Science.gov

Sample records for cooperation reviewing frameworks

  1. A Cooperative Framework for Fireworks Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shaoqiu; Li, Junzhi; Janecek, Andreas; Tan, Ying

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a cooperative framework for fireworks algorithm (CoFFWA). A detailed analysis of existing fireworks algorithm (FWA) and its recently developed variants has revealed that ( i) the current selection strategy has the drawback that the contribution of the firework with the best fitness (denoted as core firework) overwhelms the contributions of all other fireworks (non-core fireworks) in the explosion operator, ( ii) the Gaussian mutation operator is not as effective as it is designed to be. To overcome these limitations, the CoFFWA is proposed, which significantly improves the exploitation capability by using an independent selection method and also increases the exploration capability by incorporating a crowdness-avoiding cooperative strategy among the fireworks. Experimental results on the CEC2013 benchmark functions indicate that CoFFWA outperforms the state-of-the-art FWA variants, artificial bee colony, differential evolution, and the standard particle swarm optimization SPSO2007/SPSO2011 in terms of convergence performance.

  2. University-Industry Cooperation: A Framework of Benefits and Obstacles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora Valentin, Eva Maria

    2000-01-01

    Universities, industry, and government each gain financial, technological, and strategic benefits from cooperation. Their motivations are educational, political, and epistemological. Barriers to cooperation include industry restrictions, appropriation of research, communication problems, and cultural differences. A legal framework and…

  3. A Cooperative Work Framework for E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Deryn

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of the development of a framework for e-learning to reconsider e-learning in relation to the cooperative work framework, identifying critical weaknesses in the fundamental nature of e-learning and its consequent propensity for failure. (Contains 4 figures and 2 notes.)

  4. The Cooperative Preschool Inventory: Test Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Francis J., Jr.

    This paper is a brief psychometric review of the Cooperative Preschool Inventory (CPI-R), Revised Edition intended to supplement the review of CPI in the "Seventh Mental Measurements Yearbook." The 1970 revision of the CPI-R is a brief screening test for teacher-administered testing of three-to-six-year-old children. It is intended to…

  5. 78 FR 49726 - International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation Finance/Regulatory/Energy Planning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... International Trade Administration International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation Finance/ Regulatory/Energy Planning Authority Workshop October 22 in Abu Dhabi, UAE AGENCY: International Trade... International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC)--to organize participation by representatives of...

  6. A Framework for a Computer System to Support Distributed Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Chiung-Hui

    2004-01-01

    To develop a computer system to support cooperative learning among distributed students; developers should consider the foundations of cooperative learning. This article examines the basic elements that make cooperation work and proposes a framework for such computer supported cooperative learning (CSCL) systems. This framework is constituted of…

  7. Cooperative Robots to Observe Moving Targets: Review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Asif; Rinner, Bernhard; Cavallaro, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    The deployment of multiple robots for achieving a common goal helps to improve the performance, efficiency, and/or robustness in a variety of tasks. In particular, the observation of moving targets is an important multirobot application that still exhibits numerous open challenges, including the effective coordination of the robots. This paper reviews control techniques for cooperative mobile robots monitoring multiple targets. The simultaneous movement of robots and targets makes this problem particularly interesting, and our review systematically addresses this cooperative multirobot problem for the first time. We classify and critically discuss the control techniques: cooperative multirobot observation of multiple moving targets, cooperative search, acquisition, and track, cooperative tracking, and multirobot pursuit evasion. We also identify the five major elements that characterize this problem, namely, the coordination method, the environment, the target, the robot and its sensor(s). These elements are used to systematically analyze the control techniques. The majority of the studied work is based on simulation and laboratory studies, which may not accurately reflect real-world operational conditions. Importantly, while our systematic analysis is focused on multitarget observation, our proposed classification is useful also for related multirobot applications.

  8. Environmental review: A gateway to international cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, R.S.

    1997-08-01

    The United States and 25 other nations are voting members within a unique international agreement for the governance of Antarctica, a continent larger than the combined area of the United States and Mexico. Antarctica is not a global commons. Rather, nations have agreed to set aside territorial claims for the continent`s natural resources while each pursues legitimate scientific study and carefully controlled commercial tourist-related activities. Through a set of agreements under the Antarctic Treaty System, each nation agrees to a systematic avoidance of environmental damage, exploitation, or militarization of Antarctica. Effective environmental review of planned actions is critical in winning continued international cooperation, efficient management of national antarctic research and education programs, and environmentally sound tourist visits to Antarctica. Over the last five years, NSF has prepared over 200 environmental assessments of planned activities in Antarctica. Thus far, the environmental reviews have proven very useful in the identification of alternative actions and mitigating measures to reduce impacts. In addition to protecting the unique and pristine qualities of Antarctica`s natural resources, environmental reviews are a key component in planning support activities such as field camp installation and removal, construction and decommissioning of facilities at year-round stations, and international cooperative research.

  9. Cooperation between Referees and Authors Increases Peer Review Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Leek, Jeffrey T.; Taub, Margaret A.; Pineda, Fernando J.

    2011-01-01

    Peer review is fundamentally a cooperative process between scientists in a community who agree to review each other's work in an unbiased fashion. Peer review is the foundation for decisions concerning publication in journals, awarding of grants, and academic promotion. Here we perform a laboratory study of open and closed peer review based on an online game. We show that when reviewer behavior was made public under open review, reviewers were rewarded for refereeing and formed significantly more cooperative interactions (13% increase in cooperation, P = 0.018). We also show that referees and authors who participated in cooperative interactions had an 11% higher reviewing accuracy rate (P = 0.016). Our results suggest that increasing cooperation in the peer review process can lead to a decreased risk of reviewing errors. PMID:22096506

  10. Romanian Solar Physics Research within the Framework of International Cooperation (1955-2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariş, Georgeta

    2008-09-01

    Valuable results of the Romanian Solar physics research were obtained in the framework of the international collaborations. This contribution reviews the main cooperative programs as well as their results. The regular solar observations began at the Bucharest Solar Station simultaneous with the International Geophysical Year program, on June 1, 1957. At the beginning, there were carried out solar patrol observations. A long cooperation with the World Data Centers was based on the data obtained on active chromospheric phenomena as well as the relative sunspot number and the sunspot positions. A lot of solar observations were made during specific campaigns, in connection with some international programs. Collaboration projects with the solar departments from other countries were set up in the framework of the cooperation between the Romanian Academy and similar institutions from abroad. The Romanian solar physics researchers acceded to JOSO (Joint Organization for Solar Observations) from 1992 and new perspectives to collaborate were open. We also notice the Romanian participation in the COST Action 724 (2004-2007) and Balkan, Black Sea and Caspian Sea Regional Network on Space Weather Studies (2005). On the personal basis, a lot of collaborations were developed with the research centers that offered training grants and PhD or post-doctoral grants to the young Romanian scientists.

  11. Development cooperation in water and sanitation: is it based on the human rights framework?

    PubMed

    Brown, Colin; Heller, Léo

    2017-07-01

    The water and sanitation sector is verifiably receiving increased attention and funding through international development cooperation. Not least because of the way that it affects incentives and institutions in partner countries, development cooperation can have either positive or negative effects on human rights though. The consolidated frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation is becoming linked to the international community's coordinated development efforts, as evidenced notably in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. However, a review of major funders' official policies for development cooperation in the sector suggests that many only partially endorse the frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation. An observation of development cooperation flows to the sector allows the hypothesis to be advanced that worldwide inequalities in access to these services may be reduced through a full and clear application of the human rights framework in development cooperation activities. The article presents findings of this research and explores key stakes for development cooperation in the water and sanitation sector that are relevant for their ability to either negatively or positively contribute to the realization of human rights. Resumen El sector de agua y saneamiento ha recibido creciente atención y financiación a través de la cooperación internacional para el desarrollo. La cooperación para el desarrollo puede tener efectos tanto positivos cuanto negativos sobre los derechos humanos. El hito que consolida los derechos humanos al agua y al saneamiento están articulados a esfuerzos de cooperación para el desarrollo promovidos por la comunidad internacional, como se evidencia en la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible. Sin embargo, una revisión de las políticas oficiales de los principales financiadores del sector sugiere que muchos de ellos aprueban solo parcialmente los hitos de los derechos humanos al agua y el

  12. Class Counts: An Overview and Response to Mr. Cooper's Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan

    2009-01-01

    This article presents Allan Ornstein's response to highly respected scholar, Bruce Cooper's review of Ornstein's 2007 book, "Class Counts: Education, Inequality and the Shrinking Middle Class." Here Ornstein attempts to elaborate on a few points that he felt Cooper missed in his review.

  13. Class Counts: An Overview and Response to Mr. Cooper's Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan

    2009-01-01

    This article presents Allan Ornstein's response to highly respected scholar, Bruce Cooper's review of Ornstein's 2007 book, "Class Counts: Education, Inequality and the Shrinking Middle Class." Here Ornstein attempts to elaborate on a few points that he felt Cooper missed in his review.

  14. [The internationalization of health: contextual elements and institutional frameworks of Brazilian cooperation].

    PubMed

    Pires-Alves, Fernando A; Paiva, Carlos Henrique Assunção; de Santana, José Paranaguá

    2012-12-01

    The article contextualizes the emergence of an international policy for the Brazilian Unified Health System as the common agenda of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the Brazilian Ministry of Health. For this purpose, two contextual axes were explored throughout the work. The first discusses the explicit relationship between the development-cooperation-health triad from an international perspective. The second examines the recent evolution of Brazilian foreign policy, particularly with respect to the role it is playing in South-South cooperation on health matters. The contextual framework that defines Brazilian international cooperation with PAHO is emphasized, above all with regard to the implementation of a specific cooperation agreement. The article concludes that this agreement, within the framework of South-South cooperation, is one of the principal institutional mechanisms established to bring about technical cooperation in health in the current setting.

  15. A Conceptual Framework for the Cultural Integration of Cooperative Learning: A Thai Primary Mathematics Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ji Yong; Nuntrakune, Tippawan

    2013-01-01

    The Thailand education reform adopted cooperative learning to improve the quality of education. However, it has been reported that the introduction and maintenance of cooperative learning has been difficult and uncertain because of the cultural differences. The study proposed a conceptual framework developed based on making a connection between…

  16. A Conceptual Framework for the Cultural Integration of Cooperative Learning: A Thai Primary Mathematics Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ji Yong; Nuntrakune, Tippawan

    2013-01-01

    The Thailand education reform adopted cooperative learning to improve the quality of education. However, it has been reported that the introduction and maintenance of cooperative learning has been difficult and uncertain because of the cultural differences. The study proposed a conceptual framework developed based on making a connection between…

  17. Joint Combined Exchange Training Evaluation Framework: A Crucial Tool in Security Cooperation Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    EXCHANGE TRAINING EVALUATION FRAMEWORK: A CRUCIAL TOOL IN SECURITY COOPERATION ASSESSMENT by Scott D. Leuthner Emmanuel G. Cabahug December...EVALUATION FRAMEWORK: A CRUCIAL TOOL IN SECURITY COOPERATION ASSESSMENT 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Scott D. Leuthner and Emmanuel G. Cabahug...counterparts, US-PH interoperability, and both militaries’ tactical skills. Despite several decades of conducting JCETs, no objective assessment of these

  18. The Framework for US-Canada Defense and Security Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-15

    cooperation continued, albeit on a more global scale, to the point that Joel Sokolsky (2002, p. 13) concluded, “relative to other branches of the...diminishing the focus on pure continental defense measures. As Joel Sokolsky (1991, p. 4) writes, “the key to the defense of North America and hence...security measures since 9/11 (Taylor, Robideaux & Jackson 2004, Tanguay & Therrien 2005). These extra costs have a tariff- like effect, negating the

  19. Cooperative Learning: Review of Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from pre-school through to tertiary level and across different subject domains. It involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks--goals and tasks that they would be unable to complete by…

  20. Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) Requirements Review

    SciTech Connect

    Zurawski, Jason, W; Mace, Kathryn, P

    2016-08-11

    In August 2016 The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) and Colorado State University (CSU) organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) located on the campus of Colorado State University. Several key findings highlighting the results from the review were discovered, with benefits to improve the overall scientific process for CIRA and CSU.

  1. Framework for Naval Cooperation between Vietnam and the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-09

    47 vii Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) ...............................................50 Relationships...106 viii ACRONYMS ADIZ Air Defense Identification Zone ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations CN China EEZ Exclusive...author has analyzed a peer-reviewed article titled “China’s Strategy in the South China Sea” written by M. Taylor Fravel—an Associate Professor of

  2. Developing Global Standards Framework and Quality Integrated Models for Cooperative and Work-Integrated Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khampirat, Buratin; McRae, Norah

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative and Work-integrated Education (CWIE) programs have been widely accepted as educational programs that can effectively connect what students are learning to the world of work through placements. Because a global quality standards framework could be a very valuable resource and guide to establishing, developing, and accrediting quality…

  3. Geologic review. Better regulation through interagency cooperation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, John E.; Rives, James D.; Soileau, David M.

    1989-01-01

    The Geologic Review procedure was developed by the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS) in 1982 for the Louisiana Coastal Management Division. It consists of a thorough review of oil and gas well applications involving impact to environmentally sensitive areas such as wetlands. The applicant attends a meeting with a geologist and a petroleum engineer from the LGS who review the relevant geologic, engineering and economic data and make a recommendation as to the technical and economic feasibility of reducing or avoiding environmental impact by either moving the well to a geologically equivalent location, directionally drilling the well, or accessing the proposed location by a different access route or methodology than that proposed.

  4. Enhanced Cooperativity in Supported Spin-Crossover Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Groizard, Thomas; Papior, Nick; Le Guennic, Boris; Robert, Vincent; Kepenekian, Mikaël

    2017-07-20

    The impact of surface deposition on cooperativity is explored in Au(111)-supported self-assembled metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) based on Fe(II) ions. Using a thermodynamic model, we first demonstrate that dimensionality reduction combined with deposition on a metal surface is likely to deeply enhance the spin-crossover cooperativity, going from γ3D = 16 K for the bulk material to γ2D(supp) = 386 K for its 2D supported derivative. On the basis of density functional theory, we then elucidate the electronic structure of a promising Fe-based MOF. A chemical strategy is proposed to turn a weakly interacting magnetic system into a strongly cooperative spin-crossover monolayer with γMOF(Au(111)) = 83 K. These results open a promising route to the fabrication of cooperative materials based on SCO Fe(II) platforms.

  5. Cooperative Learning and Literacy: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puzio, Kelly; Colby, Glenn T.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of cooperative and collaborative learning to support enhanced literacy outcomes. Interventions considered were provided in regular education settings (i.e., not pull-out instruction) with students from Grades 2 through 12. Reviewing more than 30 years of literacy research, we located 18…

  6. Order Denying Review -- Old Dominion Electric Cooperative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  7. A spin transition mechanism for cooperative adsorption in metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Reed, Douglas A; Keitz, Benjamin K; Oktawiec, Julia; Mason, Jarad A; Runčevski, Tomče; Xiao, Dianne J; Darago, Lucy E; Crocellà, Valentina; Bordiga, Silvia; Long, Jeffrey R

    2017-10-05

    Cooperative binding, whereby an initial binding event facilitates the uptake of additional substrate molecules, is common in biological systems such as haemoglobin. It was recently shown that porous solids that exhibit cooperative binding have substantial energetic benefits over traditional adsorbents, but few guidelines currently exist for the design of such materials. In principle, metal-organic frameworks that contain coordinatively unsaturated metal centres could act as both selective and cooperative adsorbents if guest binding at one site were to trigger an electronic transformation that subsequently altered the binding properties at neighbouring metal sites. Here we illustrate this concept through the selective adsorption of carbon monoxide (CO) in a series of metal-organic frameworks featuring coordinatively unsaturated iron(ii) sites. Functioning via a mechanism by which neighbouring iron(ii) sites undergo a spin-state transition above a threshold CO pressure, these materials exhibit large CO separation capacities with only small changes in temperature. The very low regeneration energies that result may enable more efficient Fischer-Tropsch conversions and extraction of CO from industrial waste feeds, which currently underutilize this versatile carbon synthon. The electronic basis for the cooperative adsorption demonstrated here could provide a general strategy for designing efficient and selective adsorbents suitable for various separations.

  8. Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The theme of this month's issue is "cooperation"--related to animal, personal, national, and global cooperation; rules and regulations; and team efforts. K-8 resources on the theme include World Wide Web sites, CD-ROM, software, videos, books, and others. Features include cooperative living, alliances of nations, songs of cooperation, and animals…

  9. US/Japan Cooperation in High Energy Physics. Review of activities, 1988--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-16

    The objective of the Implementing Arrangement was to further the energy programs of both countries by establishing a framework for cooperation in the field of high energy physics, including research, accelerator and detector instrumentation research and development, the fabrication and subsequent use of new experimental devices and facilities, and related joint efforts as may be mutually agreed. Over the years, this cooperation has been very effective and has strengthened the overall collaborative efforts and the understanding between our nations and their citizens. It has demonstrated to the world our ability to work together to attack difficult problems. High Energy Physics goes across national borders; the bond is clearly intellectual and common ground is shared for the benefit of all in a most effective manner. This review covers the activities conducted under the aegis of the US/Japan Committee for Cooperation in High Energy Physics during the past five years (1988--1993). This was the second such US review of the US/Japan cooperative activities; the first was held in 1987.

  10. A framework for service enterprise workflow simulation with multi-agents cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wenan; Xu, Wei; Yang, Fujun; Xu, Lida; Jiang, Chuanqun

    2013-11-01

    Process dynamic modelling for service business is the key technique for Service-Oriented information systems and service business management, and the workflow model of business processes is the core part of service systems. Service business workflow simulation is the prevalent approach to be used for analysis of service business process dynamically. Generic method for service business workflow simulation is based on the discrete event queuing theory, which is lack of flexibility and scalability. In this paper, we propose a service workflow-oriented framework for the process simulation of service businesses using multi-agent cooperation to address the above issues. Social rationality of agent is introduced into the proposed framework. Adopting rationality as one social factor for decision-making strategies, a flexible scheduling for activity instances has been implemented. A system prototype has been developed to validate the proposed simulation framework through a business case study.

  11. Highly Efficient Cooperative Catalysis by Co(III) (Porphyrin) Pairs in Interpenetrating Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zekai; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-10-24

    A series of porous twofold interpenetrated In-Co(III) (porphyrin) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were constructed by in situ metalation of porphyrin bridging ligands and used as efficient cooperative catalysts for the hydration of terminal alkynes. The twofold interpenetrating structure brings adjacent Co(III) (porphyrins) in the two networks parallel to each other with a distance of about 8.8 Å, an ideal distance for the simultaneous activation of both substrates in alkyne hydration reactions. As a result, the In-Co(III) (porphyrin) MOFs exhibit much higher (up to 38 times) catalytic activity than either homogeneous catalysts or MOF controls with isolated Co(III) (porphyrin) centers, thus highlighting the potential application of MOFs in cooperative catalysis. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Mental illness research in the Gulf Cooperation Council: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Jason E; Pryjmachuk, Steven; Waterman, Heather

    2016-08-04

    Rapid growth and development in recent decades has seen mental health and mental illness emerge as priority health concerns for the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). As a result, mental health services in the region are being redefined and expanded. However, there is a paucity of local research to guide ongoing service development. Local research is important because service users' experience of mental illness and mental health services are linked to their sociocultural context. In order for service development to be most effective, there is a need for increased understanding of the people who use these services.This article aims to review and synthesize mental health research from the Gulf Cooperation Council. It also seeks to identify gaps in the literature and suggest directions for future research. A scoping framework was used to conduct this review. To identify studies, database searches were undertaken, regional journals were hand-searched, and reference lists of included articles were examined. Empirical studies undertaken in the Gulf Cooperation Council that reported mental health service users' experience of mental illness were included. Framework analysis was used to synthesize results. Fifty-five studies met inclusion criteria and the following themes were identified: service preferences, illness (symptomology, perceived cause, impact), and recovery (traditional healing, family support, religion). Gaps included contradictory findings related to the supportive role of the Arabic extended family and religion, under-representation of women in study samples, and limited attention on illness management outside of the hospital setting.From this review, it is clear that the sociocultural context in the region is linked to service users' experience of mental illness. Future research that aims to fill the identified gaps and develop and test culturally appropriate interventions will aid practice

  13. Controlling Cooperative CO2 Adsorption in Diamine-Appended Mg2(dobpdc) Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Siegelman, Rebecca L; McDonald, Thomas M; Gonzalez, Miguel I; Martell, Jeffrey D; Milner, Phillip J; Mason, Jarad A; Berger, Adam H; Bhown, Abhoyjit S; Long, Jeffrey R

    2017-08-02

    In the transition to a clean-energy future, CO2 separations will play a critical role in mitigating current greenhouse gas emissions and facilitating conversion to cleaner-burning and renewable fuels. New materials with high selectivities for CO2 adsorption, large CO2 removal capacities, and low regeneration energies are needed to achieve these separations efficiently at scale. Here, we present a detailed investigation of nine diamine-appended variants of the metal-organic framework Mg2(dobpdc) (dobpdc(4-) = 4,4'-dioxidobiphenyl-3,3'-dicarboxylate) that feature step-shaped CO2 adsorption isotherms resulting from cooperative and reversible insertion of CO2 into metal-amine bonds to form ammonium carbamate chains. Small modifications to the diamine structure are found to shift the threshold pressure for cooperative CO2 adsorption by over 4 orders of magnitude at a given temperature, and the observed trends are rationalized on the basis of crystal structures of the isostructural zinc frameworks obtained from in situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. The structure-activity relationships derived from these results can be leveraged to tailor adsorbents to the conditions of a given CO2 separation process. The unparalleled versatility of these materials, coupled with their high CO2 capacities and low projected energy costs, highlights their potential as next-generation adsorbents for a wide array of CO2 separations.

  14. A review of bioinformatic pipeline frameworks

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract High-throughput bioinformatic analyses increasingly rely on pipeline frameworks to process sequence and metadata. Modern implementations of these frameworks differ on three key dimensions: using an implicit or explicit syntax, using a configuration, convention or class-based design paradigm and offering a command line or workbench interface. Here I survey and compare the design philosophies of several current pipeline frameworks. I provide practical recommendations based on analysis requirements and the user base. PMID:27013646

  15. Towards a Comprehensive Conceptual Framework of Active Travel Behavior: a Review and Synthesis of Published Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Götschi, Thomas; de Nazelle, Audrey; Brand, Christian; Gerike, Regine

    2017-07-13

    This paper reviews the use of conceptual frameworks in research on active travel, such as walking and cycling. Generic framework features and a wide range of contents are identified and synthesized into a comprehensive framework of active travel behavior, as part of the Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches project (PASTA). PASTA is a European multinational, interdisciplinary research project on active travel and health. Along with an exponential growth in active travel research, a growing number of conceptual frameworks has been published since the early 2000s. Earlier frameworks are simpler and emphasize the distinction of environmental vs. individual factors, while more recently several studies have integrated travel behavior theories more thoroughly. Based on the reviewed frameworks and various behavioral theories, we propose the comprehensive PASTA conceptual framework of active travel behavior. We discuss how it can guide future research, such as data collection, data analysis, and modeling of active travel behavior, and present some examples from the PASTA project.

  16. Fit of CAD/CAM implant frameworks: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Abduo, Jaafar

    2014-12-01

    Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) is a strongly emerging prosthesis fabrication method for implant dentistry. Currently, CAD/CAM allows the construction of implant frameworks from different materials. This review evaluates the literature pertaining to the precision fit of fixed implant frameworks fabricated by CAD/CAM. Following a comprehensive electronic search through PubMed (MEDLINE), 14 relevant articles were identified. The results indicate that the precision fit of CAD/CAM frameworks exceeded the fit of the 1-piece cast frameworks and laser-welded frameworks. A similar fit was observed for CAD/CAM frameworks and bonding of the framework body to prefabricated cylinders. The influence of CAD/CAM materials on the fit of a framework is minimal.

  17. Artificial Immunity Based Cooperative Sustainment Framework for Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, R. C. M.; Lau, H. Y. K.

    Many studies show that the modelling concept of multi-agent systems (MAS) can be very useful for many industries, such as automated production systems, modern distribution centres and warehouses, port container terminals and transportation systems, etc. However, when applying them to real life where unpredictable factors exists that lead to agent failures, they will not be able to perform as expected or even failed completely. A MAS that can withstand and recover from unpredictable failures is much welcomed by many industries that adopt automation as an integral part of their businesses. Therefore, we propose a cooperative sustainment framework to help MAS to recover the failed agent nodes and extend the system life using artificial immunity inspired design. To verify the usefulness of the design, we carry out some experiments and the result is encouraging.

  18. Hollow zeolitic imidazolate framework nanospheres as highly efficient cooperative catalysts for [3+3] cycloaddition reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Wei, Yongyi; Wu, Xiaotao; Jiang, Huangyong; Wang, Wei; Li, Hexing

    2014-10-08

    Herein we describe a novel, hollow-structured zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8-H) nanosphere as a highly efficient catalyst for [3+3] cycloaddition reactions. The programmed installation of acidic Zn(2+) species and basic imidazolate moieties creates a synergistic catalytic system. Appropriate positioning of these functionalities in the catalytic system makes it possible to bring two substrates into close proximity and activate them cooperatively. Moreover, the flexible shell and the surface mesopores of ZIF-8-H provide the capacity for favorable binding of various sized substrates, stabilizing intermediates via their multiple force networks and the increased accessibility of the active sites. These features render ZIF-8-H a more highly active promoter than its homogeneous precursors, bulk ZIF-8 and ZIF-8-N nanoparticles. Finally, the robust catalyst can be easily recovered and reused 10 times without loss of catalytic activity.

  19. Man-Robot Symbiosis: A Framework For Cooperative Intelligence And Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Lynne E.; Pin, Francois G.

    1988-10-01

    The man-robot symbiosis concept has the fundamental objective of bridging the gap between fully human-controlled and fully autonomous systems to achieve true man-robot cooperative control and intelligence. Such a system would allow improved speed, accuracy, and efficiency of task execution, while retaining the man in the loop for innovative reasoning and decision-making. The symbiont would have capabilities for supervised and unsupervised learning, allowing an increase of expertise in a wide task domain. This paper describes a robotic system architecture facilitating the symbiotic integration of teleoperative and automated modes of task execution. The architecture reflects a unique blend of many disciplines of artificial intelligence into a working system, including job or mission planning, dynamic task allocation, man-robot communication, automated monitoring, and machine learning. These disciplines are embodied in five major components of the symbiotic framework: the Job Planner, the Dynamic Task Allocator, the Presenter/Interpreter, the Automated Monitor, and the Learning System.

  20. Cooperative Control of Heterogeneous Uncertain Dynamical Networks: An Adaptive Explicit Synchronization Framework.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bohui; Wang, Jingcheng; Zhang, Langwen; Zhang, Bin; Li, Xiaocheng

    2017-06-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive explicit synchronization framework to address the cooperative control for heterogeneous uncertain dynamical networks under switching communication topologies. The main contribution is to develop an adaptive explicit synchronization algorithm, in which the synchronization state can be completely tracked by each agent in real time rather than only be measured after the synchronization process of all agents is over. By introducing appropriate assumptions, a class of adaptive explicit synchronization protocols is designed by using a combination of the virtual leader's states, the neighboring agents' relative information, distributed feedback gain, and distributed average weighted parameters. It is proved in the sense of Lyapunov that, if the dwell time is larger than a positive threshold, the cooperative control problem for the closed-loop heterogeneous uncertain dynamical networks under switching of strongly-connected communication topologies can be solved by the proposed adaptive explicit synchronization algorithm. Furthermore, by assuming that the topology is frequently strongly-connected, it shows that intermittent adaptive explicit synchronization can be achieved with well-designed control parameters. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed theory.

  1. A Review of Telehealth Service Implementation Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    van Dyk, Liezl

    2014-01-01

    Despite the potential of telehealth services to increase the quality and accessibility of healthcare, the success rate of such services has been disappointing. The purpose of this paper is to find and compare existing frameworks for the implementation of telehealth services that can contribute to the success rate of future endeavors. After a thorough discussion of these frameworks, this paper outlines the development methodologies in terms of theoretical background, methodology and validation. Finally, the common themes and formats are identified for consideration in future implementation. It was confirmed that a holistic implementation approach is needed, which includes technology, organizational structures, change management, economic feasibility, societal impacts, perceptions, user-friendliness, evaluation and evidence, legislation, policy and governance. Furthermore, there is some scope for scientifically rigorous framework development and validation approaches. PMID:24464237

  2. Executive Function in Preschoolers: A Review Using an Integrative Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garon, Nancy; Bryson, Susan E.; Smith, Isabel M.

    2008-01-01

    During the last 2 decades, major advances have been made in understanding the development of executive functions (EFs) in early childhood. This article reviews the EF literature during the preschool period using an integrative framework. The framework adopted considers EF to be a unitary construct with partially dissociable components (A. Miyake…

  3. Executive Function in Preschoolers: A Review Using an Integrative Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garon, Nancy; Bryson, Susan E.; Smith, Isabel M.

    2008-01-01

    During the last 2 decades, major advances have been made in understanding the development of executive functions (EFs) in early childhood. This article reviews the EF literature during the preschool period using an integrative framework. The framework adopted considers EF to be a unitary construct with partially dissociable components (A. Miyake…

  4. Cooperative insertion of CO2 in diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Thomas M.; Mason, Jarad A.; Kong, Xueqian; Bloch, Eric D.; Gygi, David; Dani, Alessandro; Crocellà, Valentina; Giordanino, Filippo; Odoh, Samuel O.; Drisdell, Walter S.; Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Dzubak, Allison L.; Poloni, Roberta; Schnell, Sondre K.; Planas, Nora; Lee, Kyuho; Pascal, Tod; Wan, Liwen F.; Prendergast, David; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Smit, Berend; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Gagliardi, Laura; Bordiga, Silvia; Reimer, Jeffrey A.; Long, Jeffrey R.

    2015-03-01

    The process of carbon capture and sequestration has been proposed as a method of mitigating the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. If implemented, the cost of electricity generated by a fossil fuel-burning power plant would rise substantially, owing to the expense of removing CO2 from the effluent stream. There is therefore an urgent need for more efficient gas separation technologies, such as those potentially offered by advanced solid adsorbents. Here we show that diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks can behave as `phase-change' adsorbents, with unusual step-shaped CO2 adsorption isotherms that shift markedly with temperature. Results from spectroscopic, diffraction and computational studies show that the origin of the sharp adsorption step is an unprecedented cooperative process in which, above a metal-dependent threshold pressure, CO2 molecules insert into metal-amine bonds, inducing a reorganization of the amines into well-ordered chains of ammonium carbamate. As a consequence, large CO2 separation capacities can be achieved with small temperature swings, and regeneration energies appreciably lower than achievable with state-of-the-art aqueous amine solutions become feasible. The results provide a mechanistic framework for designing highly efficient adsorbents for removing CO2 from various gas mixtures, and yield insights into the conservation of Mg2+ within the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase family of enzymes.

  5. Cooperative insertion of CO2 in diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Thomas M; Mason, Jarad A; Kong, Xueqian; Bloch, Eric D; Gygi, David; Dani, Alessandro; Crocellà, Valentina; Giordanino, Filippo; Odoh, Samuel O; Drisdell, Walter S; Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Dzubak, Allison L; Poloni, Roberta; Schnell, Sondre K; Planas, Nora; Lee, Kyuho; Pascal, Tod; Wan, Liwen F; Prendergast, David; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Smit, Berend; Kortright, Jeffrey B; Gagliardi, Laura; Bordiga, Silvia; Reimer, Jeffrey A; Long, Jeffrey R

    2015-03-19

    The process of carbon capture and sequestration has been proposed as a method of mitigating the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. If implemented, the cost of electricity generated by a fossil fuel-burning power plant would rise substantially, owing to the expense of removing CO2 from the effluent stream. There is therefore an urgent need for more efficient gas separation technologies, such as those potentially offered by advanced solid adsorbents. Here we show that diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks can behave as 'phase-change' adsorbents, with unusual step-shaped CO2 adsorption isotherms that shift markedly with temperature. Results from spectroscopic, diffraction and computational studies show that the origin of the sharp adsorption step is an unprecedented cooperative process in which, above a metal-dependent threshold pressure, CO2 molecules insert into metal-amine bonds, inducing a reorganization of the amines into well-ordered chains of ammonium carbamate. As a consequence, large CO2 separation capacities can be achieved with small temperature swings, and regeneration energies appreciably lower than achievable with state-of-the-art aqueous amine solutions become feasible. The results provide a mechanistic framework for designing highly efficient adsorbents for removing CO2 from various gas mixtures, and yield insights into the conservation of Mg(2+) within the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase family of enzymes.

  6. Flexibility Matters: Cooperative Active Sites in Covalent Organic Framework and Threaded Ionic Polymer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qi; Aguila, Briana; Perman, Jason; Nguyen, Nicholas; Ma, Shengqian

    2016-12-07

    The combination of two or more reactive centers working in concert on a substrate to facilitate the reaction is now considered state of the art in catalysis, yet there still remains a tremendous challenge. Few heterogeneous systems of this sort have been exploited, as the active sites spatially separated within the rigid framework are usually difficult to cooperate. It is now shown that this roadblock can be surpassed. The underlying principle of the strategy presented here is the integration of catalytic components with excellent flexibility and porous heterogeneous catalysts, as demonstrated by the placement of linear ionic polymers in close proximity to surface Lewis acid active sites anchored on the walls of a covalent organic framework (COF). Using the cycloaddition of the epoxides and CO2 as a model reaction, dramatic activity improvements have been achieved for the composite catalysts in relation to the individual catalytic component. Furthermore, they also clearly outperform the benchmark catalytic systems formed by the combination of the molecular organocatalysts and heterogeneous Lewis acid catalysts, while affording additional recyclability. The extraordinary flexibility and enriched concentration of the catalytically active moieties on linear polymers facilitate the concerted catalysis, thus leading to superior catalytic performance. This work therefore uncovers an entirely new strategy for designing bifunctional catalysts with double-activation behavior and opens a new avenue in the design of multicapable systems that mimic biocatalysis.

  7. Energy drinks in the Gulf Cooperation Council states: A review.

    PubMed

    Alhyas, Layla; El Kashef, Ahmed; AlGhaferi, Hamad

    2016-01-01

    Energy drinks have become a popular beverage worldwide. This review was carried out to have an overview among adolescents and emerging adults in the Gulf Co-operation Council states about energy drinks consumption rates and other related issues such as starting age and patterns of energy drink consumption. The Medline and Embase databases were searched separately using different terms such as energy drinks, energy beverages, and caffeinated drinks. Data related to the rates of energy drinks use were entered in STATA for statistical analysis. Then, these data were used to conduct meta-analysis to estimate the rate of energy drink consumption. Overall, meta-analysis results showed that the estimated rates of energy drinks consumption is 46.9% (95% CIs, 33.2 -66.1; nine studies) with I-square 3.7%. Findings indicated that individuals start to consume energy drinks at approximately 16 years old, and males were found to consume energy drinks more frequently than females. Results from this review carry several recommendations for policy and enforcement, public education and research that can help policy and decision makers to achieve the goal of safer use of energy drinks.

  8. Energy drinks in the Gulf Cooperation Council states: A review

    PubMed Central

    El Kashef, Ahmed; AlGhaferi, Hamad

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks have become a popular beverage worldwide. This review was carried out to have an overview among adolescents and emerging adults in the Gulf Co-operation Council states about energy drinks consumption rates and other related issues such as starting age and patterns of energy drink consumption. The Medline and Embase databases were searched separately using different terms such as energy drinks, energy beverages, and caffeinated drinks. Data related to the rates of energy drinks use were entered in STATA for statistical analysis. Then, these data were used to conduct meta-analysis to estimate the rate of energy drink consumption. Overall, meta-analysis results showed that the estimated rates of energy drinks consumption is 46.9% (95% CIs, 33.2 −66.1; nine studies) with I-square 3.7%. Findings indicated that individuals start to consume energy drinks at approximately 16 years old, and males were found to consume energy drinks more frequently than females. Results from this review carry several recommendations for policy and enforcement, public education and research that can help policy and decision makers to achieve the goal of safer use of energy drinks. PMID:26770815

  9. Applying Science: Opportunities to Inform Disease Management Policy with Cooperative Research within a One Health Framework.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Jason K; Kracalik, Ian T; Fair, Jeanne Marie

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the current saiga antelope die off in Kazakhstan each represent very real and difficult to manage public or veterinary health crises. They also illustrate the importance of stable and funded surveillance and sound policy for intervention or disease control. While these two events highlight extreme cases of infectious disease (Ebola) or (possible) environmental exposure (saiga), diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, tularemia, and plague are all zoonoses that pose risks and present surveillance challenges at the wildlife-livestock-human interfaces. These four diseases are also considered important actors in the threat of biological terror activities and have a long history as legacy biowarfare pathogens. This paper reviews recent studies done cooperatively between American and institutions within nations of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) focused on spatiotemporal, epidemiological, and ecological patterns of these four zoonoses. We examine recent studies and discuss the possible ways in which techniques, including ecological niche modeling, disease risk modeling, and spatiotemporal cluster analysis, can inform disease surveillance, control efforts, and impact policy. Our focus is to posit ways to apply science to disease management policy and actual management or mitigation practices. Across these examples, we illustrate the value of cooperative studies that bring together modern geospatial and epidemiological analyses to improve our understanding of the distribution of pathogens and diseases in livestock, wildlife, and humans. For example, ecological niche modeling can provide national level maps of pathogen distributions for surveillance planning, while space-time models can identify the timing and location of significant outbreak events for defining active control strategies. We advocate for the need to bring the results and the researchers from cooperative studies into the meeting rooms where policy is negotiated and

  10. Applying Science: Opportunities to Inform Disease Management Policy with Cooperative Research within a One Health Framework

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Jason K.; Kracalik, Ian T.; Fair, Jeanne Marie

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the current saiga antelope die off in Kazakhstan each represent very real and difficult to manage public or veterinary health crises. They also illustrate the importance of stable and funded surveillance and sound policy for intervention or disease control. While these two events highlight extreme cases of infectious disease (Ebola) or (possible) environmental exposure (saiga), diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, tularemia, and plague are all zoonoses that pose risks and present surveillance challenges at the wildlife-livestock–human interfaces. These four diseases are also considered important actors in the threat of biological terror activities and have a long history as legacy biowarfare pathogens. This paper reviews recent studies done cooperatively between American and institutions within nations of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) focused on spatiotemporal, epidemiological, and ecological patterns of these four zoonoses. We examine recent studies and discuss the possible ways in which techniques, including ecological niche modeling, disease risk modeling, and spatiotemporal cluster analysis, can inform disease surveillance, control efforts, and impact policy. Our focus is to posit ways to apply science to disease management policy and actual management or mitigation practices. Across these examples, we illustrate the value of cooperative studies that bring together modern geospatial and epidemiological analyses to improve our understanding of the distribution of pathogens and diseases in livestock, wildlife, and humans. For example, ecological niche modeling can provide national level maps of pathogen distributions for surveillance planning, while space-time models can identify the timing and location of significant outbreak events for defining active control strategies. We advocate for the need to bring the results and the researchers from cooperative studies into the meeting rooms where policy is negotiated

  11. Graph theoretic framework based cooperative control and estimation of multiple UAVs for target tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mousumi

    Designing the control technique for nonlinear dynamic systems is a significant challenge. Approaches to designing a nonlinear controller are studied and an extensive study on backstepping based technique is performed in this research with the purpose of tracking a moving target autonomously. Our main motivation is to explore the controller for cooperative and coordinating unmanned vehicles in a target tracking application. To start with, a general theoretical framework for target tracking is studied and a controller in three dimensional environment for a single UAV is designed. This research is primarily focused on finding a generalized method which can be applied to track almost any reference trajectory. The backstepping technique is employed to derive the controller for a simplified UAV kinematic model. This controller can compute three autopilot modes i.e. velocity, ground heading (or course angle), and flight path angle for tracking the unmanned vehicle. Numerical implementation is performed in MATLAB with the assumption of having perfect and full state information of the target to investigate the accuracy of the proposed controller. This controller is then frozen for the multi-vehicle problem. Distributed or decentralized cooperative control is discussed in the context of multi-agent systems. A consensus based cooperative control is studied; such consensus based control problem can be viewed from the algebraic graph theory concepts. The communication structure between the UAVs is represented by the dynamic graph where UAVs are represented by the nodes and the communication links are represented by the edges. The previously designed controller is augmented to account for the group to obtain consensus based on their communication. A theoretical development of the controller for the cooperative group of UAVs is presented and the simulation results for different communication topologies are shown. This research also investigates the cases where the communication

  12. A systematic review of implementation frameworks of innovations in healthcare and resulting generic implementation framework.

    PubMed

    Moullin, Joanna C; Sabater-Hernández, Daniel; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Benrimoj, Shalom I

    2015-03-14

    Implementation science and knowledge translation have developed across multiple disciplines with the common aim of bringing innovations to practice. Numerous implementation frameworks, models, and theories have been developed to target a diverse array of innovations. As such, it is plausible that not all frameworks include the full range of concepts now thought to be involved in implementation. Users face the decision of selecting a single or combining multiple implementation frameworks. To aid this decision, the aim of this review was to assess the comprehensiveness of existing frameworks. A systematic search was undertaken in PubMed to identify implementation frameworks of innovations in healthcare published from 2004 to May 2013. Additionally, titles and abstracts from Implementation Science journal and references from identified papers were reviewed. The orientation, type, and presence of stages and domains, along with the degree of inclusion and depth of analysis of factors, strategies, and evaluations of implementation of included frameworks were analysed. Frameworks were assessed individually and grouped according to their targeted innovation. Frameworks for particular innovations had similar settings, end-users, and 'type' (descriptive, prescriptive, explanatory, or predictive). On the whole, frameworks were descriptive and explanatory more often than prescriptive and predictive. A small number of the reviewed frameworks covered an implementation concept(s) in detail, however, overall, there was limited degree and depth of analysis of implementation concepts. The core implementation concepts across the frameworks were collated to form a Generic Implementation Framework, which includes the process of implementation (often portrayed as a series of stages and/or steps), the innovation to be implemented, the context in which the implementation is to occur (divided into a range of domains), and influencing factors, strategies, and evaluations. The selection of

  13. Shared Identity and Reconciliation: Can a Future Security Framework in Northeast Asia Draw from Experiences of the North Atlantic Security Cooperation?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    AND RECONCILIATION: CAN A FUTURE SECURITY FRAMEWORK IN NORTHEAST ASIA DRAW FROM EXPERIENCES OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC SECURITY COOPERATION? by...AND RECONCILIATION: CAN A FUTURE SECURITY FRAMEWORK IN NORTHEAST ASIA DRAW FROM EXPERIENCES OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC SECURITY COOPERATION? 5. FUNDING...DRAW FROM EXPERIENCES OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC SECURITY COOPERATION? Andreas Langenbach Major (GS), German Army M.A., University of the German

  14. Enhancing the collaborative review of NHS Education for Scotland's mentor preparation framework.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Kathleen; Emmens, Belinda

    2014-07-01

    Service review and redesign across the UK are moving towards an integrated health, social and third sector care system, and at the heart of the integration agenda is improving patient care through multistakeholder engagement and collaboration. Nurse managers are integral to supporting, sustaining and embedding this agenda by co-operating with the various stakeholders involved and at times managing them. Stakeholder analysis is a core aspect of stakeholder management.This article offers some insights and recommendations for managers by describing how Bunn et al's (2002) five-step stakeholder analysis process was used to support successful stakeholder collaboration in the revision of the core curriculum mentorship framework for Scotland.

  15. A cooperative game-theoretic framework for negotiating marine spatial allocation agreements among heterogeneous players.

    PubMed

    Kyriazi, Zacharoula; Lejano, Raul; Maes, Frank; Degraer, Steven

    2017-02-01

    Marine spatial allocation has become, in recent decades, a political flashpoint, fuelled by political power struggles, as well as the continuously increasing demand for marine space by both traditional and emerging marine uses. To effectively address this issue, we develop a decision-making procedure, that facilitates the distribution of disputed areas of specific size among heterogeneous players in a transparent and ethical way, while considering coalitional formations through coexistence. To do this, we model players' alternative strategies and payoffs within a cooperative game-theoretic framework. Depending on whether transferable utility (TU) or non-transferable utility (NTU) is the more appropriate assumption, we illustrate the use of the TU Shapley value and the Lejano's fixed point NTU Shapley value to solve for the ideal allocations. The applicability and effectiveness of the process has been tested in a case study area, the Dogger Bank Special Area of Conservation in the North Sea, which involves three totally or partially conflicting activities, i.e. fishing, nature conservation and wind farm development. The findings demonstrate that the process is capable of providing a unique, fair and equitable division of space Finally, among the two solution concepts proposed the fixed point NTU Shapley value manages to better address the heterogeneity of the players and thus to provide a more socially acceptable allocation that favours the weaker player, while demonstrating the importance of the monetary valuation attributed by each use to the area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Trust Management Considerations For the Cooperative Infrastructure Defense Framework: Trust Relationships, Evidence, and Decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Maiden, Wendy M.

    2009-12-01

    Cooperative Infrastructure Defense (CID) is a hierarchical, agent-based, adaptive, cyber-security framework designed to collaboratively protect multiple enclaves or organizations participating in a complex infrastructure. CID employs a swarm of lightweight, mobile agents called Sensors designed to roam hosts throughout a security enclave to find indications of anomalies and report them to host-based Sentinels. The Sensors’ findings become pieces of a larger puzzle, which the Sentinel puts together to determine the problem and respond per policy as given by the enclave-level Sergeant agent. Horizontally across multiple enclaves and vertically within each enclave, authentication and access control technologies are necessary but insufficient authorization mechanisms to ensure that CID agents continue to fulfill their roles in a trustworthy manner. Trust management fills the gap, providing mechanisms to detect malicious agents and offering more robust mechanisms for authorization. This paper identifies the trust relationships throughout the CID hierarchy, the types of trust evidence that could be gathered, and the actions that the CID system could take if an entity is determined to be untrustworthy.

  17. The blackboard model - A framework for integrating multiple cooperating expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    The use of an artificial intelligence (AI) architecture known as the blackboard model is examined as a framework for designing and building distributed systems requiring the integration of multiple cooperating expert systems (MCXS). Aerospace vehicles provide many examples of potential systems, ranging from commercial and military aircraft to spacecraft such as satellites, the Space Shuttle, and the Space Station. One such system, free-flying, spaceborne telerobots to be used in construction, servicing, inspection, and repair tasks around NASA's Space Station, is examined. The major difficulties found in designing and integrating the individual expert system components necessary to implement such a robot are outlined. The blackboard model, a general expert system architecture which seems to address many of the problems found in designing and building such a system, is discussed. A progress report on a prototype system under development called DBB (Distributed BlackBoard model) is given. The prototype will act as a testbed for investigating the feasibility, utility, and efficiency of MCXS-based designs developed under the blackboard model.

  18. The blackboard model - A framework for integrating multiple cooperating expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    The use of an artificial intelligence (AI) architecture known as the blackboard model is examined as a framework for designing and building distributed systems requiring the integration of multiple cooperating expert systems (MCXS). Aerospace vehicles provide many examples of potential systems, ranging from commercial and military aircraft to spacecraft such as satellites, the Space Shuttle, and the Space Station. One such system, free-flying, spaceborne telerobots to be used in construction, servicing, inspection, and repair tasks around NASA's Space Station, is examined. The major difficulties found in designing and integrating the individual expert system components necessary to implement such a robot are outlined. The blackboard model, a general expert system architecture which seems to address many of the problems found in designing and building such a system, is discussed. A progress report on a prototype system under development called DBB (Distributed BlackBoard model) is given. The prototype will act as a testbed for investigating the feasibility, utility, and efficiency of MCXS-based designs developed under the blackboard model.

  19. A review of cooperative and uncooperative spacecraft pose determination techniques for close-proximity operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opromolla, Roberto; Fasano, Giancarmine; Rufino, Giancarlo; Grassi, Michele

    2017-08-01

    The capability of an active spacecraft to accurately estimate its relative position and attitude (pose) with respect to an active/inactive, artificial/natural space object (target) orbiting in close-proximity is required to carry out various activities like formation flying, on-orbit servicing, active debris removal, and space exploration. According to the specific mission scenario, the pose determination task involves both theoretical and technological challenges related to the search for the most suitable algorithmic solution and sensor architecture, respectively. As regards the latter aspect, electro-optical sensors represent the best option as their use is compatible with mass and power limitation of micro and small satellites, and their measurements can be processed to estimate all the pose parameters. Overall, the degree of complexity of the challenges related to pose determination largely varies depending on the nature of the targets, which may be actively/passively cooperative, uncooperative but known, or uncooperative and unknown space objects. In this respect, while cooperative pose determination has been successfully demonstrated in orbit, the uncooperative case is still under study by universities, research centers, space agencies and private companies. However, in both the cases, the demand for space applications involving relative navigation maneuvers, also in close-proximity, for which pose determination capabilities are mandatory, is significantly increasing. In this framework, a review of state-of-the-art techniques and algorithms developed in the last decades for cooperative and uncooperative pose determination by processing data provided by electro-optical sensors is herein presented. Specifically, their main advantages and drawbacks in terms of achieved performance, computational complexity, and sensitivity to variability of pose and target geometry, are highlighted.

  20. Computerized craniofacial reconstruction: Conceptual framework and review.

    PubMed

    Claes, Peter; Vandermeulen, Dirk; De Greef, Sven; Willems, Guy; Clement, John Gerald; Suetens, Paul

    2010-09-10

    When confronted with a corpse that is unrecognizable due to its state of decomposition, soft-tissue mutilation or incineration, and if no other identification evidence is available, craniofacial reconstruction (CFR) can be a useful tool in the identification of the body. Traditional methods are based on manual reconstruction by physically modelling a face on a skull replica with clay or plasticine. The progress in computer science and the improvement of medical imaging technologies during recent years has had a significant impact on this domain. New, fast, flexible and computer-based objective reconstruction programs are under development. Employing the newer technologies and permanently evaluating the obtained results will hopefully lead to more accurate reconstructions, beneficial to the added value of CFR methods during crime-scene investigations. A general model-based workflow is observed, when analysing computerized CFR techniques today. The main purpose of this paper is to give an overview of existing computer-based CFR methods up to date defined within a common framework using a general taxonomy. The paper will also discuss the various alternatives and problems which arise during the process of designing a CFR program. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Business model framework applications in health care: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fredriksson, Jens Jacob; Mazzocato, Pamela; Muhammed, Rafiq; Savage, Carl

    2017-01-01

    It has proven to be a challenge for health care organizations to achieve the Triple Aim. In the business literature, business model frameworks have been used to understand how organizations are aligned to achieve their goals. We conducted a systematic literature review with an explanatory synthesis approach to understand how business model frameworks have been applied in health care. We found a large increase in applications of business model frameworks during the last decade. E-health was the most common context of application. We identified six applications of business model frameworks: business model description, financial assessment, classification based on pre-defined typologies, business model analysis, development, and evaluation. Our synthesis suggests that the choice of business model framework and constituent elements should be informed by the intent and context of application. We see a need for harmonization in the choice of elements in order to increase generalizability, simplify application, and help organizations realize the Triple Aim.

  2. Regulation during Cooperative and Collaborative Learning: A Theory-Based Review of Terms and Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoor, Cornelia; Narciss, Susanne; Körndle, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the terms and concepts that have been used for describing regulation of learning during cooperative and collaborative learning and suggests differentiating them on the basis of which parts of a regulatory feedback loop model are being shared. During cooperative and collaborative learning, not only self-regulation but also the…

  3. Regulation during Cooperative and Collaborative Learning: A Theory-Based Review of Terms and Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoor, Cornelia; Narciss, Susanne; Körndle, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the terms and concepts that have been used for describing regulation of learning during cooperative and collaborative learning and suggests differentiating them on the basis of which parts of a regulatory feedback loop model are being shared. During cooperative and collaborative learning, not only self-regulation but also the…

  4. Frameworks to assess health systems governance: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Helen; van den Broek, Nynke

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Governance of the health system is a relatively new concept and there are gaps in understanding what health system governance is and how it could be assessed. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to describe the concept of governance and the theories underpinning as applied to health systems; and to identify which frameworks are available and have been applied to assess health systems governance. Frameworks were reviewed to understand how the principles of governance might be operationalized at different levels of a health system. Electronic databases and web portals of international institutions concerned with governance were searched for publications in English for the period January 1994 to February 2016. Sixteen frameworks developed to assess governance in the health system were identified and are described. Of these, six frameworks were developed based on theories from new institutional economics; three are primarily informed by political science and public management disciplines; three arise from the development literature and four use multidisciplinary approaches. Only five of the identified frameworks have been applied. These used the principal–agent theory, theory of common pool resources, North’s institutional analysis and the cybernetics theory. Governance is a practice, dependent on arrangements set at political or national level, but which needs to be operationalized by individuals at lower levels in the health system; multi-level frameworks acknowledge this. Three frameworks were used to assess governance at all levels of the health system. Health system governance is complex and difficult to assess; the concept of governance originates from different disciplines and is multidimensional. There is a need to validate and apply existing frameworks and share lessons learnt regarding which frameworks work well in which settings. A comprehensive assessment of governance could enable policy makers to prioritize solutions for

  5. Frameworks to assess health systems governance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pyone, Thidar; Smith, Helen; van den Broek, Nynke

    2017-03-03

    Governance of the health system is a relatively new concept and there are gaps in understanding what health system governance is and how it could be assessed. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to describe the concept of governance and the theories underpinning as applied to health systems; and to identify which frameworks are available and have been applied to assess health systems governance. Frameworks were reviewed to understand how the principles of governance might be operationalized at different levels of a health system. Electronic databases and web portals of international institutions concerned with governance were searched for publications in English for the period January 1994 to February 2016. Sixteen frameworks developed to assess governance in the health system were identified and are described. Of these, six frameworks were developed based on theories from new institutional economics; three are primarily informed by political science and public management disciplines; three arise from the development literature and four use multidisciplinary approaches. Only five of the identified frameworks have been applied. These used the principal-agent theory, theory of common pool resources, North's institutional analysis and the cybernetics theory. Governance is a practice, dependent on arrangements set at political or national level, but which needs to be operationalized by individuals at lower levels in the health system; multi-level frameworks acknowledge this. Three frameworks were used to assess governance at all levels of the health system. Health system governance is complex and difficult to assess; the concept of governance originates from different disciplines and is multidimensional. There is a need to validate and apply existing frameworks and share lessons learnt regarding which frameworks work well in which settings. A comprehensive assessment of governance could enable policy makers to prioritize solutions for problems identified

  6. A Quantitative Literature Review of Cooperative Learning Effects on High School and College Chemistry Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Craig W.

    2000-01-01

    Describes meta-analysis, a quantitative approach to conducting literature reviews. Illustrates the power of this technique by reporting the quantitative effects of cooperative learning on chemistry achievement in high school and college classes. (Contains 32 references.) (WRM)

  7. Percolation features of cooperative Jahn-Teller systems: Ising EFT framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moujaes, Elie A.; Abou Ghantous, Michel

    2014-08-01

    Elastic exchange between two nearest Jahn-Teller (JT) centers in two or three dimensional dense crystals, can give an ordered macroscopic distortion known as cooperative JT effect (CJTE). A very diluted JT crystal does not show this effect. In the dynamic JT effect (DJTE), tunneling between different equivalent distorted wells has a pronounced influence on the CJTE. We investigate this phenomenon using a progressive increase in the concentration of these centers in the JT crystals, based on a bond percolation vector spin analogy technique within the framework of effective field theory (EFT). Mean field theory (MFT) was extensively used in previous studies of CJTE; however it neither includes correlation between JT centers in the lattice due to the complexity of the distortion field in the crystal nor the effect of tunneling between wells. We resort to an alternative procedure, by describing a JT center as a pseudo-spin vector , induced to represent the degenerate JT-distorted states, where two nearest JT centers interact via an elastic exchange described by an Ising type spin interaction. The DJTE is considered to be similar to an elastic transverse field term in the Hamiltonian portraying the effect of tunneling between equivalent wells in the adiabatic potential energy surface (APES). We will be particularly discussing S = 1, S = 3/2 and S = 5/2 spin cases, where 2 S + 1 wells in the APES are present and what JT systems they actually represent, with a percolative mechanism applied to the interactions between different JT centers. The different lattices are distinguished by their coordination numbers. Strong tunneling effects can suppress the CJTE and lead to a new state of criticality. Generalizations to higher spin systems will be obtained using a scaling technique. For the relevant distortions, we determine single site correlations, the macroscopic average distortion describing a structural phase transition and the elastic isothermal susceptibility as a

  8. Community Engagement in Research: Frameworks for Education and Peer Review

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Ann-Gel S.

