in Illinois, clarifies terminology, and speculates on future…

  12. Current Resources in Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Anne; And Others

    This annotated bibliography of the current resources in cooperative learning is the result of a comprehensive search of the literature in the fields of education, psychology, sociology, linguistics, and business. It contains 926 citations of books, journal articles, periodicals, and non-print material pertaining to cooperative/collaborative…

  13. Providing support to family members.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, Ruth; Dowd, Steven

    2004-01-01

    Providing recognition and simple information can be powerful and reassure a family member who is anxious and worried about an ill relative. While "answers" concerning the procedure are often not available, providing information that is available--the locations of the rest rooms and coffee shop; approximately how long the procedure will take; where to wait; and the process involved in the radiological procedure, reading and getting the results--can give some feeling of control, and thus reduce feelings of powerlessness. Most importantly, family members who are recognized and included with the patient in the treatment process will be reassured of the competency of the staff and gain hopefulness about the outcome of the diagnostic and treatment experience. And providing hope in the healthcare setting is a radiology professional's most important job.

  14. Method of laminating structural members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heier, W. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A laminate is obtained by providing a lightweight core material, such as a honeycombed plastic or metal, within the cavity defined by an annular mold cavity frame. Face sheets, which are to be bonded to the core material, are provided on opposite sides of the frame and extend over the frame, thus sealing the core material in the cavity. An adhesive is provided between the core material and the face sheets and the combined thickness of the core material and adhesive is a close fit within the opposed face sheets. A gas tight seal, such as an O-ring gasket, is provided between the frame and the face sheet members to form a gas tight cavity between the face sheet members and the frame. External heat and pressure are used to bond the face sheets to the core material. Gas pressure is introduced into the sealed cavity to minimize out-gasing of the adhesive.

  15. Energy-Absorbing Beam Member

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An energy-absorbing (EA) beam member and having a cell core structure is positioned in an aircraft fuselage proximate to the floor of the aircraft. The cell core structure has a length oriented along a width of the fuselage, a width oriented along a length of the fuselage, and a depth extending away from the floor. The cell core structure also includes cell walls that collectively define a repeating conusoidal pattern of alternating respective larger and smaller first and second radii along the length of the cell core structure. The cell walls slope away from a direction of flight of the aircraft at a calibrated lean angle. An EA beam member may include the cell core structure and first and second plates along the length of the cell core structure on opposite edges of the cell material.

  16. Towards mobile staff members management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encheva, Sylvia

    2017-07-01

    Todays project management requires a number of abilities which involve finding quick solutions to shortage of staff members with possession of specific qualities. When persons with team responsibilities are under pressure or due to various circumstances are unable to perform exhaustive search in databases, an interactive visualization tool can come in quite handy in finding good solutions unforeseen occurrences. In particular we propose application of selected graphs for facilitating mobile human resource management.

  17. Device for Tensioning Sheet Members

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-30

    FOR TENSIONING SHEET MEMBERS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the Invention This invention pertains generally to tensioning devices and more...particularly to a device for tensioning thin-sheet materials so as to prevent wrinkling. Description of the Related Art Solar power sources utilized...the system. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The object of this invention is to provide an apparatus for loading a thin-sheet material with tensioning

  18. The hard problem of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  19. Cooperation and competition between dentists and denturists in Finland.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Risto

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cooperation between dentists and denturists in Finland, particularly in relation to perceived competition between the two professions. From a representative sample of 350 private dentists and 253 denturists, 68% returned acceptably filled-in questionnaires dealing with competition and cooperation with other healthcare professionals. Dentists referred their patients significantly (P < 0.001) less often to denturists (26.2%) than denturists did to dentists (94.1%). Those who referred their patients to members of the other profession also received patients from the other profession significantly (P< 0.001) more often than those who did not (60.7% vs 16.7% among dentists; 90.0% vs 44.4% among denturists). Denturists saw themselves as competing with dentists (56.0%) significantly (P< 0.001) more often than dentists did with denturists (29.2%). Dentists practicing in small towns or rural areas cooperated more often with denturists than did those practicing in more urban areas. Among denturists, the likelihood of referring patients to dentists was associated with younger age and fewer clinical working hours. It was concluded that cooperation between dentists and denturists was common. Oral healthcare professionals who referred their patients to the other profession also benefited by receiving more patients on referral from them. Dental services provided by denturists are limited, which may explain their greater willingness to cooperate with dentists.

  20. Partner switching can favour cooperation in a biological market.

    PubMed

    Schwagmeyer, P L

    2014-09-01

    Intraspecific cooperation and interspecific mutualisms can be promoted by mechanisms that reduce the frequency with which cooperative organisms are exploited by unhelpful partners. One such mechanism consists of changing partners after interacting with an uncooperative individual. I used McNamara et al.'s (Nature, 451, 2008, 189) partner switching model as a framework to examine whether this mechanism can select for increased cooperative investment by house sparrows (Passer domesticus) collaborating to rear offspring; previous research on this species has shown that substantial cooperative investments by both pair members are required to achieve high pay-offs from collaborating. I found that the poorer the outcome of a breeding attempt relative to the number of eggs the female invested, the greater the likelihood of partner switching. The incidence of partner switching changed seasonally, with peak switching coinciding with an increase in the number of alternative partners available to females. After females switched partners, their breeding outcomes rose to match those of females that remained with the same partner; this was not the case for males that switched partners. Consistent with the model's prediction, males in stable partnerships achieved over 25% higher than average reproductive success, which was attributable to both persistently good breeding outcomes and their older partners' high fecundity. These results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that partner switching favours increased cooperative investment levels, and they demonstrate that variation in the relative value of by-product benefits can enhance that process.