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Sample records for coordinated association study

  1. Movement Coordination in Psychotherapy: Synchrony of Hand Movements is Associated with Session Outcome. A Single-Case Study.

    PubMed

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Previous work has shown that nonverbal behavior was associated with both session-level outcome and global outcome in psychotherapy. Nonverbal synchrony--here the coordination between patient's and psychotherapist's movement behavior--is a facet of nonverbal behavior that has recently been studied with video-based motion energy analysis (MEA). The present study aimed to replicate and extend these findings by using direct acquisition of movement data. In a single-case analysis, we monitored patient's and therapist's hand movements with a high-resolution accelerometric measurement system (Vitaport (r)). In addition to these behavioral data, both patient and therapist provided session-level ratings of various factors relevant to the psychotherapy process, which were assessed with post-session questionnaires. The patient-therapist coordination of hand movements, i.e. nonverbal synchrony, in (N = 27) sessions of this dyadic psychotherapy was positively associated with progress reported in post-session questionnaires. Sessions with good evaluations concerning the quality of therapeutic alliance were characterized by high movement coordination. Thus, accelerometric data of this therapy dyad confirmed previous findings gained through video analyses: The coordination of nonverbal behavior shown by patient and therapist was an indicator of beneficial processes occurring within sessions. This replication study showed that nonverbal synchrony embodies important aspects of the alliance. Its assessment and quantification may provide therapists important additional information on processes that usually occur outside conscious awareness, but that nevertheless influence core aspects of the therapy.

  2. Movement Coordination in Psychotherapy: Synchrony of Hand Movements is Associated with Session Outcome. A Single-Case Study.

    PubMed

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Previous work has shown that nonverbal behavior was associated with both session-level outcome and global outcome in psychotherapy. Nonverbal synchrony--here the coordination between patient's and psychotherapist's movement behavior--is a facet of nonverbal behavior that has recently been studied with video-based motion energy analysis (MEA). The present study aimed to replicate and extend these findings by using direct acquisition of movement data. In a single-case analysis, we monitored patient's and therapist's hand movements with a high-resolution accelerometric measurement system (Vitaport (r)). In addition to these behavioral data, both patient and therapist provided session-level ratings of various factors relevant to the psychotherapy process, which were assessed with post-session questionnaires. The patient-therapist coordination of hand movements, i.e. nonverbal synchrony, in (N = 27) sessions of this dyadic psychotherapy was positively associated with progress reported in post-session questionnaires. Sessions with good evaluations concerning the quality of therapeutic alliance were characterized by high movement coordination. Thus, accelerometric data of this therapy dyad confirmed previous findings gained through video analyses: The coordination of nonverbal behavior shown by patient and therapist was an indicator of beneficial processes occurring within sessions. This replication study showed that nonverbal synchrony embodies important aspects of the alliance. Its assessment and quantification may provide therapists important additional information on processes that usually occur outside conscious awareness, but that nevertheless influence core aspects of the therapy. PMID:27033131

  3. Attention during functional tasks is associated with motor performance in children with developmental coordination disorder: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Chung, Joanne W Y; Cheng, Yoyo T Y; Yam, Timothy T T; Chiu, Hsiu-Ching; Fong, Daniel Y T; Cheung, C Y; Yuen, Lily; Yu, Esther Y T; Hung, Yeung Sam; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Ng, Shamay S M

    2016-09-01

    This cross-sectional and exploratory study aimed to compare motor performance and electroencephalographic (EEG) attention levels in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and those with typical development, and determine the relationship between motor performance and the real-time EEG attention level in children with DCD.Eighty-six children with DCD [DCD: n = 57; DCD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): n = 29] and 99 children with typical development were recruited. Their motor performance was assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) and attention during the tasks of the MABC was evaluated by EEG.All children with DCD had higher MABC impairment scores and lower EEG attention scores than their peers (P < 0.05). After accounting for age, sex, body mass index, and physical activity level, the attention index remained significantly associated with the MABC total impairment score and explained 14.1% of the variance in children who had DCD but not ADHD (P = 0.009) and 17.5% of the variance in children with both DCD and ADHD (P = 0.007). Children with DCD had poorer motor performance and were less attentive to movements than their peers. Their poor motor performance may be explained by inattention.

  4. Attention during functional tasks is associated with motor performance in children with developmental coordination disorder: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Chung, Joanne W Y; Cheng, Yoyo T Y; Yam, Timothy T T; Chiu, Hsiu-Ching; Fong, Daniel Y T; Cheung, C Y; Yuen, Lily; Yu, Esther Y T; Hung, Yeung Sam; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Ng, Shamay S M

    2016-09-01

    This cross-sectional and exploratory study aimed to compare motor performance and electroencephalographic (EEG) attention levels in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and those with typical development, and determine the relationship between motor performance and the real-time EEG attention level in children with DCD.Eighty-six children with DCD [DCD: n = 57; DCD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): n = 29] and 99 children with typical development were recruited. Their motor performance was assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) and attention during the tasks of the MABC was evaluated by EEG.All children with DCD had higher MABC impairment scores and lower EEG attention scores than their peers (P < 0.05). After accounting for age, sex, body mass index, and physical activity level, the attention index remained significantly associated with the MABC total impairment score and explained 14.1% of the variance in children who had DCD but not ADHD (P = 0.009) and 17.5% of the variance in children with both DCD and ADHD (P = 0.007). Children with DCD had poorer motor performance and were less attentive to movements than their peers. Their poor motor performance may be explained by inattention. PMID:27631272

  5. Attentional Loads Associated with Interlimb Interactions Underlying Rhythmic Bimanual Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridderikhoff, Arne; Peper, C. E.; Beek, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of rhythmic bimanual coordination under dual-task conditions revealed (1) a dependence of secondary task performance on the stability of coordinative tasks, in that secondary task performance was better during in-phase than antiphase coordination, and (2) a shift in the mean relative phasing between the limbs compared to single-task…

  6. Coordination changes associated with practice of a soccer kick.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D I; Sidaway, B

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in coordination associated with practice of a soccer kick. Video records were collected on 6 novice, right-footed soccer players prior to and after 20 regularly scheduled kicking practice sessions. Three experienced players were also videotaped for comparison. Movement of the right leg was digitized and analyzed using motion analysis software. As a result of practice, subjects were able to significantly increase the maximum resultant linear velocity of the foot, and these increases were accompanied by changes in the pattern of coordination underlying the movement. These changes were assessed qualitatively through the topological characteristics of the relative motions of the hip and knee and quantitatively through three different timing variables. The results provide some support for Bernstein's (1967) ideas on the acquisition of skilled behavior as well as for the two-stage model of motor learning proposed by Newell (1985).

  7. Factors Associated with Adherence to an End-of-study Biopsy: Lessons from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (SWOG-Coordinated Intergroup Study S9217)

    PubMed Central

    Gritz, Ellen R.; Arnold, Kathryn B.; Moinpour, Carol M.; Burton-Chase, Allison M.; Tangen, Catherine M.; Probstfield, Jeffrey F.; See, William A.; Lieber, Michael M.; Caggiano, Vincent; Moody-Thomas, Sarah; Szczepanek, Connie; Ryan, Anne; Carlin, Susie; Hill, Shannon; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Padberg, Rose Mary; Minasian, Lori M.; Meyskens, Frank L.; Thompson, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) was a 7-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the efficacy of finasteride for the prevention of prostate cancer with a primary outcome of histologically-determined prevalence of prostate cancer at the end of 7 years. Methods A systematic modeling process using logistic regression identified factors available at year 6 that are associated with end-of-study (EOS) biopsy adherence at year 7, stratified by whether participants were ever prompted for a prostate biopsy by year 6. Final models were evaluated for discrimination. At year 6, 13,590 men were available for analysis. Results Participants were more likely to have the EOS biopsy if they were adherent to study visit schedules and procedures and/or were in good health (p<.01). Participants at larger sites and/or sites that received retention and adherence grants were also more likely to have the EOS biopsy (p<.05). Conclusions Our results show good adherence to study requirements one year prior to the EOS biopsy was associated with greater odds that a participant would comply with the invasive EOS requirement. Impact Monitoring adherence behaviors may identify participants at risk of non-adherence to more demanding study end points. Such information could help frame adherence intervention strategies in future trials. PMID:25028457

  8. Coordinated Noninvasive Studies (CNS) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauter, Judith

    1988-11-01

    Research activities during this period include: data collection related to the interface between complex-sound production and perception, specifically, studies on speech acoustics including two experiments on voice-onset-time variability in productions by speakers of several languages, and a series on acoustical characteristics of emotional expression; data collection regarding individual differences in the effect of stimulus characteristic on relative ear advantages; continuing data analysis and new collections documenting individual differences in auditory evoked potentials, with details related to auditory-systems asymmetries preliminary tests regarding the match between behavioral measures of relative ear advantages and quantitative-electroencephalographic asymmetries observed during auditory stimulation; pilot testing using a combination of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance's (NMR) anatomical-imaging and chemical-spectral-analysis capabilities to study physiological activation in the human brain.

  9. Electrician's Helper. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, Danny

    This guide is designed to assist teacher-coordinators supervising cooperative education programs for electrician's helpers in helping students complete a set of individualized, competency-based training activities dealing with electricity and electrical circuits and equipment. The first part of the manual includes a progress chart, a study guide…

  10. Plumber's Helper. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traylor, Charles R.

    This individualized, competency-based study guide is designed to assist teacher-coordinators supervising cooperative education programs for plumber's helpers in providing students with general information for immediate reinforcement on the job and developing an understanding of the job prior to employment. A progress chart is provided to allow the…

  11. Coordination study of chitosan and Fe 3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Raúl B.; Franco, Ana Paula; Yola, Oscar R.; López-Delgado, Aurora; Felcman, Judith; Recio, María Angeles L.; Mercê, Ana Lucia Ramalho

    2008-04-01

    The coordination of Fe 3+ with chitosan was studied, considering the type of acid for dissolving the ligand, the pH for the medium, and the metal-biopolymer ratio. Potentiometric and ultraviolet-visible titrations, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction were employed. The polymer coordinates with the metal cation through the amino and hydroxyl groups in the entire pH range studied, with pH values around 3-6 being the most important region. The logarithms of the overall binding constants for the equilibria were: A: Chit-Fe, β A 16.06 ± 0.07; B: Chit 2-FeH, β B 32.64 ± 0.07; C: Chit 3-Fe, β C 35.6 ± 0.1; D: Chit 3-FeH, β D 49.0 ± 0.2, respectively. The coordination is made either by the amino or/and the hydroxyl groups with water molecules or/and chloride ions completing the coordination sphere for the metal giving rise to among other possible, di- to hexacoordinated complexed species [FeNO 2Cl 3], [FeN 2O 2Cl 2], [FeN 3O 3] and [FeN 2O 4].

  12. Developmental and physical-fitness associations with gross motor coordination problems in Peruvian children.

    PubMed

    de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Bustamante Valdívia, Alcibíades; Nevill, Alan; Freitas, Duarte; Tani, Go; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José António Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the developmental characteristics (biological maturation and body size) associated with gross motor coordination problems in 5193 Peruvian children (2787 girls) aged 6-14 years from different geographical locations, and to investigate how the probability that children suffer with gross motor coordination problems varies with physical fitness. Children with gross motor coordination problems were more likely to have lower flexibility and explosive strength levels, having adjusted for age, sex, maturation and study site. Older children were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems, as were those with greater body mass index. However, more mature children were less likely to have gross motor coordination problems, although children who live at sea level or at high altitude were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems than children living in the jungle. Our results provide evidence that children and adolescents with lower physical fitness are more likely to have gross motor coordination difficulties. The identification of youths with gross motor coordination problems and providing them with effective intervention programs is an important priority in order to overcome such developmental problems, and help to improve their general health status.

  13. The Washington State System for Coordination of Staff Development. The Staff Development Coordination Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This report outlines the roles and responsibilities, pertaining to the improvement amd coordination of statewide teacher inservice, of the Superintendent of Public Instruction (SPI) in the state of Washington. After a field-based research study was conducted, a system was devised by which the SPI can improve coordination of staff development…

  14. 77 FR 65545 - Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. v. Western Electric Coordinating Council...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. v. Western Electric Coordinating Council and North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Notice of Complaint Take notice that... petition requesting resolution of the conflict between Western Electric Coordinating Council and...

  15. Care Coordination Associated with Improved Timing of Newborn Primary Care Visits.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Neera K; Hall, Eric S; Kahn, Robert S; Wexelblatt, Scott L; Greenberg, James M; Samaan, Zeina M; Brown, Courtney M

    2016-09-01

    Objective Despite practice recommendations that all newborns be examined within 3-5 days after discharge, many are not seen within this timeframe. Our objective was to determine the association between care coordination and timing of newborn follow-up. Methods This retrospective study evaluated 6251 newborns from eight maternity hospitals who scheduled a primary care appointment at one of two academic pediatric practices over 3.5 years. Two programs were sequentially implemented: (1) newborn discharge coordination, and (2) primary care intake coordination. Primary outcome was days between discharge and follow-up, dichotomized as ≤ or >5 days. Number of rescheduled appointments and loss to follow-up were also assessed. Adjusted relative risks (RR) and odds ratios (OR) were determined by piecewise generalized linear and logistic regression. Results Among 5943 newborns with a completed visit, 52.9 % were seen within 5 days of discharge (mean 6.7 days). After multivariable adjustment, the pre-exposure period (8 months) demonstrated a downward monthly trend in completing early follow-up (RR 0.93, p < 0.001). After initial program implementation, we observed a 3 % monthly increase (RR 1.03, p < 0.001 for test of slope change from pre-exposure to post-exposure), such that likelihood of recommended follow-up increased by roughly 72 % after discharge coordinator implementation and roughly 33 % after primary care coordinator implementation. The latter was also associated with a 13 % monthly decrease in odds of loss to follow-up (OR 0.87, p < 0.001). Conclusions for Practice Care coordination increases adherence among low income families to recommended newborn follow-up after birth hospitalization.

  16. Deficits in Lower Limb Muscle Reflex Contraction Latency and Peak Force Are Associated With Impairments in Postural Control and Gross Motor Skills of Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Guo, X; Wang, Yuling; Chung, Raymond C K; Stat, Grad; Ki, W Y; Macfarlane, Duncan J

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional, exploratory study aimed to compare neuromuscular performance, balance and motor skills proficiencies of typically developing children and those with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and to determine associations of these neuromuscular factors with balance and motor skills performances in children with DCD.One hundred thirty children with DCD and 117 typically developing children participated in the study. Medial hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latencies in response to an unexpected posterior-to-anterior trunk perturbation were assessed by electromyography and accelerometer. Hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle peak force and time to peak force were quantified by dynamometer, and balance and motor skills performances were evaluated with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC).Independent t tests revealed that children with DCD had longer hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latencies (P < 0.001) and lower isometric peak forces (P < 0.001), but not times to peak forces (P > 0.025), than the controls. Multiple regression analysis accounting for basic demographics showed that gastrocnemius peak force was independently associated with the MABC balance subscore and ball skills subscore, accounting for 5.7% (P = 0.003) and 8.5% (P = 0.001) of the variance, respectively. Gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latency also explained 11.4% (P < 0.001) of the variance in the MABC ball skills subscore.Children with DCD had delayed leg muscle activation onset times and lower isometric peak forces. Gastrocnemius peak force was associated with balance and ball skills performances, whereas timing of gastrocnemius muscle activation was a determinant of ball skill performance in the DCD population.

  17. Interarticulator Coordination in Dysarthria: An X-Ray Microbeam Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weismer, Gary; Yunusova, Yana; Westbury, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Articulatory discoordination is often said to be an important feature of the speech production disorder in dysarthria, but little experimental work has been done to identify and specify the coordination difficulties. The present study evaluated the coordination of labial and lingual gestures for /u/ production in persons with Parkinson's disease…

  18. The association between intersegmental coordination in the lower limb and gait speed in elderly females.

    PubMed

    Ogaya, Shinya; Iwata, Akira; Higuchi, Yumi; Fuchioka, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Human multi-segmental motion is a complex task requiring motor coordination. Uncoordinated motor control may contribute to the decline in mobility; however, it is unknown whether the age-related decline in intersegmental coordination relates to the decline in gait performance. The aim of this study was to clarify the association between intersegmental coordination and gait speed in elderly females. Gait measurements were performed in 91 community-dwelling elderly females over 60 years old. Foot, shank, and thigh sagittal motions were assessed. Intersegmental coordination was analyzed using the mean value of the continuous relative phase (mCRP) during four phases of the gait cycle to investigate phase differences in foot-shank and shank-thigh motions during a normal gait. The results showed that foot-shank mCRP at late stance had negative correlations with gait speed (r=-0.53) and cadence (r=-0.54) and a positive correlation with age (r=0.25). In contrast, shank-thigh mCRP at late stance had positive correlations with gait speed (r=0.37) and cadence (r=0.56). Moreover, partial correlation, controlling age, height, and weight, revealed that foot-shank mCRP at late stance had negative correlations with gait speed (r=-0.52) and cadence (r=-0.54). Shank-thigh mCRP at late stance had a positive correlation with gait speed (r=0.28) and cadence (r=0.51). These findings imply that the foot-shank and shank-thigh coordination patterns at late stance relate to gait speed, and uncoordinated lower limb motion is believed to be associated with the age-related decline in cadence. PMID:27477700

  19. The association between intersegmental coordination in the lower limb and gait speed in elderly females.

    PubMed

    Ogaya, Shinya; Iwata, Akira; Higuchi, Yumi; Fuchioka, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Human multi-segmental motion is a complex task requiring motor coordination. Uncoordinated motor control may contribute to the decline in mobility; however, it is unknown whether the age-related decline in intersegmental coordination relates to the decline in gait performance. The aim of this study was to clarify the association between intersegmental coordination and gait speed in elderly females. Gait measurements were performed in 91 community-dwelling elderly females over 60 years old. Foot, shank, and thigh sagittal motions were assessed. Intersegmental coordination was analyzed using the mean value of the continuous relative phase (mCRP) during four phases of the gait cycle to investigate phase differences in foot-shank and shank-thigh motions during a normal gait. The results showed that foot-shank mCRP at late stance had negative correlations with gait speed (r=-0.53) and cadence (r=-0.54) and a positive correlation with age (r=0.25). In contrast, shank-thigh mCRP at late stance had positive correlations with gait speed (r=0.37) and cadence (r=0.56). Moreover, partial correlation, controlling age, height, and weight, revealed that foot-shank mCRP at late stance had negative correlations with gait speed (r=-0.52) and cadence (r=-0.54). Shank-thigh mCRP at late stance had a positive correlation with gait speed (r=0.28) and cadence (r=0.51). These findings imply that the foot-shank and shank-thigh coordination patterns at late stance relate to gait speed, and uncoordinated lower limb motion is believed to be associated with the age-related decline in cadence.

  20. Coordination difficulty and internalizing symptoms in adults: A twin/sibling study.

    PubMed

    Waszczuk, Monika A; Leonard, Hayley C; Hill, Elisabeth L; Rowe, Richard; Gregory, Alice M

    2016-05-30

    Increased anxiety and depression symptoms have been reported in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders, and have been found to be associated with motor coordination difficulties, but little is known about the etiology of these associations. This study aimed to assess genetic, shared (making twins/siblings alike) and non-shared (individual-specific) environmental influences on the association between poor coordination and symptoms of anxiety and depressed mood using a sample of adult twin and sibling pairs. Participants were asked about their coordination skill and anxiety and depression symptoms. About half of the variance in coordination difficulty was explained by familial (combined genetic and shared environmental) influences, with the remaining variance explained by non-shared environmental influences. Phenotypic associations between coordination and anxiety (r=.46) and depression symptoms (r=.44) were largely underpinned by shared familial liability for the three traits. Non-shared environment accounted for about a third of the phenotypic association. Results suggest that both familial and non-shared environmental influences play a role in the etiology of coordination difficulty and its association with internalizing symptoms. The current study highlights that both biological and environmental pathways shared between these symptoms should be examined in future research to inform prevention and treatment approaches in clinical settings.

  1. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, D.W.

    1980-03-01

    The GABEX I experiment is designed to provide synoptic coverage of a series of Gulf Stream wave-like disturbances, the effect of these on the circulation of the entire shelf, and on biological and chemical processes. This study was initiated in February 1980 when current meter arrays were deployed. These meters will be removed in July 1980. In April three ships will simultaneously study the effects of Gulf Stream disturbances on the hydrography, chemistry, and biology of the shelf. One vessel will track a specific wave-like disturbance and provide synoptic coverage of the shelf area. The second vessel will determine the effect of shelf break processes on adjacent shelf water; and the third will study trace metal distributions in and outside of disturbances. Research progress is reported in continental shelf studies, nearshore and estuarine studies (diffusion of freshwater out of nearshore zone), tidal currents and material transport, and mixing of inlet plumes.

  2. Relational Coordination and Organisational Social Capital Association with Characteristics of General Practice

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Thomas Bøllingtoft; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Søndergaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background. Relational coordination (RC) and organisational social capital (OSC) are measures of novel aspects of an organisation's performance, which have not previously been analysed together, in general practice. Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyse the associations between RC and OSC, and characteristics of general practice. Methods. Questionnaire survey study comprising 2074 practices in Denmark. Results. General practitioners (GPs) rated both RC and OSC in their general practice higher than their secretaries and nurses. The practice form was statistically significantly associated with high RC and OSC. RC was positively associated with the number of patients listed with a practice per staff, where staff is defined as all members of a practice including both owners and employees. Conclusion. The study showed that RC and OSC were significantly associated with type of profession and practice type. RC was also found to be significantly positively associated with number of patients per staff. However, the low response rate must be taken into consideration when interpreting the self-reported results of this study. PMID:25045537

  3. Relational coordination and organisational social capital association with characteristics of general practice.

    PubMed

    Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke; Edwards, Kasper; Knudsen, Thomas Bøllingtoft; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Reventlow, Susanne; Søndergaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background. Relational coordination (RC) and organisational social capital (OSC) are measures of novel aspects of an organisation's performance, which have not previously been analysed together, in general practice. Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyse the associations between RC and OSC, and characteristics of general practice. Methods. Questionnaire survey study comprising 2074 practices in Denmark. Results. General practitioners (GPs) rated both RC and OSC in their general practice higher than their secretaries and nurses. The practice form was statistically significantly associated with high RC and OSC. RC was positively associated with the number of patients listed with a practice per staff, where staff is defined as all members of a practice including both owners and employees. Conclusion. The study showed that RC and OSC were significantly associated with type of profession and practice type. RC was also found to be significantly positively associated with number of patients per staff. However, the low response rate must be taken into consideration when interpreting the self-reported results of this study.

  4. Activity Participation Intensity Is Associated with Skeletal Development in Pre-Pubertal Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, William W. N.; Guo, X.; Fong, Shirley S. M.; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed (1) to compare the skeletal maturity and activity participation pattern between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD); and (2) to determine whether activity participation pattern was associated with the skeletal development among children with DCD. Materials and methods: Thirty-three children…

  5. Lathe Operator. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide. General Metal Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This guide provides information to enable coordinators to direct learning activities for students using an individualized study guide on operating a lathe. The study material is designed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed, or desiring to be employed, as lathe operators. Contents include a sample progress chart,…

  6. Welder's Helper. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide. General Metal Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, James W.

    This guide provides information to enable coordinators to direct learning activities for students using an individualized study guide on being a welder's helper. The study material is designed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed, or desiring to be employed, as welders' helpers. Contents include a sample progress…

  7. Insights into water coordination associated with the Cu(II)/Cu(I) electron transfer at a biomimetic Cu centre.

    PubMed

    Porras Gutiérrez, Ana Gabriela; Zeitouny, Joceline; Gomila, Antoine; Douziech, Bénédicte; Cosquer, Nathalie; Conan, Françoise; Reinaud, Olivia; Hapiot, Philippe; Le Mest, Yves; Lagrost, Corinne; Le Poul, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    The coordination properties of the biomimetic complex [Cu(TMPA)(H2O)](CF3SO3)2 (TMPA = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) have been investigated by electrochemistry combined with UV-Vis and EPR spectroscopy in different non-coordinating media including imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids, for different water contents. The solid-state X-ray diffraction analysis of the complex shows that the cupric centre lies in a N4O coordination environment with a nearly perfect trigonal bipyramidal geometry (TBP), the water ligand being axially coordinated to Cu(II). In solution, the coordination geometry of the complex remains TBP in all media. Neither the triflate ion nor the anions of the ionic liquids were found to coordinate the copper centre. Cyclic voltammetry in all media shows that the decoordination of the water molecule occurs upon monoelectronic reduction of the Cu(II) complex. Back-coordination of the water ligand at the cuprous state can be detected by increasing the water content and/or decreasing the timescale of the experiment. Numerical simulations of the voltammograms allow the determination of kinetics and thermodynamics for the water association-dissociation mechanism. The resulting data suggest that (i) the binding/unbinding of water at the Cu(I) redox state is relatively slow and equilibrated in all media, and (ii) the binding of water at Cu(I) is somewhat faster in the ionic liquids than in the non-coordinating solvents, while the decoordination process is weakly sensitive to the nature of the solvents. These results suggest that ionic liquids favour water exchange without interfering with the coordination sphere of the metal centre. This makes them promising media for studying host-guest reactions with biomimetic complexes.

  8. Rhythmic coordination of hippocampal neurons during associative memory processing.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Lara M; Rueckemann, Jon W; Riviere, Pamela D; Keefe, Katherine R; Porter, Blake S; Heimbuch, Ian S; Budlong, Carl H; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2016-01-11

    Hippocampal oscillations are dynamic, with unique oscillatory frequencies present during different behavioral states. To examine the extent to which these oscillations reflect neuron engagement in distinct local circuit processes that are important for memory, we recorded single cell and local field potential activity from the CA1 region of the hippocampus as rats performed a context-guided odor-reward association task. We found that theta (4-12 Hz), beta (15-35 Hz), low gamma (35-55 Hz), and high gamma (65-90 Hz) frequencies exhibited dynamic amplitude profiles as rats sampled odor cues. Interneurons and principal cells exhibited unique engagement in each of the four rhythmic circuits in a manner that related to successful performance of the task. Moreover, principal cells coherent to each rhythm differentially represented task dimensions. These results demonstrate that distinct processing states arise from the engagement of rhythmically identifiable circuits, which have unique roles in organizing task-relevant processing in the hippocampus.

  9. Coordination of entorhinal-hippocampal ensemble activity during associative learning.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Kei M; Lu, Li; Colgin, Laura L; Moser, May-Britt; Moser, Edvard I

    2014-06-01

    Accumulating evidence points to cortical oscillations as a mechanism for mediating interactions among functionally specialized neurons in distributed brain circuits. A brain function that may use such interactions is declarative memory--that is, memory that can be consciously recalled, such as episodes and facts. Declarative memory is enabled by circuits in the entorhinal cortex that interface the hippocampus with the neocortex. During encoding and retrieval of declarative memories, entorhinal and hippocampal circuits are thought to interact via theta and gamma oscillations, which in awake rodents predominate frequency spectra in both regions. In favour of this idea, theta-gamma coupling has been observed between entorhinal cortex and hippocampus under steady-state conditions in well-trained rats; however, the relationship between interregional coupling and memory formation remains poorly understood. Here we show, by multisite recording at successive stages of associative learning, that the coherence of firing patterns in directly connected entorhinal-hippocampus circuits evolves as rats learn to use an odour cue to guide navigational behaviour, and that such coherence is invariably linked to the development of ensemble representations for unique trial outcomes in each area. Entorhinal-hippocampal coupling was observed specifically in the 20-40-hertz frequency band and specifically between the distal part of hippocampal area CA1 and the lateral part of entorhinal cortex, the subfields that receive the predominant olfactory input to the hippocampal region. Collectively, the results identify 20-40-hertz oscillations as a mechanism for synchronizing evolving representations in dispersed neural circuits during encoding and retrieval of olfactory-spatial associative memory. PMID:24739966

  10. Rhythmic coordination of hippocampal neurons during associative memory processing

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Lara M; Rueckemann, Jon W; Riviere, Pamela D; Keefe, Katherine R; Porter, Blake S; Heimbuch, Ian S; Budlong, Carl H; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal oscillations are dynamic, with unique oscillatory frequencies present during different behavioral states. To examine the extent to which these oscillations reflect neuron engagement in distinct local circuit processes that are important for memory, we recorded single cell and local field potential activity from the CA1 region of the hippocampus as rats performed a context-guided odor-reward association task. We found that theta (4–12 Hz), beta (15–35 Hz), low gamma (35–55 Hz), and high gamma (65–90 Hz) frequencies exhibited dynamic amplitude profiles as rats sampled odor cues. Interneurons and principal cells exhibited unique engagement in each of the four rhythmic circuits in a manner that related to successful performance of the task. Moreover, principal cells coherent to each rhythm differentially represented task dimensions. These results demonstrate that distinct processing states arise from the engagement of rhythmically identifiable circuits, which have unique roles in organizing task-relevant processing in the hippocampus. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09849.001 PMID:26751780

  11. Numerical study of the Kerr solution in rotating coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, S.; Izquierdo, G.; Klein, C.

    2016-06-01

    The Kerr solution in coordinates corotating with the horizon is studied as a testbed for a spacetime with a helical Killing vector in the Ernst picture. The solution is numerically constructed by solving the Ernst equation with a spectral method and a Newton iteration. We discuss convergence of the iteration for several initial iterates and different values of the Kerr parameters.

  12. From ICT Coordination to ICT Integration: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tondeur, J.; Cooper, M.; Newhouse, C. P.

    2010-01-01

    This study utilizes a school-improvement perspective to examine the role of curriculum coordination in the integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) into primary schools. The nature and impact of this role is examined in seven primary schools in Australia. These seven schools were drawn from a longitudinal intervention that…

  13. A comparative study between RadViz and Star Coordinates.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Sánchez, Manuel; Raya, Laura; Díaz, Francisco; Sanchez, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    RadViz and star coordinates are two of the most popular projection-based multivariate visualization techniques that arrange variables in radial layouts. Formally, the main difference between them consists of a nonlinear normalization step inherent in RadViz. In this paper we show that, although RadViz can be useful when analyzing sparse data, in general this design choice limits its applicability and introduces several drawbacks for exploratory data analysis. In particular, we observe that the normalization step introduces nonlinear distortions, can encumber outlier detection, prevents associating the plots with useful linear mappings, and impedes estimating original data attributes accurately. In addition, users have greater flexibility when choosing different layouts and views of the data in star coordinates. Therefore, we suggest that analysts and researchers should carefully consider whether RadViz's normalization step is beneficial regarding the data sets' characteristics and analysis tasks.

  14. Communication: Coordination structure of bromide ions associated with hexyltrimethylammonium cations at liquid/liquid interfaces under potentiostatic control as studied by total-reflection X-ray absorption fine structure.

    PubMed

    Nagatani, Hirohisa; Harada, Makoto; Tanida, Hajime; Sakae, Hiroki; Imura, Hisanori

    2014-03-14

    Total-reflection X-ray absorption fine structure (TR-XAFS) technique was applied for the first time to an interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions under potentiostatic control. The hydration structure of bromide ions was investigated at polarized 2-octanone/water interfaces. TR-XAFS spectra at Br K-edge measured in the presence of hexyltrimethylammonium bromide (C6TAB) were slightly modified depending on the Galvani potential difference (Δ(o)(w)φ). The extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis exposed hydration structure changes of bromide ions at the polarized interface. The coordination structure of bromide ions at the interface could be analyzed as compared with bromide ions dissolved in aqueous solution and Br(-)-exchanged resin having quaternary ammonium groups. The results indicated that bromide ions were associated with C6TA(+) at the polarized interface. The relative contribution of ion association form of bromide ions with quaternary ammonium groups was enhanced at a potential close to the ion transfer of C6TA(+), where the interfacial concentration of C6TA(+) is increased as a function of Δ(o)(w)φ.

  15. Small molecule regulation of self-association and catalytic activity in a supramolecular coordination complex.

    PubMed

    McGuirk, C Michael; Stern, Charlotte L; Mirkin, Chad A

    2014-03-26

    Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of the first weak-link approach (WLA) supramolecular construct that employs the small molecule regulation of intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions for the in situ control of catalytic activity. A biaryl urea group, prone to self-aggregation, was functionalized with a phosphinoalkyl thioether (P,S) hemilabile moiety and incorporated into a homoligated Pt(II) tweezer WLA complex. This urea-containing construct, which has been characterized by a single crystal X-ray diffraction study, can be switched in situ from a rigid fully closed state to a flexible semiopen state via Cl(-) induced changes in the coordination mode at the Pt(II) structural node. FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy studies were used to demonstrate that while extensive urea self-association persists in the flexible semiopen complex, these interactions are deterred in the rigid, fully closed complex because of geometric and steric restraints. Consequently, the urea moieties in the fully closed complex are able to catalyze a Diels-Alder reaction between cyclopentadiene and methyl vinyl ketone to generate 2-acetyl-5-norbornene. The free urea ligand and the semiopen complex show no such activity. The successful incorporation and regulation of a hydrogen bond donating catalyst in a WLA construct open the doors to a vast and rapidly growing catalogue of allosteric catalysts for applications in the detection and amplification of organic analytes.

  16. Coordinated Optimization of Visual Cortical Maps (II) Numerical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Reichl, Lars; Heide, Dominik; Löwel, Siegrid; Crowley, Justin C.; Kaschube, Matthias; Wolf, Fred

    2012-01-01

    In the juvenile brain, the synaptic architecture of the visual cortex remains in a state of flux for months after the natural onset of vision and the initial emergence of feature selectivity in visual cortical neurons. It is an attractive hypothesis that visual cortical architecture is shaped during this extended period of juvenile plasticity by the coordinated optimization of multiple visual cortical maps such as orientation preference (OP), ocular dominance (OD), spatial frequency, or direction preference. In part (I) of this study we introduced a class of analytically tractable coordinated optimization models and solved representative examples, in which a spatially complex organization of the OP map is induced by interactions between the maps. We found that these solutions near symmetry breaking threshold predict a highly ordered map layout. Here we examine the time course of the convergence towards attractor states and optima of these models. In particular, we determine the timescales on which map optimization takes place and how these timescales can be compared to those of visual cortical development and plasticity. We also assess whether our models exhibit biologically more realistic, spatially irregular solutions at a finite distance from threshold, when the spatial periodicities of the two maps are detuned and when considering more than 2 feature dimensions. We show that, although maps typically undergo substantial rearrangement, no other solutions than pinwheel crystals and stripes dominate in the emerging layouts. Pinwheel crystallization takes place on a rather short timescale and can also occur for detuned wavelengths of different maps. Our numerical results thus support the view that neither minimal energy states nor intermediate transient states of our coordinated optimization models successfully explain the architecture of the visual cortex. We discuss several alternative scenarios that may improve the agreement between model solutions and biological

  17. Sleep Stage Coordination of Respiration and Swallowing: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Kentaro; Nohara, Kanji; Takai, Etsuko; Sakai, Takayoshi; Fleetham, John A; Ayas, Najib T; Lowe, Alan A; Almeida, Fernanda R

    2016-08-01

    Swallowing is an important physiological response that protects the airway. Although aspiration during sleep may cause aspiration pneumonia, the mechanisms responsible have not yet been elucidated. We evaluated the coordination between respiration and swallowing by infusing water into the pharynx of healthy young adults during each sleep stage. Seven normal subjects participated in the study. During polysomnography recordings, to elicit a swallow we injected distilled water into the pharynx during the awake state and each sleep stage through a nasal catheter. We assessed swallow latency, swallow apnea time, the respiratory phase during a swallow, the number of swallows, and coughing. A total number of 79 swallows were recorded. The median swallow latency was significantly higher in stage 2 (10.05 s) and stage 3 (44.17 s) when compared to awake state (4.99 s). The swallow latency in stage 3 showed a very wide interquartile range. In two subjects, the result was predominantly prolonged compared to the other subjects. There was no significant difference in the swallow apnea time between sleep stages. The presence of inspiration after swallowing, repetitive swallowing, and coughing after swallowing was more frequent during sleep than when awake. This study suggests that the coordination between respiration and swallowing as a defense mechanism against aspiration was impaired during sleep. Our results supported physiologically the fact that healthy adult individuals aspirate pharyngeal secretions during sleep. PMID:27338262

  18. Coordinate regulation of proteins associated with radiation resistance in cultured insect cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, A.; Koval, T.M.

    1994-04-01

    Cultured TN-368 lepidopteran insect cells exhibit a pronounced resistance to the lethal effects of a variety of physical agents, including X rays and 254 nm UV light, as well as a large number of chemicals. The resistance to ionizing radiation has previously been associated with an inducible process which is not expressed in unirradiated cells or cells receiving less than some minimal amount of radiation necessary for activating the process. The studies in this paper were initiated in an attempt to identify and characterize the inducible proteins associated with the marked radiation resistance of the TN-368 cells. Cells were exposed to doses of 0, 25, 64 or 350 Gy of {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays and incubated either for 3 h in medium containing [{sup 35}S]methionine or for 2 h without labeling. Labeled cells were separated into nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions and proteins were analyzed on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels. Unlabeled cells were used to isolate total RNA which was translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with {sup 35}S label. These translation products were also analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Gamma irradiation of the TN-368 cells resulted in the de novo synthesis of several proteins as well as the complete inhibition of others. The number of such proteins identified was 19. These proteins ranged in size from 18-73 kDa, with a pI distribution of 4.7 to 6.1. In addition to the unique proteins, a large number of other proteins were also either up- or down-regulated. These observations were made in both nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions as well as in the translation products of RNA produced after irradiation. These studies indicate that RNA and protein synthesis in lepidopteran cells are coordinately regulated in response to ionizing radiation and may participate in the pronounced radioresistance of the TN-368 cells. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Young adults with developmental coordination disorder: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tal-Saban, Miri; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study to assess the continuing influence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) on quality of life and participation. Ninety-six participants (25 in the DCD group, 30 in the borderline group, and 41 in the control group) ages 22-29 yr who had been screened for DCD 3-4 yr previously completed the Participation in Every Day Activities of Life, the Life-Satisfaction Questionnaire, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) instrument. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant between-groups difference, F(7, 95) = 2.89, p = .001, η = 0.173, and post hoc analyses revealed that participants in the DCD and borderline groups scored lower overall on participation, quality of life, and life satisfaction. Linear regression found the Psychological Health domain of the WHOQOL-BREF to be a significant predictor of life satisfaction (B = 0.533; p = .001). PMID:24797194

  20. Building Bridges: A Study of Coordination in Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Libby Marie

    2009-01-01

    In our efforts to understand how collaborative work can be accomplished, we often turn to discussions of "coordination" for help. However, the concept of coordination is inadequate for explaining the many interdependent processes at work within successful collaborations. In this dissertation, I examined a collaborative construction project--the…

  1. Temporally Coordinated Deep Brain Stimulation in the Dorsal and Ventral Striatum Synergistically Enhances Associative Learning.

    PubMed

    Katnani, Husam A; Patel, Shaun R; Kwon, Churl-Su; Abdel-Aziz, Samer; Gale, John T; Eskandar, Emad N

    2016-01-01

    The primate brain has the remarkable ability of mapping sensory stimuli into motor behaviors that can lead to positive outcomes. We have previously shown that during the reinforcement of visual-motor behavior, activity in the caudate nucleus is correlated with the rate of learning. Moreover, phasic microstimulation in the caudate during the reinforcement period was shown to enhance associative learning, demonstrating the importance of temporal specificity to manipulate learning related changes. Here we present evidence that extends upon our previous finding by demonstrating that temporally coordinated phasic deep brain stimulation across both the nucleus accumbens and caudate can further enhance associative learning. Monkeys performed a visual-motor associative learning task and received stimulation at time points critical to learning related changes. Resulting performance revealed an enhancement in the rate, ceiling, and reaction times of learning. Stimulation of each brain region alone or at different time points did not generate the same effect. PMID:26725509

  2. Temporally Coordinated Deep Brain Stimulation in the Dorsal and Ventral Striatum Synergistically Enhances Associative Learning

    PubMed Central

    Katnani, Husam A.; Patel, Shaun R.; Kwon, Churl-Su; Abdel-Aziz, Samer; Gale, John T.; Eskandar, Emad N.