    2010-01-01

    Community engagement in research may enhance a community's ability to address its own health needs and health disparities issues while ensuring that researchers understand community priorities. However, there are researchers with limited understanding of and experience with effective methods of engaging communities. Furthermore, limited guidance is available for peer-review panels on evaluating proposals for research that engages communities. The National Institutes of Health Director's Council of Public Representatives developed a community engagement framework that includes values, strategies to operationalize each value, and potential outcomes of their use, as well as a peer-review framework for evaluating research that engages communities. Use of these frameworks for educating researchers to create and sustain authentic community–academic partnerships will increase accountability and equality between the partners. PMID:20558798

  9. Community engagement in research: frameworks for education and peer review.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed M; Palermo, Ann-Gel S

    2010-08-01

    Community engagement in research may enhance a community's ability to address its own health needs and health disparities issues while ensuring that researchers understand community priorities. However, there are researchers with limited understanding of and experience with effective methods of engaging communities. Furthermore, limited guidance is available for peer-review panels on evaluating proposals for research that engages communities. The National Institutes of Health Director's Council of Public Representatives developed a community engagement framework that includes values, strategies to operationalize each value, and potential outcomes of their use, as well as a peer-review framework for evaluating research that engages communities. Use of these frameworks for educating researchers to create and sustain authentic community-academic partnerships will increase accountability and equality between the partners.

  10. Arts Integration Frameworks, Research & Practice. A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnaford, Gail

    2007-01-01

    This literature review is an essential resource for anyone involved in the research, theories, or methods and practices of arts integration. It covers what has been written between 1995 and 2007 in the U.S. and abroad and includes an historical overview, definitions and theoretical frameworks for arts integration, research and evaluation studies…

  11. Arts Integration Frameworks, Research & Practice. A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnaford, Gail

    2007-01-01

    This literature review is an essential resource for anyone involved in the research, theories, or methods and practices of arts integration. It covers what has been written between 1995 and 2007 in the U.S. and abroad and includes an historical overview, definitions and theoretical frameworks for arts integration, research and evaluation studies…

  12. A Review of Literacy Frameworks for Learning Environments Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebmann, Kristen Radsliff

    2013-01-01

    This article charts the development of three literacy research frameworks: multiliteracies, new literacies, and popular literacies. By reviewing the literature surrounding three current conceptions of literacy, an attempt is made to form an integrative grouping that captures the most relevant elements of each for learning environments design.…

  13. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2016 year in review postcard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Organ, John F.; Thompson, John D.; Dennerline, Don E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2017-02-22

    Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2016 Year in Review postcardThis postcard provides details about the Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units (CRU) Program—2016 Year in Review, Circular 1424. This Circular provides information relating to fish and wildlife science, students, staffing, vacancies, research funding, outreach and training, science themes, background on the CRU program, accolades, and professional services. Snapshots of Unit projects with information on how results have been or are being applied by cooperators are included. This is the essence of what we do: science that matters.Throughout the year, keep up with our research projects at www.coopunits.org.

  14. A competency framework for librarians involved in systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Whitney A; Anderson, Patricia F; Ginier, Emily C; MacEachern, Mark P; Saylor, Kate M; Shipman, Barbara L; Smith, Judith E

    2017-07-01

    The project identified a set of core competencies for librarians who are involved in systematic reviews. A team of seven informationists with broad systematic review experience examined existing systematic review standards, conducted a literature search, and used their own expertise to identify core competencies and skills that are necessary to undertake various roles in systematic review projects. The team identified a total of six competencies for librarian involvement in systematic reviews: "Systematic review foundations," "Process management and communication," "Research methodology," "Comprehensive searching," "Data management," and "Reporting." Within each competency are the associated skills and knowledge pieces (indicators). Competence can be measured using an adaptation of Miller's Pyramid for Clinical Assessment, either through self-assessment or identification of formal assessment instruments. The Systematic Review Competencies Framework provides a standards-based, flexible way for librarians and organizations to identify areas of competence and areas in need of development to build capacity for systematic review integration. The framework can be used to identify or develop appropriate assessment tools and to target skill development opportunities.

  15. A competency framework for librarians involved in systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Whitney A.; Anderson, Patricia F.; Ginier, Emily C.; MacEachern, Mark P.; Saylor, Kate M.; Shipman, Barbara L.; Smith, Judith E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The project identified a set of core competencies for librarians who are involved in systematic reviews. Methods A team of seven informationists with broad systematic review experience examined existing systematic review standards, conducted a literature search, and used their own expertise to identify core competencies and skills that are necessary to undertake various roles in systematic review projects. Results The team identified a total of six competencies for librarian involvement in systematic reviews: “Systematic review foundations,” “Process management and communication,” “Research methodology,” “Comprehensive searching,” “Data management,” and “Reporting.” Within each competency are the associated skills and knowledge pieces (indicators). Competence can be measured using an adaptation of Miller’s Pyramid for Clinical Assessment, either through self-assessment or identification of formal assessment instruments. Conclusions The Systematic Review Competencies Framework provides a standards-based, flexible way for librarians and organizations to identify areas of competence and areas in need of development to build capacity for systematic review integration. The framework can be used to identify or develop appropriate assessment tools and to target skill development opportunities. PMID:28670216

  16. Cooperation, Convertibility, and Compatibility Among Information Systems: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Madeline M.; And Others

    The purpose of the study of the literature on which this report is based was to examine those problems in the field of documentation and in the operation of information systems which could possibly be solved or alleviated by some greater measure of cooperation, convertibility, or compatibility among systems, particularly those systems for handling…

  17. Business-Education Cooperation: A Review of Selected Urban Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubauer, Antonia

    Brief descriptions of individual models of business/education cooperation in ten U.S. cities are presented in this report. The models were either developed under the aegis of local Chambers of Commerce or depict major urban partnerships of which the Chambers are a part. Cities with such programs include Boston, Cincinnati, Dallas, Hartford,…

  18. Fetal microchimerism and maternal health: A review and evolutionary analysis of cooperation and conflict beyond the womb

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Angelo; Wilson Sayres, Melissa; Aktipis, Athena

    2015-01-01

    The presence of fetal cells has been associated with both positive and negative effects on maternal health. These paradoxical effects may be due to the fact that maternal and offspring fitness interests are aligned in certain domains and conflicting in others, which may have led to the evolution of fetal microchimeric phenotypes that can manipulate maternal tissues. We use cooperation and conflict theory to generate testable predictions about domains in which fetal microchimerism may enhance maternal health and those in which it may be detrimental. This framework suggests that fetal cells may function both to contribute to maternal somatic maintenance (e.g. wound healing) and to manipulate maternal physiology to enhance resource transmission to offspring (e.g. enhancing milk production). In this review, we use an evolutionary framework to make testable predictions about the role of fetal microchimerism in lactation, thyroid function, autoimmune disease, cancer and maternal emotional, and psychological health. Also watch the Video Abstract. PMID:26316378

  19. There Is an Alternative: A Report on an Action Research Project to Develop a Framework for Co-Operative Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary, Mike; Winn, Joss

    2017-01-01

    This report provides an interim account of a participatory action research project undertaken during 2015-16. The research brought together scholars, students and expert members of the co-operative movement to design a theoretically informed and practically grounded framework for co-operative higher education that activists, educators and the…

  20. International Review of Frameworks for Standard Setting & Labeling Development

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Khanna, Nina Zheng; Fridley, David; Romankiewicz, John

    2012-09-01

    As appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs reach a broader geographic and product scope, a series of sophisticated and complex technical and economic analyses have been adopted by different countries in the world to support and enhance these growing S&L programs. The initial supporting techno-economic and impact analyses for S&L development make up a defined framework and process for setting and developing appropriate appliance efficiency standards and labeling programs. This report reviews in-depth the existing framework for standards setting and label development in the well-established programs of the U.S., Australia and the EU to identify and evaluate major trends in how and why key analyses are undertaken and to understand major similarities and differences between each of the frameworks.

  1. Health information systems evaluation frameworks: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Eslami Andargoli, Amirhossein; Scheepers, Helana; Rajendran, Diana; Sohal, Amrik

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of health information systems (HISs) is complicated because of the complex nature of the health care domain. Various studies have proposed different frameworks to reduce the complexity in the assessment of these systems. The aim of these frameworks is to provide a set of guidelines for the evaluation of the adequacy of health care information systems. This paper aims to analyse studies on the evaluation of HISs by applying a content, context and process (CCP) framework to address the 'who', 'what', 'how', 'when', and 'why' of the evaluation processes used. This will allow for a better understanding of the relative strengths and weaknesses of various HISs evaluation frameworks, and will pave the way for developing a more complete framework for HISs. A systematic literature review on HIS evaluation studies was undertaken to identify the currently available HIS evaluation frameworks. Five academic databases were selected to conduct this systematic literature review. Most of the studies only address some, but not all, of the five main questions, i.e. the who, what, how, when, why, and that there was a lack of consensus in the way these questions were addressed. The critical role of context was also largely neglected in these studies. Evaluation of HISs is complex. The health care domain is highly context sensitive and in order to have a complete assessment of HISs, consideration of contextual factors is necessary. Specifically, to have the right set of criteria to measure the 'what', the answer to the 'who' of the evaluation is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Methods for the evaluation of hospital cooperation activities (Systematic review protocol).

    PubMed

    Rotter, Thomas; Popa, Daniela; Riley, Beatrice; Ellermann, Tim; Ryll, Ulrike; Burazeri, Genc; Daemen, Piet; Peeters, Guy; Brand, Helmut

    2012-02-10

    Hospital partnerships, mergers and cooperatives are arrangements frequently seen as a means of improving health service delivery. Many of the assumptions used in planning hospital cooperatives are not stated clearly and are often based on limited or poor scientific evidence. This is a protocol for a systematic review, following the Cochrane EPOC methodology. The review aims to document, catalogue and synthesize the existing literature on the reported methods for the evaluation of hospital cooperation activities as well as methods of hospital cooperation. We will search the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and bibliographic databases including PubMed (via NLM), Web of Science, NHS EED, Business Source Premier (via EBSCO) and Global Health for publications that report on methods for evaluating hospital cooperatives, strategic partnerships, mergers, alliances, networks and related activities and methods used for such partnerships. The method proposed by the Cochrane EPOC group regarding randomized study designs, controlled clinical trials, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time series will be followed. In addition, we will also include cohort, case-control studies, and relevant non-comparative publications such as case reports. We will categorize and analyze the review findings according to the study design employed, the study quality (low versus high quality studies) and the method reported in the primary studies. We will present the results of studies in tabular form. Overall, the systematic review aims to identify, assess and synthesize the evidence to underpin hospital cooperation activities as defined in this protocol. As a result, the review will provide an evidence base for partnerships, alliances or other fields of cooperation in a hospital setting. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42011001579.

  3. Highly Efficient Cooperative Catalysis by Co III (Porphyrin) Pairs in Interpenetrating Metal-Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zekai; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-12-02

    A series of porous twofold interpenetrated In-CoIII(porphyrin) metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) were constructed by in situ metalation of porphyrin bridging ligands and used as efficient cooperative catalysts for the hydration of terminal alkynes. The twofold interpenetrating structure brings adjacent CoIII(porphyrins) in the two networks parallel to each other with a distance of about 8.8 Å, an ideal distance for the simultaneous activation of both substrates in alkyne hydration reactions. As a result, the In-CoIII(porphyrin) MOFs exhibit much higher (up to 38 times) catalytic activity than either homogeneous catalysts or MOF controls with isolated CoIII(porphyrin) centers, thus highlighting the potential application of MOFs in cooperative catalysis.

  4. Theoretical frameworks for testing relativistic gravity: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, K. S.; Will, C. M.; Ni, W.

    1971-01-01

    Metric theories of gravity are presented, including the definition of metric theory, evidence for its existence, and response of matter to gravity with test body trajectories, gravitational red shift, and stressed matter responses. Parametrized post-Newtonian framework and interpretations are reviewed. Gamma, beta and gamma, and varied other parameters were measured. Deflection of electromagnetic waves, radar time delay, geodetic gyroscope precession, perihelion shifts, and periodic effects in orbits are among various studies carried out for metric theory experimentation.

  5. Personality disorder categories as combinations of dimensions: translating cooperative behavior in borderline personality disorder into the five-factor framework.

    PubMed

    Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Verkasalo, Markku; Wichardt, Philipp C; Walkowitz, Gari

    2012-04-01

    The authors examined the proposal that personality disorder categories may denote particular detrimental combinations of personality dimensions. A multiround economic exchange game (ten round trust game), conducted with university students pre-selected on basis of their personalities (N = 164), provided a framework within which to investigate inability to repair ruptured cooperation. This behavior, thought to be characteristic of patients diagnosed with DSM-IV borderline personality disorder, was predicted only by the combination of high Neuroticism and low Agreeableness. Our results highlight an advantage of the categorical approach, category labels being a much more economic means of description than the delineation of interactions between dimensions.

  6. Cooperative Assembly of 3-Ring-Based Zeolite-Type Metal-Organic Frameworks and Johnson-Type Dodecahedra

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shou-Tian; Zuo, Fan; Wu, Tao; Irfanoglu, Burcin; Chou, Chengtsung; Nieto, Ruben A.; Feng, Pingyun

    2015-01-01

    Two birds with one stone One synthetic strategy led to the preparation of both 3-ring-based zeolite-type metal-organic frameworks (NPO-type) and Johnson-type metal-organic polyhedra. The strategy is based on the cooperative assembly of 4-connected indium nodes with two symmetry-complementary ligands (one serves to generate 3-rings and the other crosslinks 3-rings). Photocatalytic H2 production experiments demonstrated these NPO-zeolite compounds behave as semiconductors and exhibit photocatalytic activity for the generation of dihydrogen from water under ultraviolet irradiation. PMID:21328654

  7. 78 FR 55252 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; State Review Framework

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; State Review Framework AGENCY... Framework (EPA ICR No. 2185.05, OMB Control No. 2020-0031) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for... OMB. Abstract: The State Review Framework (``Framework'') is an oversight tool designed to assess...

  8. Analysis of Three Frameworks for Quality Assurance in Sino-Foreign Cooperation for Running Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaocheng, Zhou

    2009-01-01

    As economic globalization sweeps across the world, cross-border higher education cooperation has witnessed remarkable achievements. Quality improvements, however, have not stepped up accordingly due to reasons including imperfect and distorted policies, incomplete governance structures, and the absence of an effective internal quality assessment…

  9. Cooperation between socialist countries in space biology and medicine within the framework of the Interkosmos program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurovskiy, N. N.

    1974-01-01

    Upon the proposal of the Soviet Union, experts from the socialist countries accepted the following scientific problems for cooperation in space biology and medicine: (1) the effect on the body of extreme space flight factors (space physiology); (2) radiation safety of space flights and search for pharmaco-chemical means of antiradiation protection; and (3) medico-biological aspects of closed ecological systems.

  10. Theoretical Framework for Cooperative Participatory Action Research (CPAR) in a Multicultural Campus: The Social Drama Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Zelniker, Tamar; Azaiza, Faisal

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a long-term research seminar, developed in 2001 by Hertz-Lazarowitz at the University of Haifa (UH). The goal of the seminar was to involve students in a meaningful, experiential and cooperative-interactive learning environment, based on topics relevant to their development as individuals coming from diverse collectives to the…

  11. Intelligence Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific Region: Establishing a Framework for Multilateralism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    111 Synthesis : The Way Ahead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Closing Thoughts...intelligence support plan. The culmination of the two-week curriculum was a course synthesis seminar “The Way Ahead.” The Fellows were first tasked to...Peace-Keeping Operations (notional) ● Briefing to Executive Panel Day Nine: Course Synthesis — The Way Ahead ● Intelligence Cooperation

  12. A Safe Cooperative Framework for Atmospheric Science Missions with Multiple Heterogeneous UAS using Piecewise Bezier Curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehdi, S. Bilal; Puig-Navarro, Javier; Choe, Ronald; Cichella, Venanzio; Hovakimyan, Naira; Chandarana, Meghan; Trujillo, Anna; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Tran, Loc; Neilan, James H.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous operation of UAS holds promise for greater productivity of atmospheric science missions. However, several challenges need to be overcome before such missions can be made autonomous. This paper presents a framework for safe autonomous operations of multiple vehicles, particularly suited for atmospheric science missions. The framework revolves around the use of piecewise Bezier curves for trajectory representation, which in conjunction with path-following and time-coordination algorithms, allows for safe coordinated operations of multiple vehicles.

  13. Military Cooperation Frameworks: Effective Models to Address Transnational Security Challenges of the Asia-Pacific Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-04

    January 1923. As recorded in: J.F.C. Fuller, Memoirs of an Unconventional Soldier (London, UK: Nicholson & Watson, 1936), 417–418. 21APCSS Overview...2011. Available from the APCSS College for Security Studies. 27Advance Security Cooperation Concept Paper 2011, as developed by Dr. Justin ...Paper - 2011, as developed by Dr. Justin Nankivell, Available from APCSS Strategy & Assessments Office, gardnerj@apcss.org ____, APCSS 15 Year

  14. Developing an Assessment, Monitoring, and Evaluation Framework for U.S. Department of Defense Security Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    programs, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development ( OECD ), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the Depart- ment of...Ministry of Defense Advisors program and other DIB programs. Beyond DoD While OECD does not have an AME system for the international community to use, it...and internationally use OECD as a forum for discussing how to implement these principles and share best practices. Most Department of State and

  15. Research review: a neuroscience framework for pediatric anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Pine, Daniel S

    2007-07-01

    Across a range of mammalian species, early developmental variations in fear-related behaviors constrain patterns of anxious behavior throughout life. Individual differences in anxiety among rodents and non-human primates have been shown to reflect early-life influences of genes and the environment on brain circuitry. However, in humans, the manner in which genes and the environment developmentally shape individual differences in anxiety and associated brain circuitry remains poorly specified. The current review presents a conceptual framework that facilitates clinical research examining developmental influences on brain circuitry and anxiety. Research using threat-exposure paradigms might most directly integrate basic and clinical perspectives on pediatric anxiety.

  16. A Quantitative Literature Review of Cooperative Learning Effects on High School and College Chemistry Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Craig W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper has two purposes. First, the reader is given an overview on how quantitative literature reviews (meta-analyses) can be conducted to give overall estimates of the quantitative impact an instructional treatment has on a specific student outcome. The second purpose is to illustrate how such a literature review is carried out by examining studies on using cooperative learning to teach chemistry at the high school and college levels. This analysis extends earlier reported work on effects of cooperative learning on achievement in college-level science, mathematics, and engineering and technology (SMET) courses. The analysis shows that while median student performance in a traditional course is at the 50th percentile, the median student performance in a cooperative learning environment is 14 percentile points higher.

  17. Coordinating Computer-Supported Cooperative Work: A Review of Research Issues and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kies, Jonathan K.; Williges, Robert C.; Rosson, Mary Beth

    1998-01-01

    With respect to the design of cooperative systems, issues related to the fundamental communication channels, sociotechnical factors, and task characteristics associated with collaborative work situations are reviewed. Research strategies incorporating theory-motivated design, ethnographic methods, and controlled testing methods are discussed as a…

  18. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2015 Year In Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Organ, John F.; Thompson, John; Dennerline, Don E.; Childs, Dawn

    2016-03-02

    In this Year in Review report, you will find details on staffing, vacancies, research funding, and other pertinent information. You will also see snapshots of Unit projects with information on how results have been or are being applied by cooperators. That is the essence of what we do: science that matter.

  19. Book review: Disease and Threatened Birds, edited by J. E. Cooper

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.

    1992-01-01

    Review of: Disease and threatened birds : based on the proceedings of a symposium held at the XIX World Conference of the International Council for Bird Preservation, June 1986, Queens University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Edited by J. E. Cooper. Cambridge, England : International Council for Bird Preservation, 1989. ICBP technical publication ; no. 10.

  20. Effects of Cooperative Learning on the Academic Achievement of Students with Learning Disabilities: An Update of Tateyama-Sniezek's Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Kristen Nyman; Fuchs, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews 15 research studies published from 1990 to 2000 examining effects of cooperative learning strategies on the academic achievement of students with learning disabilities. Despite design problems, the review finds that cooperative learning strategies that incorporate individual accountability and group rewards are likely to…

  1. Creating an enduring framework for scientific cooperation in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Michael

    2007-03-01

    There are few channels for Israelis and Arabs to communicate directly when tensions are high. Scientists, who always have channels open for scientific communication, have a special responsibility to remain in contact with their counterparts on the other side to provide an avenue for reasoned discourse. Jordanian engineer Dr. Hani Mulki, former foreign minister and now science advisor to the King of Jordan, once said that scientific cooperation should not be a byproduct of peace, but a driving force. Many of the senior Israeli, Palestinian, and Jordanian scientists know each other and know how to work together, but it can be difficult for them to meet or even to speak without the cover of an invitation from a foreign organization; younger scientists unknown to the foreign organizations have fewer opportunities. The activities sponsored by APS, NAS, AAAS, and others are playing an important role, but what also is required are national and regional scientific organizations that can independently convene meetings and provide an umbrella for collaborative research. The academies of sciences of Israel and Palestine and the Higher Council for Science and Technology of Jordan have been working together for nearly two decades on joint research, studies and conferences, but always under the sponsorship of the U.S. National Academies or other international organizations. They should be able to convene regional meetings and provide an umbrella for cooperative research that can be sustainable without a foreign presence. Since they are only a driving distance apart, there is much they can do together for little money. Strengthening these academies, especially the relatively new Palestine Academy for Science and Technology, should be a high priority. Foreign scientific organizations should include the academies of the region in their activities, as co-sponsors if possible, to enhance their stature and encourage a role as independent conveners and sponsors of cooperative research.

  2. PRESENTED AT: TURNOVO, BULGARIA: LANDSCAPE SCIENCES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: A NATO FRAMEWORK FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An international pilot study has been developed to explore the possibility of quantifying and assessing environmental condition, processes of land degradation, and subsequent impacts on natural and human resources. The purpose of the study is to foster a framework for scientific...

  3. PRESENTED AT: TURNOVO, BULGARIA: LANDSCAPE SCIENCES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: A NATO FRAMEWORK FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An international pilot study has been developed to explore the possibility of quantifying and assessing environmental condition, processes of land degradation, and subsequent impacts on natural and human resources. The purpose of the study is to foster a framework for scientific...

  4. Cooperative Cluster Metalation and Ligand Migration in Zirconium Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shuai; Chen, Ying-Pin; Qin, Junsheng; Lu, Weigang; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Qiang; Bosch, Mathieu; Liu, Tian-Fu; Lian, Xizhen; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2015-12-01

    Cooperative cluster metalation and ligand migration were performed on a Zr-MOF, leading to the isolation of unique bimetallic MOFs based on decanuclear Zr6M4 (M = Ni, Co) clusters. The M(2+) reacts with the μ3-OH and terminal H2O ligands on an 8-connected [Zr6O4(OH)8(H2O)4] cluster to form a bimetallic [Zr6M4O8(OH)8(H2O)8] cluster. Along with the metalation of Zr6 cluster, ligand migration is observed in which a Zr-carboxylate bond dissociates to form a M-carboxylate bond. Single-crystal to single-crystal transformation is realized so that snapshots for cooperative cluster metalation and ligand migration processes are captured by successive single-crystal X-ray structures. In(3+) was metalated into the same Zr-MOF which showed excellent catalytic activity in the acetaldehyde cyclotrimerization reaction. This work not only provides a powerful tool to functionalize Zr-MOFs with other metals, but also structurally elucidates the formation mechanism of the resulting heterometallic MOFs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Continuing disability review failure to cooperate process. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2006-10-17

    We are amending our regulations to provide that we will suspend your disability benefits before we make a determination during a continuing disability review (CDR) under title II and title XVI of the Social Security Act (the Act) when you fail to comply with our request for necessary information. Should you remain non-compliant for a period of one year following your suspension, we will then terminate your disability benefits. Although our current title XVI regulations generally provide for the termination of payments after 12 months of suspension, we are amending our regulations by adding this policy to our title II regulations and by restating it in the title XVI CDR regulatory provisions.

  6. Policy development for biodiversity offsets: a review of offset frameworks.

    PubMed

    McKenney, Bruce A; Kiesecker, Joseph M

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity offsets seek to compensate for residual environmental impacts of planned developments after appropriate steps have been taken to avoid, minimize or restore impacts on site. Offsets are emerging as an increasingly employed mechanism for achieving net environmental benefits, with offset policies being advanced in a wide range of countries (i.e., United States, Australia, Brazil, Colombia, and South Africa). To support policy development for biodiversity offsets, we review a set of major offset policy frameworks-US wetlands mitigation, US conservation banking, EU Natura 2000, Australian offset policies in New South Wales, Victoria, and Western Australia, and Brazilian industrial and forest offsets. We compare how the frameworks define offset policy goals, approach the mitigation process, and address six key issues for implementing offsets: (1) equivalence of project impacts with offset gains; (2) location of the offset relative to the impact site; (3) "additionality" (a new contribution to conservation) and acceptable types of offsets; (4) timing of project impacts versus offset benefits; (5) offset duration and compliance; and (6) "currency" and mitigation replacement ratios. We find substantial policy commonalities that may serve as a sound basis for future development of biodiversity offsets policy. We also identify issues requiring further policy guidance, including how best to: (1) ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2) identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; and (3) determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios.

  7. Competency frameworks for advanced practice nursing: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Sastre-Fullana, P; De Pedro-Gómez, J E; Bennasar-Veny, M; Serrano-Gallardo, P; Morales-Asencio, J M

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes a literature review that identified common traits in advanced practice nursing that are specific to competency development worldwide. There is a lack of international agreement on the definition of advanced practice nursing and its core competencies. Despite the lack of consensus, there is an ongoing process worldwide to establish and outline the standards and competencies for advanced practice nursing roles. International agencies, such as the International Council of Nurses, have provided general definitions for advanced practice nursing. Additionally, a set of competency standards for this aim has been developed. A literature review and a directed search of institutional websites were performed to identify specific developments in advanced practice nursing competencies and standards of practice. To determine a competency map specific to international advanced practice nursing, key documents were analysed using a qualitative approach based on content analysis to identify common traits among documents and countries. The review process identified 119 relevant journal articles related to advanced practice nursing competencies. Additionally, 97 documents from grey literature that were related to advanced practice nursing competency mapping were identified. From the text analysis, 17 worldwide transversal competency domains emerged. Despite the variety of patterns in international advanced practice nursing development, essential competency domains can be found in most national frameworks for the role development of international advanced practice nursing. These 17 core competencies can be used to further develop instruments that assess the perceived competency of advanced practice nurses. The results of this review can help policy developers and researchers develop instruments to compare advanced practice nursing services in various contexts and to examine their association with related outcomes. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  8. Cooperative Extension as a Framework for Health Extension: The Michigan State University Model.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Jeffrey W; Contreras, Dawn; Eschbach, Cheryl L; Tiret, Holly; Newkirk, Cathy; Carter, Erin; Cronk, Linda

    2017-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act charged the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to create the Primary Care Extension Program, but did not fund this effort. The idea to work through health extension agents to support health care delivery systems was based on the nationally known Cooperative Extension System (CES). Instead of creating new infrastructure in health care, the CES is an ideal vehicle for increasing health-related research and primary care delivery. The CES, a long-standing component of the land-grant university system, features a sustained infrastructure for providing education to communities. The Michigan State University (MSU) Model of Health Extension offers another means of developing a National Primary Care Extension Program that is replicable in part because of the presence of the CES throughout the United States. A partnership between the MSU College of Human Medicine and MSU Extension formed in 2014, emphasizing the promotion and support of human health research. The MSU Model of Health Extension includes the following strategies: building partnerships, preparing MSU Extension educators for participation in research, increasing primary care patient referrals and enrollment in health programs, and exploring innovative funding. Since the formation of the MSU Model of Health Extension, researchers and extension professionals have made 200+ connections, and grants have afforded savings in salary costs. The MSU College of Human Medicine and MSU Extension partnership can serve as a model to promote health partnerships nationwide between CES services within land-grant universities and academic health centers or community-based medical schools.

  9. Future NASA solar system exploration activities: A framework for international cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Bevan M.; Ramlose, Terri; Briggs, Geoffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    The goals and approaches for planetary exploration as defined for the NASA Solar System Exploration Program are discussed. The evolution of the program since the formation of the Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) in 1980 is reviewed and the primary missions comprising the program are described.

  10. Conceptual framework for drug usage review, medical audit and other patient care review procedures.

    PubMed

    Stolar, M H

    1977-02-01

    The following concepts are discussed: (1) quality assurance programs, (2) drug usage review, (3) utilization review, (4) peer review, (5) medical audit, (6) patient care audit and (7) medical care evaluation studies. A framework within which all types of hospital quality assurance mechanisms can be constructed is proposed and their interrelationships are described. The pharmacist's particpiation in the hospital's overall quality assurance program is stressed in two main areas-drug usage review, performed jointly with the medical staff, and quality assurance of pharmaceutical services, a peer review function of the pharmacy profession. These services are primarily drug distribution and control, drug information, clinical pharmacy, continuing education, and other pharmacy and pharmacist functions. Both functions may be viewed as parts of the pharmacy audit, one of several patient care audits within the facility. Pharmacists in skilled nursing facilities have quality assurance responsibilities similar to those of hospital-based pharmacists.

  11. Fetal microchimerism and maternal health: a review and evolutionary analysis of cooperation and conflict beyond the womb.

    PubMed

    Boddy, Amy M; Fortunato, Angelo; Wilson Sayres, Melissa; Aktipis, Athena

    2015-10-01

    The presence of fetal cells has been associated with both positive and negative effects on maternal health. These paradoxical effects may be due to the fact that maternal and offspring fitness interests are aligned in certain domains and conflicting in others, which may have led to the evolution of fetal microchimeric phenotypes that can manipulate maternal tissues. We use cooperation and conflict theory to generate testable predictions about domains in which fetal microchimerism may enhance maternal health and those in which it may be detrimental. This framework suggests that fetal cells may function both to contribute to maternal somatic maintenance (e.g. wound healing) and to manipulate maternal physiology to enhance resource transmission to offspring (e.g. enhancing milk production). In this review, we use an evolutionary framework to make testable predictions about the role of fetal microchimerism in lactation, thyroid function, autoimmune disease, cancer and maternal emotional, and psychological health. Also watch the Video Abstract. © 2015 The Authors. BioEssays Published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A review of event processing frameworks used in HEP

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton-Kennedy, E.

    2015-12-23

    Today there are many different experimental event processing frameworks in use by running or about to be running experiments. This talk will discuss the different components of these frameworks. In the past there have been attempts at shared framework projects for example the collaborations on the BaBar framework (between BaBar, CDF, and CLEO), on the Gaudi framework (between LHCb and ATLAS), on AliROOT/FairROOT (between Alice and GSI/Fair), and in some ways on art (Fermilab based experiments) and CMS’ framework. However, for reasons that will be discussed, these collaborations did not result in common frameworks shared among the intended experiments. Though importantly, two of the resulting projects have succeeded in providing frameworks that are shared among many customer experiments: Fermilab's art framework and GSI/Fair's FairROOT. Interestingly, several projects are considering remerging their frameworks after many years apart. I'll report on an investigation and analysis of these realities. In addition, with the advent of the need for multi-threaded frameworks and the scarce available manpower, it is important to collaborate in the future, however it is also important to understand why previous attempts at multi-experiment frameworks either worked or didn't work.

  13. A review of event processing frameworks used in HEP

    DOE PAGES

    Sexton-Kennedy, E.

    2015-12-23

    Today there are many different experimental event processing frameworks in use by running or about to be running experiments. This talk will discuss the different components of these frameworks. In the past there have been attempts at shared framework projects for example the collaborations on the BaBar framework (between BaBar, CDF, and CLEO), on the Gaudi framework (between LHCb and ATLAS), on AliROOT/FairROOT (between Alice and GSI/Fair), and in some ways on art (Fermilab based experiments) and CMS’ framework. However, for reasons that will be discussed, these collaborations did not result in common frameworks shared among the intended experiments. Thoughmore » importantly, two of the resulting projects have succeeded in providing frameworks that are shared among many customer experiments: Fermilab's art framework and GSI/Fair's FairROOT. Interestingly, several projects are considering remerging their frameworks after many years apart. I'll report on an investigation and analysis of these realities. In addition, with the advent of the need for multi-threaded frameworks and the scarce available manpower, it is important to collaborate in the future, however it is also important to understand why previous attempts at multi-experiment frameworks either worked or didn't work.« less

  14. A climate analysis using CORDEX simulations in a cooperation framework: the case of Paraguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercogliano, Paola; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Ciervo, Fabio; Montesarchio, Myriam; Zollo, Alessandra Lucia; Villani, Veronica; Barbato, Giuliana; Vendemia, Rosalba; Polato, Raul; Baez, Julian; Pasten, Max

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, changes in climate have entailed variations in surface temperature and precipitation patterns in various countries of the South America, among which Paraguay. Climate change-attributed effects on weather impacts, such as river and urban floods, droughts and heat waves could severely affect the actual conditions of the country. In fact, Paraguay exhibits significant vulnerabilities to climate changes, especially because of its dependence on commodities production (e.g. agriculture, livestock, etc.) and its infrastructural and logistic asset not yet fully formed. In this context, climate change analysis can be an important technical support for practitioners to assist - under uncertainty - national/regional planning, financial resources managing and development (e.g. land-use practices, population growth, economic and community behavior, health, etc.). Moreover, actions in adaptation, disaster risk reduction (DRR), social protection and impacts mitigation may involve high costs if not properly contextualized. The assessment of 21st century climate change and development of whatever response strategies requires climate scenarios at high resolution, including an accurate evaluation of projection uncertainties (i.e. robustness of the analysis). This should ensure adequate insights into the potential impacts of climate change and allow practitioners, usually ill equipped to consider uncertain climate outputs into a broader context (e.g. planning, designing, managing), to make appropriate choices. In the framework of CORDEX initiative, Paraguay is included into the SOUTH-AMERICA-CORDEX one. Three climate simulations over this area are available at the spatial resolution of 0.44° (about 50km), obtained with RCM SMHI-RCA4 (forced by GCMs ICHEC-EC-EARTH and MPI-M-MPI-ESM-LR) and RCM MPI-CSC-REMO2009 (forced by MPI-M-MPI-ESM-LR). Simulations over the 21st century have been performed according with IPCC RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The plausibility of

  15. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protectingit from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive(WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for the protection and sustainable use of Europeanfreshwater resources. The practical implementation of the WFD with regard to chemical pollution has facedsome challenges. In support of the upcoming WFD review in 2019 the research project SOLUTIONS and the Europeanmonitoring network NORMAN has analyzed these challenges, evaluated the state-of-the-art of the science andsuggested possible solutions. We give 10 recommendations to improve monitoring and to strengthen comprehensiveprioritization, to foster consistent assessment and to support solution-oriented management of surface waters.The integration of effect-based tools, the application of passive sampling for bioaccumulative chemicals and an integratedstrategy for prioritization of contaminants, accounting for knowledge gaps, are seen as important approachesto advance monitoring. Including all relevant chemical contaminants in more holistic “chemical status”assessment, using effect-based trigger values to address priority mixtures of chemicals, to better consider historicalburdens accumulated in sediments and to use models to fill data gaps are recommended for a consistent assessmentof contamination. Solution-oriented m

  16. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protectingit from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive(WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for the protection and sustainable use of Europeanfreshwater resources. The practical implementation of the WFD with regard to chemical pollution has facedsome challenges. In support of the upcoming WFD review in 2019 the research project SOLUTIONS and the Europeanmonitoring network NORMAN has analyzed these challenges, evaluated the state-of-the-art of the science andsuggested possible solutions. We give 10 recommendations to improve monitoring and to strengthen comprehensiveprioritization, to foster consistent assessment and to support solution-oriented management of surface waters.The integration of effect-based tools, the application of passive sampling for bioaccumulative chemicals and an integratedstrategy for prioritization of contaminants, accounting for knowledge gaps, are seen as important approachesto advance monitoring. Including all relevant chemical contaminants in more holistic “chemical status”assessment, using effect-based trigger values to address priority mixtures of chemicals, to better consider historicalburdens accumulated in sediments and to use models to fill data gaps are recommended for a consistent assessmentof contamination. Solution-oriented m

  17. SimBasin: A serious gaming framework for integrated and cooperative decision-making in water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angarita, H.; Craven, J.; Caggiano, F.; Corzo, G.

    2016-12-01

    An Integrated approach involving extensive stakeholder dialogue is widely advocated in sustainable water management. However, it requires a social learning process in which scientist and stakeholders become aware of the relationship between their own frames of reference and those of others, differences can be dealt with constructively, and shared ideas can be used to facilitate cooperation. Key obstacles in this process are heritage systems, attitudes and processes, factually wrong, incomplete or unshared mental models, and lack of science-policy dialogue (Pahl-Wostl et al., 2005) To overcome these barriers, a space is required which is free of heritage systems, where mental models can be safely and easily compared and corrected, and where scientists and policy-makers can come together. A "serious game" can serve as such a space - Serious games are games or simulations used to achieve an organizational or educational goal, and such games have already been used to facilitate stakeholder cooperation in the water management sector (Rusca et al., 2005). As well as bringing stakeholders together, they can be an accessible interface between scientific models and non-experts. Here we present SimBasin, a multiplayer serious game framework and development engine. The engine allows to easily create a simulated multiplayer basin management game using WEAP water resources modelling software (SEI, 1992-2015), to facilitate the communication of the complex, long term and wide range relationships between hydrologic, climate, and human systems present in river basins, and enable dialogue between policy-makers and scientists. Different games have been created using the Sim-Basin engine and used in various contexts. Here are discussed experiences with stakeholders at a national forum in Bogotá, flood risk management agencies in the lower Magdalena River Basin in Colombia and with water professionals in Bangkok. The experience shows that the game is a useful tool for enabling

  18. Review: Leon N. Cooper's Science and Human Experience: Values, Culture, and the Mind.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Gary S

    2015-01-01

    Why are we reviewing a book written by someone who shared in the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physics for work on superconductivity? Because shortly after winning the prize, Leon N. Cooper transitioned into brain research-specifically, the biological basis of memory. He became director of the Brown University Institute for Brain and Neural Systems, whose interdisciplinary program allowed him to integrate research on the brain, physics, and even philosophy. His new book tackles a diverse spectrum of topics and questions, including these: Does science have limits? Where does order come from? Can we understand consciousness?

  19. Combined use of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) and the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Birken, Sarah A; Powell, Byron J; Presseau, Justin; Kirk, M Alexis; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Gould, Natalie J; Shea, Christopher M; Weiner, Bryan J; Francis, Jill J; Yu, Yan; Haines, Emily; Damschroder, Laura J

    2017-01-05

    Over 60 implementation frameworks exist. Using multiple frameworks may help researchers to address multiple study purposes, levels, and degrees of theoretical heritage and operationalizability; however, using multiple frameworks may result in unnecessary complexity and redundancy if doing so does not address study needs. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) and the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) are both well-operationalized, multi-level implementation determinant frameworks derived from theory. As such, the rationale for using the frameworks in combination (i.e., CFIR + TDF) is unclear. The objective of this systematic review was to elucidate the rationale for using CFIR + TDF by (1) describing studies that have used CFIR + TDF, (2) how they used CFIR + TDF, and (2) their stated rationale for using CFIR + TDF. We undertook a systematic review to identify studies that mentioned both the CFIR and the TDF, were written in English, were peer-reviewed, and reported either a protocol or results of an empirical study in MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycInfo, Web of Science, or Google Scholar. We then abstracted data into a matrix and analyzed it qualitatively, identifying salient themes. We identified five protocols and seven completed studies that used CFIR + TDF. CFIR + TDF was applied to studies in several countries, to a range of healthcare interventions, and at multiple intervention phases; used many designs, methods, and units of analysis; and assessed a variety of outcomes. Three studies indicated that using CFIR + TDF addressed multiple study purposes. Six studies indicated that using CFIR + TDF addressed multiple conceptual levels. Four studies did not explicitly state their rationale for using CFIR + TDF. Differences in the purposes that authors of the CFIR (e.g., comprehensive set of implementation determinants) and the TDF (e.g., intervention development) propose help to justify the use of CFIR

  20. Technical cooperation on nuclear security between the United States and China : review of the past and opportunities for the future.

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2011-12-01

    The United States and China are committed to cooperation to address the challenges of the next century. Technical cooperation, building on a long tradition of technical exchange between the two countries, can play an important role. This paper focuses on technical cooperation between the United States and China in the areas of nonproliferation, arms control and other nuclear security topics. It reviews cooperation during the 1990s on nonproliferation and arms control under the U.S.-China Arms Control Exchange, discusses examples of ongoing activities under the Peaceful Uses of Technology Agreement to enhance security of nuclear and radiological material, and suggests opportunities for expanding technical cooperation between the defense nuclear laboratories of both countries to address a broader range of nuclear security topics.

  1. Mental health issues among migrant workers in Gulf Cooperation Council countries: literature review and case illustrations.

    PubMed

    Kronfol, Ziad; Saleh, Marwa; Al-Ghafry, Maha

    2014-08-01

    More than 15 million non-nationals are currently living and working in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states. The majority are blue-collar or domestic workers coming from the Indian Subcontinent or South East Asia. They often work under very harsh conditions. There are reports of a high rate of psychosis and suicide among these people but no reliable data are available. To address this issue we conducted a literature search both in English and in Arabic to review the available articles on the psychological well-being of this population. Very few articles were found. We hereby review the available literature and contribute by presenting several brief vignettes to illustrate the various clinical aspects of this at risk population. We also discuss possible reasons for underreporting and underscore the need for more research in this area.

  2. A Review of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's International Education Surveys: Governance, Human Capital Discourses, and Policy Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Clara; Volante, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Given the influential role that the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) plays in educational governance, we believe it is timely to provide an in-depth review of its education surveys and their associated human capital discourses. By reviewing and summarizing the OECD's suite of education surveys, this paper identifies the…

  3. A Review of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's International Education Surveys: Governance, Human Capital Discourses, and Policy Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Clara; Volante, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Given the influential role that the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) plays in educational governance, we believe it is timely to provide an in-depth review of its education surveys and their associated human capital discourses. By reviewing and summarizing the OECD's suite of education surveys, this paper identifies the…

  4. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2016 year in review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Organ, John F.; Thompson, John D.; Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2017-02-22

    Science and Management.” The workshop was well received and we have been asked to continue the dialogue with a second workshop in 2017. It was evident during the workshop that the CRU is viewed by our cooperators as an important and essential linkage between academia and practitioners. This is testament to the legacy of the CRU Program and the foundation it is built upon. In this Year in Review report, you will find details on staffing, vacancies, research funding, and other pertinent information. You will also see snapshots of CRU projects with information on how results have been or are being applied by cooperators. That is the essence of what we do: science that matters.

  5. Evaluating communities of practice and knowledge networks: a systematic scoping review of evaluation frameworks.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Kaileah A; Pitzul, Kristen B; Yi, Juliana Y; Cole, Donald C

    2014-09-01

    Communities of Practice (CoPs) are increasingly considered a part of ecohealth and other sectors such as health care, education, and business. However, there is little agreement on approaches to evaluate the influence and effectiveness of CoPs. The purpose of this review was to understand what frameworks and methods have been proposed or used to evaluate CoPs and/or knowledge networks. The review searched electronic databases in interdisciplinary, health, education, and business fields, and further collected references and forward citations from relevant articles. Nineteen articles with 16 frameworks were included in the synthesis. The purposes of the evaluation frameworks varied; while some focused on assessing the performance of CoPs, several frameworks sought to learn about CoPs and their critical success factors. Nine of the frameworks had been applied or tested in some way, most frequently to guide a case study. With limited applications of the frameworks, strong claims about generalizability could not be made. The review results can inform the development of tailored frameworks. However, there is a need for more detailed and targeted CoP evaluation frameworks, as many imperative CoP evaluation needs would be unmet by the available frameworks.

  6. The Theoretical Framework of Jim Cummins: A Review and Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baral, David P.

    In recent years, the theoretical framework of Jim Cummins has been widely discussed by bilingual educators. This paper traces the evolution of Cummins' theory and examines the criticisms which have been raised against it. The first part of the paper discusses the major elements of his theory of bilingual proficiency: the threshhold hypothesis, the…

  7. Evolutionary explanations for cooperation.

    PubMed

    West, Stuart A; Griffin, Ashleigh S; Gardner, Andy

    2007-08-21

    Natural selection favours genes that increase an organism's ability to survive and reproduce. This would appear to lead to a world dominated by selfish behaviour. However, cooperation can be found at all levels of biological organisation: genes cooperate in genomes, organelles cooperate to form eukaryotic cells, cells cooperate to make multicellular organisms, bacterial parasites cooperate to overcome host defences, animals breed cooperatively, and humans and insects cooperate to build societies. Over the last 40 years, biologists have developed a theoretical framework that can explain cooperation at all these levels. Here, we summarise this theory, illustrate how it may be applied to real organisms and discuss future directions.

  8. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, I.

    2008-05-01

    This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs) between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i) water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii) changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii) farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv) voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it can be assumed

  9. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, I.

    2007-06-01

    This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs) between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i) water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii) changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii) farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv) voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it can be assumed

  10. Action Learning Research: A Systematic Review and Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yonjoo; Egan, Toby Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in action learning, no systematic investigation of action learning literature has been reported. Two purposes of this study are (a) to systematically access and examine recent empirical studies on action learning and related themes using Garrard's Matrix Method for reviewing literature (the review of the literature…

  11. Formulation, construction and analysis of kinetic models of metabolism: A review of modelling frameworks.

    PubMed

    Saa, Pedro A; Nielsen, Lars K

    2017-09-12

    Kinetic models are critical to predict the dynamic behaviour of metabolic networks. Mechanistic kinetic models for large networks remain uncommon due to the difficulty of fitting their parameters. Recent modelling frameworks promise new ways to overcome this obstacle while retaining predictive capabilities. In this review, we present an overview of the relevant mathematical frameworks for kinetic formulation, construction and analysis. Starting with kinetic formalisms, we next review statistical methods for parameter inference, as well as recent computational frameworks applied to the construction and analysis of kinetic models. Finally, we discuss opportunities and limitations hindering the development of larger kinetic reconstructions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Development of a peer-review framework for cancer multidisciplinary meetings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Claire E; Slavova-Azmanova, Neli; Saunders, Christobel

    2017-05-01

    There is no mechanism in place for monitoring or quality improvement of cancer multidisciplinary meetings (MDM) in Australia. To develop a peer-review process for quality improvement of MDM. This project involved three phases: (i) development of a draft peer-review framework, supporting documents and peer-review process; (ii) consultation with key stakeholders; (iii) refinement of the framework, documents and processes following a pilot study with three MDM. Feedback indicated that specific standards included in the framework needed to allow the peer reviewers to be flexible relative to the circumstances of the individual MDM. Conversely, feedback identified the need for clear, evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for the conduct of MDM, with accepted standards and objective measures of performance. MDM members were divided about the need to employ peer reviewers from the tumour stream of the MDM under review but agreed that closer involvement of the team under review to support the implementation of recommendations is warranted. We developed an adaptable peer-review framework and process using the current available evidence and guidance. While further research is needed to establish what constitutes best practice in MDM and which processes contribute to improved patient outcomes, the structured peer-review process we describe, when modified using the disease-relevant evidence, could be utilised more broadly as a quality improvement tool. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  13. Does Quality of Radiation Therapy Predict Outcomes of Multicenter Cooperative Group Trials? A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, Alysa; Straube, William; Laurie, Fran; Followill, David

    2013-10-01

    Central review of radiation therapy (RT) delivery within multicenter clinical trials was initiated in the early 1970s in the United States. Early quality assurance publications often focused on metrics related to process, logistics, and timing. Our objective was to review the available evidence supporting correlation of RT quality with clinical outcomes within cooperative group trials. A MEDLINE search was performed to identify multicenter studies that described central subjective assessment of RT protocol compliance (quality). Data abstracted included method of central review, definition of deviations, and clinical outcomes. Seventeen multicenter studies (1980-2012) were identified, plus one Patterns of Care Study. Disease sites were hematologic, head and neck, lung, breast, and pancreas. Between 0 and 97% of treatment plans received an overall grade of acceptable. In 7 trials, failure rates were significantly higher after inadequate versus adequate RT. Five of 9 and 2 of 5 trials reported significantly worse overall and progression-free survival after poor-quality RT, respectively. One reported a significant correlation, and 2 reported nonsignificant trends toward increased toxicity with noncompliant RT. Although more data are required, protocol-compliant RT may decrease failure rates and increase overall survival and likely contributes to the ability of collected data to answer the central trial question.

  14. 77 FR 4366 - North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation Notice of Determination Regarding Review of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation Notice of Determination Regarding... Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC). ] The Sindicato Mexicano de Electricistas (SME), a Mexican...

  15. A Conceptual Framework for Systematic Reviews of Research in Educational Leadership and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for scholars carrying out reviews of research that meet international standards for publication. Design/methodology/approach: This is primarily a conceptual paper focusing on the methodology of conducting systematic reviews of research. However, the paper draws on a database of reviews…

  16. A Conceptual Framework for Systematic Reviews of Research in Educational Leadership and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for scholars carrying out reviews of research that meet international standards for publication. Design/methodology/approach: This is primarily a conceptual paper focusing on the methodology of conducting systematic reviews of research. However, the paper draws on a database of reviews…

  17. A New Framework for Systematic Reviews: Application to Social Skills Interventions for Preschoolers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Howard; Lackey, Kimberly C.; Schneider, Naomi J. B.

    2014-01-01

    This review presents a novel framework for evaluating evidence based on a set of parallel criteria that can be applied to both group and single-subject experimental design (SSED) studies. The authors illustrate use of this evaluation system in a systematic review of 67 articles investigating social skills interventions for preschoolers with autism…

  18. Framework for Sustainability Performance Assessment for Manufacturing Processes- A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K.; Sultan, I.

    2017-07-01

    Manufacturing industries are facing tough competition due to increasing raw material cost and depleting natural resources. There is great pressure on the industry to produce environmental friendly products using environmental friendly processes. To address these issues modern manufacturing industries are focusing on sustainable manufacturing. To develop more sustainable societies, industries need to better understand how to respond to environmental, economic and social challenges. This paper proposed some framework and tools that accelerate the transition towards a sustainable system. The developed framework will be beneficial for sustainability assessment comparing different plans alongside material properties, ultimately helping the manufacturing industries to reduce the carbon emissions and material waste, besides improving energy efficiency. It is expected that this would be highly beneficial for determination of environmental impact of a process at early design stages. Therefore, it would greatly help the manufacturing industries for selection of process plan based on sustainable indices. Overall objective of this paper would have good impact on reducing air emissions and protecting environment. We expect this work to contribute to the development of a standard reference methodology to help further sustainability in the manufacturing sector.

  19. Cooperative self-assembly of chiral L-malate and achiral succinate in the formation of a three-dimensional homochiral framework.

    PubMed

    Zingiryan, Areg; Zhang, Jian; Bu, Xianhui

    2008-10-06

    Chiral l-malate and achiral succinate ligands have been integrated into a three-dimensional homochiral framework by reacting transition-metal cations (Mn (2+)), l-(-)-malic acid ( l-H 2ma), succinic acid (H 2suc), and 4,4'-bipyridine (4,4'-bipy). Chiral l-malate bonds to Mn (2+) without using the -OH group, which is very unusual for malate. Such unusual bonding of chiral malate results from the cooperative effect of chiral malate and achiral succinate ligands during the self-assembly process, further assisted by the third complementary bipyridine ligand.

  20. Using framework-based synthesis for conducting reviews of qualitative studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Framework analysis is a technique used for data analysis in primary qualitative research. Recent years have seen its being adapted to conduct syntheses of qualitative studies. Framework-based synthesis shows considerable promise in addressing applied policy questions. An innovation in the approach, known as 'best fit' framework synthesis, has been published in BMC Medical Research Methodology this month. It involves reviewers in choosing a conceptual model likely to be suitable for the question of the review, and using it as the basis of their initial coding framework. This framework is then modified in response to the evidence reported in the studies in the reviews, so that the final product is a revised framework that may include both modified factors and new factors that were not anticipated in the original model. 'Best fit' framework-based synthesis may be especially suitable in addressing urgent policy questions where the need for a more fully developed synthesis is balanced by the need for a quick answer. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2288/11/29. PMID:21492447

  1. Iberian (South American) Model of Judicial Review: Toward Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klishas, Andrey A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores Latin American countries legislation with the view to identify specific features of South American model of judicial review. The research methodology rests on comparative approach to analyzing national constitutions' provisions and experts' interpretations thereof. The constitutional provisions of Brazil, Peru, Mexico, and…

  2. Managing Older Worker Training: A Literature Review and Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Su-Fen; Courtenay, Bradley C.; Valentine, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews literature on educational gerontology, adult education, and training and identifies factors that may encourage or discourage older workers from participation in training. Previous research has emphasized models based on either motivation or deterrent factors. This article offers a unique exploratory model combining five…

  3. Managing Older Worker Training: A Literature Review and Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Su-Fen; Courtenay, Bradley C.; Valentine, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews literature on educational gerontology, adult education, and training and identifies factors that may encourage or discourage older workers from participation in training. Previous research has emphasized models based on either motivation or deterrent factors. This article offers a unique exploratory model combining five…

  4. A Review of Theoretical Frameworks for Supply Chain Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoo, AC; Tan, LC; Sulaiman, Z.; Zakuan, N.

    2017-06-01

    In a world of fierce competition and business driven by speed to market, good quality and low costs, this environment requires firms to have a source of competitive advantage that is inimitable and non-substitutable. For a supply chain integration (SCI) strategy to achieve sustainable competitive advantage it must be non-substitutable, inimitable, path-dependent and developed over time. Also, an integrated supply chain framework is needed to tie the whole network together in order to reduce perennial supply chain challenges such as functional silos, poor transparency of knowledge and information and the inadequate formation of appropriate customer and supplier relationships. Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate the competitive impact of a SCI strategy on firm performance using the theory of Resource-based View (RBV) and relational view.

  5. From Patchwork to Framework: A Review of Title 10 Authorities for Security Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    personnel in defense planning, programming, and budgeting. A fourth authority, Public Law 114-92, Section 1055 , authorizes U.S. civilian advisers to...Organizations Pub. L. 114-92, Sec. 1055 —Authority to Provide Training and Support to Personnel of Foreign Ministries of Defense NOTE: This table only...Defense – Public Law 114-92, Section 1055 , Authority to Provide Train- ing and Support To Personnel of Foreign Ministries of Defense – Public Law 113

  6. Review for the Korean Health Professionals and International Cooperation Doctors Dispatched to Peru by the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA).

    PubMed

    Kim, Bongyoung

    2015-04-01

    South Korea dispatches Korean nationals to partner developing countries as an Official Development Assistance (ODA) project through the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA). In the health sector, KOICA dispatches international cooperation doctors (ICDs), nurses, physical therapists, radiologic technologists, nutritionists, medical laboratory technologists, occupational therapists, and dental hygienists. A total of 216 ICDs were dispatched over 19 times from 1995 until 2013. There were 19 areas of specialties among the ICDs. The most common specialty was internal medicine (61/216, 28.2%), the second most common specialty was general surgery (43/216, 19.9%), followed by oriental medicine (27/216, 12.5%), pediatrics (17/216, 7.9%), orthopedics (16/216, 7.4%), family medicine (16/216, 7.4%), and odontology (14/216, 6.5%). The ICDs have worked in 21 countries. KOICA dispatched the highest number of ICDs to Asia (97/216, 44.9%), followed by Africa (50/216, 23.1%), Latin America (34/216, 15.7%), the commonwealth of independent states (31/216, 14.4%), and Oceania (4/216, 1.9%). Nobody was dispatched to the Middle East. A total of 134 KOICA health professionals were dispatched to Peru from 1996 until October 1, 2014. Of these, 19.4% (26/134) were ICDs, 44.8% (60/216) were nurses, 20.1% (27/134) were physical therapists, 6.7% (9/134) were radiologic technologists, 2.2% (3/134) were nutritionists, and 6.7% (9/134) were medical laboratory. ICDs' specialties comprised internal medicine (13/26, 50%), family medicine (8/26, 30.8%), pediatrics (2/26, 7.7%), otorhinolaryngology (1/26, 3.8%), orthopedics (1/26, 3.8%), and oriental medicine (1/26, 3.8%). Most of the dispatched health professionals worked at institutions that were supported by KOICA. For this reason, the proportion of health professionals who worked at public health centers (PHCs) was the highest (58.2%, 78/134) when classified by workplace type. Other KOICA health professionals worked at hospitals

  7. Reviews of theoretical frameworks: Challenges and judging the quality of theory application.

    PubMed

    Hean, Sarah; Anderson, Liz; Green, Chris; John, Carol; Pitt, Richard; O'Halloran, Cath

    2016-06-01

    Rigorous reviews of available information, from a range of resources, are required to support medical and health educators in their decision making. The aim of this article is to highlight the importance of a review of theoretical frameworks specifically as a supplement to reviews that focus on a synthesis of the empirical evidence alone. Establishing a shared understanding of theory as a concept is highlighted as a challenge and some practical strategies to achieving this are presented. This article also introduces the concept of theoretical quality, arguing that a critique of how theory is applied should complement the methodological appraisal of the literature in a review. We illustrate the challenge of establishing a shared meaning of theory through reference to experiences of an on-going review of this kind conducted in the field of interprofessional education (IPE) and use a high scoring paper selected in this review to illustrate how theoretical quality can be assessed. In reaching a shared understanding of theory as a concept, practical strategies that promote experiential and practical ways of knowing are required in addition to more propositional ways of sharing knowledge. Concepts of parsimony, testability, operational adequacy and empirical adequacy are explored as concepts that establish theoretical quality. Reviews of theoretical frameworks used in medical education are required to inform educational practice. Review teams should make time and effort to reach a shared understanding of the term theory. Theory reviews, and reviews more widely, should add an assessment of theory application to the protocol of their review method.

  8. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee Review: Review of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Fikes, James D; Patrick, Daniel J; Francke, Sabine; Frazier, Kendall S; Reindel, James F; Romeike, Annette; Spaet, Robert H; Tomlinson, Lindsay; Schafer, Kenneth A

    2015-10-01

    In 2014, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) issued guidance no. 16, Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology. The stated purpose of the guidance document is "to provide guidance to pathologists, test facility management, study directors and quality assurance personnel on how the peer review of histopathology should be planned, managed, documented, and reported in order to meet Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) expectations and requirements." On behalf of and in collaboration with the global societies of toxicologic pathology, the Society of Toxicologic Pathology initiated a review of OECD guidance no. 16. The objectives of this review are to provide a unified interpretation of the guidance, to recommend compliant processes for organizations to implement, and to avoid inconsistent process adaptations across the industry. This review of the guidance document is the product of a global collaboration with other societies of toxicologic pathology and provides a section-by-section international consensus view and interpretation of the OECD guidance on peer review. © 2015 by The Author(s).

  9. Sex differences in cooperation: a meta-analytic review of social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Balliet, Daniel; Li, Norman P; Macfarlan, Shane J; Van Vugt, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Although it is commonly believed that women are kinder and more cooperative than men, there is conflicting evidence for this assertion. Current theories of sex differences in social behavior suggest that it may be useful to examine in what situations men and women are likely to differ in cooperation. Here, we derive predictions from both sociocultural and evolutionary perspectives on context-specific sex differences in cooperation, and we conduct a unique meta-analytic study of 272 effect sizes-sampled across 50 years of research-on social dilemmas to examine several potential moderators. The overall average effect size is not statistically different from zero (d = -0.05), suggesting that men and women do not differ in their overall amounts of cooperation. However, the association between sex and cooperation is moderated by several key features of the social context: Male-male interactions are more cooperative than female-female interactions (d = 0.16), yet women cooperate more than men in mixed-sex interactions (d = -0.22). In repeated interactions, men are more cooperative than women. Women were more cooperative than men in larger groups and in more recent studies, but these differences disappeared after statistically controlling for several study characteristics. We discuss these results in the context of both sociocultural and evolutionary theories of sex differences, stress the need for an integrated biosocial approach, and outline directions for future research.

  10. Public health and health promotion capacity at national and regional level: a review of conceptual frameworks.

    PubMed

    Aluttis, Christoph; den Broucke, Stephan Van; Chiotan, Cristina; Costongs, Caroline; Michelsen, Kai; Brand, Helmut

    2014-03-26

    The concept of capacity building for public health has gained much attention during the last decade. National as well as international organizations increasingly focus their efforts on capacity building to improve performance in the health sector. During the past two decades, a variety of conceptual frameworks have been developed which describe relevant dimensions for public health capacity. Notably, these frameworks differ in design and conceptualization. This paper therefore reviews the existing conceptual frameworks and integrates them into one framework, which contains the most relevant dimensions for public health capacity at the country- or regional level. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify frameworks addressing public health capacity building at the national or regional level. We content-analysed these frameworks to identify the core dimensions of public health capacity. The dimensions were subsequently synthesized into a set of thematic areas to construct a conceptual framework which describes the most relevant dimensions for capacities at the national- or regional level. The systematic review resulted in the identification of seven core domains for public health capacity: resources, organizational structures, workforce, partnerships, leadership and governance, knowledge development and country specific context. Accordingly, these dimensions were used to construct a framework, which describes these core domains more in detail. Our research shows that although there is no generally agreedupon model of public health capacity, a number of key domains for public health and health promotion capacity are consistently recurring in existing frameworks, regardless of their geographical location or thematic area. As only little work on the core concepts of public health capacities has yet taken place, this study adds value to the discourse by identifying these consistencies across existing frameworks and by synthesising them into a new

  11. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Self-Esteem: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedesco, Lucyann M.

    Cooperative learning involves students working in small groups or teams to help each other learn academic material. Cooperative learning strategies are organized, highly structured methods that usually involve formal presentation of information, student practice and coaching in learning teams, individual assessment of mastery, and public…

  12. Sex Differences in Cooperation: A Meta-Analytic Review of Social Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balliet, Daniel; Li, Norman P.; Macfarlan, Shane J.; Van Vugt, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Although it is commonly believed that women are kinder and more cooperative than men, there is conflicting evidence for this assertion. Current theories of sex differences in social behavior suggest that it may be useful to examine in what situations men and women are likely to differ in cooperation. Here, we derive predictions from both…

  13. International Approaches to Education: A Review of Some Major Cooperative Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jallade, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of education cooperation in Europe seen though some of the major initiatives of international organizations (IOs) active in this field. The purpose of the article is two-fold: (i) mapping out IOs' most significant programmes according to their objectives and modes of cooperation as a pre-requisite to understand…

  14. International Approaches to Education: A Review of Some Major Cooperative Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jallade, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of education cooperation in Europe seen though some of the major initiatives of international organizations (IOs) active in this field. The purpose of the article is two-fold: (i) mapping out IOs' most significant programmes according to their objectives and modes of cooperation as a pre-requisite to understand…

  15. Notion of Control-Law Module and Modular Framework of Cooperative Transportation Using Multiple Nonholonomic Robotic Agents With Physical Rigid-Formation-Motion Constraints.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Consider cooperative manipulation and transportation of a rigid body by multiple two-wheeled nonholonomic robotic agents that attached to it, the agents are then physically constrained to maintain rigid-formation-motion (RFM); thus the system has two physical motion-constraints at two levels: 1) the nonholonomic constraint at the individual level and 2) the RFM constraint at the system level. First, we provide a novel notion: the encapsulation of a category of control with certain constraints for one motion-mode as a control-law module (CLM), any concrete control law with such constraints is called an instance of the CLM; here two CLMs are provided as the examples. Then we provide an RFM control framework by decomposing a feasible RFM configuration-path as a concatenation of partitions, with one type of CLMs for each partition; thus any instance for each partition can be designed separately and incorporated easily with the interchangeable property, which makes the framework modular, flexible, and adaptive, to satisfy different kinematics requirements. As a result, the transportation is achieved by RFM control of agents. Also, the RFM framework implies a valuable rigid-closure-method for accurate rigid body manipulation even when agents are not attached to the body.

  16. Memory and the Self in Autism: A Review and Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Sophie E.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews research on (a) autobiographical episodic and semantic memory, (b) the self-reference effect, (c) memory for the actions of self versus other (the self-enactment effect), and (d) non-autobiographical episodic memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and provides a theoretical framework to account for the bidirectional…

  17. Application of Resource Description Framework to Personalise Learning: Systematic Review and Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jevsikova, Tatjana; Berniukevicius, Andrius; Kurilovas, Eugenijus

    2017-01-01

    The paper is aimed to present a methodology of learning personalisation based on applying Resource Description Framework (RDF) standard model. Research results are two-fold: first, the results of systematic literature review on Linked Data, RDF "subject-predicate-object" triples, and Web Ontology Language (OWL) application in education…

  18. Adult Education Participation Decisions and Barriers: Review of Conceptual Frameworks and Empirical Studies. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Tim; Cahalan, Margaret; Lacireno-Paquet, Natalie

    In preparation for the next National Household Education Survey (NHES), the conceptual frameworks of participatory behavior and methods used by other researchers to study factors promoting or inhibiting participation were examined. The following items were reviewed: the adult education (AE) barriers questions included on the 1991 and 1995 editions…

  19. Health Literacy and Health Actions: A Review and a Framework from Health Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Wagner, Christian; Steptoe, Andrew; Wolf, Michael S.; Wardle, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The association between performance on health literacy measures and health outcomes is well established. The next step is to understand the processes through which health literacy affects health. This review introduces a framework drawing on ideas from health psychology and proposing that associations between health literacy and health outcomes…

  20. 21st Century Learning Frameworks and the Missions of Public Education: An Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humbert, K. Micah

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the missions of public education in the United States and selected 21st century reform frameworks published by think tank organizations. This was conducted through the process of an integrative review. To begin, a literature search was conducted to identify the broad missions of public education in…

  1. Memory and the Self in Autism: A Review and Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Sophie E.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews research on (a) autobiographical episodic and semantic memory, (b) the self-reference effect, (c) memory for the actions of self versus other (the self-enactment effect), and (d) non-autobiographical episodic memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and provides a theoretical framework to account for the bidirectional…

  2. Health Literacy and Health Actions: A Review and a Framework from Health Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Wagner, Christian; Steptoe, Andrew; Wolf, Michael S.; Wardle, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The association between performance on health literacy measures and health outcomes is well established. The next step is to understand the processes through which health literacy affects health. This review introduces a framework drawing on ideas from health psychology and proposing that associations between health literacy and health outcomes…

  3. Less Than Proficient A Review of the Draft Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Paul R.

    2005-01-01

    The mission of this review is to appraise the new draft NAEP science framework and to determine whether it is up to snuff. This is an evaluation of the September 30, 2005, draft document, Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (Framework), developed for the National Assessment Governing Board. The criteria is…

  4. A novel framework for reflecting on the functioning of research ethics review panels.

    PubMed

    Macduff, Colin; McKie, Andrew; Martindale, Sheelagh; Rennie, Anne Marie; West, Bernice; Wilcock, Sylvia

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade structures and processes for the ethical review of UK health care research have undergone rapid change. Although this has focused users' attention on the functioning of review committees, it remains rare to read a substantive view from the inside. This article presents details of processes and findings resulting from a novel structured reflective exercise undertaken by a newly formed research ethics review panel in a university school of nursing and midwifery. By adopting and adapting some of the knowledge to be found in the art and science of malt whisky tasting, a framework for critical reflection is presented and applied. This enables analysis of the main contemporary issues for a review panel that is primarily concerned with research into nursing education and practice. In addition to structuring the panel's own literary narrative, the framework also generates useful visual representation for further reflection. Both the analysis of issues and the framework itself are presented as of potential value to all nurses, health care professionals and educationalists with an interest in ethical review.

  5. Temporal discounting in life cycle assessment: A critical review and theoretical framework

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Chris; Wang, Endong; Zhai, Qiang; Yang, Fan

    2015-02-15

    Temporal homogeneity of inventory data is one of the major problems in life cycle assessment (LCA). Addressing temporal homogeneity of life cycle inventory data is important in reducing the uncertainties and improving the reliability of LCA results. This paper attempts to present a critical review and discussion on the fundamental issues of temporal homogeneity in conventional LCA and propose a theoretical framework for temporal discounting in LCA. Theoretical perspectives for temporal discounting in life cycle inventory analysis are discussed first based on the key elements of a scientific mechanism for temporal discounting. Then generic procedures for performing temporal discounting in LCA is derived and proposed based on the nature of the LCA method and the identified key elements of a scientific temporal discounting method. A five-step framework is proposed and reported in details based on the technical methods and procedures needed to perform a temporal discounting in life cycle inventory analysis. Challenges and possible solutions are also identified and discussed for the technical procedure and scientific accomplishment of each step within the framework. - Highlights: • A critical review for temporal homogeneity problem of life cycle inventory data • A theoretical framework for performing temporal discounting on inventory data • Methods provided to accomplish each step of the temporal discounting framework.

  6. A Unit on "Fahrenheit 451" That Uses Cooperative Learning (Resources and Reviews).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbers, Frances A.

    1991-01-01

    Provides a curriculum unit using the novel "Fahrenheit 451" to provide student-centered activities based on solid pedagogical methodology. Emphasizes value-centered analysis of the novel, comparison of alternative arguments, and integration of cooperative learning activities. (PRA)

  7. Applying psychological frameworks of behaviour change to improve healthcare worker hand hygiene: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Srigley, J A; Corace, K; Hargadon, D P; Yu, D; MacDonald, T; Fabrigar, L; Garber, G

    2015-11-01

    Despite the importance of hand hygiene in preventing transmission of healthcare-associated infections, compliance rates are suboptimal. Hand hygiene is a complex behaviour and psychological frameworks are promising tools to influence healthcare worker (HCW) behaviour. (i) To review the effectiveness of interventions based on psychological theories of behaviour change to improve HCW hand hygiene compliance; (ii) to determine which frameworks have been used to predict HCW hand hygiene compliance. Multiple databases and reference lists of included studies were searched for studies that applied psychological theories to improve and/or predict HCW hand hygiene. All steps in selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed independently by two reviewers. The search yielded 918 citations; seven met eligibility criteria. Four studies evaluated hand hygiene interventions based on psychological frameworks. Interventions were informed by goal setting, control theory, operant learning, positive reinforcement, change theory, the theory of planned behaviour, and the transtheoretical model. Three predictive studies employed the theory of planned behaviour, the transtheoretical model, and the theoretical domains framework. Interventions to improve hand hygiene adherence demonstrated efficacy but studies were at moderate to high risk of bias. For many studies, it was unclear how theories of behaviour change were used to inform the interventions. Predictive studies had mixed results. Behaviour change theory is a promising tool for improving hand hygiene; however, these theories have not been extensively examined. Our review reveals a significant gap in the literature and indicates possible avenues for novel research. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Episodic Laryngeal Breathing Disorders: Literature Review and Proposal of Preliminary Theoretical Framework.

    PubMed

    Shembel, Adrianna C; Sandage, Mary J; Verdolini Abbott, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this literature review were (1) to identify and assess frameworks for clinical characterization of episodic laryngeal breathing disorders (ELBD) and their subtypes, (2) to integrate concepts from these frameworks into a novel theoretical paradigm, and (3) to provide a preliminary algorithm to classify clinical features of ELBD for future study of its clinical manifestations and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. This is a literature review. Peer-reviewed literature from 1983 to 2015 pertaining to models for ELBD was searched using Pubmed, Ovid, Proquest, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Google Scholar. Theoretical models for ELBD were identified, evaluated, and integrated into a novel comprehensive framework. Consensus across three salient models provided a working definition and inclusionary criteria for ELBD within the new framework. Inconsistencies and discrepancies within the models provided an analytic platform for future research. Comparison among three conceptual models-(1) Irritable larynx syndrome, (2) Dichotomous triggers, and (3) Periodic occurrence of laryngeal obstruction-showed that the models uniformly consider ELBD to involve episodic laryngeal obstruction causing dyspnea. The models differed in their description of source of dyspnea, in their inclusion of corollary behaviors, in their inclusion of other laryngeal-based behaviors (eg, cough), and types of triggers. The proposed integrated theoretical framework for ELBD provides a preliminary systematic platform for the identification of key clinical feature patterns indicative of ELBD and associated clinical subgroups. This algorithmic paradigm should evolve with better understanding of this spectrum of disorders and its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence-based Frameworks for Teaching and Learning in Classical Singing Training: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Crocco, Laura; Madill, Catherine J; McCabe, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The study systematically reviews evidence-based frameworks for teaching and learning of classical singing training. This is a systematic review. A systematic literature search of 15 electronic databases following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted. Eligibility criteria included type of publication, participant characteristics, intervention, and report of outcomes. Quality rating scales were applied to support assessment of the included literature. Data analysis was conducted using meta-aggregation. Nine papers met the inclusion criteria. No complete evidence-based teaching and learning framework was found. Thematic content analysis showed that studies either (1) identified teaching practices in one-to-one lessons, (2) identified student learning strategies in one-to-one lessons or personal practice sessions, and (3) implemented a tool to enhance one specific area of teaching and learning in lessons. The included studies showed that research in music education is not always specific to musical genre or instrumental group, with four of the nine studies including participant teachers and students of classical voice training only. The overall methodological quality ratings were low. Research in classical singing training has not yet developed an evidence-based framework for classical singing training. This review has found that introductory information on teaching and learning practices has been provided, and tools have been suggested for use in the evaluation of the teaching-learning process. High-quality methodological research designs are needed. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Acceptability of healthcare interventions: an overview of reviews and development of a theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Mandeep; Cartwright, Martin; Francis, Jill J

    2017-01-26

    It is increasingly acknowledged that 'acceptability' should be considered when designing, evaluating and implementing healthcare interventions. However, the published literature offers little guidance on how to define or assess acceptability. The purpose of this study was to develop a multi-construct theoretical framework of acceptability of healthcare interventions that can be applied to assess prospective (i.e. anticipated) and retrospective (i.e. experienced) acceptability from the perspective of intervention delivers and recipients. Two methods were used to select the component constructs of acceptability. 1) An overview of reviews was conducted to identify systematic reviews that claim to define, theorise or measure acceptability of healthcare interventions. 2) Principles of inductive and deductive reasoning were applied to theorise the concept of acceptability and develop a theoretical framework. Steps included (1) defining acceptability; (2) describing its properties and scope and (3) identifying component constructs and empirical indicators. From the 43 reviews included in the overview, none explicitly theorised or defined acceptability. Measures used to assess acceptability focused on behaviour (e.g. dropout rates) (23 reviews), affect (i.e. feelings) (5 reviews), cognition (i.e. perceptions) (7 reviews) or a combination of these (8 reviews). From the methods described above we propose a definition: Acceptability is a multi-faceted construct that reflects the extent to which people delivering or receiving a healthcare intervention consider it to be appropriate, based on anticipated or experienced cognitive and emotional responses to the intervention. The theoretical framework of acceptability (TFA) consists of seven component constructs: affective attitude, burden, perceived effectiveness, ethicality, intervention coherence, opportunity costs, and self-efficacy. Despite frequent claims that healthcare interventions have assessed acceptability, it is

  11. Genetics and developmental biology of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Claudia; Vierbuchen, Maddalena; Ernst, Ulrich; Fischer, Stefan; Radersma, Reinder; Raulo, Aura; Cunha-Saraiva, Filipa; Wu, Min; Mobley, Kenyon B; Taborsky, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    Despite essential progress towards understanding the evolution of cooperative behaviour, we still lack detailed knowledge about its underlying molecular mechanisms, genetic basis, evolutionary dynamics and ontogeny. An international workshop "Genetics and Development of Cooperation," organized by the University of Bern (Switzerland), aimed at discussing the current progress in this research field and suggesting avenues for future research. This review uses the major themes of the meeting as a springboard to synthesize the concepts of genetic and nongenetic inheritance of cooperation, and to review a quantitative genetic framework that allows for the inclusion of indirect genetic effects. Furthermore, we argue that including nongenetic inheritance, such as transgenerational epigenetic effects, parental effects, ecological and cultural inheritance, provides a more nuanced view of the evolution of cooperation. We summarize those genes and molecular pathways in a range of species that seem promising candidates for mechanisms underlying cooperative behaviours. Concerning the neurobiological substrate of cooperation, we suggest three cognitive skills necessary for the ability to cooperate: (i) event memory, (ii) synchrony with others and (iii) responsiveness to others. Taking a closer look at the developmental trajectories that lead to the expression of cooperative behaviours, we discuss the dichotomy between early morphological specialization in social insects and more flexible behavioural specialization in cooperatively breeding vertebrates. Finally, we provide recommendations for which biological systems and species may be particularly suitable, which specific traits and parameters should be measured, what type of approaches should be followed, and which methods should be employed in studies of cooperation to better understand how cooperation evolves and manifests in nature. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Review of the International Council of Nurses (ICN) Framework of Disaster Nursing Competencies.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Alison; Veenema, Tener Goodwin; Gebbie, Kristine

    2016-12-01

    The International Council of Nurses (ICN; Geneva, Switzerland) and the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM; Madison, Wisconsin USA) joined together in 2014 to review the use of the ICN Framework of Disaster Nursing Competencies. The existing ICN Framework (version 1.10; dated 2009) formed the starting point for this review. The key target audiences for this process were members of the disaster nursing community concerned with pre-service education for professional nursing and the continuing education of practicing professional nurses. To minimize risk in the disaster nursing practice, competencies have been identified as the foundation of evidence-based practice and standard development. A Steering Committee was established by the WADEM Nursing Section to discuss how to initiate a review of the ICN Framework of Disaster Nursing Competencies. The Steering Committee then worked via email to develop a survey to send out to disaster/emergency groups that may have nurse members who work/respond in disasters. Thirty-five invitations were sent out with 20 responses (57%) received. Ninety-five percent of respondents knew of the ICN Framework of Disaster Nursing Competencies, with the majority accessing these competencies via the Internet. The majority of those who responded said that they make use of the ICN Framework of Disaster Nursing Competencies with the most common use being for educational purposes. Education was done at a local, national, and international level. The competencies were held in high esteem and valued by these organizations as the cornerstone of their disaster education, and also were used for the continued professional development of disaster nursing. However, respondents stated that five years on from their development, the competencies also should include the psychosocial elements of nurses caring for themselves and their colleagues. Additionally, further studies should explore if there are other areas related to the

  13. Systematic narrative review of decision frameworks to select the appropriate modelling approaches for health economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, B; O'Reilly, D; Jegathisawaran, J; Tarride, J-E; Blackhouse, G; Goeree, R

    2015-06-17

    In constructing or appraising a health economic model, an early consideration is whether the modelling approach selected is appropriate for the given decision problem. Frameworks and taxonomies that distinguish between modelling approaches can help make this decision more systematic and this study aims to identify and compare the decision frameworks proposed to date on this topic area. A systematic review was conducted to identify frameworks from peer-reviewed and grey literature sources. The following databases were searched: OVID Medline and EMBASE; Wiley's Cochrane Library and Health Economic Evaluation Database; PubMed; and ProQuest. Eight decision frameworks were identified, each focused on a different set of modelling approaches and employing a different collection of selection criterion. The selection criteria can be categorized as either: (i) structural features (i.e. technical elements that are factual in nature) or (ii) practical considerations (i.e. context-dependent attributes). The most commonly mentioned structural features were population resolution (i.e. aggregate vs. individual) and interactivity (i.e. static vs. dynamic). Furthermore, understanding the needs of the end-users and stakeholders was frequently incorporated as a criterion within these frameworks. There is presently no universally-accepted framework for selecting an economic modelling approach. Rather, each highlights different criteria that may be of importance when determining whether a modelling approach is appropriate. Further discussion is thus necessary as the modelling approach selected will impact the validity of the underlying economic model and have downstream implications on its efficiency, transparency and relevance to decision-makers.

  14. Patient and service user engagement in research: a systematic review and synthesized framework.

    PubMed

    Shippee, Nathan D; Domecq Garces, Juan Pablo; Prutsky Lopez, Gabriela J; Wang, Zhen; Elraiyah, Tarig A; Nabhan, Mohammed; Brito, Juan P; Boehmer, Kasey; Hasan, Rim; Firwana, Belal; Erwin, Patricia J; Montori, Victor M; Murad, M Hassan

    2015-10-01

    There is growing attention towards increasing patient and service user engagement (PSUE) in biomedical and health services research. Existing variations in language and design inhibit reporting and indexing, which are crucial to comparative effectiveness in determining best practices. This paper utilizes a systematic review and environmental scan to derive an evidence-based framework for PSUE. A metanarrative systematic review and environmental scan/manual search using scientific databases and other search engines, along with feedback from a patient advisory group (PAG). English-language studies, commentaries, grey literature and other sources (including systematic and non-systematic reviews) pertaining to patient and public involvement in biomedical and health services research. Study description (e.g. participant demographics, research setting) and design, if applicable; frameworks, conceptualizations or planning schemes for PSUE-related endeavours; and methods for PSUE initiation and gathering patients'/service users' input or contributions. Overall, 202 sources were included and met eligibility criteria; 41 of these presented some framework or conceptualization of PSUE. Sources were synthesized into a two-part framework for PSUE: (i) integral PSUE components include patient and service user initiation, reciprocal relationships, colearning and re-assessment and feedback, (ii) sources describe PSUE at several research stages, within three larger phases: preparatory, execution and translational. Efforts at developing a solid evidence base on PSUE are limited by the non-standard and non-empirical nature of much of the literature. Our proposed two-part framework provides a standard structure and language for reporting and indexing to support comparative effectiveness and optimize PSUE. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Clinical Interdisciplinary Collaboration Models and Frameworks From Similarities to Differences: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mahdizadeh, Mousa; Heydari, Abbas; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossien

    2015-04-19

    So far, various models of interdisciplinary collaboration in clinical nursing have been presented, however, yet a comprehensive model is not available. The purpose of this study is to review the evidences that had presented model or framework with qualitative approach about interdisciplinary collaboration in clinical nursing. All the articles and theses published from 1990 to 10 June 2014 which in both English and Persian models or frameworks of clinicians had presented model or framework of clinical collaboration were searched using databases of Proquest, Scopus, pub Med, Science Direct, and Iranian databases of Sid, Magiran, and Iranmedex. In this review, for published articles and theses, keywords according with MESH such as nurse-physician relations, care team, collaboration, interdisciplinary relations and their Persian equivalents were used. In this study contexts, processes and outcomes of interdisciplinary collaboration as findings were extracted. One of the major components affecting on collaboration that most of the models had emphasized was background of collaboration. Most of studies suggested that the outcome of collaboration were improved care, doctors and nurses' satisfaction, controlling costs, reducing clinical errors and patient's safety. Models and frameworks had different structures, backgrounds, and conditions, but the outcomes were similar. Organizational structure, culture and social factors are important aspects of clinical collaboration. So it is necessary to improve the quality and effectiveness of clinical collaboration these factors to be considered.

  16. Use of mobile devices in nursing student-nurse teacher cooperation during the clinical practicum: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Strandell-Laine, Camilla; Stolt, Minna; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Saarikoski, Mikko

    2015-03-01

    To identify and appraise study findings on the use of mobile devices, in particular for what purposes and how, in nursing student-nurse teacher cooperation during the clinical practicum. A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed/Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and ERIC for primary empirical studies published in English. An integrative literature review was undertaken. Quality appraisal of the included studies was conducted using design-specific standardized checklists. Studies were thematically analyzed. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, eleven studies were included in the review. Weaknesses in designs, samples, questionnaires and results, compromised comparison and/or generalization of the findings of the studies. Three main themes were identified: (1) features of mobile devices (2) utility of mobile devices and (3) barriers to the use of mobile devices. Problems of connectivity were the main challenges reported in the use of mobile devices. Participants used mobile devices primarily as reference tools, but less frequently as tools for reflection, assessment or cooperation during the clinical practicum. Interest in mobile device use during the clinical practicum was reported, but training and ongoing support are needed. As only a small number of eligible primary empirical studies were found, it is not possible to draw firm conclusions on the results. In the future, rigorous primary empirical studies are needed to explore the potential of mobile devices in providing a supplementary pedagogical method in nursing student-nurse teacher cooperation during the clinical practicum. Robust study designs, including experimental ones, are clearly needed to assess the effectiveness of mobile devices in nursing student-nurse teacher cooperation during the clinical practicum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed a systematic scoping to identify and describe any conceptual/organising frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity. Methods We searched twelve electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO), the reference lists of included studies and of individual funding agency websites to identify potential studies for inclusion. To be included, papers had to present an explicit framework or plan either designed for use by researchers or that could be used to guide dissemination activity. Papers which mentioned dissemination (but did not provide any detail) in the context of a wider knowledge translation framework, were excluded. References were screened independently by at least two reviewers; disagreements were resolved by discussion. For each included paper, the source, the date of publication, a description of the main elements of the framework, and whether there was any implicit/explicit reference to theory were extracted. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Thirty-three frameworks met our inclusion criteria, 20 of which were designed to be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activities. Twenty-eight included frameworks were underpinned at least in part by one or more of three different theoretical approaches, namely persuasive communication, diffusion of innovations theory, and social marketing. Conclusions There are currently a number of theoretically-informed frameworks available to researchers that can be used to help guide their dissemination planning and activity

  18. Report of the review into the research framework in North Staffordshire.

    PubMed

    2000-05-01

    This review began because of complaints about the conduct of research studies in the paediatric department of the North Staffordshire Hospital in Stroke-on-Trent. As it progressed other issues were also examined such as diagnosing Munchausen's Syndrome by Proxy by the use of covert video surveillance. The following extracts concentrate on research issues, and include the whole of the framework for research governance outlined in the report.

  19. Knowledge transfer and exchange frameworks in health and their applicability to palliative care: scoping review protocol.

    PubMed

    Prihodova, Lucia; Guerin, Suzanne; Kernohan, W George

    2015-07-01

    To review knowledge transfer and exchange frameworks used in health, to analyse the core concepts of these frameworks and appraise their potential applicability to palliative care. Although there are over 60 different models of knowledge transfer and exchange designed for various areas of the fields of health care, many remain largely unrefined and untested. There is a lack of studies that create guidelines for scaling-up successful implementation of research findings and of proven models ensuring that patients have access to optimal health care, guided by current research. The protocol for this scoping review was devised according to the guidelines proposed by Arksey and O'Malley (2005) and Levac et al. (2010). The protocol includes decisions about the review objectives, inclusion criteria, search strategy, study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, data synthesis and plans for dissemination. The review will allow us to identify the currently used models of knowledge transfer and exchange in healthcare setting and analyse their applicability to the complex demands of palliative care. Results from this review will identify effective way of translating different types of knowledge to different PC providers and could be used in hospital, community and home based PC and future research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Can frameworks inform knowledge about health policy processes? Reviewing health policy papers on agenda setting and testing them against a specific priority-setting framework.

    PubMed

    Walt, Gill; Gilson, Lucy

    2014-12-01

    This article systematically reviews a set of health policy papers on agenda setting and tests them against a specific priority-setting framework. The article applies the Shiffman and Smith framework in extracting and synthesizing data from an existing set of papers, purposively identified for their relevance and systematically reviewed. Its primary aim is to assess how far the component parts of the framework help to identify the factors that influence the agenda setting stage of the policy process at global and national levels. It seeks to advance the field and inform the development of theory in health policy by examining the extent to which the framework offers a useful approach for organizing and analysing data. Applying the framework retrospectively to the selected set of papers, it aims to explore influences on priority setting and to assess how far the framework might gain from further refinement or adaptation, if used prospectively. In pursuing its primary aim, the article also demonstrates how the approach of framework synthesis can be used in health policy analysis research. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  1. Toward Global Drought Early Warning Capability - Expanding International Cooperation for the Development of a Framework for Monitoring and Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pozzi, Will; Sheffield, Justin; Stefanski, Robert; Cripe, Douglas; Pulwarty, Roger; Vogt, Jurgen V.; Heim, Richard R., Jr.; Brewer, Michael J.; Svoboda, Mark; Westerhoff, Rogier; hide

    2013-01-01

    Drought has had a significant impact on civilization throughout history in terms of reductions in agricultural productivity, potable water supply, and economic activity, and in extreme cases this has led to famine. Every continent has semiarid areas, which are especially vulnerable to drought. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has noted that average annual river runoff and water availability are projected to decrease by 10 percent-13 percent over some dry and semiarid regions in mid and low latitudes, increasing the frequency, intensity, and duration of drought, along with its associated impacts. The sheer magnitude of the problem demands efforts to reduce vulnerability to drought by moving away from the reactive, crisis management approach of the past toward a more proactive, risk management approach that is centered on reducing vulnerability to drought as much as possible while providing early warning of evolving drought conditions and possible impacts. Many countries, unfortunately, do not have adequate resources to provide early warning, but require outside support to provide the necessary early warning information for risk management. Furthermore, in an interconnected world, the need for information on a global scale is crucial for understanding the prospect of declines in agricultural productivity and associated impacts on food prices, food security, and potential for civil conflict. This paper highlights the recent progress made toward a Global Drought Early Warning Monitoring Framework (GDEWF), an underlying partnership and framework, along with its Global Drought Early Warning System (GDEWS), which is its interoperable information system, and the organizations that have begun working together to make it a reality. The GDEWF aims to improve existing regional and national drought monitoring and forecasting capabilities by adding a global component, facilitating continental monitoring and forecasting (where lacking), and improving these tools at

  2. Can Cooperative Learning Achieve the Four Learning Outcomes of Physical Education? A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Ashley; Goodyear, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    Physical learning, cognitive learning, social learning, and affective learning are positioned as the legitimate learning outcomes of physical education. It has been argued that these four learning outcomes go toward facilitating students' engagement with the physically active life (Bailey et al., 2009; Kirk, 2013). With Cooperative Learning…

  3. Can Cooperative Learning Achieve the Four Learning Outcomes of Physical Education? A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Ashley; Goodyear, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    Physical learning, cognitive learning, social learning, and affective learning are positioned as the legitimate learning outcomes of physical education. It has been argued that these four learning outcomes go toward facilitating students' engagement with the physically active life (Bailey et al., 2009; Kirk, 2013). With Cooperative Learning…

  4. 77 FR 2325 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Jail Resource Management: Review and Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... National Institute of Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement--Jail Resource Management... applications for the revision of its Jail Resource Management training program. The project will be for a 9... minimum, in-depth knowledge of (1) the purpose, functions, and operational complexities of local jails,...

  5. Using Cooperative Learning to Teach Chemistry: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M.

    2016-01-01

    A meta-analysis of recent quantitative studies that examine the effects of cooperative learning (CL) on achievement outcomes in chemistry is presented. Findings from 25 chemical education studies involving 3985 participants (N[subscript treatment] = 1,845; N[subscript control] = 2,140) and published since 2001 show positive association between…

  6. The Mass Media in Cooperative Extension: A Review of Recent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everly, Jack C.

    A brief account is given of current evaluative and research activity by Cooperative Extension personnel as they try to assess the role of mass media in environmental education and a growing range of other areas. Attention is given to principles of mass media rural extension, as well as to basic communication theory, the overall usefulness of mass…

  7. Using Cooperative Learning to Teach Chemistry: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M.

    2016-01-01

    A meta-analysis of recent quantitative studies that examine the effects of cooperative learning (CL) on achievement outcomes in chemistry is presented. Findings from 25 chemical education studies involving 3985 participants (N[subscript treatment] = 1,845; N[subscript control] = 2,140) and published since 2001 show positive association between…

  8. Cooperation for direct fitness benefits.

    PubMed

    Leimar, Olof; Hammerstein, Peter

    2010-09-12

    Studies of the evolution of helping have traditionally used the explanatory frameworks of reciprocity and altruism towards relatives, but recently there has been an increasing interest in other kinds of explanations. We review the success or otherwise of work investigating alternative processes and mechanisms, most of which fall under the heading of cooperation for direct benefits. We evaluate to what extent concepts such as by-product benefits, pseudo-reciprocity, sanctions and partner choice, markets and the build-up of cross-species spatial trait correlations have contributed to the study of the evolution of cooperation. We conclude that these alternative ideas are successful and show potential to further increase our understanding of cooperation. We also bring up the origin and role of common interest in the evolution of cooperation, including the appearance of organisms. We note that there are still unresolved questions about the main processes contributing to the evolution of common interest. Commenting on the broader significance of the recent developments, we argue that they represent a justified balancing of the importance given to different major hypotheses for the evolution of cooperation. This balancing is beneficial because it widens considerably the range of phenomena addressed and, crucially, encourages empirical testing of important theoretical alternatives.

  9. Contextual effects in school-based violence prevention programs: a conceptual framework and empirical review.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Emily J

    2006-05-01

    This paper reviews the theoretical and practical importance of studying contextual factors in school-based violence prevention programs and provides a framework for evaluating factors at the classroom, school, and community/district level. Sixty-two published papers describing 38 different programs were reviewed; of these 16 were identified that reported data on contextual effects or discussed possible contextual effects on the intervention. The small number of studies precludes definitive conclusions regarding contextual effects in school-based violence prevention programs, but suggests (a) some evidence for contextual effects on program outcomes, and (b) interdependence of context and implementation factors in influencing outcomes.Editors' Strategic Implications: This review suggests that contextual effects are important to school violence prevention, as context can influence outcomes directly and through interactions with implementation factors. Consequently, characteristics of the classroom, school, and community contexts should be considered by practitioners when implementing prevention programs and measured by researchers studying the processes and outcomes of these programs.

  10. The NEOUCOM Cooperative Cataloging Service: development and review of the first four years.

    PubMed

    Miller, D R

    1983-04-01

    The Basic Medical Sciences Library of the Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine (NEOUCOM) provided a Cooperative Cataloging Service to fourteen of its affiliated hospitals' libraries since March 1978, using the OCLC system. Analysis of the first four years of service showed that the hospital libraries spent almost $30,000 to catalog more than 18,000 titles. Personnel expenses and other costs eclipsed the savings from a 31.3% duplication rate. Centralized bibliographic control control and the principal by-product of the service, a uniform, machine-related data base, provided the foundation for an on-line integrated library system to serve the consortium. The hospital libraries contributed 44% of the unique titles in this data base, which emphasis the need to share resources and continue cooperation.

  11. Review of the Fiscal Year 2013 (FY13) Defense Environmental International Cooperation (DEIC) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    planning meeting was held for this event, with the expectation that it will be executed in FY14. Zambia , Environmental Considerations in Military...Operations (AFFY13014, $47K.) This event was held in Lusaka, Zambia , 5–6 March 2013. The key objective for this initial workshop was to introduce...environmental security cooperation in the region. Discussion topics included environmental security challenges in Zambia and the Southern African

  12. Review of the FY15 Defense Environmental International Cooperation (DEIC) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Pacific Command, n.d. Nowland, Major General Mark C., USAF. “ United States Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM) Defense Environmental International Cooperation...only between the United States and the partner nation(s), but also within and among those partner nations. The impact of the DEIC program can be... United Nations Environmental Program USA United States Army USAF United States Air Force USAREUR U.S. Army Europe USACE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

  13. Patients' perceptions and experiences of cardiovascular disease and diabetes prevention programmes: A systematic review and framework synthesis using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Rachel L; Holland, Carol; Pattison, Helen M; Cooke, Richard

    2016-05-01

    This review provides a worked example of 'best fit' framework synthesis using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) of health psychology theories as an a priori framework in the synthesis of qualitative evidence. Framework synthesis works best with 'policy urgent' questions. The review question selected was: what are patients' experiences of prevention programmes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes? The significance of these conditions is clear: CVD claims more deaths worldwide than any other; diabetes is a risk factor for CVD and leading cause of death. A systematic review and framework synthesis were conducted. This novel method for synthesizing qualitative evidence aims to make health psychology theory accessible to implementation science and advance the application of qualitative research findings in evidence-based healthcare. Findings from 14 original studies were coded deductively into the TDF and subsequently an inductive thematic analysis was conducted. Synthesized findings produced six themes relating to: knowledge, beliefs, cues to (in)action, social influences, role and identity, and context. A conceptual model was generated illustrating combinations of factors that produce cues to (in)action. This model demonstrated interrelationships between individual (beliefs and knowledge) and societal (social influences, role and identity, context) factors. Several intervention points were highlighted where factors could be manipulated to produce favourable cues to action. However, a lack of transparency of behavioural components of published interventions needs to be corrected and further evaluations of acceptability in relation to patient experience are required. Further work is needed to test the comprehensiveness of the TDF as an a priori framework for 'policy urgent' questions using 'best fit' framework synthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Guest Induced Strong Cooperative One- and Two-Step Spin Transitions in Highly Porous Iron(II) Hofmann-Type Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro-López, Lucı A; Valverde-Muñoz, Francisco Javier; Seredyuk, Maksym; Muñoz, M Carmen; Haukka, Matti; Real, José Antonio

    2017-06-19

    The synthesis, crystal structure, magnetic, calorimetric, and Mössbauer studies of a series of new Hofmann-type spin crossover (SCO) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is reported. The new SCO-MOFs arise from self-assembly of Fe(II), bis(4-pyridyl)butadiyne (bpb), and [Ag(CN)2](-) or [M(II)(CN)4](2-) (M(II) = Ni, Pd). Interpenetration of four identical 3D networks with α-Po topology are obtained for {Fe(bpb)[Ag(I)(CN)2]2} due to the length of the rod-like bismonodentate bpb and [Ag(CN)2](-) ligands. The four networks are tightly packed and organized in two subsets orthogonally interpenetrated, while the networks in each subset display parallel interpenetration. This nonporous material undergoes a very incomplete SCO, which is rationalized from its intricate structure. In contrast, the single network Hofmann-type MOFs {Fe(bpb)[M(II)(CN)4]}·nGuest (M(II) = Ni, Pd) feature enhanced porosity and display complete one-step or two-step cooperative SCO behaviors when the pores are filled with two molecules of nitrobenzene or naphthalene that interact strongly with the pyridyl and cyano moieties of the bpb ligands via π-π stacking. The lack of these guest molecules favors stabilization of the high-spin state in the whole range of temperatures. However, application of hydrostatic pressure induces one- and two-step SCO.

  15. Conceptual framework for outcomes research studies of hepatitis C: an analytical review

    PubMed Central

    Sbarigia, Urbano; Denee, Tom R; Turner, Norris G; Wan, George J; Morrison, Alan; Kaufman, Anna S; Rice, Gary; Dusheiko, Geoffrey M

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus infection is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Until recently, the standard antiviral regimen for hepatitis C was a combination of an interferon derivative and ribavirin, but a plethora of new antiviral drugs is becoming available. While these new drugs have shown great efficacy in clinical trials, observational studies are needed to determine their effectiveness in clinical practice. Previous observational studies have shown that multiple factors, besides the drug regimen, affect patient outcomes in clinical practice. Here, we provide an analytical review of published outcomes studies of the management of hepatitis C virus infection. A conceptual framework defines the relationships between four categories of variables: health care system structure, patient characteristics, process-of-care, and patient outcomes. This framework can provide a starting point for outcomes studies addressing the use and effectiveness of new antiviral drug treatments. PMID:27313473

  16. Conceptual framework for outcomes research studies of hepatitis C: an analytical review.

    PubMed

    Sbarigia, Urbano; Denee, Tom R; Turner, Norris G; Wan, George J; Morrison, Alan; Kaufman, Anna S; Rice, Gary; Dusheiko, Geoffrey M

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus infection is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Until recently, the standard antiviral regimen for hepatitis C was a combination of an interferon derivative and ribavirin, but a plethora of new antiviral drugs is becoming available. While these new drugs have shown great efficacy in clinical trials, observational studies are needed to determine their effectiveness in clinical practice. Previous observational studies have shown that multiple factors, besides the drug regimen, affect patient outcomes in clinical practice. Here, we provide an analytical review of published outcomes studies of the management of hepatitis C virus infection. A conceptual framework defines the relationships between four categories of variables: health care system structure, patient characteristics, process-of-care, and patient outcomes. This framework can provide a starting point for outcomes studies addressing the use and effectiveness of new antiviral drug treatments.

  17. Estimating the Importance of Private Adaptation: A Review of Empirical Methods and Framework for Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, F. C.

    2016-12-01

    Adaptation, unlike mitigation, is largely a private good and we therefore expect adaptations to be undertaken by people and firms acting in their own self-interest, independent of public policy. Quantifying the economic costs of climate change therefore requires understanding the rate and effectiveness at which people will adapt to climate change, as well as the costs of these adaptations. Several empirical methods have been suggested for quantifying private adaptation, but the connection between these approaches has not been explored. This talk will first introduce a common framework for understanding climate change impacts and the importance of adaptation. It will then review proposed approaches for estimating adaptation, situating them within this framework and discussing complementarities between methods. A simulated example based on agricultural impacts and adaptation will be used to highlight the pros and cons of each technique.

  18. Co-operative transport by molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Berger, Florian; Keller, Corina; Müller, Melanie J I; Klumpp, Stefan; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2011-10-01

    Intracellular transport is often driven co-operatively by several molecular motors, which may belong to one or several motor species. Understanding how these motors interact and what co-ordinates and regulates their movements is a central problem in studies of intracellular transport. A general theoretical framework for the analysis of such transport processes is described, which enables us to explain the behaviour of intracellular cargos by the transport properties of individual motors and their interactions. We review recent advances in the theoretical description of motor co-operativity and discuss related experimental results.

  19. Technical skills assessment toolbox: a review using the unitary framework of validity.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Iman; Manji, Farouq; Park, Yoon Soo; Juul, Dorthea; Ott, Michael; Harris, Ilene; Farrell, Timothy M

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a technical skills assessment toolbox for 35 basic and advanced skills/procedures that comprise the American College of Surgeons (ACS)/Association of Program Directors in Surgery (APDS) surgical skills curriculum and to provide a critical appraisal of the included tools, using contemporary framework of validity. Competency-based training has become the predominant model in surgical education and assessment of performance is an essential component. Assessment methods must produce valid results to accurately determine the level of competency. A search was performed, using PubMed and Google Scholar, to identify tools that have been developed for assessment of the targeted technical skills. A total of 23 assessment tools for the 35 ACS/APDS skills modules were identified. Some tools, such as Operative Performance Rating System (OSATS) and Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (OPRS), have been tested for more than 1 procedure. Therefore, 30 modules had at least 1 assessment tool, with some common surgical procedures being addressed by several tools. Five modules had none. Only 3 studies used Messick's framework to design their validity studies. The remaining studies used an outdated framework on the basis of "types of validity." When analyzed using the contemporary framework, few of these studies demonstrated validity for content, internal structure, and relationship to other variables. This study provides an assessment toolbox for common surgical skills/procedures. Our review shows that few authors have used the contemporary unitary concept of validity for development of their assessment tools. As we progress toward competency-based training, future studies should provide evidence for various sources of validity using the contemporary framework.

  20. Assessing the impact of healthcare research: A systematic review of methodological frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Keeley, Thomas J.; Calvert, Melanie J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Increasingly, researchers need to demonstrate the impact of their research to their sponsors, funders, and fellow academics. However, the most appropriate way of measuring the impact of healthcare research is subject to debate. We aimed to identify the existing methodological frameworks used to measure healthcare research impact and to summarise the common themes and metrics in an impact matrix. Methods and findings Two independent investigators systematically searched the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), the Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL+), the Health Management Information Consortium, and the Journal of Research Evaluation from inception until May 2017 for publications that presented a methodological framework for research impact. We then summarised the common concepts and themes across methodological frameworks and identified the metrics used to evaluate differing forms of impact. Twenty-four unique methodological frameworks were identified, addressing 5 broad categories of impact: (1) ‘primary research-related impact’, (2) ‘influence on policy making’, (3) ‘health and health systems impact’, (4) ‘health-related and societal impact’, and (5) ‘broader economic impact’. These categories were subdivided into 16 common impact subgroups. Authors of the included publications proposed 80 different metrics aimed at measuring impact in these areas. The main limitation of the study was the potential exclusion of relevant articles, as a consequence of the poor indexing of the databases searched. Conclusions The measurement of research impact is an essential exercise to help direct the allocation of limited research resources, to maximise research benefit, and to help minimise research waste. This review provides a collective summary of existing methodological frameworks for research impact, which funders may use to inform the

  1. Framework for Selecting Best Practices in Public Health: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    de Colombani, Pierpaolo

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based public health has commonly relied on findings from empirical studies, or research-based evidence. However, this paper advocates that practice-based evidence derived from programmes implemented in real-life settings is likely to be a more suitable source of evidence for inspiring and guiding public health programmes. Selection of best practices from the array of implemented programmes is one way of generating such practice-based evidence. Yet the lack of consensus on the definition and criteria for practice-based evidence and best practices has limited their application in public health so far. To address the gap in literature on practice-based evidence, this paper hence proposes measures of success for public health interventions by developing an evaluation framework for selection of best practices. The proposed framework was synthesised from a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed and grey literature on existing evaluation frameworks for public health programmes as well as processes employed by health-related organisations when selecting best practices. A best practice is firstly defined as an intervention that has shown evidence of effectiveness in a particular setting and is likely to be replicable to other situations. Regardless of the area of public health, interventions should be evaluated by their context, process and outcomes. A best practice should hence meet most, if not all, of eight identified evaluation criteria: relevance, community participation, stakeholder collaboration, ethical soundness, replicability, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability. Ultimately, a standardised framework for selection of best practices will improve the usefulness and credibility of practice-based evidence in informing evidence-based public health interventions. Significance for public health Best practices are a valuable source of practice-based evidence on effective public health interventions implemented in real-life settings. Yet, despite

  2. Framework for Selecting Best Practices in Public Health: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Ng, Eileen; de Colombani, Pierpaolo

    2015-11-17

    Evidence-based public health has commonly relied on findings from empirical studies, or research-based evidence. However, this paper advocates that practice-based evidence derived from programmes implemented in real-life settings is likely to be a more suitable source of evidence for inspiring and guiding public health programmes. Selection of best practices from the array of implemented programmes is one way of generating such practice-based evidence. Yet the lack of consensus on the definition and criteria for practice-based evidence and best practices has limited their application in public health so far. To address the gap in literature on practice-based evidence, this paper hence proposes measures of success for public health interventions by developing an evaluation framework for selection of best practices. The proposed framework was synthesised from a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed and grey literature on existing evaluation frameworks for public health programmes as well as processes employed by health-related organisations when selecting best practices. A best practice is firstly defined as an intervention that has shown evidence of effectiveness in a particular setting and is likely to be replicable to other situations. Regardless of the area of public health, interventions should be evaluated by their context, process and outcomes. A best practice should hence meet most, if not all, of eight identified evaluation criteria: relevance, community participation, stakeholder collaboration, ethical soundness, replicability, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability. Ultimately, a standardised framework for selection of best practices will improve the usefulness and credibility of practice-based evidence in informing evidence-based public health interventions. Significance for public healthBest practices are a valuable source of practice-based evidence on effective public health interventions implemented in real-life settings. Yet, despite the

  3. [The ethics review process in the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission].

    PubMed

    Pérez Blanco, V; Hirsch, F; González Pantaleón, P; Kritikos, M; Karatzas, I

    2010-01-01

    The Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission (EC) is one of the most important instruments for public funding of research and technological development. Besides the scientific assessment of each proposal, the ethical issues raised in them are evaluated in accordance with the current European legislation and the ethical principles laid down in the international declarations supported by Member States. Such ethical review is organized by the "Governance and Ethics" Unit (Directorate-General for Research), although it is done by professionals from different sectors and backgrounds who register themselves voluntary in a database.

  4. Review of Molecular Simulations of Methane Storage in Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Joon; Bae, Youn-Sang

    2016-05-01

    Methane storage in porous materials is one of the hot issues because it can replace dangerous high-pressure compressed natural gas (CNG) tanks in natural gas vehicles. Among the diverse adsorbents, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are considered to be promising due to their extremely high surface areas and low crystal densities. Molecular simulation has been considered as an important tool for finding an appropriate MOF for methane storage. We review several important roles of molecular modeling for the studies of methane adsorption in MOFs.

  5. A University-Industry Cooperation Model for Small and Medium Enterprises: The Case of Chengdu KEDA Optoelectronic Technology Ltd.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Shanzhong; Ferreira, Fernando A. F.; Zheng, He

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we develop a firm-dominated incremental cooperation model. Following the critical review of current literature and various cooperation models, we identified a number of strengths and shortcomings that form the basis for our framework. The objective of our theoretical model is to contribute to overcome the existing gap within…

  6. Rainfall and streamflow sensor network design: a review of applications, classification, and a proposed framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacon-Hurtado, Juan C.; Alfonso, Leonardo; Solomatine, Dimitri P.

    2017-06-01

    Sensors and sensor networks play an important role in decision-making related to water quality, operational streamflow forecasting, flood early warning systems, and other areas. In this paper we review a number of existing applications and analyse a variety of evaluation and design procedures for sensor networks with respect to various criteria. Most of the existing approaches focus on maximising the observability and information content of a variable of interest. From the context of hydrological modelling only a few studies use the performance of the hydrological simulation in terms of output discharge as a design criterion. In addition to the review, we propose a framework for classifying the existing design methods, and a generalised procedure for an optimal network design in the context of rainfall-runoff hydrological modelling.

  7. Assessing mental imagery in clinical psychology: A review of imagery measures and a guiding framework

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, David G.; Deeprose, Catherine; Wallace-Hadrill, Sophie M.A.; Heyes, Stephanie Burnett; Holmes, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Mental imagery is an under-explored field in clinical psychology research but presents a topic of potential interest and relevance across many clinical disorders, including social phobia, schizophrenia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is currently a lack of a guiding framework from which clinicians may select the domains or associated measures most likely to be of appropriate use in mental imagery research. We adopt an interdisciplinary approach and present a review of studies across experimental psychology and clinical psychology in order to highlight the key domains and measures most likely to be of relevance. This includes a consideration of methods for experimentally assessing the generation, maintenance, inspection and transformation of mental images; as well as subjective measures of characteristics such as image vividness and clarity. We present a guiding framework in which we propose that cognitive, subjective and clinical aspects of imagery should be explored in future research. The guiding framework aims to assist researchers in the selection of measures for assessing those aspects of mental imagery that are of most relevance to clinical psychology. We propose that a greater understanding of the role of mental imagery in clinical disorders will help drive forward advances in both theory and treatment. PMID:23123567

  8. Assessing mental imagery in clinical psychology: a review of imagery measures and a guiding framework.

    PubMed

    Pearson, David G; Deeprose, Catherine; Wallace-Hadrill, Sophie M A; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Holmes, Emily A

    2013-02-01

    Mental imagery is an under-explored field in clinical psychology research but presents a topic of potential interest and relevance across many clinical disorders, including social phobia, schizophrenia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is currently a lack of a guiding framework from which clinicians may select the domains or associated measures most likely to be of appropriate use in mental imagery research. We adopt an interdisciplinary approach and present a review of studies across experimental psychology and clinical psychology in order to highlight the key domains and measures most likely to be of relevance. This includes a consideration of methods for experimentally assessing the generation, maintenance, inspection and transformation of mental images; as well as subjective measures of characteristics such as image vividness and clarity. We present a guiding framework in which we propose that cognitive, subjective and clinical aspects of imagery should be explored in future research. The guiding framework aims to assist researchers in the selection of measures for assessing those aspects of mental imagery that are of most relevance to clinical psychology. We propose that a greater understanding of the role of mental imagery in clinical disorders will help drive forward advances in both theory and treatment.

  9. A Review of Frameworks for Developing Environmental Health Indicators for Climate Change and Health

    PubMed Central

    Hambling, Tammy; Weinstein, Philip; Slaney, David

    2011-01-01

    The role climate change may play in altering human health, particularly in the emergence and spread of diseases, is an evolving area of research. It is important to understand this relationship because it will compound the already significant burden of diseases on national economies and public health. Authorities need to be able to assess, anticipate, and monitor human health vulnerability to climate change, in order to plan for, or implement action to avoid these eventualities. Environmental health indicators (EHIs) provide a tool to assess, monitor, and quantify human health vulnerability, to aid in the design and targeting of interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. Our aim was to identify the most suitable framework for developing EHIs to measure and monitor the impacts of climate change on human health and inform the development of interventions. Using published literature we reviewed the attributes of 11 frameworks. We identified the Driving force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework as the most suitable one for developing EHIs for climate change and health. We propose the use of EHIs as a valuable tool to assess, quantify, and monitor human health vulnerability, design and target interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. In this paper, we lay the groundwork for the future development of EHIs as a multidisciplinary approach to link existing environmental and epidemiological data and networks. Analysis of such data will contribute to an enhanced understanding of the relationship between climate change and human health. PMID:21845162

  10. A review of frameworks for developing environmental health indicators for climate change and health.

    PubMed

    Hambling, Tammy; Weinstein, Philip; Slaney, David

    2011-07-01

    The role climate change may play in altering human health, particularly in the emergence and spread of diseases, is an evolving area of research. It is important to understand this relationship because it will compound the already significant burden of diseases on national economies and public health. Authorities need to be able to assess, anticipate, and monitor human health vulnerability to climate change, in order to plan for, or implement action to avoid these eventualities. Environmental health indicators (EHIs) provide a tool to assess, monitor, and quantify human health vulnerability, to aid in the design and targeting of interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. Our aim was to identify the most suitable framework for developing EHIs to measure and monitor the impacts of climate change on human health and inform the development of interventions. Using published literature we reviewed the attributes of 11 frameworks. We identified the Driving force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework as the most suitable one for developing EHIs for climate change and health. We propose the use of EHIs as a valuable tool to assess, quantify, and monitor human health vulnerability, design and target interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. In this paper, we lay the groundwork for the future development of EHIs as a multidisciplinary approach to link existing environmental and epidemiological data and networks. Analysis of such data will contribute to an enhanced understanding of the relationship between climate change and human health.