    2016-01-01

    The primate brain has the remarkable ability of mapping sensory stimuli into motor behaviors that can lead to positive outcomes. We have previously shown that during the reinforcement of visual-motor behavior, activity in the caudate nucleus is correlated with the rate of learning. Moreover, phasic microstimulation in the caudate during the reinforcement period was shown to enhance associative learning, demonstrating the importance of temporal specificity to manipulate learning related changes. Here we present evidence that extends upon our previous finding by demonstrating that temporally coordinated phasic deep brain stimulation across both the nucleus accumbens and caudate can further enhance associative learning. Monkeys performed a visual-motor associative learning task and received stimulation at time points critical to learning related changes. Resulting performance revealed an enhancement in the rate, ceiling, and reaction times of learning. Stimulation of each brain region alone or at different time points did not generate the same effect. PMID:26725509

  3. Temporally Coordinated Deep Brain Stimulation in the Dorsal and Ventral Striatum Synergistically Enhances Associative Learning.

    PubMed

    Katnani, Husam A; Patel, Shaun R; Kwon, Churl-Su; Abdel-Aziz, Samer; Gale, John T; Eskandar, Emad N

    2016-01-04

    The primate brain has the remarkable ability of mapping sensory stimuli into motor behaviors that can lead to positive outcomes. We have previously shown that during the reinforcement of visual-motor behavior, activity in the caudate nucleus is correlated with the rate of learning. Moreover, phasic microstimulation in the caudate during the reinforcement period was shown to enhance associative learning, demonstrating the importance of temporal specificity to manipulate learning related changes. Here we present evidence that extends upon our previous finding by demonstrating that temporally coordinated phasic deep brain stimulation across both the nucleus accumbens and caudate can further enhance associative learning. Monkeys performed a visual-motor associative learning task and received stimulation at time points critical to learning related changes. Resulting performance revealed an enhancement in the rate, ceiling, and reaction times of learning. Stimulation of each brain region alone or at different time points did not generate the same effect.

  4. Effectiveness of a Care Coordination Model for Stroke Survivors: A Randomized Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claiborne, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of systematically integrating biopsychosocial interventions with coordinated delivery of care for outpatients recovering from stroke. Care coordination coordinates resources across the health care system and routinely addresses the psychological and social risks affecting patient outcomes, while monitoring…

  5. Synthesis, structural and fungicidal studies of hydrazone based coordination compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Amit Kumar; Chandra, Sulekh

    2013-02-01

    The coordination compounds of the Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) metal ions derived from imine based ligand, benzil bis(carbohydarzone) were structurally and pharmaceutically studied. The compounds have the general stoichiometry [M(L)]X2 and [Co(L)X2], where M = Ni(II) and Cu(II), and X=NO3- and Cl- ions. The analytical techniques like elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, UV/Visible, NMR, ESI mass and EPR were used to study the compounds. The key IR bands, i.e., amide I, amide II and amide III stretching vibrations accounts for the tetradentate metal binding nature of the ligand. The electronic and EPR spectral results suggest the square planar Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes (giso = 2.11-2.22) and tetragonal geometry Co(II) complexes (giso = 2.10-2.17). To explore the compounds in the biological field, they were examined against the opportunistic pathogens, i.e., Alternaria brassicae, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. The partial covalent character of metal-ligand bond is supported by the orbital reduction factor k (0.62-0.92) and nephalauxetic parameter β (0.55-0.57).

  6. Coordinated Chemical and Isotopic Studies of GEMS in IDPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Messenger, S.

    2008-01-01

    Cometary IDPs contain a record of the building blocks of the solar system including presolar grains, molecular cloud material, and materials formed in the early solar nebula [1]. Following their accretion, these materials have remained relatively unaltered because of the lack of parent body hydrothermal alteration. We are using coordinated transmission electron microscope (TEM) and ion microprobe studies to establish the origins of the various components within cometary IDPs. Of particular interest is the nature and abundance of presolar silicates in these IDPs because astronomical observations suggest that crystalline and amorphous silicates are the dominant grain types produced in young main sequence stars and evolved O-rich stars [e.g. 2]. Amorphous silicates (in the form of GEMS grains) are a major component of cometary IDPs and so a major objective of this work is to elucidate their origins. In rare cases, GEMS grains have highly anomalous O isotopic compositions that establish their origins as circumstellar condensates [3]. Here we present data on a systematic study of the silicate components within a primitive IDP.

  7. Synthesis, structural and fungicidal studies of hydrazone based coordination compounds.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit Kumar; Chandra, Sulekh

    2013-02-15

    The coordination compounds of the Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) metal ions derived from imine based ligand, benzil bis(carbohydarzone) were structurally and pharmaceutically studied. The compounds have the general stoichiometry [M(L)]X(2) and [Co(L)X(2)], where M=Ni(II) and Cu(II), and X=NO(3)(-) and Cl(-) ions. The analytical techniques like elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, UV/Visible, NMR, ESI mass and EPR were used to study the compounds. The key IR bands, i.e., amide I, amide II and amide III stretching vibrations accounts for the tetradentate metal binding nature of the ligand. The electronic and EPR spectral results suggest the square planar Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes (g(iso)=2.11-2.22) and tetragonal geometry Co(II) complexes (g(iso)=2.10-2.17). To explore the compounds in the biological field, they were examined against the opportunistic pathogens, i.e., Alternaria brassicae, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. The partial covalent character of metal-ligand bond is supported by the orbital reduction factor k (0.62-0.92) and nephalauxetic parameter β (0.55-0.57).

  8. Coordinated incoherent scatter radar study of the January 1997 storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonsanto, M. J.; González, S. A.; Lu, G.; Reinisch, B. W.; Thayer, J. P.

    1999-11-01

    We describe many important features of the ionospheric F region as observed by the Sondrestrom, Millstone Hill, and Arecibo incoherent scatter radars (ISRs) and the Millstone Hill and Ramey Digisondes during January 6-10, 1997, with emphasis on the January 10, 1997 storm. Coordinated analysis of the data provides evidence for traveling atmospheric disturbances (TADs) and for two likely electric field penetration events linking these stations. Large and rapid changes in hmF2 were seen at Arecibo and nearby Ramey which are related to the TADs and penetrating electric fields. Results are compared with simulations by the thermosphere-ionosphere electrodynamics general circulation model (TIEGCM), which utilizes high-latitude inputs given by the assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics (AMIE) technique. An important result of this study is that the TIEGCM is able to predict TADs similar to those observed. Exceptional features observed during this storm at Millstone Hill are a very large nighttime Te enhancement on January 10 and a larger decrease in NmF2 than predicted by the TIEGCM throughout the storm period. The latter appears to be related to an underestimation of the neutral temperature by the model.

  9. A Case Study of Coordination in Distributed Agile Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hole, Steinar; Moe, Nils Brede

    Global Software Development (GSD) has gained significant popularity as an emerging paradigm. Companies also show interest in applying agile approaches in distributed development to combine the advantages of both approaches. However, in their most radical forms, agile and GSD can be placed in each end of a plan-based/agile spectrum because of how work is coordinated. We describe how three GSD projects applying agile methods coordinate their work. We found that trust is needed to reduce the need of standardization and direct supervision when coordinating work in a GSD project, and that electronic chatting supports mutual adjustment. Further, co-location and modularization mitigates communication problems, enables agility in at least part of a GSD project, and renders the implementation of Scrum of Scrums possible.

  10. An in-depth analysis of theoretical frameworks for the study of care coordination1

    PubMed Central

    Van Houdt, Sabine; Heyrman, Jan; Vanhaecht, Kris; Sermeus, Walter; De Lepeleire, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Complex chronic conditions often require long-term care from various healthcare professionals. Thus, maintaining quality care requires care coordination. Concepts for the study of care coordination require clarification to develop, study and evaluate coordination strategies. In 2007, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality defined care coordination and proposed five theoretical frameworks for exploring care coordination. This study aimed to update current theoretical frameworks and clarify key concepts related to care coordination. Methods We performed a literature review to update existing theoretical frameworks. An in-depth analysis of these theoretical frameworks was conducted to formulate key concepts related to care coordination. Results Our literature review found seven previously unidentified theoretical frameworks for studying care coordination. The in-depth analysis identified fourteen key concepts that the theoretical frameworks addressed. These were ‘external factors’, ‘structure’, ‘tasks characteristics’, ‘cultural factors’, ‘knowledge and technology’, ‘need for coordination’, ‘administrative operational processes’, ‘exchange of information’, ‘goals’, ‘roles’, ‘quality of relationship’, ‘patient outcome’, ‘team outcome’, and ‘(inter)organizational outcome’. Conclusion These 14 interrelated key concepts provide a base to develop or choose a framework for studying care coordination. The relational coordination theory and the multi-level framework are interesting as these are the most comprehensive. PMID:23882171

  11. Coordinated Analyses of Mineral-organic Matter Associations in Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Herzog, G. F.; Smith, T.; Keller, L. P.; Flynn, G. J.; Khodja, H.; Taylor, S.; Wirick, S.; Messenger, S.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the timing and processes involved in the incorporation of organic matter with inorganic materials in early Solar System bodies. Recently, X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) studies showed carbon-rich rims surrounding individual mineral grains in anhydrous IDPs [1,2]. These carbonaceous rims are believed to have formed prior to parent body formation and likely served to bond mineral grains during accretion into larger aggregates. We are exploring the nature of these carbonaceous rims through coordinated analyses of their chemistry, mineralogy, spectroscopy and isotopic characteristics. Here we report our preliminary mineralogical observations.

  12. Coordinated Regulatory Variation Associated with Gestational Hyperglycemia Regulates Expression of the Novel Hexokinase HKDC1

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Cong; Ludvik, Anton E.; Arlotto, Michelle E.; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Armstrong, Loren L.; Scholtens, Denise M.; Brown, Christopher D.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Becker, Thomas C.; Layden, Brian T.; Lowe, William L.; Reddy, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal glucose levels during pregnancy impact the developing fetus, affecting metabolic health early and later in life. Both genetic and environmental factors influence maternal metabolism, but little is known about the genetic mechanisms that alter glucose metabolism during pregnancy. Here we report that haplotypes previously associated with gestational hyperglycemia in the third trimester disrupt regulatory element activity and reduce expression of the nearby HKDC1 gene. We further find that experimentally reducing or increasing HKDC1 expression reduces or increases hexokinase activity, respectively, in multiple cellular models; and that purified HKDC1 protein has hexokinase activity in vitro. Together, these results suggest a novel mechanism of gestational glucose regulation in which the effects of genetic variants in multiple regulatory elements alter glucose homeostasis by coordinately reducing expression of the novel hexokinase HKDC1. PMID:25648650

  13. Interprofessional care co-ordinators: the benefits and tensions associated with a new role in UK acute health care.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Jackie; Meyer, Julienne; Glynn, Michael; Bentley, Jane; Reeves, Scott

    2003-08-01

    While more flexible models of service delivery are being introduced in UK health and social care, little is known about the impact of new roles, particularly support worker roles, on the work of existing practitioners. This action research study aimed to explore the impact of one such new role, that of interprofessional care co-ordinators (IPCCs). The general (internal) medical service of a UK hospital uses IPCCs to provide support to the interprofessional team and, in doing so, promote efficiency of acute bed use. Using a range of methods, mainly qualitative, this action research study sought to explore the characteristics and impact of the role on interprofessional team working. While the role's flexibility, autonomy and informality contributed to success in meeting its intended objectives, these characteristics also caused some tensions with interprofessional colleagues. These benefits and tensions mirror wider issues associated with the current modernisation agenda in UK health care. PMID:12834925

  14. Coordinate transformations for studies of interactions between interplanetary and geomagnetic fields. [satellite vector data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L.; Janetzke, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    A graphical procedure is provided for performing coordinate transformations between the geocentric-solar-equatorial, geocentric-solar-ecliptic and geocentric-solar-magnetospheric coordinate systems. The procedure is designed to facilitate intercomparison of previous studies of interactions between interplanetary and geomagnetic fields that made use of these coordinate systems. The interaction in the geocentric-solar-magnetosphere system has been shown to give the most consistent results.

  15. Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 coordinately regulates metastasis-associated microRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Mick D.; Hurst, Douglas R.; Vaidya, Kedar S.; Stafford, Lewis J.; Chen, Dongquan; Welch, Danny R.

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) suppresses metastasis of multiple tumor types without blocking tumorigenesis. BRMS1 forms complexes with SIN3, histone deacetylases and selected transcription factors that modify metastasis-associated gene expression (e.g., EGFR, OPN, PI4P5K1A, PLAU). microRNA (miRNA) are a recently discovered class of regulatory, noncoding RNA, some of which are involved in neoplastic progression. Based on these data, we hypothesized that BRMS1 may also exert some of its antimetastatic effects by regulating miRNA expression. Micro-RNA arrays were done comparing small RNAs that were purified from metastatic MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 and their non-metastatic BRMS1-transfected counterparts. miRNA expression changed by BRMS1 were validated using SYBR Green RT-PCR. BRMS1 decreased metastasis-promoting (miR-10b, -373 and -520c) miRNA, with corresponding reduction of their downstream targets (e.g., RhoC which is downstream of miR-10b). Concurrently, BRMS1 increased expression of metastasis suppressing miRNA (miR-146a, -146b and -335). Collectively, these data show that BRMS1 coordinately regulates expression of multiple metastasis-associated miRNA and suggests that recruitment of BRMS1-containing SIN3:HDAC complexes to, as yet undefined, miRNA promoters might be involved in the regulation of cancer metastasis. PMID:19585508

  16. Insulin-like growth factor-I mitigates motor coordination deficits associated with neonatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    McGough, Nancy N H; Thomas, Jennifer D; Dominguez, Hector D; Riley, Edward P

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can affect brain development, leading to behavioral problems, including overactivity, motor dysfunction and learning deficits. Despite warnings about the effects of drinking during pregnancy, rates of fetal alcohol syndrome remain unchanged and thus, there is an urgent need to identify interventions that reduce the severity of alcohol's teratogenic effects. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is neuroprotective against ethanol-related toxicity and promotes white matter production following a number of insults. Given that prenatal alcohol leads to cell death and white matter deficits, the present study examined whether IGF-I could reduce the severity of behavioral deficits associated with developmental alcohol exposure. Sprague-Dawley rat pups received ethanol intubations (5.25 g/kg/day) or sham intubations on postnatal days (PD) 4-9, a period of brain development equivalent to the third trimester. On PD 10-13, subjects from each treatment received 0 or 10 microg IGF-I intranasally each day. Subjects were then tested on a series of behavioral tasks including open field activity (PD 18-21), parallel bar motor coordination (PD 30-32) and Morris maze spatial learning (PD 45-52). Ethanol exposure produced overactivity, motor coordination impairments, and spatial learning deficits. IGF-I treatment significantly mitigated ethanol's effects on motor coordination, but not on the other two behavioral tasks. These data indicate that IGF-I may be a potential treatment for some of ethanol's damaging effects, a finding that has important implications for children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy.

  17. Efficiency of a Care Coordination Model: A Randomized Study with Stroke Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claiborne, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the efficiency of a social work care coordination model for stroke patients. Care coordination addresses patient care and treatment resources across the health care system to reduce risk, improve clinical outcomes, and maximize efficiency. Method: A randomly assigned, pre-post experimental design measured…

  18. Arm and leg coordination during treadmill walking in individuals with motor incomplete spinal cord injury: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tester, Nicole J; Barbeau, Hugues; Howland, Dena R; Cantrell, Amy; Behrman, Andrea L

    2012-05-01

    Arm and leg coordination naturally emerges during walking, but can be affected by stroke or Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this preliminary study was to characterize arm and leg coordination during treadmill walking at self-selected comfortable walking speeds (CWSs) in individuals using arm swing with motor incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Hip and shoulder angle cycle durations and amplitudes, strength of peak correlations between contralateral hip and shoulder joint angle time series, the time shifts at which these peak correlations occur, and associated variability were quantified. Outcomes in individuals with iSCI selecting fast CWSs (range, 1.0-1.3m/s) and speed-matched individuals without neurological injuries are similar. Differences, however, are detected in individuals with iSCI selecting slow CWSs (range, 0.25-0.65 m/s) and may represent compensatory strategies to improve walking balance or forward propulsion. These individuals elicit a 1:1, arm:leg frequency ratio versus the 2:1 ratio observed in non-injured individuals. Shoulder and hip movement patterns, however, are highly reproducible (coordinated) in participants with iSCI, regardless of CWS. This high degree of inter-extremity coordination could reflect an inability to modify a single movement pattern post-iSCI. Combined, these data suggest inter-extremity walking coordination may be altered, but is present after iSCI, and therefore may be regulated, in part, by neural control.

  19. Improving the recruitment and retention of organ procurement coordinators: a survey study.

    PubMed

    Kress, J; Smith, D L; Fehling, P C; Gordon, E J

    2009-06-01

    Organ procurement coordinators (coordinators) employed by organ procurement organizations (OPOs) are critical to the success of organ donation. However, their high turnover rates may threaten the success of organ donation. This cross-sectional study examined employment satisfaction and factors contributing to job turnover among 326 coordinators representing 52 of 58 OPOs (90%) who completed an online survey. Most (93%) respondents reported high levels of job satisfaction, although 26% reported considering leaving their OPO, and 61% perceived a high turnover rate at their OPO. Considerations of leaving the OPO were most likely to emerge at 2 years of employment. To secure coordinator job satisfaction, it is essential that prospective coordinators be adequately prepared and informed about negative as well as positive aspects of this line of work. In hiring, OPOs should recruit more proactively, using their staff as contacts, and seek experience in critical care, intensive care, or other on-call work. To retain satisfied employees, OPOs should offer more education and advancement opportunities and focus on such issues as call and hours, rather than salary per se. OPOs should consider a variety of alternative pay structures, particularly separate on-call pay, whether or not coordinators are actually called into service.

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Coordination in Mother-Infant Vocal Interaction from Age 4 to 10 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Susanne; Lange, Theis; Hansen, Gert Foget; Vaever, Mette; Køppe, Simo

    2015-01-01

    This is a longitudinal study of development in coordinated mother-infant vocal interaction from 4 to 10 months (N = 41) focusing on the development of turn-taking patterns and time spent in coordinated vocal interaction. Data analyses were carried out using multistate analysis. Both mothers and infants were found to coordinate their own…

  1. Drill Press Operator. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide. General Metal Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, James W.

    This guide provides information to enable coordinators to direct learning activities for students using an individualized study guide on operating a drill press. The study material is designed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed, or desiring to be employed, as drill press operators. Contents include a sample…

  2. Self-Study Manual for State Governing and Coordinating Boards for Community/Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Harold James, Jr.

    The purpose of this self-study manual is to provide a vehicle to enable state coordinating boards for community-junior colleges and their staffs to conduct an assessment or self-study of their activities, in order to better assess their role in the state's community-junior college system and to identify areas in which changes or improvements are…

  3. The Health Role of Local Area Coordinators in Scotland: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael; Karatzias, Thanos; O'Leary, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The study set out to explore whether local area coordinators (LACs) and their managers view the health role of LACs as an essential component of their work and identify the health-related activities undertaken by LACs in Scotland. A mixed methods cross-sectional phenomenological study involving local authority service managers (n = 25) and LACs (n…

  4. Milling Machine Operator. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide. General Metal Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, James W.

    This guide provides information to enable coordinators to direct learning activities for students using an individualized study guide on operating a milling machine. The study material is designed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed, or desiring to be employed, as milling machine operators. Contents include a…

  5. Internal pressure gradient errors in σ-coordinate ocean models in high resolution fjord studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berntsen, Jarle; Thiem, Øyvind; Avlesen, Helge

    2015-08-01

    Terrain following ocean models are today applied in coastal areas and fjords where the topography may be very steep. Recent advances in high performance computing facilitate model studies with very high spatial resolution. In general, numerical discretization errors tend to zero with the grid size. However, in fjords and near the coast the slopes may be very steep, and the internal pressure gradient errors associated with σ-models may be significant even in high resolution studies. The internal pressure gradient errors are due to errors when estimating the density gradients in σ-models, and these errors are investigated for two idealized test cases and for the Hardanger fjord in Norway. The methods considered are the standard second order method and a recently proposed method that is balanced such that the density gradients are zero for the case ρ = ρ(z) where ρ is the density and z is the vertical coordinate. The results show that by using the balanced method, the errors may be reduced considerably also for slope parameters larger than the maximum suggested value of 0.2. For the Hardanger fjord case initialized with ρ = ρ(z) , the errors in the results produced with the balanced method are orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding errors in the results produced with the second order method.

  6. Method for the evaluation of structure-activity relationship information associated with coordinated activity cliffs.

    PubMed

    Dimova, Dilyana; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-08-14

    Activity cliffs are generally defined as pairs of active compounds having a large difference in potency. Although this definition of activity cliffs focuses on compound pairs, the vast majority of cliffs are formed in a coordinated manner. This means that multiple highly and weakly potent compounds form series of activity cliffs, which often overlap. In activity cliff networks, coordinated cliffs emerge as disjoint activity cliff clusters. Recently, we have identified all cliff clusters from current bioactive compounds and analyzed their topologies. For structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis, activity cliff clusters are of high interest, since they contain more SAR information than cliffs that are individually considered. For medicinal chemistry applications, a key question becomes how to best extract SAR information from activity cliff clusters. This represents a challenging problem, given the complexity of many activity cliff configurations. Herein we introduce a generally applicable methodology to organize activity cliff clusters on the basis of structural relationships, prioritize clusters, and systematically extract SAR information from them. PMID:25014781

  7. Poisson Coordinates.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Ying; Hu, Shi-Min

    2013-02-01

    Harmonic functions are the critical points of a Dirichlet energy functional, the linear projections of conformal maps. They play an important role in computer graphics, particularly for gradient-domain image processing and shape-preserving geometric computation. We propose Poisson coordinates, a novel transfinite interpolation scheme based on the Poisson integral formula, as a rapid way to estimate a harmonic function on a certain domain with desired boundary values. Poisson coordinates are an extension of the Mean Value coordinates (MVCs) which inherit their linear precision, smoothness, and kernel positivity. We give explicit formulas for Poisson coordinates in both continuous and 2D discrete forms. Superior to MVCs, Poisson coordinates are proved to be pseudoharmonic (i.e., they reproduce harmonic functions on n-dimensional balls). Our experimental results show that Poisson coordinates have lower Dirichlet energies than MVCs on a number of typical 2D domains (particularly convex domains). As well as presenting a formula, our approach provides useful insights for further studies on coordinates-based interpolation and fast estimation of harmonic functions.

  8. Important challenges for coordination and inter-municipal cooperation in health care services: a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Demographical changes have stimulated a coordination reform in the Norwegian health care sector, creating new working practices and extending coordination within and between primary and hospital care, increasing the need for inter-municipal cooperation (IMC). This study aimed to identify challenges to coordination and IMC in the Norwegian health care sector as a basis for further theorizing and managerial advice in this growing area of research and practice. Methods A Delphi study of consensus development was used. Experts in coordination and IMC in health care services were selected by the healthcare manager or the councillor in their respective municipalities. In the first round, an expert panel received open-ended questions addressing possible challenges, and their answers were categorized and consolidated as the basis for further validation in the second round. The expert panel members were then asked to point out important statements in the third round, before the most important statements ranked by a majority of the members were rated again in the fourth round, including the option to explain the ratings. The same procedure was used in round five, with the exception that the expert panel members could view the consolidated results of their previous rankings as the basis for a new and final rating. The statements reaching consensus in round five were abstracted and themed. Results Nineteen experts consented to participate. Nine experts (47%) completed all of the five rounds. Eight statements concerning coordination reached consensus, resulting in four themes covering these challenges: different culture, uneven balance of power, lack of the possibility to communicate electronically, and demanding tasks in relation to resources. Three statements regarding challenges to IMC reached consensus, resulting in following themes: coopetition, complex leadership, and resistance to change. Conclusions This study identified several important challenges for

  9. The Darboux coordinates for a new family of Hamiltonian operators and linearization of associated evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodová, Jiřina

    2011-09-01

    A de Sole, V G Kac and M Wakimoto have recently introduced a new family of compatible Hamiltonian operators of the form H(N,0) = D2 compfn ((1/u) compfn D)2n compfn D, where N = 2n + 3, n = 0, 1, 2, ..., u is the dependent variable and D is the total derivative with respect to the independent variable. We present a differential substitution that reduces any linear combination of these operators to an operator with constant coefficients and linearizes any evolution equation which is bi-Hamiltonian with respect to a pair of any nontrivial linear combinations of the operators H(N,0). We also give the Darboux coordinates for H(N,0) for any odd N >= 3.

  10. Motor Coordination and Health-Related Physical Fitness of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Three-Year Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yao-Chuen; Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John; Hsieh, Chiu-Yun

    2011-01-01

    Health-related physical fitness is an important risk factor of cardiovascular disease. While previous studies have identified children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) to be less physically fit than typically developing (TD) peers, there is limited longitudinal research in this area. This study was undertaken to evaluate concomitant…

  11. Examining the Efficiency of Models Using Tangent Coordinates or Principal Component Scores in Allometry Studies.

    PubMed

    Sigirli, Deniz; Ercan, Ilker

    2015-09-01

    Most of the studies in medical and biological sciences are related to the examination of geometrical properties of an organ or organism. Growth and allometry studies are important in the way of investigating the effects of diseases and the environmental factors effects on the structure of the organ or organism. Thus, statistical shape analysis has recently become more important in the medical and biological sciences. Shape is all geometrical information that remains when location, scale and rotational effects are removed from an object. Allometry, which is a relationship between size and shape, plays an important role in the development of statistical shape analysis. The aim of the present study was to compare two different models for allometry which includes tangent coordinates and principal component scores of tangent coordinates as dependent variables in multivariate regression analysis. The results of the simulation study showed that the model constructed by taking tangent coordinates as dependent variables is more appropriate than the model constructed by taking principal component scores of tangent coordinates as dependent variables, for all sample sizes.

  12. CURRICULUM COORDINATION IN MULTICAMPUS JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICTS--CASE STUDIES IN COMMUNICATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COX, JAMES N.

    THE IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE ON COMMUNICATION IS EXAMINED IN A STUDY OF THREE SYSTEMS--(1) IN THE MULTICOLLEGE LOS ANGELES SYSTEM, RAPID GROWTH FROM ONE INSTITUTION TO SEVEN INDEPENDENT COLLEGES NECESSITATED ESTABLISHMENT OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION CHANNELS TO PROMOTE COORDINATION AND ARTICULATION, REDUCE COMPETITION, AND ESTABLISH…

  13. A Study of Coordinated Service Provision and Administrative Procedures in Selected University Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Strom Thurmond Inst. of Government and Public Affairs.

    This study investigated the existence of coordinated/consolidated services between colleges and universities and their communities by surveying 27 university communities of similar size and/or characteristics to Clemson University (South Carolina). The report begins with the profiles of the universities selected: their size in acreage, enrollment,…

  14. Fractions as the Coordination of Multiplicatively Related Quantities: A Cross-Sectional Study of Children's Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Empson, Susan B.; Junk, Debra; Dominguez, Higinio; Turner, Erin

    2006-01-01

    Although equal sharing problems appear to support the development of fractions as multiplicative structures, very little work has examined how children's informal solutions reflect this possibility. The primary goal of this study was to analyze children's coordination of two quantities (number of people sharing and number of things being shared)…

  15. A Prospective Cohort Study Comparing Workload in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivilis, Irina; Liu, Jian; Cairney, John; Hay, John A.; Klentrou, Panagiota; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to assess how cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of children with probable developmental coordination disorder (DCD) changes over a period of 4.7 years relative to a group of typically developing controls. A school-based sample of children in a large region of Ontario, Canada with 75 out of a possible…

  16. Syntactic and Semantic Coordination in Finite Complement-Clause Constructions: A Diary-Based Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köymen, Bahar; Lieven, Elena; Brandt, Silke

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the coordination of matrix and subordinate clauses within finite complement-clause constructions. The data come from diary and audio recordings which include the utterances produced by an American English-speaking child, L, between the ages 1;08 and 3;05. We extracted all the finite complement-clause constructions that L…

  17. Coordinated niche-associated signals promote germline homeostasis in the Drosophila ovary

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhong; Zhong, Guohua; Chai, Phing Chian; Luo, Lichao; Liu, Sen; Yang, Ying; Baeg, Gyeong-Hun

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell niches provide localized signaling molecules to promote stem cell fate and to suppress differentiation. The Drosophila melanogaster ovarian niche is established by several types of stromal cells, including terminal filament cells, cap cells, and escort cells (ECs). Here, we show that, in addition to its well-known function as a niche factor expressed in cap cells, the Drosophila transforming growth factor β molecule Decapentaplegic (Dpp) is expressed at a low level in ECs to maintain a pool of partially differentiated germline cells that may dedifferentiate to replenish germline stem cells upon their depletion under normal and stress conditions. Our study further reveals that the Dpp level in ECs is modulated by Hedgehog (Hh) ligands, which originate from both cap cells and ECs. We also demonstrate that Hh signaling exerts its function by suppressing Janus kinase/signal transducer activity, which promotes Dpp expression in ECs. Collectively, our data suggest a complex interplay of niche-associated signals that controls the development of a stem cell lineage. PMID:26504174

  18. Metal coordination and tyrosinase inhibition studies with Kojic-βAla-Kojic.

    PubMed

    Lachowicz, Joanna Izabela; Nurchi, Valeria Marina; Crisponi, Guido; Pelaez, Maria de Guadalupe Jaraquemada; Rescigno, Antonio; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Cal, Marta; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2015-10-01

    Kojic acid is a natural antifungal and antibacterial agent that has been extensively studied for its tyrosinase inhibitory and metal coordination properties. Tyrosinase is a metalloenzyme with two copper ions in the active site. It is widely accepted that the tyrosinase inhibitory activity of kojic acid is related to its ability to coordinate metals. Over the past five years, we have used kojic acid to synthesize new and efficient bis-kojic acid chelators of iron and aluminium. In parallel, we investigated whether the de novo designed ligands could interfere with proper tyrosinase functioning. The present study combines our experience with inhibition and coordination studies of the new ligand: Kojic-βAla-Kojic. Research aimed at the assembly of a new potent tyrosinase inhibitor was based on the well-known crystal structure of the enzyme. Two questions were whether two kojic acids could act better than one and to what extent the length and kind of linker could ameliorate metal coordination, and inhibitory activity. Our results show that Kojic-βAla-Kojic has high affinity for Fe(III), Al(III), Zn(II), and Cu(II) and strong tyrosinase inhibitory effect and it can be proposed for use in industrial and pharmaceutical applications.

  19. Enhanced Raman spectroscopic study of the coordination chemistry of malononitrile on copper surfaces - Removal of nu(C=N) degeneracy through pi-coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loo, B. H.; Lee, Y. G.; Frazier, D. O.

    1985-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy has been used to study the molecular interactions of malononitrile with copper electrode surfaces. The doubly degenerate CN stretching frequency at 2263/cm is removed when malononitrile adsorbs on copper. Two nu(CN) bands are observed at 2096 and 2204/cm at -0.6 V(SCE). The result shows that only one CN group is pi-coordinated with Cu, which contributes to the observed large shift (-167/cm) in nu(CN). The other CN group is not coordinated to the metal surface.

  20. Kinetic Studies of the Coordination of Mono- and Ditopic Ligands with First Row Transition Metal Ions.

    PubMed

    Munzert, Stefanie Martina; Schwarz, Guntram; Kurth, Dirk G

    2016-03-01

    The reactions of the ditopic ligand 1,4-bis(2,2':6',2″-terpyridin-4'-yl)benzene (1) as well as the monotopic ligands 4'-phenyl-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine (2) and 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine (3) with Fe(2+), Co(2+), and Ni(2+) in solution are studied. While the reaction of 1 with Fe(2+), Co(2+), and Ni(2+) results in metallo-supramolecular coordination polyelectrolytes (MEPEs), ligands 2 and 3 give mononuclear complexes. All compounds are analyzed by UV/vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy indicates that protonation as well as coordination to Zn(2+) leads to an enhanced fluorescence of the terpyridine ligands. In contrast, Fe(2+), Co(2+), or Ni(2+) quench the fluorescence of the ligands. The kinetics of the reactions are studied by stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy. Analysis of the measured data is presented and the full kinetic rate laws for the coordination of the terpyridine ligands 1, 2, and 3 to Fe(2+), Co(2+), and Ni(2+) are presented. The coordination occurs within a few seconds, and the rate constant increases in the order Ni(2+) < Co(2+) < Fe(2+). With the rate constants at hand, the polymer growth of Ni-MEPE is computed.

  1. Synthesis and photophysical studies of self-assembled multicomponent supramolecular coordination prisms bearing porphyrin faces.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yanhui; Sánchez-Molina, Irene; Cao, Changsheng; Cook, Timothy R; Stang, Peter J

    2014-07-01

    Multicomponent self-assembly, wherein two unique donor precursors are combined with a single metal acceptor instead of the more common two-component assembly, can be achieved by selecting Lewis-basic sites and metal nodes that select for heteroligated coordination spheres. Platinum(II) ions show a thermodynamic preference for mixed pyridyl/carboxylate coordination environments and are thus suitable for such designs. The use of three or more unique building blocks increases the structural complexity of supramolecules. Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of rectangular prismatic supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs) with two faces occupied by porphyrin molecules, motivated by the search for new multichromophore complexes with promising light-harvesting properties. These prisms are obtained from the self-assembly of a 90° Pt(II) acceptor with a meso-substituted tetrapyridylporphyrin (TPyP) and dicarboxylate ligands. The generality of this self-assembly reaction is demonstrated using five dicarboxylate ligands, two based on a rigid central phenyl ring and three alkyl-spaced variants, to form a total of five free-base and five Zn-metallated porphyrin prisms. All 10 SCCs are characterized by (31)P and (1)H multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, confirming the structure of each self-assembly and the stoichiometry of formation. The photophysical properties of the resulting SCCs were investigated revealing that the absorption and emission properties of the free-base and metallated porphyrin prisms preserve the spectral features associated with free TPyP.

  2. Local co-ordination and case management can enhance Indigenous eye care – a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Indigenous adults suffer six times more blindness than other Australians but 94% of this vision loss is unnecessary being preventable or treatable. We have explored the barriers and solutions to improve Indigenous eye health and proposed significant system changes required to close the gap for Indigenous eye health. This paper aims to identify the local co-ordination and case management requirements necessary to improve eye care for Indigenous Australians. Methods A qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews, focus groups, stakeholder workshops and meetings was conducted in community, private practice, hospital, non-government organisation and government settings. Data were collected at 21 sites across Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 289 people working in Indigenous health and eye care; focus group discussions with 81 community members; stakeholder workshops involving 86 individuals; and separate meetings with 75 people. 531 people participated in the consultations. Barriers and issues were identified through thematic analysis and policy solutions developed through iterative consultation. Results Poorly co-ordinated eye care services for Indigenous Australians are inefficient and costly and result in poorer outcomes for patients, communities and health care providers. Services are more effective where there is good co-ordination of services and case management of patients along the pathway of care. The establishment of clear pathways of care, development local and regional partnerships to manage services and service providers and the application of sufficient workforce with clear roles and responsibilities have the potential to achieve important improvements in eye care. Conclusions Co-ordination is a key to close the gap in eye care for Indigenous Australians. Properly co-ordinated care and support along the patient pathway through case management will save money by preventing dropout of patients who haven’t received

  3. Synthesis, Characterization, and Cu(2+) Coordination Studies of a 3-Hydroxy-4-pyridinone Aza Scorpiand Derivative.

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, Luis M; Pitarch-Jarque, Javier; Martínez-Camarena, Àlvar; García-España, Enrique; Tejero, Roberto; Santacruz-Ortega, Hisila; Navarro, Rosa-Elena; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Leyva-Peralta, Mario Alberto; Doménech-Carbó, Antonio; Verdejo, Begoña

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis, acid-base behavior, and Cu(2+) coordination chemistry of a new ligand (L1) consisting of an azamacrocyclic core appended with a lateral chain containing a 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4(1H)-pyridinone group have been studied by potentiometry, cyclic voltammetry, and NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. UV-vis and NMR studies showed that phenolate group was protonated at the highest pH values [log K = 9.72(1)]. Potentiometric studies point out the formation of Cu(2+) complexes of 1:2, 2:2, 4:3, 1:1, and 2:1 Cu(2+)/L1 stoichiometries. UV-vis analysis and electrochemical studies evidence the implication of the pyridinone moieties in the metal coordination of the 1:2 Cu(2+)/L1 complexes. L1 shows a stronger chelating ability than the reference chelating ligand deferiprone. While L1 shows no cytotoxicity in HeLa and ARPE-19 human cell lines (3.1-25.0 μg/mL), it has significant antioxidant activity, as denoted by TEAC assays at physiological pH. The addition of Cu(2+) diminishes the antioxidant activity because of its coordination to the pyridinone moiety phenolic group.