  11. Legislation for Youth Sport Concussion in Canada: Review, Conceptual Framework, and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Russell, Kelly; Ellis, Michael J; Bauman, Shannon; Tator, Charles H

    2017-01-10

    In this article, we conduct a review of introduced and enacted youth concussion legislation in Canada and present a conceptual framework and recommendations for future youth sport concussion laws. We conducted online searches of federal, provincial, and territorial legislatures to identify youth concussion bills that were introduced or successfully enacted into law. Internet searches were carried out from July 26 and 27, 2016. Online searches identified six youth concussion bills that were introduced in provincial legislatures, including two in Ontario and Nova Scotia and one each in British Columbia and Quebec. One of these bills (Ontario Bill 149, Rowan's Law Advisory Committee Act, 2016) was enacted into provincial law; it is not actual concussion legislation, but rather a framework for possible enactment of legislation. Two bills have been introduced in federal parliament but neither bill has been enacted into law. At present, there is no provincial or federal concussion legislation that directly legislates concussion education, prevention, management, or policy in youth sports in Canada. The conceptual framework and recommendations presented here should be used to guide the design and implementation of future youth sport concussion laws in Canada.

  12. Institutional framework for integrated Pharmaceutical Benefits Management: results from a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hermanowski, Tomasz Roman; Drozdowska, Aleksandra Krystyna; Kowalczyk, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In this paper, we emphasised that effective management of health plans beneficiaries access to reimbursed medicines requires proper institutional set-up. The main objective was to identify and recommend an institutional framework of integrated pharmaceutical care providing effective, safe and equitable access to medicines. Method The institutional framework of drug policy was derived on the basis of publications obtained by systematic reviews. A comparative analysis concerning adaptation of coordinated pharmaceutical care services in the USA, the UK, Poland, Italy, Denmark and Germany was performed. Results While most European Union Member States promote the implementation of selected e-Health tools, like e-Prescribing, these efforts do not necessarily implement an integrated package. There is no single agent who would manage an insured patients’ access to medicines and health care in a coordinated manner, thereby increasing the efficiency and safety of drug policy. More attention should be paid by European Union Member States as to how to integrate various e-Health tools to enhance benefits to both individuals and societies. One solution could be to implement an integrated “pharmacy benefit management” model, which is well established in the USA and Canada and provides an integrated package of cost-containment methods, implemented within a transparent institutional framework and powered by strong motivation of the agent. PMID:26528099

  13. A Metadata Management Framework for Collaborative Review of Science Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, A. F.; Cinquini, L.; Mattmann, C. A.; Thompson, D. R.; Wagstaff, K.; Zimdars, P. A.; Jones, D. L.; Lazio, J.; Preston, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    Data volumes generated by modern scientific instruments often preclude archiving the complete observational record. To compensate, science teams have developed a variety of "triage" techniques for identifying data of potential scientific interest and marking it for prioritized processing or permanent storage. This may involve multiple stages of filtering with both automated and manual components operating at different timescales. A promising approach exploits a fast, fully automated first stage followed by a more reliable offline manual review of candidate events. This hybrid approach permits a 24-hour rapid real-time response while also preserving the high accuracy of manual review. To support this type of second-level validation effort, we have developed a metadata-driven framework for the collaborative review of candidate data products. The framework consists of a metadata processing pipeline and a browser-based user interface that together provide a configurable mechanism for reviewing data products via the web, and capturing the full stack of associated metadata in a robust, searchable archive. Our system heavily leverages software from the Apache Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) project, an open source data integration framework that facilitates the construction of scalable data systems and places a heavy emphasis on the utilization of metadata to coordinate processing activities. OODT provides a suite of core data management components for file management and metadata cataloging that form the foundation for this effort. The system has been deployed at JPL in support of the V-FASTR experiment [1], a software-based radio transient detection experiment that operates commensally at the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), and has a science team that is geographically distributed across several countries. Daily review of automatically flagged data is a shared responsibility for the team, and is essential to keep the project within its resource constraints. We

  14. Stress, Cognition, and Human Performance: A Literature Review and Conceptual Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staal, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    The following literature review addresses the effects of various stressors on cognition. While attempting to be as inclusive as possible, the review focuses its examination on the relationships between cognitive appraisal, attention, memory, and stress as they relate to information processing and human performance. The review begins with an overview of constructs and theoretical perspectives followed by an examination of effects across attention, memory, perceptual-motor functions, judgment and decision making, putative stressors such as workload, thermals, noise, and fatigue and closes with a discussion of moderating variables and related topics. In summation of the review, a conceptual framework for cognitive process under stress has been assembled. As one might imagine, the research literature that addresses stress, theories governing its effects on human performance, and experimental evidence that supports these notions is large and diverse. In attempting to organize and synthesize this body of work, I was guided by several earlier efforts (Bourne & Yaroush, 2003; Driskell, Mullen, Johnson, Hughes, & Batchelor, 1992; Driskell & Salas, 1996; Haridcock & Desmond, 2001; Stokes & Kite, 1994). These authors should be credited with accomplishing the monumental task of providing focused reviews in this area and their collective efforts laid the foundation for this present review. Similarly, the format of this review has been designed in accordance with these previous exemplars. However, each of these previous efforts either simply reported general findings, without sufficient experimental illustration, or narrowed their scope of investigation to the extent that the breadth of such findings remained hidden from the reader. Moreover, none of these examinations yielded an architecture that adequately describes or explains the inter-relations between information processing elements under stress conditions.

  15. Violence towards emergency nurses: A narrative review of theories and frameworks.

    PubMed

    Ramacciati, Nicola; Ceccagnoli, Andrea; Addey, Beniamino; Lumini, Enrico; Rasero, Laura

    2017-09-16

    Workplace Violence in the health environment is a growing issue worldwide. Emergency department have been identified asa high-risk setting for Workplace Violence and emergency nurses are most exposed to this phenomenon. To address workplace violence in the ED effectively, it is critical to understand frameworks established in the literature to assist in development of appropriate interventions and corrective measures. An overview of available theories of violence towards emergency nurses in the literature is presented herein in the format of a narrative review. A search of international literature on WPV theories was conducted in three databases: PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and Proquest Central. Articles concerning theories that have direct implications for patient-related violence (client-on-worker Type 2 Violence) in the emergency department were sought. Four hundred and fifty-nine articles were found. Applying established inclusion and exclusion criteria, fourteen of these were included in the review. In the international literature there are 24 theories and frameworks pertaining to violence towards nurses in the emergency department which describe different intervention strategies based on these. Both the theories on violence developed by nurses and those derived from other disciplines are complex and many key elements are invariably intertwined. Understanding such theories might be useful to manage violence towards emergency nurses with greater effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Patient-Centered Framework for Evaluating Digital Maturity of Health Services: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Ryan; Darzi, Ara; Mayer, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Background Digital maturity is the extent to which digital technologies are used as enablers to deliver a high-quality health service. Extensive literature exists about how to assess the components of digital maturity, but it has not been used to design a comprehensive framework for evaluation. Consequently, the measurement systems that do exist are limited to evaluating digital programs within one service or care setting, meaning that digital maturity evaluation is not accounting for the needs of patients across their care pathways. Objective The objective of our study was to identify the best methods and metrics for evaluating digital maturity and to create a novel, evidence-based tool for evaluating digital maturity across patient care pathways. Methods We systematically reviewed the literature to find the best methods and metrics for evaluating digital maturity. We searched the PubMed database for all papers relevant to digital maturity evaluation. Papers were selected if they provided insight into how to appraise digital systems within the health service and if they indicated the factors that constitute or facilitate digital maturity. Papers were analyzed to identify methodology for evaluating digital maturity and indicators of digitally mature systems. We then used the resulting information about methodology to design an evaluation framework. Following that, the indicators of digital maturity were extracted and grouped into increasing levels of maturity and operationalized as metrics within the evaluation framework. Results We identified 28 papers as relevant to evaluating digital maturity, from which we derived 5 themes. The first theme concerned general evaluation methodology for constructing the framework (7 papers). The following 4 themes were the increasing levels of digital maturity: resources and ability (6 papers), usage (7 papers), interoperability (3 papers), and impact (5 papers). The framework includes metrics for each of these levels at each

  17. A Patient-Centered Framework for Evaluating Digital Maturity of Health Services: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Flott, Kelsey; Callahan, Ryan; Darzi, Ara; Mayer, Erik

    2016-04-14

    Digital maturity is the extent to which digital technologies are used as enablers to deliver a high-quality health service. Extensive literature exists about how to assess the components of digital maturity, but it has not been used to design a comprehensive framework for evaluation. Consequently, the measurement systems that do exist are limited to evaluating digital programs within one service or care setting, meaning that digital maturity evaluation is not accounting for the needs of patients across their care pathways. The objective of our study was to identify the best methods and metrics for evaluating digital maturity and to create a novel, evidence-based tool for evaluating digital maturity across patient care pathways. We systematically reviewed the literature to find the best methods and metrics for evaluating digital maturity. We searched the PubMed database for all papers relevant to digital maturity evaluation. Papers were selected if they provided insight into how to appraise digital systems within the health service and if they indicated the factors that constitute or facilitate digital maturity. Papers were analyzed to identify methodology for evaluating digital maturity and indicators of digitally mature systems. We then used the resulting information about methodology to design an evaluation framework. Following that, the indicators of digital maturity were extracted and grouped into increasing levels of maturity and operationalized as metrics within the evaluation framework. We identified 28 papers as relevant to evaluating digital maturity, from which we derived 5 themes. The first theme concerned general evaluation methodology for constructing the framework (7 papers). The following 4 themes were the increasing levels of digital maturity: resources and ability (6 papers), usage (7 papers), interoperability (3 papers), and impact (5 papers). The framework includes metrics for each of these levels at each stage of the typical patient care pathway

  18. Appraising evidence for intervention effectiveness in early psychosis: conceptual framework and review of evaluation approaches.

    PubMed

    Catts, Stanley V; O'Toole, Brian I; Carr, Vaughan J; Lewin, Terry; Neil, Amanda; Harris, Meredith G; Frost, Aaron D J; Crissman, Belinda R; Eadie, Kathy; Evans, Russell W

    2010-03-01

    The literature that is relevant to evaluation of treatment effectiveness is large, scattered and difficult to assemble for appraisal. This scoping review first develops a conceptual framework to help organize the field, and second, uses the framework to appraise early psychosis intervention (EPI) studies. Literature searches were used to identify representative study designs, which were then sorted according to evaluation approach. The groupings provided a conceptual framework upon which a map of the field could be drawn. Key words were cross-checked against definitions in dictionaries of scientific terms and the National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) browser. Using the final list of key words as search terms, the EPI evaluation literature was appraised. Experimental studies could be grouped into two classes: efficacy and effectiveness randomized controlled trials. Non-experimental studies could be subgrouped into at least four overlapping categories: clinical epidemiological; health service evaluations; quality assurance studies; and, quasi-experimental assessments of treatment effects. Applying this framework to appraise EPI studies indicated promising evidence for the effectiveness of EPI irrespective of study design type, and a clearer picture of where future evaluation efforts should be focused. Reliance on clinical trials alone will restrict the type of information that can inform clinical practice. There is convergent evidence for the benefits of specialized EPI service functions across a range of study designs. Greater investment in health services research and quality assurance approaches in evaluating EPI effectiveness should be made, which will involve scaling up of study sizes and development of an EPI programme fidelity rating template. The degree of complexity of the evaluation field suggests that greater focus on research methodology in the training of Australasian psychiatrists is urgently needed.

  19. Dilemmas of partial cooperation.

    PubMed

    Stark, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    Related to the often applied cooperation models of social dilemmas, we deal with scenarios in which defection dominates cooperation, but an intermediate fraction of cooperators, that is, "partial cooperation," would maximize the overall performance of a group of individuals. Of course, such a solution comes at the expense of cooperators that do not profit from the overall maximum. However, because there are mechanisms accounting for mutual benefits after repeated interactions or through evolutionary mechanisms, such situations can constitute "dilemmas" of partial cooperation. Among the 12 ordinally distinct, symmetrical 2 x 2 games, three (barely considered) variants are correspondents of such dilemmas. Whereas some previous studies investigated particular instances of such games, we here provide the unifying framework and concisely relate it to the broad literature on cooperation in social dilemmas. Complementing our argumentation, we study the evolution of partial cooperation by deriving the respective conditions under which coexistence of cooperators and defectors, that is, partial cooperation, can be a stable outcome of evolutionary dynamics in these scenarios. Finally, we discuss the relevance of such models for research on the large biodiversity and variation in cooperative efforts both in biological and social systems.

  20. Understanding effects in reviews of implementation interventions using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    PubMed

    Little, Elizabeth A; Presseau, Justin; Eccles, Martin P

    2015-06-17

    Behavioural theory can be used to better understand the effects of behaviour change interventions targeting healthcare professional behaviour to improve quality of care. However, the explicit use of theory is rarely reported despite interventions inevitably involving at least an implicit idea of what factors to target to implement change. There is a quality of care gap in the post-fracture investigation (bone mineral density (BMD) scanning) and management (bisphosphonate prescription) of patients at risk of osteoporosis. We aimed to use the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) within a systematic review of interventions to improve quality of care in post-fracture investigation. Our objectives were to explore which theoretical factors the interventions in the review may have been targeting and how this might be related to the size of the effect on rates of BMD scanning and osteoporosis treatment with bisphosphonate medication. A behavioural scientist and a clinician independently coded TDF domains in intervention and control groups. Quantitative analyses explored the relationship between intervention effect size and total number of domains targeted, and as number of different domains targeted. Nine randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (10 interventions) were analysed. The five theoretical domains most frequently coded as being targeted by the interventions in the review included "memory, attention and decision processes", "knowledge", "environmental context and resources", "social influences" and "beliefs about consequences". Each intervention targeted a combination of at least four of these five domains. Analyses identified an inverse relationship between both number of times and number of different domains coded and the effect size for BMD scanning but not for bisphosphonate prescription, suggesting that the more domains the intervention targeted, the lower the observed effect size. When explicit use of theory to inform interventions is absent, it is possible to

  1. Scoping review: national monitoring frameworks for social determinants of health and health equity

    PubMed Central

    Pedrana, Leo; Pamponet, Marina; Walker, Ruth; Costa, Federico; Rasella, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Background The strategic importance of monitoring social determinants of health (SDH) and health equity and inequity has been a central focus in global discussions around the 2011 Rio Political Declaration on SDH and the Millennium Development Goals. This study is part of the World Health Organization (WHO) equity-oriented analysis of linkages between health and other sectors (EQuAL) project, which aims to define a framework for monitoring SDH and health equity. Objectives This review provides a global summary and analysis of the domains and indicators that have been used in recent studies covering the SDH. These studies are considered here within the context of indicators proposed by the WHO EQuAL project. The objectives are as follows: to describe the range of international and national studies and the types of indicators most frequently used; report how they are used in causal explanation of the SDH; and identify key priorities and challenges reported in current research for national monitoring of the SDH. Design We conducted a scoping review of published SDH studies in the PubMed® database to obtain evidence of socio-economic indicators. We evaluated, selected, and extracted data from national scale studies published from 2004 to 2014. The research included papers published in English, Italian, French, Portuguese, and Spanish. Results The final sample consisted of 96 articles. SDH monitoring is well reported in the scientific literature independent of the economic level of the country and magnitude of deprivation in population groups. The research methods were mostly quantitative and many papers used multilevel and multivariable statistical analyses and indexes to measure health inequalities and SDH. In addition to the usual economic indicators, a high number of socio-economic indicators were used. The indicators covered a broad range of social dimensions, which were given consideration within and across different social groups. Many indicators included in the

  2. Scoping review: national monitoring frameworks for social determinants of health and health equity.

    PubMed

    Pedrana, Leo; Pamponet, Marina; Walker, Ruth; Costa, Federico; Rasella, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Background The strategic importance of monitoring social determinants of health (SDH) and health equity and inequity has been a central focus in global discussions around the 2011 Rio Political Declaration on SDH and the Millennium Development Goals. This study is part of the World Health Organization (WHO) equity-oriented analysis of linkages between health and other sectors (EQuAL) project, which aims to define a framework for monitoring SDH and health equity. Objectives This review provides a global summary and analysis of the domains and indicators that have been used in recent studies covering the SDH. These studies are considered here within the context of indicators proposed by the WHO EQuAL project. The objectives are as follows: to describe the range of international and national studies and the types of indicators most frequently used; report how they are used in causal explanation of the SDH; and identify key priorities and challenges reported in current research for national monitoring of the SDH. Design We conducted a scoping review of published SDH studies in the PubMed(®) database to obtain evidence of socio-economic indicators. We evaluated, selected, and extracted data from national scale studies published from 2004 to 2014. The research included papers published in English, Italian, French, Portuguese, and Spanish. Results The final sample consisted of 96 articles. SDH monitoring is well reported in the scientific literature independent of the economic level of the country and magnitude of deprivation in population groups. The research methods were mostly quantitative and many papers used multilevel and multivariable statistical analyses and indexes to measure health inequalities and SDH. In addition to the usual economic indicators, a high number of socio-economic indicators were used. The indicators covered a broad range of social dimensions, which were given consideration within and across different social groups. Many indicators included in

  3. Scoping review: national monitoring frameworks for social determinants of health and health equity.

    PubMed

    Pedrana, Leo; Pamponet, Marina; Walker, Ruth; Costa, Federico; Rasella, Davide

    2016-01-01

    The strategic importance of monitoring social determinants of health (SDH) and health equity and inequity has been a central focus in global discussions around the 2011 Rio Political Declaration on SDH and the Millennium Development Goals. This study is part of the World Health Organization (WHO) equity-oriented analysis of linkages between health and other sectors (EQuAL) project, which aims to define a framework for monitoring SDH and health equity. This review provides a global summary and analysis of the domains and indicators that have been used in recent studies covering the SDH. These studies are considered here within the context of indicators proposed by the WHO EQuAL project. The objectives are as follows: to describe the range of international and national studies and the types of indicators most frequently used; report how they are used in causal explanation of the SDH; and identify key priorities and challenges reported in current research for national monitoring of the SDH. We conducted a scoping review of published SDH studies in the PubMed(®) database to obtain evidence of socio-economic indicators. We evaluated, selected, and extracted data from national scale studies published from 2004 to 2014. The research included papers published in English, Italian, French, Portuguese, and Spanish. The final sample consisted of 96 articles. SDH monitoring is well reported in the scientific literature independent of the economic level of the country and magnitude of deprivation in population groups. The research methods were mostly quantitative and many papers used multilevel and multivariable statistical analyses and indexes to measure health inequalities and SDH. In addition to the usual economic indicators, a high number of socio-economic indicators were used. The indicators covered a broad range of social dimensions, which were given consideration within and across different social groups. Many indicators included in the WHO EQuAL framework were not

  4. Assessing cumulative impacts within state environmental review frameworks in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Zhao; Becker, Dennis R.; Kilgore, Michael A.

    2009-11-15

    Cumulative impact assessment (CIA) is the process of systematically assessing a proposed action's cumulative environmental effects in the context of past, present, and future actions, regardless of who undertakes such actions. Previous studies have examined CIA efforts at the federal level but little is known about how states assess the cumulative impacts of nonfederal projects. By examining state environmental review statutes, administrative rules, agency-prepared materials, and a national survey of the administrators of state environmental review programs, this study identifies the legal and administrative frameworks for CIA. It examines current CIA practice, discusses the relationship between CIA policy and its implementation, and explores the opportunities for improvement. The results of the study show that twenty-nine state environmental review programs across twenty-six states required the assessment of cumulative environmental impacts. More than half of these programs have adopted specific procedures for implementing their policies. Some programs assessed cumulative impacts using a standard review document, and others have created their own documentations incorporated into applications for state permits or funding. The majority of programs have adopted various scales, baselines, significance criteria, and coordination practices in their CIA processes. Mixed methods were generally used for data collection and analysis; qualitative methods were more prevalent than quantitative methods. The results also suggest that a program with comprehensive and consistent environmental review policies and procedures does not always imply extensive CIA requirements and practices. Finally, this study discusses the potential for improving existing CIA processes and promoting CIA efforts in states without established environmental review programs.

  5. Evaluating Harms in the Assessment of Net Benefit: A Framework for Newborn Screening Condition Review

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Aaron J.; Comeau, Anne Marie; Grosse, Scott D.; Tanksley, Susan; Prosser, Lisa A.; Ojodu, Jelili; Botkin, Jeffrey R.; Kemper, Alex R.; Green, Nancy S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children (“Advisory Committee”) makes recommendations to the HHS Secretary regarding addition of new conditions to the national Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for newborns. The Advisory Committee’s decision-making process includes assessing the net benefit of screening for nominated conditions, informed by systematic evidence reviews generated by an independent Condition Review Workgroup. The evidence base regarding harms associated with screening for specific conditions is often more limited than that for benefits. Procedures The process for defining potential harms from newborn screening reviewed the frameworks from other public health evidence-based review processes, adapted to newborn screening by experts in systematic review, newborn screening programs and bioethics, with input from and approval by the Advisory Committee. Main findings To support the Advisory Committee’s review of nominated conditions, the Workgroup has developed a standardized approach to evaluation of harms and relevant gaps in the evidence. Types of harms include the physical burden to infants; psychosocial and logistic burdens to families from screening or diagnostic evaluation; increased risk of medical treatment for infants diagnosed earlier than children with clinical presentation; delayed diagnosis from false negative results; psychosocial harm from false positive results; uncertainty of clinical diagnosis, age of onset or clinical spectrum; and disparities in access to diagnosis or therapy. Conclusions Estimating the numbers of children at risk, the magnitude, timing and likelihood of harms will be integrated into Workgroup reports to the Advisory Committee. PMID:26833040

  6. The World Health Organization's Health Promoting Schools framework: a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Langford, Rebecca; Bonell, Christopher; Jones, Hayley; Pouliou, Theodora; Murphy, Simon; Waters, Elizabeth; Komro, Kelli; Gibbs, Lisa; Magnus, Daniel; Campbell, Rona

    2015-02-12

    Healthy children achieve better educational outcomes which, in turn, are associated with improved health later in life. The World Health Organization's Health Promoting Schools (HPS) framework is a holistic approach to promoting health and educational attainment in school. The effectiveness of this approach has not yet been rigorously reviewed. We searched 20 health, education and social science databases, and trials registries and relevant websites in 2011 and 2013. We included cluster randomised controlled trials. Participants were children and young people aged four to 18 years attending schools/colleges. HPS interventions had to include the following three elements: input into the curriculum; changes to the school's ethos or environment; and engagement with families and/or local communities. Two reviewers identified relevant trials, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We grouped studies according to the health topic(s) targeted. Where data permitted, we performed random-effects meta-analyses. We identified 67 eligible trials tackling a range of health issues. Few studies included any academic/attendance outcomes. We found positive average intervention effects for: body mass index (BMI), physical activity, physical fitness, fruit and vegetable intake, tobacco use, and being bullied. Intervention effects were generally small. On average across studies, we found little evidence of effectiveness for zBMI (BMI, standardized for age and gender), and no evidence for fat intake, alcohol use, drug use, mental health, violence and bullying others. It was not possible to meta-analyse data on other health outcomes due to lack of data. Methodological limitations were identified including reliance on self-reported data, lack of long-term follow-up, and high attrition rates. This Cochrane review has found the WHO HPS framework is effective at improving some aspects of student health. The effects are small but potentially important at a population level.

  7. Cochlear implant rehabilitation in older adults: literature review and proposal of a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Clark, James H; Yeagle, Jennifer; Arbaje, Alicia I; Lin, Frank R; Niparko, John K; Francis, Howard W

    2012-10-01

    To review studies investigating cochlear implant (CI) outcomes in older adults, and to develop a conceptual framework demonstrating important interactions between characteristics of hearing disability, aging, and the CI intervention. Review of English literature with titles containing the words "cochlear implant" and generic term referring to older adults or numerical value for age greater than 65. Hearing loss is a prevalent consequence of aging and poses special challenges for older adults. Particularly when superimposed on other age-related conditions, presbycusis (age-related hearing loss) places older adults at risk for social isolation and associated psychological and general health sequelae. The increasing cognitive demand of verbal communication and the diminished sense of social and physical connectedness can contribute to a feeling of vulnerability and poor health that worsens with advancing presbycusis. This cascade of downstream effects of hearing loss has implications for the self-assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and resulting estimates of associated costs. There is accumulating evidence of a potential role for CI in older adults with poor word understanding despite conventional hearing aid use. This review of the literature provides strong evidence of the benefits of restoring communication capacity in the deaf and hard-of-hearing geriatric population. There is, however, a lack of attention to communication performance in the real world and HRQoL outcomes, and significant gaps in knowledge regarding how CI rehabilitation interacts with changing psychosocial and functional status with aging. A broader conceptual framework than is currently available for the role of CI rehabilitation in the management of severe-to-profound hearing loss in older adults is proposed. It is posited that the use of such a model in future investigations is needed to guide multidisciplinary investigations into the unique challenges of hearing loss in older

  8. Review of the Fiscal Year 2012 (FY12) Defense Environmental International Cooperation (DEIC) Program: Unclassified Version

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    well as discussions on topics such as climate change adaptation and bio -security challenges. It also provided the opportunity to review planning for...this work. This project investigated allegations of Herbicide Orange use on Okinawa through exhaustive reviews of historical records. The study...concluded that there is no documentation to validate claims that Herbicide Orange was shipped either to or through Okinawa, nor that it was unloaded

  9. Exploring conceptual and theoretical frameworks for nurse practitioner education: a scoping review protocol.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rosemary; Godfrey, Christina M; Sears, Kim; Medves, Jennifer; Ross-White, Amanda; Lambert, Natalie

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this review is to examine conceptual and/or theoretical frameworks that are relevant to nurse practitioner education.The specific review question is: What conceptual and/or theoretical frameworks are available that are relevant to the structuring of nurse practitioner education? The use of conceptual and theoretical frameworks to organize the educational curriculum of nursing programs is essential to protect and preserve the focus and clarity of nursing's distinct contribution to health care. Conceptual frameworks of nursing provide a means to look at nursing in relationship to external factors, thereby assigning meaning to the practice. Graduate level nursing education in the preparation of Nurse Practitioners (NPs) specifically and Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) in general, is significantly compromised by the tendency to conceptualize the learning in these complex programs as being primarily related to skills-based tasks and competencies alone. According to Baumann, advanced nursing education must focus on the uniqueness of the NP position, in contrast to other health care professions. To do this, Baumann suggests using a conceptual nursing model and nursing theory as opposed to a strictly biomedical model. This allows NPs to interpret information in a way that differs from the strict biomedical model, providing opportunities for the NPs to be truly present in the lives of their patients.Canadian Nurse Practitioner (NP) practice competency documents are based primarily on the Canadian Nurses Association (CNA) Nurse Practitioner (NP) Core Competency Framework. This document defines the core set of entry-level competencies required for all NPs to practice in all Canadian jurisdictions, settings and client populations. The Core Competencies in the CNA NP Framework are organized within four main categories: professional role, responsibility and accountability; health assessment and diagnosis; therapeutic management; and health promotion and

  10. The impact of walk-in centres and GP co-operatives on emergency department presentations: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jessica; Cooper, Simon; Cant, Robyn; DeSouza, Ruth

    2017-05-12

    Internationally, non-urgent presentations are increasing the pressure on Emergency Department (ED) staff and resources. This systematic review aims to identify the impact of alternative emergency care pathways on ED presentations - specifically GP cooperatives and walk-in clinics. Based on a structured PICO enquiry with either walk-in clinic or GP cooperative as the intervention, a search was made for peer-reviewed publications in English, between 2000 and 2014. Medline plus, OVID, PubMed, and Google Scholar were searched. The Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) guidelines were used to assess study quality and data was extracted using an adapted JBI Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (QARI). Subsequent reporting followed the PRISMA guideline. Eleven high quality quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria. Walk-in clinics do have the potential to reduce non-urgent emergency department presentations, however evidence of this effect is low. GP cooperatives offer an alternative care stream for patients presenting to the ED and do significantly reduce local ED attendances. Community members need to be made aware of these options in order to make informed treatment choices. GP cooperatives in particular do have the potential to reduce ED workload. Further research is required to uncover recent trends and patient outcomes for walk-in clinics and GP cooperatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Measuring research impact in Australia's medical research institutes: a scoping literature review of the objectives for and an assessment of the capabilities of research impact assessment frameworks.

    PubMed

    Deeming, Simon; Searles, Andrew; Reeves, Penny; Nilsson, Michael

    2017-03-21

    Realising the economic potential of research institutions, including medical research institutes, represents a policy imperative for many Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development nations. The assessment of research impact has consequently drawn increasing attention. Research impact assessment frameworks (RIAFs) provide a structure to assess research translation, but minimal research has examined whether alternative RIAFs realise the intended policy outcomes. This paper examines the objectives presented for RIAFs in light of economic imperatives to justify ongoing support for health and medical research investment, leverage productivity via commercialisation and outcome-efficiency gains in health systems, and ensure that translation and impact considerations are embedded into the research process. This paper sought to list the stated objectives for RIAFs, to identify existing frameworks and to evaluate whether the identified frameworks possessed the capabilities necessary to address the specified objectives. A scoping review of the literature to identify objectives specified for RIAFs, inform upon descriptive criteria for each objective and identify existing RIAFs. Criteria were derived for each objective. The capability for the existing RIAFs to realise the alternative objectives was evaluated based upon these criteria. The collated objectives for RIAFs included accountability (top-down), transparency/accountability (bottom-up), advocacy, steering, value for money, management/learning and feedback/allocation, prospective orientation, and speed of translation. Of the 25 RIAFs identified, most satisfied objectives such as accountability and advocacy, which are largely sufficient for the first economic imperative to justify research investment. The frameworks primarily designed to optimise the speed of translation or enable the prospective orientation of research possessed qualities most likely to optimise the productive outcomes from research. However

  12. A cross-country review of strategies of the German development cooperation to strengthen human resources

    PubMed Central

    Windisch, Ricarda; Wyss, Kaspar; Prytherch, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent years have seen growing awareness of the importance of human resources for health in health systems and with it an intensifying of the international and national policies in place to steer a response. This paper looks at how governments and donors in five countries – Cameroon, Indonesia, Malawi, Rwanda and Tanzania – have translated such policies into action. More detailed information with regard to initiatives of German development cooperation brings additional depth to the range and entry doors of human resources for health initiatives from the perspective of donor cooperation. Methods This qualitative study systematically presents different approaches and stages to human resources for health development in a cross-country comparison. An important reference to capture implementation at country level was grey literature such as policy documents and programme reports. In-depth interviews along a predefined grid with national and international stakeholders in the five countries provided information on issues related to human resources for health policy processes and implementation. Results All five countries have institutional entities in place and have drawn up national policies to address human resources for health. Only some of the countries have translated policies into strategies with defined targets and national programmes with budgets and operational plans. Traditional approaches of supporting training for individual health professionals continue to dominate. In some cases partners have played an advocacy and technical role to promote human resources for health development at the highest political levels, but usually they still focus on the provision of ad hoc training within their programmes, which may not be in line with national human resources for health development efforts or may even be counterproductive to them. Countries that face an emergency, such as Malawi, have intensified their efforts within a relatively short time and by

  13. A cross-country review of strategies of the German development cooperation to strengthen human resources.

    PubMed

    Windisch, Ricarda; Wyss, Kaspar; Prytherch, Helen

    2009-06-05

    Recent years have seen growing awareness of the importance of human resources for health in health systems and with it an intensifying of the international and national policies in place to steer a response. This paper looks at how governments and donors in five countries--Cameroon, Indonesia, Malawi, Rwanda and Tanzania--have translated such policies into action. More detailed information with regard to initiatives of German development cooperation brings additional depth to the range and entry doors of human resources for health initiatives from the perspective of donor cooperation. This qualitative study systematically presents different approaches and stages to human resources for health development in a cross-country comparison. An important reference to capture implementation at country level was grey literature such as policy documents and programme reports. In-depth interviews along a predefined grid with national and international stakeholders in the five countries provided information on issues related to human resources for health policy processes and implementation. All five countries have institutional entities in place and have drawn up national policies to address human resources for health. Only some of the countries have translated policies into strategies with defined targets and national programmes with budgets and operational plans. Traditional approaches of supporting training for individual health professionals continue to dominate. In some cases partners have played an advocacy and technical role to promote human resources for health development at the highest political levels, but usually they still focus on the provision of ad hoc training within their programmes, which may not be in line with national human resources for health development efforts or may even be counterproductive to them. Countries that face an emergency, such as Malawi, have intensified their efforts within a relatively short time and by using donor funding support also

  14. Evaluation Of Investments In Science, Technology And Innovation: Applying Scientific and Technical Human Capital Framework For Assessment of Doctoral Students In Cooperative Research Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonchuk, Olena

    This dissertation builds on an alternative framework for evaluation of science, technology and innovation (STI) outcomes - the scientific & technical (S&T) human capital which was developed by Bozeman, Dietz and Gaughan (2001). At its core, this framework looks beyond simple economic and publication metrics and instead focuses on scientists' social capital. The premise of the framework is that science does not happen in vacuum and that resources embedded in scientists' social networks are important and enduring outcomes of the scientific process that were not being captured by traditional metrics. This dissertation examines social capital of science and engineering (S&E) graduate students, an underrepresented group of stakeholders in STI evaluations. S&E graduate students are unique for several reasons. In comparison with students in other disciplines, S&E graduate students have a greater proportion of international students; are widely employed by industry in numbers exceeded only by business graduates. And, most importantly, S&E graduates pursue education in fields that contribute the most to the US innovation capacity. This dissertation introduces a multidimensional measure of social capital based on the network theory of social capital proposed by Nan Lin (1999). According to Lin, social capital consists of three components: availability of resources and social embeddedness in one's network and mobilization of these resources. In order to address these elements, the dissertation employs two studies that focus on different components of social capital. Study 1 looks at accessibility of resources in students' social networks and whether students would be likely to mobilize them by using a proxy measure of norms and values about collaborations. The study also addresses the effect of social capital on students' experiences and outcomes, specifically, on their satisfaction and perceived career preparedness. The researcher investigates the mechanisms that explain

  15. Choosing the cooperative option

    SciTech Connect

    English, G. )

    1999-06-01

    Cooperatives do not ask to be exempted from the law. They do ask that laws and regulations be designed to allow them to meet the needs of their consumer-owners in accordance with cooperative principles, at a time that the marginal consumers being abandoned by for-profit utilities may be ready to gravitate toward cooperatives. The cooperative principles are worth reviewing because they explain the focus on the consumer and the cooperative concept of service: cooperatives are voluntary organizations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership; cooperatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting policies and making decisions, the elected representatives are accountable to the membership; members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their cooperative; cooperatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members, if they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their cooperative autonomy; cooperatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their cooperatives, they inform the general public, particularly young people and opinion leaders, about the nature and benefits of cooperation; cooperatives serve their members most effectively and strength the cooperative movement by working together through local, national, regional, and international structures; and while focusing on member needs, cooperatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies accepted by their members.

  16. Judging the quality of evidence in reviews of prognostic factor research: adapting the GRADE framework

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prognosis research aims to identify factors associated with the course of health conditions. It is often challenging to judge the overall quality of research evidence in systematic reviews about prognosis due to the nature of the primary studies. Standards aimed at improving the quality of primary studies on the prognosis of health conditions have been created, but these standards are often not adequately followed causing confusion about how to judge the evidence. Methods This article presents a proposed adaptation of Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE), which was developed to rate the quality of evidence in intervention research, to judge the quality of prognostic evidence. Results We propose modifications to the GRADE framework for use in prognosis research along with illustrative examples from an ongoing systematic review in the pediatric pain literature. We propose six factors that can decrease the quality of evidence (phase of investigation, study limitations, inconsistency, indirectness, imprecision, publication bias) and two factors that can increase it (moderate or large effect size, exposure-response gradient). Conclusions We describe criteria for evaluating the potential impact of each of these factors on the quality of evidence when conducting a review including a narrative synthesis or a meta-analysis. These recommendations require further investigation and testing. PMID:24007720

  17. Maternity Leave Access and Health: A Systematic Narrative Review and Conceptual Framework Development.

    PubMed

    Andres, Ellie; Baird, Sarah; Bingenheimer, Jeffrey Bart; Markus, Anne Rossier

    2016-06-01

    Background Maternity leave is integral to postpartum maternal and child health, providing necessary time to heal and bond following birth. However, the relationship between maternity leave and health outcomes has not been formally and comprehensively assessed to guide public health research and policy in this area. This review aims to address this gap by investigating both the correlates of maternity leave utilization in the US and the related health benefits for mother and child. Methods We searched the peer-reviewed scholarly literature using six databases for the years 1990 to early 2015 and identified 37 studies to be included in the review. We extracted key data for each of the included studies and assessed study quality using the "Weight of the Evidence" approach. Results The literature generally confirms a positive, though limited correlation between maternity leave coverage and utilization. Likewise, longer maternity leaves are associated with improved breastfeeding intentions and rates of initiation, duration and predominance as well as improved maternal mental health and early childhood outcomes. However, the literature points to important disparities in access to maternity leave that carry over into health outcomes, such as breastfeeding. Synthesis We present a conceptual framework synthesizing what is known to date related to maternity leave access and health outcomes.

  18. A Unified Framework for Creating Domain Dependent Polarity Lexicons from User Generated Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Asghar, Muhammad Zubair; Khan, Aurangzeb; Ahmad, Shakeel; Khan, Imran Ali; Kundi, Fazal Masud

    2015-01-01

    The exponential increase in the explosion of Web-based user generated reviews has resulted in the emergence of Opinion Mining (OM) applications for analyzing the users’ opinions toward products, services, and policies. The polarity lexicons often play a pivotal role in the OM, indicating the positivity and negativity of a term along with the numeric score. However, the commonly available domain independent lexicons are not an optimal choice for all of the domains within the OM applications. The aforementioned is due to the fact that the polarity of a term changes from one domain to other and such lexicons do not contain the correct polarity of a term for every domain. In this work, we focus on the problem of adapting a domain dependent polarity lexicon from set of labeled user reviews and domain independent lexicon to propose a unified learning framework based on the information theory concepts that can assign the terms with correct polarity (+ive, -ive) scores. The benchmarking on three datasets (car, hotel, and drug reviews) shows that our approach improves the performance of the polarity classification by achieving higher accuracy. Moreover, using the derived domain dependent lexicon changed the polarity of terms, and the experimental results show that our approach is more effective than the base line methods. PMID:26466101

  19. A Unified Framework for Creating Domain Dependent Polarity Lexicons from User Generated Reviews.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Muhammad Zubair; Khan, Aurangzeb; Ahmad, Shakeel; Khan, Imran Ali; Kundi, Fazal Masud

    2015-01-01

    The exponential increase in the explosion of Web-based user generated reviews has resulted in the emergence of Opinion Mining (OM) applications for analyzing the users' opinions toward products, services, and policies. The polarity lexicons often play a pivotal role in the OM, indicating the positivity and negativity of a term along with the numeric score. However, the commonly available domain independent lexicons are not an optimal choice for all of the domains within the OM applications. The aforementioned is due to the fact that the polarity of a term changes from one domain to other and such lexicons do not contain the correct polarity of a term for every domain. In this work, we focus on the problem of adapting a domain dependent polarity lexicon from set of labeled user reviews and domain independent lexicon to propose a unified learning framework based on the information theory concepts that can assign the terms with correct polarity (+ive, -ive) scores. The benchmarking on three datasets (car, hotel, and drug reviews) shows that our approach improves the performance of the polarity classification by achieving higher accuracy. Moreover, using the derived domain dependent lexicon changed the polarity of terms, and the experimental results show that our approach is more effective than the base line methods.

  20. Liminality as a framework for understanding the experience of cancer survivorship: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Blows, Emma; Bird, Lydia; Seymour, Jane; Cox, Karen

    2012-10-01

    To report a narrative review of literature that drew on the concept of liminality as a framework for understanding the cancer experience. In doing so, we explored the utility of liminality for guiding research on experiences of cancer survivorship. The 'rites of passage' model uses the concept of liminality to explore transition. Taking cancer survivorship as a process, liminality may facilitate our understanding of this phenomenon. Searches of Medline, PsycInfo, British Nursing Index, Cinahl, ASSIA, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and British Library databases were conducted, covering 1985-2011. Search terms were cancer and liminal* or rite* of passage. A narrative review, using a textual narrative approach, was undertaken to provide a comprehensive overview of the topic. Studies were arranged into groups according to the stage of the cancer trajectory on which they focused. Findings from each study were presented to highlight facets of the liminal experience at each stage. Ten studies were included for review. Liminality depicts the ambiguity and uncertainty often experienced by people affected by cancer. Although liminality appears useful for understanding experiences of cancer risk, diagnosis, treatment and the period following active treatment, little research has explored the concept with respect to long-term survivorship. Gaps in current evidence highlight the need for additional research to ascertain the utility of liminality for understanding experiences of long-term survivorship. Research exploring the personal and social implications of living a liminal life, at all stages of the cancer trajectory, is also warranted. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. A Human-Dimensions Review of Human-WildlifeDisturbance: A Literature Review of Impacts, Frameworks, and Management Solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cline, Robert; Sexton, Natalie; Stewart, Susan C.

    2007-01-01

    Preface The following report was prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Refuge System in support of their Comprehensive Conservation Planning (CCP) efforts by the Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch (PASA), Fort Collins Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey. While this document provides a summary of contemporary recreation management literature and methodologies, relevant to the subject of managing wildlife disturbances on national wildlife refuges, this document should be viewed as a starting point for management administrators. This document identifies general issues relating to wildlife disturbance and visitor impacts including a description of disturbance, recreational impacts, related human dimensions applications, management frameworks, and a general summary of management solutions. The section on descriptions of wildlife disturbance and impacts draws heavily from the report entitled 'Managing the Impacts of Visitor Use on Waterbirds -- A Literature Review of Impacts and Mitigation' (DeLong, 2002; Delong and Adamcik, in press) and is referenced in the text. This document is more comprehensive in its review of wildlife response to disturbance. This document is intended to discuss the human-dimensions aspect of wildlife disturbance, summarizing human dimensions and recreation management literature as it applies to this topic.

  2. Domestic Water Service Delivery Indicators and Frameworks for Monitoring, Evaluation, Policy and Planning: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Georgia L.; Moriarty, Patrick; Fonseca, Catarina; Bartram, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of water services informs policy and planning for national governments and the international community. Currently, the international monitoring system measures the type of drinking water source that households use. There have been calls for improved monitoring systems over several decades, some advocating use of multiple indicators. We review the literature on water service indicators and frameworks with a view to informing debate on their relevance to national and international monitoring. We describe the evidence concerning the relevance of each identified indicator to public health, economic development and human rights. We analyze the benefits and challenges of using these indicators separately and combined in an index as tools for planning, monitoring, and evaluating water services. We find substantial evidence on the importance of each commonly recommended indicator—service type, safety, quantity, accessibility, reliability or continuity of service, equity, and affordability. Several frameworks have been proposed that give structure to the relationships among individual indicators and some combine multiple indicator scores into a single index but few have been rigorously tested. More research is needed to understand if employing a composite metric of indicators is advantageous and how each indicator might be scored and scaled. PMID:24157507

  3. A Step-by-Step Framework on Discrete Events Simulation in Emergency Department; A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Mahsa; Moftian, Nazila; Rezaei-Hachesu, Peyman; Samad-Soltani, Taha

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the current literature of simulation in healthcare including the structured steps in the emergency healthcare sector by proposing a framework for simulation in the emergency department. Methods: For the purpose of collecting the data, PubMed and ACM databases were used between the years 2003 and 2013. The inclusion criteria were to select English-written articles available in full text with the closest objectives from among a total of 54 articles retrieved from the databases. Subsequently, 11 articles were selected for further analysis. Results: The studies focused on the reduction of waiting time and patient stay, optimization of resources allocation, creation of crisis and maximum demand scenarios, identification of overcrowding bottlenecks, investigation of the impact of other systems on the existing system, and improvement of the system operations and functions. Subsequently, 10 simulation steps were derived from the relevant studies after an expert’s evaluation. Conclusion: The 10-steps approach proposed on the basis of the selected studies provides simulation and planning specialists with a structured method for both analyzing problems and choosing best-case scenarios. Moreover, following this framework systematically enables the development of design processes as well as software implementation of simulation problems. PMID:28507994

  4. Domestic water service delivery indicators and frameworks for monitoring, evaluation, policy and planning: a review.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Georgia L; Moriarty, Patrick; Fonseca, Catarina; Bartram, Jamie

    2013-10-11

    Monitoring of water services informs policy and planning for national governments and the international community. Currently, the international monitoring system measures the type of drinking water source that households use. There have been calls for improved monitoring systems over several decades, some advocating use of multiple indicators. We review the literature on water service indicators and frameworks with a view to informing debate on their relevance to national and international monitoring. We describe the evidence concerning the relevance of each identified indicator to public health, economic development and human rights. We analyze the benefits and challenges of using these indicators separately and combined in an index as tools for planning, monitoring, and evaluating water services. We find substantial evidence on the importance of each commonly recommended indicator--service type, safety, quantity, accessibility, reliability or continuity of service, equity, and affordability. Several frameworks have been proposed that give structure to the relationships among individual indicators and some combine multiple indicator scores into a single index but few have been rigorously tested. More research is needed to understand if employing a composite metric of indicators is advantageous and how each indicator might be scored and scaled.

  5. Applying the Balanced Scorecard approach in teaching hospitals: a literature review and conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Annarita; Cardamone, Emma; Cavallaro, Giusy; Mauro, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    Teaching hospitals (THs) simultaneously serve three different roles: offering medical treatment, teaching future doctors and promoting research. The international literature recognises such organisations as 'peaks of excellence' and highlights their economic function in the health system. In addition, the literature describes the urgent need to manage the complex dynamics and inefficiency issues that threaten the survival of teaching hospitals worldwide. In this context, traditional performance measurement systems that focus only on accounting and financial measures appear to be inadequate. Given that THs are highly specific and complex, a multidimensional system of performance measurement, such as the Balanced Scorecard (BSC), may be more appropriate because of the multitude of stakeholders, each of whom seek a specific type of accountability. The aim of the paper was twofold: (i) to review the literature on the BSC and its applications in teaching hospitals and (ii) to propose a scorecard framework that is suitable for assessing the performance of THs and serving as a guide for scholars and practitioners. In addition, this research will contribute to the ongoing debate on performance evaluation systems by suggesting a revised BSC framework and proposing specific performance indicators for THs.

  6. Potential risks of orthodontic therapy: a critical review and conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Wishney, M

    2017-03-01

    This review examines some of the potential risks of orthodontic therapy along with their evidence base. The risks of orthodontic treatment include periodontal damage, pain, root resorption, tooth devitalization, temporomandibular disorder, caries, speech problems and enamel damage. These risks can be understood to arise from a synergy between treatment and patient factors. In general terms, treatment factors that can influence risk include appliance type, force vectors and duration of treatment whilst relevant patient factors are both biological and behavioural. Hence, the natural variation between orthodontic treatment plans and patients gives rise to variations in risk. A good understanding of these risks is required for clinicians to obtain informed consent before starting treatment as well as to reduce the potential for harm during treatment. After considering each of these risks, a conceptual framework is presented to help clinicians better understand how orthodontic risks arise and may therefore be mitigated.

  7. A modeling framework for the evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance: literature review and model categorization.

    PubMed

    Spicknall, Ian H; Foxman, Betsy; Marrs, Carl F; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2013-08-15

    Antibiotic-resistant infections complicate treatment and increase morbidity and mortality. Mathematical modeling has played an integral role in improving our understanding of antibiotic resistance. In these models, parameter sensitivity is often assessed, while model structure sensitivity is not. To examine the implications of this, we first reviewed the literature on antibiotic-resistance modeling published between 1993 and 2011. We then classified each article's model structure into one or more of 6 categories based on the assumptions made in those articles regarding within-host and population-level competition between antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant strains. Each model category has different dynamic implications with respect to how antibiotic use affects resistance prevalence, and therefore each may produce different conclusions about optimal treatment protocols that minimize resistance. Thus, even if all parameter values are correctly estimated, inferences may be incorrect because of the incorrect selection of model structure. Our framework provides insight into model selection.

  8. The cognitive neuroscience of human decision making: a review and conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Fellows, Lesley K

    2004-09-01

    Decision making, the process of choosing between options, is a fundamental human behavior that has been studied intensively by disciplines ranging from cognitive psychology to economics. Despite the importance of this behavior, the neural substrates of decision making are only beginning to be understood. Impaired decision making is recognized in neuropsychiatric conditions such as dementia and drug addiction, and the inconsistencies and biases of healthy decision makers have been intensively studied. However, the tools of cognitive neuroscience have only recently been applied to understanding the brain basis of this complex behavior. This article reviews the literature on the cognitive neuroscience of human decision making, focusing on the roles of the frontal lobes, and provides a conceptual framework for organizing this disparate body of work.

  9. Integration of Telomere Length Dynamics into Systems Biology Framework: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nersisyan, Lilit

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length dynamics plays a crucial role in regulation of cellular processes and cell fate. In contrast to epidemiological studies revealing the association of telomere length with age, age-related diseases, and cancers, the role of telomeres in regulation of transcriptome and epigenome and the role of genomic variations in telomere lengthening are not extensively analyzed. This is explained by the fact that experimental assays for telomere length measurement are resource consuming, and there are very few studies where high-throughput genomics, transcriptomics, and/or epigenomics experiments have been coupled with telomere length measurements. Recent development of computational approaches for assessment of telomere length from whole genome sequencing data pave a new perspective on integration of telomeres into high-throughput systems biology analysis framework. Herein, we review existing methodologies for telomere length measurement and compare them to computational approaches, as well as discuss their applications in large-scale studies on telomere length dynamics. PMID:27346946

  10. Project CAP. Boston Mountains Educational Cooperative, Greenland, Arkansas. A Submission to the Joint Dissemination Review Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jack A.; Kaplan, Carol B.

    One of seven career education programs chosen for nationwide dissemination by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare's Joint Dissemination Review Panel (JDRP), Project CAP (Career Awareness Program) is being conducted for grades 1-8 in Greenland, Arkansas. For the years 1974-77, it received funding from both federal and local sources. It…

  11. The U.S.-Japan Alliance: Review of the Guidelines for Defense Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    transportation and commu- nication facilities, can enhance stability and contribute to the maintenance of an open maritime order. Joint planning with regard to...Publications/ Detail/? lng =en&id=156820>. 47 Ibid., 7, 10–12. 48 Quadrennial Defense Review Report (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, February 2010

  12. Developing a framework for implementing intensive care unit diaries: a focused review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Beg, Muna; Scruth, Elizabeth; Liu, Vincent

    2016-11-01

    Intensive care unit diaries have been shown to improve post-critical illness recovery, however, prior reports of diary implementation are heterogeneous. We sought to construct a common framework for designing and implementing Intensive Care Unit diaries based on prior studies. We conducted a focused review of the literature regarding intensive care diaries based on a systematic search of several databases. Two reviewers assessed 56 studies and data were abstracted from a total of 25 eligible studies conducted between 1990 and 2014. We identified key information regarding the development, design, and implementation of the journals. We then grouped elements that appeared consistently across these studies within three main categories: (1) diary target populations; (2) diary format and content; and (3) the manner of diary return and follow-up. Most studies were conducted in European countries in adult intensive care units and targeted patients in both medical and surgical units. The timing of diary initiation was based on the elapsed length of stay or duration of mechanical ventilation. We categorised diary format and content as: entry content, authors, use of standardised headings, type of language, initiation, frequency of entries, and physical location of diaries. Diaries were hand written and many studies found that photographs were an essential element in ICU diaries. We categorised the manner of diary return and follow-up. The context in which intensive care unit diaries were returned were felt to be important factors in improving the use of diaries in recovery. In conclusion, we describe a common framework for the future development of intensive care unit diaries that revolves around the target population for the diaries, their format and content, and the timing of their use. Future studies should address how these elements impact the mechanisms by which intensive are diaries exert beneficial effects. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses

  13. Validity of instruments to measure physical activity may be questionable due to a lack of conceptual frameworks: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Guidance documents for the development and validation of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) advise the use of conceptual frameworks, which outline the structure of the concept that a PRO aims to measure. It is unknown whether currently available PROs are based on conceptual frameworks. This study, which was limited to a specific case, had the following aims: (i) to identify conceptual frameworks of physical activity in chronic respiratory patients or similar populations (chronic heart disease patients or the elderly) and (ii) to assess whether the development and validation of PROs to measure physical activity in these populations were based on a conceptual framework of physical activity. Methods Two systematic reviews were conducted through searches of the Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cinahl databases prior to January 2010. Results In the first review, only 2 out of 581 references pertaining to physical activity in the defined populations provided a conceptual framework of physical activity in COPD patients. In the second review, out of 103 studies developing PROs to measure physical activity or related constructs, none were based on a conceptual framework of physical activity. Conclusions These findings raise concerns about how the large body of evidence from studies that use physical activity PRO instruments should be evaluated by health care providers, guideline developers, and regulatory agencies. PMID:21967887

  14. Intergenerational Transmission of Self-Regulation: A Multidisciplinary Review and Integrative Conceptual Framework

    PubMed Central

    Bridgett, David J.; Burt, Nicole M.; Edwards, Erin S.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2014-01-01

    This review examines mechanisms contributing to the intergenerational transmission of self-regulation. To provide an integrated account of how self-regulation is transmitted across generations, we draw from over 75 years of accumulated evidence, spanning case studies to experimental approaches, in literatures covering developmental, social, and clinical psychology, and criminology, physiology, genetics, and human and animal neuroscience (among others). First, we present a taxonomy of what self-regulation is and then examine how it develops – overviews that guide the main foci of the review. Next, studies supporting an association between parent and child self-regulation are reviewed. Subsequently, literature that considers potential social mechanisms of transmission, specifically parenting behavior, inter-parental (i.e., marital) relationship behaviors, and broader rearing influences (e.g., household chaos) are considered. Finally, literature providing evidence that prenatal programming may be the starting point of the intergenerational transmission of self-regulation is covered, along with key findings from the behavioral and molecular genetics literatures. To integrate these literatures, we introduce the Self-Regulation Intergenerational Transmission Model, a framework that brings together prenatal, social, and neurobiological mechanisms (spanning endocrine, neural, and genetic levels, including gene-environment interplay and epigenetic processes) to explain the intergenerational transmission of self-regulation. This model also incorporates potential transactional processes between generations (e.g., children’s self-regulation and parent-child interaction dynamics that may affect parents’ self-regulation) that further influence intergenerational processes. In pointing the way forward, we note key future directions and ways to address limitations in existing work throughout the review and in closing. We also conclude by noting several implications for

  15. Intergenerational transmission of self-regulation: A multidisciplinary review and integrative conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Bridgett, David J; Burt, Nicole M; Edwards, Erin S; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-05-01

    This review examines mechanisms contributing to the intergenerational transmission of self-regulation. To provide an integrated account of how self-regulation is transmitted across generations, we draw from over 75 years of accumulated evidence, spanning case studies to experimental approaches, in literatures covering developmental, social, and clinical psychology, and criminology, physiology, genetics, and human and animal neuroscience (among others). First, we present a taxonomy of what self-regulation is and then examine how it develops--overviews that guide the main foci of the review. Next, studies supporting an association between parent and child self-regulation are reviewed. Subsequently, literature that considers potential social mechanisms of transmission, specifically parenting behavior, interparental (i.e., marital) relationship behaviors, and broader rearing influences (e.g., household chaos) is considered. Finally, evidence that prenatal programming may be the starting point of the intergenerational transmission of self-regulation is covered, along with key findings from the behavioral and molecular genetics literatures. To integrate these literatures, we introduce the self-regulation intergenerational transmission model, a framework that brings together prenatal, social/contextual, and neurobiological mechanisms (spanning endocrine, neural, and genetic levels, including gene-environment interplay and epigenetic processes) to explain the intergenerational transmission of self-regulation. This model also incorporates potential transactional processes between generations (e.g., children's self-regulation and parent-child interaction dynamics that may affect parents' self-regulation) that further influence intergenerational processes. In pointing the way forward, we note key future directions and ways to address limitations in existing work throughout the review and in closing. We also conclude by noting several implications for intervention work.

  16. A critical review of frameworks used for evaluating reliability and relevance of (eco)toxicity data: Perspectives for an integrated eco-human decision-making framework.

    PubMed

    Roth, N; Ciffroy, P

    2016-10-01

    Considerable efforts have been invested so far to evaluate and rank the quality and relevance of (eco)toxicity data for their use in regulatory risk assessment to assess chemical hazards. Many frameworks have been developed to improve robustness and transparency in the evaluation of reliability and relevance of individual tests, but these frameworks typically focus on either environmental risk assessment (ERA) or human health risk assessment (HHRA), and there is little cross talk between them. There is a need to develop a common approach that would support a more consistent, transparent and robust evaluation and weighting of the evidence across ERA and HHRA. This paper explores the applicability of existing Data Quality Assessment (DQA) frameworks for integrating environmental toxicity hazard data into human health assessments and vice versa. We performed a comparative analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of eleven frameworks for evaluating reliability and/or relevance of toxicity and ecotoxicity hazard data. We found that a frequent shortcoming is the lack of a clear separation between reliability and relevance criteria. A further gaps and needs analysis revealed that none of the reviewed frameworks satisfy the needs of a common eco-human DQA system. Based on our analysis, some key characteristics, perspectives and recommendations are identified and discussed for building a common DQA system as part of a future integrated eco-human decision-making framework. This work lays the basis for developing a common DQA system to support the further development and promotion of Integrated Risk Assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Systematic Review Exploring the Social Cognitive Theory of Self-Regulation as a Framework for Chronic Health Condition Interventions.

    PubMed

    Tougas, Michelle E; Hayden, Jill A; McGrath, Patrick J; Huguet, Anna; Rozario, Sharlene

    2015-01-01

    Theory is often recommended as a framework for guiding hypothesized mechanisms of treatment effect. However, there is limited guidance about how to use theory in intervention development. We conducted a systematic review to provide an exemplar review evaluating the extent to which use of theory is identified and incorporated within existing interventions. We searched electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, and EMBASE from inception to May 2014. We searched clinicaltrials.gov for registered protocols, reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and included studies, and conducted a citation search in Web of Science. We included peer-reviewed publications of interventions that referenced the social cognitive theory of self-regulation as a framework for interventions to manage chronic health conditions. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for eligibility. We contacted all authors of included studies for information detailing intervention content. We describe how often theory mechanisms were addressed by interventions, and report intervention characteristics used to address theory. Of 202 articles that reported using the social cognitive theory of self-regulation, 52% failed to incorporate self-monitoring, a main theory component, and were therefore excluded. We included 35 interventions that adequately used the theory framework. Intervention characteristics were often poorly reported in peer-reviewed publications, 21 of 35 interventions incorporated characteristics that addressed each of the main theory components. Each intervention addressed, on average, six of eight self-monitoring mechanisms, two of five self-judgement mechanisms, and one of three self-evaluation mechanisms. The self-monitoring mechanisms 'Feedback' and 'Consistency' were addressed by all interventions, whereas the self-evaluation mechanisms 'Self-incentives' and 'External rewards' were addressed by six and four interventions, respectively. The present review establishes that

  18. Review of Security Cooperation Mechanisms Combatant Commands Utilize to Build Partner Capacity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    operations. EUCOM appears to have had greater success in making these linkages explicit, though this is not institutional- ized. The idea would be for DoD to...BPC- related objectives and linked them to capability areas and activities described in Chapter Two. These reviews and linkages allowed RAND to...resources across the various pro- grams and mechanisms. In an ideal world , DoD would want to put them on programs that are both effective and efficient

  19. Relevance to self: A brief review and framework of neural systems underlying appraisal.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Taylor W; Johnson, Sterling C

    2007-01-01

    We argue that many similar findings observed in cognitive, affective, and social neuroimaging research may compose larger processes central to generating self-relevance. In support of this, recent findings from these research domains were reviewed to identify common systemic activation patterns. Superimposition of these patterns revealed evidence for large-scale supramodal processes, which are argued to mediate appraisal of self-relevant content irrespective of specific stimulus types (e.g. words, pictures) and task domains (e.g. induction of reward, fear, pain, etc.). Furthermore, we distinguish between two top-down sub-systems involved in appraisal of self-relevance, one that orients pre-attentive biasing information (e.g. anticipatory or mnemonic) to salient or explicitly self-relevant phenomena, and another that engages introspective processes (e.g. self-reflection, evaluation, recollection) either in conjunction with or independent of the former system. Based on aggregate patterns of activation derived from the reviewed studies, processes in a ventral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC)-subcortical network appear to track with the former pathway, and processes in a dorsal MPFC-cortical-subcortical network with the latter. As a whole, the purpose of this framework is to re-conceive the functionality of these systems in terms of supramodal processes that more directly reflect the influences of relevance to the self.

  20. Physician Burnout and Well-Being: A Systematic Review and Framework for Action.

    PubMed

    Rothenberger, David A

    2017-06-01

    Physician burnout in the United States has reached epidemic proportions and is rising rapidly, although burnout in other occupations is stable. Its negative impact is far reaching and includes harm to the burned-out physician, as well as patients, coworkers, family members, close friends, and healthcare organizations. The purpose of this review is to provide an accurate, current summary of what is known about physician burnout and to develop a framework to reverse its current negative impact, decrease its prevalence, and implement effective organizational and personal interventions. I completed a comprehensive MEDLINE search of the medical literature from January 1, 2000, through December 28, 2016, related to medical student and physician burnout, stress, depression, suicide ideation, suicide, resiliency, wellness, and well-being. In addition, I selectively reviewed secondary articles, books addressing the relevant issues, and oral presentations at national professional meetings since 2013. Healthcare organizations within the United States were studied. The literature review is presented in 5 sections covering the basics of defining and measuring burnout; its impact, incidence, and causes; and interventions and remediation strategies. All US medical students, physicians in training, and practicing physicians are at significant risk of burnout. Its prevalence now exceeds 50%. Burnout is the unintended net result of multiple, highly disruptive changes in society at large, the medical profession, and the healthcare system. Both individual and organizational strategies have been only partially successful in mitigating burnout and in developing resiliency and well-being among physicians. Two highly effective strategies are aligning personal and organizational values and enabling physicians to devote 20% of their work activities to the part of their medical practice that is especially meaningful to them. More research is needed.

  1. A Critical Review of the Theoretical Frameworks and the Conceptual Factors in the Adoption of Clinical Decision Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Khong, Peck Chui Betty; Holroyd, Eleanor; Wang, Wenru

    2015-12-01

    The clinical decision support system is utilized to translate knowledge into evidence-based practice in clinical settings. Many studies have been conducted to understand users' adoption of the clinical decision support system. A critical review was conducted to understand the theoretical or conceptual frameworks used to inform the studies on the adoption of the clinical decision support system. The review identified 15 theoretical and conceptual frameworks using multiple hybrids of theories and concepts. The Technology Acceptance Model was the most frequently used baseline framework combined with frameworks such as the diffusion of innovation, social theory, longitudinal theory, and so on. The results from these articles yielded multiple concepts influencing the adoption of the clinical decision support system. These concepts can be recategorized into nine major concepts, namely, the information system, person (user or patient), social, organization, perceived benefits, emotions, trustability, relevance (fitness), and professionalism. None of the studies found all the nine concepts. That said, most of them have identified the information system, organization, and person concepts as three of its concepts affecting the use of the clinical decision support system. Within each of the concepts, its subconcepts were noted to be very varied. Yet each of these subconcepts has significantly contributed toward the different facets of the concepts. A pluralistic framework was built using the concepts and subconcepts to provide an overall framework construct for future study on the adoption of the clinical decision support system.

  2. Evaluating the effectiveness of air quality regulations: A review of accountability studies and frameworks.

    PubMed

    Henneman, Lucas R F; Liu, Cong; Mulholland, James A; Russell, Armistead G

    2017-02-01

    Assessments of past environmental policies-termed accountability studies-contribute important information to the decision-making process used to review the efficacy of past policies, and subsequently aid in the development of effective new policies. These studies have used a variety of methods that have achieved varying levels of success at linking improvements in air quality and/or health to regulations. The Health Effects Institute defines the air pollution accountability framework as a chain of events that includes the regulation of interest, air quality, exposure/dose, and health outcomes, and suggests that accountability research should address impacts for each of these linkages. Early accountability studies investigated short-term, local regulatory actions (for example, coal use banned city-wide on a specific date or traffic pattern changes made for Olympic Games). Recent studies assessed regulations implemented over longer time and larger spatial scales. Studies on broader scales require accountability research methods that account for effects of confounding factors that increase over time and space. Improved estimates of appropriate baseline levels (sometimes termed "counterfactual"-the expected state in a scenario without an intervention) that account for confounders and uncertainties at each link in the accountability chain will help estimate causality with greater certainty. In the direct accountability framework, researchers link outcomes with regulations using statistical methods that bypass the link-by-link approach of classical accountability. Direct accountability results and methods complement the classical approach. New studies should take advantage of advanced planning for accountability studies, new data sources (such as satellite measurements), and new statistical methods. Evaluation of new methods and data sources is necessary to improve investigations of long-term regulations, and associated uncertainty should be accounted for at each link to

  3. Review of PSR framework and development of a DPSIR model to assess greenhouse effect in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Fen; Kuo, Jeff; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2011-06-01

    In dealing with the complex issues of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and climate change mitigation, many interrelated factors such as cost, level of technology development, supply and demand of energy, structure of industry, and expenditures on research and development exist. Using indicators to monitor environmental impacts and evaluate the efficacies of policies and regulations has been practiced for a long time, and it can serve as a useful tool for decision making and for comparison between different countries. Although numerous indicators have been developed for relevant subjects, integrated approaches that consider individual changes, dynamic interaction, and multi-dimensions of indicators are scarce. This paper aimed to develop a Driving Force-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework to assess the problems. This DPSIR model is mainly related to energy consumption, environmental impacts, and policy responses. The objectives of the paper were: (1) conduct a literature review on the indicators that have been used in GHG-related studies; (2) develop a DPSIR model that incorporates GHG-related indicators and evaluate their relationships using a cause-effect chain of GHG emission; and (3) develop a calculative method that can be used to explain the dynamic correlation among the interdependent indicators. Taiwan is a significant source of global GHG emissions. A case study, using the developed framework and Taiwan's actual data of the past two decades, was conducted. The results indicate that regulatory strategies for pollution control are inadequate in terms of ensuring environmental quality, and the nature does not have the capability to revert the impacts from the existing level of pollution.

  4. Theoretical framework and methodological development of common subjective health outcome measures in osteoarthritis: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Beth; Johnston, Marie; Dixon, Diane

    2007-03-07

    Subjective measures involving clinician ratings or patient self-assessments have become recognised as an important tool for the assessment of health outcome. The value of a health outcome measure is usually assessed by a psychometric evaluation of its reliability, validity and responsiveness. However, psychometric testing involves an accumulation of evidence and has recognised limitations. It has been suggested that an evaluation of how well a measure has been developed would be a useful additional criteria in assessing the value of a measure. This paper explored the theoretical background and methodological development of subjective health status measures commonly used in osteoarthritis research. Fourteen subjective health outcome measures commonly used in osteoarthritis research were examined. Each measure was explored on the basis of their i) theoretical framework (was there a definition of what was being assessed and was it part of a theoretical model?) and ii) methodological development (what was the scaling strategy, how were the items generated and reduced, what was the response format and what was the scoring method?). Only the AIMS, SF-36 and WHOQOL defined what they were assessing (i.e. the construct of interest) and no measure assessed was part of a theoretical model. None of the clinician report measures appeared to have implemented a scaling procedure or described the rationale for the items selected or scoring system. Of the patient self-report measures, the AIMS, MPQ, OXFORD, SF-36, WHOQOL and WOMAC appeared to follow a standard psychometric scaling method. The DRP and EuroQol used alternative scaling methods. The review highlighted the general lack of theoretical framework for both clinician report and patient self-report measures. This review also drew attention to the wide variation in the methodological development of commonly used measures in OA. While, in general the patient self-report measures had good methodological development, the

  5. Organizational Learning and Innovation Performance: A Review of the Literature and the Development of a Conceptual Framework and Research Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Lin; Ellinger, Andrea D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework and research hypotheses based upon a thorough review of the conceptual and limited published empirical research in the organizational learning and innovation performance literatures. Hypotheses indicate the relationships between organizational learning, its antecedent, perception of…

  6. A review and framework for understanding the potential impact of poor solid waste management on health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Mberu, Blessing

    2016-01-01

    The increase in solid waste generated per capita in Africa has not been accompanied by a commensurate growth in the capacity and funding to manage it. It is reported that less than 30% of urban waste in developing countries is collected and disposed appropriately. The implications of poorly managed waste on health are numerous and depend on the nature of the waste, individuals exposed, duration of exposure and availability of interventions for those exposed. To present a framework for understanding the linkages between poor solid waste management, exposure and associated adverse health outcomes. The framework will aid understanding of the relationships, interlinkages and identification of the potential points for intervention. Development of the framework was informed by a review of literature on solid waste management policies, practices and its impact on health in developing countries. A configurative synthesis of literature was applied to develop the framework. Several iterations of the framework were reviewed by experts in the field. Each linkage and outcomes are described in detail as outputs of this study. The resulting framework identifies groups of people at a heightened risk of exposure and the potential health consequences. Using the iceberg metaphor, the framework illustrates the pathways and potential burden of ill-health related to solid waste that is hidden but rapidly unfolding with our inaction. The existing evidence on the linkage between poor solid waste management and adverse health outcomes calls to action by all stakeholders in understanding, prioritizing, and addressing the issue of solid waste in our midst to ensure that our environment and health are preserved. A resulting framework developed in this study presents a clearer picture of the linkages between poor solid waste management and could guide research, policy and action.

  7. IPUMS International: A review and future prospects of a unique global statistical cooperation programme.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Alphonse L

    2016-01-01

    At the invitation of the University of Minnesota Population Center (MPC) the author carried out an assessment of the IPUMS International integrated census microdata programme during January - March 2016. The terms of reference included the assessment of the measures taken by the MPC to safe guard the security of the microdata, the quality and adequacy of services provided, characteristics of users and satisfaction with IPUMS, use of available microdata, support to participating developing country National Statistical Offices (NSOs) and adequacy of a proposed Remote Data Center (RDC). The conclusions of the review are that IPUMS International is a unique, flexible, successful and secure programme for managing access to anonymized, harmonised and integrated microdata to academic users and policy makers. While currently the user base is predominantly in developed countries, steps are being taken to expand usage by researchers world-wide. The physical, methodological and technical arrangements for safeguarding the security and confidentiality of the data files are excellent; the possibilities of breaches are minimal. Data users have very positive opinions of the quality of the data, scope of services and expertise of staff but desire more detailed, up-to-date microdata. NSOs rate IPUMS International and its services positively but request advanced methodological training for staff and regular information on the use of their country's data. IPUMS International planned activities are presented and their contributions to census methodology are highlighted.

  8. IPUMS International: A review and future prospects of a unique global statistical cooperation programme

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Alphonse L.

    2017-01-01

    At the invitation of the University of Minnesota Population Center (MPC) the author carried out an assessment of the IPUMS International integrated census microdata programme during January – March 2016. The terms of reference included the assessment of the measures taken by the MPC to safe guard the security of the microdata, the quality and adequacy of services provided, characteristics of users and satisfaction with IPUMS, use of available microdata, support to participating developing country National Statistical Offices (NSOs) and adequacy of a proposed Remote Data Center (RDC). The conclusions of the review are that IPUMS International is a unique, flexible, successful and secure programme for managing access to anonymized, harmonised and integrated microdata to academic users and policy makers. While currently the user base is predominantly in developed countries, steps are being taken to expand usage by researchers world-wide. The physical, methodological and technical arrangements for safeguarding the security and confidentiality of the data files are excellent; the possibilities of breaches are minimal. Data users have very positive opinions of the quality of the data, scope of services and expertise of staff but desire more detailed, up-to-date microdata. NSOs rate IPUMS International and its services positively but request advanced methodological training for staff and regular information on the use of their country’s data. IPUMS International planned activities are presented and their contributions to census methodology are highlighted. PMID:28835781

  9. Developing interdisciplinary environmental frameworks.

    PubMed

    Tapio, Petri; Willamo, Risto

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to review interdisciplinary systemic frameworks of environmental protection and evaluate their use as tools, educational policymaking and education. We analyze the pressures-state-responses (PSR) framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the drivers-pressures-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework developed in the European Environment Agency and a later environmental political dynamics framework developed by Schroll and Staerdahl. We then continue the discussion by introducing a comprehensive model, labeled as the environmental protection process (EPP) framework that can be used to analyze and teach why there are environmental problems, what are their characteristics, and in which ways they can be mitigated. The EPP model is used for classifying measures of coping with environmental problems. Finally, a submodel of individual and societal factors affecting human action is formed. Environmental issues of transport are used as an illustrative example. We hope to contribute a relevant way to outline a wide interdisciplinary picture of environmental problems and solutions.

  10. Cooperative Learning for Effective Mainstreaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Male, Mary

    1986-01-01

    Reviews benefits of using cooperative learning strategies and computer assisted instruction (CAI) in classrooms with mainstreamed students; describes teacher's role in implementing cooperative learning; presents examples demonstrating potential of cooperative learning and CAI in language and social skills development; and outlines steps in…

  11. Enlightening Advantages of Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faryadi, Qais

    2007-01-01

    This appraisal discusses the notion that cooperative learning enhances learners' emotional and social performance. It also observes the perception that cooperative learning dramatically improves students' academic accomplishment. This review also examines the definition of cooperative learning and attempts to define it through the lens of renowned…

  12. 77 FR 39265 - North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation; Notice of Extension of the Period of Review for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation; Notice of Extension of the Period of... Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC). OTLA received the submission on November 14, 2011, from...

  13. Systematic methodological review: developing a framework for a qualitative semi-structured interview guide.

    PubMed

    Kallio, Hanna; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Johnson, Martin; Kangasniemi, Mari

    2016-12-01

    To produce a framework for the development of a qualitative semi-structured interview guide. Rigorous data collection procedures fundamentally influence the results of studies. The semi-structured interview is a common data collection method, but methodological research on the development of a semi-structured interview guide is sparse. Systematic methodological review. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Science for methodological papers on semi-structured interview guides from October 2004-September 2014. Having examined 2,703 titles and abstracts and 21 full texts, we finally selected 10 papers. We analysed the data using the qualitative content analysis method. Our analysis resulted in new synthesized knowledge on the development of a semi-structured interview guide, including five phases: (1) identifying the prerequisites for using semi-structured interviews; (2) retrieving and using previous knowledge; (3) formulating the preliminary semi-structured interview guide; (4) pilot testing the guide; and (5) presenting the complete semi-structured interview guide. Rigorous development of a qualitative semi-structured interview guide contributes to the objectivity and trustworthiness of studies and makes the results more plausible. Researchers should consider using this five-step process to develop a semi-structured interview guide and justify the decisions made during it. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. 38 CFR 200.7 - Cooperating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... expertise may be invited to serve as cooperating agencies in the conduct of NEPA review of an AFRH proposed... cooperating agencies with subject matter jurisdiction or special expertise in the conduct of NEPA review of...

  15. Biodiversity as a multidimensional construct: a review, framework and case study of herbivory's impact on plant biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Naeem, S; Prager, Case; Weeks, Brian; Varga, Alex; Flynn, Dan F B; Griffin, Kevin; Muscarella, Robert; Palmer, Matthew; Wood, Stephen; Schuster, William

    2016-12-14

    Biodiversity is inherently multidimensional, encompassing taxonomic, functional, phylogenetic, genetic, landscape and many other elements of variability of life on the Earth. However, this fundamental principle of multidimensionality is rarely applied in research aimed at understanding biodiversity's value to ecosystem functions and the services they provide. This oversight means that our current understanding of the ecological and environmental consequences of biodiversity loss is limited primarily to what unidimensional studies have revealed. To address this issue, we review the literature, develop a conceptual framework for multidimensional biodiversity research based on this review and provide a case study to explore the framework. Our case study specifically examines how herbivory by whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) alters the multidimensional influence of biodiversity on understory plant cover at Black Rock Forest, New York. Using three biodiversity dimensions (taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity) to explore our framework, we found that herbivory alters biodiversity's multidimensional influence on plant cover; an effect not observable through a unidimensional approach. Although our review, framework and case study illustrate the advantages of multidimensional over unidimensional approaches, they also illustrate the statistical and empirical challenges such work entails. Meeting these challenges, however, where data and resources permit, will be important if we are to better understand and manage the consequences we face as biodiversity continues to decline in the foreseeable future.

  16. Biodiversity as a multidimensional construct: a review, framework and case study of herbivory's impact on plant biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Naeem, S.; Prager, Case; Weeks, Brian; Varga, Alex; Flynn, Dan F. B.; Griffin, Kevin; Muscarella, Robert; Palmer, Matthew; Wood, Stephen; Schuster, William

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity is inherently multidimensional, encompassing taxonomic, functional, phylogenetic, genetic, landscape and many other elements of variability of life on the Earth. However, this fundamental principle of multidimensionality is rarely applied in research aimed at understanding biodiversity's value to ecosystem functions and the services they provide. This oversight means that our current understanding of the ecological and environmental consequences of biodiversity loss is limited primarily to what unidimensional studies have revealed. To address this issue, we review the literature, develop a conceptual framework for multidimensional biodiversity research based on this review and provide a case study to explore the framework. Our case study specifically examines how herbivory by whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) alters the multidimensional influence of biodiversity on understory plant cover at Black Rock Forest, New York. Using three biodiversity dimensions (taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity) to explore our framework, we found that herbivory alters biodiversity's multidimensional influence on plant cover; an effect not observable through a unidimensional approach. Although our review, framework and case study illustrate the advantages of multidimensional over unidimensional approaches, they also illustrate the statistical and empirical challenges such work entails. Meeting these challenges, however, where data and resources permit, will be important if we are to better understand and manage the consequences we face as biodiversity continues to decline in the foreseeable future. PMID:27928041

  17. A Systematic Review Exploring the Social Cognitive Theory of Self-Regulation as a Framework for Chronic Health Condition Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Tougas, Michelle E.; Hayden, Jill A.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Huguet, Anna; Rozario, Sharlene

    2015-01-01

    Background Theory is often recommended as a framework for guiding hypothesized mechanisms of treatment effect. However, there is limited guidance about how to use theory in intervention development. Methods We conducted a systematic review to provide an exemplar review evaluating the extent to which use of theory is identified and incorporated within existing interventions. We searched electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, and EMBASE from inception to May 2014. We searched clinicaltrials.gov for registered protocols, reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and included studies, and conducted a citation search in Web of Science. We included peer-reviewed publications of interventions that referenced the social cognitive theory of self-regulation as a framework for interventions to manage chronic health conditions. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for eligibility. We contacted all authors of included studies for information detailing intervention content. We describe how often theory mechanisms were addressed by interventions, and report intervention characteristics used to address theory. Results Of 202 articles that reported using the social cognitive theory of self-regulation, 52% failed to incorporate self-monitoring, a main theory component, and were therefore excluded. We included 35 interventions that adequately used the theory framework. Intervention characteristics were often poorly reported in peer-reviewed publications, 21 of 35 interventions incorporated characteristics that addressed each of the main theory components. Each intervention addressed, on average, six of eight self-monitoring mechanisms, two of five self-judgement mechanisms, and one of three self-evaluation mechanisms. The self-monitoring mechanisms ‘Feedback’ and ‘Consistency’ were addressed by all interventions, whereas the self-evaluation mechanisms ‘Self-incentives’ and ‘External rewards’ were addressed by six and four interventions

  18. On-board safety monitoring systems for driving: review, knowledge gaps, and framework.

    PubMed

    Horrey, William J; Lesch, Mary F; Dainoff, Marvin J; Robertson, Michelle M; Noy, Y Ian

    2012-02-01

    Fatal highway incidents remain the leading type of fatal work-related event, carrying tremendous personal, social, and economic costs. While employers with a fixed worksite can observe and interact directly with workers in an effort to promote safety and reduce risk, employers with workers who operate a motor vehicle as part of their job have fewer options. New technologies such as on-board safety monitoring systems offer the potential to further improve safety. These technologies allow vehicle owners to collect safety-specific information related to a driver's on-the-road behavior and performance. While many such devices are being developed and implemented in both commercial fleets and private vehicles, the scientific examination of these devices has lagged by comparison. In the current paper, we: (a) describe the general features and functionality of current generations of on-board monitoring devices and how they might impact various driver behaviors; (b) review the current state of scientific knowledge specific to on-board devices; (c) discuss knowledge gaps and potential areas for future research, borrowing from the related domain of computer-based electronic performance monitoring (EPM); and (d) propose a framework that can be used to explore some of the human-system interactions pertaining to monitoring systems. Motor vehicle crashes can carry tremendous costs for employers, in terms of injury, disability, and loss of potentially productive work years. New technologies can offer tremendous benefits in terms of promoting safer on-the-road behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Tobacco smoking and principles of the who framework convention on tobacco control: a review].

    PubMed

    Melkadze, N

    2013-02-01

    The aim of a review is to examine the current state of the relevant publications on tobacco smoking, the Guidelines on Protection from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which commits countries to protect the public's health by adopting various measures to reduce demand for tobacco. Georgia ratified the treaty in February 2006. In Georgia the implementation of the WHO FCTC is regulated by the "Law on Tobacco Control" (Law). It went into effect in September 2003. Changes and additions to the Law were approved by the Parliament in December 2008 (N 941 - rs) and in December 2010 (№4059-rs). According to Article 10 of the Law, smoking is prohibited at the educational and childcare institutions, medical and pharmaceutical facilities, at the entire area of petrol, gas and gas-distribution stations, in public transport, indoor areas of work and mass gathering... In spite of the legislation rights of non-smokers are very poorly preserved. With this in mind, the Welfare Foundation, the FCTC and the Tobacco Control Alliance, organized a public discussion on enforcing smoke-free laws in Georgia, in December 2012 at Tbilisi Marriott Courtyard Hotel. In order to make public libraries, educational, cultural institutions «de jure» and «de facto» free from tobacco smoke, the campaign against tobacco, which aims to strengthen implementation of the Tobacco Control Law and Regulation should be held in public libraries - not in the hotels. It is necessary to hang a poster - «Environment free from Smoke» at the entrance to buildings where smoking is prohibited throughout. In Rules and regulations for the use of the library there must be a note: smoking is prohibited in the library. We hope that Georgia in the nearest future will be in the list of countries with smoke-free public and work places.

  20. Evaluating Public Spending: A Framework of Public Expenditure Reviews. World Bank Discussion Papers No. 323.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradhan, Sanjay

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating the level and composition of public expenditures, illustrated by sectoral and country examples. The paper illustrates how this framework can be applied to analyzing broad allocations of spending within and across sectors, drawing upon some key findings and country examples from major sectors (health,…

  1. Review of Lean Construction Conference Proceedings and Relationship to the Toyota Production System Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Gideon Francois

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to align the International Group of Lean Construction (IGLC) conference proceedings against the Toyota Production System (TPS) to determine how well research themes in construction studies align with the TPS framework. Factories around the world that have implemented the TPS framework have experienced impressive…

  2. Review of Lean Construction Conference Proceedings and Relationship to the Toyota Production System Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Gideon Francois

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to align the International Group of Lean Construction (IGLC) conference proceedings against the Toyota Production System (TPS) to determine how well research themes in construction studies align with the TPS framework. Factories around the world that have implemented the TPS framework have experienced impressive…

  3. Review of the National Research Council's Framework for K-12 Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    The new "Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas" is a big, comprehensive volume, carefully organized and heavily documented. It is the long-awaited product of the Committee on a Conceptual Framework for New K-12 Science Education Standards. As noted, it is a weighty document (more than 300…

  4. Public-Private Cooperation in the Department of Defense: A Framework for Analysis and Recommendations for Action (Defense Horizons, October 2012)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    situations helps resolve barriers to cooperation. The evolution of CRA- DAs offers insight into how DOD can interact with multiple partners in a mutually...whether from bioterror attack or influenza outbreak. ◆◆ Leverage technology to share information: Exist- ing (or developing) open-source collaborative...military officers on the fundamentals of PPC can help shape DOD willingness and capacity to engage in such activities. PPC principles and concepts

  5. A theoretical framework for antigay aggression: Review of established and hypothesized effects within the context of the general aggression model⋆

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.

    2008-01-01

    Theory and research on antigay aggression has identified different motives that facilitate aggression based on sexual orientation. However, the individual and situational determinants of antigay aggression associated with these motivations have yet to be organized within a single theoretical framework. This limits researchers’ ability to organize existing knowledge, link that knowledge with related aggression theory, and guide the application of new findings. To address these limitations, this article argues for the use of an existing conceptual framework to guide thinking and generate new research in this area of study. Contemporary theories of antigay aggression, and empirical support for these theories, are reviewed and interpreted within the unifying framework of the general aggression model [Anderson, C.A. & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Human aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27–51.]. It is concluded that this conceptual framework will facilitate investigation of individual and situational risk factors that may contribute to antigay aggression and guide development of individual-level intervention. PMID:18355952

  6. A critically appraised topic review of computer-aided design/computer-aided machining of removable partial denture frameworks.

    PubMed

    Lang, Lisa A; Tulunoglu, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    A critically appraised topic (CAT) review is presented about the use of computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided machining (CAM) removable partial denture (RPD) frameworks. A systematic search of the literature supporting CAD/CAM RPD systems revealed no randomized clinical trials, hence the CAT review was performed. A PubMed search yielded 9 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. Each article was characterized by study design and level of evidence. No clinical outcomes research has been published on the use of CAD/CAM RPDs. Low levels of evidence were found in the available literature. Clinical research studies are needed to determine the efficacy of this treatment modality.

  7. [Marxism as a theoretical and methodological framework in collective health: implications for systematic review and synthesis of evidence].

    PubMed

    Soares, Cassia Baldini; Campos, Celia Maria Sivalli; Yonekura, Tatiana

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we discuss the integration in systematic reviews of research developed from a Marxist perspective of knowledge production and their results as evidence in healthcare. The study objectives are to review the assumptions of dialectical and historical materialism (DHM) and discuss the implications of dialectics for a literature review and the synthesis of evidence. DHM is a powerful framework for knowledge generation and transformation of policies and practices in healthcare. It assumes that social contradictions underlie the health-disease process, the fundamental theoretical construction in the field of collective health. Currently, we observe a considerable influence of the critical paradigm, of Marxist origin, in the construction of knowledge in health. Studies based on this critical paradigm incorporate complex methods, which are inherent to the guidelines of dialect, to identify the object and arrive at results that constitute evidence in healthcare. Systematic reviews should address the methodological difficulties associated with entirely integrating these results to healthcare.

  8. How Myxobacteria Cooperate.

    PubMed

    Cao, Pengbo; Dey, Arup; Vassallo, Christopher N; Wall, Daniel

    2015-11-20

    Prokaryotes often reside in groups where a high degree of relatedness has allowed the evolution of cooperative behaviors. However, very few bacteria or archaea have made the successful transition from unicellular to obligate multicellular life. A notable exception is the myxobacteria, in which cells cooperate to perform group functions highlighted by fruiting body development, an obligate multicellular function. Like all multicellular organisms, myxobacteria face challenges in how to organize and maintain multicellularity. These challenges include maintaining population homeostasis, carrying out tissue repair and regulating the behavior of non-cooperators. Here, we describe the major cooperative behaviors that myxobacteria use: motility, predation and development. In addition, this review emphasizes recent discoveries in the social behavior of outer membrane exchange, wherein kin share outer membrane contents. Finally, we review evidence that outer membrane exchange may be involved in regulating population homeostasis, thus serving as a social tool for myxobacteria to make the cyclic transitions from unicellular to multicellular states.

  9. Development of an evidence-based framework of factors contributing to patient safety incidents in hospital settings: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    McEachan, Rosemary R C; Giles, Sally J; Sirriyeh, Reema; Watt, Ian S; Wright, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this systematic review was to develop a ‘contributory factors framework’ from a synthesis of empirical work which summarises factors contributing to patient safety incidents in hospital settings. Design A mixed-methods systematic review of the literature was conducted. Data sources Electronic databases (Medline, PsycInfo, ISI Web of knowledge, CINAHL and EMBASE), article reference lists, patient safety websites, registered study databases and author contacts. Eligibility criteria Studies were included that reported data from primary research in secondary care aiming to identify the contributory factors to error or threats to patient safety. Results 1502 potential articles were identified. 95 papers (representing 83 studies) which met the inclusion criteria were included, and 1676 contributory factors extracted. Initial coding of contributory factors by two independent reviewers resulted in 20 domains (eg, team factors, supervision and leadership). Each contributory factor was then coded by two reviewers to one of these 20 domains. The majority of studies identified active failures (errors and violations) as factors contributing to patient safety incidents. Individual factors, communication, and equipment and supplies were the other most frequently reported factors within the existing evidence base. Conclusions This review has culminated in an empirically based framework of the factors contributing to patient safety incidents. This framework has the potential to be applied across hospital settings to improve the identification and prevention of factors that cause harm to patients. PMID:22421911

  10. Strengthening Clean Energy Technology Cooperation under the UNFCCC: Steps toward Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, R.; de Coninck, H.; Dhar, S.; Hansen, U.; McLaren, J.; Painuly, J.

    2010-08-01

    Development of a comprehensive and effective global clean technology cooperation framework will require years of experimenting and evaluation with new instruments and institutional arrangements before it is clear what works on which scale and in which region or country. In presenting concrete examples, this paper aims to set the first step in that process by highlighting successful models and innovative approaches that can inform efforts to ramp up clean energy technology cooperation. This paper reviews current mechanisms and international frameworks for global cooperation on clean energy technologies, both within and outside of the UNFCCC, and provides selected concrete options for scaling up global cooperation on clean energy technology RD&D, enabling environment, and financing.

  11. A Framework for the Self-Study Portion of the University of Alberta Library System Review To Be Carried Out for the President's Advisory Committee on Campus Reviews (PACCR).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayler, Grant

    The project that yielded this report developed a framework for the University of Alberta's library to guide the activities of the self-study portion of the university's Presidential Advisory Committee on Campus Review (PACCR). The framework demonstrates how the review process can be adapted to meet the particular needs of the library while…

  12. A Framework for the Self-Study Portion of the University of Alberta Library System Review To Be Carried Out for the President's Advisory Committee on Campus Reviews (PACCR).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayler, Grant

    The project that yielded this report developed a framework for the University of Alberta's library to guide the activities of the self-study portion of the university's Presidential Advisory Committee on Campus Review (PACCR). The framework demonstrates how the review process can be adapted to meet the particular needs of the library while…

  13. Family-oriented services in pediatric rehabilitation: a scoping review and framework to promote parent and family wellness.

    PubMed

    King, G; Williams, L; Hahn Goldberg, S

    2017-01-12

    Family-oriented services are not as common as one would expect, given the widespread endorsement of family-centred care, the role of parents in supporting optimal child outcomes, and legislation and literature indicating that parent outcomes are important in their own right. There are no published service delivery frameworks describing the scope of services that could be delivered to promote parent and family wellness. A scoping review was conducted to identify types of family-oriented services for parents of children with physical disabilities and/or intellectual impairments. This information was then synthesized into a conceptual framework of services to inform service selection and design. A scoping review of the recent literature was performed to capture descriptions of services targeting parents/families of children with physical disabilities and/or intellectual impairments, published in a six-year period (2009 to 2014). Six databases were searched and 557 retrieved articles were screened using inclusion and exclusion criteria. Thirty six relevant articles were identified. Based on descriptions of services in these articles, along with seminal articles describing the nature of desirable services, we propose a needs-based and capacity-enhancing framework outlining a continuum of family-oriented services for parents of children with disabilities. The framework includes six types of services to meet parent/family needs, organized as a continuum from fundamental information/education services, to those supporting parents to deliver services to meet their child's needs, to a variety of services addressing parents' own needs (support groups, psychosocial services and service coordination). The framework provides pediatric rehabilitation service organizations with a way to consider different possible family-oriented services. Implications include the particular importance of providing information resources, support groups and psychosocial services to meet parents

  14. Prevalence of hypertension in member countries of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC): systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Dinesh; McLachlan, Craig S; Sharma, Rajan; Gyawali, Bishal; Khanal, Vishnu; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Christensen, Bo; Kallestrup, Per

    2014-09-01

    Hypertension is a leading attributable risk factor for mortality in South Asia. However, a systematic review on prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in the region of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) has not carried out before.The study was conducted according to the Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Guideline. A literature search was performed with a combination of medical subject headings terms, "hypertension" and "Epidemiology/EP". The search was supplemented by cross-references. Thirty-three publications that met the inclusion criteria were included in the synthesis and meta-analyses. Hypertension is defined when an individual had a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg, was taking antihypertensive drugs, or had previously been diagnosed as hypertensive by health care professionals. Prehypertension is defined as SBP 120-139 mm Hg and DBP 80-89 mm Hg.The overall prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension from the studies was found to be 27% and 29.6%, respectively. Hypertension varied between the studies, which ranged from 13.6% to 47.9% and was found to be higher in the studies conducted in urban areas than in rural areas. The prevalence of hypertension from the latest studies was: Bangladesh: 17.9%; Bhutan: 23.9%; India: 31.4%; Maldives: 31.5%; Nepal: 33.8%; Pakistan: 25%; and Sri Lanka: 20.9%. Eight out of 19 studies with information about prevalence of hypertension in both sexes showed that the prevalence was higher among women than men. Meta-analyses showed that sex (men: odds ratio [OR] 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02, 1.37), obesity (OR 2.33; 95% CI: 1.87, 2.78), and central obesity (OR 2.16; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.95) were associated with hypertension.Our study found a variable prevalence of hypertension across SAARC countries, with a number of countries with blood pressure above the global average. We also noted that studies are

  15. A Review on Breathing Behaviors of Metal-Organic-Frameworks (MOFs) for Gas Adsorption.

    PubMed

    Alhamami, Mays; Doan, Huu; Cheng, Chil-Hung

    2014-04-21

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new class of microporous materials that possess framework flexibility, large surface areas, "tailor-made" framework functionalities, and tunable pore sizes. These features empower MOFs superior performances and broader application spectra than those of zeolites and phosphine-based molecular sieves. In parallel with designing new structures and new chemistry of MOFs, the observation of unique breathing behaviors upon adsorption of gases or solvents stimulates their potential applications as host materials in gas storage for renewable energy. This has attracted intense research energy to understand the causes at the atomic level, using in situ X-ray diffraction, calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations. This article is developed in the following order: first to introduce the definition of MOFs and the observation of their framework flexibility. Second, synthesis routes of MOFs are summarized with the emphasis on the hydrothermal synthesis, owing to the environmental-benign and economically availability of water. Third, MOFs exhibiting breathing behaviors are summarized, followed by rationales from thermodynamic viewpoint. Subsequently, effects of various functionalities on breathing behaviors are appraised, including using post-synthetic modification routes. Finally, possible framework spatial requirements of MOFs for yielding breathing behaviors are highlighted as the design strategies for new syntheses.

  16. A Review on Breathing Behaviors of Metal-Organic-Frameworks (MOFs) for Gas Adsorption

    PubMed Central

    Alhamami, Mays; Doan, Huu; Cheng, Chil-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new class of microporous materials that possess framework flexibility, large surface areas, “tailor-made” framework functionalities, and tunable pore sizes. These features empower MOFs superior performances and broader application spectra than those of zeolites and phosphine-based molecular sieves. In parallel with designing new structures and new chemistry of MOFs, the observation of unique breathing behaviors upon adsorption of gases or solvents stimulates their potential applications as host materials in gas storage for renewable energy. This has attracted intense research energy to understand the causes at the atomic level, using in situ X-ray diffraction, calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations. This article is developed in the following order: first to introduce the definition of MOFs and the observation of their framework flexibility. Second, synthesis routes of MOFs are summarized with the emphasis on the hydrothermal synthesis, owing to the environmental-benign and economically availability of water. Third, MOFs exhibiting breathing behaviors are summarized, followed by rationales from thermodynamic viewpoint. Subsequently, effects of various functionalities on breathing behaviors are appraised, including using post-synthetic modification routes. Finally, possible framework spatial requirements of MOFs for yielding breathing behaviors are highlighted as the design strategies for new syntheses. PMID:28788614

  17. PLANNING AND COORDINATION OF ACTIVITIES SUPPORTING THE RUSSIAN SYSTEM OF CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS AT ROSATOM FACILITIES IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE U.S.-RUSSIAN COOPERATION.

    SciTech Connect

    SVIRIDOVA, V.V.; ERASTOV, V.V.; ISAEV, N.V.; ROMANOV, V.A.; RUDENKO, V.S.; SVIRIDOV, A.S.; TITOV, G.V.; JENSEN, B.; NEYMOTIN, L.; SANDERS, J.

    2005-05-16

    The MC&A Equipment and Methodological Support Strategic Plan (MEMS SP) for implementing modern MC&A equipment and methodologies at Rosatom facilities has been developed within the framework of the U.S.-Russian MPC&A Program. This plan developed by the Rosatom's Russian MC&A Equipment and Methodologies (MEM) Working Group and is coordinated by that group with support and coordination provided by the MC&A Measurements Project, Office of National Infrastructure and Sustainability, US DOE. Implementation of different tasks of the MEMS Strategic Plan is coordinated by Rosatom and US-DOE in cooperation with different U.S.-Russian MC&A-related working groups and joint site project teams. This cooperation allows to obtain and analyze information about problems, current needs and successes at Rosatom facilities and facilitates solution of the problems, satisfying the facilities' needs and effective exchange of expertise and lessons learned. The objective of the MEMS Strategic Plan is to enhance effectiveness of activities implementing modern equipment and methodologies in the Russian State MC&A system. These activities are conducted within the joint Russian-US MPC&A program aiming at reduction of possibility for theft or diversion of nuclear materials and enhancement of control of nuclear materials.

  18. A contrivance for a dynamic porous framework: cooperative guest adsorption based on square grids connected by amide-amide hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Kazuhiro; Kitagawa, Susumu; Fukui, Kôichi; Saito, Kazuya

    2004-03-31

    Flexible porous coordination polymers containing amide groups as a function origin have been synthesized and categorized as "Coordination Polymer with Amide Groups". Bispyridyl ligands with a spacer of amide group afford two-dimensional (2-D) motifs with a deformed square grid, resulting in three-dimensional (3-D) frameworks of [Co(NO(3))(2)(3-pna)(2)](n)(1), [Co(Br)(2)(3-pna)(2)](n)(2), and [[Co(NCS)(2)(4-peia)(2)].4Me(2)CO](n)(3 subset 4Me(2)CO) (3-pna = N-3-pyridylnicotinamide, 4-peia = N-(2-pyridin-4-yl-ethyl)-isonicotinamide), where the 2-D motifs are bound by complementary hydrogen bond between the amide groups. In the case of the 3 subset 4Me(2)CO, the amide groups form a contrivance for a dynamic porous framework because of their relevant position and orientation in the mutual nearest neighboring motifs. Consequently, 3 subset 4Me(2)CO shows amorphous (nonporous)-to-crystal (porous) structural rearrangement in the Me(2)CO adsorption and desorption process, where the framework of the 2-D motif is maintained. The adsorption isotherm has threshold pressure (P(th)), a sort of gate pressure. The heat of Me(2)CO adsorption (DeltaH(ad) = -25 kJ/mol) is obtained from the temperature dependence of threshold pressure (P(th)), which is close to acetone vaporization enthalpy (DeltaH(vap) = 30.99 kJ/mol).

  19. Central review of cytogenetics is necessary for cooperative group correlative and clinical studies of adult acute leukemia: The Cancer and Leukemia Group B experience

    PubMed Central

    Mrózek, Krzysztof; Carroll, Andrew J.; Maharry, Kati; Rao, Kathleen W.; Patil, Shivanand R.; Pettenati, Mark J.; Watson, Michael S.; Arthur, Diane C.; Tantravahi, Ramana; Heerema, Nyla A.; Koduru, Prasad R. K.; Block, AnneMarie W.; Qumsiyeh, Mazin B.; Edwards, Colin G.; Sterling, Lisa J.; Holland, Kelsi B.; Bloomfield, Clara D.

    2009-01-01

    The Cancer and Leukemia Group B has performed central review of karyotypes submitted by institutional cytogenetics laboratories from patients with acute myeloid (AML) and acute lymphoblastic (ALL) leukemia since 1986. We assessed the role of central karyotype review in maintaining accurate, high quality cytogenetic data for clinical and translational studies using two criteria: the proportion of karyotypes rejected (i.e. inadequate), and, among accepted (i.e. adequate) cases, the proportion of karyotypes whose interpretation was changed on central karyotype review. We compared the first four years during which central karyotype review was performed with a recent four-year period and found that the proportion of rejected samples decreased significantly for both AML and ALL. However, during the latter period, central karyotype reviews still found 8% of AML and 16% of ALL karyotypes inadequate. Among adequate cases, the karyotype was revised in 26% of both AML and ALL samples. Some revisions resulted in changing the patients’ assignment to particular World Health Organization diagnostic categories and/or moving patients from one prognostic group to another. Overall, when both data on rejection rates and data on karyotype revisions made in accepted cases were considered together, 32% of AML and 38% of ALL samples submitted were either rejected or revised on central karyotype review during the recent 4-year period. These data underscore the necessity of continued central karyotype review in multi-institutional cooperative group studies. PMID:18636143

  20. Evaluating Intervention Programs Targeting Parents to Manage Childhood Overweight and Obesity: A Systematic Review Using the RE-AIM Framework.

    PubMed

    Jang, Myoungock; Chao, Ariana; Whittemore, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Intervention programs targeting parents to manage childhood overweight and obesity have emerged based on parents influence on the health behaviors of their children. The purpose of this review was to systematically evaluate intervention programs targeting parents to manage childhood overweight and obesity using the Reach, Efficacy, Adopt, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. There was a moderate risk of bias across all studies. The overall proportion of studies (n=7) reporting on each dimension of the RE-AIM framework ranged from 78.6% (reach) to 23.8% (maintenance). The majority of intervention programs demonstrated improvement in child BMI. However intervention programs did not reach families of diverse race/ethnicity, were provided by highly trained professionals, and demonstrated high attrition, thus limiting generalizability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Key Practice, Discuss and Debate Ideas: Conceptual Framework, Literature Review, and Provisional Learning Progressions for Argumentation. Research Report. ETS RR-15-33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deane, Paul; Song, Yi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a comprehensive literature review on the development of key argumentation skills to lay a foundation for a framework of the key practice, discuss and debate ideas, which is centrally involved in the expectations for academic reading and writing. Specifically, the framework includes 5 phases of core activities and related…

  2. A Critical Review of the Use of Wenger's Community of Practice (CoP) Theoretical Framework in Online and Blended Learning Research, 2000-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sedef Uzuner; Hayes, Suzanne; Shea, Peter

    2017-01-01

    After presenting a brief overview of the key elements that underpin Etienne Wenger's communities of practice (CoP) theoretical framework, one of the most widely cited and influential conceptions of social learning, this paper reviews extant empirical work grounded in this framework to investigate online/blended learning in higher education and in…

  3. "Index for Inclusion": A Framework for School Review in the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alborno, Nadera Emran; Gaad, Eman

    2014-01-01

    This study uses the "Index for Inclusion", developed by Booth and Ainscow, as a framework for investigating inclusive provision in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), introduced through the "School for All" initiative. The study, by Nadera Emran Alborno of the American University in Dubai and Eman Gaad of the British University in…

  4. Teacher Competencies for the Implementation of Collaborative Learning in the Classroom: A Framework and Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaendler, Celia; Wiedmann, Michael; Rummel, Nikol; Spada, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This article describes teacher competencies for implementing collaborative learning in the classroom. Research has shown that the effectiveness of collaborative learning largely depends on the quality of student interaction. We therefore focus on what a "teacher" can do to foster student interaction. First, we present a framework that…

  5. "Index for Inclusion": A Framework for School Review in the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alborno, Nadera Emran; Gaad, Eman

    2014-01-01

    This study uses the "Index for Inclusion", developed by Booth and Ainscow, as a framework for investigating inclusive provision in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), introduced through the "School for All" initiative. The study, by Nadera Emran Alborno of the American University in Dubai and Eman Gaad of the British University in…

  6. The Higher Education Qualifications Framework: A Review of Its Implications for Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Koller, J. F.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a research project which aimed at determining what the key implications of the Higher Education Qualifications Framework would be for the curricula of Universities of Technology. The key problems which were investigated were the seeming lack of understanding of the exact implications of the Higher Education…

  7. Systematic Review of Key Leader Practices Found to Influence Student Achievement: A Unified Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitt, Dallas Hambrick; Tucker, Pamela D.

    2016-01-01

    The field of educational leadership has accrued a body of research that explains how leaders influence student achievement through the enactment of various practices. Yet, differences exist in the substance of the frameworks that assert the areas to which leaders should attend. The specific purposes of this article are to identify and synthesize…

  8. Teacher Competencies for the Implementation of Collaborative Learning in the Classroom: A Framework and Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaendler, Celia; Wiedmann, Michael; Rummel, Nikol; Spada, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This article describes teacher competencies for implementing collaborative learning in the classroom. Research has shown that the effectiveness of collaborative learning largely depends on the quality of student interaction. We therefore focus on what a "teacher" can do to foster student interaction. First, we present a framework that…

  9. Researching the Community of Inquiry Framework: Review, Issues, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, D. Randy; Arbaugh, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    Since its publication in "The Internet and Higher Education," Garrison, Anderson, and Archer's [Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. "The Internet and Higher Education," 2(2-3), 87-105.] community of inquiry (CoI) framework has generated…

  10. Removing barriers to participation in clinical trials, a conceptual framework and retrospective chart review study.

    PubMed

    Kanarek, Norma F; Kanarek, Marty S; Olatoye, Dare; Carducci, Michael A

    2012-12-10

    Enrollment in interventional therapeutic clinical trials is a small fraction of all patients who might participate given reasonable access. A hierarchical approach is utilized in measuring staged participation from trial availability to patient enrollment. Our framework suggests that concern for justice comes in the design and eligibility criteria for clinical trials; attention to beneficence is given in the eligibility and physician triage stages. The remaining four stages rely on respect for persons. An example is given where reasons for nonparticipation or barriers to participation in prostate cancer clinical trials are examined within the framework. In addition, medical oncology patients with an initial six month consultation are tracked from one stage to the next by race using the framework to assess participation comparability. We illustrated seven transitions from being a patient to enrollment in a clinical trial in a small study of prostate cancer cases who consulted SKCCC Medical Oncology Department in early 2010. Pilot data suggest transition probabilities as follows: 65% availability, 84% eligibility, 92% patient triage, 89% trials discussed, 45% patient interested, 63% patient consented, and 92% patient enrolled. The average transition probability was 77.7%. The average transition probability, patient-trial-fit was 50%; opportunity was 51%, and acceptance was 66.7%. Trial availability, patient interest and patient consented were three transitions that were below the average; none were statistically significant. The framework may serve to streamline comprehensive reporting of clinical trial participation to the benefit of patients and the ethical conduct of clinical trials.

  11. Contextualization of Nature of Science within the Socioscientific Issues Framework: A Review of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karisan, Dilek; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the importance of contextualization of Nature of Science (NOS) within the Socioscientific Issues (SSI) framework, because of the importance to science education. The emphasis on advancing scientific literacy is contingent upon a robust understanding and appreciation of NOS, as well as the acquisition of…

  12. Conceptual frameworks and empirical approaches used to assess the impact of health research: an overview of reviews

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background How to assess the impact of research is of growing interest to funders, policy makers and researchers mainly to understand the value of investments and to increase accountability. Broadly speaking the term "research impact" refers to the contribution of research activities to achieve desired societal outcomes. The aim of this overview is to identify the most common approaches to research impact assessment, categories of impact and their respective indicators. Methods We systematically searched the relevant literature (PubMed, The Cochrane Library (1990-2009)) and funding agency websites. We included systematic reviews, theoretical and methodological papers, and empirical case-studies on how to evaluate research impact. We qualitatively summarised the included reports, as well the conceptual frameworks. Results We identified twenty-two reports belonging to four systematic reviews and 14 primary studies. These publications reported several theoretical frameworks and methodological approaches (bibliometrics, econometrics, ad hoc case studies). The "payback model" emerged as the most frequently used. Five broad categories of impact were identified: a) advancing knowledge, b) capacity building, c) informing decision-making, d) health benefits, e) broad socio-economic benefits. For each proposed category of impact we summarized a set of indicators whose pros and cons are presented and briefly discussed. Conclusions This overview is a comprehensive, yet descriptive, contribution to summarize the conceptual framework and taxonomy of an heterogeneous and evolving area of research. A shared and comprehensive conceptual framework does not seem to be available yet and its single components (epidemiologic, economic, and social) are often valued differently in different models. PMID:21702930

  13. Activity Theory as a Theoretical Framework for Health Self-Quantification: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-quantification (SQ) is a way of working in which, by using tracking tools, people aim to collect, manage, and reflect on personal health data to gain a better understanding of their own body, health behavior, and interaction with the world around them. However, health SQ lacks a formal framework for describing the self-quantifiers’ activities and their contextual components or constructs to pursue these health related goals. Establishing such framework is important because it is the first step to operationalize health SQ fully. This may in turn help to achieve the aims of health professionals and researchers who seek to make or study changes in the self-quantifiers’ health systematically. Objective The aim of this study was to review studies on health SQ in order to answer the following questions: What are the general features of the work and the particular activities that self-quantifiers perform to achieve their health objectives? What constructs of health SQ have been identified in the scientific literature? How have these studies described such constructs? How would it be possible to model these constructs theoretically to characterize the work of health SQ? Methods A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature was conducted. A total of 26 empirical studies were included. The content of these studies was thematically analyzed using Activity Theory as an organizing framework. Results The literature provided varying descriptions of health SQ as data-driven and objective-oriented work mediated by SQ tools. From the literature, we identified two types of SQ work: work on data (ie, data management activities) and work with data (ie, health management activities). Using Activity Theory, these activities could be characterized into 6 constructs: users, tracking tools, health objectives, division of work, community or group setting, and SQ plan and rules. We could not find a reference to any single study that accounted for all these activities and

  14. Activity Theory as a Theoretical Framework for Health Self-Quantification: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies.

    PubMed

    Almalki, Manal; Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando

    2016-05-27

    Self-quantification (SQ) is a way of working in which, by using tracking tools, people aim to collect, manage, and reflect on personal health data to gain a better understanding of their own body, health behavior, and interaction with the world around them. However, health SQ lacks a formal framework for describing the self-quantifiers' activities and their contextual components or constructs to pursue these health related goals. Establishing such framework is important because it is the first step to operationalize health SQ fully. This may in turn help to achieve the aims of health professionals and researchers who seek to make or study changes in the self-quantifiers' health systematically. The aim of this study was to review studies on health SQ in order to answer the following questions: What are the general features of the work and the particular activities that self-quantifiers perform to achieve their health objectives? What constructs of health SQ have been identified in the scientific literature? How have these studies described such constructs? How would it be possible to model these constructs theoretically to characterize the work of health SQ? A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature was conducted. A total of 26 empirical studies were included. The content of these studies was thematically analyzed using Activity Theory as an organizing framework. The literature provided varying descriptions of health SQ as data-driven and objective-oriented work mediated by SQ tools. From the literature, we identified two types of SQ work: work on data (ie, data management activities) and work with data (ie, health management activities). Using Activity Theory, these activities could be characterized into 6 constructs: users, tracking tools, health objectives, division of work, community or group setting, and SQ plan and rules. We could not find a reference to any single study that accounted for all these activities and constructs of health SQ activity. A

  15. Collaborative Procurement within Enterprise Networks: A Literature Review, a Reference Framework and a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnazzo, Luca; Taticchi, Paolo; Bidini, Gianni; Sameh, Mohamed

    Collaboration among companies is nowadays a success leverage from those involved, especially for SMEs. The networking advantages are several and among them, reducing costs is a critical one. Costs reduction due to the possibility of Collaborative Procurement (CP) among partners is one of the most important achievements in a network. While the literature available offers good bases for managing single contractor procurement issues, little research addresses the case of CP within Enterprise Networks (ENs). This paper explore the mentioned issue and proposes a general framework for managing CP in ENs, those with the Virtual Development Office (VDO) structure. The findings from the application of the framework proposed in an Italian network are highlighted so as to provide preliminary results and drive future research.

  16. A Review on Telemedicine-Based WBAN Framework for Patient Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bharat; Ghosh, Soumya K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective: In this article, we describe the important aspects like major characteristics, research issues, and challenges with body area sensor networks in telemedicine systems for patient monitoring in different scenarios. Present and emerging developments in communications integrated with the developments in microelectronics and embedded system technologies will have a dramatic impact on future patient monitoring and health information delivery systems. The important challenges are bandwidth limitations, power consumption, and skin or tissue protection. Materials and Methods: This article presents a detailed survey on wireless body area networks (WBANs). Results and Conclusions: We have designed the framework for integrating body area networks on telemedicine systems. Recent trends, overall WBAN-telemedicine framework, and future research scope have also been addressed in this article. PMID:23841489

  17. Cooperative Game Theoretic Models for Decision-Making in Contexts of Library Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a brief summary of Cooperative Economic Game Theory, followed by a summary of specific measures identified by Nash, Shapley, and Harsanyi. Reviews contexts in which negotiation and cooperation among libraries is of special economic importance, and for two of these contexts-cooperative acquisitions and cooperative automation-illustrates…

  18. What predicts intention-behavior discordance? A review of the action control framework.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2013-10-01

    The physical activity intention-behavior gap is a focus of considerable research. The purpose of this article is to overview contemporary evidence for predictors of this intention-behavior discordance using the action control framework developed in our laboratories. We propose the hypothesis that intention-behavior discordance is from motivational (affective attitude, perceived behavioral control), self-regulatory (behavioral processes), and habitual (automaticity) constructs.