  4. Synthesis, Characterization, and Cu(2+) Coordination Studies of a 3-Hydroxy-4-pyridinone Aza Scorpiand Derivative.

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, Luis M; Pitarch-Jarque, Javier; Martínez-Camarena, Àlvar; García-España, Enrique; Tejero, Roberto; Santacruz-Ortega, Hisila; Navarro, Rosa-Elena; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Leyva-Peralta, Mario Alberto; Doménech-Carbó, Antonio; Verdejo, Begoña

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis, acid-base behavior, and Cu(2+) coordination chemistry of a new ligand (L1) consisting of an azamacrocyclic core appended with a lateral chain containing a 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4(1H)-pyridinone group have been studied by potentiometry, cyclic voltammetry, and NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. UV-vis and NMR studies showed that phenolate group was protonated at the highest pH values [log K = 9.72(1)]. Potentiometric studies point out the formation of Cu(2+) complexes of 1:2, 2:2, 4:3, 1:1, and 2:1 Cu(2+)/L1 stoichiometries. UV-vis analysis and electrochemical studies evidence the implication of the pyridinone moieties in the metal coordination of the 1:2 Cu(2+)/L1 complexes. L1 shows a stronger chelating ability than the reference chelating ligand deferiprone. While L1 shows no cytotoxicity in HeLa and ARPE-19 human cell lines (3.1-25.0 μg/mL), it has significant antioxidant activity, as denoted by TEAC assays at physiological pH. The addition of Cu(2+) diminishes the antioxidant activity because of its coordination to the pyridinone moiety phenolic group. PMID:27433814

  5. Cdk1 orders mitotic events through coordination of a chromosome-associated phosphatase switch.

    PubMed

    Qian, Junbin; Beullens, Monique; Huang, Jin; De Munter, Sofie; Lesage, Bart; Bollen, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    RepoMan is a scaffold for signalling by mitotic phosphatases at the chromosomes. During (pro)metaphase, RepoMan-associated protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A-B56 regulate the chromosome targeting of Aurora-B kinase and RepoMan, respectively. Here we show that this task division is critically dependent on the phosphorylation of RepoMan by protein kinase Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), which reduces the binding of PP1 but facilitates the recruitment of PP2A-B56. The inactivation of Cdk1 in early anaphase reverses this phosphatase switch, resulting in the accumulation of PP1-RepoMan to a level that is sufficient to catalyse its own chromosome targeting in a PP2A-independent and irreversible manner. Bulk-targeted PP1-RepoMan also inactivates Aurora B and initiates nuclear-envelope reassembly through dephosphorylation-mediated recruitment of Importin β. Bypassing the Cdk1 regulation of PP1-RepoMan causes the premature dephosphorylation of its mitotic-exit substrates in prometaphase. Hence, the regulation of RepoMan-associated phosphatases by Cdk1 is essential for the timely dephosphorylation of their mitotic substrates. PMID:26674376

  6. Cdk1 orders mitotic events through coordination of a chromosome-associated phosphatase switch

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Junbin; Beullens, Monique; Huang, Jin; De Munter, Sofie; Lesage, Bart; Bollen, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    RepoMan is a scaffold for signalling by mitotic phosphatases at the chromosomes. During (pro)metaphase, RepoMan-associated protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A-B56 regulate the chromosome targeting of Aurora-B kinase and RepoMan, respectively. Here we show that this task division is critically dependent on the phosphorylation of RepoMan by protein kinase Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), which reduces the binding of PP1 but facilitates the recruitment of PP2A-B56. The inactivation of Cdk1 in early anaphase reverses this phosphatase switch, resulting in the accumulation of PP1-RepoMan to a level that is sufficient to catalyse its own chromosome targeting in a PP2A-independent and irreversible manner. Bulk-targeted PP1-RepoMan also inactivates Aurora B and initiates nuclear-envelope reassembly through dephosphorylation-mediated recruitment of Importin β. Bypassing the Cdk1 regulation of PP1-RepoMan causes the premature dephosphorylation of its mitotic-exit substrates in prometaphase. Hence, the regulation of RepoMan-associated phosphatases by Cdk1 is essential for the timely dephosphorylation of their mitotic substrates. PMID:26674376

  7. Capture of associated targets on chromatin links long-distance chromatin looping to transcriptional coordination.

    PubMed

    Bourgo, Ryan J; Singhal, Hari; Greene, Geoffrey L

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe a sensitive and novel method of identifying endogenous DNA-DNA interactions. Capture of Associated Targets on CHromatin (CATCH) uses efficient capture and enrichment of specific genomic loci of interest through hybridization and subsequent purification via complementary biotinylated oligonucleotide. The CATCH assay requires no enzymatic digestion or ligation, requires little starting material, provides high-quality data, has excellent reproducibility and is completed in less than 24 h. Efficacy is demonstrated through capture of three disparate loci, which demonstrate unique subsets of long-distance chromatin interactions enriched for both enhancer marks and oestrogen receptor-binding sites. In each experiment, CATCH-seq peaks representing long-distance chromatin interactions were centred near the TSS of genes, and, critically, the genes identified as physically interacting are shown to be transcriptionally coexpressed. These interactions could potentially create transcriptional hubs for the regulation of gene expression programmes. PMID:27634217

  8. Capture of associated targets on chromatin links long-distance chromatin looping to transcriptional coordination

    PubMed Central

    Bourgo, Ryan J.; Singhal, Hari; Greene, Geoffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe a sensitive and novel method of identifying endogenous DNA–DNA interactions. Capture of Associated Targets on CHromatin (CATCH) uses efficient capture and enrichment of specific genomic loci of interest through hybridization and subsequent purification via complementary biotinylated oligonucleotide. The CATCH assay requires no enzymatic digestion or ligation, requires little starting material, provides high-quality data, has excellent reproducibility and is completed in less than 24 h. Efficacy is demonstrated through capture of three disparate loci, which demonstrate unique subsets of long-distance chromatin interactions enriched for both enhancer marks and oestrogen receptor-binding sites. In each experiment, CATCH-seq peaks representing long-distance chromatin interactions were centred near the TSS of genes, and, critically, the genes identified as physically interacting are shown to be transcriptionally coexpressed. These interactions could potentially create transcriptional hubs for the regulation of gene expression programmes. PMID:27634217

  9. Chitosan-Copper (II) complex as antibacterial agent: synthesis, characterization and coordinating bond- activity correlation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekahlia, S.; Bouzid, B.

    2009-11-01

    The antimicrobial activity of chitosan is unstable and sensitive to many factors such as molecular weight. Recent investigations showed that low molecular weight chitosan exhibited strong bactericidal activities compared to chitosan with high molecular weight. Since chitosan degradation can be caused by the coordinating bond, we attempt to synthesize and characterize the chitosan-Cu (II) complex, and thereafter study the coordinating bond effect on its antibacterial activity against Salmonella enteritidis. Seven chitosan-copper complexes with different copper contents were prepared and characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis, XRD and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Results indicated that for chitosan-Cu (II) complexes with molar ratio close to 1:1, the inhibition rate reached 100%.

  10. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies on structural transformations of porous coordination polymers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie-Peng; Liao, Pei-Qin; Zhou, Hao-Long; Lin, Rui-Biao; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2014-08-21

    X-Ray single-crystal diffraction has been the most straightforward and important technique in structural determination of crystalline materials for understanding their structure-property relationships. This powerful tool can be used to directly visualize the precise and detailed structural information of porous coordination polymers or metal-organic frameworks at different states, which are unique for their flexible host frameworks compared with conventional adsorbents. With a series of selected recent examples, this review gives a brief overview of single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies and single-crystal to single-crystal transformations of porous coordination polymers under various chemical and physical stimuli such as solvent and gas sorption/desorption/exchange, chemical reaction and temperature change.

  11. Speech changes after coordinative training in patients with cerebellar ataxia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tykalova, Tereza; Pospisilova, Mariana; Cmejla, Roman; Jerabek, Jaroslav; Mares, Pavel; Rusz, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Although rehabilitative training is a necessary adjunct in the management of gait ataxia, it remains unknown whether the possible beneficial effect of intensive coordinative training may translate to activities of daily living, which are closely connected with postural alignment. The aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of a 2-week intensive coordinative motor training on speech production. Speech and motor performances in a cohort of ten individuals with cerebellar degeneration were examined three times; before the introduction of training, directly and 4 weeks after the last training session. Each patient was instructed to perform a speaking task of fast syllable repetition and monologue. Objective acoustic analyses were used to investigate six key aspects of speech production disturbed in ataxic dysarthria including accuracy of consonant articulation, accuracy of vowel articulation, irregular alternating motion rates, prolonged phonemes, slow alternating motion rates and inappropriate segmentation. We found that coordinative training had a mild beneficial effect on speech in cerebellar patients. Immediately after the last training session, slight speech improvements were evident in all ten patients. Furthermore, follow-up assessment performed 4 weeks later revealed that 90 % of the patients showed better speech performance than before initiation of the therapy. The present study supports evidence that the intensive rehabilitative training may positively affect fine-motor movements such as speech in patients with cerebellar ataxia.

  12. Age-related differences in control of a visuomotor coordination task: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Young Uk; Lee, Kyu-Ho; Lee, Hocheol; Park, Jungsik

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to examine age-related differences in control of a perception-action coordination skill. We adapted a visuomotor tracking experiment requiring various coordination patterns between a limb's motion and an external signal. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 12 subjects (6 elderly and 6 young) voluntarily participated in the study. The experimental session consisted of 3 trials for 3 different relative phase patterns: 0°, 90°, and 180°, defined by the relationship between the online visual feedback of the joystick motion and the white dot signal. [Results] The 0° and 180° tracking patterns were stable compared with the 90° tracking pattern for both age groups. The present results also showed that the elderly subjects were less stable than were young subjects for all tracking patterns. [Conclusion] The intrinsic coordination dynamics predicted by the Haken-Kelso-Bunz (HKB) mathematical model did not change with age, whereas utilization of visual feedback information declined overall. Further research is needed regarding methods for increasing utilization of visual feedback information from the perspective of rehabilitation. PMID:27190463

  13. Age-related differences in control of a visuomotor coordination task: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Young Uk; Lee, Kyu-Ho; Lee, Hocheol; Park, Jungsik

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to examine age-related differences in control of a perception-action coordination skill. We adapted a visuomotor tracking experiment requiring various coordination patterns between a limb’s motion and an external signal. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 12 subjects (6 elderly and 6 young) voluntarily participated in the study. The experimental session consisted of 3 trials for 3 different relative phase patterns: 0°, 90°, and 180°, defined by the relationship between the online visual feedback of the joystick motion and the white dot signal. [Results] The 0° and 180° tracking patterns were stable compared with the 90° tracking pattern for both age groups. The present results also showed that the elderly subjects were less stable than were young subjects for all tracking patterns. [Conclusion] The intrinsic coordination dynamics predicted by the Haken-Kelso-Bunz (HKB) mathematical model did not change with age, whereas utilization of visual feedback information declined overall. Further research is needed regarding methods for increasing utilization of visual feedback information from the perspective of rehabilitation. PMID:27190463

  14. Engineering Short Preorganized Peptide Sequences for Metal Ion Coordination: Copper(II) a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Lima, L M P; Iranzo, O

    2016-01-01

    Peptides are multidentate chiral ligands capable of coordinating different metal ions. Nowadays, they can be obtained with high yield and purity, thanks to the advances on peptide/protein chemistry as well as in equipment (peptide synthesizers). Based on the identity and length of their amino acid sequences, peptides can present different degrees of flexibility and folding. Although short peptide sequences (<20 amino acids) usually lack structure in solution, different levels of structural preorganization can be induced by introducing conformational constraints, such as β-turn/loop template sequences and backbone cyclization. For all these reasons, and the fact that one is not restricted to use proteinogenic amino acids, small peptidic scaffolds constitute a simple and versatile platform for the development of inorganic systems with tailor-made properties and functions. Here we outline a general approach to the design of short preorganized peptide sequences (10-16 amino acids) for metal ion coordination. Based on our experience, we present a general scheme for the design, synthesis, and characterization of these peptidic scaffolds and provide protocols for the study of their metal ion coordination properties. PMID:27586340

  15. Engineering Short Preorganized Peptide Sequences for Metal Ion Coordination: Copper(II) a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Lima, L M P; Iranzo, O

    2016-01-01

    Peptides are multidentate chiral ligands capable of coordinating different metal ions. Nowadays, they can be obtained with high yield and purity, thanks to the advances on peptide/protein chemistry as well as in equipment (peptide synthesizers). Based on the identity and length of their amino acid sequences, peptides can present different degrees of flexibility and folding. Although short peptide sequences (<20 amino acids) usually lack structure in solution, different levels of structural preorganization can be induced by introducing conformational constraints, such as β-turn/loop template sequences and backbone cyclization. For all these reasons, and the fact that one is not restricted to use proteinogenic amino acids, small peptidic scaffolds constitute a simple and versatile platform for the development of inorganic systems with tailor-made properties and functions. Here we outline a general approach to the design of short preorganized peptide sequences (10-16 amino acids) for metal ion coordination. Based on our experience, we present a general scheme for the design, synthesis, and characterization of these peptidic scaffolds and provide protocols for the study of their metal ion coordination properties.

  16. XAFS study of copper(II) complexes with square planar and square pyramidal coordination geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, A.; Klysubun, W.; Nitin Nair, N.; Shrivastava, B. D.; Prasad, J.; Srivastava, K.

    2016-08-01

    X-ray absorption fine structure of six Cu(II) complexes, Cu2(Clna)4 2H2O (1), Cu2(ac)4 2H2O (2), Cu2(phac)4 (pyz) (3), Cu2(bpy)2(na)2 H2O (ClO4) (4), Cu2(teen)4(OH)2(ClO4)2 (5) and Cu2(tmen)4(OH)2(ClO4)2 (6) (where ac, phac, pyz, bpy, na, teen, tmen = acetate, phenyl acetate, pyrazole, bipyridine, nicotinic acid, tetraethyethylenediamine, tetramethylethylenediamine, respectively), which were supposed to have square pyramidal and square planar coordination geometries have been investigated. The differences observed in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) features of the standard compounds having four, five and six coordination geometry points towards presence of square planar and square pyramidal geometry around Cu centre in the studied complexes. The presence of intense pre-edge feature in the spectra of four complexes, 1-4, indicates square pyramidal coordination. Another important XANES feature, present in complexes 5 and 6, is prominent shoulder in the rising part of edge whose intensity decreases in the presence of axial ligands and thus indicates four coordination in these complexes. Ab initio calculations were carried out for square planar and square pyramidal Cu centres to observe the variation of 4p density of states in the presence and absence of axial ligands. To determine the number and distance of scattering atoms around Cu centre in the complexes, EXAFS analysis has been done using the paths obtained from Cu(II) oxide model and an axial Cu-O path from model of a square pyramidal complex. The results obtained from EXAFS analysis have been reported which confirmed the inference drawn from XANES features. Thus, it has been shown that these paths from model of a standard compound can be used to determine the structural parameters for complexes having unknown structure.

  17. Integrative data analysis through coordination of measurement and analysis protocol across independent longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Scott M; Piccinin, Andrea M

    2009-06-01

    Replication of research findings across independent longitudinal studies is essential for a cumulative and innovative developmental science. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies is often limited by the amount of published information on particular research questions, the complexity of longitudinal designs and the sophistication of analyses, and practical limits on full reporting of results. In many cases, cross-study differences in sample composition and measurements impede or lessen the utility of pooled data analysis. A collaborative, coordinated analysis approach can provide a broad foundation for cumulating scientific knowledge by facilitating efficient analysis of multiple studies in ways that maximize comparability of results and permit evaluation of study differences. The goal of such an approach is to maximize opportunities for replication and extension of findings across longitudinal studies through open access to analysis scripts and output for published results, permitting modification, evaluation, and extension of alternative statistical models and application to additional data sets. Drawing on the cognitive aging literature as an example, the authors articulate some of the challenges of meta-analytic and pooled-data approaches and introduce a coordinated analysis approach as an important avenue for maximizing the comparability, replication, and extension of results from longitudinal studies. PMID:19485626

  18. Synthesis and photophysical studies of self-assembled multicomponent supramolecular coordination prisms bearing porphyrin faces

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yanhui; Sánchez-Molina, Irene; Cao, Changsheng; Cook, Timothy R.; Stang, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Multicomponent self-assembly, wherein two unique donor precursors are combined with a single metal acceptor instead of the more common two-component assembly, can be achieved by selecting Lewis-basic sites and metal nodes that select for heteroligated coordination spheres. Platinum(II) ions show a thermodynamic preference for mixed pyridyl/carboxylate coordination environments and are thus suitable for such designs. The use of three or more unique building blocks increases the structural complexity of supramolecules. Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of rectangular prismatic supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs) with two faces occupied by porphyrin molecules, motivated by the search for new multichromophore complexes with promising light-harvesting properties. These prisms are obtained from the self-assembly of a 90° Pt(II) acceptor with a meso-substituted tetrapyridylporphyrin (TPyP) and dicarboxylate ligands. The generality of this self-assembly reaction is demonstrated using five dicarboxylate ligands, two based on a rigid central phenyl ring and three alkyl-spaced variants, to form a total of five free-base and five Zn-metallated porphyrin prisms. All 10 SCCs are characterized by 31P and 1H multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, confirming the structure of each self-assembly and the stoichiometry of formation. The photophysical properties of the resulting SCCs were investigated revealing that the absorption and emission properties of the free-base and metallated porphyrin prisms preserve the spectral features associated with free TPyP. PMID:24979805

  19. Views of Dental Providers on Primary Care Coordination at Chairside: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Northridge, Mary E.; Birenz, Shirley; Gomes, Danni; Golembeski, Cynthia A.; Greenblatt, Ariel Port; Shelley, Donna; Russell, Stefanie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There is a need for research to facilitate the widespread implementation, dissemination, and sustained utilization of evidence-based primary care screening, monitoring, and care coordination guidelines, thereby increasing the impact of dental hygienists’ actions on patients’ oral and general health. The aims of this formative study are to: (1) explore dental hygienists’ and dentists’ perspectives regarding the integration of primary care activities into routine dental care; and (2) assess the needs of dental hygienists and dentists regarding primary care coordination activities and use of information technology to obtain clinical information at chairside. Methods This qualitative study recruited ten hygienists and six dentists from ten New York City area dental offices with diverse patient mixes and volumes. A New York University faculty hygienist conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews, which were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data analysis consisted of multilevel coding based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, resulting in emergent themes with accompanying categories. Results The dental hygienists and dentists interviewed as part of this study fail to use evidence-based guidelines to screen their patients for primary care sensitive conditions. Overwhelmingly, dental providers believe that tobacco use and poor diet contribute to oral disease, and report using electronic devices at chairside to obtain web-based health information. Conclusion Dental hygienists are well positioned to help facilitate greater integration of oral and general health care. Challenges include lack of evidence-based knowledge, coordination between dental hygienists and dentists, and systems-level support, with opportunities for improvement based upon a theory-driven framework. PMID:27340183

  20. Task-specific training, learning, and memory for children with developmental coordination disorder: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Warn, Claire

    2008-10-01

    This pilot study compared learning and memory profiles of 20 children (55% boys; M age = 7.3 yr., SD = 0.4) identified as having learning difficulties and having or suspected of having Developmental Coordination Disorder. 10 children participated in a 13-wk. program of task-specific motor exercises, while the other 10 received none. Analysis indicated significant improvement in motor skills and in visuospatial working memory by the intervention group; however, this effect did not transfer to reading and mathematics scores. Implications regarding the relations among motor skills, learning, and memory are discussed within the context of the intervention.

  1. EXAFS studies of lanthanide coordination in crystalline phosphates and amorphous phytates

    SciTech Connect

    Morss, L.R.; Schmidt, M.A.J.; Nash, K.L.

    1995-12-31

    As part of the DOE Efficient Separations and Processing Integrated Program, techniques are being developed to stabilize radioactive and hazardous contaminants to prevent their migration from buried wastes. This report is part of a study to immobilize actinide ions in the near-surface environment by reacting them with organophosphorus complexants that decompose to phosphates. Nd and Gd ions were used as models for Pu, Am, and Cm ions; phytic acid was used as the complexant. Solid Nd and Gd phytates were prepared and the coordination characterized by EXAFS.

  2. Association studies in consanguineous populations

    SciTech Connect

    Genin, E.; Clerget-Darpous, F.

    1996-04-01

    To study the genetic determinism of multifactorial diseases in large panmictic populations, a strategy consists in looking for an association with markers closely linked to candidate genes. A distribution of marker genotypes different in patients and controls may indicate that the candidate gene is involved in the disease. In panmictic populations, the power to detect the role of a candidate gene depends on the gametic disequilibrium with the marker locus. In consanguineous populations, we show that it depends on the inbreeding coefficient F as well. Inbreeding increases the power to detect the role of a recessive or quasi-recessive disease-susceptibility factor. The gain in power turns out to be greater for small values of the gametic disequilibrium. Moreover, even in the absence of gametic disequilibrium, the presence of inbreeding may allow to detect the role of a recessive factor. Ignoring inbreeding when it exists may lead to reject falsely a recessive model if the mode of inheritance is inferred on the distribution of genotypes among patients. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Impaired Visuo-Motor Sequence Learning in Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gheysen, Freja; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Fias, Wim

    2011-01-01

    The defining feature of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is the marked impairment in the development of motor coordination (DSM-IV-TR, American Psychiatric Association, 2000). In the current study, we focused on one core aspect of motor coordination: learning to correctly sequence movements. We investigated the procedural, visuo-motor…

  4. Organizing to Coordinate Child Care Services. (With an Appendix) The Greater Minneapolis Day Care Association: Early History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Patricia; Berryman, Pauline

    Systems of coordinating child care services are analyzed as a guide to organizing. Federal Community Child Care (4-C) are the focus of the analysis. In Part I, evolution of coordination, an initial steering committee is followed through its various phases of expansion--initial impetus, visibility, staffing patterns, parent involvement, community…

  5. Siderophore biosynthesis coordinately modulated the virulence-associated interactive metabolome of uropathogenic Escherichia coli and human urine

    PubMed Central

    Su, Qiao; Guan, Tianbing; Lv, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) growth in women’s bladders during urinary tract infection (UTI) incurs substantial chemical exchange, termed the “interactive metabolome”, which primarily accounts for the metabolic costs (utilized metabolome) and metabolic donations (excreted metabolome) between UPEC and human urine. Here, we attempted to identify the individualized interactive metabolome between UPEC and human urine. We were able to distinguish UPEC from non-UPEC by employing a combination of metabolomics and genetics. Our results revealed that the interactive metabolome between UPEC and human urine was markedly different from that between non-UPEC and human urine, and that UPEC triggered much stronger perturbations in the interactive metabolome in human urine. Furthermore, siderophore biosynthesis coordinately modulated the individualized interactive metabolome, which we found to be a critical component of UPEC virulence. The individualized virulence-associated interactive metabolome contained 31 different metabolites and 17 central metabolic pathways that were annotated to host these different metabolites, including energetic metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and gut microbe metabolism. Changes in the activities of these pathways mechanistically pinpointed the virulent capability of siderophore biosynthesis. Together, our findings provide novel insights into UPEC virulence, and we propose that siderophores are potential targets for further discovery of drugs to treat UPEC-induced UTI. PMID:27076285

  6. Coordinated expression of functionally diverse fructosyltransferase genes is associated with fructan accumulation in response to low temperature in perennial ryegrass.

    PubMed

    Hisano, Hiroshi; Kanazawa, Akira; Yoshida, Midori; Humphreys, Mervyn O; Iizuka, Masaru; Kitamura, Keisuke; Yamada, Toshihiko

    2008-01-01

    * Fructan is the major nonstructural carbohydrate reserve in temperate grasses. To understand regulatory mechanisms in fructan synthesis and adaptation to cold environments, the isolation, functional characterization and genetic mapping of fructosyltransferase (FT) genes in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) are described. * Six cDNAs (prft1-prft6) encoding FTs were isolated from cold-treated ryegrass plants, and three were positioned on a perennial ryegrass linkage map. Recombinant proteins were produced in Pichia pastoris and enzymatic activity was characterized. Changes in carbohydrate levels and mRNA levels of FT genes during cold treatment were also analysed. * One gene encodes sucrose-sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST), and two gene encode fructan-fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase (6G-FFT). Protein sequences for the other genes (prfts 1, 2 and 6) were similar to sucrose-fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT). The 1-SST and prft1 genes were colocalized with an invertase gene on the ryegrass linkage map. The mRNA levels of prft1 and prft2 increased gradually during cold treatment, while those of the 1-SST and 6G-FFT genes first increased, but then decreased before increasing again during a longer period of cold treatment. * Thus at least two different patterns of gene expression have developed during the evolution of functionally diverse FT genes, which are associated in a coordinated way with fructan synthesis in a cold environment.

  7. Siderophore biosynthesis coordinately modulated the virulence-associated interactive metabolome of uropathogenic Escherichia coli and human urine.

    PubMed

    Su, Qiao; Guan, Tianbing; Lv, Haitao

    2016-04-14

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) growth in women's bladders during urinary tract infection (UTI) incurs substantial chemical exchange, termed the "interactive metabolome", which primarily accounts for the metabolic costs (utilized metabolome) and metabolic donations (excreted metabolome) between UPEC and human urine. Here, we attempted to identify the individualized interactive metabolome between UPEC and human urine. We were able to distinguish UPEC from non-UPEC by employing a combination of metabolomics and genetics. Our results revealed that the interactive metabolome between UPEC and human urine was markedly different from that between non-UPEC and human urine, and that UPEC triggered much stronger perturbations in the interactive metabolome in human urine. Furthermore, siderophore biosynthesis coordinately modulated the individualized interactive metabolome, which we found to be a critical component of UPEC virulence. The individualized virulence-associated interactive metabolome contained 31 different metabolites and 17 central metabolic pathways that were annotated to host these different metabolites, including energetic metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and gut microbe metabolism. Changes in the activities of these pathways mechanistically pinpointed the virulent capability of siderophore biosynthesis. Together, our findings provide novel insights into UPEC virulence, and we propose that siderophores are potential targets for further discovery of drugs to treat UPEC-induced UTI.

  8. Induction of Neuron-Specific Degradation of Coenzyme A Models Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration by Reducing Motor Coordination in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shumar, Stephanie A.; Fagone, Paolo; Alfonso-Pecchio, Adolfo; Gray, John T.; Rehg, Jerold E.; Jackowski, Suzanne; Leonardi, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Background Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, PKAN, is an inherited disorder characterized by progressive impairment in motor coordination and caused by mutations in PANK2, a human gene that encodes one of four pantothenate kinase (PanK) isoforms. PanK initiates the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA), an essential cofactor that plays a key role in energy metabolism and lipid synthesis. Most of the mutations in PANK2 reduce or abolish the activity of the enzyme. This evidence has led to the hypothesis that lower CoA might be the underlying cause of the neurodegeneration in PKAN patients; however, no mouse model of the disease is currently available to investigate the connection between neuronal CoA levels and neurodegeneration. Indeed, genetic and/or dietary manipulations aimed at reducing whole-body CoA synthesis have not produced a desirable PKAN model, and this has greatly hindered the discovery of a treatment for the disease. Objective, Methods, Results and Conclusions Cellular CoA levels are tightly regulated by a balance between synthesis and degradation. CoA degradation is catalyzed by two peroxisomal nudix hydrolases, Nudt7 and Nudt19. In this study we sought to reduce neuronal CoA in mice through the alternative approach of increasing Nudt7-mediated CoA degradation. This was achieved by combining the use of an adeno-associated virus-based expression system with the synapsin (Syn) promoter. We show that mice with neuronal overexpression of a cytosolic version of Nudt7 (scAAV9-Syn-Nudt7cyt) exhibit a significant decrease in brain CoA levels in conjunction with a reduction in motor coordination. These results strongly support the existence of a link between CoA levels and neuronal function and show that scAAV9-Syn-Nudt7cyt mice can be used to model PKAN. PMID:26052948

  9. Two-coordinate terminal zinc hydride complexes: synthesis, structure and preliminary reactivity studies.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Michael J C; Middleton, Ewart; Kefalidis, Christos E; Dange, Deepak; Juckel, Martin M; Maron, Laurent; Jones, Cameron

    2016-08-18

    The first examples of essentially two-coordinate, monomeric zinc hydride complexes, LZnH (L = -N(Ar)(SiR3)) (Ar = C6H2{C(H)Ph2}2R'-2,6,4; R = Me, R' = Pr(i) (L'); R = Pr(i), R' = Me (L*); R = Pr(i), R' = Pr(i) (L(†))) have been prepared and shown by crystallographic studies to have near linear N-Zn-H fragments. The results of computational studies imply that any PhZn interactions in the compounds are weak at best. Preliminary reactivity studies reveal the compounds to be effective for the stoichiometric hydrozincation and catalytic hydrosilylation of carbonyl compounds. PMID:27499232

  10. Quantifying coordination and coordination variability in backward versus forward running: Implications for control of motion.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Sina; Arshi, Ahmed Reza; Davids, Keith

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this study were to compare coordination and coordination variability in backward and forward running and to investigate the effects of speed on coordination variability in both backward and forward running. Fifteen healthy male participants took part in this study to run forwards and backwards on a treadmill at 80%, 100% and 120% of their preferred running speeds. The coordinate data of passive reflective markers attached to body segments were recorded using motion capture systems. Coordination of shank-foot and thigh-shank couplings in sagittal plane was quantified using the continuous relative phase method. Coordination variability was calculated as the standard deviation of a coordination pattern over 50 strides. Cross-correlation coefficients and associated phase shifts were determined to quantify similarity in coordination patterns between forward and backward running. Our results demonstrated that the coordination pattern in a gait cycle of backward running was in reverse to that of forward running at all speeds implying that the same neural circuitry is responsible for regulating both forward and backward running gaits. In addition, results demonstrated that there was an average of approximately 11% phase shift between the coordination patterns of backward and forward running which indicates that a single underlying mechanism might be responsible for generating motor patterns in both forward and backward running. Finally, backward running had significantly higher magnitude of coordination variability compared to forward running, signifying that more degrees of freedom were involved in backward running. Speed however, did not affect coordination variability in either task.

  11. Quantifying coordination and coordination variability in backward versus forward running: Implications for control of motion.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Sina; Arshi, Ahmed Reza; Davids, Keith

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this study were to compare coordination and coordination variability in backward and forward running and to investigate the effects of speed on coordination variability in both backward and forward running. Fifteen healthy male participants took part in this study to run forwards and backwards on a treadmill at 80%, 100% and 120% of their preferred running speeds. The coordinate data of passive reflective markers attached to body segments were recorded using motion capture systems. Coordination of shank-foot and thigh-shank couplings in sagittal plane was quantified using the continuous relative phase method. Coordination variability was calculated as the standard deviation of a coordination pattern over 50 strides. Cross-correlation coefficients and associated phase shifts were determined to quantify similarity in coordination patterns between forward and backward running. Our results demonstrated that the coordination pattern in a gait cycle of backward running was in reverse to that of forward running at all speeds implying that the same neural circuitry is responsible for regulating both forward and backward running gaits. In addition, results demonstrated that there was an average of approximately 11% phase shift between the coordination patterns of backward and forward running which indicates that a single underlying mechanism might be responsible for generating motor patterns in both forward and backward running. Finally, backward running had significantly higher magnitude of coordination variability compared to forward running, signifying that more degrees of freedom were involved in backward running. Speed however, did not affect coordination variability in either task. PMID:26021460

  12. The study of atomic three-body problems in hyperspherical coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.D.

    1985-08-01

    In this review the application of hyperspherical coordinates is discussed for the solution of some of the typical atomic and molecular problems, and the new physical insights obtained from such studies are shown. In particular, it is shown how correlations between two excited electrons can be conveniently understood in terms of the surface harmonics at a constant hyperradius and visualized by displaying the surface charge densities on the angular coordinates that describe radial and angular correlations. It is shown that a new set of correlation quantum numbers K, T and A for any two-electron states can be deduced by analyzing the surface harmonics; here K and T describe angular correlation and A = +1, -1 or 0) describes radial correlation. Because of the isomorphic correlations, states which have A = +1 or -1 are shown to exhibit supermultiplet structure while states which have A = 0 are shown to behave like singly excited states. Therefore this classification scheme includes the independent particle approximation as a subset. The relations of these quantum numbers to the collective vibrations and rotations of molecule-like normal modes are also discussed. Applications of hyperspherical harmonics to the three-body breakup and linear triatomic collisions are also discussed briefly. 57 refs., 15 figs.

  13. Can Discrete Joint Action Be Synergistic? Studying the Stabilization of Interpersonal Hand Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Veronica; Kallen, Rachel; Riley, Michael A.; Richardson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The human perceptual-motor system is tightly coupled to the physical and informational dynamics of a task environment. These dynamics operate to constrain the high-dimensional order of the human movement system into low-dimensional, task-specific synergies—functional groupings of structural elements that are temporarily constrained to act as a single coordinated unit. The aim of the current study was to determine whether synergistic processes operate when coacting individuals coordinate to perform a discrete joint-action task. Pairs of participants sat next to each other and each used 1 arm to complete a pointer-to-target task. Using the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis for the first time in a discrete joint action, the structure of joint-angle variance was examined to determine whether there was synergistic organization of the degrees of freedom employed at the interpersonal or intrapersonal levels. The results revealed that the motor actions performed by coactors were synergistically organized at both the interpersonal and intrapersonal levels. More importantly, however, the interpersonal synergy was found to be significantly stronger than the intrapersonal synergies. Accordingly, the results provide clear evidence that coacting individuals can become temporarily organized to form single synergistic 2-person systems during performance of a discrete joint action. PMID:26052696

  14. Electrostatically enhanced FF interactions through hydrogen bonding, halogen bonding and metal coordination: an ab initio study.

    PubMed

    Bauzá, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio

    2016-07-27

    In this manuscript the ability of hydrogen and halogen bonding interactions, as well as metal coordination to enhance FF interactions involving fluorine substituted aromatic rings has been studied at the RI-MP2/def2-TZVPD level of theory. We have used 4-fluoropyridine, 4-fluorobenzonitrile, 3-(4-fluorophenyl)propiolonitrile and their respective meta derivatives as aromatic compounds. In addition, we have used HF and IF as hydrogen and halogen bond donors, respectively, and Ag(i) as the coordination metal. Furthermore, we have also used HF as an electron rich fluorine donor entity, thus establishing FF interactions with the above mentioned aromatic systems. Moreover, a CSD (Cambridge Structural Database) search has been carried out and some interesting examples have been found, highlighting the impact of FF interactions involving aromatic fluorine atoms in solid state chemistry. Finally, cooperativity effects between FF interactions and both hydrogen and halogen bonding interactions have been analyzed and compared. We have also used Bader's theory of "atoms in molecules" to further describe the cooperative effects.

  15. Coordination properties of hydralazine Schiff base. Synthesis and equilibrium studies of some metal ion complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoukry, Azza A.; Shoukry, Mohamed M.

    2008-08-01

    In the present study, a new ligand is prepared by condensation of hydralazine (1-Hydralazinophthalazine) with 2-butanon-3-oxime. The acid-base equilibria of the schiff-base and the complex formation equilibria with the metal ions as Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Cd(II), Mn(II) and Zn(II) are investigated potentiometrically. The stability constants of the complexes are determined and the concentration distribution diagrams of the complexes are evaluated. The effect of metal ion properties as atomic number, ionic radius, electronegativity and ionization potential are investigated. The isolated solid complexes are characterized by conventional chemical and physical methods. The potential coordination sites are assigned using the i.r. and 1H NMR spectra. The structures of the isolated solid complexes are proposed on the basis of the spectral and magnetic studies.

  16. In vivo Study on Depressant Effects and Muscle Coordination Activity of Galphimia glauca Stem Methanol Extract

    PubMed Central

    Garige, Baba Shankar Rao; Keshetti, Srisailam; Vattikuti, Uma Maheshwara Rao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Galphimia glauca is an evergreen shrub found across peninsular India, belonging to family Malpighiaceae. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo depressant effects and muscle coordination activity of G. glauca stem methanol extract (GGSME). Materials and Methods: The stem methanol extract was administered in Swiss albino mice in 1 day to study the central nervous system (CNS) depressant and muscle coordination activity employing animal models such as sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep test, hole-board test, open field test, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions, picrotoxin-induced convulsions, grip strengthening test in mice, and Rota-rod test. Results: The LD50 of GGSME was found to be >2000 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Mice treated with stem methanol extract at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, b.w. doses extended the sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg. b.w., i.p.). The stem methanol extract at 400 mg/kg dose showed a significant (P ≤ 0.001) dose-dependent decrease in the number of rears and head dipping number in the hole-board test. The extract exhibited a significant (P ≤ 0.001) effect on the ambulatory behavior of mice in the open field test and also extended the onset of seizures induced by PTZ (90 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and picrotoxin (10 mg/kg, b.w., i.p.). The extract also exhibited significant (P ≤ 0.001) effects on muscle coordination in rota-rod and grip strengthening test in mice. Conclusion: The study results conclude that the GGSME has a potential CNS depressant and muscle relaxant effects compared to the standard drugs. SUMMARY Anxiety is implicated in the number of psychiatric disordersIn vivo depressant activity is studied employing animal models like Sodium pentobarbital-.induced sleep test, Hole-board test, Open field test, Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions and Picrotoxin-induced convulsions tests.Muscle coordination activity is studied employing animal models like Grip strengthening

  17. In vivo Study on Depressant Effects and Muscle Coordination Activity of Galphimia glauca Stem Methanol Extract

    PubMed Central

    Garige, Baba Shankar Rao; Keshetti, Srisailam; Vattikuti, Uma Maheshwara Rao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Galphimia glauca is an evergreen shrub found across peninsular India, belonging to family Malpighiaceae. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo depressant effects and muscle coordination activity of G. glauca stem methanol extract (GGSME). Materials and Methods: The stem methanol extract was administered in Swiss albino mice in 1 day to study the central nervous system (CNS) depressant and muscle coordination activity employing animal models such as sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep test, hole-board test, open field test, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions, picrotoxin-induced convulsions, grip strengthening test in mice, and Rota-rod test. Results: The LD50 of GGSME was found to be >2000 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Mice treated with stem methanol extract at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, b.w. doses extended the sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg. b.w., i.p.). The stem methanol extract at 400 mg/kg dose showed a significant (P ≤ 0.001) dose-dependent decrease in the number of rears and head dipping number in the hole-board test. The extract exhibited a significant (P ≤ 0.001) effect on the ambulatory behavior of mice in the open field test and also extended the onset of seizures induced by PTZ (90 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and picrotoxin (10 mg/kg, b.w., i.p.). The extract also exhibited significant (P ≤ 0.001) effects on muscle coordination in rota-rod and grip strengthening test in mice. Conclusion: The study results conclude that the GGSME has a potential CNS depressant and muscle relaxant effects compared to the standard drugs. SUMMARY Anxiety is implicated in the number of psychiatric disordersIn vivo depressant activity is studied employing animal models like Sodium pentobarbital-.induced sleep test, Hole-board test, Open field test, Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions and Picrotoxin-induced convulsions tests.Muscle coordination activity is studied employing animal models like Grip strengthening

  18. A comparative study of the coordinates of the Earth's pole from 1900 to 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurbasova, G. S.; Korsun', A. A.; Rykhlova, L. V.; Rybalova, M. N.; Shlikar', G. N.

    1999-01-01

    Three series of coordinates for the Earth's pole covering the period from 1900 to 1990 are compared. The two most uniform and prolonged series (the `Kiev series' in the frame of the mean pole at the observation epoch and the series obtained by Yumi and Yokoyama in the CIO frame) are compared with polar coordinate data processed using a new global determination of the Earth orientation parameters. Periodogram and two-channel autoregression analyses did not reveal any significant discrepancies in the main periodic components in the coordinate series compared (the Chandler and annual components). The relative positions of the coordinate-frame origins were calculated before and after eliminating trends.

  19. Normal coordinate analysis and fungicidal activity study on anilazine and its related compound using spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheeja Mol, Gilbert Pushpam; Arul Dhas, Deva Dhas; Hubert Joe, Isaac; Balachandran, Sreedharan

    2016-06-01

    The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of anilazine have been recorded in the range 400-4000 cm-1 and 50-3500 cm-1 respectively. The optimized geometrical parameters of the compound were calculated using B3LYP method with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. The distribution of the vibrational bands were carried out with the help of normal coordinate analysis (NCA). The 1H and 13C nuclear spectra have been recorded and chemical shifts of the molecule were also calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The UV-Visible spectrum of the compound was recorded in the region 190-900 nm and the electronic properties were determined by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. Anilazine was screened for its antifungal activity. Molecular docking studies are conducted to predict its fungicidal activity.

  20. A systematic study on the stability of porous coordination polymers against ammonia.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Takashi; Higuchi, Masakazu; Watanabe, Daisuke; Higashimura, Hideyuki; Yamada, Teppei; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2014-11-17

    To establish a strategy for designing porous coordination polymers (PCPs) for ammonia capture, the first systematic study on the stability of PCPs against ammonia was conducted. Various types of PCPs were investigated by comparing their powder XRD patterns before and after treatment with ammonia. Among the PCPs tested, ZIF-8, MIL-53(Al), Al-BTB, MOF-76(M) (M=Y or Yb), MIL-101(Cr), and MOF-74(Mg) were stable up to 350 °C under an ammonia atmosphere at ambient pressure. The origin of the stability of PCPs is discussed from the viewpoint of their components, metal cations, and organic linkers. Furthermore, adsorption isotherm measurements show that the adsorptive behavior of PCPs is independent of their stability.

  1. Scientific Visualization to Study Flux Transfer Events at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastatter, Lutz; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Sibeck, David G.; Berrios, David H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present results of modeling of reconnection at the dayside magnetopause with subsequent development of flux transfer event signatures. The tools used include new methods that have been added to the suite of visualization methods that are used at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC). Flux transfer events result from localized reconnection that connect magnetosheath magnetic field and plasma with magnetospheric fields and plasma and results in flux rope structures that span the dayside magnetopause. The onset of flux rope formation and the three-dimensional structure of flux ropes are studied as they have been modeled by high-resolution magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the dayside magnetosphere of the Earth. We show that flux transfer events are complex three-dimensional structures that require modern visualization and analysis techniques. Two suites of visualization methods are presented and we demonstrate the usefulness of those methods through the CCMC web site to the general science user.

  2. Coordination and management of multicenter clinical studies in trauma: Experience from the PRospective Observational Multicenter Major Trauma Transfusion (PROMMTT) Study

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Fox, Erin E.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Cotton, Bryan A.; Podbielski, Jeanette M.; Matijevic, Nena; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Zhang, Jiajie; Mirhaji, Parsa; Duran, Sarah; Reynolds, Robert J.; Benjamin-Garner, Ruby; Holcomb, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Early death due to hemorrhage is a major consequence of traumatic injury. Transfusion practices differ among hospitals and it is unknown which transfusion practices improve survival. This report describes the experience of the PRospective Observational Multicenter Major Trauma Transfusion (PROMMTT) Study Data Coordination Center in designing and coordinating a study to examine transfusion practices at ten Level 1 trauma centers in the U.S. Methods PROMMTT was a multisite prospective observational study of severely injured transfused trauma patients. The clinical sites collected real-time information on the timing and amounts of blood product infusions as well as colloids and crystalloids, vital signs, initial diagnostic and clinical laboratory tests, life saving interventions and other clinical care data. Results Between July 2009 and October 2010, PROMMTT screened 12,561 trauma admissions and enrolled 1,245 patients who received one or more blood transfusions within 6 hours of ED admission. A total of 297 massive transfusions were observed over the course of the study at a combined rate of 5.0 massive transfusion patients/week. Conclusion PROMMTT is the first multisite study to collect real-time prospective data on trauma patients requiring transfusion. Support from the Department of Defense and collaborative expertise from the ten participating centers helped to demonstrate the feasibility of prospective trauma transfusion studies. The observational data collected from this study will be an invaluable resource for research in trauma surgery and it will guide the design and conduct of future randomized trials. PMID:22001613

  3. Translocon-associated protein TRAP delta and a novel TRAP-like protein are coordinately expressed with pro-opiomelanocortin in Xenopus intermediate pituitary.

    PubMed

    Holthuis, J C; van Riel, M C; Martens, G J

    1995-11-15

    In the intermediate pituitary gland of Xenopus laevis, the expression levels of the prohormone pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) can be readily manipulated. When the animal is placed on a black background, the gene for POMC is actively transcribed, whereas on a white background the gene is virtually inactive. In this study, we characterized two genes whose transcript levels in the intermediate pituitary are regulated in coordination with that for POMC. One of these codes for a protein homologous to translocon-associated protein TRAP delta, a subunit of a transmembrane protein complex located at the site where nascent secretory proteins enter the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Both Xenopus and mice were found to express an alternatively spliced transcript that gives rise to a previously unknown version of the TRAP delta protein. The product of the second gene is a novel and highly conserved protein with structural similarity to glycoprotein gp25L, a constituent of another translocon-associated protein complex. A database search revealed the existence of a novel family of gp25L-related proteins whose members occur throughout the animal kingdom. Together, our data imply that (i) the group of ER proteins surrounding translocating polypeptide chains may be far more complex than previously expected, and (ii) a number of the accessory components of the translocon participate in early steps of prohormone biosynthesis.

  4. Obesity and Motor Coordination Ability in Taiwanese Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Yi-Ching; Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between obesity and motor coordination ability in Taiwanese children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). 2029 children (1078 boys, 951 girls) aged nine to ten years were chosen randomly from 14 elementary schools across Taiwan. We used bioelectrical impedance…

  5. Quality Assurance of Cancer Study Common Data Elements Using A Post-Coordination Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guoqian; Solbrig, Harold R.; Prud’hommeaux, Eric; Tao, Cui; Weng, Chunhua; Chute, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Domain-specific common data elements (CDEs) are emerging as an effective approach to standards-based clinical research data storage and retrieval. A limiting factor, however, is the lack of robust automated quality assurance (QA) tools for the CDEs in clinical study domains. The objectives of the present study are to prototype and evaluate a QA tool for the study of cancer CDEs using a post-coordination approach. The study starts by integrating the NCI caDSR CDEs and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data dictionaries in a single Resource Description Framework (RDF) data store. We designed a compositional expression pattern based on the Data Element Concept model structure informed by ISO/IEC 11179, and developed a transformation tool that converts the pattern-based compositional expressions into the Web Ontology Language (OWL) syntax. Invoking reasoning and explanation services, we tested the system utilizing the CDEs extracted from two TCGA clinical cancer study domains. The system could automatically identify duplicate CDEs, and detect CDE modeling errors. In conclusion, compositional expressions not only enable reuse of existing ontology codes to define new domain concepts, but also provide an automated mechanism for QA of terminological annotations for CDEs. PMID:26958201

  6. Lanthanum(III) and Lutetium(III) in Nitrate-Based Ionic Liquids: A Theoretical Study of Their Coordination Shell.

    PubMed

    Bodo, Enrico

    2015-09-01

    By using ab initio molecular dynamics, we investigate the solvent shell structure of La(3+) and Lu(3+) ions immersed in two ionic liquids, ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) and its hydroxy derivative (2-ethanolammonium nitrate, HOEAN). We provide the first study of the coordination properties of these heavy metal ions in such a highly charged nonacqueous environment. We find, as expected, that the coordination in the liquid is mainly due to nitrate anions and that, due to the bidentate nature of the ligand, the complexation shell of the central ion has a nontrivial geometry and a coordination number in terms of nitrate molecules that apparently violates the decrease of ionic radii along the lanthanides series, since the smaller Lu(3+) ion seems to coordinate six nitrate molecules and the La(3+) ion only five. A closer inspection of the structural features obtained from our calculations shows, instead, that the first shell of oxygen atoms is more compact for Lu(3+) than for La(3+) and that the former coordinates 8 oxygen atoms while the latter 10 in accord with the typical lanthanide's trend along the series and that their first solvation shells have a slight irregular and complex geometrical pattern. When moving to the HOEAN solutions, we have found that the solvation of the central ion is possibly also due to the cation itself through the oxygen atom on the side chain. Also, in this liquid, the coordination numbers in terms of oxygen atoms in both solvents is 10 for La(3+) and 8 for Lu(3+).

  7. Eurocan plus report: feasibility study for coordination of national cancer research activities.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    The EUROCAN+PLUS Project, called for by the European Parliament, was launched in October 2005 as a feasibility study for coordination of national cancer research activities in Europe. Over the course of the next two years, the Project process organized over 60 large meetings and countless smaller meetings that gathered in total over a thousand people, the largest Europe-wide consultation ever conducted in the field of cancer research.Despite a strong tradition in biomedical science in Europe, fragmentation and lack of sustainability remain formidable challenges for implementing innovative cancer research and cancer care improvement. There is an enormous duplication of research effort in the Member States, which wastes time, wastes money and severely limits the total intellectual concentration on the wide cancer problem. There is a striking lack of communication between some of the biggest actors on the European scene, and there are palpable tensions between funders and those researchers seeking funds.It is essential to include the patients' voice in the establishment of priority areas in cancer research at the present time. The necessity to have dialogue between funders and scientists to establish the best mechanisms to meet the needs of the entire community is evident. A top priority should be the development of translational research (in its widest form), leading to the development of effective and innovative cancer treatments and preventive strategies. Translational research ranges from bench-to-bedside innovative cancer therapies and extends to include bringing about changes in population behaviours when a risk factor is established.The EUROCAN+PLUS Project recommends the creation of a small, permanent and independent European Cancer Initiative (ECI). This should be a model structure and was widely supported at both General Assemblies of the project. The ECI should assume responsibility for stimulating innovative cancer research and facilitating processes

  8. Deficits in Lower Limb Muscle Reflex Contraction Latency and Peak Force Are Associated With Impairments in Postural Control and Gross Motor Skills of Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Shirley S.M.; Ng, Shamay S.M.; Guo, X.; Wang, Yuling; Chung, Raymond C.K.; Stat, Grad; Ki, W.Y.; Macfarlane, Duncan J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional, exploratory study aimed to compare neuromuscular performance, balance and motor skills proficiencies of typically developing children and those with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and to determine associations of these neuromuscular factors with balance and motor skills performances in children with DCD. One hundred thirty children with DCD and 117 typically developing children participated in the study. Medial hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latencies in response to an unexpected posterior-to-anterior trunk perturbation were assessed by electromyography and accelerometer. Hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle peak force and time to peak force were quantified by dynamometer, and balance and motor skills performances were evaluated with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Independent t tests revealed that children with DCD had longer hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latencies (P < 0.001) and lower isometric peak forces (P < 0.001), but not times to peak forces (P > 0.025), than the controls. Multiple regression analysis accounting for basic demographics showed that gastrocnemius peak force was independently associated with the MABC balance subscore and ball skills subscore, accounting for 5.7% (P = 0.003) and 8.5% (P = 0.001) of the variance, respectively. Gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latency also explained 11.4% (P < 0.001) of the variance in the MABC ball skills subscore. Children with DCD had delayed leg muscle activation onset times and lower isometric peak forces. Gastrocnemius peak force was associated with balance and ball skills performances, whereas timing of gastrocnemius muscle activation was a determinant of ball skill performance in the DCD population. PMID:26469921

  9. How do women with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis rate quality and coordination of healthcare services? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Anne Helen; Lian, Olaug S

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test the association between self-rated health and self-rated degree of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), and CFS/ME patients' assessment of quality of primary care, specialist care and coordination of care. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Self-reported questionnaire data from women members of The Norwegian ME Association obtained in 2013. Participants 431 women with CFS/ME aged 16–73 years. Main outcome measure The participants' assessment of quality in primary care, specialist care and in coordination of care (good/very good or poor/very poor). Main explanatory variables: self-rated health and self-rated degree of CFS/ME. Results Quality of care was rated poor by 60.6% in primary care, by 47.7% in specialist care, and by 71.2% regarding coordination of care. Poorer self-rated health increased the probability of rating quality in primary care poor, particularly among women 40 years and over (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.63 to 3.49), women with university education (OR 2.57, CI 1.68 to 3.94), and owing to less frequent general practitioner (GP) visits (OR 2.46, CI 1.60 to 3.78). Poorer self-rated health increased the probability of rating quality poor in specialist care (OR 1.38, CI 1.05 to 1.82), but not in coordination of care. A more severe CFS/ME was associated with a higher probability of rating quality in primary care poor (OR 0.61, CI 0.38 to 0.93). Frequent visitors and those with a long GP relationship were less likely to report primary care quality as poor. Conclusions A large proportion of women with CFS/ME rated quality of care poor/very poor in primary care, specialist care and in coordination of care. The dissatisfaction was higher for primary care than for specialist care. Overall, poorer self-rated health and a more severe CFS/ME were associated with lower quality scores in primary and specialist care, but not in coordination of care. Healthcare services, as assessed by women with CFS/ME, do have a large

  10. A fully conservative mimetic discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates with associated singularity treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oud, G. T.; van der Heul, D. R.; Vuik, C.; Henkes, R. A. W. M.

    2016-11-01

    We present a finite difference discretization of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates. This currently is, to the authors' knowledge, the only scheme available that is demonstrably capable of conserving mass, momentum and kinetic energy (in the absence of viscosity) on both uniform and non-uniform grids. Simultaneously, we treat the inherent discretization issues that arise due to the presence of the coordinate singularity at the polar axis. We demonstrate the validity of the conservation claims by performing a number of numerical experiments with the proposed scheme, and we show that it is second order accurate in space using the Method of Manufactured Solutions.

  11. Japan Studies Association Journal, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speaker, Richard B., Jr., Ed.; Kawada, Louise Myers, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This journal presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The journal represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles are divided among three thematic…

  12. Japan Studies Association Journal, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichel, Philip L., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This journal presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The journal represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles grouped under the topic of "Minority…

  13. Case study of how successful coordination was achieved between a mental health and social care service in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Johan; Øvretveit, John; Brommels, Mats

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings from an empirical longitudinal study of a health and social care consortium for people with mental health problems in one area in Stockholm. The aim was to describe the formation and structure of coordination within the consortium, and to assess the intermediate impact on care processes and client outcomes. A multiple-method case study design, theoretically informed by the Pettigrew and Whipp model of strategic change (1993) was applied. Data was gathered from interviews with informants from different organisations at different times in the development of the consortium, and from administrative documents, plans and service statistics showing some of the intermediate changes and client outcomes. The findings revealed activities and factors both helping and hindering the formation of coordination arrangements. One of the most significant hindering factors was the central county purchasing organisation focusing more on volume and costs, with payments for specific units and services, and with less emphasis on quality of the services. Few studies have described implementation of changes to improve coordination with reference to context over a long period of time, as well as assessing different results. This study contributes to knowledge about improved methods for this type of research, as well as knowledge about developing coordination between public health and welfare services. One lesson for the current policy is that, where full structural integration is not possible, then client-level coordination roles in each sector are useful to connect sector services for shared clients.

  14. Case study of how successful coordination was achieved between a mental health and social care service in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Johan; Øvretveit, John; Brommels, Mats

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings from an empirical longitudinal study of a health and social care consortium for people with mental health problems in one area in Stockholm. The aim was to describe the formation and structure of coordination within the consortium, and to assess the intermediate impact on care processes and client outcomes. A multiple-method case study design, theoretically informed by the Pettigrew and Whipp model of strategic change (1993) was applied. Data was gathered from interviews with informants from different organisations at different times in the development of the consortium, and from administrative documents, plans and service statistics showing some of the intermediate changes and client outcomes. The findings revealed activities and factors both helping and hindering the formation of coordination arrangements. One of the most significant hindering factors was the central county purchasing organisation focusing more on volume and costs, with payments for specific units and services, and with less emphasis on quality of the services. Few studies have described implementation of changes to improve coordination with reference to context over a long period of time, as well as assessing different results. This study contributes to knowledge about improved methods for this type of research, as well as knowledge about developing coordination between public health and welfare services. One lesson for the current policy is that, where full structural integration is not possible, then client-level coordination roles in each sector are useful to connect sector services for shared clients. PMID:21809387

  15. Simulation studies of circular muscle contraction, longitudinal muscle shortening, and their coordination in esophageal transport.

    PubMed

    Kou, Wenjun; Pandolfino, John E; Kahrilas, Peter J; Patankar, Neelesh A

    2015-08-15

    On the basis of a fully coupled active musculomechanical model for esophageal transport, we aimed to find the roles of circular muscle (CM) contraction and longitudinal muscle (LM) shortening in esophageal transport, and the influence of their coordination. Two groups of studies were conducted using a computational model. In the first group, bolus transport with only CM contraction, only LM shortening, or both was simulated. Overall features and detailed information on pressure and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of mucosal and the two muscle layers were analyzed. In the second group, bolus transport with varying delay in CM contraction or LM shortening was simulated. The effect of delay on esophageal transport was studied. For cases showing abnormal transport, pressure and CSA were further analyzed. CM contraction by itself was sufficient to transport bolus, but LM shortening by itself was not. CM contraction decreased the CSA and the radius of the muscle layer locally, but LM shortening increased the CSA. Synchronized CM contraction and LM shortening led to overlapping of muscle CSA and pressure peaks. Advancing LM shortening adversely influenced bolus transport, whereas lagging LM shortening was irrelevant to bolus transport. In conclusion, CM contraction generates high squeezing pressure, which plays a primary role in esophageal transport. LM shortening increases muscle CSA, which helps to strengthen CM contraction. Advancing LM shortening decreases esophageal distensibility in the bolus region. Lagging LM shortening no longer helps esophageal transport. Synchronized CM contraction and LM shortening seems to be most effective for esophageal transport.

  16. The processing of morphological structure information in Chinese coordinative compounds: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kevin K H; Tong, Xiuhong; Liu, Phil D; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Meng, Xiangzhi

    2010-09-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological structure processing of Chinese compounds at short SOAs of 57ms. Event-related potentials were recorded while 16 Hong Kong Chinese university students were instructed to make visual lexical decisions in a decision-making task involving Chinese compound words. Only words in the category of the coordinative compounding structure were included in the present study. In this compounding structure, both morphemes comprising the compound word are of equal importance, similar to the phrase "in-and-out" in English, where neither "in" nor "out" can be considered the head or modifier in the compound; both morphemes are of equal weight in communicating meaning. While the classic N400 semantic priming effect was replicated at this short SOA, an earlier P250 component, suggested to reflect semantic memory network activation during semantic information processing, was also obtained. The morphological structure effect was only found in the P250 component, suggesting that morphological structure may automatically influence the semantic information processing during Chinese compound word processing. PMID:20627093

  17. Simulation studies of circular muscle contraction, longitudinal muscle shortening, and their coordination in esophageal transport

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Wenjun; Pandolfino, John E.; Kahrilas, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of a fully coupled active musculomechanical model for esophageal transport, we aimed to find the roles of circular muscle (CM) contraction and longitudinal muscle (LM) shortening in esophageal transport, and the influence of their coordination. Two groups of studies were conducted using a computational model. In the first group, bolus transport with only CM contraction, only LM shortening, or both was simulated. Overall features and detailed information on pressure and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of mucosal and the two muscle layers were analyzed. In the second group, bolus transport with varying delay in CM contraction or LM shortening was simulated. The effect of delay on esophageal transport was studied. For cases showing abnormal transport, pressure and CSA were further analyzed. CM contraction by itself was sufficient to transport bolus, but LM shortening by itself was not. CM contraction decreased the CSA and the radius of the muscle layer locally, but LM shortening increased the CSA. Synchronized CM contraction and LM shortening led to overlapping of muscle CSA and pressure peaks. Advancing LM shortening adversely influenced bolus transport, whereas lagging LM shortening was irrelevant to bolus transport. In conclusion, CM contraction generates high squeezing pressure, which plays a primary role in esophageal transport. LM shortening increases muscle CSA, which helps to strengthen CM contraction. Advancing LM shortening decreases esophageal distensibility in the bolus region. Lagging LM shortening no longer helps esophageal transport. Synchronized CM contraction and LM shortening seems to be most effective for esophageal transport. PMID:26113296

  18. Integrating care coordination home telehealth and home based primary care in rural Oklahoma: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sorocco, Kristen H; Bratkovich, Kristi L; Wingo, Rita; Qureshi, Saleem M; Mason, Patrick J

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this program was to evaluate the benefits of integrating VA Care Coordination Home Telehealth and Telemental health within HBPC. A case study design was used to determine quality assurance and quality improvement of incorporating additional home telehealth equipment within Home Based Primary Care (HBPC). Veterans with complex medical conditions and their caregivers living in rural Oklahoma were enrolled. Veterans received the same care other HBPC patients received with the addition of home telehealth equipment. Members from the interdisciplinary treatment team were certified to use the telehealth equipment. Veterans and their caregivers were trained on use of the equipment in their homes. Standard HBPC program measures were used to assess the program success. Assessments from all disciplines on the HBPC team were at baseline, 3, and 6 months, and participants provided satisfaction and interview data to assess the benefits of integrating technology into standard care delivery within an HBPC program. Six veterans were enrolled (mean age = 72 yrs) with a range of physical health conditions including: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cerebrovascular accident, spinal cord injury, diabetes, hypertension, and syncope. Primary mental health conditions included depression, dementia, anxiety, and PTSD. Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination ranged from 18 to 30. Over a 6-month period, case studies indicated improvements in strength, social functioning, decreased caregiver burden, and compliance with treatment plan. This integration of CCHT and HBPC served previously underserved rural veterans having complex medical conditions and appears both feasible and clinically beneficial to veterans and their caregivers.

  19. The Risk of Reduced Physical Activity in Children with Probable Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Dido; Lingam, Raghu; Mattocks, Calum; Riddoch, Chris; Ness, Andy; Emond, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder have an increased risk of reduced moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), using data from a large population based study. Prospectively collected data from 4331 children (boys = 2065, girls = 2266) who had completed motor…

  20. One and Two Dimensional Pulsed Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Studies of in vivo Vanadyl Coordination in Rat Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Liboiron, Barry D.; Thompson, Katherine H.; Vera, Erika; Yuen, Violet G.; McNeill, John H.

    2003-01-01

    The biological fate of a chelated vanadium source is investigated by/n vivo spectroscopic methods to elucidate the chemical form in which the metal ion is accumulated. A pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance study of vanadyl ions in kidney tissue, taken from rats previously treated with bis(ethylmaltolato)oxovanadium(IV) (BEOV) in drinking water, is presented. A combined approach using stimulated echo (3-pulse) electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) and the two dimensional 4-pulse hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) spectroscopies has shown that at least some of the VO2+ ions are involved in the coordination with nitrogen-containing ligands. From the experimental spectra, a 4N hyperfine coupling constant of 4.9 MHz and a quadrupole coupling constant of 0.6 + 0.04 MHz were determined, consistent with amine coordination of the vanadyl ions. Study of VO-histidine model complexes allowed for a determination of the percentage of nitrogen-coordinated VO2+ ions in the tissue sample that is found nitrogen-coordinated. By taking into account the bidentate nature of histidine coordination to VO2+ ions, a more accurate determination of this value is reported. The biological fate of chelated versus free (i.e. salts) vanadyl ion sources has been deduced by comparison to earlier reports. In contrast to its superior pharmacological efficacy over VOSO4, BEOV shares a remarkably similar biological fate after uptake into kidney tissue. PMID:18365044

  1. FIB-NanoSIMS-TEM Coordinated Study of a Wark-Lovering Rim in a Vigarano Type A CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, A.; Ito, M.; Keller, L. P.; Ross, D. K.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.

    2010-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multi layered mineral sequences that surround most Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Unaltered WL rims are composed of the same primary high temperature minerals as CAIs, such as melilite, spinel, pyroxene, hibonite, perovskite, anorthite and olivine. It is still unclear whether the rim minerals represent a different generation formed by a separate event from their associated CAIs or are a byproduct of CAI formation. Several models have been proposed for the origins of WL rims including condensation, flashheating, reaction of a CAI with a Mg-Si-rich reservoir (nebular gas or solid); on the basis of mineralogy, abundances of trace elements, O and Mg isotopic studies. Detailed mineralogical characterizations of WL rims at micrometer to nanometer scales have been obtained by TEM observations, but so far no coordinated isotopic - mineralogical studies have been performed. Thus, we have applied an O isotopic imaging technique by NanoSIMS 50L to investigate heterogeneous distributions of O isotopic ratios in minerals within a cross section of a WL rim prepared using a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument. After the isotopic measurements, we determine the detailed mineralogy and microstructure of the same WL FIB section to gain insight into its petrogenesis. Here we present preliminary results from O isotopic and elemental maps by NanoSIMS and mineralogical analysis by FE-SEM of a FIB section of a WL rim in the Vigarano reduced CV3 chondrite.

  2. Movement coordination during conversation.

    PubMed

    Latif, Nida; Barbosa, Adriano V; Vatikiotis-Bateson, Eric; Vatiokiotis-Bateson, Eric; Castelhano, Monica S; Munhall, K G

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral coordination and synchrony contribute to a common biological mechanism that maintains communication, cooperation and bonding within many social species, such as primates and birds. Similarly, human language and social systems may also be attuned to coordination to facilitate communication and the formation of relationships. Gross similarities in movement patterns and convergence in the acoustic properties of speech have already been demonstrated between interacting individuals. In the present studies, we investigated how coordinated movements contribute to observers' perception of affiliation (friends vs. strangers) between two conversing individuals. We used novel computational methods to quantify motor coordination and demonstrated that individuals familiar with each other coordinated their movements more frequently. Observers used coordination to judge affiliation between conversing pairs but only when the perceptual stimuli were restricted to head and face regions. These results suggest that observed movement coordination in humans might contribute to perceptual decisions based on availability of information to perceivers. PMID:25119189

  3. Movement Coordination during Conversation

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Nida; Barbosa, Adriano V.; Vatiokiotis-Bateson, Eric; Castelhano, Monica S.; Munhall, K. G.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral coordination and synchrony contribute to a common biological mechanism that maintains communication, cooperation and bonding within many social species, such as primates and birds. Similarly, human language and social systems may also be attuned to coordination to facilitate communication and the formation of relationships. Gross similarities in movement patterns and convergence in the acoustic properties of speech have already been demonstrated between interacting individuals. In the present studies, we investigated how coordinated movements contribute to observers’ perception of affiliation (friends vs. strangers) between two conversing individuals. We used novel computational methods to quantify motor coordination and demonstrated that individuals familiar with each other coordinated their movements more frequently. Observers used coordination to judge affiliation between conversing pairs but only when the perceptual stimuli were restricted to head and face regions. These results suggest that observed movement coordination in humans might contribute to perceptual decisions based on availability of information to perceivers. PMID:25119189

  4. The Association of Geographic Coordinates with Mortality in People with Lower and Higher Education and with Mortality Inequalities in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Regidor, Enrique; Reques, Laura; Giráldez-García, Carolina; Miqueleiz, Estrella; Santos, Juana M.; Martínez, David; de la Fuente, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Objective Geographic patterns in total mortality and in mortality by cause of death are widely known to exist in many countries. However, the geographic pattern of inequalities in mortality within these countries is unknown. This study shows mathematically and graphically the geographic pattern of mortality inequalities by education in Spain. Methods Data are from a nation-wide prospective study covering all persons living in Spain's 50 provinces in 2001. Individuals were classified in a cohort of subjects with low education and in another cohort of subjects with high education. Age- and sex-adjusted mortality rate from all causes and from leading causes of death in each cohort and mortality rate ratios in the low versus high education cohort were estimated by geographic coordinates and province. Results Latitude but not longitude was related to mortality. In subjects with low education, latitude had a U-shaped relation to mortality. In those with high education, mortality from all causes, and from cardiovascular, respiratory and digestive diseases decreased with increasing latitude, whereas cancer mortality increased. The mortality-rate ratio for all-cause death was 1.27 in the southern latitudes, 1.14 in the intermediate latitudes, and 1.20 in the northern latitudes. The mortality rate ratios for the leading causes of death were also higher in the lower and upper latitudes than in the intermediate latitudes. The geographic pattern of the mortality rate ratios is similar to that of the mortality rate in the low-education cohort: the highest magnitude is observed in the southern provinces, intermediate magnitudes in the provinces of the north and those of the Mediterranean east coast, and the lowest magnitude in the central provinces and those in the south of the Western Pyrenees. Conclusion Mortality inequalities by education in Spain are higher in the south and north of the country and lower in the large region making up the central plateau. This geographic

  5. Interlimb coordination in body-weight supported locomotion: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Seiterle, Stefan; Susko, Tyler; Artemiadis, Panagiotis K; Riener, Robert; Igo Krebs, Hermano

    2015-08-20

    Locomotion involves complex neural networks responsible for automatic and volitional actions. During locomotion, motor strategies can rapidly compensate for any obstruction or perturbation that could interfere with forward progression. In this pilot study, we examined the contribution of interlimb pathways for evoking muscle activation patterns in the contralateral limb when a unilateral perturbation was applied and in the case where body weight was externally supported. In particular, the latency of neuromuscular responses was measured, while the stimulus to afferent feedback was limited. The pilot experiment was conducted with six healthy young subjects. It employed the MIT-Skywalker (beta-prototype), a novel device intended for gait therapy. Subjects were asked to walk on the split-belt treadmill, while a fast unilateral perturbation was applied mid-stance by unexpectedly lowering one side of the split-treadmill walking surfaces. Subject's weight was externally supported via the body-weight support system consisting of an underneath bicycle seat and the torso was stabilized via a loosely fitted chest harness. Both the weight support and the chest harness limited the afferent feedback. The unilateral perturbations evoked changes in the electromyographic activity of the non-perturbed contralateral leg. The latency of all muscle responses exceeded 100ms, which precludes the conjecture that spinal cord alone is responsible for the perturbation response. It suggests the role of supraspinal or midbrain level pathways at the inter-leg coordination during gait. PMID:25990210

  6. Mirror neuron activation in children with developmental coordination disorder: A functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jess E; Licari, Melissa K; Billington, Jac; Chen, Yihui; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa; Werner, Julie; Winsor, Anne M; Bynevelt, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal cortical areas that may contribute to the movement difficulties seen in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Specifically, we hypothesized that there may be a deficit in the mirror neuron system (MNS), a neural system that responds to both performed and observed actions. Using functional MRI, 14 boys with DCD (x=10.08 years ± 1.31, range=7.83-11.58 years) and 12 typically developing controls (x=10.10 years ± 1.15, range=8.33-12.00 years) were scanned observing, executing and imitating a finger sequencing task using their right hand. Cortical activations of mirror neuron regions, including posterior inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), ventral premotor cortex, anterior inferior parietal lobule and superior temporal sulcus were examined. Children with DCD had decreased cortical activation mirror neuron related regions, including the precentral gyrus and IFG, as well as in the posterior cingulate and precuneus complex when observing the sequencing task. Region of interest analysis revealed lower activation in the pars opercularis, a primary MNS region, during imitation in the DCD group compared to controls. These findings provide some preliminary evidence to support a possible MNS dysfunction in children with DCD. PMID:26523778

  7. Performance of Language-Coordinated Collective Systems: A Study of Wine Recognition and Description

    PubMed Central

    Zubek, Julian; Denkiewicz, Michał; Dębska, Agnieszka; Radkowska, Alicja; Komorowska-Mach, Joanna; Litwin, Piotr; Stępień, Magdalena; Kucińska, Adrianna; Sitarska, Ewa; Komorowska, Krystyna; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian; Rączaszek-Leonardi, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Most of our perceptions of and engagements with the world are shaped by our immersion in social interactions, cultural traditions, tools and linguistic categories. In this study we experimentally investigate the impact of two types of language-based coordination on the recognition and description of complex sensory stimuli: that of red wine. Participants were asked to taste, remember and successively recognize samples of wines within a larger set in a two-by-two experimental design: (1) either individually or in pairs, and (2) with or without the support of a sommelier card—a cultural linguistic tool designed for wine description. Both effectiveness of recognition and the kinds of errors in the four conditions were analyzed. While our experimental manipulations did not impact recognition accuracy, bias-variance decomposition of error revealed non-trivial differences in how participants solved the task. Pairs generally displayed reduced bias and increased variance compared to individuals, however the variance dropped significantly when they used the sommelier card. The effect of sommelier card reducing the variance was observed only in pairs, individuals did not seem to benefit from the cultural linguistic tool. Analysis of descriptions generated with the aid of sommelier cards shows that pairs were more coherent and discriminative than individuals. The findings are discussed in terms of global properties and dynamics of collective systems when constrained by different types of cultural practices. PMID:27729875

  8. Interlimb Coordination in Body-Weight Supported Locomotion: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Seiterle, Stefan; Susko, Tyler; Artemiadis, Panagiotis K.; Riener, Robert; Krebs, Hermano Igo

    2015-01-01

    Locomotion involves complex neural networks responsible for automatic and volitional actions. During locomotion, motor strategies can rapidly compensate for any obstruction or perturbation that could interfere with forward progression. In this pilot study, we examined the contribution of interlimb pathways for evoking muscle activation patterns in the contralateral limb when a unilateral perturbation was applied and in the case where body weight was externally supported. In particular, the latency of neuromuscular responses was measured, while the stimulus to afferent feedback was limited. The pilot experiment was conducted with six healthy young subjects. It employed the MIT-Skywalker (beta-prototype), a novel device intended for gait therapy. Subjects were asked to walk on the split-belt treadmill, while a fast unilateral perturbation was applied mid-stance by unexpectedly lowering one side of the split-treadmill walking surfaces. Subject's weight was externally supported via the body-weight support system consisting of an underneath bicycle seat and the torso was stabilized via a loosely fitted chest harness. Both the weight support and the chest harness limited the afferent feedback. The unilateral perturbations evoked changes in the electromyographic activity of the non-perturbed contralateral leg. The latency of all muscle responses exceeded 100 ms, which precludes the conjecture that spinal cord alone is responsible for the perturbation response. It suggests the role of supraspinal or midbrain level pathways at the inter-leg coordination during gait. PMID:25990210

  9. Index of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group and associated publications available in the Coordination and Information Center

    SciTech Connect

    Maza, B.G.

    1991-02-01

    This publication was created by the Coordination and Information Center (CIC) to provide a readily available research tool for use by researchers interested in a specific area covered in the holdings of the CIC Archives. The Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) was formed and functioned in agreement with Planning Directive NVO-76 (July 29, 1970 and revised January 1, 1974, (CIC-165845 and CIC-16439) respectively) to coordinate the ecological and other environmental programs necessary to support the continued nuclear testing activities; and to provide a mechanism to effectively comply with requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, Executive Order 11514, and AEC Manual Chapter 0510.'' The publication contains only citations to documents currently available at the CIC. It represents a significant portion of the principal research findings of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group.

  10. Perception and knowledge of dental interns toward interdepartmental coordination for successful prosthodontic treatment: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Shigli, Kamal; Kakodkar, Pradnya; Agrawal, Neha; Hebbal, Mamata; Huddar, Dayanand; Vikneshan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The graduating dentist should be trained in providing treatment utilizing the interdisciplinary approach because of the rapid advancements and increase in patient expectations, which demands for collaboration between the different specialists. Purpose: A pilot study was undertaken with an aim to assess the perception and knowledge of dental interns toward interdepartmental coordination for successful prosthodontic treatment. Subjects and Methods: Dental interns from two dental colleges in Sangli (India) participated in the study. A 24-item self-administered, structured closed-ended questionnaire was used to collect the data. Four questions assessed the perception and 20 questions assessed the knowledge, which were based on the four domains viz.: General, Endodontics, Orthodontics, and Prosthodontics. They were framed from case scenarios reporting to the Department of Prosthodontics, which required interdepartmental consultation. The questionnaire was validated before its application and reliability were also assessed. The final score for each question was calculated based on the correct responses. Descriptive analysis was calculated using the frequencies, percentages, and mean values by using SPSS 16 software. Results: Among 117 interns who participated in the study, 79.5% reported that they lacked training in an interdisciplinary approach. Approximately, 96% reported that the curriculum should be designed to include interdisciplinary training. Nearly, 88% reported that specialist from different specialty should be posted in one interdisciplinary department. Around 60% reported that they did not have the confidence of treating the patient as a whole. When the overall mean scores were considered, the highest scores were obtained for the general domain (95.3) and the lowest for the prosthodontic domain (83.6). Conclusion: The dental interns perceived that they lacked training in interdisciplinary approach, and the curriculum should include

  11. Spin-labelled cyclometallated palladium complexes. EPR study of dynamic processes in coordination sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhanov, K. A.; Bubnov, M. P.; Abakumov, G. A.; Cherkasov, V. K.

    2012-12-01

    New four-, five- and six-coordinated cyclometallated o-semiquinonato palladium complexes were obtained and characterized in solution by EPR. Interaction of square-planar azaphenyl palladium semiquinonate with mono and bidentate phosphane donors leads to formation of five- and six-coordinated adducts. Typical values of HFC constants on apical and basal phosphorouses are observed for such compounds. In one case the reversible addition of tri-phenyl-phosphane was observed. The coordination mode of pincer ligand (bi- or tridentate) in o-semiquinonato pincer complexes depends on the nature of linker between coordinating group and pincer aryl ring. In the case of sbnd CH2sbnd linker five coordinated complexes are formed. The "swing" and "fan" oscillations are observed for these compounds. Complexes with sbnd Osbnd linker are the first examples of compounds with bidentate bonded phosphorous-based pincer ligand. Most of complexes are unstable and decompose during some hours. Only the application of o-semiquinones as spin labels and using the EPR technique made possible to observe and interpret their structure.

  12. The prenatal, perinatal and neonatal risk factors for children's developmental coordination disorder: a population study in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jing; Gu, Guixiong; Jiang, Peiqi; Zhang, Lijun; Zhu, Liping; Meng, Wei

    2014-03-01

    We initially conducted a population-based study on developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in mainland China to explore the prenatal, perinatal and neonatal risk factors on DCD. A total of 4001 children were selected from 160 classes in 15 public nursery schools. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (MABC-2) was used to assess the children's motor function. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were estimated to determine the strength of association using a multilevel logistic regression model with a random intercept. Three hundred and thirty children out of 4001 subjects met the DSM-IV criteria for DCD, and 3671 children were non-DCD. Maternal age, threatened abortion, fetal distress during labor, preterm birth, chronic lung disease and newborn pathological jaundice were related with DCD (OR=1.72, 2.72, 9.14, 5.17, 1.43, and 2.54, respectively, each p<0.05). Considered collectively, these risk factors may provide clues to an etiology of DCD. Additionally, the practitioners of maternity and child health care should improve the assessment and monitoring of the prenatal, perinatal and neonatal risk factors for DCD. PMID:24480608

  13. CAST (Co-ordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics): Overview and Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, N. R. P.; Carpenter, L.

    2014-12-01

    We present an overview of the main field activities of the UK CAST (Co-ordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics) campaign, which took place in the West Pacific in January/February 2014. The aim was to study the processes that influence the Tropical Tropopause layer (TTL), the major route for troposphere to stratosphere transport. The field campaign was based mainly in Guam (13.5oN, 144.8oE) and had three components: the ATTREX project organized by NASA and based around the Global Hawk; the NCAR-led CONTRAST campaign based around the Gulfstream V (HIAPER) aircraft; and CAST with the NERC FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft. Together, the three aircraft were able to make detailed measurements of atmospheric structure and composition from the ocean surface to 20 km. The BAe-146 made a total of 25 flights between 1 oS-14 oN and 130 - 155 oE. The 146 was used to sample at low altitudes (below 8 km) with much of the time spent in or close to the marine boundary layer. This strategy meant that the region of main inflow into the strong convection was sampled thoroughly. Concentrations of the following chemicals were measured in situ: CO, O3, NO2, NO, CO2, CH4, N2O, H2O, a range of halocarbons including CH2Br2, CHBr3 and CH3I; and reactive halogen species including BrO, BrCl, HOBr and IO. The CAST team also made ground-based measurements at the ARM site on Manus Island in Papua New Guinea during February 2014. Ozonesondes were deployed daily, and measurements of ozone, CH4, CO, CO2, H2O and halocarbons were made at the ground. Halocarbon measurements were also made at other West Pacific sites.

  14. Weakly coordinating anions: crystallographic and NQR studies of halogen-metal bonding in silver, thallium, sodium, and potassium halomethanesulfonates.

    PubMed

    Wulfsberg, Gary; Parks, Katherine D; Rutherford, Richard; Jackson, Debra Jones; Jones, Frank E; Derrick, Dana; Ilsley, William; Strauss, Steven H; Miller, Susie M; Anderson, Oren P; Babushkina, T A; Gushchin, S I; Kravchenko, E A; Morgunov, V G

    2002-04-22

    35Cl, (79,81)Br, and (127)I NQR (nuclear quadrupole resonance) spectroscopy in conjunction with X-ray crystallography is potentially one of the best ways of characterizing secondary bonding of metal cations such as Ag(+) to halogen donor atoms on the surfaces of very weakly coordinating anions. We have determined the X-ray crystal structure of Ag(O(3)SCH(2)Cl) (a = 13.241(3) A; b = 7.544(2) A; c = 4.925(2) A; orthorhombic; space group Pnma; Z = 4) and compared it with the known structure of Ag(O(3)SCH(2)Br) (Charbonnier, F.; Faure, R.; Loiseleur, H. Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 1978, 34, 3598-3601). The halogen atom in each is apical (three-coordinate), being weakly coordinated to two silver ions. (127)I NQR studies on Ag(O(3)SCH(2)I) show the expected NQR consequences of three-coordination of iodine: substantially reduced NQR frequencies nu(1) and nu(2) and a fairly small NQR asymmetry parameter eta. The reduction of the halogen NQR frequency of the coordinating halogen atom in Ag(O(3)SCH(2)X) becomes more substantial in the series X = Cl < Br < I, indicating that the coordination to Ag(+) strengthens in this series, as expected from hard-soft acid-base principles. The numbers of electrons donated by the organic iodine atom to Ag(+) have been estimated; these indicate that the bonding to the cation is weak but not insignificant. We have not found any evidence for the bonding of these organohalogen atoms to another soft-acid metal ion, thallium. A scheme for recycling of thallium halide wastes is included.