  19. Co-operation, Competition and Crowding: A Discrete Framework Linking Allee Kinetics, Nonlinear Diffusion, Shocks and Sharp-Fronted Travelling Waves.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Stuart T; Baker, Ruth E; McElwain, D L Sean; Simpson, Matthew J

    2017-02-14

    Invasion processes are ubiquitous throughout cell biology and ecology. During invasion, individuals can become isolated from the bulk population and behave differently. We present a discrete, exclusion-based description of the birth, death and movement of individuals. The model distinguishes between individuals that are part of, or are isolated from, the bulk population by imposing different rates of birth, death and movement. This enables the simulation of various co-operative or competitive mechanisms, where there is either a positive or negative benefit associated with being part of the bulk population, respectively. The mean-field approximation of the discrete process gives rise to 22 different classes of partial differential equation, which can include Allee kinetics and nonlinear diffusion. Here we examine the ability of each class of partial differential equation to support travelling wave solutions and interpret the long time behaviour in terms of the individual-level parameters. For the first time we show that the strong Allee effect and nonlinear diffusion can result in shock-fronted travelling waves. We also demonstrate how differences in group and individual motility rates can influence the persistence of a population and provide conditions for the successful invasion of a population.

  20. Co-operation, Competition and Crowding: A Discrete Framework Linking Allee Kinetics, Nonlinear Diffusion, Shocks and Sharp-Fronted Travelling Waves

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Stuart T.; Baker, Ruth E.; McElwain, D. L. Sean; Simpson, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Invasion processes are ubiquitous throughout cell biology and ecology. During invasion, individuals can become isolated from the bulk population and behave differently. We present a discrete, exclusion-based description of the birth, death and movement of individuals. The model distinguishes between individuals that are part of, or are isolated from, the bulk population by imposing different rates of birth, death and movement. This enables the simulation of various co-operative or competitive mechanisms, where there is either a positive or negative benefit associated with being part of the bulk population, respectively. The mean-field approximation of the discrete process gives rise to 22 different classes of partial differential equation, which can include Allee kinetics and nonlinear diffusion. Here we examine the ability of each class of partial differential equation to support travelling wave solutions and interpret the long time behaviour in terms of the individual-level parameters. For the first time we show that the strong Allee effect and nonlinear diffusion can result in shock-fronted travelling waves. We also demonstrate how differences in group and individual motility rates can influence the persistence of a population and provide conditions for the successful invasion of a population. PMID:28195135

  1. Co-operation, Competition and Crowding: A Discrete Framework Linking Allee Kinetics, Nonlinear Diffusion, Shocks and Sharp-Fronted Travelling Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Stuart T.; Baker, Ruth E.; McElwain, D. L. Sean; Simpson, Matthew J.

    2017-02-01

    Invasion processes are ubiquitous throughout cell biology and ecology. During invasion, individuals can become isolated from the bulk population and behave differently. We present a discrete, exclusion-based description of the birth, death and movement of individuals. The model distinguishes between individuals that are part of, or are isolated from, the bulk population by imposing different rates of birth, death and movement. This enables the simulation of various co-operative or competitive mechanisms, where there is either a positive or negative benefit associated with being part of the bulk population, respectively. The mean-field approximation of the discrete process gives rise to 22 different classes of partial differential equation, which can include Allee kinetics and nonlinear diffusion. Here we examine the ability of each class of partial differential equation to support travelling wave solutions and interpret the long time behaviour in terms of the individual-level parameters. For the first time we show that the strong Allee effect and nonlinear diffusion can result in shock-fronted travelling waves. We also demonstrate how differences in group and individual motility rates can influence the persistence of a population and provide conditions for the successful invasion of a population.

  2. Cooperation in microbial communities and their biotechnological applications

    PubMed Central

    Cavaliere, Matteo; Feng, Song; Soyer, Orkun S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Microbial communities are increasingly utilized in biotechnology. Efficiency and productivity in many of these applications depends on the presence of cooperative interactions between members of the community. Two key processes underlying these interactions are the production of public goods and metabolic cross‐feeding, which can be understood in the general framework of ecological and evolutionary (eco‐evo) dynamics. In this review, we illustrate the relevance of cooperative interactions in microbial biotechnological processes, discuss their mechanistic origins and analyse their evolutionary resilience. Cooperative behaviours can be damaged by the emergence of ‘cheating’ cells that benefit from the cooperative interactions but do not contribute to them. Despite this, cooperative interactions can be stabilized by spatial segregation, by the presence of feedbacks between the evolutionary dynamics and the ecology of the community, by the role of regulatory systems coupled to the environmental conditions and by the action of horizontal gene transfer. Cooperative interactions enrich microbial communities with a higher degree of robustness against environmental stress and can facilitate the evolution of more complex traits. Therefore, the evolutionary resilience of microbial communities and their ability to constraint detrimental mutants should be considered to design robust biotechnological applications. PMID:28447371

  3. Reward, punishment, and cooperation: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Balliet, Daniel; Mulder, Laetitia B; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2011-07-01

    How effective are rewards (for cooperation) and punishment (for noncooperation) as tools to promote cooperation in social dilemmas or situations when immediate self-interest and longer term collective interest conflict? What variables can promote the impact of these incentives? Although such questions have been examined, social and behavioral scientists provide different answers. To date, there is no theoretical and/or quantitative review of rewards and punishments as incentives for cooperation in social dilemmas. Using a novel interdependence-theoretic framework, we propose that rewards and punishments should both promote cooperation, and we identify 2 variables—cost of incentives and source of incentives—that are predicted to magnify the effectiveness of these incentives in promoting cooperation.A meta-analysis involving 187 effect sizes revealed that rewards and punishments exhibited a statistically equivalent positive effect on cooperation (d =0.51 and 0.70, respectively). The effectiveness of incentives was stronger when the incentives were costly to administer, compared to free. Centralization of incentives did not moderate the effect size. Punishments were also more effective during iterated dilemmas when participants continued to interact in the same group, compared to both (a) iterated dilemmas with reassignment to a new group after each trial and (b) one-shot dilemmas. We also examine several other potential moderators, such as iterations, partner matching, group size, country, and participant payment. We discuss broad conclusions, consider implications for theory, and suggest directions for future research on rewards and punishment in social dilemmas.

  4. Recent Trends in Monitoring of European Water Framework Directive Priority Substances Using Micro-Sensors: A 2007–2009 Review

    PubMed Central

    Namour, Philippe; Lepot, Mathieu; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses from a critical perspective the development of new sensors for the measurement of priority pollutants targeted in the E.U. Water Framework Directive. Significant advances are reported in the paper and their advantages and limitations are also discussed. Future perspectives in this area are also pointed out in the conclusions. This review covers publications appeared since December 2006 (the publication date of the Swift report). Among priority substances, sensors for monitoring the four WFD metals represent 81% of published papers. None of analyzed publications present a micro-sensor totally validated in laboratory, ready for tests under real conditions in the field. The researches are mainly focused on the sensing part of the micro-sensors. Nevertheless, the main factor limiting micro-sensor applications in the environment is the ruggedness of the receptor towards environmental conditions. This point constitutes the first technological obstacle to be overcome for any long-term field tests. PMID:22163635

  5. The ESRC research ethics framework and research ethics review at UK universities: rebuilding the Tower of Babel REC by REC.

    PubMed

    Hunter, D L H

    2008-11-01

    The history of the National Health Service research ethics system in the UK and some of the key drivers for its change into the present system are described. It is suggested that the key drivers were the unnecessary delay of research, the complexity of the array of processes and contradictions between research ethics committee (REC) decisions. It is then argued that the primary drivers for this change are and will be replicated by the systems of research ethics review being put in place at UK universities in response to the Economic and Social Research Council research ethics framework. It is argued that this is particularly problematic for multi-centre review and for researchers who switch institutions. Finally, some potential solutions to this problem and their feasibility are discussed.

  6. A Review and Framework for Categorizing Current Research and Development in Health Related Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Studies.

    PubMed

    Lyseen, A K; Nøhr, C; Sørensen, E M; Gudes, O; Geraghty, E M; Shaw, N T; Bivona-Tellez, C

    2014-08-15

    The application of GIS in health science has increased over the last decade and new innovative application areas have emerged. This study reviews the literature and builds a framework to provide a conceptual overview of the domain, and to promote strategic planning for further research of GIS in health. The framework is based on literature from the library databases Scopus and Web of Science. The articles were identified based on keywords and initially selected for further study based on titles and abstracts. A grounded theory-inspired method was applied to categorize the selected articles in main focus areas. Subsequent frequency analysis was performed on the identified articles in areas of infectious and non-infectious diseases and continent of origin. A total of 865 articles were included. Four conceptual domains within GIS in health sciences comprise the framework: spatial analysis of disease, spatial analysis of health service planning, public health, health technologies and tools. Frequency analysis by disease status and location show that malaria and schistosomiasis are the most commonly analyzed infectious diseases where cancer and asthma are the most frequently analyzed non-infectious diseases. Across categories, articles from North America predominate, and in the category of spatial analysis of diseases an equal number of studies concern Asia. Spatial analysis of diseases and health service planning are well-established research areas. The development of future technologies and new application areas for GIS and data-gathering technologies such as GPS, smartphones, remote sensing etc. will be nudging the research in GIS and health.

  7. Evaluation of the suitability of root cause analysis frameworks for the investigation of community-acquired pressure ulcers: a systematic review and documentary analysis.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Caroline; Drennan, Vari M

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the suitability of root cause analysis frameworks for the investigation of community-acquired pressure ulcers. The objective was to identify the extent to which these frameworks take account of the setting where the ulcer originated as being the person's home rather than a hospital setting. Pressure ulcers involving full-thickness skin loss are increasingly being regarded as indicators of nursing patient safety failure, requiring investigation using root cause analysis frameworks. Evidence suggests that root cause analysis frameworks developed in hospital settings ignore the unique dimensions of risk in home healthcare settings. A systematic literature review and documentary analysis of frameworks used to investigate community-acquired grade three and four pressure ulcers by home nursing services in England. No published papers were identified for inclusion in the review. Fifteen patient safety investigative frameworks were collected and analysed. Twelve of the retrieved frameworks were intended for the investigation of community-acquired pressure ulcers; seven of which took account of the setting where the ulcer originated as being the patient's home. This study provides evidence to suggest that many of the root cause analysis frameworks used to investigate community-acquired pressure ulcers in England are unsuitable for this purpose. This study provides researchers and practitioners with evidence of the need to develop appropriate home nursing root cause analysis frameworks to investigate community-acquired pressure ulcers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A Framework for Navigating Institutional Review Board (IRB) Oversight in the Complicated Zone of Research

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The treatment therapies and technologies currently emerging from the rapidly evolving health care industry must undergo full examination in a clinical setting if they are to be marketed to the public. All elements of clinical studies involving human subjects must undergo thorough IRB review before study activities can commence. Regulations regarding IRB oversight apply to all clinical studies—including retrospective examinations of private medical data and identifiable biological samples. It is not uncommon for researchers to be unsure whether, or on what level, IRB review and oversight are required for a particular project. Yet, if human subjects or their private medical data are utilized in a study, peer-reviewed journals will require relevant IRB approval information be provided as a requirement for publication. This article examines IRB processes and review types, offers insight into the IRB decision-making process, and emphasizes the importance of engaging an IRB consultant early in the clinical study design process. PMID:27909632

  9. A Qualitative Review of Literature on Peer Review of Teaching in Higher Education: An Application of the SWOT Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Susan; Chie, Qiu Ting; Abraham, Mathew; Raj, Sony Jalarajan; Beh, Loo-See

    2014-01-01

    The issues of professional accountability, faculty member development, and enhancing higher education quality in universities are gaining importance. A strategy that could increase personal control over teaching practices in addition to improving professional development among faculty members is peer review of teaching (PRT). Five themes that are…

  10. A Qualitative Review of Literature on Peer Review of Teaching in Higher Education: An Application of the SWOT Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Susan; Chie, Qiu Ting; Abraham, Mathew; Raj, Sony Jalarajan; Beh, Loo-See

    2014-01-01

    The issues of professional accountability, faculty member development, and enhancing higher education quality in universities are gaining importance. A strategy that could increase personal control over teaching practices in addition to improving professional development among faculty members is peer review of teaching (PRT). Five themes that are…

  11. A predictive framework and review of the ecological impacts of exotic plant invasions on reptiles and amphibians.

    PubMed

    Martin, Leigh J; Murray, Brad R

    2011-05-01

    The invasive spread of exotic plants in native vegetation can pose serious threats to native faunal assemblages. This is of particular concern for reptiles and amphibians because they form a significant component of the world's vertebrate fauna, play a pivotal role in ecosystem functioning and are often neglected in biodiversity research. A framework to predict how exotic plant invasion will affect reptile and amphibian assemblages is imperative for conservation, management and the identification of research priorities. Here, we present a new predictive framework that integrates three mechanistic models. These models are based on exotic plant invasion altering: (1) habitat structure; (2) herbivory and predator-prey interactions; (3) the reproductive success of reptile and amphibian species and assemblages. We present a series of testable predictions from these models that arise from the interplay over time among three exotic plant traits (growth form, area of coverage, taxonomic distinctiveness) and six traits of reptiles and amphibians (body size, lifespan, home range size, habitat specialisation, diet, reproductive strategy). A literature review provided robust empirical evidence of exotic plant impacts on reptiles and amphibians from each of the three model mechanisms. Evidence relating to the role of body size and diet was less clear-cut, indicating the need for further research. The literature provided limited empirical support for many of the other model predictions. This was not, however, because findings contradicted our model predictions but because research in this area is sparse. In particular, the small number of studies specifically examining the effects of exotic plants on amphibians highlights the pressing need for quantitative research in this area. There is enormous scope for detailed empirical investigation of interactions between exotic plants and reptile and amphibian species and assemblages. The framework presented here and further testing of

  12. Mechanisms for similarity based cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traulsen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Cooperation based on similarity has been discussed since Richard Dawkins introduced the term “green beard” effect. In these models, individuals cooperate based on an aribtrary signal (or tag) such as the famous green beard. Here, two different models for such tag based cooperation are analysed. As neutral drift is important in both models, a finite population framework is applied. The first model, which we term “cooperative tags” considers a situation in which groups of cooperators are formed by some joint signal. Defectors adopting the signal and exploiting the group can lead to a breakdown of cooperation. In this case, conditions are derived under which the average abundance of the more cooperative strategy exceeds 50%. The second model considers a situation in which individuals start defecting towards others that are not similar to them. This situation is termed “defective tags”. It is shown that in this case, individuals using tags to cooperate exclusively with their own kind dominate over unconditional cooperators.

  13. Toward the sustainability of health interventions implemented in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Iwelunmor, Juliet; Blackstone, Sarah; Veira, Dorice; Nwaozuru, Ucheoma; Airhihenbuwa, Collins; Munodawafa, Davison; Kalipeni, Ezekiel; Jutal, Antar; Shelley, Donna; Ogedegebe, Gbenga

    2016-03-23

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is facing a double burden of disease with a rising prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) while the burden of communicable diseases (CDs) remains high. Despite these challenges, there remains a significant need to understand how or under what conditions health interventions implemented in sub-Saharan Africa are sustained. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of empirical literature to explore how health interventions implemented in SSA are sustained. We searched MEDLINE, Biological Abstracts, CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo, SCIELO, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for available research investigating the sustainability of health interventions implemented in sub-Saharan Africa. We also used narrative synthesis to examine factors whether positive or negative that may influence the sustainability of health interventions in the region. The search identified 1819 citations, and following removal of duplicates and our inclusion/exclusion criteria, only 41 papers were eligible for inclusion in the review. Twenty-six countries were represented in this review, with Kenya and Nigeria having the most representation of available studies examining sustainability. Study dates ranged from 1996 to 2015. Of note, majority of these studies (30 %) were published in 2014. The most common framework utilized was the sustainability framework, which was discussed in four of the studies. Nineteen out of 41 studies (46 %) reported sustainability outcomes focused on communicable diseases, with HIV and AIDS represented in majority of the studies, followed by malaria. Only 21 out of 41 studies had clear definitions of sustainability. Community ownership and mobilization were recognized by many of the reviewed studies as crucial facilitators for intervention sustainability, both early on and after intervention implementation, while social and ecological conditions as well as societal upheavals were barriers that influenced the sustainment

  14. The education of UK specialised neonatal nurses: reviewing the rationale for creating a standard competency framework.

    PubMed

    Turrill, Sue

    2014-09-01

    This paper examines the influences surrounding formal education provision for specialised neonatal nurses in the UK and presents a standardised clinical competency framework in response. National drivers for quality neonatal care define links to the numbers and ratios of specialised neonatal nurses in practice. Historical changes to professional nursing governance have led to diversity in supporting education programmes, making achievement of a standard level of clinical competence for this element of the nursing workforce difficult. In addition responsibility for funding specialised education and training has moved from central to local hospital level. Evaluating these key influences on education provision rationalised the development, by a UK professional consensus group, of a criteria based framework to be utilised by both formal education and service providers. The process identified clinical competency (in terms of unique knowledge and skills), evidence of achievement, and quality education principles. Access to specialised education relies on the availability of programmes of study and clear funding strategies. Creating a core syllabus for education provides a tool to standardise course content, commission education and audit clinical competency. In addition partnerships between healthcare and education providers become successful in achieving standard specialised education for neonatal nurses.

  15. Cooperative Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-23

    than the traditional direct transmission and full cooperation schemes. B. OFDM-Based Cooperation Relay and Subchannel Assignment and Combining We... subchannel assignment and combining schemes. Based on the amount of CSI, resources, such as subchannels , can be allocated to relays to improve the end-to-end...relay node uses the same subchannel to relay the information transmitted by the source node. To further improve the performance gain, subchannel

  16. Evaluation of water resources system vulnerability based on co-operative co-evolutionary genetic algorithm and projection pursuit model under the DPSIR framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Su, X. H.; Wang, M. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Li, E. K.; Xu, X.

    2017-08-01

    Water resources vulnerability control management is essential because it is related to the benign evolution of socio-economic, environmental and water resources system. Research on water resources system vulnerability is helpful to realization of water resources sustainable utilization. In this study, the DPSIR framework of driving forces-pressure–state–impact-response was adopted to construct the evaluation index system of water resources system vulnerability. Then the co-evolutionary genetic algorithm and projection pursuit were used to establish evaluation model of water resources system vulnerability. Tengzhou City in Shandong Province was selected as a study area. The system vulnerability was analyzed in terms of driving forces, pressure, state, impact and response on the basis of the projection value calculated by the model. The results show that the five components all belong to vulnerability Grade II, the vulnerability degree of impact and state were higher than other components due to the fierce imbalance in supply-demand and the unsatisfied condition of water resources utilization. It is indicated that the influence of high speed socio-economic development and the overuse of the pesticides have already disturbed the benign development of water environment to some extents. While the indexes in response represented lower vulnerability degree than the other components. The results of the evaluation model are coincident with the status of water resources system in the study area, which indicates that the model is feasible and effective.

  17. Integrating teamwork, clinician occupational well-being and patient safety - development of a conceptual framework based on a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Welp, Annalena; Manser, Tanja

    2016-07-19

    There is growing evidence that teamwork in hospitals is related to both patient outcomes and clinician occupational well-being. Furthermore, clinician well-being is associated with patient safety. Despite considerable research activity, few studies include all three concepts, and their interrelations have not yet been investigated systematically. To advance our understanding of these potentially complex interrelations we propose an integrative framework taking into account current evidence and research gaps identified in a systematic review. We conducted a literature search in six major databases (Medline, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, Psyndex, ScienceDirect, and Web of Knowledge). Inclusion criteria were: peer reviewed papers published between January 2000 and June 2015 investigating a statistical relationship between at least two of the three concepts; teamwork, patient safety, and clinician occupational well-being in hospital settings, including practicing nurses and physicians. We assessed methodological quality using a standardized rating system and qualitatively appraised and extracted relevant data, such as instruments, analyses and outcomes. The 98 studies included in this review were highly diverse regarding quality, methodology and outcomes. We found support for the existence of independent associations between teamwork, clinician occupational well-being and patient safety. However, we identified several conceptual and methodological limitations. The main barrier to advancing our understanding of the causal relationships between teamwork, clinician well-being and patient safety is the lack of an integrative, theory-based, and methodologically thorough approach investigating the three concepts simultaneously and longitudinally. Based on psychological theory and our findings, we developed an integrative framework that addresses these limitations and proposes mechanisms by which these concepts might be linked. Knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the

  18. Multilanguage, Multipurpose: A Literature Review, Synthesis, and Framework for Critical Literacies in English Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Chris K.

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews and synthesizes empirical literature on critical literacies in English language teaching (ELT), gathering perspectives from international scholarship. Across a range of global contexts, the consistency with which English learning is touted as access to power while acting to marginalize those still learning the language…

  19. A Review and Conceptual Framework for Integrating Leadership into Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutz, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The purpose of this review is to assess leadership education and practice in athletic training. Leadership is a critical component of athletic training and health care. Leadership research in athletic training is dramatically behind other health care professions. Objective: To develop a model for integrating leadership behavior and…

  20. Beyond Bookmarks: A Review of Frameworks, Features, and Functionalities of Schemes for Organizing the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKiernan, Gerry

    1998-01-01

    Reviews and analyzes selected Web sites that use standard library classification schemes or controlled vocabularies to enhance access to Web information sources. Profiles common elements of many sites and the structural and navigational approaches incorporated with select sites. Includes an appendix of sites that use standard classification…

  1. A Review and Conceptual Framework for Integrating Leadership into Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutz, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The purpose of this review is to assess leadership education and practice in athletic training. Leadership is a critical component of athletic training and health care. Leadership research in athletic training is dramatically behind other health care professions. Objective: To develop a model for integrating leadership behavior and…

  2. Toward an Interdisciplinary Perspective: A Review of Adult Learning Frameworks and Theoretical Models of Motor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have yet to agree on an approach that supports how adults best learn novel motor skills in formal educational contexts. The literature fails to adequately discuss adult motor learning from the standpoint of adult education. Instead, the subject is addressed by other disciplines. This review attempts to integrate perspectives across…

  3. A Review and New Framework for Instructional Design Practice Variation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Hillary N.; Tracey, Monica W.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews practice variation in the field of instructional design. First, it compares instructional designer practice as reported or observed in several classic research studies. This analysis is framed by the standards established by the International Board for Training, Performance, and Instruction competencies for planning and…

  4. Optimizing Mask Ventilation: Literature Review and Development of a Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Saddawi-Konefka, Daniel; Hung, Susan L; Kacmarek, Robert M; Jiang, Yandong

    2015-12-01

    Mask ventilation is lifesaving, especially in cases of difficult intubation. Many publications have offered distinct techniques for optimizing mask ventilation. This article reviews currently available difficult mask ventilation literature and theory. We divide difficult mask ventilation into 3 broad categories based on etiology: inadequate mask seal, increased airway resistance, and decreased respiratory compliance. Published strategies for overcoming difficulty are presented and organized by etiology.

  5. A Taxonomic Integrative Review of Short Message Service (SMS) Methodology: A Framework for Improved Diabetic Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, Linda S

    2015-04-30

    To acquire self-management skills that affect clinical outcomes, collaboration and communication with one's health care team is essential, yet many health care systems are not designed adequately to be responsive to a patient's efforts to self-manage. This review synthesizes the intervention methodology of current studies facilitating the efforts of health care providers who wish to design, develop, and implement evidence-based SMS programs for patients with diabetes, focusing on clinical outcomes of A1C values, medication adherence rates, and participant satisfaction. This integrative review was conducted using an integrative taxonomic analysis approach. This approach involves creating a classification system with domains or characteristics, defining the relationships between those domains, and creating a foundation for new theories or constructs. Synthesis of the evidence included in this integrated review suggests the best design for a SMS diabetes management program aimed at improving A1C levels, medication adherence rates, and participant satisfaction is an intervention providing weekly SMS education, with 2-way message direction, that is 3 months in length. The studies in this review have demonstrated that SMS interventions can be an important part of a viable and effective program in the effort to better manage adults with type 2 diabetes. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. Framework of policy recommendations for implementation of evidence-based practice: a systematic scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Ubbink, Dirk T; Guyatt, Gordon H; Vermeulen, Hester

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Evidence-based practice (EBP) may help improve healthcare quality. However, not all healthcare professionals and managers use EBP in their daily practice. We systematically reviewed the literature to summarise self-reported appreciation of EBP and organisational infrastructure solutions proposed to promote EBP. Design Systematic review. Two investigators independently performed the systematic reviewing process. Information sources MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched for publications between 2000 and 2011. Eligibility criteria for included studies Reviews and surveys of EBP attitude, knowledge, awareness, skills, barriers and facilitators among managers, doctors and nurses in clinical settings. Results We found 31 surveys of fairly good quality. General attitude towards EBP was welcoming. Respondents perceived several barriers, but also many facilitators for EBP implementation. Solutions were proposed at various organisational levels, including (inter)national associations and hospital management promoting EBP, pregraduate and postgraduate education, as well as individual support by EBP mentors on the wards to move EBP from the classroom to the bedside. Conclusions More than 20 years after its introduction, the EBP paradigm has been embraced by healthcare professionals as an important means to improve quality of patient care, but its implementation is still deficient. Policy exerted at microlevel , middlelevel and macrolevel, and supported by professional, educational and managerial role models, may further facilitate EBP. PMID:23355664

  7. Toward an Interdisciplinary Perspective: A Review of Adult Learning Frameworks and Theoretical Models of Motor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have yet to agree on an approach that supports how adults best learn novel motor skills in formal educational contexts. The literature fails to adequately discuss adult motor learning from the standpoint of adult education. Instead, the subject is addressed by other disciplines. This review attempts to integrate perspectives across…

  8. A comprehensive review on adaptability of network forensics frameworks for mobile cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Khan, Suleman; Shiraz, Muhammad; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul; Gani, Abdullah; Han, Qi; Rahman, Zulkanain Bin Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Network forensics enables investigation and identification of network attacks through the retrieved digital content. The proliferation of smartphones and the cost-effective universal data access through cloud has made Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) a congenital target for network attacks. However, confines in carrying out forensics in MCC is interrelated with the autonomous cloud hosting companies and their policies for restricted access to the digital content in the back-end cloud platforms. It implies that existing Network Forensic Frameworks (NFFs) have limited impact in the MCC paradigm. To this end, we qualitatively analyze the adaptability of existing NFFs when applied to the MCC. Explicitly, the fundamental mechanisms of NFFs are highlighted and then analyzed using the most relevant parameters. A classification is proposed to help understand the anatomy of existing NFFs. Subsequently, a comparison is given that explores the functional similarities and deviations among NFFs. The paper concludes by discussing research challenges for progressive network forensics in MCC.

  9. A Comprehensive Review on Adaptability of Network Forensics Frameworks for Mobile Cloud Computing

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid; Han, Qi; Bin Abdul Rahman, Zulkanain

    2014-01-01

    Network forensics enables investigation and identification of network attacks through the retrieved digital content. The proliferation of smartphones and the cost-effective universal data access through cloud has made Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) a congenital target for network attacks. However, confines in carrying out forensics in MCC is interrelated with the autonomous cloud hosting companies and their policies for restricted access to the digital content in the back-end cloud platforms. It implies that existing Network Forensic Frameworks (NFFs) have limited impact in the MCC paradigm. To this end, we qualitatively analyze the adaptability of existing NFFs when applied to the MCC. Explicitly, the fundamental mechanisms of NFFs are highlighted and then analyzed using the most relevant parameters. A classification is proposed to help understand the anatomy of existing NFFs. Subsequently, a comparison is given that explores the functional similarities and deviations among NFFs. The paper concludes by discussing research challenges for progressive network forensics in MCC. PMID:25097880

  10. Review of the Bangladesh Female Secondary School Stipend Project Using a Social Exclusion Framework

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The Female Secondary School Stipend Project in Bangladesh was established to increase the enrollment of girls in secondary schools, thereby delaying marriage and childbearing. This analysis examined the existing data using the social exclusion framework to clarify the primary exclusionary factors that have kept girls from education: harassment, poverty, and the primacy of marriage and childbirth and explored the extent to which the project has diminished such barriers. While causality is difficult to establish, data suggest that the stipend programme has contributed to the rise in enrollment of girls in secondary schools. Questions remain as to the impact of the stipend programme on delaying marriage, empowerment of girls and women, and enhancing employment opportunities. A thorough assessment of the impact is required. The case study suggests that, if the programme design had focused on the quality and content of education and the broader economic and social context, more opportunities would have been created for social and economic participation of girls. PMID:19761084

  11. Review of the Bangladesh female secondary school stipend project using a social exclusion framework.

    PubMed

    Schurmann, Anna T

    2009-08-01

    The Female Secondary School Stipend Project in Bangladesh was established to increase the enrollment of girls in secondary schools, thereby delaying marriage and childbearing. This analysis examined the existing data using the social exclusion framework to clarify the primary exclusionary factors that have kept girls from education: harassment, poverty, and the primacy of marriage and childbirth and explored the extent to which the project has diminished such barriers. While causality is difficult to establish, data suggest that the stipend programme has contributed to the rise in enrollment of girls in secondary schools. Questions remain as to the impact of the stipend programme on delaying marriage, empowerment of girls and women, and enhancing employment opportunities. A thorough assessment of the impact is required. The case study suggests that, if the programme design had focused on the quality and content of education and the broader economic and social context, more opportunities would have been created for social and economic participation of girls.

  12. How is human cooperation different?

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Alicia P.; Semmann, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Although cooperation is a widespread phenomenon in nature, human cooperation exceeds that of all other species with regard to the scale and range of cooperative activities. Here we review and discuss differences between humans and non-humans in the strategies employed to maintain cooperation and control free-riders. We distinguish forms of cooperative behaviour based on their influence on the immediate payoffs of actor and recipient. If the actor has immediate costs and only the recipient obtains immediate benefits, we term this investment. If the behaviour has immediate positive effects for both actor and recipient, we call this a self-serving mutually beneficial behaviour or mutual cooperation. We argue that humans, in contrast to all other species, employ a wider range of enforcement mechanisms, which allow higher levels of cooperation to evolve and stabilize among unrelated individuals and in large groups. We also discuss proximate mechanisms underlying cooperative behaviour and focus on our experimental work with humans and our closest primate relatives. Differences in the proximate mechanisms also seem to contribute to explaining humans' greater ability to cooperate and enforce cooperation. PMID:20679110

  13. How is human cooperation different?

    PubMed

    Melis, Alicia P; Semmann, Dirk

    2010-09-12

    Although cooperation is a widespread phenomenon in nature, human cooperation exceeds that of all other species with regard to the scale and range of cooperative activities. Here we review and discuss differences between humans and non-humans in the strategies employed to maintain cooperation and control free-riders. We distinguish forms of cooperative behaviour based on their influence on the immediate payoffs of actor and recipient. If the actor has immediate costs and only the recipient obtains immediate benefits, we term this investment. If the behaviour has immediate positive effects for both actor and recipient, we call this a self-serving mutually beneficial behaviour or mutual cooperation. We argue that humans, in contrast to all other species, employ a wider range of enforcement mechanisms, which allow higher levels of cooperation to evolve and stabilize among unrelated individuals and in large groups. We also discuss proximate mechanisms underlying cooperative behaviour and focus on our experimental work with humans and our closest primate relatives. Differences in the proximate mechanisms also seem to contribute to explaining humans' greater ability to cooperate and enforce cooperation.

  14. IRB decision-making with imperfect knowledge: a framework for evidence-based research ethics review.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Emily E; DuBois, James M

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe the five steps of evidence-based practice as applied to research ethics review and apply these steps to three exemplar dilemmas: incentive payments in substance abuse research; informed consent for biobanking; and placebo-controlled trials involving pregnant women in order to demonstrate the potential of empirical data to inform and improve IRB decision-making. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  15. Reviewing and visualising relationships between anthropic processes and natural hazards within a multi-hazard framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Joel C.; Malamud, Bruce D.

    2014-05-01

    Here we present a broad overview of the interaction relationships between 17 anthropic processes and 21 different natural hazard types. Anthropic processes are grouped into seven categories (subsurface extraction, subsurface addition, land use change, explosions, hydrological change, surface construction processes, miscellaneous). Natural hazards are grouped into six categories (geophysical, hydrological, shallow earth processes, atmospheric, biophysical and space). A wide-ranging review based on grey- and peer-reviewed literature from many scientific disciplines identified 54 relationships where anthropic processes have been noted to trigger natural hazards. We record case studies for all but three of these relationships. Based on the results of this review, we find that the anthropic processes of deforestation, explosions (conventional and nuclear) and reservoir construction could trigger the widest range of different natural hazard types. We also note that within the natural hazards, landslides and earthquakes are those that could be triggered by the widest range of anthropic processes. This work also examines the possibility of anthropic processes (i) resulting in an increased occurrence of a particular hazard interaction (e.g., deforestation could result in an increased interaction between storms and landslides); and (ii) inadvertently reducing the likelihood of a natural hazard or natural hazard interaction (e.g., poor drainage or deforestation reducing the likelihood of wildfires triggered by lightning). This study synthesises, using accessible visualisation techniques, the large amounts of anthropic process and natural hazard information from our review. In it we have outlined the importance of considering anthropic processes within any analysis of hazard interactions, and we reinforce the importance of a holistic approach to natural hazard assessment, mitigation and management.

  16. Systematic review of enriched enrolment, randomised withdrawal trial designs in chronic pain: a new framework for design and reporting.

    PubMed

    Moore, R Andrew; Wiffen, Philip J; Eccleston, Christopher; Derry, Sheena; Baron, Ralf; Bell, Rae F; Furlan, Andrea D; Gilron, Ian; Haroutounian, Simon; Katz, Nathaniel P; Lipman, Arthur G; Morley, Stephen; Peloso, Paul M; Quessy, Steve N; Seers, Kate; Strassels, Scott A; Straube, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    Enriched enrolment, randomised withdrawal (EERW) pain trials select, before randomisation, patients who respond by demonstrating a predetermined degree of pain relief and acceptance of adverse events. There is uncertainty over the value of this design. We report a systematic review of EERW trials in chronic noncancer pain together with a critical appraisal of methods and potential biases in the methods used and recommendations for the design and reporting of future EERW trials. Electronic and other searches found 25 EERW trials published between 1995 and June 2014, involving 5669 patients in a randomised withdrawal phase comparing drug with placebo; 13 (median, 107 patients) had a randomised withdrawal phase of 6 weeks or less, and 12 (median, 334) lasted 12 to 26 weeks. Risks of bias included short duration, inadequate outcome definition, incomplete outcome data reporting, small size, and inadequate dose tapering on randomisation to placebo. Active treatment was usually better than placebo (22/25 trials). This review reduces the uncertainty around the value of EERW trials in pain. If properly designed, conducted, and reported, they are feasible and useful for making decisions about pain therapies. Shorter, small studies can be explanatory; longer, larger studies can inform practice. Current evidence is inadequate for valid comparisons in outcome between EERW and classical trials, although no gross differences were found. This systematic review provides a framework for assessing potential biases and the value of the EERW trials, and for the design of future studies by making recommendations for the conduct and reporting of EERW trials.

  17. A Systematic Review of Conceptual Frameworks of Medical Complexity and New Model Development.

    PubMed

    Zullig, Leah L; Whitson, Heather E; Hastings, Susan N; Beadles, Chris; Kravchenko, Julia; Akushevich, Igor; Maciejewski, Matthew L

    2016-03-01

    Patient complexity is often operationalized by counting multiple chronic conditions (MCC) without considering contextual factors that can affect patient risk for adverse outcomes. Our objective was to develop a conceptual model of complexity addressing gaps identified in a review of published conceptual models. We searched for English-language MEDLINE papers published between 1 January 2004 and 16 January 2014. Two reviewers independently evaluated abstracts and all authors contributed to the development of the conceptual model in an iterative process. From 1606 identified abstracts, six conceptual models were selected. One additional model was identified through reference review. Each model had strengths, but several constructs were not fully considered: 1) contextual factors; 2) dynamics of complexity; 3) patients' preferences; 4) acute health shocks; and 5) resilience. Our Cycle of Complexity model illustrates relationships between acute shocks and medical events, healthcare access and utilization, workload and capacity, and patient preferences in the context of interpersonal, organizational, and community factors. This model may inform studies on the etiology of and changes in complexity, the relationship between complexity and patient outcomes, and intervention development to improve modifiable elements of complex patients.

  18. A Science Framework for Connecticut River Watershed Sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rideout, Stephen; Nicolson, Craig; Russell-Robinson, Susan L.; Mecray, Ellen L.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This document outlines a research framework for water resource managers and land-use planners in the four-state Connecticut River Watershed (CRW). It specifically focuses on developing the decision-support tools and data needed by managers in the watershed. The purpose of the Science Framework is to identify critical research issues and information required to better equip managers to make decisions on desirable changes in the CRW. This Science Framework is the result of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the University of Massachusetts at Amherst (UMass-Amherst), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). The cooperative project was guided by a Science Steering Committee (SC) and included several focus groups, a 70-person workshop in September 2004, and an open collaborative process by which the workshop outcomes were synthesized, written up, and then progressively refined through peer review. This document is the product of that collaborative process.

  19. A Review and Framework for Categorizing Current Research and Development in Health Related Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nøhr, C.; Sørensen, E. M.; Gudes, O.; Geraghty, E. M.; Shaw, N. T.; Bivona-Tellez, C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives The application of GIS in health science has increased over the last decade and new innovative application areas have emerged. This study reviews the literature and builds a framework to provide a conceptual overview of the domain, and to promote strategic planning for further research of GIS in health. Method The framework is based on literature from the library databases Scopus and Web of Science. The articles were identified based on keywords and initially selected for further study based on titles and abstracts. A grounded theory-inspired method was applied to categorize the selected articles in main focus areas. Subsequent frequency analysis was performed on the identified articles in areas of infectious and non-infectious diseases and continent of origin. Results A total of 865 articles were included. Four conceptual domains within GIS in health sciences comprise the framework: spatial analysis of disease, spatial analysis of health service planning, public health, health technologies and tools. Frequency analysis by disease status and location show that malaria and schistosomiasis are the most commonly analyzed infectious diseases where cancer and asthma are the most frequently analyzed non-infectious diseases. Across categories, articles from North America predominate, and in the category of spatial analysis of diseases an equal number of studies concern Asia. Conclusion Spatial analysis of diseases and health service planning are well-established research areas. The development of future technologies and new application areas for GIS and data-gathering technologies such as GPS, smartphones, remote sensing etc. will be nudging the research in GIS and health. PMID:25123730

  20. 40 CFR 6.202 - Interagency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interagency cooperation. 6.202 Section... EPA's NEPA Environmental Review Procedures § 6.202 Interagency cooperation. (a) Consistent with 40 CFR... cooperation with federal agencies, state and local governments, and federally-recognized Indian tribes...

  1. 40 CFR 6.202 - Interagency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interagency cooperation. 6.202 Section... EPA's NEPA Environmental Review Procedures § 6.202 Interagency cooperation. (a) Consistent with 40 CFR... cooperation with federal agencies, state and local governments, and federally-recognized Indian tribes...

  2. 40 CFR 6.202 - Interagency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interagency cooperation. 6.202 Section... EPA's NEPA Environmental Review Procedures § 6.202 Interagency cooperation. (a) Consistent with 40 CFR... cooperation with federal agencies, state and local governments, and federally-recognized Indian tribes...

  3. 40 CFR 6.202 - Interagency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interagency cooperation. 6.202 Section... EPA's NEPA Environmental Review Procedures § 6.202 Interagency cooperation. (a) Consistent with 40 CFR... cooperation with federal agencies, state and local governments, and federally-recognized Indian tribes...

  4. 40 CFR 6.202 - Interagency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interagency cooperation. 6.202 Section... EPA's NEPA Environmental Review Procedures § 6.202 Interagency cooperation. (a) Consistent with 40 CFR... cooperation with federal agencies, state and local governments, and federally-recognized Indian tribes...

  5. A conceptual framework for rejection of care behaviors: review of literature and analysis of role of dementia severity.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Shinya; Streim, Joel E; Saliba, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Rejection of care behaviors is common in the geriatric population, especially among patients with dementia. Nonetheless, the concept of rejection of care is not well defined and existing psychosocial theoretical models fall short of capturing complex relationships between factors associated with rejection of care. We propose a definition of rejection of care and develop a conceptual framework of rejection of care incorporating 7 components: intrinsic factors, match between needs and environmental resources, behavior state, antecedents, individual preferences, rejection of care behaviors, and consequences. A literature search yielded 55 studies that examined the associations between rejection of care and factors of the conceptual framework. We quantitatively synthesized studies focused on dementia severity and rejection of care. The literature review demonstrated that rejection of care is more prevalent among patients with dementia or functional impairment, associated with some mutable factors, and is triggered by specific antecedents in the context of daily personal care provision and associated with various adverse outcomes. The meta-analysis provided evidence that severe dementia is associated with higher likelihood of developing rejection of care behaviors compared with mild to moderate dementia. We also found that research on unmet needs, antecedents, and individual preferences has been scarce. The direction of further research is discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. First review of a suitable metrology framework for the 65-nm technology node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severgnini, Ermes; Vasconi, Mauro; Herisson, David; Thony, Philippe

    2003-05-01

    A key enabler to a successful process development and to the device functionality is the introduction of a proper metrology framework, consisting in the selection of the 'correct' tool class for the proposed application on one hand and in the integration of the related measuring procedure into the whole process flow on the other hand. The plan for this work was focused onto the analysis of the main options for critical dimension (CD) measurements targeting to the 65nm technology node, as stated in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) 2001 edition and in the ITRS 2002 update. In order to investigate in deper details the actual status of each selected technique, a list of key characteristics was identified and a comprehensive benchmark performed. Considered techniques include CD-scanning electron microscopy (SEM), CD-scatterometry, CD-atomic force microscopy and 'Combo' approaches. Based upon the data collected during the benchmark phase, suitable procedures to be applied for a proper metrological evaluation of the 65nm node proces development are presented.

  7. Political Shifts and Forest Transitions: A Review and Theoretical Framework for Future Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordway, E.

    2015-12-01

    Most armed conflicts in recent history have occurred in biodiversity hotspots. Yet, studies examining impacts of warfare on forests yield contradictory results making it difficult to decipher trends and patterns. This study provides a theoretical framework that can be used to clarify hypothetical relationships between conflict and forest transitions, contributing to our ability to push forward a growing field of research on environmental change and conflict. Landsat TM and ETM+ satellite data were analyzed to examine forest transitions in Rwanda during a conflict and post conflict period. Net trends showed little difference between periods, with a rate of 1.6% annual gain in forest cover during conflict years, and 2.5% after the conflict. Further investigation revealed spatially concentrated forest loss during conflict years; 96% of forest loss occurred in protected areas with the most loss in Gishwati Forest Reserve at a rate of 6.1%. Trends were explored using spatially explicit conflict data that distinguished armed conflict activity from conflict induced settlements. Impacts of conflict on forests in Rwanda appear to be influenced by natural resource use near settlements. Massive migrations of people into settlements during the conflict, who had previously been scattered across the landscape, likely resulted in a redistribution of pressures. Reduced pressure elsewhere supports this inference. Results underscore the vulnerability of protected areas and the spatial dynamics of forest resource dependence during conflicts. This work demonstrates the value of distinguishing conflict activities to assess their varied environmental effects, and contributes to our theoretical development of environmental change and conflict.

  8. Review: An integrated framework for crop adaptation to dry environments: Responses to transient and terminal drought.

    PubMed

    Berger, Jens; Palta, Jairo; Vadez, Vincent

    2016-12-01

    As the incidence of water deficit and heat stress increases in many production regions there is an increasing requirement for crops adapted to these stresses. Thus it is essential to match water supply and demand, particularly during grain-filling. Here we integrate Grime's ecological strategies approach with traditional drought resistance/yield component frameworks describing plant responses to water deficit. We demonstrate that water use is a function of both short and longer term trade-offs between competing demands for carbon. Agricultural crop adaptation is based on escape. Rapid growth rates and high reproductive investment maximize yield, and stress is avoided through a closely regulated, climate-appropriate annual phenology. Crops have neither the resources nor morphological capacity to withstand long periods of intense water deficit. Thus, under terminal drought, yield potential is traded off against drought escape, such that drought postponing and/or tolerance traits which extend the growing season and/or divert source from reproductive sinks are maladaptive. However, these traits do play a supporting role against transient water deficits, allowing longer season cultivars to survive by mining water through deeper roots, or restricting transpiration. Recognizing these trade-offs made within escape-strategy limits will allow breeders to integrate complementary adaptive traits to transient and terminal water deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Altered circadian profiles in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an integrative review and theoretical framework for future studies.

    PubMed

    Imeraj, Lindita; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Antrop, Inge; Roeyers, Herbert; Wiersema, Roeljan; Bal, Sarah; Deboutte, Dirk

    2012-09-01

    Disruptions in the sleep-wake cycle and the circadian system have been found in a wide range of psychiatric disorders and are generally correlated with clinical severity and diminished quality of life. Emerging evidence suggests similar disturbances may be found in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here we review the available literature on across the day fluctuations in ADHD-related processes in terms of; (i) time of day effects on behavior and activity; (ii) morningness-eveningness chronotypology; (iii) sleep/wake rhythms; and (iv) rhythmicity in neuroendocrine and neurophysiological responsiveness. On this basis, we propose a neurobiological framework to guide future study, which sees circadian effects in ADHD, along with other aspects of ADHD arousal-related deficits (e.g., cognitive energetic deficits), as being the result of dysregulated locus coeruleus function. Based on this perspective specific recommendations for future research are presented.

  10. Traversing the many paths of workflow research: developing a conceptual framework of workflow terminology through a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Laurie L; Johnson, Kevin B; Lorenzi, Nancy M

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this review was to describe methods used to study and model workflow. The authors included studies set in a variety of industries using qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods. Of the 6221 matching abstracts, 127 articles were included in the final corpus. The authors collected data from each article on researcher perspective, study type, methods type, specific methods, approaches to evaluating quality of results, definition of workflow and dependent variables. Ethnographic observation and interviews were the most frequently used methods. Long study durations revealed the large time commitment required for descriptive workflow research. The most frequently discussed technique for evaluating quality of study results was triangulation. The definition of the term “workflow” and choice of methods for studying workflow varied widely across research areas and researcher perspectives. The authors developed a conceptual framework of workflow-related terminology for use in future research and present this model for use by other researchers. PMID:20442143

  11. Cooperative answers in database systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaasterland, Terry; Godfrey, Parke; Minker, Jack; Novik, Lev

    1993-01-01

    A major concern of researchers who seek to improve human-computer communication involves how to move beyond literal interpretations of queries to a level of responsiveness that takes the user's misconceptions, expectations, desires, and interests into consideration. At Maryland, we are investigating how to better meet a user's needs within the framework of the cooperative answering system of Gal and Minker. We have been exploring how to use semantic information about the database to formulate coherent and informative answers. The work has two main thrusts: (1) the construction of a logic formula which embodies the content of a cooperative answer; and (2) the presentation of the logic formula to the user in a natural language form. The information that is available in a deductive database system for building cooperative answers includes integrity constraints, user constraints, the search tree for answers to the query, and false presuppositions that are present in the query. The basic cooperative answering theory of Gal and Minker forms the foundation of a cooperative answering system that integrates the new construction and presentation methods. This paper provides an overview of the cooperative answering strategies used in the CARMIN cooperative answering system, an ongoing research effort at Maryland. Section 2 gives some useful background definitions. Section 3 describes techniques for collecting cooperative logical formulae. Section 4 discusses which natural language generation techniques are useful for presenting the logic formula in natural language text. Section 5 presents a diagram of the system.

  12. Integrating Quality Improvement Education into the Nephrology Curricular Milestones Framework and the Clinical Learning Environment Review.

    PubMed

    Prince, Lisa K; Little, Dustin J; Schexneider, Katherine I; Yuan, Christina M

    2017-02-07

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires that trainees show progressive milestone attainment in the practice-based learning and systems-based practice competencies. As part of the Clinical Learning Environment Review, sponsoring hospitals must educate trainees in health care quality improvement, provide them with specialty-specific quality data, and ensure trainee participation in quality improvement activities and committees. Subspecialty-specific quality improvement curricula in nephrology training programs have not been reported, although considerable curricular and assessment material exists for specialty residencies, including tools for assessing trainee and faculty competence. Nephrology-specific didactic material exists to assist nephrology fellows and faculty mentors in designing and implementing quality improvement projects. Nephrology is notable among internal medicine subspecialties for the emphasis placed on adherence to quality thresholds-specifically for chronic RRT shown by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Quality Incentive Program. We have developed a nephrology-specific curriculum that meets Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and Clinical Learning Environment Review requirements, acknowledges regulatory quality improvement requirements, integrates with ongoing divisional quality improvement activities, and has improved clinical care and the training program. In addition to didactic training in quality improvement, we track trainee compliance with Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes CKD and ESRD quality indicators (emphasizing Quality Improvement Program indicators), and fellows collaborate on a yearly multidisciplinary quality improvement project. Over the past 6 years, each fellowship class has, on the basis of a successful quality improvement project, shown milestone achievement in Systems-Based Practice and Practice-Based Learning. Fellow quality improvement projects have improved

  13. Progress review of the European Paediatric Regulatory Framework after six years of implementation.

    PubMed

    Mentzer, Dirk

    2014-08-05

    The EU regulation (EU 1901/2006 Paediatric Regulation) that entered into force in 2007 has changed the field of medicinal drug development for children in the EU. Five years after its implementation a large number changes due to this regulation have been incorporated by Pharmaceutical Industry considering the development of new candidate drug. This report is a review of changes already implemented and the aspects of paediatric drug development, which still needs to be addressed in future working in the fields to provide better medicines for children.

  14. Review of Policy, Regulatory, and Organizational Frameworks of Environment and Health in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mitike, Getnet; Motbainor, Achenef; Kumie, Abera; Samet, Jonathan; Wipfli, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopia produced its Environmental Health Situational Analysis and Needs Assessment (SANA) report in 2010 as part of the global endeavor to characterize and underscore the importance of connecting health and environment. The assessment methods used in SANA 2010 were updated, replicated and used in this SABNA. with a focus on air pollution, occupational safety and health, and climate change. The purpose of the review was to examine national policies and identify gaps in regulations and organizational arrangements that determine Ethiopia's ability to mitigate and eventually prevent the health impacts of air pollution, occupational hazards, and climate change. The national policy and regulatory documents were reviewed. Literature was identified through electronic searches. Hard copies of past reports and policies were reviewed whenever necessary. A semi-structured guideline was used to conduct in-depth interviews aimed at identifying gaps and needs. The Constitution of Ethiopia has policy provisions related to air pollution, occupational safety and health (OSH), and climate change and health. Proclamation No. 300/2002 on Environmental Pollution Control specifies ambient air quality standards and allowable emissions. However, there were no documents that outlined the national or regional strategies that the ministries and agencies could adopt to translate existing policies, legal provisions, or guidelines for air pollution into practical programs. In the same way, a national OSH policy was lacking at the time this review was made on how occupational safety and health should be handled nationally or at lower governing levels as required by the International Occupation Safety and Health and Working Environment Convention No. 155/1981. Ethiopia is a signatory of this Convention. The results of the situational analysis indicate that there are cross-cutting gaps in the various sectors. Among these, addressing the critical shortage of skilled personnel is an urgent priority

  15. Theoretical domains framework to assess barriers to change for planning health care quality interventions: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Mosavianpour, Mirkaber; Sarmast, Hamideh Helen; Kissoon, Niranjan; Collet, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Theoretical domains framework (TDF) provides an integrative model for assessing barriers to behavioral changes in order to suggest interventions for improvement in behavior and ultimately outcomes. However, there are other tools that are used to assess barriers. Objective The objective of this study is to determine the degree of concordance between domains and constructs identified in two versions of the TDF including original (2005) and refined version (2012) and independent studies of other tools. Methods We searched six databases for articles that studied barriers to health-related behavior changes of health care professionals or the general public. We reviewed quantitative papers published in English which included their questionnaires in the article. A table including the TDF domains of both original and refined versions and related constructs was developed to serve as a reference to describe the barriers assessed in the independent studies; descriptive statistics were used to express the results. Results Out of 552 papers retrieved, 50 were eligible to review. The barrier domains explored in these articles belonged to two to eleven domains of the refined TDF. Eighteen articles (36%) used constructs outside of the refined version. The spectrum of barrier constructs of the original TDF was broader and could meet the domains studied in 48 studies (96%). Barriers in domains of “environmental context and resources”, “beliefs about consequences”, and “social influences” were the most frequently explored in 42 (84%), 37 (74%), and 33 (66%) of the 50 articles, respectively. Conclusion Both refined and original TDFs cataloged barriers measured by the other studies that did not use TDF as their framework. However, the original version of TDF explored a broader spectrum of barriers than the refined version. From this perspective, the original version of the TDF seems to be a more comprehensive tool for assessing barriers in practice. PMID:27499628

  16. How best to structure interdisciplinary primary care teams: the study protocol for a systematic review with narrative framework synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wranik, W Dominika; Hayden, Jill A; Price, Sheri; Parker, Robin M N; Haydt, Susan M; Edwards, Jeanette M; Suter, Esther; Katz, Alan; Gambold, Liesl L; Levy, Adrian R

    2016-10-04

    Western publicly funded health care systems increasingly rely on interdisciplinary teams to support primary care delivery and management of chronic conditions. This knowledge synthesis focuses on what is known in the academic and grey literature about optimal structural characteristics of teams. Its goal is to assess which factors contribute to the effective functioning of interdisciplinary primary care teams and improved health system outcomes, with specific focus on (i) team structure contribution to team process, (ii) team process contribution to primary care goals, and (iii) team structure contribution to primary care goals. The systematic search of academic literature focuses on four chronic conditions and co-morbidities. Within this scope, qualitative and quantitative studies that assess the effects of team characteristics (funding, governance, organization) on care process and patient outcomes will be searched. Electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PAIS, Web of Science) will be searched systematically. Online web-based searches will be supported by the Grey Matters Tool. Studies will be included, if they report on interdisciplinary primary care in publicly funded Western health systems, and address the relationships between team structure, process, and/or patient outcomes. Studies will be selected in a three-stage screening process (title/abstract/full text) by two independent reviewers in each stage. Study quality will be assessed using the Mixed Methods Assessment Tool. An a priori framework will be applied to data extraction, and a narrative framework approach is used for the synthesis. Using an integrated knowledge translation approach, an electronic decision support tool will be developed for decision makers. It will be searchable along two axes of inquiry: (i) what primary care goals are supported by specific team characteristics and (ii) how should teams be structured to support specific primary care goals? The results of this evidence

  17. Theoretical domains framework to assess barriers to change for planning health care quality interventions: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Mosavianpour, Mirkaber; Sarmast, Hamideh Helen; Kissoon, Niranjan; Collet, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical domains framework (TDF) provides an integrative model for assessing barriers to behavioral changes in order to suggest interventions for improvement in behavior and ultimately outcomes. However, there are other tools that are used to assess barriers. The objective of this study is to determine the degree of concordance between domains and constructs identified in two versions of the TDF including original (2005) and refined version (2012) and independent studies of other tools. We searched six databases for articles that studied barriers to health-related behavior changes of health care professionals or the general public. We reviewed quantitative papers published in English which included their questionnaires in the article. A table including the TDF domains of both original and refined versions and related constructs was developed to serve as a reference to describe the barriers assessed in the independent studies; descriptive statistics were used to express the results. Out of 552 papers retrieved, 50 were eligible to review. The barrier domains explored in these articles belonged to two to eleven domains of the refined TDF. Eighteen articles (36%) used constructs outside of the refined version. The spectrum of barrier constructs of the original TDF was broader and could meet the domains studied in 48 studies (96%). Barriers in domains of "environmental context and resources", "beliefs about consequences", and "social influences" were the most frequently explored in 42 (84%), 37 (74%), and 33 (66%) of the 50 articles, respectively. Both refined and original TDFs cataloged barriers measured by the other studies that did not use TDF as their framework. However, the original version of TDF explored a broader spectrum of barriers than the refined version. From this perspective, the original version of the TDF seems to be a more comprehensive tool for assessing barriers in practice.