  15. Lanthanum(III) and Lutetium(III) in Nitrate-Based Ionic Liquids: A Theoretical Study of Their Coordination Shell.

    PubMed

    Bodo, Enrico

    2015-09-01

    By using ab initio molecular dynamics, we investigate the solvent shell structure of La(3+) and Lu(3+) ions immersed in two ionic liquids, ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) and its hydroxy derivative (2-ethanolammonium nitrate, HOEAN). We provide the first study of the coordination properties of these heavy metal ions in such a highly charged nonacqueous environment. We find, as expected, that the coordination in the liquid is mainly due to nitrate anions and that, due to the bidentate nature of the ligand, the complexation shell of the central ion has a nontrivial geometry and a coordination number in terms of nitrate molecules that apparently violates the decrease of ionic radii along the lanthanides series, since the smaller Lu(3+) ion seems to coordinate six nitrate molecules and the La(3+) ion only five. A closer inspection of the structural features obtained from our calculations shows, instead, that the first shell of oxygen atoms is more compact for Lu(3+) than for La(3+) and that the former coordinates 8 oxygen atoms while the latter 10 in accord with the typical lanthanide's trend along the series and that their first solvation shells have a slight irregular and complex geometrical pattern. When moving to the HOEAN solutions, we have found that the solvation of the central ion is possibly also due to the cation itself through the oxygen atom on the side chain. Also, in this liquid, the coordination numbers in terms of oxygen atoms in both solvents is 10 for La(3+) and 8 for Lu(3+). PMID:26291240

  16. Report on cancer risks associated with the ingestion of asbestos. DHHS Committee to Coordinate Environmental and Related Programs.

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    This report is an assessment of all available literature that pertains to the potential risk of cancer associated with ingestion of asbestos. It was compiled by a working group to assist policy makers in the Department of Health and Human Services determine if adequate information was available for a definitive risk assessment on this potential problem and evaluate if the weight of evidence was sufficient to prioritize this issue for new policy recommendations. The work group considered the basis for concern over this problem, the body of toxicology experiments, the individual epidemiologic studies which have attempted to investigate this issue, and the articles that discuss components of risk assessment pertaining to the ingestion of asbestos. In the report, the work group concluded: that no direct, definitive risk assessment can be conducted at this time; that further epidemiologic investigations will be very costly and only possess sufficient statistical power to detect relatively large excesses in cancers related to asbestos ingestion; and that probably the most pertinent toxicologic experiments relate to resolving the differences in how inhaled asbestos, which is eventually swallowed, is biologically processed by humans, compared to how ingested asbestos is processed. The work group believes that the cancer risk associated with asbestos ingestion should not be perceived as one of the most pressing potential public health hazards facing the nation. However, the work group does not believe that information was sufficient to assess the level of cancer risk associated with the ingestion and therefore, this potential hazard should not be discounted, and ingestion exposure to asbestos should be eliminated whenever possible. PMID:3304998

  17. Pilot study using mobile health to coordinate the diabetic patient, diabetologist, and ophthalmologist.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Irena; Drexler, Andrew; Stanton, Annette L; Kageyama, Jennie; Ngo, Elaine; Straatsma, Bradley R

    2014-07-01

    In the United States, more than 25 million adults have diabetes, 40% of diabetics have diabetic retinopathy, and diabetes is the leading cause of blindness in people 20 to 74 years of age. Clinical trials have shown that strict control of blood glucose level and other risk factors delays diabetic retinopathy onset, progression, and vision loss. Patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus, access to an Apple iPhone or iPad, and no psychological or medical condition that would interfere with the study participated in a nonrandomized clinical trial using SightBook™, a free mobile app that enables self-measurement of visual function and creates a password-protected web account for each patient. Sixty patients enrolled in the clinical trial over a 6 month period. Twenty-six participants were men and 34 were women, with ages from 23 to 72 years (mean 45 ± 15) and diabetes duration of 1.5 to 50 years (mean 15.5 ± 11.5). Thirty-nine (65%) patients reported Type 1 diabetes and 21 (35%) patients reported Type 2 diabetes. Every patient established a personal web account on SightBook and invited participation of treating physicians; 51 (85%) patients completed the validated self-reported outcome assessments. Diabetologist examinations of 49 (82%) patients demonstrated systolic hypertension (≥140 mgHg) in 20% and hemoglobin A1c ≥ 7.0% in 56%. Ophthalmology examinations of 45 patients showed visual acuity in the worse-seeing eye of < 20/40 in 18% and diabetic retinopathy in 42% of patients. This clinical trial used a mobile health app to incorporate diabetic patient self-measurement of vision and coordinate the diabetic patient, diabetologist, and ophthalmologist for control of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy risk factors.

  18. Water versus acetonitrile coordination to uranyl. Density functional study of cooperative polarization effects in solution.

    PubMed

    Bühl, Michael; Sieffert, Nicolas; Chaumont, Alain; Wipff, Georges

    2011-01-01

    Optimizations at the BLYP and B3LYP levels are reported for mixed uranyl-water/acetonitrile complexes [UO(2)(H(2)O)(5-n)(MeCN)(n)](2+) (n = 0-5), in both the gas phase and a polarizable continuum modeling acetonitrile. Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations have been performed for these complexes in the gas phase, and for selected species (n = 0, 1, 3, 5) in a periodic box of liquid acetonitrile. According to structural and energetic data, uranyl has a higher affinity for acetonitrile than for water in the gas phase, in keeping with the higher dipole moment and polarizability of acetonitrile. In acetonitrile solution, however, water is the better ligand because of specific solvation effects. Analysis of the dipole moment of the coordinated water molecule in [UO(2)(H(2)O)(MeCN)(4)](2+) reveals that the interaction with the second-shell solvent molecules (through fairly strong and persistent O-H···N hydrogen bonds) causes a significant increase of this dipole moment (by more than 1 D). This cooperative polarization of water reinforces the uranyl-water bond as well as the water solvation via strengthened (UO(2))OH(2)···NCMe hydrogen bonds. Such cooperativity is essentially absent in the acetonitrile ligands that make much weaker (UO(2))NCMe···NCMe hydrogen bonds. Beyond the uranyl case, this study points to the importance of cooperative polarization effects to enhance the M(n+) ion affinity for water in condensed phases involving M(n+)-OH(2)···A fragments, where A is a H-bond proton acceptor and M(n+) is a hard cation. PMID:21126026

  19. Pilot Study Using Mobile Health to Coordinate the Diabetic Patient, Diabetologist, and Ophthalmologist

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, Andrew; Stanton, Annette L.; Kageyama, Jennie; Ngo, Elaine; Straatsma, Bradley R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the United States, more than 25 million adults have diabetes, 40% of diabetics have diabetic retinopathy, and diabetes is the leading cause of blindness in people 20 to 74 years of age. Clinical trials have shown that strict control of blood glucose level and other risk factors delays diabetic retinopathy onset, progression, and vision loss. Methods: Patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus, access to an Apple iPhone or iPad, and no psychological or medical condition that would interfere with the study participated in a nonrandomized clinical trial using SightBook™, a free mobile app that enables self-measurement of visual function and creates a password-protected web account for each patient. Results: Sixty patients enrolled in the clinical trial over a 6 month period. Twenty-six participants were men and 34 were women, with ages from 23 to 72 years (mean 45 ± 15) and diabetes duration of 1.5 to 50 years (mean 15.5 ± 11.5). Thirty-nine (65%) patients reported Type 1 diabetes and 21 (35%) patients reported Type 2 diabetes. Every patient established a personal web account on SightBook and invited participation of treating physicians; 51 (85%) patients completed the validated self-reported outcome assessments. Diabetologist examinations of 49 (82%) patients demonstrated systolic hypertension (≥140 mgHg) in 20% and hemoglobin A1c ≥ 7.0% in 56%. Ophthalmology examinations of 45 patients showed visual acuity in the worse-seeing eye of < 20/40 in 18% and diabetic retinopathy in 42% of patients. Conclusions: This clinical trial used a mobile health app to incorporate diabetic patient self-measurement of vision and coordinate the diabetic patient, diabetologist, and ophthalmologist for control of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy risk factors. PMID:24876413

  20. Pilot study using mobile health to coordinate the diabetic patient, diabetologist, and ophthalmologist.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Irena; Drexler, Andrew; Stanton, Annette L; Kageyama, Jennie; Ngo, Elaine; Straatsma, Bradley R

    2014-07-01

    In the United States, more than 25 million adults have diabetes, 40% of diabetics have diabetic retinopathy, and diabetes is the leading cause of blindness in people 20 to 74 years of age. Clinical trials have shown that strict control of blood glucose level and other risk factors delays diabetic retinopathy onset, progression, and vision loss. Patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus, access to an Apple iPhone or iPad, and no psychological or medical condition that would interfere with the study participated in a nonrandomized clinical trial using SightBook™, a free mobile app that enables self-measurement of visual function and creates a password-protected web account for each patient. Sixty patients enrolled in the clinical trial over a 6 month period. Twenty-six participants were men and 34 were women, with ages from 23 to 72 years (mean 45 ± 15) and diabetes duration of 1.5 to 50 years (mean 15.5 ± 11.5). Thirty-nine (65%) patients reported Type 1 diabetes and 21 (35%) patients reported Type 2 diabetes. Every patient established a personal web account on SightBook and invited participation of treating physicians; 51 (85%) patients completed the validated self-reported outcome assessments. Diabetologist examinations of 49 (82%) patients demonstrated systolic hypertension (≥140 mgHg) in 20% and hemoglobin A1c ≥ 7.0% in 56%. Ophthalmology examinations of 45 patients showed visual acuity in the worse-seeing eye of < 20/40 in 18% and diabetic retinopathy in 42% of patients. This clinical trial used a mobile health app to incorporate diabetic patient self-measurement of vision and coordinate the diabetic patient, diabetologist, and ophthalmologist for control of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy risk factors. PMID:24876413

  1. Technology coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Steven

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on technology coordination are provided. Topics covered include: technology coordination process to date; goals; how the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) can support the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA); how OSSA can support OAST; steps to technology transfer; and recommendations.

  2. Building Local Infrastructure for Coordinated School Health Programs: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltz, Ann D.; Coburn, Sheri; Knickelbein, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Coordinated school health programs (CSHPs) provide an organizational framework for school health practice by combining health education, health promotion, disease prevention, and access to health services in an integrated, systemic manner. This project examined the effects of a regional 2-year training program to increase local school districts'…

  3. Resistance to Hemi-Biotrophic F. graminearum Infection Is Associated with Coordinated and Ordered Expression of Diverse Defense Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hongying; Yang, Liming; Kong, Zhongxin; Zhang, Lixia; Xue, Shulin; Jia, Haiyan; Ma, Zhengqiang

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium species cause serious diseases in cereal staple food crops such as wheat and maize. Currently, the mechanisms underlying resistance to Fusarium-caused diseases are still largely unknown. In the present study, we employed a combined proteomic and transcriptomic approach to investigate wheat genes responding to F. graminearum infection that causes Fusarium head blight (FHB). We found a total of 163 genes and 37 proteins that were induced by infection. These genes and proteins were associated with signaling pathways mediated by salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET), calcium ions, phosphatidic acid (PA), as well as with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging, antimicrobial compound synthesis, detoxification, and cell wall fortification. We compared the time-course expression profiles between FHB-resistant Wangshuibai plants and susceptible Meh0106 mutant plants of a selected set of genes that are critical to the plants' resistance and defense reactions. A biphasic phenomenon was observed during the first 24 h after inoculation (hai) in the resistant plants. The SA and Ca2+ signaling pathways were activated within 6 hai followed by the JA mediated defense signaling activated around 12 hai. ET signaling was activated between these two phases. Genes for PA and ROS synthesis were induced during the SA and JA phases, respectively. The delayed activation of the SA defense pathway in the mutant was associated with its susceptibility. After F. graminearum infection, the endogenous contents of SA and JA in Wangshuibai and the mutant changed in a manner similar to the investigated genes corresponding to the individual pathways. A few genes for resistance-related cell modification and phytoalexin production were also identified. This study provided important clues for designing strategies to curb diseases caused by Fusarium. PMID:21533105

  4. The ASPIRA Association School Retention Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, William; Fernandez, Ricardo R.

    1991-01-01

    The ASPIRA Association in the District of Columbia conducted a longitudinal multimethod study with 1,152 students based on school records, interviews, the High School and Beyond study, and 1-year followup to study dropouts among Hispanic-American students in 5 cities: Chicago, Miami, Newark, Milwaukee, and San Antonio. Findings represent an…

  5. Proteomic Dissection of Endosperm Starch Granule Associated Proteins Reveals a Network Coordinating Starch Biosynthesis and Amino Acid Metabolism and Glycolysis in Rice Endosperms.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huatao; Wang, Tai

    2016-01-01

    Starch biosynthesis and starch granule packaging in cereal endosperms involve a coordinated action of starch biosynthesis enzymes and coordination with other metabolisms. Because directly binding to starch granules, starch granule-associated proteins (SGAPs) are essential to understand the underlying mechanisms, however the information on SGAPs remains largely unknown. Here, we dissected developmentally changed SGAPs from developing rice endosperms from 10 to 20 days after flowering (DAF). Starch granule packaging was not completed at 10 DAF, and was finished in the central endosperm at 15 DAF and in the whole endosperm at 20 DAF. Proteomic analysis with two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed 115 developmentally changed SGAPs, representing 37 unique proteins. 65% of the unique proteins had isoforms. 39% of the identified SGAPs were involved in starch biosynthesis with main functions in polyglucan elongation and granule structure trimming. Almost all proteins involved in starch biosynthesis, amino acid biosynthesis, glycolysis, protein folding, and PPDK pathways increased abundance as the endosperm developed, and were predicted in an interaction network. The network represents an important mechanism to orchestrate carbon partitioning among starch biosynthesis, amino acid biosynthesis and glycolysis for efficient starch and protein storage. These results provide novel insights into mechanisms of starch biosynthesis and its coordination with amino acid metabolisms and glycolysis in cereal endosperms.

  6. A longitudinal study of coordination in mother-infant vocal interaction from age 4 to 10 months.

    PubMed

    Harder, Susanne; Lange, Theis; Hansen, Gert Foget; Væver, Mette; Køppe, Simo

    2015-12-01

    This is a longitudinal study of development in coordinated mother-infant vocal interaction from 4 to 10 months (N = 41) focusing on the development of turn-taking patterns and time spent in coordinated vocal interaction. Data analyses were carried out using multistate analysis. Both mothers and infants were found to coordinate their own vocalizations with their partners' vocalizations. The infants had a predominant pattern of covocalizing, whereas the mothers had a predominant turn-taking pattern at all ages (4, 7, and 10 months). However, a significant reduction in the duration of covocalization was found between 4 and 7 months, due to less covocalizing compared to turn-taking from the infants. In addition, time spent in coordinated vocal interaction increased significantly between 4 and 7 months and a development for the infants was found from repeated vocalizations toward single vocalizations between maternal turns. Taken together, these findings indicate a developmental process of fine-tuning and increasing the turn-taking format for vocal communication, characterizing adult communication, before the development of speech. In addition, our results indicate that this development starts earlier and is more prolonged than has been hypothesized from previous research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Elements of the patient-centered medical home associated with health outcomes among veterans: the role of primary care continuity, expanded access, and care coordination.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Karin; Sun, Haili; Dolan, Emily; Maynard, Charles; Beste, Laruen; Bryson, Christopher; Schectman, Gordon; Fihn, Stephan D

    2014-01-01

    Care continuity, access, and coordination are important features of the patient-centered medical home model and have been emphasized in the Veterans Health Administration patient-centered medical home implementation, called the Patient Aligned Care Team. Data from more than 4.3 million Veterans were used to assess the relationship between these attributes of Patient Aligned Care Team and Veterans Health Administration hospitalization and mortality. Controlling for demographics and comorbidity, we found that continuity with a primary care provider was associated with a lower likelihood of hospitalization and mortality among a large population of Veterans receiving VA primary care.

  8. Elements of the patient-centered medical home associated with health outcomes among veterans: the role of primary care continuity, expanded access, and care coordination.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Karin; Sun, Haili; Dolan, Emily; Maynard, Charles; Beste, Laruen; Bryson, Christopher; Schectman, Gordon; Fihn, Stephan D

    2014-01-01

    Care continuity, access, and coordination are important features of the patient-centered medical home model and have been emphasized in the Veterans Health Administration patient-centered medical home implementation, called the Patient Aligned Care Team. Data from more than 4.3 million Veterans were used to assess the relationship between these attributes of Patient Aligned Care Team and Veterans Health Administration hospitalization and mortality. Controlling for demographics and comorbidity, we found that continuity with a primary care provider was associated with a lower likelihood of hospitalization and mortality among a large population of Veterans receiving VA primary care. PMID:25180648

  9. Assessment of the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative: Addressing Environmental and Siting Issues Associated with Wind Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cleve, Frances B.; States, Jennifer C.

    2010-11-09

    The National Wind Coordinating Collaborative (NWCC) is a consensus-based stakeholder group comprised of representatives from the utility, wind industry, environmental, consumer, regulatory, power marketer, agricultural, tribal, economic development, and state and federal government sectors. The purpose of the NWCC is to support the development of an environmentally, economically, and politically sustainable commercial market for wind power (NWCC 2010). The NWCC has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) since its inception in 1994. In order to evaluate the impact of the work of the NWCC and how this work aligns with DOE’s strategic priorities, DOE tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a series of informal interviews with a small sample of those involved with NWCC.

  10. Coordinated study of scintillations recorded by Chinese FY-2 geostationary meteorological satellite and VHF coherent radar observations over south china

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Xiaomin; Yu, Tao; Xia, Chunliang; Huang, Jiang; Xu, Jie

    2016-09-01

    The first scintillation observations of Chinese FY-2 geostationary meteorological satellite (86.5°E) observed at Guangzhou (23.2°N, 113.3°E, dip 18°N) and simultaneous VHF (47.5 MHz) coherent radar measurements from Sanya (18.3°N, 109.6°E, dip 13°N) during equinoctial months of 2011 and 2012 have been presented here. The observations are used for a coordinated study for the relationship between the L-band scintillation patches on the propagation path of FY-2 satellite and the extended 3-m irregularity structures known as plumes over South China. The statistical results showed that the plumes and the scintillation patches have nearly a one-to-one correspondence. In case study, the zonal drift velocity of the irregularities was estimated by comparison of the onset times of the scintillation and plume and the irregularities were found to drift eastwards at a speed ranging about tens of meters to one hundred meters per second. From the derived value of drift speed and duration of scintillation events, the irregularity patches were found to have east-west extent about a few hundred kilometers. On the other hand, the scintillation did not always occur following the appearance of plume which might be due to the associated irregularities occurring at lower altitudes failing to reach the region of the ionosphere through which the satellite to ground link passes. In addition, weak scintillations were observed on FY-2 link without any plume structure on radar backscatter maps occasionally.

  11. Coordinated Chemical and Isotropic Studies of IDPS: Comparison of Circumstellar and Solar GEMS Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Messenger, S.

    2007-01-01

    Silicate stardust in IDPs and meteorites include forsterite, amorphous silicates, and GEMS grains [1]. Amorphous presolar silicates are much less abundant than expected based on astronomical models [2], possibly destroyed by parent body alteration. A more accurate accounting of presolar silicate mineralogy may be preserved in anhydrous IDPs. Here we present results of coordinated TEM and isotopic analyses of an anhydrous IDP (L2005AL5) that is comprised of crystalline silicates and sulfides, GEMS grains, and equilibrated aggregates embedded in a carbonaceous matrix. Nanometer-scale quantitative compositional maps of all grains in two microtome thin sections were obtained with a JEOL 2500SE. These sections were then subjected to O and N isotopic imaging with the JSC NanoSIMS 50L. Coordinated high resolution chemical maps and O isotopic com-positions were obtained on 11 GEMS grains, 8 crystalline grains, and 6 equilibrated aggregates.

  12. Development of a Coordinated National Soil Moisture Network: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucido, J. M.; Quiring, S. M.; Verdin, J. P.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Baker, B.; Cosgrove, B.; Escobar, V. M.; Strobel, M.

    2014-12-01

    Soil moisture data is critical for accurate drought prediction, flood forecasting, climate modeling, prediction of crop yields and water budgeting. However, soil moisture data are collected by many agencies and organizations in the United States using a variety of instruments and methods for varying applications. These data are often distributed and represented in disparate formats, posing significant challenges for use. In recognition of these challenges, the President's Climate Action Plan articulated the need for a coordinated national soil moisture network. In response to this action plan, a team led by the National Integrated Drought Information System has begun to develop a framework for this network and has instituted a proof-of-concept pilot study. This pilot is located in the south-central plains of the US, and will serve as a reference architecture for the requisite data systems and inform the design of the national network. The pilot comprises both in-situ and modeled soil moisture datasets (historical and real-time) and will serve the following use cases: operational drought monitoring, experimental land surface modeling, and operational hydrological modeling. The pilot will be implemented using a distributed network design in order to serve dispersed data in real-time directly from data providers. Standard service protocols will be used to enable future integration with external clients. The pilot network will additionally contain a catalog of data sets and web service endpoints, which will be used to broker web service calls. A mediation and aggregation service will then intelligently request, compile, and transform the distributed datasets from their native formats into a standardized output. This mediation framework allows data to be hosted and maintained locally by the data owners while simplifying access through a single service interface. These data services will then be used to create visualizations, for example, views of the current soil

  13. Study of variant design of SML-based coordinate measuring machines automatic measurement plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Wang, Boxiong; Wang, Junying; Chen, Huacheng; Luo, Xiuzhi

    2006-11-01

    It is the trend of Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) measurement technology that creates measurement plan automatically. Based on Pro/CMM module of Pro/E software, the idea for automatic generation of the main DMIS (Dimensional Measuring Interface Standard) file of measurement plan is described. To satisfy the special measurement requirements of different customers conveniently, a method of variant design of DMIS file based on SML (Tabular Layouts of Article Characteristics) and the main DMIS file is proposed.

  14. Magnetic properties of dendrimer structures with different coordination numbers: A Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of Cayley trees of large molecules with dendrimer structure using Monte Carlo simulations. The thermal magnetization and magnetic susceptibility of a dendrimer structure are given with different coordination numbers, Z=3, 4, 5 and different generations g=3 and 2. The variation of magnetizations with the exchange interactions and crystal fields have been given of this system. The magnetic hysteresis cycles have been established.

  15. Ab initio coordination chemistry for nickel chelation motifs.

    PubMed

    Sudan, R Jesu Jaya; Kumari, J Lesitha Jeeva; Sudandiradoss, C

    2015-01-01

    Chelation therapy is one of the most appreciated methods in the treatment of metal induced disease predisposition. Coordination chemistry provides a way to understand metal association in biological structures. In this work we have implemented coordination chemistry to study nickel coordination due to its high impact in industrial usage and thereby health consequences. This paper reports the analysis of nickel coordination from a large dataset of nickel bound structures and sequences. Coordination patterns predicted from the structures are reported in terms of donors, chelate length, coordination number, chelate geometry, structural fold and architecture. The analysis revealed histidine as the most favored residue in nickel coordination. The most common chelates identified were histidine based namely HHH, HDH, HEH and HH spaced at specific intervals. Though a maximum coordination number of 8 was observed, the presence of a single protein donor was noted to be mandatory in nickel coordination. The coordination pattern did not reveal any specific fold, nevertheless we report preferable residue spacing for specific structural architecture. In contrast, the analysis of nickel binding proteins from bacterial and archeal species revealed no common coordination patterns. Nickel binding sequence motifs were noted to be organism specific and protein class specific. As a result we identified about 13 signatures derived from 13 classes of nickel binding proteins. The specifications on nickel coordination presented in this paper will prove beneficial for developing better chelation strategies.

  16. Ab initio coordination chemistry for nickel chelation motifs.

    PubMed

    Sudan, R Jesu Jaya; Kumari, J Lesitha Jeeva; Sudandiradoss, C

    2015-01-01

    Chelation therapy is one of the most appreciated methods in the treatment of metal induced disease predisposition. Coordination chemistry provides a way to understand metal association in biological structures. In this work we have implemented coordination chemistry to study nickel coordination due to its high impact in industrial usage and thereby health consequences. This paper reports the analysis of nickel coordination from a large dataset of nickel bound structures and sequences. Coordination patterns predicted from the structures are reported in terms of donors, chelate length, coordination number, chelate geometry, structural fold and architecture. The analysis revealed histidine as the most favored residue in nickel coordination. The most common chelates identified were histidine based namely HHH, HDH, HEH and HH spaced at specific intervals. Though a maximum coordination number of 8 was observed, the presence of a single protein donor was noted to be mandatory in nickel coordination. The coordination pattern did not reveal any specific fold, nevertheless we report preferable residue spacing for specific structural architecture. In contrast, the analysis of nickel binding proteins from bacterial and archeal species revealed no common coordination patterns. Nickel binding sequence motifs were noted to be organism specific and protein class specific. As a result we identified about 13 signatures derived from 13 classes of nickel binding proteins. The specifications on nickel coordination presented in this paper will prove beneficial for developing better chelation strategies. PMID:25985439

  17. Ab Initio Coordination Chemistry for Nickel Chelation Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Jesu Jaya Sudan, R.; Lesitha Jeeva Kumari, J.; Sudandiradoss, C.

    2015-01-01

    Chelation therapy is one of the most appreciated methods in the treatment of metal induced disease predisposition. Coordination chemistry provides a way to understand metal association in biological structures. In this work we have implemented coordination chemistry to study nickel coordination due to its high impact in industrial usage and thereby health consequences. This paper reports the analysis of nickel coordination from a large dataset of nickel bound structures and sequences. Coordination patterns predicted from the structures are reported in terms of donors, chelate length, coordination number, chelate geometry, structural fold and architecture. The analysis revealed histidine as the most favored residue in nickel coordination. The most common chelates identified were histidine based namely HHH, HDH, HEH and HH spaced at specific intervals. Though a maximum coordination number of 8 was observed, the presence of a single protein donor was noted to be mandatory in nickel coordination. The coordination pattern did not reveal any specific fold, nevertheless we report preferable residue spacing for specific structural architecture. In contrast, the analysis of nickel binding proteins from bacterial and archeal species revealed no common coordination patterns. Nickel binding sequence motifs were noted to be organism specific and protein class specific. As a result we identified about 13 signatures derived from 13 classes of nickel binding proteins. The specifications on nickel coordination presented in this paper will prove beneficial for developing better chelation strategies. PMID:25985439

  18. Social Postural Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlet, Manuel; Marin, Ludovic; Lagarde, Julien; Bardy, Benoit G.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a visual coupling between two people can produce spontaneous interpersonal postural coordination and change their intrapersonal postural coordination involved in the control of stance. We examined the front-to-back head displacements of participants and the angular motion of their hip and…

  19. The Empirical Comparison of Coordinate Transformation Models and Distortion Modeling Methods Based on a Case Study of Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grgic, M.; Varga, M.; Bašić, T.

    2015-12-01

    Several coordinate transformation models enable performing of the coordinate transformations between the historical astro-geodetic datums, which were utilized before the GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) technologies were developed, and datums related to the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS), which today are most often used to determine the position. The decision on the most appropriate coordinate transformation model is influenced by many factors, such as: required accuracy, available computational resources, possibility of the model application regarding the size and shape of the territory, coordinate distortion that very often exist in historical astro-geodetic datums, etc. This study is based on the geodetic data of the Republic of Croatia in both, historical and ITRS-related datum. It investigates different transformation models, including conformal Molodensky 3 parameters (p) and 5p (standard and abridged) transformation models, 7p transformation models (Bursa-Wolf and Molodensky-Badekas model), Affine transformation models (8p, 9p, 12p), and Multiple Regression Equation approach. Besides, it investigates the 7p, 8p, 9p, and 12p transformation models extended with distortion modeling, and the grid based only transformation model (NTv2 model). Furthermore, several distortion modeling methods were used to produce various models of distortion shifts in different resolutions. Thereafter, their performance and the performance of the transformation models was evaluated using summary statistics derived from the remained positional residuals that were computed for the independent control spatial data set. Lastly, the most appropriate method(s) of distortion modeling and most appropriate coordinate transformation model(s) were defined regarding the required accuracy for the Croatian case.

  20. Numerical study of a multigrid method with four smoothing methods for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in general coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeng, S.; Wesseling, P.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a linear multigrid method using four smoothing methods, called SCGS (Symmetrical Coupled GauBeta-Seidel), CLGS (Collective Line GauBeta-Seidel), SILU (Scalar ILU), and CILU (Collective ILU), is investigated for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in general coordinates, in association with Galerkin coarse grid approximation. Robustness and efficiency are measured and compared by application to test problems. The numerical results show that CILU is the most robust, SILU the least, with CLGS and SCGS in between. CLGS is the best in efficiency, SCGS and CILU follow, and SILU is the worst.

  1. Molecular Ions and Other Exotic Molecules in Space: A Coordinated Astronomical, Laboratory, and Theoretical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Michael

    This proposal request funds to continue a laboratory program in close coordination with radio astronomical observations dedicated to the study of highly reactive molecular ions, radicals, and metastable isomers that are thought to be key intermediates in rich interstellar and circumstellar sources. Determining the carriers of strong unidentified lines, such as U617.6 which has recently been observed with the Herschel space satellite, is the type of problem in laboratory astrophysics that our group is particularly adept at, and will be also emphasized in the upcoming grant period. Most new molecular species will be detected using microwave cavity rotational spectroscopy, followed either by microwave/millimeter-wave double resonance or millimeter/THz absorption to better characterize the rotational spectra in bands where Herschel and SOFIA operate. Using this combined approach, the rotational spectra of a number of ions of astronomical interest such as the cis- and trans isomers of HOSO+, H2NCO+, HNCOH+, H2CCHCNH+, C3N-, and NCO- have recently been detected in our laboratory, as have metastable isomers or derivatives of isocyanic acid, HNCO. As a result of this work, HOCN, HSCN, TiO2, and several molecular anions have been identified for the first time in space in the span of only a few years. Emphasis in the upcoming grant period will be placed on the detection of diatomic and small polyatomic ions such as SiH+, SiN-, CN+, NCS-, etc., other prototypical ions, including protonated benzene C6H7+, and silicon- and phosphorus-bearing species of astronomical interest. On the assumption that U617.6 is the fundamental b-type transition of a small polyatomic molecule, systematic searches for species of the form XOH, where X is likely either an atom or diatomic, will be given high priority because slightly bent species with this functional group (e.g., NNOH+, SiOH, etc.) possess an A rotational constants of about the right magnitude. Instrumental refinement will also be

  2. N-(sulfoethyl) iminodiacetic acid-based lanthanide coordination polymers: Synthesis, magnetism and quantum Monte Carlo studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Gui-lin; Chen, Wu-lin; Zheng, Jun; Yu, Hui-you; Wang, Jian-guo

    2012-08-01

    A series of lanthanide coordination polymers have been obtained through the hydrothermal reaction of N-(sulfoethyl) iminodiacetic acid (H3SIDA) and Ln(NO3)3 (Ln=La, 1; Pr, 2; Nd, 3; Gd, 4). Crystal structure analysis exhibits that lanthanide ions affect the coordination number, bond length and dimension of compounds 1-4, which reveal that their structure diversity can be attributed to the effect of lanthanide contraction. Furthermore, the combination of magnetic measure with quantum Monte Carlo(QMC) studies exhibits that the coupling parameters between two adjacent Gd3+ ions for anti-anti and syn-anti carboxylate bridges are -1.0×10-3 and -5.0×10-3 cm-1, respectively, which reveals weak antiferromagnetic interaction in 4.

  3. Study on the Coordination Structure of Pt Sorbed on Bacterial Cells Using X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kazuya; Watanabe, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Biosorption has been intensively investigated as a promising technology for the recovery of precious metals from solution. However, the detailed mechanism responsible for the biosorption of Pt on a biomass is not fully understood because of a lack of spectroscopic studies. We applied X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to elucidate the coordination structure of Pt sorbed on bacterial cells. We examined the sorption of Pt(II) and Pt(IV) species on bacterial cells of Bacillus subtilis and Shewanella putrefaciens in NaCl solutions. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) of Pt-sorbed bacteria suggested that Pt(IV) was reduced to Pt(II) on the cell’s surface, even in the absence of an organic material as an exogenous electron donor. EXAFS spectra demonstrated that Pt sorbed on bacterial cells has a fourfold coordination of chlorine ions, similar to PtCl42-, which indicated that sorption on the protonated amine groups of the bacterial cells. This work clearly demonstrated the coordination structure of Pt sorbed on bacterial cells. The findings of this study will contribute to the understanding of Pt biosorption on biomass, and facilitate the development of recovery methods for rare metals using biosorbent materials. PMID:25996945

  4. Associative visual agnosia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Charnallet, A; Carbonnel, S; David, D; Moreaud, O

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study, an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive) episodic models of memory.

  5. A Comparative Study of Sparse Associative Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gripon, Vincent; Heusel, Judith; Löwe, Matthias; Vermet, Franck

    2016-07-01

    We study various models of associative memories with sparse information, i.e. a pattern to be stored is a random string of 0s and 1s with about log N 1s, only. We compare different synaptic weights, architectures and retrieval mechanisms to shed light on the influence of the various parameters on the storage capacity.

  6. The study of dual camera 3D coordinate vision measurement system using a special probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shugui; Peng, Kai; Zhang, Xuefei; Zhang, Haifeng; Huang, Fengshan

    2006-11-01

    Due to high precision and convenient operation, the vision coordinate measurement machine with one probe has become the research focus in visual industry. In general such a visual system can be setup conveniently with just one CCD camera and probe. However, the price of the system will surge up too high to accept while the top performance hardware, such as CCD camera, image captured card and etc, have to be applied in the system to obtain the high axis-oriented measurement precision. In this paper, a new dual CCD camera vision coordinate measurement system based on redundancy principle is proposed to achieve high precision by moderate price. Since two CCD cameras are placed with the angle of camera axis like about 90 degrees to build the system, two sub-systems can be built by each CCD camera and the probe. With the help of the probe the inner and outer parameters of camera are first calibrated, the system by use of redundancy technique is set up now. When axis-oriented error is eliminated within the two sub-systems, which is so large and always exits in the single camera system, the high precision measurement is obtained by the system. The result of experiment compared to that from CMM shows that the system proposed is more excellent in stableness and precision with the uncertainty beyond +/-0.1 mm in xyz orient within the distance of 2m using two common CCD cameras.

  7. Thermodynamic, spectroscopic, and computational studies of lanthanide complexation with Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acide: temperature effect and coordination modes

    SciTech Connect

    Guoxin Tian; Leigh R. Martin; Zhiyong Zhang; Linfeng Rao

    2011-04-01

    Stability constants of two DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) complexes with lanthanides (ML2- and MHL-, where M stands for Nd and Eu and L stands for diethylenetriaminepentaacetate) at 10, 25, 40, 55, and 70 degrees C were determined by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, and luminescence spectroscopy. The enthalpies of complexation at 25 degrees C were determined by microcalorimetry. Thermodynamic data show that the complexation of Nd3þ and Eu3þ with DTPA is weakened at higher temperatures, a 10-fold decrease in the stability constants of ML2- and MHL- as the temperature is increased from 10 to 70 degrees C. The effect of temperature is consistent with the exothermic enthalpy of complexation directly measured by microcalorimetry. Results by luminescence spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that DTPA is octa-dentate in both the EuL2- and EuHL- complexes and, for the first time, the coordination mode in the EuHL- complex was clarified by integration of the experimental data and DFT calculations. In the EuHL- complex, the Eu is coordinated by an octa-dentate H(DTPA) ligand and a water molecule, and the protonation occurs on the oxygen of a carboxylate group.

  8. Functional analysis of variance for association studies.

    PubMed

    Vsevolozhskaya, Olga A; Zaykin, Dmitri V; Greenwood, Mark C; Wei, Changshuai; Lu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    While progress has been made in identifying common genetic variants associated with human diseases, for most of common complex diseases, the identified genetic variants only account for a small proportion of heritability. Challenges remain in finding additional unknown genetic variants predisposing to complex diseases. With the advance in next-generation sequencing technologies, sequencing studies have become commonplace in genetic research. The ongoing exome-sequencing and whole-genome-sequencing studies generate a massive amount of sequencing variants and allow researchers to comprehensively investigate their role in human diseases. The discovery of new disease-associated variants can be enhanced by utilizing powerful and computationally efficient statistical methods. In this paper, we propose a functional analysis of variance (FANOVA) method for testing an association of sequence variants in a genomic region with a qualitative trait. The FANOVA has a number of advantages: (1) it tests for a joint effect of gene variants, including both common and rare; (2) it fully utilizes linkage disequilibrium and genetic position information; and (3) allows for either protective or risk-increasing causal variants. Through simulations, we show that FANOVA outperform two popularly used methods - SKAT and a previously proposed method based on functional linear models (FLM), - especially if a sample size of a study is small and/or sequence variants have low to moderate effects. We conduct an empirical study by applying three methods (FANOVA, SKAT and FLM) to sequencing data from Dallas Heart Study. While SKAT and FLM respectively detected ANGPTL 4 and ANGPTL 3 associated with obesity, FANOVA was able to identify both genes associated with obesity.

  9. Functional analysis of variance for association studies.

    PubMed

    Vsevolozhskaya, Olga A; Zaykin, Dmitri V; Greenwood, Mark C; Wei, Changshuai; Lu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    While progress has been made in identifying common genetic variants associated with human diseases, for most of common complex diseases, the identified genetic variants only account for a small proportion of heritability. Challenges remain in finding additional unknown genetic variants predisposing to complex diseases. With the advance in next-generation sequencing technologies, sequencing studies have become commonplace in genetic research. The ongoing exome-sequencing and whole-genome-sequencing studies generate a massive amount of sequencing variants and allow researchers to comprehensively investigate their role in human diseases. The discovery of new disease-associated variants can be enhanced by utilizing powerful and computationally efficient statistical methods. In this paper, we propose a functional analysis of variance (FANOVA) method for testing an association of sequence variants in a genomic region with a qualitative trait. The FANOVA has a number of advantages: (1) it tests for a joint effect of gene variants, including both common and rare; (2) it fully utilizes linkage disequilibrium and genetic position information; and (3) allows for either protective or risk-increasing causal variants. Through simulations, we show that FANOVA outperform two popularly used methods - SKAT and a previously proposed method based on functional linear models (FLM), - especially if a sample size of a study is small and/or sequence variants have low to moderate effects. We conduct an empirical study by applying three methods (FANOVA, SKAT and FLM) to sequencing data from Dallas Heart Study. While SKAT and FLM respectively detected ANGPTL 4 and ANGPTL 3 associated with obesity, FANOVA was able to identify both genes associated with obesity. PMID:25244256

  10. The Real-World Problem of Care Coordination: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study with Patients Living with Advanced Progressive Illness and Their Unpaid Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Daveson, Barbara A.; Harding, Richard; Shipman, Cathy; Mason, Bruce L.; Epiphaniou, Eleni; Higginson, Irene J.; Ellis-Smith, Clare; Henson, Lesley; Munday, Dan; Nanton, Veronica; Dale, Jeremy R.; Boyd, Kirsty; Worth, Allison; Barclay, Stephen; Donaldson, Anne; Murray, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop a model of care coordination for patients living with advanced progressive illness and their unpaid caregivers, and to understand their perspective regarding care coordination. Design A prospective longitudinal, multi-perspective qualitative study involving a case-study approach. Methods Serial in-depth interviews were conducted, transcribed verbatim and then analyzed through open and axial coding in order to construct categories for three cases (sites). This was followed by continued thematic analysis to identify underlying conceptual coherence across all cases in order to produce one coherent care coordination model. Participants Fifty-six purposively sampled patients and 27 case-linked unpaid caregivers. Settings Three cases from contrasting primary, secondary and tertiary settings within Britain. Results Coordination is a deliberate cross-cutting action that involves high-quality, caring and well-informed staff, patients and unpaid caregivers who must work in partnership together across health and social care settings. For coordination to occur, it must be adequately resourced with efficient systems and services that communicate. Patients and unpaid caregivers contribute substantially to the coordination of their care, which is sometimes volunteered at a personal cost to them. Coordination is facilitated through flexible and patient-centered care, characterized by accurate and timely information communicated in a way that considers patients’ and caregivers’ needs, preferences, circumstances and abilities. Conclusions Within the midst of advanced progressive illness, coordination is a shared and complex intervention involving relational, structural and information components. Our study is one of the first to extensively examine patients’ and caregivers’ views about coordination, thus aiding conceptual fidelity. These findings can be used to help avoid oversimplifying a real-world problem, such as care coordination. Avoiding

  11. Development of infant leg coordination: Exploiting passive torques.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Barbara; Scholz, John; Reimann, Hendrik; Kubo, Masayoshi; Fetters, Linda

    2015-08-01

    Leg joint coordination systematically changes over the first months of life, yet there is minimal data on the underlying change in muscle torques that might account for this change in coordination. The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of torque changes to early changes in leg joint coordination. Kicking actions were analyzed of 10 full-term infants between 6 and 15-weeks of age using three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics. We found 11 of 15 joint angle pairs demonstrated a change from more in-phase intralimb coordination at 6-weeks to less in-phase coordination at 15-weeks. Although the magnitude of joint torques normalized to the mass of the leg remained relatively consistent, we noted more complex patterns of torque component contribution across ages. By focusing on the change in torques associated with hip-knee joint coordination, we found that less in-phase hip-knee joint coordination at 15-weeks was associated with decreased influence of knee muscle torque and increased influence of knee gravitational and motion-dependent torques, supporting that infants coordinate hip muscle torque with passive knee gravitational and motion-dependent torques to generate kicks with reduced active knee muscle torque. We propose that between 6 and 15-weeks of age less in-phase hip-knee coordination emerges as infants exploit passive dynamics in the coordination of hip and knee motions.

  12. A case study of asthma care in school age children using nurse-coordinated multidisciplinary collaborative practices

    PubMed Central

    Procter, Susan; Brooks, Fiona; Wilson, Patricia; Crouchman, Carolyn; Kendall, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Aim To describe the role of school nursing in leading and coordinating a multidisciplinary networked system of support for children with asthma, and to analyze the strengths and challenges of undertaking and supporting multiagency interprofessional practice. Background The growth of networked and interprofessional collaborations arises from the recognition that a number of the most pressing public health problems cannot be addressed by single-discipline or -agency interventions. This paper identifies the potential of school nursing to provide the vision and multiagency leadership required to coordinate multidisciplinary collaboration. Method A mixed-method single-case study design using Yin’s approach, including focus groups, interviews, and analysis of policy documents and public health reports. Results A model that explains the integrated population approach to managing school-age asthma is described; the role of the lead school nurse coordinator was seen as critical to the development and sustainability of the model. Conclusion School nurses can provide strategic multidisciplinary leadership to address pressing public health issues. Health service managers and commissioners need to understand how to support clinicians working across multiagency boundaries and to identify how to develop leadership skills for collaborative interprofessional practice so that the capacity for nursing and other health care professionals to address public health issues does not rely on individual motivation. In England, this will be of particular importance to the commissioning of public health services by local authorities from 2015. PMID:25914542

  13. Coordination of individual and ensemble cytoskeletal motors studied using tools from DNA nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derr, Nathan Dickson

    The cytoskeletal molecular motors kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein drive many diverse functions within eukaryotic cells. They are responsible for numerous spatially and temporally dependent intracellular processes crucial for cellular activity, including cytokinesis, maintenance of sub-cellular organization and the transport of myriad cargos along microtubule tracks. Cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin-1 are processive, but opposite polarity, homodimeric motors; they each can take hundreds of thousands of consecutive steps, but do so in opposite directions along their microtubule tracks. These steps are fueled by the binding and hydrolysis of ATP within the homodimer's two identical protomers. Individual motors achieve their processivity by maintaining asynchrony between the stepping cycles of each protomer, insuring that at least one protomer always maintains contact with the track. How dynein coordinates the asynchronous stepping activity of its protomers is unknown. We developed a versatile method for assembling Saccharomyces cerevisiae dynein heterodimers, using complementary DNA oligonucleotides covalently linked to dynein monomers labeled with different organic fluorophores. Using two-color, single-molecule microscopy and high-precision, two-dimensional tracking, we found that dynein has a highly variable stepping pattern that is distinct from all other processive cytoskeletal motors, which use "hand-over-hand" mechanisms. Uniquely, dynein stepping is stochastic when its two motor domains are close together. However, coordination emerges as the distance between motor domains increases, implying that a tension-based mechanism governs these steps. Many cellular cargos demonstrate bidirectional movement due to the presence of ensembles of both cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin-1. To investigate the mechanisms that coordinate the interactions between motors within an ensemble, we constructed programmable synthetic cargos using three-dimensional DNA origami. This system

  14. Coordinated NanoSIMS and FIB-TEM analyses of organic matter and associated matrix materials in CR3 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floss, Christine; Le Guillou, Corentin; Brearley, Adrian

    2014-08-01

    The organic matter in the primitive CR3 chondrites QUE 99177 and MET 00426 exhibits, as in other CR chondrites, N isotopic compositions characterized by large enrichments in 15N compared to solar. These enrichments are present in the matrices of these two meteorites as localized hotspots associated with C-rich grains, and larger, more diffuse regions with more modest enrichments in 15N. Occasionally depletions in 15N are also observed. FIB-TEM analysis of isotopically anomalous as well as isotopically normal C-rich grains from the matrix of MET 00426 shows that both types of grains consist of highly disordered organic matter that exhibits a variety of morphologies. There are no obvious correlations of isotopic composition with morphology, petrographic association or elemental composition. Large diffuse regions with modest 15N enrichments may be the result of fluid action that redistributed organic matter (and the associated 15N enrichments) in veins and cracks along grain boundaries. Grain formation likely occurred in a variety of environments (e.g., molecular clouds or the outer regions of the protosolar nebula) via UV photolysis of simpler precursor ices with variable isotopic compositions.

  15. A coordinated X-ray, optical, and microwave study of the flare star Proxima Centauri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisch, B. M.; Linsky, J. L.; Slee, O. B.; Hearn, D. R.; Walker, A. R.; Rydgren, A. E.; Nicolson, G. D.

    1978-01-01

    Results are reported for a three-day coordinated observing program to monitor the flare star Proxima Centauri in the X-ray, optical, and radio spectrum. During this interval 30 optical flares and 12 possible radio bursts were observed. The SAS 3 X-ray satellite made no X-ray detections. An upper limit of 0.08 on the X-ray/optical luminosity ratio is derived for the brightest optical flare. The most sensitive of the radio telescopes failed to detect 6-cm emission during one major and three minor optical flares, and on this basis an upper limit on the flare radio emission (1 hundred-thousandth of the optimal luminosity) is derived.

  16. The Study of Intelligent Vehicle Navigation Path Based on Behavior Coordination of Particle Swarm.

    PubMed

    Han, Gaining; Fu, Weiping; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    In the behavior dynamics model, behavior competition leads to the shock problem of the intelligent vehicle navigation path, because of the simultaneous occurrence of the time-variant target behavior and obstacle avoidance behavior. Considering the safety and real-time of intelligent vehicle, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed to solve these problems for the optimization of weight coefficients of the heading angle and the path velocity. Firstly, according to the behavior dynamics model, the fitness function is defined concerning the intelligent vehicle driving characteristics, the distance between intelligent vehicle and obstacle, and distance of intelligent vehicle and target. Secondly, behavior coordination parameters that minimize the fitness function are obtained by particle swarm optimization algorithms. Finally, the simulation results show that the optimization method and its fitness function can improve the perturbations of the vehicle planning path and real-time and reliability. PMID:26880881

  17. The Study of Intelligent Vehicle Navigation Path Based on Behavior Coordination of Particle Swarm.

    PubMed

    Han, Gaining; Fu, Weiping; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    In the behavior dynamics model, behavior competition leads to the shock problem of the intelligent vehicle navigation path, because of the simultaneous occurrence of the time-variant target behavior and obstacle avoidance behavior. Considering the safety and real-time of intelligent vehicle, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed to solve these problems for the optimization of weight coefficients of the heading angle and the path velocity. Firstly, according to the behavior dynamics model, the fitness function is defined concerning the intelligent vehicle driving characteristics, the distance between intelligent vehicle and obstacle, and distance of intelligent vehicle and target. Secondly, behavior coordination parameters that minimize the fitness function are obtained by particle swarm optimization algorithms. Finally, the simulation results show that the optimization method and its fitness function can improve the perturbations of the vehicle planning path and real-time and reliability.

  18. The Study of Intelligent Vehicle Navigation Path Based on Behavior Coordination of Particle Swarm

    PubMed Central

    Han, Gaining; Fu, Weiping; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    In the behavior dynamics model, behavior competition leads to the shock problem of the intelligent vehicle navigation path, because of the simultaneous occurrence of the time-variant target behavior and obstacle avoidance behavior. Considering the safety and real-time of intelligent vehicle, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed to solve these problems for the optimization of weight coefficients of the heading angle and the path velocity. Firstly, according to the behavior dynamics model, the fitness function is defined concerning the intelligent vehicle driving characteristics, the distance between intelligent vehicle and obstacle, and distance of intelligent vehicle and target. Secondly, behavior coordination parameters that minimize the fitness function are obtained by particle swarm optimization algorithms. Finally, the simulation results show that the optimization method and its fitness function can improve the perturbations of the vehicle planning path and real-time and reliability. PMID:26880881

  19. Coordination of Breast Cancer Care Between Radiation Oncologists and Surgeons: A Survey Study

    SciTech Connect

    Jagsi, Reshma; Abrahamse, Paul; Morrow, Monica; Hamilton, Ann S.; Katz, Steven J.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To assess whether radiation oncologists and surgeons differ in their attitudes regarding the local management of breast cancer, and to examine coordination of care between these specialists. Methods and Materials: We surveyed attending surgeons and radiation oncologists who treated a population-based sample of patients diagnosed with breast cancer in metropolitan Detroit and Los Angeles. We identified 419 surgeons, of whom 318 (76%) responded, and 160 radiation oncologists, of whom 117 (73%) responded. We assessed demographic, professional, and practice characteristics; challenges to coordinated care; and attitudes toward management in three scenarios. Results: 92.1% of surgeons and 94.8% of radiation oncologists indicated access to a multidisciplinary tumor board. Nevertheless, the most commonly identified challenge to radiation oncologists, cited by 27.9%, was failure of other providers to include them in the treatment decision process early enough. Nearly half the surgeons (49.7%) stated that few or almost none of the breast cancer patients they saw in the past 12 months had consulted with a radiation oncologist before undergoing definitive surgery. Surgeons and radiation oncologists differed in their recommendations in management scenarios. Radiation oncologists were more likely to favor radiation than were surgeons for a patient with 3/20 lymph nodes undergoing mastectomy (p = 0.03); surgeons were more likely to favor more widely clear margins after breast conservation than were radiation oncologists (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Despite the widespread availability of tumor boards, a substantial minority of radiation oncologists indicated other providers failed to include them in the breast cancer treatment decision-making process early enough. Earlier inclusion of radiation oncologists may influence patient decisions, and interventions to facilitate this should be considered.

  20. X-ray Emission Spectroscopy to Study Ligand Valence Orbitals in Mn Coordination Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Smolentsev, Grigory; Soldatov, Alexander V; Messinger, Johannes; Merz, Kathrin; Weyhermuller, Thomas; Bergmann, Uwe; Pushkar, Yulia; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Glatzel, Pieter

    2009-03-02

    We discuss a spectroscopic method to determine the character of chemical bonding and for the identification of metal ligands in coordination and bioinorganic chemistry. It is based on the analysis of satellite lines in X-ray emission spectra that arise from transitions between valence orbitals and the metal ion 1s level (valence-to-core XES). The spectra, in connection with calculations based on density functional theory (DFT), provide information that is complementary to other spectroscopic techniques, in particular X-ray absorption (XANES and EXAFS). The spectral shape is sensitive to protonation of ligands and allows ligands, which differ only slightly in atomic number (e.g., C, N, O...), to be distinguished. A theoretical discussion of the main spectral features is presented in terms of molecular orbitals for a series of Mn model systems: [Mn(H2O)6]2+, [Mn(H2O)5OH]+, [Mn(H2O)5NH2]+, and [Mn(H2O)5NH3]2+. An application of the method, with comparison between theory and experiment, is presented for the solvated Mn2+ ion in water and three Mn coordination complexes, namely [LMn(acac)N3]BPh4, [LMn(B2O3Ph2)(ClO4)], and [LMn(acac)N]BPh4, where L represents 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane, acac stands for the 2,4-pentanedionate anion, and B2O3Ph2 represents the 1,3-diphenyl-1,3-dibora-2-oxapropane-1,3-diolato dianion.

  1. COORDINATED AV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLEAVES, PAUL C.; AND OTHERS

    THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER IS LOCATED IN THE LOCAL HIGH SCHOOL AND SUPPLIES ALL SCHOOLS IN THE AREA. AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT ORDERS, AFTER SELECTIONS ARE MADE BY THE CLASSROOM TEACHER, ARE PROCESSED BY THE CENTER, CONFIRMED AND DELIVERED BY TRUCK THREE TIMES EACH WEEK. EACH SCHOOL HAS A BUILDING COORDINATOR WHO CHECKS THE ORDERS INTO THE…

  2. Degradation of Binocular Coordination during Sleep Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jianliang; Maruta, Jun; Heaton, Kristin J; Maule, Alexis L; Rajashekar, Umesh; Spielman, Lisa A; Ghajar, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    To aid a clear and unified visual perception while tracking a moving target, both eyes must be coordinated, so the image of the target falls on approximately corresponding areas of the fovea of each eye. The movements of the two eyes are decoupled during sleep, suggesting a role of arousal in regulating binocular coordination. While the absence of visual input during sleep may also contribute to binocular decoupling, sleepiness is a state of reduced arousal that still allows for visual input, providing a context within which the role of arousal in binocular coordination can be studied. We examined the effects of sleep deprivation on binocular coordination using a test paradigm that we previously showed to be sensitive to sleep deprivation. We quantified binocular coordination with the SD of the distance between left and right gaze positions on the screen. We also quantified the stability of conjugate gaze on the target, i.e., gaze-target synchronization, with the SD of the distance between the binocular average gaze and the target. Sleep deprivation degraded the stability of both binocular coordination and gaze-target synchronization, but between these two forms of gaze control the horizontal and vertical components were affected differently, suggesting that disconjugate and conjugate eye movements are under different regulation of attentional arousal. The prominent association found between sleep deprivation and degradation of binocular coordination in the horizontal direction may be used for a fit-for-duty assessment. PMID:27379009

  3. Degradation of Binocular Coordination during Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Jianliang; Maruta, Jun; Heaton, Kristin J.; Maule, Alexis L.; Rajashekar, Umesh; Spielman, Lisa A.; Ghajar, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    To aid a clear and unified visual perception while tracking a moving target, both eyes must be coordinated, so the image of the target falls on approximately corresponding areas of the fovea of each eye. The movements of the two eyes are decoupled during sleep, suggesting a role of arousal in regulating binocular coordination. While the absence of visual input during sleep may also contribute to binocular decoupling, sleepiness is a state of reduced arousal that still allows for visual input, providing a context within which the role of arousal in binocular coordination can be studied. We examined the effects of sleep deprivation on binocular coordination using a test paradigm that we previously showed to be sensitive to sleep deprivation. We quantified binocular coordination with the SD of the distance between left and right gaze positions on the screen. We also quantified the stability of conjugate gaze on the target, i.e., gaze–target synchronization, with the SD of the distance between the binocular average gaze and the target. Sleep deprivation degraded the stability of both binocular coordination and gaze–target synchronization, but between these two forms of gaze control the horizontal and vertical components were affected differently, suggesting that disconjugate and conjugate eye movements are under different regulation of attentional arousal. The prominent association found between sleep deprivation and degradation of binocular coordination in the horizontal direction may be used for a fit-for-duty assessment. PMID:27379009

  4. Degradation of Binocular Coordination during Sleep Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jianliang; Maruta, Jun; Heaton, Kristin J; Maule, Alexis L; Rajashekar, Umesh; Spielman, Lisa A; Ghajar, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    To aid a clear and unified visual perception while tracking a moving target, both eyes must be coordinated, so the image of the target falls on approximately corresponding areas of the fovea of each eye. The movements of the two eyes are decoupled during sleep, suggesting a role of arousal in regulating binocular coordination. While the absence of visual input during sleep may also contribute to binocular decoupling, sleepiness is a state of reduced arousal that still allows for visual input, providing a context within which the role of arousal in binocular coordination can be studied. We examined the effects of sleep deprivation on binocular coordination using a test paradigm that we previously showed to be sensitive to sleep deprivation. We quantified binocular coordination with the SD of the distance between left and right gaze positions on the screen. We also quantified the stability of conjugate gaze on the target, i.e., gaze-target synchronization, with the SD of the distance between the binocular average gaze and the target. Sleep deprivation degraded the stability of both binocular coordination and gaze-target synchronization, but between these two forms of gaze control the horizontal and vertical components were affected differently, suggesting that disconjugate and conjugate eye movements are under different regulation of attentional arousal. The prominent association found between sleep deprivation and degradation of binocular coordination in the horizontal direction may be used for a fit-for-duty assessment.

  5. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, Zsofia K.; Thom, Peter; Robson, Mark E.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Kauff, Noah D.; Hurley, Karen E.; Devlin, Vincent; Gold, Bert; Klein, Robert J.; Offit, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the inherited risk for cancer is an important component of preventive oncology. In addition to well-established syndromes of cancer predisposition, much remains to be discovered about the genetic variation underlying susceptibility to common malignancies. Increased knowledge about the human genome and advances in genotyping technology have made possible genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of human diseases. These studies have identified many important regions of genetic variation associated with an increased risk for human traits and diseases including cancer. Understanding the principles, major findings, and limitations of GWAS is becoming increasingly important for oncologists as dissemination of genomic risk tests directly to consumers is already occurring through commercial companies. GWAS have contributed to our understanding of the genetic basis of cancer and will shed light on biologic pathways and possible new strategies for targeted prevention. To date, however, the clinical utility of GWAS-derived risk markers remains limited. PMID:20585100

  6. A friend in need is a friend indeed: understanding stress-associated transcriptional networks of plant metabolism using cliques of coordinately expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Avin-Wittenberg, Tamar; Tzin, Vered; Less, Hadar; Angelovici, Ruthie; Galili, Gad

    2011-09-01

    The response of plants to environmental cues, particularly stresses, involves the coordinated induction or repression of gene expression. In a previous study, we developed a bioinformatics approach to analyze the mutual expression pattern of genes encoding transcription factors and metabolic enzymes upon exposure of Arabidopsis plants to abiotic and biotic stresses. The analysis resulted in three gene clusters, each displaying a unique expression pattern. In the present addendum, we address the composition of each of these three clusters in regard to the functional identity of their encoded proteins as enzymes or transcription factors.

  7. Coordinated field study for CaPE: Analysis of energy and water budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Duchon, Claude; Kanemasu, Edward T.; Smith, Eric A.; Crosson, William; Laymon, Chip; Luvall, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this hydrologic cycle study are to understand and model (1) surface energy and land-atmosphere water transfer processes, and (2) interactions between convective storms and surface energy fluxes. A surface energy budget measurement campaign was carried out by an interdisciplinary science team during the period July 8 - August 19, 1991 as part of the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment (CaPE) in the vicinity of Cape Canaveral, FL. Among the research themes associated with CaPE is the remote estimation of rainfall. Thus, in addition to surface radiation and energy budget measurements, surface mesonet, special radiosonde, precipitation, high-resolution satellite (SPOT) data, geosynchronous (GOES) and polar orbiting (DMSP SSM/I, OLS; NOAA AVHRR) satellite data, and high altitude airplane data (AMPR, MAMS, HIS) were collected. Initial quality control of the seven surface flux station data sets has begun. Ancillary data sets are being collected and assembled for analysis. Browsing of GOES and radar data has begun to classify days as disturbed/undisturbed to identify the larger scale forcing of the pre-convective environment, convection storms and precipitation. The science analysis plan has been finalized and tasks assigned to various investigators.

  8. A controlled study of associated dental anomalies.

    PubMed

    Baccetti, T

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal patterns of association among seven types of dental anomalies (aplasia of second premolars, small size of maxillary lateral incisors, infraocclusion of primary molars, enamel hypoplasia, ectopic eruption of first molars, supernumerary teeth, and palatal displacement of maxillary canines) in an untreated orthodontic population, ages 7 to 14. The prevalence of associated tooth anomalies in seven groups of 100 subjects selected according to one primarily diagnosed dental anomaly was compared with the prevalence of the examined dental anomalies in a control group of 1,000 subjects. Significant reciprocal associations (p < 0.005) were found among five of the anomalies (aplasia of second premolars, small size of maxillary lateral incisors, infraocclusion of primary molars, enamel hypoplasia, and palatal displacement of maxillary canines), suggesting a common genetic origin for these conditions. Supernumerary teeth appeared to be a separate etiological entity with respect to all other examined tooth anomalies. The existence of associations between different tooth anomalies is clinically relevant, as the early diagnosis of one anomaly may indicate an increased risk for others. PMID:9622764

  9. Magnetic Coordinate Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laundal, K. M.; Richmond, A. D.

    2016-07-01

    Geospace phenomena such as the aurora, plasma motion, ionospheric currents and associated magnetic field disturbances are highly organized by Earth's main magnetic field. This is due to the fact that the charged particles that comprise space plasma can move almost freely along magnetic field lines, but not across them. For this reason it is sensible to present such phenomena relative to Earth's magnetic field. A large variety of magnetic coordinate systems exist, designed for different purposes and regions, ranging from the magnetopause to the ionosphere. In this paper we review the most common magnetic coordinate systems and describe how they are defined, where they are used, and how to convert between them. The definitions are presented based on the spherical harmonic expansion coefficients of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and, in some of the coordinate systems, the position of the Sun which we show how to calculate from the time and date. The most detailed coordinate systems take the full IGRF into account and define magnetic latitude and longitude such that they are constant along field lines. These coordinate systems, which are useful at ionospheric altitudes, are non-orthogonal. We show how to handle vectors and vector calculus in such coordinates, and discuss how systematic errors may appear if this is not done correctly.

  10. Effect of Siloxane Ring Strain and Cation Charge Density on the Formation of Coordinately Unsaturated Metal Sites on Silica: Insights from DFT Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Ujjal; Zhang, Guanghui; Hu, Bo; Hock, Adam S.; Redfern, Paul C.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2015-12-01

    Amorphous silica (SiO2) is commonly used as a support in heterogeneous catalysis. However, due to the structural disorder and temperature induced change of surface morphology, the structures of silica supported metal catalysts are difficult to determine. Most studies are primarily focused on understanding the interactions of different types of surface hydroxyl groups with metal ions. In comparison, the effect of siloxane ring size on the structure of silica supported metal catalysts and how it affects catalytic activity is poorly understood. Here, we have used density functional theory calculations to understand the effect of siloxane ring strain on structure and activity of different monomeric Lewis acid metal sites on silica. In particular, we have found that large siloxane rings favor strong dative bonding interaction between metal ion and surface hydroxyls, leading to the formation of high-coordinate metal sites. In comparison, metal-silanol interaction is weak in small siloxane rings, resulting in low-coordinate metal sites. The physical origin of this size dependence is associated with siloxane ring strain, and, a correlation between metal-silanol interaction energy and ring strain energy has been observed. In addition to ring strain, the strength of the metal-silanol interaction also depends on the positive charge density of the cations. In fact, a correlation also exists between metal-silanol interaction energy and charge density of several first-row transition and post-transition metals. The theoretical results are compared with the EXAFS data of monomeric Zn(II) and Ga(III) ions grafted on silica. The molecular level insights of how metal ion coordination on silica depends on siloxane ring strain and cation charge density will be useful in the synthesis of new catalysts.

  11. Self-assembled via axial coordination magnesium porphyrin-imidazole appended fullerene dyad: spectroscopic, electrochemical, computational, and photochemical studies.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Francis; El-Khouly, Mohamed E; Gadde, Suresh; McCarty, Amy L; Karr, Paul A; Zandler, Melvin E; Araki, Yasuyaki; Ito, Osamu

    2005-05-26

    Spectroscopic, redox, and electron transfer reactions of a self-assembled donor-acceptor dyad formed by axial coordination of magnesium meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (MgTPP) and fulleropyrrolidine appended with an imidazole coordinating ligand (C(60)Im) were investigated. Spectroscopic studies revealed the formation of a 1:1 C(60)Im:MgTPP supramolecular complex, and the anticipated 1:2 complex could not be observed because of the needed large amounts of the axial coordinating ligand. The formation constant, K(1), for the 1:1 complex was found to be (1.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(4) M(-1), suggesting fairly stable complex formation. The geometric and electronic structures of the dyads were probed by ab initio B3LYP/3-21G() methods. The majority of the highest occupied frontier molecular orbital (HOMO) was found to be located on the MgTPP entity, while the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) was on the fullerene entity, suggesting that the charge-separated state of the supramolecular complex is C(60)Im(*-):MgTPP(*+). Redox titrations involving MgTPP and C(60)Im allowed accurate determination of the oxidation and reduction potentials of the donor and acceptor entities in the supramolecular complex. These studies revealed more difficult oxidation, by about 100 mV, for MgTPP in the pentacoordinated C(60)Im:MgTPP compared to pristine MgTPP in o-dichlorobenzene. A total of six one-electron redox processes corresponding to the oxidation and reduction of the zinc porphyrin ring and the reduction of fullerene entities was observed within the accessible potential window of the solvent. The excited state events were monitored by both steady state and time-resolved emission as well as transient absorption techniques. In o-dichlorobenzene, upon coordination of C(60)Im to MgTPP, the main quenching pathway involved electron transfer from the singlet excited MgTPP to the C(60)Im moiety. The rate of forward electron transfer, k(CS), calculated from the picosecond time-resolved emission

  12. Neutron diffraction studies of a four-coordinated hydride in near square-planar geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Jian -Hong; Dhayal, Rajendra Singh; Wang, Xiaoping; Kahlal, Samia; Saillard, Jean -Yves; Liu, C. W.

    2014-10-07

    The structure of a nanospheric polyhydrido copper cluster, [Cu20(H)11{S2P(OiPr)2}9], was determined by single-crystal neutron diffraction. Cu20 cluster consists of an elongated triangular orthobicupola constructed from 18 Cu atoms that encapsulate a [Cu2H5}3- ion in the center with an exceptionally short Cu-Cu distance. The eleven hydrides in the cluster display three different coordination modes to the Cu atoms: Six μ3-hydrides in pyramidal geometry, two μ4-hydrides in tetrahedral cavity, and three μ4-hydrides in an unprecedented near square-planar geometry. The neutron data set was collected on a small crystal of the size 0.20 mm x 0.50 mm x 0.65 mm for seven days using the Spallation Neutron Source TOPAZ single-crystal time-of-flight Laue diffractometer at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Furthermore, the final R-factor is 8.64% for 16014 reflections.

  13. Neutron diffraction studies of a four-coordinated hydride in near square-planar geometry

    DOE PAGES

    Liao, Jian -Hong; Dhayal, Rajendra Singh; Wang, Xiaoping; Kahlal, Samia; Saillard, Jean -Yves; Liu, C. W.

    2014-10-07

    The structure of a nanospheric polyhydrido copper cluster, [Cu20(H)11{S2P(OiPr)2}9], was determined by single-crystal neutron diffraction. Cu20 cluster consists of an elongated triangular orthobicupola constructed from 18 Cu atoms that encapsulate a [Cu2H5}3- ion in the center with an exceptionally short Cu-Cu distance. The eleven hydrides in the cluster display three different coordination modes to the Cu atoms: Six μ3-hydrides in pyramidal geometry, two μ4-hydrides in tetrahedral cavity, and three μ4-hydrides in an unprecedented near square-planar geometry. The neutron data set was collected on a small crystal of the size 0.20 mm x 0.50 mm x 0.65 mm for seven daysmore » using the Spallation Neutron Source TOPAZ single-crystal time-of-flight Laue diffractometer at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Furthermore, the final R-factor is 8.64% for 16014 reflections.« less

  14. Development of a Coordinated National Soil Moisture Network: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiring, S. M.; Lucido, J. M.; Winslow, L.; Ford, T.; Bijoy Baruah, P.; Verdin, J. P.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Strobel, M.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is critical for accurate drought assessment and forecasting, identifying flood potential, climate modeling, estimation of crop yields and water budgeting. However, soil moisture data are collected by many agencies and organizations in the United States using a variety of instruments and methods for varying applications. These data are often distributed and represented in disparate formats, posing significant challenges for reuse. Recognizing this need, the President's Climate Action Plan called for the creation of a coordinated national soil moisture network. In response, a team led by the National Integrated Drought Information System has completed a proof-of-concept pilot project. The pilot comprises both in-situ and assimilated soil moisture datasets. It focuses on providing real-time soil moisture data via standard web services to feed map-based visualization tools in order to meet the following use cases: operational drought monitoring, experimental land surface modeling, and operational hydrological modeling. The result of this pilot is a reference architecture that will inform the implementation of the national network.

  15. Deuterium NMR study of amino acid coordination to chromium(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Green, C.A.; Place, H.; Willett, R.D.; Legg, J.I.

    1986-12-17

    A series of bis(ethylenediamine)Cr(III)-amino acid complexes, synthesized with deuterium-labeled alanine, glycine, homoserine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, serine, and threonine, was characterized by /sup 2/H NMR spectroscopy. The spectra show that these bidentate-coordinated amino acid complexes decompose via monodentate species. In addition, the diastereomeric isomers of alanine and leucine can be distinguished in the spectra. This was confirmed by the isolation of one of the L-leucine isomers. The bis(1,3-propanediamine)Cr(III) complexes of glycine and alanine were also synthesized, and the NMR spectra of these complexes and ..cap alpha..-cis-(Cr(ethylenediaminediacetate)(glycinate)) show changes due to variation in the ligand complement. The crystal structure of ..cap alpha..-cis(Cr(ethylenediaminediacetate)(glycinate)) x 2H/sub 2/O (CrO/sub 6/N/sub 3/C/sub 8/H/sub 14/ x 2H/sub 2/O) was determined and supports the NMR observations. This complex crystallizes in the space group P2/sub 1//c of the monoclinic crystal system with a = 8.9231 (19) A, b = 10.1889 (22) A, c = 15.4180 (30) A, ..beta.. = 102.657 (17)/sup 0/, and Z = 4. An improved method for the synthesis of bis(diamine)Cr(III)-amino acid complexes is also reported. 24 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

  16. Neutron diffraction studies of a four-coordinated hydride in near square-planar geometry.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jian-Hong; Dhayal, Rajendra Singh; Wang, Xiaoping; Kahlal, Samia; Saillard, Jean-Yves; Liu, C W

    2014-10-20

    The structure of a nanospheric polyhydrido copper cluster, [Cu20(H)11{S2P(O(i)Pr)2}9], was determined by single-crystal neutron diffraction. The Cu20 cluster consists of an elongated triangular orthobicupola constructed from 18 Cu atoms that encapsulate a [Cu2H5](3-) ion with an exceptionally short Cu-Cu distance. The 11 hydrides in the cluster display three different coordination modes to the Cu atoms: six μ3-hydrides in a pyramidal geometry, two μ4-hydrides in a tetrahedral cavity, and three μ4-hydrides in an unprecedented near square-planar geometry. The neutron data set was collected for 7 days on a small crystal with dimensions of 0.20 mm × 0.50 mm × 0.65 mm using the Spallation Neutron Source TOPAZ single-crystal time-of-flight Laue diffractometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The final R-factor was 8.63% for 16,014 reflections. PMID:25290745

  17. A coordinated X-ray and EUV study of the Jovian aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Ralph; Kimura, Tomoki; Elsner, Ronald; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Gladstone, Randall; Badman, Sarah; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Murakami, Go; Murray, Stephen; Rodiger, Elke; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Yoshioka, Kazuo

    2015-04-01

    We present results from a coordinated Hisaki/Chandra/XMM-Newton observational campaign of the Jovian aurora and Io plasma torus taken over a three week period in April, 2014. Jupiter was observed continuously with Hisaki, six times with the Chandra/HRC instrument and twice by XMM-Newton for roughly 12 hours per observation. The goal of this campaign was to understand how energy and matter are exchanged between the Jovian aurora, the IPT, and the Solar wind. X-ray observations provide key diagnostics on highly stripped ions and keV electrons in the Jovian magnetosphere. We use the temporal, spatial, and spectral capabilities of the three instruments to search for correlated variability between the Solar wind, the EUV-emitting plasma of the IPT and UV aurora, and the ions responsible for the X-ray aurora. Preliminary analysis suggests a strong 45 min periodicity in the EUV emission from the electron aurora. There is some evidence for complex variability of the X-ray auroras on scales of tens of minutes. There is also clear morphological changes in the X-ray aurora that do not appear to be correlated with either variations in the IPT or Solar wind.

  18. Electronic, optical, and computational studies of a redox-active napthalenediimide-based coordination polymer.

    PubMed

    Leong, Chanel F; Chan, Bun; Faust, Thomas B; Turner, Peter; D'Alessandro, Deanna M

    2013-12-16

    The new one-dimensional coordination framework (Zn(DMF)NO3)2(NDC)(DPMNI), where NDC = 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate and DPMNI = N,N'-bis(4-pyridylmethyl)-1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxydiimide, which has been crystallographically characterized, exhibits two redox-accessible states due to the successive reduction of the naphthalenediimide (NDI) ligand core. Solid-state electrochemical and vis-near-IR spectroelectrochemical measurements coupled with density functional theory (DFT) calculations enabled the origins of the optical transitions in the spectra of the monoradical anion and dianion states of the material to be assigned. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy revealed that the paramagnetic radical anion state of the DPMNI core could be accessed upon broad-spectrum white light irradiation of the material, revealing a long-lived excited state, possibly stabilized by charge delocalization which arises from extensive π-π* stacking interactions between alternating NDC and NDI aromatic cores which are separated by a distance of 3.580(2) Å. PMID:24283401

  19. Microorganisms associated particulate matter: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Mansour A; Shamy, Magdy; Redal, Maria Ana; Khoder, Mamdouh; Awad, Abdel Hameed; Elserougy, Safaa

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to determine the microbiological quality of particulate matter (PM) in an urban area in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, during December 2012 to April 2013. This was achieved by the determination of airborne bacteria, fungi, and actinobacteria associated PM10 and PM2.5, as well as their relationships with gaseous pollutants, O3, SO2 and NO2, and meteorological factors (T°C, RH% and Ws). High volume samplers with PM10 and PM2.5 selective sizes, and glass fiber filters were used to collect PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. The filters were suspended in buffer phosphate and aliquots were spread plated onto the surfaces of trypticase soy agar, malt extract agar, and starch casein agar media for counting of bacteria, fungi and actinobacteria-associated PM, respectively. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations averaged 159.9 μg/m(3) and 60 μg/m(3), respectively, with the ratio of PM2.5/PM10 averaged ~0.4. The concentrations of O3, SO2 and NO2 averaged 35.73 μg/m(3), 38.1μg/m(3) and 52.5 μg/m(3), respectively. Fungi and actinobacteria associated PM were found in lower concentrations than bacteria. The sum of microbial loads was higher in PM10 than PM2.5, however a significant correlation (r=0.57, P ≤ 0.05) was found between the sum of microbial loads associated PM10 and PM2.5. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger were the common fungal types associated PM. Temperature significantly correlated with both PM10 (r=0.44), and PM2.5 (r=0.5). Significant negative correlations were found between O3 and PM2.5 (r=-0.47), and between SO2 with PM10 (r=-0.48). Wind speed positively correlated with airborne microorganisms associated PM. The regression model showed that the inverse PM2.5 concentration (1/PM2.5) was a significant determinant of fungal count associated PM. Chemical processes and environmental factors could affect properties of PM and in turn its biological quality.

  20. Coronal density and temperature structure from coordinated observations associated with the total solar eclipse of 1988 March 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guhathakurta, M.; Rottman, G. J.; Fisher, R. R.; Orrall, F. Q.; Altrock, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores and compares diagnostics for temperature and density within large-scale structures of the inner corona based on cospatial and cotemporal spectrophotometric observations made at the time of the total solar eclipse of 1988 March 17/18. In the analysis a determination of plasma temperature T can be derived unambiguously from the intensity ratios Fe XIV/XUV or Fe XIV/Fe X since all the emission lines come from the ionized state of Fe and the ratios are only weakly dependent on density. These temperatures and the densities found in well-defined large-scale coronal structures are discussed. The emission-line temperature is found to be high (local maxima) in the coronal structures with enhanced white-light emission and associated with new cycle high-latitude magnetic fields separated from the old cycle polar field of opposite polarity. Also the average of the ratio of scale-height temperature/temperature over the entire range of position angle is roughly unity although the ratio is higher than unity (1.3-1.6) in the three most prominent streamers.

  1. Participation in Physical Activity, Fitness, and Risk for Obesity in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-cultural Study.

    PubMed

    Cermak, S A; Katz, N; Weintraub, N; Steinhart, S; Raz-Silbiger, S; Munoz, M; Lifshitz, N

    2015-12-01

    Decreased physical activity has been linked to poor fitness and obesity, resulting in increased risk for health concerns. The objective is to study the relationships between children's motor coordination and their physical activity, sedentary behaviour, fitness and weight status in a cross-cultural study in the United States and Israel. Participants included 118 children 6-11 years of age: 53 children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and 65 typical children. The US sample included 31 DCD children and 44 typical children. The Israeli sample included 22 DCD children and 21 typical children. Participants were assessed on Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, strength test of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 and Six-minute Walk Test and wore an accelerometer. Parents completed physical activity questionnaires and demographic information. Body mass index was calculated based on height and weight. Testing took place in two sessions. Findings are that in both Israel and the United States, children with DCD demonstrated significantly reduced physical activity, increased sedentary behaviour, poorer fitness and increased overweight compared with typical children. No significant differences were found for country. With relevance to clinical practice, fitness and obesity are major concerns for children with DCD in both countries. Inclusion of occupational therapy in health promotion for this population is critical. Additional studies with testers blind to group, larger samples and other countries are recommended.

  2. Metal Ion Coordination Essential for Specific Molecular Interactions of Butea monosperma Lectin: ITC and MD Simulation Studies.

    PubMed

    Abhilash, J; Haridas, M

    2015-05-01

    Crystal structure of Butea monosperma seed lectin (BML) was analyzed and the metal ion geometry identified. In order to understand the role of metal ions for the structural stability and ligand binding, studies of demetallized protein were carried out. Binding of different ligands like GalNAc, lactose, and galactose onto native and demetallized protein was studied by isothermal titration calorimetry as well as molecular simulation methods. Molecular dynamics was applied to the structure after removing the coordinates of metal ions, to identify the effect of demetallization in silico. Docking studies of different sugar molecules as well as the fungal α-amylase was carried out and compared the interactions in the native and apo states. It was found that metal ions are important for the ligand binding with increased affinity. However, their absence did not make any alteration to the secondary structure. Though the metal ions were not coordinated to the loops contacting the α-amylase, the absence of metal ions reduced the protein-protein binding strength due to long-range changes in irregular structures of the lectin.

  3. Participation in Physical Activity, Fitness, and Risk for Obesity in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-cultural Study.

    PubMed

    Cermak, S A; Katz, N; Weintraub, N; Steinhart, S; Raz-Silbiger, S; Munoz, M; Lifshitz, N

    2015-12-01

    Decreased physical activity has been linked to poor fitness and obesity, resulting in increased risk for health concerns. The objective is to study the relationships between children's motor coordination and their physical activity, sedentary behaviour, fitness and weight status in a cross-cultural study in the United States and Israel. Participants included 118 children 6-11 years of age: 53 children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and 65 typical children. The US sample included 31 DCD children and 44 typical children. The Israeli sample included 22 DCD children and 21 typical children. Participants were assessed on Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, strength test of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 and Six-minute Walk Test and wore an accelerometer. Parents completed physical activity questionnaires and demographic information. Body mass index was calculated based on height and weight. Testing took place in two sessions. Findings are that in both Israel and the United States, children with DCD demonstrated significantly reduced physical activity, increased sedentary behaviour, poorer fitness and increased overweight compared with typical children. No significant differences were found for country. With relevance to clinical practice, fitness and obesity are major concerns for children with DCD in both countries. Inclusion of occupational therapy in health promotion for this population is critical. Additional studies with testers blind to group, larger samples and other countries are recommended. PMID:26123622

  4. Genome-wide association studies in neurology

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Meng-Shan; Jiang, Teng

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are a powerful tool for understanding the genetic underpinnings of human disease. In this article, we briefly review the role and findings of GWAS in common neurological diseases, including Stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, migraine, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, restless legs syndrome, intracranial aneurysm, human prion diseases and moyamoya disease. We then discuss the present and future implications of these findings with regards to disease prediction, uncovering basic biology, and the development of potential therapeutic agents. PMID:25568877

  5. Does an eye-hand coordination test have added value as part of talent identification in table tennis? A validity and reproducibility study.