  18. A Critical Review of Surveys Emphasizing on Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks—An Anatomization under General Survey Design Framework

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A large number of routing-related surveys are published so far for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) that exhibit either complete or partial emphasis on routing in WSNs. These surveys classify and discuss the relevant routing protocols published mainly in the fields of classical, energy efficient, secure, hierarchical, geographic, intelligent, Quality of Service (QoS)-based and multipath WSNs. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study is presented so far which may clearly categorize the routing-related survey literature for WSNs.To fill this gap, an effort is made in this paper for presenting an in-depth review of already published routing-related survey literature in WSNs. Our review initially proposes a generalized survey design model and afterwards analyzes the routing-related survey literature in the light of the devised General Survey Design Framework (GSDF). Such an analysis describes the design soundness of the published routing-related surveys. Therefore, our review puts forth an original classification based on the frequency-of-survey-publication and taxonomizes the corresponding routing-related fields into high, medium and low focused areas of survey publication in WSNs. Furthermore, the surveys belonging to each main category are sub-categorized into various sub-classes and briefly discussed according to their design characteristics. On the one hand, this review is useful for beginners who may easily explore the already published routing-related survey literature in WSNs in a single document and investigate it by spending less effort. On the other hand, it is useful for expert researchers who may explore the trends and frequency of writing surveys in different areas of routing in WSNs. The experts may explore those areas of routing which are either neglected or least focused or lack in design soundness as per general survey design framework. In the end, insights and future research directions are outlined and a reasonable conclusion is put forth

  19. Strategies and policies deteriorate occupational health situation in India: A review based on social determinant framework

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Asish Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence shows that hazardous work, working conditions, and environment fail to maintain homeostasis results in death or severe disability. Up to the 1980s, governments did not pay major attention to occupational health in developing countries, including India. The Bhopal Gas Tragedy, in 1984, was the turning point in the history of health and safety in India. It was time for the government to think deeply and review the existing legislative measures, for the upliftment of the occupational health situation in India. However, all the services remain grossly underutilized because of inadequate strategies, policies, and the lack of a proper monitoring mechanism, for occupational workers. The present study reviews the fact that Inaction or Destruction of Demands, Use of Power, Appeal to the existing bias of the system, and Exportation and Flexibility of the workers are some of the main reasons for the alarming situation of the Occupational Health Policy (OHP) in India. The existing and traditional condition of the laborers before and after independence is also highlighted in this article. Finally the threats are identified and options are provided to improve the health conditions of the workers. PMID:20442828

  20. Synchrony in Psychotherapy: A Review and an Integrative Framework for the Therapeutic Alliance

    PubMed Central

    Koole, Sander L.; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    During psychotherapy, patient and therapist tend to spontaneously synchronize their vocal pitch, bodily movements, and even their physiological processes. In the present article, we consider how this pervasive phenomenon may shed new light on the therapeutic relationship– or alliance– and its role within psychotherapy. We first review clinical research on the alliance and the multidisciplinary area of interpersonal synchrony. We then integrate both literatures in the Interpersonal Synchrony (In-Sync) model of psychotherapy. According to the model, the alliance is grounded in the coupling of patient and therapist’s brains. Because brains do not interact directly, movement synchrony may help to establish inter-brain coupling. Inter-brain coupling may provide patient and therapist with access to another’s internal states, which facilitates common understanding and emotional sharing. Over time, these interpersonal exchanges may improve patients’ emotion-regulatory capacities and related therapeutic outcomes. We discuss the empirical assessment of interpersonal synchrony and review preliminary research on synchrony in psychotherapy. Finally, we summarize our main conclusions and consider the broader implications of viewing psychotherapy as the product of two interacting brains. PMID:27378968

  1. OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Donaldson, Graham; Herman, Joan; Shewbridge, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This report for Australia forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes. The purpose of the Review is to explore how systems of evaluation and assessment can be used to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. The…

  2. OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Donaldson, Graham; Herman, Joan; Shewbridge, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This report for Australia forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes. The purpose of the Review is to explore how systems of evaluation and assessment can be used to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. The…

  3. The environmental state of rivers in the Balkans--a review within the DPSIR framework.

    PubMed

    Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th

    2009-04-01

    Fifteen major Balkan rivers with over 80% of the inflows in Eastern Mediterranean were examined for their environmental state within the DPSIR framework. Physicogeographic and hydrochemical conditions differ substantially among river basins, which may be roughly classified into three main zones. Despite strong fragmentation, most of the rivers are liable to flash floods and have low summer flow. Decreasing precipitation and (mis)management caused a dramatic discharge reduction over the last decades. Wars, political instability, economical crises over the past decades, combined with administrative and structural constraints, poor environmental planning and inspection and, frequently, a lack of environmental awareness imposed significant pressures on rivers. Large wetland areas were drained in favour of widespread intensive agriculture. The treatment of municipal wastewaters is barely adequate in Greece and insufficient elsewhere, while management and treatment of mining and industrial wastewaters is overall poor. In general, lowland river sections are hydro-morphologically modified and are at the greatest pollution risk, while upstream areas mostly retain their natural conditions. Nutrient concentrations in a number of central and eastern Balkan rivers often exceed quality standards, whereas pesticides and heavy metals, partly of geochemical origin, occasionally exceed quality standards. Reservoirs retain vast masses of sediments, thus adversely affecting delta evolution, while dam operation disturbs the seasonal hydrological and hydrochemical regimes. Almost all Balkan countries face daunting water resource challenges because of urgently needed investments in water supply, sanitation, irrigation, and hydroelectricity. International treaties and designations and European Union Directives have mobilized pollution mitigation and conservation efforts. However, the application of environmental legislation has proved in a number of cases inadequate. Constraints arise

  4. Wheelchair interventions, services and provision for disabled children: a mixed-method systematic review and conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wheelchairs for disabled children (≤18 years) can provide health, developmental and social benefits. World Health Organisation and United Kingdom Government reports demonstrate the need for improved access to wheelchairs both locally and internationally. The use of health economics within this field is lacking. Provision of wheelchairs based on cost-effectiveness evidence is not currently possible. We conducted the first systematic review in this field to incorporate evidence of effectiveness, service user perspectives, policy intentions and cost-effectiveness in order to develop a conceptual framework to inform future research and service development. Methods We used an adapted EPPI-Centre mixed-method systematic review design with narrative summary, thematic and narrative synthesis. 11 databases were searched. Studies were appraised for quality using one of seven appropriate tools. A conceptual framework was developed from synthesised evidence. Results 22 studies and 14 policies/guidelines were included. Powered wheelchairs appear to offer benefits in reduced need for caregiver assistance; improved communicative, personal-social and cognitive development; and improved mobility function and independent movement. From 14 months of age children can learn some degree of powered wheelchair driving competence. However, effectiveness evidence was limited and low quality. Children and parents placed emphasis on improving social skill and independence. Participation in wider society and development of meaningful relationships were key desired outcomes. Policy intentions and aspirations are in line with the perspectives of children and parents, although translation of policy recommendations into practice is lacking. Conclusions There is a distinct lack of high quality effectiveness and economic evidence in this field. Social and health needs should be seen as equally important when assessing the mobility needs of disabled children. Disabled children and

  5. Social cognition and the anterior temporal lobes: a review and theoretical framework

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, David; Klobusicky, Elizabeth; Ross, Lars A.

    2013-01-01

    Memory for people and their relationships, along with memory for social language and social behaviors, constitutes a specific type of semantic memory termed social knowledge. This review focuses on how and where social knowledge is represented in the brain. We propose that portions of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) play a critical role in representing and retrieving social knowledge. This includes memory about people, their names and biographies and more abstract forms of social memory such as memory for traits and social concepts. This hypothesis is based on the convergence of several lines of research including anatomical findings, lesion evidence from both humans and non-human primates and neuroimaging evidence. Moreover, the ATL is closely interconnected with cortical nuclei of the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex via the uncinate fasciculus. We propose that this pattern of connectivity underlies the function of the ATL in encoding and storing emotionally tagged knowledge that is used to guide orbitofrontal-based decision processes. PMID:23051902

  6. Disentangling Fun and Enjoyment in Exergames Using an Expanded Design, Play, Experience Framework: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Mellecker, Robin; Baranowski, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Abstract With exergames (as with physical activity in general), more intense and longer-duration game play should accrue more health benefits. Exergames, however, appear to be played for relatively short durations, often at medium or lower intensities. Ostensibly games are played for fun or enjoyment. Enhancing the fun or enjoyment experienced during exergame play should enhance the intensity and duration of physical activity, and thereby the health benefits. Research, reviewed herein, indicates fun and/or enjoyment in games are inherently laden with psychosocial, physiological, and embodiment substrates. Physical activity may also have separate or closely related psychosocial, physiological, and embodiment enjoyment substrates. Research is needed to integrate these levels of experience and to identify the game mechanics that enhance, and even maximize, the fun or enjoyment experienced in exergames, to thereby increase the health benefit. PMID:24761322

  7. Patient safety and the control of time in primary care: A review of the French tempos framework by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care.

    PubMed

    Brami, Jean; Amalberti, René; Wensing, Michel

    2015-09-01

    The tempos framework provides GPs with a flexible and practical guide to reflect on their organization and practices in the analysis of adverse events and supplement existing classification systems. The tempos framework specifies five timescales that need to be managed by physicians: the disease's tempo (unexpected rapid changes, slow reaction to treatment); the office's tempo (day-to-day agenda and interruptions); the patient's tempo (time to express symptoms, compliance, and emotion); the system's tempo (time for appointments, exams, and feedback); and the time to access to knowledge. This paper reviews the tempos framework and two studies that underpin its conceptual development. Two databases were used. The use of the framework as a mechanism for analysing insurance claims is described. A comparison of using the tempos framework and standard patient safety classifications for analysing insurance claims is also described and showed that the concordance among coders was better for the tempos framework. The tempos framework fits closely with key principles of general practice and has potentially high relevance for analysing a patient's journey and continuity of care. The tempos framework seems most useful for GPs when analysing adverse events in their practice. Further work needs to be done to assess its generalizability and to formally assess its validity and reliability.

  8. Making Cooperative Learning Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of cooperative learning, focusing on what is and is not a cooperative effort; types of cooperative learning; an example of integrated use of cooperative learning; cooperative schools; basic elements of cooperation; and what is known about cooperative efforts (related to achievement, interpersonal relationship, and…

  9. Weight stigma "gets under the skin"-evidence for an adapted psychological mediation framework: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Luck, Tobias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2015-02-01

    Research consistently shows a negative view of individuals with obesity in the general public and in various other settings. Stigma and discrimination can be considered chronic stressors, as these factors have a profound impact on the psychological well-being of the affected individuals. This article proposes a framework that entails a mediation of the adverse effects of discrimination and stigmatization on mental well-being through elevated psychological risk factors that are not unique to weight but that could affect overweight and normal-weight individuals alike. A systematic review was conducted to assess the prevalence of psychological risk factors, such as self-esteem and coping, in individuals with obesity. Forty-six articles were assessed and included for detailed analysis. The number of studies on these topics is limited to certain dimensions of psychological processes. The best evaluated association of obesity and psychosocial aspects is seen for self-esteem. Most studies establish a negative association of weight and self-esteem in children and adults. All studies with mediation analysis find a positive mediation through psychological risk factors on mental health outcomes. This review shows that elevated psychological risk factors are existent in individuals with obesity and that they may be a mediator between weight discrimination and pathopsychological outcomes. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  10. The interrelationship of tropical disease and mental disorder: conceptual framework and literature review (Part I--Malaria).

    PubMed

    Weiss, M G

    1985-06-01

    Substantial interactions between tropical diseases and psychiatric illness have long been recognized, but the impact of biological factors in the field of cross-cultural psychiatry has been less well studied than psychosocial factors. In reviewing the literature at the intersection of tropical medicine and psychiatry in order to summarize the existing data base in this field, a generalized interactive model informed by the theoretical contributions of George Engel, the WHO Scientific Working Group on Social and Economic Research, Arthur Kleinman, P. M. Yap, Edward Sapir and others has been developed to serve as a conceptual framework for this analysis of the literature and to guide further research. The clinical literature of tropical medicine and psychiatry which recognizes the significance of concurrent tropical disease and mental disorders is reviewed along with the more specific literature on malaria and concomitant psychiatric illness. Many authors have focused on the role of organic mental disorders, especially in connection with cerebral malaria, but several have also addressed psychosocial parameters through which the interrelationship between malaria and a full range of mental disorders is also mediated. The effects of malaria may serve as biological, psychological or social stressors operating in a cultural context which precipitate or shape features of psychiatric symptomatology. Psychiatric illness may likewise precipitate an episode of malaria with typical symptoms in a patient with a previously subclinical infection. Implications of the literature and this generalized interactive model are considered as they apply to clinical practice, public health and the application of social science theory in medicine.

  11. Games and Diabetes: A Review Investigating Theoretical Frameworks, Evaluation Methodologies, and Opportunities for Design Grounded in Learning Theories.

    PubMed

    Lazem, Shaimaa; Webster, Mary; Holmes, Wayne; Wolf, Motje

    2015-09-02

    Here we review 18 articles that describe the design and evaluation of 1 or more games for diabetes from technical, methodological, and theoretical perspectives. We undertook searches covering the period 2010 to May 2015 in the ACM, IEEE, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, and Google Scholar online databases using the keywords "children," "computer games," "diabetes," "games," "type 1," and "type 2" in various Boolean combinations. The review sets out to establish, for future research, an understanding of the current landscape of digital games designed for children with diabetes. We briefly explored the use and impact of well-established learning theories in such games. The most frequently mentioned theoretical frameworks were social cognitive theory and social constructivism. Due to the limitations of the reported evaluation methodologies, little evidence was found to support the strong promise of games for diabetes. Furthermore, we could not establish a relation between design features and the game outcomes. We argue that an in-depth discussion about the extent to which learning theories could and should be manifested in the design decisions is required.

  12. An Expanding Rationale for Cooperative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abitia, Fred

    1985-01-01

    The author discusses cooperative education: how it is viewed by private enterprise and where it fits into higher education's framework. The cooperative education program at California Polytechnic State University is examined: faculty responsibility, rationale for the program's existence, and reasons for the program's importance. (CT)

  13. Teacher Cooperatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Twenty years ago, when the late Albert Shanker endorsed the notion of innovative schools operating outside conventional district bureaucracies, his aim was to put teachers at the helm. Today there are nearly 80 teacher-governed charter schools around the country. Although most are legally constituted as worker cooperatives, they better resemble…

  14. Teacher Cooperatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Twenty years ago, when the late Albert Shanker endorsed the notion of innovative schools operating outside conventional district bureaucracies, his aim was to put teachers at the helm. Today there are nearly 80 teacher-governed charter schools around the country. Although most are legally constituted as worker cooperatives, they better resemble…

  15. Cooperative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert L.

    Cooperative education involves on-campus instruction and off-campus work experience. These programs can be referred to as work study, field work, or work experience. The student has the advantage of applying his knowledge in a work situation; the college gains financial benefits; and the employer has the opportunity to influence the student to…

  16. The strategic framework of tuberculosis control and prevention in the elderly: a scoping review towards End TB targets.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Chung, Pui-Hong; Leung, Cyrus L K; Nishikiori, Nobuyuki; Chan, Emily Y Y; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong

    2017-06-01

    With the rapid pace of population ageing, tuberculosis (TB) in the elderly increasingly becomes a public health challenge. Despite the increasing burden and high risks for TB in the elderly, targeted strategy has not been well understood and evaluated. We undertook a scoping review to identify current TB strategies, research and policy gaps in the elderly and summarized the results within a strategic framework towards End TB targets. Databases of Embase, MEDLINE, Global health and EBM reviews were searched for original studies, review articles, and policy papers published in English between January 1990 and December 2015. Articles examining TB strategy, program, guideline or intervention in the elderly from public health perspective were included.Nineteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Most of them were qualitative studies, issued in high- and middle-income countries and after 2000. To break the chain of TB transmission and reactivation in the elderly, infection control, interventions of avoiding delay in diagnosis and containment are essential for preventing transmission, especially in elderly institutions and aged immigrants; screening of latent TB infection and preventive therapy had effective impacts on reducing the risk of reactivation and should be used less reluctantly in older people; optimizing early case-finding with a high index of suspicion, systematic screening for prioritized high-risk groups, initial empirical and adequate follow-up treatment with close monitoring and evaluation, as well as enhanced programmatic management are fundamental pillars for active TB elimination. Evaluation of TB epidemiology, risk factors, impacts and cost-effectiveness of interventions, adopting accurate and rapid diagnostic tools, shorter and less toxic preventive therapy, are critical issues for developing strategy in the elderly towards End TB targets.TB control strategies in the elderly were comprehensively mapped in a causal link pathway. The framework and

  17. 'Gearing Up' to improve interprofessional collaboration in primary care: a systematic review and conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Mulvale, Gillian; Embrett, Mark; Razavi, Shaghayegh Donya

    2016-07-20

    Interprofessional Primary Care Teams (IPCTs) have been shown to benefit health systems and patients, particularly those patients with complex care needs. The literature suggests a wide range of factors that may influence collaboration in IPCTs, however the evidence base is unclear for many of these factors. To target improvement efforts, we identify studies that demonstrate an association between suggested factors and collaborative processes in IPCTs. A systematic review of 25 years of peer-review literature was conducted to identify studies that test associations between policy, organizational, care team and individual factors, and collaboration in IPCTs. We searched Medline, ProQuest subject, ProQuest abstract, CINAHL, HealthSTAR, and Embase electronic databases between January 1990 to June 2015 and hand-searched reference lists of identified articles. The electronic searches identified 1421 articles, nine of which met inclusion criteria. Eighteen factors were significantly associated with collaboration in at least one article. We present the findings within a proposed conceptual model of interrelated 'gears'. The model offers a taxonomy of factors that policy makers (macro gear), organizational managers (meso gear), care teams (micro gear) and health professionals (individual gear) can adjust to improve interprofessional collaboration in IPC teams. Thirteen of the eighteen identified factors were within the micro gear, or team level of decision-making. These pertained to formal processes such as quality audits and group problem-solving; social processes such as open communication and supportive colleagues; team attitudes such as feeling part of the team; and team structure such as team size and having a collaboration champion or facilitator. Fewer policy (eg governance), organizational (eg information systems, organizational culture) or individual (eg belief in interprofessional collaboration care and personal flexibility) level factors were identified. The

  18. Collapse of cooperation in evolving games

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alexander J.; Plotkin, Joshua B.

    2014-01-01

    Game theory provides a quantitative framework for analyzing the behavior of rational agents. The Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma in particular has become a standard model for studying cooperation and cheating, with cooperation often emerging as a robust outcome in evolving populations. Here we extend evolutionary game theory by allowing players’ payoffs as well as their strategies to evolve in response to selection on heritable mutations. In nature, many organisms engage in mutually beneficial interactions and individuals may seek to change the ratio of risk to reward for cooperation by altering the resources they commit to cooperative interactions. To study this, we construct a general framework for the coevolution of strategies and payoffs in arbitrary iterated games. We show that, when there is a tradeoff between the benefits and costs of cooperation, coevolution often leads to a dramatic loss of cooperation in the Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma. The collapse of cooperation is so extreme that the average payoff in a population can decline even as the potential reward for mutual cooperation increases. Depending upon the form of tradeoffs, evolution may even move away from the Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma game altogether. Our work offers a new perspective on the Prisoner’s Dilemma and its predictions for cooperation in natural populations; and it provides a general framework to understand the coevolution of strategies and payoffs in iterated interactions. PMID:25422421

  19. Collapse of cooperation in evolving games.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alexander J; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2014-12-09

    Game theory provides a quantitative framework for analyzing the behavior of rational agents. The Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma in particular has become a standard model for studying cooperation and cheating, with cooperation often emerging as a robust outcome in evolving populations. Here we extend evolutionary game theory by allowing players' payoffs as well as their strategies to evolve in response to selection on heritable mutations. In nature, many organisms engage in mutually beneficial interactions and individuals may seek to change the ratio of risk to reward for cooperation by altering the resources they commit to cooperative interactions. To study this, we construct a general framework for the coevolution of strategies and payoffs in arbitrary iterated games. We show that, when there is a tradeoff between the benefits and costs of cooperation, coevolution often leads to a dramatic loss of cooperation in the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma. The collapse of cooperation is so extreme that the average payoff in a population can decline even as the potential reward for mutual cooperation increases. Depending upon the form of tradeoffs, evolution may even move away from the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game altogether. Our work offers a new perspective on the Prisoner's Dilemma and its predictions for cooperation in natural populations; and it provides a general framework to understand the coevolution of strategies and payoffs in iterated interactions.

  20. Sleep disturbances in adolescents with ADHD: A systematic review and framework for future research.

    PubMed

    Lunsford-Avery, Jessica R; Krystal, Andrew D; Kollins, Scott H

    2016-10-23

    Biological mechanisms underlying symptom and prognostic heterogeneity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are unclear. Sleep impacts neurocognition and daytime functioning and is disrupted in ADHD, yet little is known about sleep in ADHD during adolescence, a period characterized by alterations in sleep, brain structure, and environmental demands as well as diverging ADHD trajectories. A systematic review identified studies published prior to August 2016 assessing sleep in adolescents (aged 10-19years) with ADHD or participating in population-based studies measuring ADHD symptoms. Twenty-five studies were identified (19 subjective report, 6 using actigraphy/polysomnography). Findings are mixed but overall suggest associations between sleep disturbances and 1) ADHD symptoms in the population and 2) poorer clinical, neurocognitive, and functional outcomes among adolescents with ADHD. Common limitations of studies included small or non-representative samples, non-standardized sleep measures, and cross-sectional methodology. Current data on sleep in adolescent ADHD are sparse and limited by methodological concerns. Future studies are critical for clarifying a potential role of sleep in contributing to heterogeneity of ADHD presentation and prognosis. Potential mechanisms by which sleep disturbances during adolescence may contribute to worsened symptom severity and persistence of ADHD into adulthood and an agenda to guide future research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of Culturally Focused Theoretical Frameworks for Adapting Diabetes Prevention Programs: A Qualitative Review

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-Jennings, Michelle; Baumann, Ana A.; Proctor, Enola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes disproportionately affects underserved racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Diabetes prevention interventions positively influence health; however, further evaluation is necessary to determine what role culture plays in effective programming. We report on the status of research that examines cultural adaptations of diabetes prevention programs. Methods We conducted database searches in March and April 2014. We included studies that were conducted in the United States and that focused on diabetes prevention among African Americans, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and Latinos. Results A total of 58 studies were identified for review; 29 were excluded from evaluation. Few adaptations referenced or followed recommendations for cultural adaptation nor did they justify the content modifications by providing a rationale or evidence. Cultural elements unique to racial/ethnic populations were not assessed. Conclusion Future cultural adaptations should use recommended processes to ensure that culture’s role in diabetes prevention–related behavioral changes contributes to research. PMID:25950567

  2. A life course perspective on socioeconomic inequalities in health: a critical review of conceptual frameworks.

    PubMed

    Corna, Laurie M

    2013-06-01

    Social scientists and public health researchers have long known that social position is related to health and that socioeconomic inequalities in health persist in later life. Increasingly, a life course perspective is adopted to understand the socioeconomic position (SEP)-health dynamic. This paper critically reviews the conceptual perspectives underlying empirical research seeking to better understand socioeconomic inequalities in health in the context of the life course. I comment on the contributions of this work, but also its limitations. In particular, I note the emphasis on understanding the mechanisms linking SEP to health, to the exclusion of research on the institutional and structural factors associated with socioeconomic inequalities over the life course. I also critique the relative absence of gender in this work, and how, by not linking individual experiences to the social policy contexts that shape resources and opportunities, the proximal, rather than the structural or institutional determinants of health are emphasized. I suggest that moving forward, a return to some of the key tenets of life course theory, including contributions from the comparative welfare states literature, may better inform life course analyses of socioeconomic inequalities in health. Specific suggestions for life scholarship are discussed.

  3. Systematic thematic review of e-health research in the Gulf Cooperation Council (Arabian Gulf): Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Weber, Alan S; Turjoman, Rebal; Shaheen, Yanal; Al Sayyed, Farah; Hwang, Mu Ji; Malick, Faryal

    2017-05-01

    Introduction The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC or 'Arabian Gulf'), comprising Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates, is a political organization sharing a common history and culture. All GCC nations have made substantial investments in telecommunications and electronic health infrastructure since 2000. Methods We conducted a literature search in English and Arabic on peer-reviewed e-health research up to December 2014 originating in the GCC. The objective was to retrieve all research on e-health in the GCC and to categorize and analyse it qualitatively to reveal the current state of e-health research and development in the region. Inclusion criteria included peer-reviewed articles, books, book chapters, conference papers and graduate theses written on e-health in the GCC. Blogs, health websites and non-peer-reviewed literature were excluded. Results Three hundred and six articles were retrieved, categorized and analysed qualitatively to reveal the state of e-health research in the GCC. Both country-specific and GCC-wide major themes were identified using NVivo 10.0 qualitative software and summarized. The most common type of study was an overview (35.0%), with common study designs of case studies (26.8%) and descriptive articles (46.4%). Significant themes were: prospective national benefits from e-health, implementation and satisfaction with electronic health records, online technologies in medical education, innovative systems (case studies), and information security and personal health information. Discussion This is the first comprehensive analytical literature review of e-health in the GCC. Important research gaps were identified: few cost-benefit analyses, controlled interventional studies, or research targeting gender and religious issues were retrieved.

  4. Structured Benefit-risk assessment: a review of key publications and initiatives on frameworks and methodologies.

    PubMed

    Mt-Isa, Shahrul; Ouwens, Mario; Robert, Veronique; Gebel, Martin; Schacht, Alexander; Hirsch, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Introduction The conduct of structured benefit-risk assessment (BRA) of pharmaceutical products is a key area of interest for regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. However, the acceptance of a standardized approach and implementation are slow. Statisticians play major roles in these organizations, and have a great opportunity to be involved and drive the shaping of future BRA. Method We performed a literature search of recent reviews and initiatives assessing BRA methodologies, and grouped them to assist those new to BRA in learning, understanding, and choosing methodologies. We summarized the key points and discussed the impact of this emerging field on various stakeholders, particularly statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry. Results We provide introductory, essential, special interest, and further information and initiatives materials that direct readers to the most relevant materials, which were published between 2000 and 2013.  Based on recommendations in these materials we supply a toolkit of advocated BRA methodologies. Discussion Despite initiatives promoting these methodologies, there are still barriers, one of which being the lack of a consensus on the most appropriate methodologies among stakeholders. However, this opens up opportunities, for statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry especially, to champion appropriate BRA methodology use throughout the pharmaceutical product lifecycle. Conclusions This article may serve as a starting point for discussions and to reach a mutual consensus for methodology selection in a particular situation. Regulators and pharmaceutical industry should continue to collaborate to develop and take forward BRA methodologies, and by clear communication develop a mutual understanding of the key issues. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Peer Review Evaluation Process of Marie Curie Actions under EU's Seventh Framework Programme for Research.

    PubMed

    Pina, David G; Hren, Darko; Marušić, Ana

    2015-01-01

    We analysed the peer review of grant proposals under Marie Curie Actions, a major EU research funding instrument, which involves two steps: an independent assessment (Individual Evaluation Report, IER) performed remotely by 3 raters, and a consensus opinion reached during a meeting by the same raters (Consensus Report, CR). For 24,897 proposals evaluated from 2007 to 2013, the association between average IER and CR scores was very high across different panels, grant calls and years. Median average deviation (AD) index, used as a measure of inter-rater agreement, was 5.4 points on a 0-100 scale (interquartile range 3.4-8.3), overall, demonstrating a good general agreement among raters. For proposals where one rater disagreed with the other two raters (n=1424; 5.7%), or where all 3 raters disagreed (n=2075; 8.3%), the average IER and CR scores were still highly associated. Disagreement was more frequent for proposals from Economics/Social Sciences and Humanities panels. Greater disagreement was observed for proposals with lower average IER scores. CR scores for proposals with initial disagreement were also significantly lower. Proposals with a large absolute difference between the average IER and CR scores (≥10 points; n=368, 1.5%) generally had lower CR scores. An inter-correlation matrix of individual raters' scores of evaluation criteria of proposals indicated that these scores were, in general, a reflection of raters' overall scores. Our analysis demonstrated a good internal consistency and general high agreement among raters. Consensus meetings appear to be relevant for particular panels and subsets of proposals with large differences among raters' scores.

  6. Review of the theoretical frameworks for the study of child development within public health and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Avan, B I; Kirkwood, B R

    2010-05-01

    Care for child development has gained international momentum in research and community-based programming. It encompasses various domains including cognitive, psychomotor, emotional, behavioural and social development, and a multitude of factors that have the potential to influence its trajectories. However, the multidisciplinary nature of child development initiatives is marred by a lack of unified perspectives across disciplines, especially basic conceptual understanding generated in the fields of education and psychology, which are not effectively exploited in public health programmes and epidemiological research. The article suggests a four-point evaluation criteria to child development theories based on the ability to communicate in (1) Cross-disciplines, (2) an Overarching facility to address various developmental domains, (3) the capacity to link child development with Lifelong developmental potentials and, most importantly, (4) Epidemiological capability to provide supporting empirical evidence for community-based public health interventions (COLE criteria). Key child development theories have been reviewed by broadly grouping them into three categories on the basis of content and approach, such as descriptive theories, psychological construct-based theories, and context-based theories. The strengths and challenges of these theories have been evaluated on the basis of COLE criteria. Although most of these theories can contribute at different levels in child development initiatives, context-based theories have been particularly proposed to practitioners, researchers and policy makers for community-based programming, principally for its potential to address issues of social inequality, poverty and childcare practices, which are at the core of public health initiatives, and provide multiple level of opportunities to intervene.

  7. Reciprocity Outperforms Conformity to Promote Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Romano, Angelo; Balliet, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have proposed two processes that could give rise to the pervasiveness of human cooperation observed among individuals who are not genetically related: reciprocity and conformity. We tested whether reciprocity outperformed conformity in promoting cooperation, especially when these psychological processes would promote a different cooperative or noncooperative response. To do so, across three studies, we observed participants' cooperation with a partner after learning (a) that their partner had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials and (b) that their group members had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials with that same partner. Although we found that people both reciprocate and conform, reciprocity has a stronger influence on cooperation. Moreover, we found that conformity can be partly explained by a concern about one's reputation-a finding that supports a reciprocity framework.

  8. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a Framework for Understanding the Association Between Motor Skills and Internalizing Problems: A Mini-Review.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Vincent O; Rigoli, Daniela; Cairney, John; Roberts, Lynne D; Piek, Jan P

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills have been shown to be associated with a range of psychosocial issues, including internalizing problems (anxiety and depression). While well-documented empirically, our understanding of why this relationship occurs remains theoretically underdeveloped. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis by Cairney et al. (2013) provides a promising framework that seeks to explain the association between motor skills and internalizing problems, specifically in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The framework posits that poor motor skills predispose the development of internalizing problems via interactions with intermediary environmental stressors. At the time the model was proposed, limited direct evidence was available to support or refute the framework. Several studies and developments related to the framework have since been published. This mini-review seeks to provide an up-to-date overview of recent developments related to the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis. We briefly discuss the past research that led to its development, before moving to studies that have investigated the framework since it was proposed. While originally developed within the context of DCD in childhood, recent developments have found support for the model in community samples. Through the reviewed literature, this article provides support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a promising theoretical framework that explains the psychosocial correlates across the broader spectrum of motor ability. However, given its recent conceptualization, ongoing evaluation of the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis is recommended.

  9. Learning Curves in Pediatric Minimally Invasive Surgery: A Systematic Review of the Literature and a Framework for Reporting.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Alexander L; Haddad, Munther; Clarke, Simon A

    2016-08-01

    There exists a learning curve (LC) with the adoption of any minimally invasive surgical (MIS) technique with implications for training, implementation, and evaluation. A standardized approach to describing and analyzing LCs in pediatric MIS is lacking. We sought to determine how pediatric MIS LCs are quantified and present a framework for reporting. Systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE 1985-October 2015 for articles describing MIS in the pediatric population and presenting formal analysis of the LC. Articles screened by two independent reviewers. Twenty-nine articles (n = 17 general abdominal/thoracic, n = 12 urological) from an 18-year period (1997-2015) were included representing 3345 procedures (n = 3116 laparoscopic, n = 10 thoracoscopic, n = 219 robotic). Seven (24%) were prospective, three multicenter. Twenty-two (76%) presented data pertaining to >1 operating surgeon. Operative time was the most commonly employed surrogate of proficiency (n = 26 [90%] studies). Twenty (69%) described >1 LC outcome measure. Sixteen additional measures were described, including conversion (n = 12 studies); blood loss (n = 4 studies); complications (n = 10 studies); and postoperative outcomes (n = 14 studies). Three studies assessed impact of LC on trainees and one considered economic impact. LCs were presented in tabular form (n = 14 studies) and graphically (n = 19). Eleven (38%) studies undertook statistical appraisal utilizing comparative statistics (n = 8 studies) and regression analysis (n = 4 studies). Multiple outcome measures of proficiency are employed in reporting pediatric MIS experience and analysis of LCs is inconsistent. A standardized multioutcome approach to reporting should be encouraged. In addition, attempts should be made to quantify the impact on trainee involvement. We present an idealized framework for reporting.

  10. A review of the use of human factors classification frameworks that identify causal factors for adverse events in the hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, R J; Williamson, A M; Molesworth, B; Chung, A Z Q

    2014-01-01

    Various human factors classification frameworks have been used to identified causal factors for clinical adverse events. A systematic review was conducted to identify human factors classification frameworks that identified the causal factors (including human error) of adverse events in a hospital setting. Six electronic databases were searched, identifying 1997 articles and 38 of these met inclusion criteria. Most studies included causal contributing factors as well as error and error type, but the nature of coding varied considerably between studies. The ability of human factors classification frameworks to provide information on specific causal factors for an adverse event enables the focus of preventive attention on areas where improvements are most needed. This review highlighted some areas needing considerable improvement in order to meet this need, including better definition of terms, more emphasis on assessing reliability of coding and greater sophistication in analysis of results of the classification. Practitioner Summary: Human factors classification frameworks can be used to identify causal factors of clinical adverse events. However, this review suggests that existing frameworks are diverse, limited in their identification of the context of human error and have poor reliability when used by different individuals.

  11. Retrospective Review of Watershed Characteristics and a Framework for Future Research in the Sarasota Bay Watershed, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kish, George R.; Harrison, Arnell S.; Alderson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sarasota Bay Estuary Program conducted a retrospective review of characteristics of the Sarasota Bay watershed in west-central Florida. This report describes watershed characteristics, surface- and ground-water processes, and the environmental setting of the Sarasota Bay watershed. Population growth during the last 50 years is transforming the Sarasota Bay watershed from rural and agriculture to urban and suburban. The transition has resulted in land-use changes that influence surface- and ground-water processes in the watershed. Increased impervious cover decreases recharge to ground water and increases overland runoff and the pollutants carried in the runoff. Soil compaction resulting from agriculture, construction, and recreation activities also decreases recharge to ground water. Conventional approaches to stormwater runoff have involved conveyances and large storage areas. Low-impact development approaches, designed to provide recharge near the precipitation point-of-contact, are being used increasingly in the watershed. Simple pollutant loading models applied to the Sarasota Bay watershed have focused on large-scale processes and pollutant loads determined from empirical values and mean event concentrations. Complex watershed models and more intensive data-collection programs can provide the level of information needed to quantify (1) the effects of lot-scale land practices on runoff, storage, and ground-water recharge, (2) dry and wet season flux of nutrients through atmospheric deposition, (3) changes in partitioning of water and contaminants as urbanization alters predevelopment rainfall-runoff relations, and (4) linkages between watershed models and lot-scale models to evaluate the effect of small-scale changes over the entire Sarasota Bay watershed. As urbanization in the Sarasota Bay watershed continues, focused research on water-resources issues can provide information needed by water

  12. The conceptual framework and assessment methodology for the systematic reviews of community-based interventions for the prevention and control of infectious diseases of poverty

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual framework and the methodology used to guide the systematic reviews of community-based interventions (CBIs) for the prevention and control of infectious diseases of poverty (IDoP). We adapted the conceptual framework from the 3ie work on the ‘Community-Based Intervention Packages for Preventing Maternal Morbidity and Mortality and Improving Neonatal Outcomes’ to aid in the analyzing of the existing CBIs for IDoP. The conceptual framework revolves around objectives, inputs, processes, outputs, outcomes, and impacts showing the theoretical linkages between the delivery of the interventions targeting these diseases through various community delivery platforms and the consequent health impacts. We also describe the methodology undertaken to conduct the systematic reviews and the meta-analyses. PMID:25105014

  13. The conceptual framework and assessment methodology for the systematic reviews of community-based interventions for the prevention and control of infectious diseases of poverty.

    PubMed

    Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual framework and the methodology used to guide the systematic reviews of community-based interventions (CBIs) for the prevention and control of infectious diseases of poverty (IDoP). We adapted the conceptual framework from the 3ie work on the 'Community-Based Intervention Packages for Preventing Maternal Morbidity and Mortality and Improving Neonatal Outcomes' to aid in the analyzing of the existing CBIs for IDoP. The conceptual framework revolves around objectives, inputs, processes, outputs, outcomes, and impacts showing the theoretical linkages between the delivery of the interventions targeting these diseases through various community delivery platforms and the consequent health impacts. We also describe the methodology undertaken to conduct the systematic reviews and the meta-analyses.

  14. The Fire Next Time? a Critical Discussion of the National Curriculum Framework for RE and the Policy Recommendations in the "Review of Religious Education in England"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chater, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The Religious Education Council's (REC) 2013 "Review of Religious Education in England" consists of a National Curriculum Framework for RE (NCFRE) designed to unite the RE community around a shared programme of study for pupils aged 4-14, and a set of six policy recommendations for the consideration of the RE community and government in…

  15. Salamanca Five Years On: A Review of UNESCO Activities in the Light of the Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Special Education.

    This report is a review of effects of the Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action, a product of representatives of 92 governments and 25 international organizations who attended the 1994 World Conference on Special Needs Education: Access and Quality. It reports that UNESCO has been disseminating the recommendations from the Salamanca World…

  16. The Fire Next Time? a Critical Discussion of the National Curriculum Framework for RE and the Policy Recommendations in the "Review of Religious Education in England"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chater, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The Religious Education Council's (REC) 2013 "Review of Religious Education in England" consists of a National Curriculum Framework for RE (NCFRE) designed to unite the RE community around a shared programme of study for pupils aged 4-14, and a set of six policy recommendations for the consideration of the RE community and government in…

  17. Recovery- Cooper

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-05-16

    S63-07853 (16 May 1963) --- Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr., pilot of the Mercury-Atlas 9 (MA-9) mission, stands supported by strong hands after climbing out of his spacecraft "Faith 7" after a 600,000-mile, 22-orbit journey around Earth. He elected to remain in the spacecraft until it was hoisted to the deck of the USS Kearsarge, as did astronaut Walter Schirra during the previous mission. Photo credit: NASA

  18. Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in the States of The Co-Operation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Alhyas, Layla; McKay, Ailsa; Majeed, Azeem

    2012-01-01

    Aims The recent and ongoing worldwide expansion in prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) is a considerable risk to individuals, health systems and economies. The increase in prevalence has been particularly marked in the states of the Co-operation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC), and these trends are set to continue. We aimed to systematically review the current prevalence of T2DM within these states, and also within particular sub-populations. Methods We identified 27 published studies for review. Studies were identified by systematic database searches. Medline and Embase were searched using terms such as diabetes mellitus, non-insulin-dependent, hyperglycemia, prevalence, epidemiology and Gulf States. Our search also included scanning reference lists, contacting experts and hand-searching key journals. Studies were judged against pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria, and where suitable for inclusion, data extraction and quality assessment was achieved using a specifically-designed tool. All studies where prevalence of diabetes was investigated were eligible for inclusion. The inclusion criteria required that the study population be of a GCC country, but otherwise all ages, sexes and ethnicities were included, resident and migrant populations, urban and rural, of all socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. No limitations on publication type, publication status, study design or language of publication were imposed. However, we did not include secondary reports of data, such as review articles without novel data synthesis. Conclusions The prevalence ofT2DM is an increasing problem for all GCC states. They may therefore benefit to a relatively high degree from co-ordinated implementation of broadly consistent management strategies. Further study of prevalence in children and in national versus expatriate populations would also be useful. PMID:22905094

  19. Does trophic status enhance or reduce the thermal tolerance of scleractinian corals? A review, experiment and conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Fabricius, Katharina E; Cséke, Szilvia; Humphrey, Craig; De'ath, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Global warming, and nutrient and sediment runoff from coastal development, both exert increasing pressures on coastal coral reefs. The objective of this study was to resolve the question of whether coastal eutrophication may protect corals from thermal stress by improving their nutritional status, or rather diminish their thermal tolerance through the synergy of dual stressors. A review of previous studies on the topic of combined trophic status and heat exposure on the thermal tolerance of corals reveals a broad range of outcomes, including synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects. We conducted a 90-day long experiment exposing corals to realistic levels of elevated nutrients and sediments, and heat stress. Colonies of two common scleractinian corals (Acropora millepora and Montipora tuberculosa) were kept in coastal seawater, or coastal seawater that was further organically and nutrient enriched (OE), and/or enriched with nitrate. Batches of OE were created daily, facilitating nutrient uptake, plankton succession and organic enrichment as observed in coastal waters. After 10 days of acclimation, 67% of the colonies had their temperature gradually increased from 27° to 31.2°C. After 3-7 weeks of heat stress, colonies of both species had significantly greater reductions in fluorescence yields and lower survival in OE than without addition of OE. Furthermore, photophysiological recovery was incomplete 31-38 days after ending the heat stress only in the OE treatments. Nitrate alone had no measurable effect on survival, bleaching and recovery in either species. Skeletal growth rates were reduced by 45% in heat-stressed A. millepora and by 24% in OE-exposed M. tuberculosa. We propose a conceptual trophic framework that resolves some of the apparently contradictory outcomes revealed by the review. Our study shows that management actions to reduce coastal eutrophication can improve the resistance and resilience of vulnerable coastal coral reefs to warming

  20. Development of a cognitive framework of patient record summary review in the formative phase of user-centered design.

    PubMed

    Horsky, Jan; Ramelson, Harley Z

    2016-12-01

    Excellent usability characteristics allow electronic health record (EHR) systems to more effectively support clinicians providing care and contribute to better quality and safety. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT (ONC) therefore requires all vendors to follow a User-Centered Design (UCD) process to increase the usability of their products in order to meet certification criteria for the Safety-Enhanced Design part of the Meaningful Use (stage 2) EHR incentive program. This report describes the initial stage of a UCD process in which foundational design concepts were formulated. We designed a functional prototype of an EHR module intended to help clinicians to efficiently complete a summary review of an electronic patient record before an ambulatory visit. Cognitively-based studies were performed and the results used to develop a cognitive framework that subsequently guided design of a prototype. Results showed that clinicians categorized and reasoned with patient data in distinct patterns; they preferred to review relevant history in the assessment and plan section of the most recent note, to search for changes in health and for new episodes of care since the last visit and to look up current-day data such as vital signs. These basic concepts were represented in the design, for instance, by screen division into vertical thirds that had historical content to the left and most recent data to the right. Other characteristics such as visual association of contextual information or direct, one-click access to the assessment and plan section of visit notes were directly informed by our findings and refined in a series of UCD-specific iterative testing. Understanding of tasks and cognitive demands early in the UCD process was critically important for developing a tool optimized for reasoning and workflow preferences of clinicians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Training modalities in robot-mediated upper limb rehabilitation in stroke: a framework for classification based on a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Basteris, Angelo; Nijenhuis, Sharon M; Stienen, Arno H A; Buurke, Jaap H; Prange, Gerdienke B; Amirabdollahian, Farshid

    2014-07-10

    Robot-mediated post-stroke therapy for the upper-extremity dates back to the 1990s. Since then, a number of robotic devices have become commercially available. There is clear evidence that robotic interventions improve upper limb motor scores and strength, but these improvements are often not transferred to performance of activities of daily living. We wish to better understand why. Our systematic review of 74 papers focuses on the targeted stage of recovery, the part of the limb trained, the different modalities used, and the effectiveness of each. The review shows that most of the studies so far focus on training of the proximal arm for chronic stroke patients. About the training modalities, studies typically refer to active, active-assisted and passive interaction. Robot-therapy in active assisted mode was associated with consistent improvements in arm function. More specifically, the use of HRI features stressing active contribution by the patient, such as EMG-modulated forces or a pushing force in combination with spring-damper guidance, may be beneficial.Our work also highlights that current literature frequently lacks information regarding the mechanism about the physical human-robot interaction (HRI). It is often unclear how the different modalities are implemented by different research groups (using different robots and platforms). In order to have a better and more reliable evidence of usefulness for these technologies, it is recommended that the HRI is better described and documented so that work of various teams can be considered in the same group and categories, allowing to infer for more suitable approaches. We propose a framework for categorisation of HRI modalities and features that will allow comparing their therapeutic benefits.

  2. Does Trophic Status Enhance or Reduce the Thermal Tolerance of Scleractinian Corals? A Review, Experiment and Conceptual Framework

    PubMed Central

    Fabricius, Katharina E.; Cséke, Szilvia; Humphrey, Craig; De’ath, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Global warming, and nutrient and sediment runoff from coastal development, both exert increasing pressures on coastal coral reefs. The objective of this study was to resolve the question of whether coastal eutrophication may protect corals from thermal stress by improving their nutritional status, or rather diminish their thermal tolerance through the synergy of dual stressors. A review of previous studies on the topic of combined trophic status and heat exposure on the thermal tolerance of corals reveals a broad range of outcomes, including synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects. We conducted a 90-day long experiment exposing corals to realistic levels of elevated nutrients and sediments, and heat stress. Colonies of two common scleractinian corals (Acropora millepora and Montipora tuberculosa) were kept in coastal seawater, or coastal seawater that was further organically and nutrient enriched (OE), and/or enriched with nitrate. Batches of OE were created daily, facilitating nutrient uptake, plankton succession and organic enrichment as observed in coastal waters. After 10 days of acclimation, 67% of the colonies had their temperature gradually increased from 27° to 31.2°C. After 3–7 weeks of heat stress, colonies of both species had significantly greater reductions in fluorescence yields and lower survival in OE than without addition of OE. Furthermore, photophysiological recovery was incomplete 31–38 days after ending the heat stress only in the OE treatments. Nitrate alone had no measurable effect on survival, bleaching and recovery in either species. Skeletal growth rates were reduced by 45% in heat-stressed A. millepora and by 24% in OE-exposed M. tuberculosa. We propose a conceptual trophic framework that resolves some of the apparently contradictory outcomes revealed by the review. Our study shows that management actions to reduce coastal eutrophication can improve the resistance and resilience of vulnerable coastal coral reefs to warming

  3. A guiding framework to maximise the power of the arts in medical education: a systematic review and metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Haidet, Paul; Jarecke, Jodi; Adams, Nancy E; Stuckey, Heather L; Green, Michael J; Shapiro, Daniel; Teal, Cayla R; Wolpaw, Daniel R

    2016-03-01

    A rich literature describes many innovative uses of the arts in professional education. However, arts-based teaching tends to be idiosyncratic, depending on the interests and enthusiasm of individual teachers, rather than on strategic design decisions. An overarching framework is needed to guide implementation of arts-based teaching in medical education. The objective of this study was to review and synthesise the literature on arts-based education and provide a conceptual model to guide design, evaluation and research of the use of the arts in medical education. A systematic literature review using the PubMed and ERIC databases. Search terms included humanism, art, music, literature, teaching, education, learning processes, pedagogy and curriculum. We selected empirical studies and conceptual articles about the use of creative arts, imagery and symbolism in the context of professional education. Data synthesis involved a qualitative content analysis of 49 included articles, identifying themes related to educational characteristics, processes and outcomes in arts-based education. Four common themes were identified describing (i) unique qualities of the arts that promote learning, (ii) particular ways learners engage with art, (iii) documented short- and long-term learning outcomes arising from arts-based teaching and (iv) specific pedagogical considerations for using the arts to teach in professional education contexts. The arts have unique qualities that can help create novel ways to engage learners. These novel ways of engagement can foster learners' ability to discover and create new meanings about a variety of topics, which in turn can lead to better medical practice. At each of these steps, specific actions by the teacher can enhance the potential for learners to move to the next step. The process can be enhanced when learners participate in the context of a group, and the group itself can undergo transformative change. Future work should focus on using this

  4. Training modalities in robot-mediated upper limb rehabilitation in stroke: a framework for classification based on a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Robot-mediated post-stroke therapy for the upper-extremity dates back to the 1990s. Since then, a number of robotic devices have become commercially available. There is clear evidence that robotic interventions improve upper limb motor scores and strength, but these improvements are often not transferred to performance of activities of daily living. We wish to better understand why. Our systematic review of 74 papers focuses on the targeted stage of recovery, the part of the limb trained, the different modalities used, and the effectiveness of each. The review shows that most of the studies so far focus on training of the proximal arm for chronic stroke patients. About the training modalities, studies typically refer to active, active-assisted and passive interaction. Robot-therapy in active assisted mode was associated with consistent improvements in arm function. More specifically, the use of HRI features stressing active contribution by the patient, such as EMG-modulated forces or a pushing force in combination with spring-damper guidance, may be beneficial. Our work also highlights that current literature frequently lacks information regarding the mechanism about the physical human-robot interaction (HRI). It is often unclear how the different modalities are implemented by different research groups (using different robots and platforms). In order to have a better and more reliable evidence of usefulness for these technologies, it is recommended that the HRI is better described and documented so that work of various teams can be considered in the same group and categories, allowing to infer for more suitable approaches. We propose a framework for categorisation of HRI modalities and features that will allow comparing their therapeutic benefits. PMID:25012864

  5. Endogenous Cooperation Network Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, S.

    This paper employs insights from Complex Systems literature to develop a computational model of endogenous strategic network formation. Artificial Adaptive Agents (AAAs), implemented as finite state automata, play a modified two-player Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game with an option to further develop the interaction space as part of their strategy. Several insights result from this relatively minor modification: first, I find that network formation is a necessary condition for cooperation to be sustainable but that both the frequency of interaction and the degree to which edge formation impacts agent mixing are both necessary conditions for cooperative networks. Second, within the FSA-modified IPD frame-work, a rich ecology of agents and network topologies is observed, with consequent payoff symmetry and network 'purity' seen to be further contributors to robust cooperative networks. Third, the dynamics of the strategic system under network formation show that initially simple dynamics with small interaction length between agents gives way to complex, a-periodic dynamics when interaction lengths are increased by a single step.

  6. Endogenous Cooperation Network Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, S.

    This paper employs insights from Complex Systems literature to develop a computational model of endogenous strategic network formation. Artificial Adaptive Agents (AAAs), implemented as finite state automata, play a modified two-player Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game with an option to further develop the interaction space as part of their strategy. Several insights result from this relatively minor modification: first, I find that network formation is a necessary condition for cooperation to be sustainable but that both the frequency of interaction and the degree to which edge formation impacts agent mixing are both necessary conditions for cooperative networks. Second, within the FSA-modified IPD frame-work, a rich ecology of agents and network topologies is observed, with consequent payoff symmetry and network `purity' seen to be further contributors to robust cooperative networks. Third, the dynamics of the strategic system under network formation show that initially simple dynamics with small interaction length between agents gives way to complex, a-periodic dynamics when interaction lengths are increased by a single step.

  7. Safeguarding the child athlete in sport: a review, a framework and recommendations for the IOC youth athlete development model.

    PubMed

    Mountjoy, M; Rhind, D J A; Tiivas, A; Leglise, M

    2015-07-01

    Participation in sport has many physical, psychological and social benefits for the child athlete. A growing body of evidence indicates, however, that sport participation may have inherent threats for the child's well-being. The subject of safeguarding children in sport has seen an increase in scientific study in recent years. In particular, there is increasing emphasis on identifying who is involved in abuse, the context of where it occurs and the identification of the various forms of abuse that take place in the sporting domain. Safeguarding principles developed by the International Safeguarding Children in Sport Founders Group are presented along with 8 underlying pillars which underpin the successful adoption and implementation of safeguarding strategies. This safeguarding model is designed to assist sport organisations in the creation of a safe sporting environment to ensure that the child athlete can flourish and reach their athletic potential through an enjoyable experience. The aim of this narrative review is to (1) present a summary of the scientific literature on the threats to children in sport; (2) introduce a framework to categorise these threats; (3) identify research gaps in the field and (4) provide safeguarding recommendations for sport organisations.

  8. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disordered eating behaviour: A systematic review and a framework for future research.

    PubMed

    Kaisari, Panagiota; Dourish, Colin T; Higgs, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Preliminary findings suggest that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may be associated with disordered eating behaviour, but whether there is sufficient evidence to suggest an association between ADHD and specific types of disordered eating behaviour is unclear. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether specific features associated with ADHD are differentially associated with disordered eating behaviour. A systematic review of seventy-five studies was conducted to evaluate the potential association between ADHD symptomatology and disordered eating behaviour and to provide an estimate of the strength of evidence for any association. Overall, a moderate strength of evidence exists for a positive association between ADHD and disordered eating and with specific types of disordered-eating behaviour, in particular, overeating behaviour. There is consistent evidence that impulsivity symptoms of ADHD are positively associated with overeating and bulimia nervosa and more limited evidence for an association between hyperactivity symptoms and restrictive eating in males but not females. Further research is required to assess the potential direction of the relationship between ADHD and disordered eating, the underlying mechanisms and the role of specific ADHD symptoms in the development and/or maintenance of disordered eating behaviour. We propose a framework that could be used to guide the design of future studies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Ecological effects on streams from forest fertilization; literature review and conceptual framework for future study in the western Cascades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, C.W.

    2002-03-19

    Studies of the responses of stream biota to fertilization have been rare and have targeted either immediate, toxicity-based responses or used methods insensitive to ongoing ecological processes. This report reviews water-quality studies following forest fertilizations, emphasizing Cascade streams in the Pacific Northwest and documented biological responses in those streams. A conceptual model predicting potential ecological response to fertilization, which includes effects on algal growth and primary production, is presented. In this model, applied fertilizer nitrogen reaching streams is mostly exported during winter. However, some nitrogen retained in soils or stream and riparian areas may become available to aquatic biota during spring and summer. Biological responses may be minimal in small streams nearest to application because of light limitation, but may be elevated downstream where light is sufficient to allow algal growth. Ultimately, algal response could be greatest in downstream reaches, although ambient nutrient concentrations remain low due to uptake and benthic nutrient recycling. Ground-water flow paths and hyporheic processing could be critical in determining the fate of applied nitrogen. A framework is provided for testing this response in the Little River watershed, a tributary to the North Umpqua River, Oregon, at basic and intensive levels of investigation.

  10. Review on the worldwide regulatory framework for biosimilars focusing on the Mexican case as an emerging market in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Cabrera, Ricardo; Mena-Pérez, Sandra Carolina; Bondani-Guasti, Augusto; García-Arrazola, Roeb

    2013-12-01

    The global biopharmaceutical market is worth over $100 billion USD. Nearly 90% of these products will lose their patent in the next ten years, leading to the commercialization of their subsequent versions, known as 'biosimilars'. Biosimilars are much more complex molecules than chemically synthesized generics in terms of size, structure, stability, microheterogeneity, manufacture, etc. Therefore, a specific regulatory framework is needed in order to demonstrate their comparability with innovative products, as well as their quality, safety and efficacy. The EU published the first regulatory pathway in 2005 and has approved 14 biosimilars. Mexico has recently developed a clear regulatory pathway for these products. Their legal basis was established in Article 222 Bis of General Law of Health in 2009, clear specifications in the Regulation for Health Goods in 2011, and further requirements in the Mexican Official Norm NOM-EM-001-SSA1-2012. The aim of this review is to summarize the regulatory pathways for biosimilars in the world with a special focus on Mexican experience, so as contribute to the development of regulations in other countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Are metal-organic frameworks able to provide a new generation of solid-phase microextraction coatings? - A review.

    PubMed

    Rocío-Bautista, Priscilla; Pacheco-Fernández, Idaira; Pasán, Jorge; Pino, Verónica

    2016-10-05

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a powerful technique commonly used in sample preparation for extraction/preconcentration of analytes from a wide variety of samples. Among the trends in improving SPME applications, current investigations are focused on the development of novel coatings able to improve the extraction efficiency, sensitivity, and thermal and mechanical stability, within other properties, of current commercial SPME fibers. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) merit to be highlighted as promising sorbent materials in SPME schemes. MOFs are porous hybrid materials composed by metal ions and organic linkers, presenting the highest surface areas known, with ease synthesis and high tuneability, together with adequate chemical and thermal stability. For MOF based-SPME fibers, it results important to pretreat adequately the SPME supports to ensure the correct formation of the MOF onto the fiber or the attachment MOF-support. This, in turn, will increase the final stability of the fiber while generating uniform coatings. This review provides a critical overview of the current state of the use of MOFs as SPME coatings, not only highlighting the advantages of these materials versus commercial SPME coatings in terms of stability, selectivity, and sensitivity; but also insightfully describing the current methods to obtain reproducible MOF-based SPME coatings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The tendinous framework in the temporal skull region of turtles and considerations about its morphological implications in amniotes: a review.

    PubMed

    Werneburg, Ingmar

    2013-03-01

    In 1926, Tage Lakjer hypothesized a replacement of the infratemporal bar in diapsids by a ligament spanning between quadrate and the upper jaw. As a similar ligament is also present in turtles, he argued for a diapsid origin of this group. Based on recent advances in the homologization of the tendinous framework in the reptile jaw adductor chamber - reviewed in this paper - one could argue for independent origins of the cheek ligaments in sauropsids. The quadratomaxillar ligament of turtles could, with reservation, be homologized with the quadrate aponeurosis of other sauropsids, as well as to the superficial tendon of m. masseter in mammals. These structures have a strong morphogenetic influence to cranial anatomy. Given such an identity, the hypothesis of a structural replacement of the lower temporal arcade in lizards would be refuted. Moreover, such a homology could be correlated to the evolution of the middle ear and to the origin of the chewing mechanism in mammals, which contributed to the evolutionary success of that group. The homologization presented herein is critically discussed and is open for revision. Nevertheless, the value of tendinous structures for fundamental homologisations in the vertebrate head is highlighted.