    PubMed

    Faber, Irene R; Oosterveld, Frits G J; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the added value, i.e. discriminative and concurrent validity and reproducibility, of an eye-hand coordination test relevant to table tennis as part of talent identification. Forty-three table tennis players (7-12 years) from national (n = 13), regional (n = 11) and local training centres (n = 19) participated. During the eye-hand coordination test, children needed to throw a ball against a vertical positioned table tennis table with one hand and to catch the ball correctly with the other hand as frequently as possible in 30 seconds. Four different test versions were assessed varying the distance to the table (1 or 2 meter) and using a tennis or table tennis ball. 'Within session' reproducibility was estimated for the two attempts of the initial tests and ten youngsters were retested after 4 weeks to estimate 'between sessions' reproducibility. Validity analyses using age as covariate showed that players from the national and regional centres scored significantly higher than players from the local centre in all test versions (p<0.05). The tests at 1 meter demonstrated better discriminative ability than those at 2 meter. While all tests but one had a positive significant association with competition outcome, which were corrected for age influences, the version with a table tennis ball at 1 meter showed the highest association (r = 0.54; p = 0.001). Differences between the first and second attempts were comparable for all test versions (between -8 and +7 repetitions) with ICC's ranging from 0.72 to 0.87. The smallest differences were found for the test with a table tennis ball at 1 meter (between -3 and +3 repetitions). Best test version as part of talent identification appears to be the version with a table tennis ball at 1 meter regarding the psychometric characteristics evaluated. Longitudinal studies are necessary to evaluate the predictive value of this test.

  6. Consensus panel on a cochlear coordinate system applicable in histological, physiological and radiological studies of the human cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Verbist, Berit M; Skinner, Margaret W; Cohen, Lawrence T; Leake, Patricia A.; James, Chris; Boëx, Colette; Holden, Timothy A; Finley, Charles C; Roland, Peter S; Roland, J. Thomas; Haller, Matt; Patrick, Jim F; Jolly, Claude N; Faltys, Mike A; Briaire, Jeroen J; Frijns, Johan HM

    2010-01-01

    Hypothesis An objective cochlear framework, for evaluation of the cochlear anatomy and description of the position of an implanted cochlear implant electrode, would allow the direct comparison of measures performed within the various sub-disciplines involved in cochlear implant research. Background Research on the human cochlear anatomy in relation to tonotopy and cochlear implantation is conducted by specialists from numerous disciplines such as histologists, surgeons, physicists, engineers, audiologists and radiologists. To allow accurate comparisons between and combinations of previous and forthcoming scientific and clinical studies, cochlear structures and electrode positions must be specified in a consistent manner. Methods Researchers with backgrounds in the various fields of inner ear research as well as representatives of the different manufacturers of cochlear implants (Advanced Bionics Corp, Med-El, Cochlear Corp) were involved in consensus meetings held in Dallas, March 2005 and Asilomar, August 2005. Existing coordinate systems were evaluated and requisites for an objective cochlear framework were discussed. Results The consensus panel agreed upon a 3-dimensional, cylindrical coordinate system of the cochlea using the “Cochlear View” as a basis and choosing a z-axis through the modiolus. The zero reference angle was chosen at the centre of the round window, which has a close relationship to the basal end of the Organ of Corti. Conclusions Consensus was reached on an objective cochlear framework, allowing the outcomes of studies from different fields of research to be compared directly. PMID:20147866

  7. Experimental and theoretical studies on the coordination chemistry of the N1-hexyl substituted pyrimidines (uracil, 5-fluorouracil and cytosine).

    PubMed

    Barceló-Oliver, Miquel; Baquero, Beatriz Adriana; Bauzá, Antonio; García-Raso, Angel; Vich, Roberto; Mata, Ignasi; Molins, Elies; Terrón, Angel; Frontera, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    N(1)-Hexyl substituted pyrimidines were shown to present solubility properties closer to the real bases than the commonly used methyl and ethyl derivatives, yielding bi-layered structures in the solid state. The study of their coordination capabilities, mainly with Ag(I) and Hg(II), is presented in order to prove their reactivity. A series of coordination complexes, namely, [Hg(N(1)-hexyl-5-fluorouracilate)2]4·6H2O (1), (Ag(+))·[Ag(N(1)-hexyl-5-fluorouracilate)2](-) (2), [Ag(NO3)(N(1)-hexyluracil-κO(4))4] (3), [ZnBr2(N(1)-hexylcytosine)2] (4), [CdBr2(N(1)-hexylcytosine)2] (5), [HgBr2(N(1)-hexylcytosine)2] (6) and [CoBr2(N(1)-hexylcytosine)2] (7), have been synthesized in good yields and X-ray characterized. The presence of the hexyl chains and the fluorine atoms causes the formation of interesting 3D architectures in the solid state. Their structures have been further characterized by infrared spectra (IR) and elemental analyses. In addition, DFT-D3 calculations are used to study interesting noncovalent interactions observed in the solid state, like fluorine-fluorine, fluorine-π and hydrophobic interactions.

  8. Mechanistic studies of Hoveyda-Grubbs metathesis catalysts bearing S-, Br-, I-, and N-coordinating naphthalene ligands.

    PubMed

    Grudzień, Krzysztof; Żukowska, Karolina; Malińska, Maura; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Barbasiewicz, Michał

    2014-03-01

    Derivatives of the Hoveyda-Grubbs complex bearing S-, Br-, I-, and N-coordinating naphthalene ligands were synthesized and characterized with NMR and X-ray studies. Depending on the arrangement of the coordinating sites on the naphthalene core, the isomeric catalysts differ in activity in model metathesis reactions. In particular, complexes with the RuCH bond adjacent to the second aromatic ring of the ligand suffer from difficulties experienced on their preparation and initiation. The behavior most probably derives from steric hindrance around the double bond and repulsive intraligand interactions, which result in abnormal chemical shifts of benzylidene protons observed with (1) H NMR. Furthermore EXSY studies revealed that the halogen-chelated ruthenium complexes display an equilibrium, in which major cis-Cl2 structures are accompanied with small amounts of isomeric forms. In general, contents of the minor forms, measured at 80 °C, correlate with the observed activity trends of the catalysts, although some exceptions complicate the mechanistic picture. We assume that for the family of halogen-chelated metathesis catalysts the initiation mechanism starts with the cis-Cl2 ⇌trans-Cl2 isomerization, although further steps may become rate-limiting for selected systems.

  9. Coordination challenges for autonomous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B. J.; Barrett, A.

    2002-01-01

    While past flight projects involved a single spacecraft in isolation, over forty proposed future missions involve multiple coordinated spacecraft. This paper presents characteristics of such missions in terms of properties of the phenomena being measured as well as the rationale for using multiple spacecraft. We describe the coordination problems associated with operating these missions and identify needed technologies.

  10. Does Informatics Enable or Inhibit the Delivery of Patient-centred, Coordinated, and Quality-assured Care: a Delphi Study

    PubMed Central

    Liyanage, H.; Correa, A.; Liaw, S-T.; Kuziemsky, C.; Terry, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Primary care delivers patient-centred and coordinated care, which should be quality-assured. Much of family practice now routinely uses computerised medical record (CMR) systems, these systems being linked at varying levels to laboratories and other care providers. CMR systems have the potential to support care. Objective To achieve a consensus among an international panel of health care professionals and informatics experts about the role of informatics in the delivery of patient-centred, coordinated, and quality-assured care. Method The consensus building exercise involved 20 individuals, five general practitioners and 15 informatics academics, members of the International Medical Informatics Association Primary Care Informatics Working Group. A thematic analysis of the literature was carried out according to the defined themes. Results The first round of the analysis developed 27 statements on how the CMR, or any other information system, including paper-based medical records, supports care delivery. Round 2 aimed at achieving a consensus about the statements of round one. Round 3 stated that there was an agreement on informatics principles and structures that should be put in place. However, there was a disagreement about the processes involved in the implementation, and about the clinical interaction with the systems after the implementation. Conclusions The panel had a strong agreement about the core concepts and structures that should be put in place to support high quality care. However, this agreement evaporated over statements related to implementation. These findings reflect literature and personal experiences: whilst there is consensus about how informatics structures and processes support good quality care, implementation is difficult. PMID:26123905

  11. Mechanical Operation and Intersubunit Coordination of Ring-Shaped Molecular Motors: Insights from Single-Molecule Studies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shixin; Chistol, Gheorghe; Bustamante, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Ring NTPases represent a large and diverse group of proteins that couple their nucleotide hydrolysis activity to a mechanical task involving force generation and some type of transport process in the cell. Because of their shape, these enzymes often operate as gates that separate distinct cellular compartments to control and regulate the passage of chemical species across them. In this manner, ions and small molecules are moved across membranes, biopolymer substrates are segregated between cells or moved into confined spaces, double-stranded nucleic acids are separated into single strands to provide access to the genetic information, and polypeptides are unfolded and processed for recycling. Here we review the recent advances in the characterization of these motors using single-molecule manipulation and detection approaches. We describe the various mechanisms by which ring motors convert chemical energy to mechanical force or torque and coordinate the activities of individual subunits that constitute the ring. We also examine how single-molecule studies have contributed to a better understanding of the structural elements involved in motor-substrate interaction, mechanochemical coupling, and intersubunit coordination. Finally, we discuss how these molecular motors tailor their operation—often through regulation by other cofactors—to suit their unique biological functions. PMID:24806916

  12. Arm-leg coordination in flat breaststroke: a comparative study between elite and non-elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, H; Seifert, L; Baudry, L; Chollet, D

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the arm-leg coordination in flat breaststroke among four groups of swimmers (elite males, elite females and non-elite males, non-elite females) of two different competitive levels. Using a velocity-video system, both forward acceleration and deceleration phases of the hip were first identified. Based on these phases, four temporal gaps indicated the time duration between arm and leg actions throughout three race paces (200, 100, and 50 m). For both groups, a velocity increase was combined with an increase of stroke rate, a decrease of stroke length, and an increase of the propulsive phases and a decrease of the glide phases. However, when the relative duration of one stroke cycle was considered, the elite swimmers had significant shorter time of the glide phase than lower competitive level swimmers (18.80 % vs. 31.04 % for females and 11.89 % vs. 19.60 % for males) combined with a longer stroke length (respectively 2.05 m vs. 1.73 m and 2.03 m vs. 1.82 m). Furthermore, the temporal gaps of the elite swimmers showed a greater continuity in the arm and leg actions, which indicates a better timing than non-elite swimmers. It was concluded that elite breaststroke swimmers are able to optimise their propulsion by reducing their glide phase and using a more continuous timing between arm and leg coordination. PMID:16237626

  13. Structural and spectral properties of a zinc(II) coordination polymer: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jin-Ming; Li, Guang-Yue; Li, Yue-Hua; Cui, Guang Hua

    2014-10-15

    A novel 1D zinc(II) coordination polymer [Zn(bbbm)Cl2]n (where bbbm=1,4-bis(N-benzimidazolyl)butane) was synthetized by ZnCl2 and bbbm ligand under hydrothermal conditions, and its structural and spectral properties were studied by both experimental and theoretical techniques. The center zinc(II) ion displays four-coordinated in a tetrahedral geometry by two chloride anions and two N atoms of distinct bbbm ligands. Adjacent chains are further connected into a 2D layer structure through π-π stacking interactions. Vibrational frequencies of [Zn(bbbm)Cl2]n have been calculated using DFT/B3LYP/TZVP method, and well reproduced IR data. Furthermore, the vertical excitation energies from time-dependent DFT calculation confirmed that the fluorescent peaks at 385nm and 450nm could respectively be assigned to the π→π(*) transition within the bbbm ligands and π→n transition from chloride anion to bbbm ligand.

  14. Quantum Field Theory in Coordinate Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, Ahmet Ozan

    In order to provide a new coordinate-space perspective applicable to scattering amplitudes, in the first part of this dissertation, the structure of singularities in perturbative massless gauge theories is investigated in coordinate space. The pinch singularities in coordinate-space integrals occur at configurations of vertices which have a direct interpretation in terms of physical scattering of particles in real space-time in the same way as for the loop momenta in the case of momentum-space singularities. In the analysis of vertex functions in coordinate space, the well-known factorization into hard, soft, and jet functions is found. By power-counting arguments, it is found that coordinate-space integrals of vertex functions have logarithmic divergences at worst. The `hard-collinear' and `soft-collinear' approximations that allow the application of gauge theory Ward identities in the formal proof of factorization in coordinate space are introduced. In the second part, the perturbative cusp and closed polygons of Wilson lines for massless gauge theories are analyzed in coordinate space, and expressed as exponentials of two-dimensional integrals. These integrals have geometric interpretations, which link renormalization scales with invariant distances. A direct perturbative prescription for the logarithm of the cusp and related cross sections treated in eikonal approximation is provided by web diagrams. The sources of their ultraviolet poles in coordinate space associated with their nonlocal collinear divergences are identified by the power-counting technique explained in the first part. In the study of the coordinate-space matrix elements that correspond to scattering amplitudes involving partons and Wilson lines in coordinate space, a series of subtractions is developed to eliminate their divergences and to show their factorization in coordinate space. The ultraviolet finiteness of the web integrand is shown by relating the web expansion to the application of

  15. Study of the technical feasibility of photogrammetry and coordinated measuring arms for the inspection of welded structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Lasheras, F.; Fernández, R. I.; Cuesta, E.; Álvarez, B. J.; Martínez, S.

    2012-04-01

    The present paper studies the technical feasibility of Photogrammetry and Coordinate Measuring Arms (AACMM or CMA) for the geometrical inspection of welded pins used for the assembly of medium-sized sheetmetal structures. As a result of this evaluation it was found that the deviations (measurement recorded by the device minus the nominal value of the measurement) obtained by means of Photogrammetry and the CMA were equivalent. Moreover, the number of measurements found to be out of tolerance by both methods was statistically equivalent. According to our results both methods are feasible for performing the dimensional inspection of the position of the welded cylinders of the structure as they are able to distinguish measurements inside and outside of tolerance and are equally capable of detecting the data variance.

  16. Systematic assessment of coordinated activity cliffs formed by kinase inhibitors and detailed characterization of activity cliff clusters and associated SAR information.

    PubMed

    Dimova, Dilyana; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-27

    From currently available kinase inhibitors and their activity data, clusters of coordinated activity cliffs were systematically derived and subjected to cluster index and index map analysis. Type I-like inhibitors with well-defined IC50 measurements were found to provide a large knowledge base of activity cliff clusters for 266 targets from nine kinase groups. On the basis of index map analysis, these clusters were systematically organized according to structural similarity of inhibitors and activity cliff diversity and prioritized for structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis. From prioritized clusters, interpretable SAR information can be extracted. It is also shown that activity cliff clusters formed by ATP site-directed inhibitors often represent local SAR environments of rather different complexity and interpretability. In addition, activity cliff clusters including promiscuous kinase inhibitors have been determined. Only a small subset of inhibitors was found to change activity cliff roles in different clusters. The activity cliff clusters described herein and their index map organization substantially enrich SAR information associated with kinase inhibitors in compound subsets of limited size. The cluster and index map information is made available upon request to provide opportunities for further SAR exploration. On the basis of our analysis and the data provided, activity cliff clusters and corresponding inhibitor series for kinase targets of interest can be readily selected.

  17. Physical organization of mixed protease inhibitor gene clusters, coordinated expression and association with resistance to late blight at the StKI locus on potato chromosome III.

    PubMed

    Odeny, Damaris Achieng; Stich, Benjamin; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2010-12-01

    Protease inhibitors (PIs) play a role in plant defence against pests and pathogens as well as in plant development. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) contains abundant levels of diverse PIs. Most potato Kunitz-type inhibitor (KTI) genes map to the StKI locus on potato chromosome III, which is linked to a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for resistance to Phytophthora infestans. To elucidate the physical organization of PIs at the StKI locus, we screened bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries with KTI probes. Ten different clones were selected, sequenced and annotated. Of 100 putative genes, 22 corresponded to five PI classes. Expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) using PI class-specific primers in different tissues of the tetraploid potato cultivars 'Nikita' and 'Baltica' revealed different transcript levels, depending on PI type and genotype. During the compatible interaction with a complex race of P. infestans, four PI classes showed coordinated expression over 3 d after infection, a strong decrease in infected leaves and a transient induction in systemic leaves. Basal transcript levels in non-infected leaves differed strongly between the two genotypes examined. Two microsatellite markers located within the PI gene cluster were associated with resistance to P. infestans in a population of potato varieties and breeding clones. PMID:20716067

  18. Studying Associations in Health Care Research.

    PubMed

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Flannelly, Laura T; Jankowski, Katherine R B

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses some of the types of relationships observed in healthcare research and depicts them in graphic form. The article begins by explaining two basic associations observed in chemistry and physics (Boyles' Law and Charles' Law), and illustrates how these associations are similar to curvilinear and linear associations, respectively, found in healthcare. Graphs of curvilinear associations include morbidity curves and survival and mortality curves. Several examples of linear relationships are given and methods of testing linear relationships with interval and ratio data are introduced (i.e., correlation and ordinary least-squares regression). In addition, 2 × 2 contingency tables for testing the association between categorical (or nominal) data are described. Finally, Sir Austin Bradford Hill's eight criteria for assessing causality from research on associations between variables are presented and explained. Three appendices provide interested readers with opportunities to practice interpreting selected curvilinear and linear relationships.

  19. Coordination: Southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report, 1 June 1984-31 December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, D.W.; Blanton, J.O.

    1986-01-03

    This overview and report of progress on the South Atlantic Bight Program includes discussions of: (1) dynamics of the coastal zone; (2) circulation studies; (3) biological transformations in the coastal boundary zone; (4) sediment geochemistry; and (5) continental shelf processes. (ACR)

  20. Coordinated Studies of Ultraviolet Radiation and Amphibians in Lentic Wetland Habitats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has been suggested as a potential cause of population declines and increases in malformations in amphibians. This study indicates that the present distributions of amphibians in four western U.S. National Parks are not related to UVR exposure, and sugg...

  1. A Feasibility Study for Consolidating and/or Coordinating Technical Procedures in Beaver County Pennsylvania Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, James W.

    In 1977 the Public Library Commission, in conjunction with the State Library of Pennsylvania, received a Library Services and Construction Act, Title III Grant to conduct a feasibility study of technical service operations in various types of libraries within Beaver County. Its objectives were to: (1) analyze existing library materials purchasing…

  2. Quantifying the Triangle of Coordination: A Case Study of Higher Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xioahui, Zuo; Pratt, John

    2006-01-01

    In 1983, Burton Clark published a study that was to become a classic work on the organisation and government of higher education systems (Clark 1983). He constructed three "ideal types" of system--state system, market system and professional system, and summarised the way that national systems of higher education are dependent on the forms of…

  3. Harnessing the flexibility of peptidic scaffolds to control their copper(II)-coordination properties: a potentiometric and spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Ana; Lamosa, Pedro; Delgado, Rita; Iranzo, Olga

    2013-02-01

    Designing small peptides that are capable of binding Cu(2+) ions mainly through the side-chain functionalities is a hard task because the amide nitrogen atoms strongly compete for Cu(2+) ion coordination. However, the design of such peptides is important for obtaining biomimetic small systems of metalloenyzmes as well as for the development of artificial systems. With this in mind, a cyclic decapeptide, C-Asp, which contained three His residues and one Asp residue, and its linear derivative, O-Asp, were synthesized. The C-Asp peptide has two Pro-Gly β-turn-inducer units and, as a result of cyclization, and as shown by CD spectroscopy, its backbone is constrained into a more defined conformation than O-Asp, which is linear and contains a single Pro-Gly unit. A detailed potentiometric, mass spectrometric, and spectroscopic study (UV/Vis, CD, and EPR spectroscopy) showed that at a 1:1 Cu(2+)/peptide ratio, both peptides formed a major [CuHL](2+) species in the pH range 5.0-7.5 (C-Asp) and 5.5-7.0 (O-Asp). The corrected stability constants of the protonated species (log K*(CuH(O-Asp))=9.28 and log K*(CuH(C-Asp))=10.79) indicate that the cyclic peptide binds Cu(2+) ions with higher affinity. In addition, the calculated value of K(eff) shows that this higher affinity for Cu(2+) ions prevails at all pH values, not only for a 1:1 ratio but even for a 2:1 ratio. The spectroscopic data of both [CuHL](2+) species are consistent with the exclusive coordination of Cu(2+) ions by the side-chain functionalities of the three His residues and the Asp residue in a square-planar or square-pyramidal geometry. Nonetheless, although these data show that, upon metal coordination, both peptides adopt a similar fold, the larger conformational constraints that are present in the cyclic scaffold results in different behaviour for both [CuHL](2+) species. CD and NMR analysis revealed the formation of a more rigid structure and a slower Cu(2+)-exchange rate for [CuH(C-Asp)](2+) compared

  4. Sharing Todays Resources--Meeting Tomorrows Needs. Papers, Workshop Reports and Associated Material Presented at the Seminar on Resources Coordination and Librarians' Groups: An Information Exchange Day (Sydney, Australia, July 26, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Marianne, Ed.

    This booklet brings together papers, reports, and associated material from the seminar on school library resource coordination and librarians' groups in New South Wales held at Summer Hill Public School in Sydney. The collection includes a general introduction to the scope and goals of the seminar; a list of seminar speakers; papers on cooperative…

  5. Petroleum potential of the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa Group in Illinois: A coordinated geological and geochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, J.E.; Oltz, D.F. ); Kruge, M.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The Ordovician Maquoketa Group in Illinois, predominantly composed of shale, calcareous shale, and carbonates, has long been considered a potential source for Illinois basin hydrocarbons. Methods used to better define the petroleum potential of the Maquoketa in the Illinois basin were lithostratigraphic study, Rock-Eval (pyrolysis) analyses, comparison of molecular markers from whole-rock extracts and produced oil, and construction of burial history models. Organic-rich submature Maquoketa potential source rocks are present in western Illinois at shallow depths on the basin flank. Deeper in the basin in southern Illinois, Rock-Eval analyses indicate that the Maquoketa shale is within the oil window. Solvent extracts of the Maquoketa from western Illinois closely resemble the Devonian New Albany Shale, suggesting that past studies may have erroneously attributed Maquoketa-generated petroleum to a New Albany source or failed to identify mixed source oils. Subtle differences between Maquoketa and New Albany solvent extracts include differences in pristane/phytane ratios, proportions of steroids, and distribution of dimethyldibenzothiophene isomers. Maquoketa solvent extracts show little resemblance to Middle Ordovician oils from the Illinois or Michigan basins. Lithostratigraphic studies identified localized thick carbonate facies in the Maquoketa, suggesting depositional response to upper Ordovician paleostructures. Sandstone facies in the Maquoketa in southwestern Illinois offer a potential source/trap play, as well as serving as potential carrier beds for hydrocarbon migration. Maquoketa source and carrier beds may feed older Ordovician rocks in faulted areas along and south of the Cottage Grove fault system in southern Illinois.

  6. Disentangling pooled triad genotypes for association studies.

    PubMed

    Shi, Min; Umbach, David M; Weinberg, Clarice R

    2014-09-01

    Association studies that genotype affected offspring and their parents (triads) offer robustness to genetic population structure while enabling assessments of maternal effects, parent-of-origin effects, and gene-by-environment interaction. We propose case-parents designs that use pooled DNA specimens to make economical use of limited available specimens. One can markedly reduce the number of genotyping assays required by randomly partitioning the case-parent triads into pooling sets of h triads each and creating three pools from every pooling set, one pool each for mothers, fathers, and offspring. Maximum-likelihood estimation of relative risk parameters proceeds via log-linear modeling using the expectation-maximization algorithm. The approach can assess offspring and maternal genetic effects and accommodate genotyping errors and missing genotypes. We compare the power of our proposed analysis for testing offspring and maternal genetic effects to that based on a difference approach and that of the gold standard based on individual genotypes, under a range of allele frequencies, missing parent proportions, and genotyping error rates. Power calculations show that the pooling strategies cause only modest reductions in power if genotyping errors are low, while reducing genotyping costs and conserving limited specimens.

  7. Supramolecular tetrad featuring covalently linked bis(porphyrin)-phthalocyanine coordinated to fullerene: construction and photochemical studies.

    PubMed

    K C, Chandra B; Lim, Gary N; Karr, Paul A; D'Souza, Francis

    2014-06-16

    A multimodular donor-acceptor tetrad featuring a bis(zinc porphyrin)-(zinc phthalocyanine) ((ZnP-ZnP)-ZnPc) triad and bis-pyridine-functionalized fullerene was assembled by a "two-point" binding strategy, and investigated as a charge-separating photosynthetic antenna-reaction center mimic. The spectral and computational studies suggested that the mode of binding of the bis-pyridine-functionalized fullerene involves either one of the zinc porphyrin and zinc phthalocyanine (Pc) entities of the triad or both zinc porphyrin entities leaving ZnPc unbound. The binding constant evaluated by constructing a Benesi-Hildebrand plot by using the optical data was found to be 1.17×10(5) M(-1), whereas a plot of "mole-ratio" method revealed a 1:1 stoichiometry for the supramolecular tetrad. The mode of binding was further supported by differential pulse voltammetry studies, in which redox modulation of both zinc porphyrin and zinc phthalocyanine entities was observed. The geometry of the tetrad was deduced by B3LYP/6-31G* optimization, whereas the energy levels for different photochemical events was established by using data from the optical absorption and emission, and electrochemical studies. Excitation of the zinc porphyrin entity of the triad and tetrad revealed ultrafast singlet-singlet energy transfer to the appended zinc phthalocyanine. The estimated rate of energy transfer (k(ENT)) in the case of the triad was found to be 7.5×10(11) s(-1) in toluene and 6.3×10(11) s(-1) in o-dichlorobenzene, respectively. As was predicted from the energy levels, photoinduced electron transfer from the energy-transfer product, that is, singlet-excited zinc phthalocyanine to fullerene was verified from the femtosecond-transient spectral studies, both in o-dichlorobenzene and toluene. Transient bands corresponding to ZnPc(⋅+) in the 850 nm range and C60(⋅-) in the 1020 nm range were clearly observed. The rate of charge separation, k(CS), and rate of charge recombination, k

  8. Exotic Molecules in Space: A Coordinated Astronomical Laboratory and Theoretical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaddeus, Patrick; Stringfellow, Guy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report details the work of NASA grant NAG5-9379 which is concerned with the discovery and characterization of new astrophysical molecules. Numerous papers have been or will be published on the laboratory detection of 21 molecules of astrophysical interest, nearly all not previously observed, and nearly all of astrophysical interest as plausible candidates for the interstellar gas and circumstellar shells. Also of interest include the laboratory detection of of optical molecular band exactly coinciding in frequency with the strongest and most widely studied optical diffuse interstellar band which remains an enigma in astrophysical spectroscopy. A new laser spectrometer has been developed and is now undergoing testing.

  9. Rare Disease Patient Registry & Natural History Study - Coordination of Rare Diseases at Sanford

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-01

    ; Non Progressive Epilepsy and/or Ataxia With Myoclonus as a Major Feature; Spectrin-associated Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia; Spasticity-ataxia-gait Anomalies Syndrome; Spastic Ataxia With Congenital Miosis; Spastic Ataxia - Corneal Dystrophy; Spastic Ataxia; Rare Hereditary Ataxia; Rare Ataxia; Recessive Mitochondrial Ataxia Syndrome; Progressive Epilepsy and/or Ataxia With Myoclonus as a Major Feature; Posterior Column Ataxia - Retinitis Pigmentosa; Post-Stroke Ataxia; Post-Head Injury Ataxia; Post Vaccination Ataxia; Polyneuropathy - Hearing Loss - Ataxia - Retinitis Pigmentosa - Cataract; Muscular Atrophy - Ataxia - Retinitis Pigmentosa - Diabetes Mellitus; Non-progressive Cerebellar Ataxia With Intellectual Disability; Non-hereditary Degenerative Ataxia; Paroxysmal Dystonic Choreathetosis With Episodic Ataxia and Spasticity; Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy - Deafness; NARP Syndrome; Myoclonus - Cerebellar Ataxia - Deafness; Multiple System Atrophy, Parkinsonian Type; Multiple System Atrophy, Cerebellar Type; Multiple System Atrophy; Maternally-inherited Leigh Syndrome; Machado-Joseph Disease Type 3; Machado-Joseph Disease Type 2; Machado-Joseph Disease Type 1; Lethal Ataxia With Deafness and Optic Atrophy; Leigh Syndrome; Leukoencephalopathy With Mild Cerebellar Ataxia and White Matter Edema; Leukoencephalopathy - Ataxia - Hypodontia - Hypomyelination; Leigh Syndrome With Nephrotic Syndrome; Leigh Syndrome With Leukodystrophy; Leigh Syndrome With Cardiomyopathy; Late-onset Ataxia With Dementia; Intellectual Disability-hyperkinetic Movement-truncal Ataxia Syndrome; Infection or Post Infection Ataxia; Infantile-onset Autosomal Recessive Nonprogressive Cerebellar Ataxia; Infantile Onset Spinocerebellar Ataxia; GAD Ataxia; Hereditary Episodic Ataxia; Gliadin/Gluten Ataxia; Friedreich Ataxia; Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome; Familial Paroxysmal Ataxia; Exposure to Medications Ataxia; Episodic Ataxia With Slurred Speech; Episodic Ataxia Unknown Type

  10. Coordinated Oxygen Isotopic and Petrologic Studies of CAIS Record Varying Composition of Protosolar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Justin I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) record the O-isotope composition of Solar nebular gas from which they grew [1]. High spatial resolution O-isotope measurements afforded by ion microprobe analysis across the rims and margin of CAIs reveal systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 and suggest formation from a diversity of nebular environments [2-4]. This heterogeneity has been explained by isotopic mixing between the O-16-rich Solar reservoir [6] and a second O-16-poor reservoir (probably nebular gas) with a "planetary-like" isotopic composition [e.g., 1, 6-7], but the mechanism and location(s) where these events occur within the protoplanetary disk remain uncertain. The orientation of large and systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 reported by [3] for a compact Type A CAI from the Efremovka reduced CV3 chondrite differs dramatically from reports by [4] of a similar CAI, A37 from the Allende oxidized CV3 chondrite. Both studies conclude that CAIs were exposed to distinct, nebular O-isotope reservoirs, implying the transfer of CAIs among different settings within the protoplanetary disk [4]. To test this hypothesis further and the extent of intra-CAI O-isotopic variation, a pristine compact Type A CAI, Ef-1 from Efremovka, and a Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende were studied. Our new results are equally intriguing because, collectively, O-isotopic zoning patterns in the CAIs indicate a progressive and cyclic record. The results imply that CAIs were commonly exposed to multiple environments of distinct gas during their formation. Numerical models help constrain conditions and duration of these events.

  11. Multipodal coordination of a tetracarboxylic crown ether with NH4+: A vibrational spectroscopy and computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, Paola; Gámez, Francisco; Hamad, Said; Martínez-Haya, Bruno; Steill, Jeffrey D.; Oomens, Jos

    2012-03-01

    The elucidation of the structural requirements for molecular recognition by the crown ether (18-crown-6)-2,3,11,12-tetracarboxylic acid (18c6H4) and its cationic complexes constitutes a topic of current fundamental and practical interest in catalysis and analytical sciences. The flexibility of the central ether ring and its four carboxyl side arms poses important challenges to experimental and theoretical approaches. In this study, infrared action vibrational spectroscopy and quantum mechanical computations are employed to characterize the conformational structure of the isolated gas phase complex formed by the 18c6H4 host with NH_4^+ as guest. The results show that the most stable gas-phase structure is a barrel-like conformation sustained by tetrapodal H-bonding of the ammonia cation with two C=O side groups and with four oxygen atoms of the ether ring in a bifurcated arrangement. Interestingly, a similar structure had been proposed in previous crystallographic studies. The experiment also provides evidence for a significant contribution of a higher energy bowl-like conformer with features resembling those adopted by 18c6H4 in the analogous complexes with secondary amines. Such a conformation displays H-bonding between confronted side carboxyl groups and tetrapodal binding of the NH_4^+ with the ether ring and with one C=O group. Structures involving even more extensive intramolecular H-bonding in the 18c6H4 substrate are found to lie higher in energy and are ruled out by the experiment.

  12. Coordinated International Laboratory Studies of Meteorites Supporting Rosetta Mission's Asteroid Flybys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, L. A.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Ammanito, E.; Cloutis, E.; Coradini, A.; de Sanctis, M.; Feaga, L. M.; Fulchignoni, M.; Hadamcik, E.; Hiroi, T.; Kolokolova, L.; Levasseur-Regourd, A.; Ovcharenko, A. A.; Parker, W. J.; Psarev, V. A.; Renard, J.

    2009-05-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft flew by asteroid 2867 Steins in September 2008, collecting images, UV, visible and IR spectra and radar reflections. A flyby of the ˜95 km diameter asteroid 21 Lutetia is scheduled for July, 2010. Laboratory studies using meteoritic and terrestrial samples are designed to support interpretation of the observations of the asteroid targets. The goal is to study likely meteoritic analogues of Steins and Lutetia in several laboratories using the same samples in multiple experiments simulating the conditions and types of measurements made during the flybys. The first sample, 5g of an aubrite, ALHA78113,82, is an achondrite consisting of very low iron, high magnesium silicates, with small amounts of metallic and sulfide grains that may be a fragment from Steins. Chips and powdered samples have been measured in reflectance at Brown University, RELAB. Spectral imaging in visible, at INAF, Roma, was conducted on a chip before it was powdered. The spectrum has high albedo (20-40%) depending on grain size and abundance of opaque minerals. It also has an ultraviolet absorption band with two slopes and no 1- nor 2-μm bands. There is no absorption at 0.5 μm as there is in telescopic spectra of Steins. There are two separate questions related to aubrites and Steins. First, what is the nature of the absorption band first measured in the sample of ALH78113,101 at 0.42 μm? And quite separately, what is the spectroscopically active feature in the ground-based spectrum and OSIRIS photometry of Steins at 0.50 μm? Polarization and phase functions have been measured by PROGRA2-vis and -surf covering 6-150° at two wavelengths. Very small phase angle measurements are planned at Kharkiv, and ultraviolet spectra will be measured at Southwest Research Institute, Boulder along with olivine, enstatite, troilite (FeS) and Fe0. Plans are developing to measure the dielectric constant and magnetic susceptibility of the sample. Irradiated samples simulating space

  13. Studies of the Antiproliferative Activity of Ruthenium (II) Cyclopentadienyl-Derived Complexes with Nitrogen Coordinated Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Virtudes; Lorenzo, Julia; Aviles, Francesc X.; Garcia, M. Helena; Ribeiro, João P.; Morais, Tânia S.; Florindo, Pedro; Robalo, M. Paula

    2010-01-01

    Four cationic ruthenium(II) complexes with the formula [Ru(η5-C5H5)(PPh3)2]+, with L = 5-phenyl-1H-tetrazole (TzH) 1, imidazole (ImH) 2, benzo[1,2-b;4,3-b′] dithio-phen-2-carbonitrile (Bzt) 3, and [5-(2-thiophen-2-yl)-vinyl]-thiophene-2-carbonitrile] (Tvt) 4 were prepared and characterized in view to evaluate their potentialities as antitumor agents. Studies by Circular Dichroism indicated changes in the secondary structure of ct-DNA. Changes in the tertiary structure of pBR322 plasmid DNA were also observed in gel electrophoresis experiment and the images obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM) suggest strong interaction with pBR322 plasmid DNA; the observed decreasing of the viscosity with time indicates that the complexes do not intercalate between DNA base pairs. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 showed much higher cytotoxicity than the cisplatin against human leukaemia cancer cells (HL-60 cells). PMID:20689715

  14. Studies of the Antiproliferative Activity of Ruthenium (II) Cyclopentadienyl-Derived Complexes with Nitrogen Coordinated Ligands.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Virtudes; Lorenzo, Julia; Aviles, Francesc X; Garcia, M Helena; Ribeiro, João P; Morais, Tânia S; Florindo, Pedro; Robalo, M Paula

    2010-01-01

    Four cationic ruthenium(II) complexes with the formula [Ru(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))(PPh(3))(2)](+), with L = 5-phenyl-1H-tetrazole (TzH) 1, imidazole (ImH) 2, benzo[1,2-b;4,3-b'] dithio-phen-2-carbonitrile (Bzt) 3, and [5-(2-thiophen-2-yl)-vinyl]-thiophene-2-carbonitrile] (Tvt) 4 were prepared and characterized in view to evaluate their potentialities as antitumor agents. Studies by Circular Dichroism indicated changes in the secondary structure of ct-DNA. Changes in the tertiary structure of pBR322 plasmid DNA were also observed in gel electrophoresis experiment and the images obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM) suggest strong interaction with pBR322 plasmid DNA; the observed decreasing of the viscosity with time indicates that the complexes do not intercalate between DNA base pairs. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 showed much higher cytotoxicity than the cisplatin against human leukaemia cancer cells (HL-60 cells).

  15. High Harmonic Generation XUV Spectroscopy for Studying Ultrafast Photophysics of Coordination Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryland, Elizabeth S.; Lin, Ming-Fu; Verkamp, Max A.; Vura-Weis, Josh

    2016-06-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectroscopy is an inner shell technique that probes the M2,3-edge excitation of atoms. Absorption of the XUV photon causes a 3p→3d transition, the energy and shape of which is directly related to the element and ligand environment. This technique is thus element-, oxidation state-, spin state-, and ligand field specific. A process called high-harmonic generation (HHG) enables the production of ultrashort (≈20fs) pulses of collimated XUV photons in a tabletop instrument. This allows transient XUV spectroscopy to be conducted as an in-lab experiment, where it was previously only possible at accelerator-based light sources. Additionally, ultrashort pulses provide the capability for unprecedented time resolution (≈70fs IRF). This technique has the capacity to serve a pivotal role in the study of electron and energy transfer processes in materials and chemical biology. I will present the XUV transient absorption instrument we have built over the past two years, along with preliminary data and simulations of the M2,3-edge absorption data of a battery of small inorganic molecules to demonstrate the high specificity of this ultrafast tabletop technique.

  16. Forensic discrimination of glass using cathodoluminescence and CIE LAB color coordinates: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Bell, Suzanne C; Nawrocki, Heidi D; Morris, Keith B

    2009-08-10

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy has been shown to be useful for differentiating typical evidentiary glass samples. CL occurs when a surface is bombarded with an electron beam as in scanning electron microscopy and most of this luminescence is in the visible range. In effect, CL imparts color to colorless evidence and as a result, proven methods of forensic color analysis can be applied. In this work, spectral data dimensions were reduced to three and plotted in the CIE LAB color space. This approach allows for incorporation of uncertainties generated principally by intra-sample variation. NIST glass standards were used for method development and validation while potential case applications were studied with collections of window, consumer, and auto headlamp glasses. Using refractive index as the initial grouping variable, all of the window and consumer glasses were differentiated as were 6 of 10 automobile headlamp glasses. The potential advantages of CL include low cost instrumentation, its non-destructive nature, and ease of operation. The current limitations of CL in this context are the lack of databases and standards and the relatively low resolution of typical CL spectra.