  13. Methods for studying private sector supply of public health products in developing countries: a conceptual framework and review.

    PubMed

    Conteh, Lesong; Hanson, Kara

    2003-10-01

    The private sector is an important supplier of public health products (PHPs) in developing countries. Although there are concerns about the quality and affordability of these products, private providers also offer possibilities for expanding access to key commodities. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for understanding the public health implications of private sales of PHPs. It reviews methods for studying these sales, together with their advantages and shortcomings. Ten methods are identified which can be used for studying the behaviour of providers and consumers. The effects of seasonal variation are discussed, together with the challenges of creating a sampling frame and studying illicit behaviour. We conclude that relatively little is known about the sales of PHPs, that more is known about contraceptives and drugs than about the newer products, and that the demand side of the market has been studied in greater depth than the behaviour of suppliers. The existing toolbox is biased towards formal providers, and thus, probably towards understanding the provision of PHPs to those who are better off. Methods for studying the supply of PHPs in outlets used by poor people is a priority area for further methodological development.

  14. Safeguarding the child athlete in sport: a review, a framework and recommendations for the IOC youth athlete development model

    PubMed Central

    Mountjoy, M; Rhind, D J A; Tiivas, A; Leglise, M

    2015-01-01

    Participation in sport has many physical, psychological and social benefits for the child athlete. A growing body of evidence indicates, however, that sport participation may have inherent threats for the child’s well-being. The subject of safeguarding children in sport has seen an increase in scientific study in recent years. In particular, there is increasing emphasis on identifying who is involved in abuse, the context of where it occurs and the identification of the various forms of abuse that take place in the sporting domain. Safeguarding principles developed by the International Safeguarding Children in Sport Founders Group are presented along with 8 underlying pillars which underpin the successful adoption and implementation of safeguarding strategies. This safeguarding model is designed to assist sport organisations in the creation of a safe sporting environment to ensure that the child athlete can flourish and reach their athletic potential through an enjoyable experience. The aim of this narrative review is to (1) present a summary of the scientific literature on the threats to children in sport; (2) introduce a framework to categorise these threats; (3) identify research gaps in the field and (4) provide safeguarding recommendations for sport organisations. PMID:26084527

  15. When do people cooperate? The neuroeconomics of prosocial decision making.

    PubMed

    Declerck, Carolyn H; Boone, Christophe; Emonds, Griet

    2013-02-01

    Understanding the roots of prosocial behavior is an interdisciplinary research endeavor that has generated an abundance of empirical data across many disciplines. This review integrates research findings from different fields into a novel theoretical framework that can account for when prosocial behavior is likely to occur. Specifically, we propose that the motivation to cooperate (or not), generated by the reward system in the brain (extending from the striatum to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex), is modulated by two neural networks: a cognitive control system (centered on the lateral prefrontal cortex) that processes extrinsic cooperative incentives, and/or a social cognition system (including the temporo-parietal junction, the medial prefrontal cortex and the amygdala) that processes trust and/or threat signals. The independent modulatory influence of incentives and trust on the decision to cooperate is substantiated by a growing body of neuroimaging data and reconciles the apparent paradox between economic versus social rationality in the literature, suggesting that we are in fact wired for both. Furthermore, the theoretical framework can account for substantial behavioral heterogeneity in prosocial behavior. Based on the existing data, we postulate that self-regarding individuals (who are more likely to adopt an economically rational strategy) are more responsive to extrinsic cooperative incentives and therefore rely relatively more on cognitive control to make (un)cooperative decisions, whereas other-regarding individuals (who are more likely to adopt a socially rational strategy) are more sensitive to trust signals to avoid betrayal and recruit relatively more brain activity in the social cognition system. Several additional hypotheses with respect to the neural roots of social preferences are derived from the model and suggested for future research.

  16. Building a Conceptual Framework to Study the Effect of HIV Stigma-Reduction Intervention Strategies on HIV Test Uptake: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Subash; Hannes, Karin; Cargo, Margaret; Buve, Anne; Aro, Arja R; Mathei, Catharina

    A scoping review of grey and peer-reviewed literature was conducted to develop a conceptual framework to illustrate mechanisms involved in reducing HIV stigma and increasing HIV test uptake. We followed a three-step approach to exploring the literature: developing concepts, organizing and categorizing concepts, and synthesizing concepts into a framework. The framework contains four types of intervention strategies: awareness creation, influencing normative behavior, providing support, and developing regulatory laws. The awareness creation strategy generally improves knowledge and the influencing normative behavior strategy changes stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors, and subsequently, increases HIV test uptake. Providing support and development of regulatory law strategies changes actual stigmatizing behaviors of the people, and subsequently, increases HIV test uptake. The framework further outlines that the mechanisms described are influenced by the interaction of various social-contextual and individual factors. The framework sheds new light on the effects of HIV stigma-reduction intervention strategies and HIV test uptake. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A systematic review of cost-sharing strategies used within publicly-funded drug plans in member countries of the organisation for economic co-operation and development.

    PubMed

    Barnieh, Lianne; Clement, Fiona; Harris, Anthony; Blom, Marja; Donaldson, Cam; Klarenbach, Scott; Husereau, Don; Lorenzetti, Diane; Manns, Braden

    2014-01-01

    Publicly-funded drug plans vary in strategies used and policies employed to reduce continually increasing pharmaceutical expenditures. We systematically reviewed the utilization of cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations in publicly-funded formularies within member nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Using the OECD nations as the sampling frame, a search for cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations was done using published and grey literature. Collected data was verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country, to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across plans. Significant variation in the use of cost-sharing mechanisms was seen. Copayments were the most commonly used cost-containment measure, though their use and amount varied for those with certain conditions, most often chronic diseases (in 17 countries), and by socio-economic status (either income or employment status), or with age (in 15 countries). Caps and deductibles were only used by five systems. Drug cost-containment strategies targeting physicians were also identified in 24 countries, including guideline-based prescribing, prescription monitoring and incentive structures. There was variable use of cost-containment strategies to limit pharmaceutical expenditures in publicly funded formularies within OECD countries. Further research is needed to determine the best approach to constrain costs while maintaining access to pharmaceutical drugs.

  18. A Systematic Review of Cost-Sharing Strategies Used within Publicly-Funded Drug Plans in Member Countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development

    PubMed Central

    Barnieh, Lianne; Clement, Fiona; Harris, Anthony; Blom, Marja; Donaldson, Cam; Klarenbach, Scott; Husereau, Don; Lorenzetti, Diane; Manns, Braden

    2014-01-01

    Background Publicly-funded drug plans vary in strategies used and policies employed to reduce continually increasing pharmaceutical expenditures. We systematically reviewed the utilization of cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations in publicly-funded formularies within member nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Methods & Findings Using the OECD nations as the sampling frame, a search for cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations was done using published and grey literature. Collected data was verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country, to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across plans. Significant variation in the use of cost-sharing mechanisms was seen. Copayments were the most commonly used cost-containment measure, though their use and amount varied for those with certain conditions, most often chronic diseases (in 17 countries), and by socio-economic status (either income or employment status), or with age (in 15 countries). Caps and deductibles were only used by five systems. Drug cost-containment strategies targeting physicians were also identified in 24 countries, including guideline-based prescribing, prescription monitoring and incentive structures. Conclusions There was variable use of cost-containment strategies to limit pharmaceutical expenditures in publicly funded formularies within OECD countries. Further research is needed to determine the best approach to constrain costs while maintaining access to pharmaceutical drugs. PMID:24618721

  19. Cooperation and deception in primates.

    PubMed

    Hall, Katie; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2017-08-01

    Though competition and cooperation are often considered opposing forces in an arms race driving natural selection, many animals, including humans, cooperate in order to mitigate competition with others. Understanding others' psychological states, such as seeing and knowing, others' goals and intentions, and coordinating actions are all important for complex cooperation-as well as for predicting behavior in order to take advantage of others through tactical deception, a form of competition. We outline evidence of primates' understanding of how others perceive the world, and then consider how the evidence from both deception and cooperation fits this framework to give us a more complete understanding of the evolution of complex social cognition in primates. In experimental food competitions, primates flexibly manipulate group-mates' behavior to tactically deceive them. Deception can infiltrate cooperative interactions, such as when one takes an unfair share of meat after a coordinated hunt. In order to counter competition of this sort, primates maintain cooperation through partner choice, partner control, and third party punishment. Yet humans appear to stand alone in their ability to understand others' beliefs, which allows us not only to deceive others with the explicit intent to create a false belief, but it also allows us to put ourselves in others' shoes to determine when cheaters need to be punished, even if we are not directly disadvantaged by the cheater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Preservice Teacher-Cooperating Teacher Relationship: An Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, MaryEllen

    This review of research on the influence of the cooperating teacher seeks to clarify the relationship between the preservice student teacher and the cooperating teacher, and to provide a better understanding of the student teaching experience. The expectations and the role of the cooperating teacher are reviewed and it is pointed out that, though…

  1. Benefits of Cooperative Learning in a Multimedia Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, James

    This paper reviews the research on cooperative learning combined with technology and presents a formative report of those findings. The review focused on these questions: What are the benefits of cooperative learning in a multimedia environment? What benefits do computer-based training offer? What are the benefits of cooperative learning…

  2. United States and Western Europe cooperation in planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Eugene H.; Hunten, Donald M.; Masursky, Harold; Scarf, Frederick L.; Solomon, Sean C.; Wilkening, Laurel L.; Fechtig, Hugo; Balsiger, Hans; Blamont, Jacques; Fulchignoni, Marcello

    1989-01-01

    A framework was sought for U.S.-European cooperation in planetary exploration. Specific issues addressed include: types and levels of possible cooperative activities in the planetary sciences; specific or general scientific areas that seem most promising as the main focus of cooperative efforts; potential mission candidates for cooperative ventures; identification of special issues or problems for resolution by negotiation between the agencies, and possible suggestions for their resolutions; and identification of coordinated technological and instrumental developments for planetary missions.

  3. Model performance evaluation (validation and calibration) in model-based studies of therapeutic interventions for cardiovascular diseases : a review and suggested reporting framework.

    PubMed

    Haji Ali Afzali, Hossein; Gray, Jodi; Karnon, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Decision analytic models play an increasingly important role in the economic evaluation of health technologies. Given uncertainties around the assumptions used to develop such models, several guidelines have been published to identify and assess 'best practice' in the model development process, including general modelling approach (e.g., time horizon), model structure, input data and model performance evaluation. This paper focuses on model performance evaluation. In the absence of a sufficient level of detail around model performance evaluation, concerns regarding the accuracy of model outputs, and hence the credibility of such models, are frequently raised. Following presentation of its components, a review of the application and reporting of model performance evaluation is presented. Taking cardiovascular disease as an illustrative example, the review investigates the use of face validity, internal validity, external validity, and cross model validity. As a part of the performance evaluation process, model calibration is also discussed and its use in applied studies investigated. The review found that the application and reporting of model performance evaluation across 81 studies of treatment for cardiovascular disease was variable. Cross-model validation was reported in 55 % of the reviewed studies, though the level of detail provided varied considerably. We found that very few studies documented other types of validity, and only 6 % of the reviewed articles reported a calibration process. Considering the above findings, we propose a comprehensive model performance evaluation framework (checklist), informed by a review of best-practice guidelines. This framework provides a basis for more accurate and consistent documentation of model performance evaluation. This will improve the peer review process and the comparability of modelling studies. Recognising the fundamental role of decision analytic models in informing public funding decisions, the proposed

  4. The Pan-University Network for Global Health: framework for collaboration and review of global health needs.

    PubMed

    Winchester, M S; BeLue, R; Oni, T; Wittwer-Backofen, U; Deobagkar, D; Onya, H; Samuels, T A; Matthews, S A; Stone, C; Airhihenbuwa, C

    2016-04-21

    In the current United Nations efforts to plan for post 2015-Millennium Development Goals, global partnership to address non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has become a critical goal to effectively respond to the complex global challenges of which inequity in health remains a persistent challenge. Building capacity in terms of well-equipped local researchers and service providers is a key to bridging the inequity in global health. Launched by Penn State University in 2014, the Pan University Network for Global Health responds to this need by bridging researchers at more than 10 universities across the globe. In this paper we outline our framework for international and interdisciplinary collaboration, as well the rationale for our research areas, including a review of these two themes. After its initial meeting, the network has established two central thematic priorities: 1) urbanization and health and 2) the intersection of infectious diseases and NCDs. The urban population in the global south will nearly double in 25 years (approx. 2 billion today to over 3.5 billion by 2040). Urban population growth will have a direct impact on global health, and this growth will be burdened with uneven development and the persistence of urban spatial inequality, including health disparities. The NCD burden, which includes conditions such as hypertension, stroke, and diabetes, is outstripping infectious disease in countries in the global south that are considered to be disproportionately burdened by infectious diseases. Addressing these two priorities demands an interdisciplinary and multi-institutional model to stimulate innovation and synergy that will influence the overall framing of research questions as well as the integration and coordination of research.

  5. A review of the geologic framework of the Long Island Sound Basin, with some observations relating to postglacial sedimentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Ralph S.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Most of the papers in this thematic section present regional perspectives that build on more than 100 years of geologic investigation in Long Island Sound. When viewed collectively, a common theme emerges in these works. The major geologic components of the Long Island Sound basin (bedrock, buried coastal-plain strata, recessional moraines, glacial-lake deposits, and the remains of a large marine delta) interact with the water body to affect the way the modern sedimentary system functions. Previous work, along with our present knowledge of the geologic framework of the Long Island Sound basin, is comprehensively reviewed with this theme in mind. Aspects of the crystalline bedrock, and the deltaic deposits associated with glacial Lake Connecticut, are examined with respect to their influence on sedimentation along the Connecticut coast and in the northern and western Sound. We also discuss the influence of the glacial drift that mantles the coastal-plain remnant along the north shore of Long Island and in the southern Sound. A total of approximately 22.7 billion m3 of marine sediment has accumulated in the Long Island Sound basin. A significant portion (44%) of the fine-grained marine section in the central and western basins was redistributed there from the eastern Sound, as tidal scour removed slightly over 5 billion m3 (5.3 X 1012 kg) of fine material from glacial lake and early-marine deposits east of the Connecticut River. The remainder of the estimated 1.2 X 1013 kg of fine-grained marine sediment that now resides in the central and western Sound can be accounted for by riverine input over the past 13.5 ka.

  6. Sociological Perspectives on Energy and Rural Development: A Review of Major Frameworks for Research on Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppel, Bruce; Schlegel, Charles

    The principal sociological frameworks used in energy research on developing countries can be appraised in terms of the view of the energy-rural development problem that each framework implies. "Socio-Technical Analysis," which is used most in industrial and organizational sociology and in ecological anthropology, is oriented to the decomposition…

  7. TIMSS Advanced 2015 and Advanced Placement Calculus & Physics. A Framework Analysis. Research in Review 2016-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazzaro, Christopher; Jones, Lee; Webb, David C.; Grover, Ryan; Di Giacomo, F. Tony; Marino, Katherine Adele

    2016-01-01

    This report will determine to what degree the AP Physics 1 and 2 and AP Calculus AB and BC frameworks are aligned with the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Advanced Physics and Mathematics frameworks. This will enable an exploration of any differences in content coverage and levels of complexity, and will set the stage…

  8. Analytics4Action Evaluation Framework: A Review of Evidence-Based Learning Analytics Interventions at the Open University UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienties, Bart; Boroowa, Avinash; Cross, Simon; Kubiak, Chris; Mayles, Kevin; Murphy, Sam

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop an evidence-based framework for learning analytics whereby stakeholders can manage, evaluate, and make decisions about which types of interventions work well and under which conditions. In this article, we will work towards developing a foundation of an Analytics4Action Evaluation Framework (A4AEF) that is…

  9. Can we Build on Social Movement Theories to Develop and Improve Community-Based Participatory Research? A Framework Synthesis Review.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Martin, Debbie H; Macaulay, Ann C; Pluye, Pierre

    2017-06-01

    A long-standing challenge in community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been to anchor practice and evaluation in a relevant and comprehensive theoretical framework of community change. This study describes the development of a multidimensional conceptual framework that builds on social movement theories to identify key components of CBPR processes. Framework synthesis was used as a general literature search and analysis strategy. An initial conceptual framework was developed from the theoretical literature on social movement. A literature search performed to identify illustrative CBPR projects yielded 635 potentially relevant documents, from which eight projects (corresponding to 58 publications) were retained after record and full-text screening. Framework synthesis was used to code and organize data from these projects, ultimately providing a refined framework. The final conceptual framework maps key concepts of CBPR mobilization processes, such as the pivotal role of the partnership; resources and opportunities as necessary components feeding the partnership's development; the importance of framing processes; and a tight alignment between the cause (partnership's goal), the collective action strategy, and the system changes targeted. The revised framework provides a context-specific model to generate a new, innovative understanding of CBPR mobilization processes, drawing on existing theoretical foundations. © 2017 The Authors American Journal of Community Psychology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Community Research and Action.

  10. Post-traumatic stress symptoms in children and adolescents with chronic pain: A topical review of the literature and a proposed framework for future research.

    PubMed

    Holley, A L; Wilson, A C; Noel, M; Palermo, T M

    2016-10-01

    The co-occurrence of chronic pain and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has gained increasing research attention. Studies on associations among pain and PTSS or PTSD in youth have largely been conducted in the context of acute injury or trauma. Less is known about the risk for co-occurrence with paediatric chronic pain. In this review, we (1) propose a conceptual framework to outline factors salient during childhood that may be associated with symptom severity, co-occurrence and mutual maintenance, (2) present relevant literature on PTSS in youth with acute and chronic pain and identify research gaps and (3) provide recommendations to guide paediatric research examining shared symptomatology. Electronic databases (PubMed and Google Scholar) were used to identify relevant articles using the search terms 'child, adolescent, paediatric, chronic pain, acute pain, post-traumatic stress symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder'. Studies were retrieved and reviewed based on relevance to the topic. Our findings revealed that existing biobehavioural and ecological models of paediatric chronic pain lack attention to traumatic events or the potential development of PTSS. Paediatric studies are also limited by lack of a conceptual framework for understanding the prevalence, risk and trajectories of PTSS in youth with chronic pain. Our new developmentally informed framework highlights individual symptoms and shared contextual factors that are important when examining potential associations among paediatric chronic pain and PTSS. Future studies should consider bidirectional and mutually maintaining associations, which will be aided by prospective, longitudinal designs. WHAT DOES THIS REVIEW ADD?: This review presents relevant literature on pain and PTSS in youth and proposes a conceptual framework to examine factors salient during childhood that may be associated with symptom severity, comorbidity and mutual maintenance of chronic

  11. Cheating and punishment in cooperative animal societies.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Christina; Frederickson, Megan E

    2016-02-05

    Cheaters-genotypes that gain a selective advantage by taking the benefits of the social contributions of others while avoiding the costs of cooperating-are thought to pose a major threat to the evolutionary stability of cooperative societies. In order for cheaters to undermine cooperation, cheating must be an adaptive strategy: cheaters must have higher fitness than cooperators, and their behaviour must reduce the fitness of their cooperative partners. It is frequently suggested that cheating is not adaptive because cooperators have evolved mechanisms to punish these behaviours, thereby reducing the fitness of selfish individuals. However, a simpler hypothesis is that such societies arise precisely because cooperative strategies have been favoured over selfish ones-hence, behaviours that have been interpreted as 'cheating' may not actually result in increased fitness, even when they go unpunished. Here, we review the empirical evidence for cheating behaviours in animal societies, including cooperatively breeding vertebrates and social insects, and we ask whether such behaviours are primarily limited by punishment. Our review suggests that both cheating and punishment are probably rarer than often supposed. Uncooperative individuals typically have lower, not higher, fitness than cooperators; and when evidence suggests that cheating may be adaptive, it is often limited by frequency-dependent selection rather than by punishment. When apparently punitive behaviours do occur, it remains an open question whether they evolved in order to limit cheating, or whether they arose before the evolution of cooperation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Bridging the Gap: Teachers Cooperating Together to Implement Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolliffe, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL), in spite of extensive research and documented benefits, is not widely used in England. A review of the literature shows that it requires a staged and sustained approach to implementation, which has led to a gap between its potential and actual use. The case study cited here provides one example of bridging that gap…

  13. Regional technical cooperation.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P H

    1997-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic threatens economic development in Asia because Asia offers fertile conditions for unchecked transmission and because the epidemic has the most impact on young adults who make up a large sector of the work force. Prevention is still possible, however, and should be viewed as an investment in the future. Effective prevention strategies will have regional as well as domestic components and will recognize the hierarchy of interventions and spread the burden among the public sector, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and the private sector in each country. The public sector should 1) ensure that markets function well and do not discriminate against infected individuals; 2) provide a supportive macroeconomic framework of fiscal, trade, and credit policies; and 3) provide public and quasipublic goods, such as information and training. The contribution of NGOs should are vital for reducing the suffering involved with HIV/AIDS. Private sector contributions can include care facilities, research and development, and funding. The private sector must realize that the threat to the stock of human capital posed by HIV/AIDS will reduce profits. The regional dimensions of the HIV/AIDS epidemic relate 1) to factors that contribute to transmission and 2) to approaches that can be taken to prevent transmission and curb its impact. The Greater Mekong Subregion Work Program on HIV/AIDS is a good example of a cooperative regional effort to prevent and control HIV/AIDS. The epidemic requires cooperation among sectors and among countries.

  14. Effective Communication between Preservice and Cooperating Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawley, Ji Ji; Moore, Jenifer; Smajic, Almir

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews research on communication between preservice and cooperating teachers during a teacher internship. The research reveals that poor communication between preservice teachers and cooperating teachers can cause barriers to planning lessons, feedback, and teaching experiences. Additionally, research indicates that…

  15. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with these...

  16. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with these...

  17. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with these...

  18. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with these...

  19. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with these...

  20. Effective Communication between Preservice and Cooperating Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawley, Ji Ji; Moore, Jenifer; Smajic, Almir

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews research on communication between preservice and cooperating teachers during a teacher internship. The research reveals that poor communication between preservice teachers and cooperating teachers can cause barriers to planning lessons, feedback, and teaching experiences. Additionally, research indicates that…

  1. Seeking an Effective Cooperative Learning Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauserman, Cal

    1992-01-01

    Reviews literature on laboratory and field-based studies of cooperative learning, emphasizing field-tested methods that can increase the repertoire of effective teaching methodology. Several cooperative learning methods are summarized: student teams achievement divisions, teams-games-tournament, team-assisted individualization, circles of…

  2. Articulation Workbook for Cooperative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lux, Doris; And Others

    The first part of this workbook reviews and advocates articulation between high school cooperative education programs and vocational programs in higher education. It begins by defining some of the most common terms used to describe articulation, such as "tech prep" and "2+2", and for the implementation of articulation…

  3. Transcultural Cooperation: The Years Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braisted, Paul J.

    1975-01-01

    "The future will bring new opportunities for transcultural cooperation through privately sponsored exchange activities." This analysis of future opportunities includes review of the heritage of educational and cultural exchange and the emerging cultural milieu of political and economic instability, examples of new activities, and characteristics…

  4. Can we decide which outcomes should be measured in every clinical trial? A scoping review of the existing conceptual frameworks and processes to develop core outcome sets.

    PubMed

    Idzerda, Leanne; Rader, Tamara; Tugwell, Peter; Boers, Maarten

    2014-05-01

    The usefulness of randomized control trials to advance clinical care depends upon the outcomes reported, but disagreement on the choice of outcome measures has resulted in inconsistency and the potential for reporting bias. One solution to this problem is the development of a core outcome set: a minimum set of outcome measures deemed critical for clinical decision making. Within rheumatology the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) initiative has pioneered the development of core outcome sets since 1992. As the number of diseases addressed by OMERACT has increased and its experience in formulating core sets has grown, clarification and update of the conceptual framework and formulation of a more explicit process of area/domain core set development has become necessary. As part of the update process of the OMERACT Filter criteria to version 2, a literature review was undertaken to compare and contrast the OMERACT conceptual framework with others within and outside rheumatology. A scoping search was undertaken to examine the extent, range, and nature of conceptual frameworks for core set outcome selection in health. We searched the following resources: Cochrane Library Methods Group Register; Medline; Embase; PsycInfo; Environmental Studies and Policy Collection; and ABI/INFORM Global. We also conducted a targeted Google search. Five conceptual frameworks were identified: the WHO tripartite definition of health; the 5 Ds (discomfort, disability, drug toxicity, dollar cost, and death); the International Classification of Functioning (ICF); PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement System); and the Outcomes Hierarchy. Of these, only the 5 Ds and ICF frameworks have been systematically applied in core set development. Outside the area of rheumatology, several core sets were identified; these had been developed through a limited range of consensus-based methods with varying degrees of methodological rigor. None applied a framework to ensure content validity of

  5. Plant cooperation.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Susan A

    2015-09-25

    The study of plant behaviour will be aided by conceptual approaches and terminology for cooperation, altruism and helping. The plant literature has a rich discussion of helping between species while the animal literature has an extensive and somewhat contentious discussion of within-species helping. Here, I identify and synthesize concepts, terminology and some practical methodology for speaking about helping in plant populations and measuring the costs and benefits. I use Lehmann and Keller's (2006) classification scheme for animal helping and McIntire and Fajardo's (2014) synthesis of facilitation to provide starting points for classifying the mechanisms of how and why organisms help each other. Contextual theory is discussed as a mechanism for understanding and measuring the fitness consequences of helping. I synthesize helping into four categories. The act of helping can be costly to the helper. If the helper gains indirect fitness by helping relatives but loses direct fitness, this is altruism, and it only occurs within species. Helpers can exchange costly help, which is called mutualism when between species, and reciprocation when within a species. The act of helping can directly benefit the helper as well as the recipient, either as an epiphenomenon resulting from behaviours under natural selection for other reasons, or because the helper is creating a mutual benefit, such as satiating predators or supporting a mutualism. Facilitation between species by stress amelioration, creation of novel ecosystems and habitat complexity often meets the definition of epiphenomenon helping. Within species, this kind of helping is called by-product mutualism. If the helping is under selection to create a mutual benefit shared by others, between species this is facilitation with service sharing or access to resources and within species, direct benefits by mutual benefits. These classifications provide a clear starting point for addressing the subject of helping behaviours.

  6. Plant cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The study of plant behaviour will be aided by conceptual approaches and terminology for cooperation, altruism and helping. The plant literature has a rich discussion of helping between species while the animal literature has an extensive and somewhat contentious discussion of within-species helping. Here, I identify and synthesize concepts, terminology and some practical methodology for speaking about helping in plant populations and measuring the costs and benefits. I use Lehmann and Keller's (2006) classification scheme for animal helping and McIntire and Fajardo's (2014) synthesis of facilitation to provide starting points for classifying the mechanisms of how and why organisms help each other. Contextual theory is discussed as a mechanism for understanding and measuring the fitness consequences of helping. I synthesize helping into four categories. The act of helping can be costly to the helper. If the helper gains indirect fitness by helping relatives but loses direct fitness, this is altruism, and it only occurs within species. Helpers can exchange costly help, which is called mutualism when between species, and reciprocation when within a species. The act of helping can directly benefit the helper as well as the recipient, either as an epiphenomenon resulting from behaviours under natural selection for other reasons, or because the helper is creating a mutual benefit, such as satiating predators or supporting a mutualism. Facilitation between species by stress amelioration, creation of novel ecosystems and habitat complexity often meets the definition of epiphenomenon helping. Within species, this kind of helping is called by-product mutualism. If the helping is under selection to create a mutual benefit shared by others, between species this is facilitation with service sharing or access to resources and within species, direct benefits by mutual benefits. These classifications provide a clear starting point for addressing the subject of helping behaviours

  7. Health impact assessment review: a framework for determining the current state-of science and areas for improvement

    EPA Science Inventory

    A systematic review is being conducted of health impact assessments (HIAs) from the U.S. The purpose of this review is to obtain a clear picture of how HIAs are being implemented nationally and to identify potential areas for improving the HIA community of practice. The review is...

  8. Health impact assessment review: a framework for determining the current state-of science and areas for improvement

    EPA Science Inventory

    A systematic review is being conducted of health impact assessments (HIAs) from the U.S. The purpose of this review is to obtain a clear picture of how HIAs are being implemented nationally and to identify potential areas for improving the HIA community of practice. The review is...

  9. A worked example of "best fit" framework synthesis: a systematic review of views concerning the taking of some potential chemopreventive agents.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Christopher; Booth, Andrew; Cooper, Katy

    2011-03-16

    A variety of different approaches to the synthesis of qualitative data are advocated in the literature. The aim of this paper is to describe the application of a pragmatic method of qualitative evidence synthesis and the lessons learned from adopting this "best fit" framework synthesis approach. An evaluation of framework synthesis as an approach to the qualitative systematic review of evidence exploring the views of adults to the taking of potential agents within the context of the primary prevention of colorectal cancer. Twenty papers from North America, Australia, the UK and Europe met the criteria for inclusion. Fourteen themes were identified a priori from a related, existing conceptual model identified in the literature, which were then used to code the extracted data. Further analysis resulted in the generation of a more sophisticated model with additional themes. The synthesis required a combination of secondary framework and thematic analysis approaches and was conducted within a health technology assessment timeframe. The novel and pragmatic "best fit" approach to framework synthesis developed and described here was found to be fit for purpose. Future research should seek to test further this approach to qualitative data synthesis.

  10. Cooperation and discord in global climate policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keohane, Robert O.; Victor, David G.

    2016-06-01

    Effective mitigation of climate change will require deep international cooperation, which is much more difficult to organize than the shallow coordination observed so far. Assessing the prospects for effective joint action on climate change requires an understanding of both the structure of the climate change problem and national preferences for policy action. Preferences have become clearer in light of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties in December 2015. Although deep cooperation remains elusive, many partial efforts could build confidence and lead to larger cuts in emissions. This strategy of decentralized policy coordination will not solve the climate problem, but it could lead incrementally to deeper cooperation.

  11. Review and analysis of the adequacy of the legal and institutional framework for geothermal development in Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.

    1985-12-01

    The legal and institutional framework within which geothermal energy must develop has its origin in the early 1970s. In 1970, the Federal Geothermal Steam Act was passed into law and in 1974 the Washington State Geothermal Act was passed. The legal and institutional framework thus established by the state and federal governments differed substantially in format, content, and direction. In many instances, the legal and institutional framework established left as many questions unanswered as answered, and in some cases, the framework has proven to be more of an obstacle to development than an aid. From an examination of how the state and federal governments have addressed the varying needs of geothermal development and how the courts have interpreted some of their decisions, it is clear that in order to ensure that the legal and institutional framework is adequate to serve the needs of geothermal development, it must address, at a minimum, the following topics: (1) providing developers with access and a priority right to carry out exploration and development activities; (2) characterization of the resource so as to minimize conflicts with other natural resources; (3) establishing ownership; and (4) giving careful consideration to such lease terms as rentals and royalties, lease renewals, and diligence requirements. In addition, the framework must address groundwater law and its implications for geothermal development and how geothermal development will be considered in terms of establishing utility law. At the local level, it is imperative that geothermal be given careful consideration when decisions on resource management, zoning, and regulation are made. Local governments also have the power to establish programs which can provide substantial incentives for geothermal development and, by so doing, ensure that geothermal energy contributes to economic stability and growth.

  12. Midwifery-led antenatal care models: mapping a systematic review to an evidence-based quality framework to identify key components and characteristics of care.

    PubMed

    Symon, Andrew; Pringle, Jan; Cheyne, Helen; Downe, Soo; Hundley, Vanora; Lee, Elaine; Lynn, Fiona; McFadden, Alison; McNeill, Jenny; Renfrew, Mary J; Ross-Davie, Mary; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Whitford, Heather; Alderdice, Fiona

    2016-07-19

    Implementing effective antenatal care models is a key global policy goal. However, the mechanisms of action of these multi-faceted models that would allow widespread implementation are seldom examined and poorly understood. In existing care model analyses there is little distinction between what is done, how it is done, and who does it. A new evidence-informed quality maternal and newborn care (QMNC) framework identifies key characteristics of quality care. This offers the opportunity to identify systematically the characteristics of care delivery that may be generalizable across contexts, thereby enhancing implementation. Our objective was to map the characteristics of antenatal care models tested in Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) to a new evidence-based framework for quality maternal and newborn care; thus facilitating the identification of characteristics of effective care. A systematic review of RCTs of midwifery-led antenatal care models. Mapping and evaluation of these models' characteristics to the QMNC framework using data extraction and scoring forms derived from the five framework components. Paired team members independently extracted data and conducted quality assessment using the QMNC framework and standard RCT criteria. From 13,050 citations initially retrieved we identified 17 RCTs of midwifery-led antenatal care models from Australia (7), the UK (4), China (2), and Sweden, Ireland, Mexico and Canada (1 each). QMNC framework scores ranged from 9 to 25 (possible range 0-32), with most models reporting fewer than half the characteristics associated with quality maternity care. Description of care model characteristics was lacking in many studies, but was better reported for the intervention arms. Organisation of care was the best-described component. Underlying values and philosophy of care were poorly reported. The QMNC framework facilitates assessment of the characteristics of antenatal care models. It is vital to understand all the

  13. Cheating and punishment in cooperative animal societies

    PubMed Central

    Riehl, Christina; Frederickson, Megan E.

    2016-01-01

    Cheaters—genotypes that gain a selective advantage by taking the benefits of the social contributions of others while avoiding the costs of cooperating—are thought to pose a major threat to the evolutionary stability of cooperative societies. In order for cheaters to undermine cooperation, cheating must be an adaptive strategy: cheaters must have higher fitness than cooperators, and their behaviour must reduce the fitness of their cooperative partners. It is frequently suggested that cheating is not adaptive because cooperators have evolved mechanisms to punish these behaviours, thereby reducing the fitness of selfish individuals. However, a simpler hypothesis is that such societies arise precisely because cooperative strategies have been favoured over selfish ones—hence, behaviours that have been interpreted as ‘cheating’ may not actually result in increased fitness, even when they go unpunished. Here, we review the empirical evidence for cheating behaviours in animal societies, including cooperatively breeding vertebrates and social insects, and we ask whether such behaviours are primarily limited by punishment. Our review suggests that both cheating and punishment are probably rarer than often supposed. Uncooperative individuals typically have lower, not higher, fitness than cooperators; and when evidence suggests that cheating may be adaptive, it is often limited by frequency-dependent selection rather than by punishment. When apparently punitive behaviours do occur, it remains an open question whether they evolved in order to limit cheating, or whether they arose before the evolution of cooperation. PMID:26729930

  14. The Evolution of Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugatkin, Lee Alan

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the four paths to the evolution and maintenance of cooperative behavior and provides two stories highlighting each path. Discusses reciprocity, byproduct mutualism, kin-selected cooperation, and group-selected cooperation. Presents some thoughts on where the study of animal cooperation might head in the future. Contains 67 references.…

  15. Development of an interprofessional competency framework in Japan.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Junji; Sakai, Ikuko; Otsuka, Mariko; Yoshimoto, Hisashi; Yoshida, Kazue; Goto, Michiko; Shimoi, Toshinori

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a project that aimed to identify a set of competencies (domains and statements) to prepare Japanese students and healthcare practitioners for collaborative practice. The Japan Association for Interprofessional Education (JAIPE) has started a government-funded project to formulate its interprofessional competency framework, in cooperation with professional organisations (e.g. Japan Society for Medical Education) in healthcare and social sciences. This three-year project is underway as part of the Initiative to Build up the Core Healthcare Personnel programme of Mie University. This project consists of five stages: literature review, data collection, prototype development, consensus formation, and finalisation. Our efforts will culminate in Japan's first interprofessional competency framework, with consensus from relevant academic societies and other stakeholders. We hope that the involvement of stakeholder participation will improve the usability of the final interprofessional competency framework.

  16. PREFACE: Cooperative dynamics Cooperative dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gov, Nir

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics within living cells are dominated by non-equilibrium processes that consume chemical energy (usually in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate) and convert it into mechanical forces and motion. The mechanisms that allow this conversion process are mostly driven by the components of the cytoskeleton: (i) directed (polar) polymerization of filaments (either actin or microtubules) and (ii) molecular motors. The forces and motions produced by these two components of the cytoskeleton give rise to the formation of cellular shapes, and drive the intracellular transport and organization. It is clear that these systems present a multi-scale challenge, from the physics of the molecular processes to the organization of many interacting units. Understanding the physical nature of these systems will have a large impact on many fundamental problems in biology and break new grounds in the field of non-equilibrium physics. This field of research has seen a rapid development over the last ten years. Activities in this area range from theoretical and experimental work on the underlying fundamental (bio)physics at the single-molecule level, to investigations (in vivo and in vitro) of the dynamics and patterns of macroscopic pieces of 'living matter'. In this special issue we have gathered contributions that span the whole spectrum of length- and complexity-scales in this field. Some of the works demonstrate how active forces self-organize within the polymerizing cytoskeleton, on the level of cooperative cargo transport via motors or due to active fluxes at the cell membrane. On a larger scale, it is shown that polar filaments coupled to molecular motors give rise to a huge variety of surprising dynamics and patterns: spontaneously looping rings of gliding microtubules, and emergent phases of self-organized filaments and motors in different geometries. All of these articles share the common feature of being out-of-equilibrium, driven by metabolism. As demonstrated here

  17. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protectingit from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive(WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of ...

  18. The Software Support Qualitative Assessment Methodology. Volume 2. The Review of Metrics for Developing an Information Systems Support Measurement Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-02

    an Information Systems Support Measurement (UNCLASSIFIED) Framework 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) W. Michael McCracken, Elizabeth Mynatt , Christopher Smith... Mynatt , Christopher Smith Software Engineering Research Center Georgia Institute of Technology December 1990 I I The Software Supportability... Mynatt Center for Information Management Research Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332-0280 1. Introduction A major contributor to the life

  19. 77 FR 56202 - Notification of an External Peer Review Meeting for the Draft Framework for Human Health Risk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... comments on the draft document at the meeting. The draft document is available via the internet on the Risk... Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, VA 22202. Internet: The draft document can be downloaded from http://www... established history of conducting human health risk assessments. The final Framework is intended to foster...

  20. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protectingit from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive(WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of ...

  1. Removing user fees for health services in low-income countries: a multi-country review framework for assessing the process of policy change.

    PubMed

    Hercot, David; Meessen, Bruno; Ridde, Valery; Gilson, Lucy

    2011-11-01

    Several authors have stressed the fact that many policy reforms fail because of poor formulation or implementation. On the other hand, the health financing literature provides little guidance to policy makers in low-income countries on how to implement a health care financing reform in ways that enhance its chance of achieving policy objectives, even less so for a user fee removal reform. This paper presents the framework used for a multi-country review of the policy process of removing user fees in six sub-Saharan African countries. The review aimed at developing operational guidance for health managers involved in user fee removal reform. Drawing broadly on Walt and Gilson's 'health policy analysis triangle' (context-actor-process-content), we focused particularly on understanding the process of planning and implementing the reform led by central-level policy actors. Our core analytic strategy was the verification of a list of 'good practice hypotheses' that might be expected in a health financing policy reform against experience. This framework offers an approach for how to analyse health financing policy reform processes in low-income countries. It allows for an explicit and transparent review of multiple experiences against a set of clear hypotheses. This approach might be a step in the direction of research that supports better formulation and implementation of policies in resource-poor settings.

  2. What we talk about when we talk about recovery: a systematic review and best-fit framework synthesis of qualitative literature.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Simon Robertson; Tansey, Louise; Quayle, Ethel

    2017-06-01

    The recovery approach is increasingly popular among mental-health services, but there is a lack of consensus about its applicability and it has been criticised for imposing professionalised ideas onto what was originally a service-user concept. To carry out a review and synthesis of qualitative research to answer the question: "What do we know about how service users with severe and enduring mental illness experience the process of recovery?" It was hoped that this would improve clarity and increase understanding. A systematic review identified 15 peer-reviewed articles examining experiences of recovery. Twelve of these were analysed using best-fit framework synthesis, with the CHIME model of recovery providing the exploratory framework. The optimistic themes of CHIME accounted for the majority of people's experiences, but more than 30% of data were not felt to be encapsulated. An expanded conceptualisation of recovery is proposed, in which difficulties are more prominently considered. An overly optimistic, professionally imposed view of recovery might homogenise or even blame individuals rather than empower them. Further understanding is needed of different experiences of recovery, and of people's struggles to recover.

  3. A real-world approach to Evidence-Based Medicine in general practice: a competency framework derived from a systematic review and Delphi process.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, Kevin; Ward, Alison; Heneghan, Carl

    2017-05-03

    Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) skills have been included in general practice curricula and competency frameworks. However, GPs experience numerous barriers to developing and maintaining EBM skills, and some GPs feel the EBM movement misunderstands, and threatens their traditional role. We therefore need a new approach that acknowledges the constraints encountered in real-world general practice. The aim of this study was to synthesise from empirical research a real-world EBM competency framework for general practice, which could be applied in training, in the individual pursuit of continuing professional development, and in routine care. We sought to integrate evidence from the literature with evidence derived from the opinions of experts in the fields of general practice and EBM. We synthesised two sets of themes describing the meaning of EBM in general practice. One set of themes was derived from a mixed-methods systematic review of the literature; the other set was derived from the further development of those themes using a Delphi process among a panel of EBM and general practice experts. From these two sets of themes we constructed a real-world EBM competency framework for general practice. A simple competency framework was constructed, that acknowledges the constraints of real-world general practice: (1) mindfulness - in one's approach towards EBM itself, and to the influences on decision-making; (2) pragmatism - in one's approach to finding and evaluating evidence; and (3) knowledge of the patient - as the most useful resource in effective communication of evidence. We present a clinical scenario to illustrate how a GP might demonstrate these competencies in their routine daily work. We have proposed a real-world EBM competency framework for general practice, derived from empirical research, which acknowledges the constraints encountered in modern general practice. Further validation of these competencies is required, both as an educational resource and as a

  4. 24 CFR 135.72 - Cooperation in achieving compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperation in achieving compliance... Compliance Review § 135.72 Cooperation in achieving compliance. (a) The Assistant Secretary recognizes that... the cooperation and assistance of HUD recipients and their contractors and subcontractors....

  5. 24 CFR 135.72 - Cooperation in achieving compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooperation in achieving compliance... Compliance Review § 135.72 Cooperation in achieving compliance. (a) The Assistant Secretary recognizes that... the cooperation and assistance of HUD recipients and their contractors and subcontractors....

  6. 24 CFR 135.72 - Cooperation in achieving compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cooperation in achieving compliance... Compliance Review § 135.72 Cooperation in achieving compliance. (a) The Assistant Secretary recognizes that... the cooperation and assistance of HUD recipients and their contractors and subcontractors....

  7. 24 CFR 135.72 - Cooperation in achieving compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cooperation in achieving compliance... Compliance Review § 135.72 Cooperation in achieving compliance. (a) The Assistant Secretary recognizes that... the cooperation and assistance of HUD recipients and their contractors and subcontractors....

  8. 24 CFR 135.72 - Cooperation in achieving compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cooperation in achieving compliance... Compliance Review § 135.72 Cooperation in achieving compliance. (a) The Assistant Secretary recognizes that... the cooperation and assistance of HUD recipients and their contractors and subcontractors....

  9. Playing in three makes it simpler: mapping the cognitive figure-ground framework onto cancer-immunology and immunotherapy (Review).

    PubMed

    Gidron, Yori; Vannucci, Luca

    2010-05-01

    The avalanche of research findings in complex multidisciplinary fields, such as cancer immunobiology, requests organizing and practical working models for scientists and clinicians. Frameworks from one scientific discipline can be adopted for another one, to clarify and provide new insights into complex findings. A 'figure-ground' (FG) perspective was adopted from cognitive sciences to construct a simple organizing tool, which can assist in understanding tumour development and immunotherapy designing. In an FG arena, there is a figure that needs to be contrasted from a background to be seen by a viewer, who may have a mental representation of the figure (i.e. knows what the figure features look like). Applying this framework to cancer, three players emerge: the viewer (immune system components), the figure (tumour), and the background (e.g., normal cells) with their dynamic interactions. Various characteristics of tumour development such as reduced expression of major-histocompatilibity complex (MHC) molecules or infiltration by inflammatory cells in its boundaries make tumour-immunity interplay highly suitable to an FG perspective. We describe the basic FG frame-work and immuno-biology of tumour development, thereafter reframed by the FG freamework. The term 'antigenic contrast' is introduced to reflect the contrast between the tumour figure and its variable background. Antigenic contrast emerges as a main factor enabling the immune system viewer to detect and mount adequate reactions against a tumour figure. We provide empirical examples of immunotherapeutic interventions whose results are explained by the FG perspective. For example, vaccines are forms of sharpening the 'mental' representation of the immune viewer concerning the tumour figure, while administering interferons can be seen as enhancing tumour figure salience by rescuing MHC expression. This framework highlights important elements in complex networks (e.g., cancer immunobiology), enhances

  10. IBRD Operational Decision Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwalt, R; Hibbard, W; Raber, E; Carlsen, T; Folks, K; MacQueen, D; Mancieri, S; Bunt, T; Richards, J; Hirabayashi-Dethier, J

    2010-11-12

    The IBRD Operational Decision Framework in this document is an expansion of an emerging general risk management framework under development by an interagency working group. It provides the level of detail necessary to develop a general Consequence Management Guidance Document for biological contamination remediation and restoration. It is the intent of this document to support both wide area and individual site remediation and restoration activities. This product was initiated as a portion of the IBRD Task 1 Systems Analysis to aid in identification of wide area remediation and restoration shortcomings and gaps. The draft interagency general risk management framework was used as the basis for the analysis. The initial Task 1 analysis document expanded the draft interagency framework to a higher level of resolution, building on both the logic structure and the accompanying text explanations. It was then employed in a qualitative manner to identify responsible agencies, data requirements, tool requirements, and current capabilities for each decision and task. This resulted in identifying shortcomings and gaps needing resolution. Several meetings of a joint LLNL/SNL working group reviewed and approved the initial content of this analysis. At the conclusion of Task 1, work continued on the expanded framework to generate this Operational Decision Framework which is consistent with the existing interagency general risk management framework. A large LLNL task group met repeatedly over a three-month period to develop the expanded framework, coordinate the framework with the biological remediation checklist, and synchronize the logic with the Consequence Management Plan table of contents. The expanded framework was briefed at a large table top exercise reviewing the interagency risk management framework. This exercise had representation from major US metropolitan areas as well as national agencies. This product received positive comments from the participants. Upon

  11. A framework of comfort for practice: An integrative review identifying the multiple influences on patients' experience of comfort in healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Wensley, Cynthia; Botti, Mari; McKillop, Ann; Merry, Alan F

    2017-04-01

    Comfort is central to patient experience but the concept of comfort is poorly defined. This review aims to develop a framework representing patients' complex perspective of comfort to inform practice and guide initiatives to improve the quality of healthcare. CINAHL, MEDLINE Complete, PsycINFO and Google Scholar (November 2016); reference lists of included publications. Qualitative and theoretical studies advancing knowledge about the concept of comfort in healthcare settings. Studies rated for methodological quality and relevance to patients' perspectives. Data on design, methods, features of the concept of comfort, influences on patients' comfort. Data were systematically coded and categorized using Framework method. Sixty-two studies (14 theoretical and 48 qualitative) were included. Qualitative studies explored patient and staff perspectives in varying healthcare settings including hospice, emergency departments, paediatric, medical and surgical wards and residential care for the elderly. From patients' perspective, comfort is multidimensional, characterized by relief from physical discomfort and feeling positive and strengthened in one's ability to cope with the challenges of illness, injury and disability. Different factors are important to different individuals. We identified 10 areas of influence within four interrelated levels: patients' use of self-comforting strategies; family presence; staff actions and behaviours; and environmental factors. Our data provide new insights into the nature of comfort as a highly personal and contextual experience influenced in different individuals by different factors that we have classified into a framework to guide practice and quality improvement initiatives.

  12. Individual performance review in hospital practice: the development of a framework and evaluation of doctors' attitudes to its value and implementation.

    PubMed

    Trebble, T M; Cruickshank, L; Hockey, P M; Heyworth, N; Powell, T; Clarke, N

    2013-11-01

    Appraisal, or independent performance review (IPR) is used in human resources management in the commercial and public sectors to evaluate the performance of an employee against agreed local organisational expectations and objectives, and to identify their requirements for development and effective management. IPR for NHS consultants may provide essential information for job planning, contribute towards medical appraisal for revalidation, and facilitate productivity and quality improvement. To develop a framework for IPR for consultants, and to determine attitudes on its value, process and content. Information from commercial, public and voluntary sector models and published and other literature sources were used to develop an IPR framework. This was assessed through a three-cycle action research methodology involving qualitative interviews with 22 consultants (predominantly with medical management roles). The domains of the IPR framework included: (1) performance against objectives; (2) behaviour and leadership; (3) talent management; (4) agreed future objectives. A number of themes were identified from the consultant interviews including: ineffective current appraisal systems reflecting a lack of valid performance data and allotted time; a lack of empowerment of medical managers to address performance issues; IPR as a more explicit system, offering value in evaluating doctors performance; and the dependence of successful implementation on the engagement of the Trust executive. IPR may have value for performance evaluation of consultants, contributing toward job planning and complementing medical appraisal. Support by their employing organisation and engagement with medical managers in design and implementation is likely to be essential.

  13. Mobile health for non-communicable diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of the literature and strategic framework for research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) approaches for non-communicable disease (NCD) care seem particularly applicable to sub-Saharan Africa given the penetration of mobile phones in the region. The evidence to support its implementation has not been critically reviewed. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials, a number of other databases, and grey literature for studies reported between 1992 and 2012 published in English or with an English abstract available. We extracted data using a standard form in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Results Our search yielded 475 citations of which eleven were reviewed in full after applying exclusion criteria. Five of those studies met the inclusion criteria of using a mobile phone for non-communicable disease care in sub-Saharan Africa. Most studies lacked comparator arms, clinical endpoints, or were of short duration. mHealth for NCDs in sub-Saharan Africa appears feasible for follow-up and retention of patients, can support peer support networks, and uses a variety of mHealth modalities. Whether mHealth is associated with any adverse effect has not been systematically studied. Only a small number of mHealth strategies for NCDs have been studied in sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusions There is insufficient evidence to support the effectiveness of mHealth for NCD care in sub-Saharan Africa. We present a framework for cataloging evidence on mHealth strategies that incorporates health system challenges and stages of NCD care. This framework can guide approaches to fill evidence gaps in this area. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42014007527. PMID:24927745

  14. Publication Design & Printing Basics for Cooperative Education Professionals. Cooperative Education Marketing Digest Series 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattison, Polly

    1990-01-01

    One of a series of digests on topics related to the marketing of cooperative education, this digest discusses publication basics for cooperative education professionals. Designed to provide the kind of nuts and bolts information to be kept at hand for review before beginning any printing project, the digest discusses: (1) simplicity in the…

  15. Small groups and long memories promote cooperation.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alexander J; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2016-06-01

    Complex social behaviors lie at the heart of many of the challenges facing evolutionary biology, sociology, economics, and beyond. For evolutionary biologists the question is often how group behaviors such as collective action, or decision making that accounts for memories of past experience, can emerge and persist in an evolving system. Evolutionary game theory provides a framework for formalizing these questions and admitting them to rigorous study. Here we develop such a framework to study the evolution of sustained collective action in multi-player public-goods games, in which players have arbitrarily long memories of prior rounds of play and can react to their experience in an arbitrary way. We construct a coordinate system for memory-m strategies in iterated n-player games that permits us to characterize all cooperative strategies that resist invasion by any mutant strategy, and stabilize cooperative behavior. We show that, especially when groups are small, longer-memory strategies make cooperation easier to evolve, by increasing the number of ways to stabilize cooperation. We also explore the co-evolution of behavior and memory. We find that even when memory has a cost, longer-memory strategies often evolve, which in turn drives the evolution of cooperation, even when the benefits for cooperation are low.

  16. Small groups and long memories promote cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alexander J.; Plotkin, Joshua B.

    2016-01-01

    Complex social behaviors lie at the heart of many of the challenges facing evolutionary biology, sociology, economics, and beyond. For evolutionary biologists the question is often how group behaviors such as collective action, or decision making that accounts for memories of past experience, can emerge and persist in an evolving system. Evolutionary game theory provides a framework for formalizing these questions and admitting them to rigorous study. Here we develop such a framework to study the evolution of sustained collective action in multi-player public-goods games, in which players have arbitrarily long memories of prior rounds of play and can react to their experience in an arbitrary way. We construct a coordinate system for memory-m strategies in iterated n-player games that permits us to characterize all cooperative strategies that resist invasion by any mutant strategy, and stabilize cooperative behavior. We show that, especially when groups are small, longer-memory strategies make cooperation easier to evolve, by increasing the number of ways to stabilize cooperation. We also explore the co-evolution of behavior and memory. We find that even when memory has a cost, longer-memory strategies often evolve, which in turn drives the evolution of cooperation, even when the benefits for cooperation are low. PMID:27247059

  17. Allostery and cooperativity revisited

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Qiang; Karplus, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Although phenomenlogical models that account for cooperativity in allosteric systems date back to the early and mid-60's (e.g., the KNF and MWC models), there is resurgent interest in the topic due to the recent experimental and computational studies that attempted to reveal, at an atomistic level, how allostery actually works. In this review, using systems for which atomistic simulations have been carried out in our groups as examples, we describe the current understanding of allostery, how the mechanisms go beyond the classical MWC/Pauling-KNF descriptions, and point out that the “new view” of allostery, emphasizing “population shifts,” is, in fact, an “old view.” The presentation offers not only an up-to-date description of allostery from a theoretical/computational perspective, but also helps to resolve several outstanding issues concerning allostery. PMID:18560010

  18. Implementing Cooperative Learning with Mildly Handicapped Students in Regular Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Howard; Freund, Lisa A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses research on cooperative learning, shows how it can help meet student needs in heterogeneous classes, addresses how to overcome potential problems, and offers implementation guidelines. It also provides a framework for initiating cooperative learning in ways that reduce or eliminate resistance. (Author/JDD)

  19. A Framework for Collaborative Review of Candidate Events in High Data Rate Streams: the V-Fastr Experiment as a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Andrew F.; Cinquini, Luca; Khudikyan, Shakeh E.; Thompson, David R.; Mattmann, Chris A.; Wagstaff, Kiri; Lazio, Joseph; Jones, Dayton

    2015-01-01

    “Fast radio transients” are defined here as bright millisecond pulses of radio-frequency energy. These short-duration pulses can be produced by known objects such as pulsars or potentially by more exotic objects such as evaporating black holes. The identification and verification of such an event would be of great scientific value. This is one major goal of the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) Fast Transient Experiment (V-FASTR), a software-based detection system installed at the VLBA. V-FASTR uses a “commensal” (piggy-back) approach, analyzing all array data continually during routine VLBA observations and identifying candidate fast transient events. Raw data can be stored from a buffer memory, which enables a comprehensive off-line analysis. This is invaluable for validating the astrophysical origin of any detection. Candidates discovered by the automatic system must be reviewed each day by analysts to identify any promising signals that warrant a more in-depth investigation. To support the timely analysis of fast transient detection candidates by V-FASTR scientists, we have developed a metadata-driven, collaborative candidate review framework. The framework consists of a software pipeline for metadata processing composed of both open source software components and project-specific code written expressly to extract and catalog metadata from the incoming V-FASTR data products, and a web-based data portal that facilitates browsing and inspection of the available metadata for candidate events extracted from the VLBA radio data.

  20. A framework for collaborative review of candidate events in high data rate streams: The V-FASTR experiment as a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Andrew F.; Cinquini, Luca; Khudikyan, Shakeh E.; Thompson, David R.; Mattmann, Chris A.; Wagstaff, Kiri; Lazio, Joseph; Jones, Dayton

    2015-01-01

    “Fast radio transients” are defined here as bright millisecond pulses of radio-frequency energy. These short-duration pulses can be produced by known objects such as pulsars or potentially by more exotic objects such as evaporating black holes. The identification and verification of such an event would be of great scientific value. This is one major goal of the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) Fast Transient Experiment (V-FASTR), a software-based detection system installed at the VLBA. V-FASTR uses a “commensal” (piggy-back) approach, analyzing all array data continually during routine VLBA observations and identifying candidate fast transient events. Raw data can be stored from a buffer memory, which enables a comprehensive off-line analysis. This is invaluable for validating the astrophysical origin of any detection. Candidates discovered by the automatic system must be reviewed each day by analysts to identify any promising signals that warrant a more in-depth investigation. To support the timely analysis of fast transient detection candidates by V-FASTR scientists, we have developed a metadata-driven, collaborative candidate review framework. The framework consists of a software pipeline for metadata processing composed of both open source software components and project-specific code written expressly to extract and catalog metadata from the incoming V-FASTR data products, and a web-based data portal that facilitates browsing and inspection of the available metadata for candidate events extracted from the VLBA radio data.