  17. The coordinated use of synchrotron spectroelectrochemistry for corrosion studies on heritage metals.

    PubMed

    Adriaens, Annemie; Dowsett, Mark

    2010-06-15

    Corrosion is a major source of degradation in heritage metal objects, and any remedial measures are subject to a strong (Western) ethic that favors conservation as opposed to restoration. Accordingly, major scientific challenges exist for developing appropriate treatment methods to stabilize and protect artifacts after they are recovered from an archaeological site, both before and during their display or storage in a museum. Because inappropriate treatments can cause irreversible damage to irreplaceable objects, it is crucial that the chemical processes involved are fully understood and characterized before any preservation work is undertaken. In this regard, large infrastructural facilities such as synchrotrons, neutron sources, and particle accelerators provide a wealth of analytical possibilities, unavailable in smaller scale laboratories. In general, the intensity of the radiation available allows measurements on a short time scale or with high spatial resolution (or both), so heterogeneous changes induced by a chemical process can be recorded while they occur. The penetrative nature of the radiation (e.g., X-rays, protons, or neutrons) also allows a sample to be studied in air. If necessary, complete artifacts (such as paintings or statuettes) can be examined. In situ analysis in a controlled environment, such as a liquid or corrosive atmosphere, also becomes an exciting possibility. Finally, there are many complementary techniques (local atomic structure or crystal structure determination, macroscopic 3-D imaging (tomographies), imaging chemical analysis, and so on) so the many distinct details of a problem can be thoroughly explored. In this Account, we discuss the application of this general philosophy to studies of corrosion and its prevention in cultural heritage metals, focusing on our recent work on copper alloys. More specifically, we use synchrotron-based techniques to evaluate the use of corrosion potential measurements as a possible monitoring

  18. Exotic Molecules in Space: A Coordinated Astronomical Laboratory and Theoretical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringfellow, Guy (Technical Monitor); Thaddeus, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    The present report covers the third year of a grant which represents a direct continuation of NASA NAG5-4050, with the same title as before. It is dedicated as before to the discovery and characterization of new astrophysical molecules. This year, like the two before, has been extremely productive, yielding many new discoveries of astronomical interest at both radio and optical wavelengths, and the publication or submission of the 15 papers listed below. Nearly all of these articles have or will soon appear in the leading refereed journals of astrophysics, chemical physics, physics, or molecular spectroscopy. One is a major invited review for Molecular Physics. One of our other invited reviews published in Spectrochimica Acta in 2001 was recently awarded the Sir Harold Thompson Memorial Award, annually given to the best paper in that journal. During the past year significant advances have been made by our group in the laboratory study of exotic silicon and carbon molecules of astronomical interest. The most exciting discoveries include the pure silicon cluster Si3, several novel silicon hydrides, and the detection of phenyl radical, CsH5, a fundamental reactive organic ring. In addition, the rotational spectra of many carbon chains terminated with Si, N, O, and other heteroatoms have also been detected for the first time. The laboratory astrophysics of the whole set is complete in the sense that the entire radio spectrum of each species has now been measured or can be calculated to very high accuracy. Nearly all of these newly found molecules are plausible candidates for the detection by radio astronomers in the interstellar gas or in circumstellar sources because they are similar in structure and composition to known astronomical species, and because most are calculated to possess large permanent dipole moments.

  19. Exotic Molecules in Space: A Coordinated Astronomical Laboratory and Theoretical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springfellow, Guy (Technical Monitor); Shapiro, Irwin I.

    2004-01-01

    The present report covers the first year of a grant which represents a direct continuation of NASA NAG5-4050, with the same title as before. It is dedicated as before to the discovery and characterization of new astrophysical molecules. This year, has been extremely productive, yielding many new discoveries of astronomical interest at both radio and optical wavelengths, and the publication or submission of the 15 papers listed below. Nearly all of these articles have or will soon appear in the leading refereed journals of astrophysics, chemical physics, physics, or molecular spectroscopy. One is a major invited review for Molecular Physics. One of our other invited reviews published in Spectrochimica Acta in 2001 was recently awarded the Sir Harold Thompson Memorial Award, annually given to the best paper in that journal. During the past year significant advances have been made by our group in the laboratory study of exotic silicon and carbon molecules of astronomical interest. The most exciting discoveries include the pure silicon cluster Si3, several novel silicon hydrides, and the detection of phenyl radical, C6H5, a fundamental reactive organic ring. In addition, the rotational spectra of many carbon chains terminated with Si, N, O, and other heteroatoms have also been detected for the first time. The laboratory astrophysics of the whole set is complete in the sense that the entire radio spectrum of each species has now been measured or can be calculated to very high accuracy. Nearly all of these newly found molecules are plausible candidates for the detection by radio astronomers in the interstellar gas or in circumstellar sources because they are similar in structure and composition to known astronomical species, and because most are calculated to possess large permanent dipole moments.

  20. On projective coordinate spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćiftçi, Süleyman; Erdoǧan, Fatma Özen

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, an (n+1)-dimensional module over the local ring K = Mmm(ℝ) is constructed. Further, an n- dimensional projective coordinate space over this module is constructed by the help of equivalence classes. The points and lines of this space are determined and the points are classified. Finally, for a 3-dimensional projective coordinate space, the incidence matrix for a line that goes through the given points and also all points of a line given with the incidence matrix are found by the use of Maple commands.

  1. Combining genetic association study designs: a GWAS case study.

    PubMed

    Estus, Janice L; Fardo, David W

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) explore the relationship between genome variability and disease susceptibility with either population- or family-based data. Here, we have evaluated the utility of combining population- and family-based statistical association tests and have proposed a method for reducing the burden of multiple testing. Unrelated singleton and parent-offspring trio cases and controls from the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) study were analyzed for genetic association with diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 1 diabetics (T1D). The Cochran-Armitage test for trend and the family-based association test were employed using either unrelated cases and controls or trios, respectively. In addition to combining single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) p-values across these tests via Fisher's method, we employed a novel screening approach to rank SNPs based on conditional power for more efficient testing. Using either the population-based or family-based subset alone predictably limited resolution to detect DN SNPs. For 384,197 SNPs passing quality control (QC), none achieved strict genome-wide significance (1.4 × 10(-7)) using 1171 singletons (577/594 cases/controls) or 1738 pooled singletons and offspring probands (841/897). Similarly, none of the 352,004 SNPs passing QC in 567 family trios (264/303 case/control proband trios) reached genome-wide significance. Testing the top 10 SNPs ranked using aggregated conditional power resulted in two SNPs reaching genome-wide significance, rs11645147 on chromosome 16 (p = 1.74 × 10(-4) < 0.05/10 = 0.005) and rs7866522 on chromosome 9 (p = 0.0033). Efficient usage of mixed designs incorporating both unrelated and family-based data may help to uncover associations otherwise difficult to detect in the presence of massive multiple testing corrections. Capitalizing on the strengths of both types while using screening approaches may be useful especially in light of large-scale, next-generation sequencing and rare

  2. Combining genetic association study designs: a GWAS case study

    PubMed Central

    Estus, Janice L.; Fardo, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) explore the relationship between genome variability and disease susceptibility with either population- or family-based data. Here, we have evaluated the utility of combining population- and family-based statistical association tests and have proposed a method for reducing the burden of multiple testing. Unrelated singleton and parent-offspring trio cases and controls from the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) study were analyzed for genetic association with diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 1 diabetics (T1D). The Cochran-Armitage test for trend and the family-based association test were employed using either unrelated cases and controls or trios, respectively. In addition to combining single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) p-values across these tests via Fisher's method, we employed a novel screening approach to rank SNPs based on conditional power for more efficient testing. Using either the population-based or family-based subset alone predictably limited resolution to detect DN SNPs. For 384,197 SNPs passing quality control (QC), none achieved strict genome-wide significance (1.4 × 10−7) using 1171 singletons (577/594 cases/controls) or 1738 pooled singletons and offspring probands (841/897). Similarly, none of the 352,004 SNPs passing QC in 567 family trios (264/303 case/control proband trios) reached genome-wide significance. Testing the top 10 SNPs ranked using aggregated conditional power resulted in two SNPs reaching genome-wide significance, rs11645147 on chromosome 16 (p = 1.74 × 10−4 < 0.05/10 = 0.005) and rs7866522 on chromosome 9 (p = 0.0033). Efficient usage of mixed designs incorporating both unrelated and family-based data may help to uncover associations otherwise difficult to detect in the presence of massive multiple testing corrections. Capitalizing on the strengths of both types while using screening approaches may be useful especially in light of large-scale, next-generation sequencing and rare

  3. Experimental Space Weathering: A coordinated LIBS, TEM, VIS and NIR/MIR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojic, Aleksandra N.; Pavlov, Sergey; Markus, Kathrin; Morlok, Andreas; Wirth, Richard; Weber, Iris; Schreiber, Anja; Hiesinger, Harald; Sohn, Martin; Huebers, Heinz-Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    We conducted pulsed infrared laser irradiation experiments, in order to simulate space weathering triggered modifications of planetary surfaces not protected by an enveloping atmosphere [1,2], e.g., Mercury. Our work is embedded in the framework of the BepiColombo space mission to Mercury [3]. The MErcury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS), an onboard spectrometer will deliver surface data in the range of 7 - 14 μm once it reaches orbit in 2024 [4]. Space weathering effects known from other Solar System bodies are likely to be very prominent on Mercury due to its proximity to the Sun, the lack of a protective atmosphere and its weak magnetic field [5]. Space weathering effects, e.g., implantation of solar wind in regolith material, sputtering and (micro) meteorite impacts modify the planetary surface and thus, therefrom obtained spectral data in the VIS/NIR range considerably (e.g., reddening and darkening of spectra) [6-9]. We expect modifications induced by space weathering, known from the VIS/NIR range also to show in the mid infrared range, probably by amorphisation or similar still unknown effects [2,10]. Our approach is therefore threefold: a) alter analog material artificially by pulsed laser experiments, b) investigate altered analog material spectrally (VIS/NIR and MIR range) and c) conduct transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies on selected weathered grains to better understand the nanostratigraphy developed by irradiation and its impact on the resulting infrared spectra. Here, we report on results obtained from the first set of experiments. Characteristic upper mantle minerals were taken as analog material, Mg-rich olivine and pyroxene, were ground into a powder (< 160 μm), slightly compressed into pellets and subsequently irradiated under high vacuum conditions (˜ 10-6 mbar) with a pulsed (˜ 8ns) infrared laser at a fluence of ˜ 2 Jcm-2. From the irradiated pellet surfaces, VIS/NIR and MIR spectra were obtained and

  4. Experimental Space Weathering: A coordinated LIBS, TEM, VIS and NIR/MIR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojic, Aleksandra N.; Pavlov, Sergey; Markus, Kathrin; Morlok, Andreas; Wirth, Richard; Weber, Iris; Schreiber, Anja; Hiesinger, Harald; Sohn, Martin; Huebers, Heinz-Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    We conducted pulsed infrared laser irradiation experiments, in order to simulate space weathering triggered modifications of planetary surfaces not protected by an enveloping atmosphere [1,2], e.g., Mercury. Our work is embedded in the framework of the BepiColombo space mission to Mercury [3]. The MErcury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS), an onboard spectrometer will deliver surface data in the range of 7 - 14 μm once it reaches orbit in 2024 [4]. Space weathering effects known from other Solar System bodies are likely to be very prominent on Mercury due to its proximity to the Sun, the lack of a protective atmosphere and its weak magnetic field [5]. Space weathering effects, e.g., implantation of solar wind in regolith material, sputtering and (micro) meteorite impacts modify the planetary surface and thus, therefrom obtained spectral data in the VIS/NIR range considerably (e.g., reddening and darkening of spectra) [6‑9]. We expect modifications induced by space weathering, known from the VIS/NIR range also to show in the mid infrared range, probably by amorphisation or similar still unknown effects [2,10]. Our approach is therefore threefold: a) alter analog material artificially by pulsed laser experiments, b) investigate altered analog material spectrally (VIS/NIR and MIR range) and c) conduct transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies on selected weathered grains to better understand the nanostratigraphy developed by irradiation and its impact on the resulting infrared spectra. Here, we report on results obtained from the first set of experiments. Characteristic upper mantle minerals were taken as analog material, Mg-rich olivine and pyroxene, were ground into a powder (< 160 μm), slightly compressed into pellets and subsequently irradiated under high vacuum conditions (˜ 10‑6 mbar) with a pulsed (˜ 8ns) infrared laser at a fluence of ˜ 2 Jcm‑2. From the irradiated pellet surfaces, VIS/NIR and MIR spectra were obtained and

  5. Binocular saccade coordination in reading and visual search: a developmental study in typical reader and dyslexic children

    PubMed Central

    Seassau, Magali; Gérard, Christophe Loic; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2014-01-01

    Studies dealing with developmental aspects of binocular eye movement behavior during reading are scarce. In this study we have explored binocular strategies during reading and visual search tasks in a large population of dyslexic and typical readers. Binocular eye movements were recorded using a video-oculography system in 43 dyslexic children (aged 8–13) and in a group of 42 age-matched typical readers. The main findings are: (i) ocular motor characteristics of dyslexic children are impaired in comparison to those reported in typical children in reading task; (ii) a developmental effect exists in reading in control children, in dyslexic children the effect of development was observed only on fixation durations; and (iii) ocular motor behavior in the visual search tasks is similar for dyslexic children and for typical readers, except for the disconjugacy during and after the saccade: dyslexic children are impaired in comparison to typical children. Data reported here confirms and expands previous studies on children’s reading. Both reading skills and binocular saccades coordination improve with age in typical readers. The atypical eye movement’s patterns observed in dyslexic children suggest a deficiency in the visual attentional processing as well as an impairment of the ocular motor saccade and vergence systems interaction. PMID:25400559

  6. Profiling Computing Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sigrid; Morton, Allan

    The people responsible for managing school computing resources in Australia have become known as Computing Coordinators. To date there has been no large systematic study of the role, responsibilities and characteristics of this position. This paper represents a first attempt to provide information on the functions and attributes of the Computing…

  7. Does an Eye-Hand Coordination Test Have Added Value as Part of Talent Identification in Table Tennis? A Validity and Reproducibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Irene R.; Oosterveld, Frits G. J.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the added value, i.e. discriminative and concurrent validity and reproducibility, of an eye-hand coordination test relevant to table tennis as part of talent identification. Forty-three table tennis players (7–12 years) from national (n = 13), regional (n = 11) and local training centres (n = 19) participated. During the eye-hand coordination test, children needed to throw a ball against a vertical positioned table tennis table with one hand and to catch the ball correctly with the other hand as frequently as possible in 30 seconds. Four different test versions were assessed varying the distance to the table (1 or 2 meter) and using a tennis or table tennis ball. ‘Within session’ reproducibility was estimated for the two attempts of the initial tests and ten youngsters were retested after 4 weeks to estimate ‘between sessions’ reproducibility. Validity analyses using age as covariate showed that players from the national and regional centres scored significantly higher than players from the local centre in all test versions (p<0.05). The tests at 1 meter demonstrated better discriminative ability than those at 2 meter. While all tests but one had a positive significant association with competition outcome, which were corrected for age influences, the version with a table tennis ball at 1 meter showed the highest association (r = 0.54; p = 0.001). Differences between the first and second attempts were comparable for all test versions (between −8 and +7 repetitions) with ICC's ranging from 0.72 to 0.87. The smallest differences were found for the test with a table tennis ball at 1 meter (between −3 and +3 repetitions). Best test version as part of talent identification appears to be the version with a table tennis ball at 1 meter regarding the psychometric characteristics evaluated. Longitudinal studies are necessary to evaluate the predictive value of this test. PMID:24465638

  8. Synecological coordinates as indicators of variation in red pine productivity among twinspan classes: A case study. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, G.J.; Almendinger, J.C.

    1992-10-14

    The report evaluates the use of synecological moisture and nutrient coordinates in identifying floristic classes with different site indexes and gross basal area growths for red pine in north-central Minnesota.

  9. Acoustic evidence for the development of gestural coordination in the speech of 2-year-olds: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Goodell, E W; Studdert-Kennedy, M

    1993-08-01

    Studies of child phonology have often assumed that young children first master a repertoire of phonemes and then build their lexicon by forming combinations of these abstract, contrastive units. However, evidence from children's systematic errors suggests that children first build a repertoire of words as integral sequences of gestures and then gradually differentiate these sequences into their gestural and segmental components. Recently, experimental support for this position has been found in the acoustic records of the speech of 3-, 5-, and 7-year-old children, suggesting that even in older children some phonemes have not yet fully segregated as units of gestural organization and control. The present longitudinal study extends this work to younger children (22- and 32-month-olds). Results demonstrate clear differences in the duration and coordination of gestures between children and adults, and a clear shift toward the patterns of adult speakers during roughly the third year of life. Details of the child-adult differences and developmental changes vary from one aspect of an utterance to another. PMID:8377484

  10. Marker imputation in barley association studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Association mapping requires higher marker density than linkage mapping, potentially leading to more missing marker data and to higher genotyping costs. In human genetics, methods exist to impute missing marker data and whole markers that were typed in a reference panel but not in the experimental d...

  11. A Coordinated Study of Flares and Active Regions on the by Draconis-Type Star CC Eridani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    We propose to observe the 1.56 day period spectroscopic binary CC Eri (K7Ve + dM?) continuously over its complete orbital period in order (1) to measure the ultraviolet emission from it's active regions and it's quiescent atmosphere separately and (2) to study flares that likely will occur during the observing run. CC Eri is the second brightest member of the BY Draconis class of spotted cool dwarfs, it has the shortest known orbital and rotational period, and it has the fastest rotational velocity of the BY Dra class. For these reasons it is likely a very active member and probably has one of the brightest ultraviolet emission line spectrum of its class. Since only one IUE spectrum has so far been obtained of this important object, we propose to begin a detailed study of its ultraviolet emission properties leading to a high-dispersion SWP observation next year. We will obtain a continuous series of SWP-LO and LWP-LO spectra over the full orbital (= rotational period) in order to identify bright active regions (from the rotational modulation of emission line fluxes) and to correlate the location of these active regions with dark starspots, whose positions will be determined from contemporaneous optical photometry and spectroscopy. We also will study the time behavior of flares in different spectral lines and with coordinated optical photometry and VLA radio observations. Flares with U-magnitude enhancements greater than I magnitude are known to occur on average once every 12 hours. We plan to model the quiescent, active, and flaring atmospheres separately using emission measure diagnostics. CC Eri is an excellent candidate for this study, because it usually has a large amplitude photometric variation indicating an asymmetric distribution of spots (and thus active regions) across its surface, while it's flares are few but energetic. IUE is particularly well suited for such modulation studies.

  12. Local and global navigational coordinate systems in desert ants.

    PubMed

    Collett, Matthew; Collett, Thomas S

    2009-04-01

    While foraging, the desert ant Cataglyphis fortis keeps track of its position with respect to its nest through a process of path integration (PI). Once it finds food, it can then follow a direct home vector to its nest. Furthermore, it remembers the coordinates of a food site, and uses these coordinates to return to the site. Previous studies suggest, however, that it does not associate any coordinates remembered from previous trips with familiar views such that it can produce a home vector when displaced to a familiar site. We ask here whether a desert ant uses any association between PI coordinates and familiar views to ensure consistent PI coordinates as it travels along a habitual route. We describe an experiment in which we manipulated the PI coordinates an ant has when reaching a distinctive point along a habitual route on the way to a feeder. The subsequent home vectors of the manipulated ants, when displaced from the food-site to a test ground, show that also when a route memory is evoked at a significant point on the way to a food site, C. fortis does not reset its PI coordinates to those it normally has at that point. We use this result to argue that local vector memories, which encode the metric properties of a segment of a habitual route, must be encoded in a route-based coordinate system that is separate from the nest-based global coordinates. We propose a model for PI-based guidance that can account for several puzzling observations, and that naturally produces the route-based coordinate system required for learning and following local vectors.

  13. Coordination of hand shape.

    PubMed

    Pesyna, Colin; Pundi, Krishna; Flanders, Martha

    2011-03-01

    The neural control of hand movement involves coordination of the sensory, motor, and memory systems. Recent studies have documented the motor coordinates for hand shape, but less is known about the corresponding patterns of somatosensory activity. To initiate this line of investigation, the present study characterized the sense of hand shape by evaluating the influence of differences in the amount of grasping or twisting force, and differences in forearm orientation. Human subjects were asked to use the left hand to report the perceived shape of the right hand. In the first experiment, six commonly grasped items were arranged on the table in front of the subject: bottle, doorknob, egg, notebook, carton, and pan. With eyes closed, subjects used the right hand to lightly touch, forcefully support, or imagine holding each object, while 15 joint angles were measured in each hand with a pair of wired gloves. The forces introduced by supporting or twisting did not influence the perceptual report of hand shape, but for most objects, the report was distorted in a consistent manner by differences in forearm orientation. Subjects appeared to adjust the intrinsic joint angles of the left hand, as well as the left wrist posture, so as to maintain the imagined object in its proper spatial orientation. In a second experiment, this result was largely replicated with unfamiliar objects. Thus, somatosensory and motor information appear to be coordinated in an object-based, spatial-coordinate system, sensitive to orientation relative to gravitational forces, but invariant to grasp forcefulness. PMID:21389230

  14. Coordination of Hand Shape

    PubMed Central

    Pesyna, Colin; Pundi, Krishna; Flanders, Martha

    2011-01-01

    The neural control of hand movement involves coordination of the sensory, motor and memory systems. Recent studies have documented the motor coordinates for hand shape, but less is known about the corresponding patterns of somatosensory activity. To initiate this line of investigation, the present study characterized the sense of hand shape by evaluating the influence of differences in the amount of grasping or twisting force, and differences in forearm orientation. Human subjects were asked to use the left hand to report the perceived shape of the right hand. In Experiment 1, six commonly grasped items were arranged on the table in front of the subject: bottle, doorknob, egg, notebook, carton, pan. With eyes closed, subjects used the right hand to lightly touch, forcefully support or imagine holding each object, while 15 joint angles were measured in each hand with a pair of wired gloves. The forces introduced by supporting or twisting did not influence the perceptual report of hand shape, but for most objects, the report was distorted in a consistent manner by differences in forearm orientation. Subjects appeared to adjust the intrinsic joint angles of the left hand, as well as the left wrist posture, so as to maintain the imagined object in its proper spatial orientation. In a second experiment, this result was largely replicated with unfamiliar objects. Thus somatosensory and motor information appear to be coordinated in an object-based, spatial coordinate system, sensitive to orientation relative to gravitational forces, but invariant to grasp forcefulness. PMID:21389230

  15. Analysis of unsaturated compounds by Ag+ coordination ionspray mass spectrometry: studies of the formation of the Ag+/lipid complex.

    PubMed

    Seal, Jennifer R; Havrilla, Christine M; Porter, Ned A; Hachey, David L

    2003-08-01

    Coordination ionspray mass spectrometry (CIS-MS) is a useful tool in the detection and identification of cholesterol ester and phospholipid hydroperoxides and diacyl peroxides. Extensive studies of a series of cholesterol esters using CIS-MS revealed the following: (1) Cholesterol esters with equal number of double bonds as the internal standard showed a linear relative response in the mass spectrometer while compounds with non-equal numbers of double bonds gave a nonlinear relative response. (2) Complex adducts containing cholesterol ester, silver ion, AgF, AgBF(4), and 2-propanoxide form when silver is in molar excess of cholesterol esters, reducing the [M + Ag](+) signal. (3) In a mixture of cholesterol esters where silver is limiting, Ch22:6 and Ch20:4 bind to silver at the expense of Ch18:2 and have a higher signal in the mass spectrometer. (4) In a mixture of cholesterol esters where silver concentration is twofold greater than total cholesterol ester concentration, Ch22:6 and Ch20:4 form large complex adducts more frequently than Ch18:2 and have a lower signal in the mass spectrometer. PMID:12892911

  16. Mössbauer and magnetic study of nanocrystalline strontium hexaferrite prepared by an ionic coordination reaction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araújo, J. H.; Soares, J. M.; Ginani, M. F.; Machado, F. L. A.; da Cunha, J. B. M.

    2013-10-01

    Hard-magnetic nanocrystalline strontium hexaferrites SrFe12O19 were synthesized using an ionic coordination reaction technique. In this sample preparation technique the biopolymer chitosan was used as a nanoreactor. The obtained precursor powders were calcined at temperatures in the range 600-900 °C. The samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. A complementary study of X-ray Rietveld refinement and Mössbauer spectroscopy shown that the hexaferrite phase formation is accompanied by formation of maghemite and hematite as intermediate phases. It was found that hexaferrite is present in the samples calcined at and above 600 °C but it is fully developed at 900 °C. For this sample the average particle size was found to be 41.6 nm. Magnetization measurements yielded squared hysteresis loops with a magnetization ratio (Mr/Ms) of 0.58 and a coercive field of 6.48 kOe. The overall results indicated that the particles in these samples are in the single domain regime and that the magnetization reversal in these particles is mainly due to coherent rotation. Hard-magnetic hexaferrites were synthesized using an ionic reaction technique. The hexaferrite formation is accompanied by formation of maghemite and hematite. How much more absorption of the sites spin up time is higher net magnetic moment.

  17. New ruthenium(II) coordination compounds possessing bidentate aminomethylphosphane ligands: synthesis, characterization and preliminary biological study in vitro.

    PubMed

    Płotek, Michał; Starosta, Radosław; Komarnicka, Urszula K; Skórska-Stania, Agnieszka; Jeżowska-Bojczuk, Małgorzata; Stochel, Grażyna; Kyzioł, Agnieszka

    2015-08-21

    Addition of aminomethylphosphane P{CH2N(CH2CH2)2O}3 (), PPh2{CH2N(CH2CH2)2O} () or PPh2{CH2N(CH2CH2)2NCH2CH3} () to a methanolic solution of RuCl3 results in reduction of ruthenium(iii) ions giving finally ttt-[RuCl2()2] (), ttt-[RuCl2()2] () and ttt-[RuCl2()2] (). The synthesized complexes are the first examples of ruthenium(ii) coordination compounds possessing aminomethylphosphanes chelating via phosphorus and nitrogen atoms. They were fully characterized (NMR, ESI-MS, IR, elemental analysis, X-ray crystallography). Preliminary studies of the in vitro cytotoxicity on the A549 cell line (human lung adenocarcinoma) and interactions with human serum proteins (albumin and apotransferrin) showed moderate activity of the complexes. Interestingly, the P,N-chelation leads to formation of strained 4-membered Ru-P-C-N-Ru rings, which in the case of and undergo opening in the presence of CH3CN, which results in rearrangement to ctc-[RuCl2()2(CH3CN)2] () and ctc-[RuCl2()2(CH3CN)2] ().

  18. The secondary coordination sphere and axial ligand effects on oxygen reduction reaction by iron porphyrins: a DFT computational study.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Takehiro; Nagaraju, Perumandla; Liu, Jin-Gang; Ogura, Takashi; Naruta, Yoshinori

    2016-09-01

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyzed by a bio-inspired iron porphyrin bearing a hanging carboxylic acid group over the porphyrin ring, and a tethered axial imidazole ligand was studied by DFT calculations. BP86 free energy calculations of the redox potentials and pK a's of reaction components involved in the proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions of the ferric-hydroxo and -superoxo complexes were performed based on Born-Haber thermodynamic cycle in conjunction with a continuum solvation model. The comparison was made with iron porphyrins that lack either in the hanging acid group or axial ligand, suggesting that H-bond interaction between the carboxylic acid and iron-bound hydroxo, aquo, superoxo, and peroxo ligands (de)stabilizes the Fe-O bonding, resulting in the increase in the reduction potential of the ferric complexes. The axial ligand interaction with the imidazole raises the affinity of the iron-bound superoxo and peroxo ligands for proton. In addition, a low-spin end-on ferric-hydroperoxo intermediate, a key precursor for O-O cleavage, can be stabilized in the presence of axial ligation. Thus, selective and efficient ORR of iron porphyrin can be achieved with the aid of the secondary coordination sphere and axial ligand interactions. PMID:27501847

  19. Study of proton conductivity of a 2D flexible MOF and a 1D coordination polymer at higher temperature.

    PubMed

    Sanda, Suresh; Biswas, Soumava; Konar, Sanjit

    2015-02-16

    We report the proton conduction properties of a 2D flexible MOF and a 1D coordination polymer having the molecular formulas {[Zn(C10H2O8)0.5(C10S2N2H8)]·5H2O]}n (1) and {[Zn(C10H2O8)0.5(C10S2N2H8)]·2H2O]}n (2), respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 show high conductivity values of 2.55 × 10(-7) and 4.39 × 10(-4) S cm(-1) at 80 °C and 95% RH. The conductivity value of compound 1 is in the range of those for previously reported flexible MOFs, and compound 2 shows the highest proton conductivity among the carboxylate-based 1D CPs. The dimensionality and the internal hydrogen bonding connectivity play a vital role in the resultant conductivity. Variable-temperature experiments of both compounds at high humidity reveal that the conductivity values increase with increasing temperature, whereas the variable humidity studies signify the influence of relative humidity on high-temperature proton conductivity. The time-dependent measurements for both compounds demonstrate their ability to retain conductivity up to 10 h.

  20. Syntheses, Spectral Characterization, and Antimicrobial Studies on the Coordination Compounds of Metal Ions with Schiff Base Containing Both Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrazide Moieties

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh; Chadda, Silky; Sharma, Jyoti; Surain, Parveen

    2013-01-01

    An EtOH solution of 3-ketobutanehydrazide and salicylhydrazide on refluxing in equimolar ratio forms the corresponding Schiff base, LH3 (1). The latter reacts with Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Zr(OH)2(IV), MoO2(VI), and UO2(VI) ions in equimolar ratio and forms the corresponding coordination compounds, [M(LH)(MeOH)3] (2, M = Mn, Co, Ni), [Cu(LH)]2 (3), [M′(LH)(MeOH)] (4, M′ = Zn, Cd), [Zr(OH)2(LH)(MeOH)2] (5), [MoO2(LH)(MeOH)] (6), and [UO2(LH)(MeOH)] (7). The coordination compounds have been characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, molar conductance, spectral (IR, reflectance, 1H NMR, ESR) studies, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. They are nonelectrolytes in DMSO. The coordination compounds, except 3, are monomers in diphenyl. They are active against gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus, B. subtilis), gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, P. aeruginosa), and yeast (S. cerevisiae, C. albicans). 1 acts as a dibasic tridentate ONO donor ligand in 2–7 coordinating through its both enolic O and azomethine N atoms. The coordination compounds 2 and 3 are paramagnetic, while rest of the compounds are diamagnetic. A square-planar structure to 3, a tetrahedral structure to 4, an octahedral structure to 2, 6, and 7, and a pentagonal bipyramidal structure to 5 are proposed. PMID:24198736

  1. Medical association supports studies on marijuana therapy.

    PubMed

    1995-06-16

    The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association (GLMA) issued a statement on May 19, 1995, announcing its support of clinical trials of the therapeutic uses of marijuana. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has continued to resist permitting clinical trials of marijuana despite evidence that it can relieve symptoms of cancer, multiple sclerosis, and glaucoma. According to Dr. Alvin Novick, head of GLMA's AIDS Task Force, the Clinton Administration is being asked to not let its political fears blind it to the positive and legitimate scientific research designed to alleviate the suffering of thousands of AIDS patients.

  2. Barriers to healthcare coordination in market-based and decentralized public health systems: a qualitative study in healthcare networks of Colombia and Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Ingrid; Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; De Paepe, Pierre; Ferreira da Silva, Maria Rejane; Unger, Jean-Pierre; Vázquez, María-Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Although integrated healthcare networks (IHNs) are promoted in Latin America in response to health system fragmentation, few analyses on the coordination of care across levels in these networks have been conducted in the region. The aim is to analyse the existence of healthcare coordination across levels of care and the factors influencing it from the health personnel’ perspective in healthcare networks of two countries with different health systems: Colombia, with a social security system based on managed competition and Brazil, with a decentralized national health system. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive–interpretative study was conducted, based on a case study of healthcare networks in four municipalities. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with a three stage theoretical sample of (a) health (112) and administrative (66) professionals of different care levels, and (b) managers of providers (42) and insurers (14). A thematic content analysis was conducted, segmented by cases, informant groups and themes. The results reveal poor clinical information transfer between healthcare levels in all networks analysed, with added deficiencies in Brazil in the coordination of access and clinical management. The obstacles to care coordination are related to the organization of both the health system and the healthcare networks. In the health system, there is the existence of economic incentives to compete (exacerbated in Brazil by partisan political interests), the fragmentation and instability of networks in Colombia and weak planning and evaluation in Brazil. In the healthcare networks, there are inadequate working conditions (temporary and/or part-time contracts) which hinder the use of coordination mechanisms, and inadequate professional training for implementing a healthcare model in which primary care should act as coordinator in patient care. Reforms are needed in these health systems and networks in order to modify incentives

  3. Barriers to healthcare coordination in market-based and decentralized public health systems: a qualitative study in healthcare networks of Colombia and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Ingrid; Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; De Paepe, Pierre; Ferreira da Silva, Maria Rejane; Unger, Jean-Pierre; Vázquez, María-Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Although integrated healthcare networks (IHNs) are promoted in Latin America in response to health system fragmentation, few analyses on the coordination of care across levels in these networks have been conducted in the region. The aim is to analyse the existence of healthcare coordination across levels of care and the factors influencing it from the health personnel' perspective in healthcare networks of two countries with different health systems: Colombia, with a social security system based on managed competition and Brazil, with a decentralized national health system. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive-interpretative study was conducted, based on a case study of healthcare networks in four municipalities. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with a three stage theoretical sample of (a) health (112) and administrative (66) professionals of different care levels, and (b) managers of providers (42) and insurers (14). A thematic content analysis was conducted, segmented by cases, informant groups and themes. The results reveal poor clinical information transfer between healthcare levels in all networks analysed, with added deficiencies in Brazil in the coordination of access and clinical management. The obstacles to care coordination are related to the organization of both the health system and the healthcare networks. In the health system, there is the existence of economic incentives to compete (exacerbated in Brazil by partisan political interests), the fragmentation and instability of networks in Colombia and weak planning and evaluation in Brazil. In the healthcare networks, there are inadequate working conditions (temporary and/or part-time contracts) which hinder the use of coordination mechanisms, and inadequate professional training for implementing a healthcare model in which primary care should act as coordinator in patient care. Reforms are needed in these health systems and networks in order to modify incentives, strengthen

  4. Barriers to healthcare coordination in market-based and decentralized public health systems: a qualitative study in healthcare networks of Colombia and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Ingrid; Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; De Paepe, Pierre; Ferreira da Silva, Maria Rejane; Unger, Jean-Pierre; Vázquez, María-Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Although integrated healthcare networks (IHNs) are promoted in Latin America in response to health system fragmentation, few analyses on the coordination of care across levels in these networks have been conducted in the region. The aim is to analyse the existence of healthcare coordination across levels of care and the factors influencing it from the health personnel' perspective in healthcare networks of two countries with different health systems: Colombia, with a social security system based on managed competition and Brazil, with a decentralized national health system. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive-interpretative study was conducted, based on a case study of healthcare networks in four municipalities. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with a three stage theoretical sample of (a) health (112) and administrative (66) professionals of different care levels, and (b) managers of providers (42) and insurers (14). A thematic content analysis was conducted, segmented by cases, informant groups and themes. The results reveal poor clinical information transfer between healthcare levels in all networks analysed, with added deficiencies in Brazil in the coordination of access and clinical management. The obstacles to care coordination are related to the organization of both the health system and the healthcare networks. In the health system, there is the existence of economic incentives to compete (exacerbated in Brazil by partisan political interests), the fragmentation and instability of networks in Colombia and weak planning and evaluation in Brazil. In the healthcare networks, there are inadequate working conditions (temporary and/or part-time contracts) which hinder the use of coordination mechanisms, and inadequate professional training for implementing a healthcare model in which primary care should act as coordinator in patient care. Reforms are needed in these health systems and networks in order to modify incentives, strengthen

  5. Coordination of Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) Science Working Group (SWG) for the study of instrument accommodation and operational requirements on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives are to coordinate the activities of the Science Working Group (SWG) of the Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) for the study of instruments accommodation and operation requirements on board space station. In order to facilitate the progress of the objective, two conferences were organized, together with two small group discussions.

  6. Texas Affordable Baccalaureate Program: A Collaboration between the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, South Texas College, and Texas A&M University-Commerce. CBE Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein-Collins, Rebecca; Glancey, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    This case study is part of a series on newer competency-based degree programs that have been emerging in recent years. In January 2014, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB), South Texas College (STC), and Texas A&M University-Commerce (A&M Commerce) launched the Texas Affordable Baccalaureate Program, the state's first…

  7. Funding and Administrative Coordination of the Baja Field Studies Program at Glendale Community College during the Years 1974 to 1983: A Historical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercade, Jose A.

    Glendale Community College's (GCC's) Baja Field Studies Program began in 1974 as a faculty-initiated overseas field program in marine biology and developed into a college-wide, interdisciplinary program offering different courses under the leadership of a program coordinator. As changes in funding and administration took place due to the altered…

  8. Strategic and Organisational Considerations in Planning Content and Language Integrated Learning: A Study on the Coordination between Content and Language Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavón Vázquez, Víctor; Ávila López, Javier; Gallego Segador, Arturo; Espejo Mohedano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) is generally recognised as a fruitful example of bilingual education. However, success in CLIL may not be straightforward and may require the establishment of coordination between content and language teachers. The aim of this study is to investigate if content and language teachers are able to plan…

  9. Studies of hypernuclei by associated production

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    The effectiveness of the associated production, the (..pi../sup +/,K/sup +/) technique, for obtaining hypernuclear spectra across the whole periodic table is demonstrated. Binding energy spectra for hypernuclei of beryllium-9, carbon-12, carbon-13, oxygen-16, silicon-28, calcium-40, vanadium-51, and yttrium-89 were measured. The Low-Energy-Separated Beam I at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS was used with the Moby Dick spectrometer. A rate of 2 million pions per beam spill was used for targets of beryllium-9, carbon-12, water, silicon, and calcium. A rate of 10 million pions per beam spill was used for carbon-13, vanadium-51, calcium, and yttrium-89. The higher beam rates were necessary for the low cross sections for the ground states of heavier targets. All of the spectra for hypernuclei above the p-shell show the presence of a continuum apparently underlying the peaks of the bound state region. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Using Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) As a Framework for Coordination Between Research and Monitoring Networks: A Case Study with Phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, J. F.; Jones, K. D.; Brown, J. F.; Elmendorf, S.; Enquist, C.; Rosemartin, A.; Thorpe, A.; Wee, B.

    2014-12-01

    The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) was organized to encourage countries to take action to address issues of declining biodiversity. In2010, the CBD identified specific goals for 2011-2020 (the "Aichi Targets") and a tiered system of indicators necessary to achieve those targets. Essential biodiversity variables (EBVs) are the standardized measurements and observations at the base of this system; they are the basic level of information that is necessary to calculate these indicators. By providing a list of pre-defined EBVs, existing research and research planned for the future can align measurements to address common questions. We assessed the applicability of phenology EBVs for standardizing measurements across observation networks within the US as a test case for use of the standardized used of EBVs. Phenology products from the USA National Phenology Network, a citizen science observer based program, NEON, a multi-scale ecological observatory, and remotely sensed data from USGS EROS were considered for this purpose. Essential Biodiversity Variables currently defined for phenology are insufficient to support consistent measurement across monitoring networks. Specifically, phenology which is a field of study, is currently listed as a single EBV within the general category of 'species traits'. With the only guidance provided to future observation networks being that of measuring 'phenology,' there would likely be as many approaches to achieving this goal as networks participating. We propose more narrowly defined variables which may be more appropriate for standardization and demonstrate how these measurements satisfy the basic characteristics of an EBV in that they are relevant, sensitive to change, biological and generalizable, scalable, feasible, stable and, represent state variables. We map these variables to the tiered indicators identified by the CBD and, finally, to Aichi Targets to which they contribute. EBVs may be used not only to

  11. Gastric and gall bladder emptying of a mixed meal are not coordinated in liver cirrhosis--a simultaneous sonographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Acalovschi, M; Dumitraşcu, D L; Csakany, I

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: An impaired contractility has been suggested as a contributor to the increased incidence of gallstones in liver cirrhosis, but the few studies on gall bladder emptying in cirrhotics offered contradictory results. Ingestion of a meal triggers the physiological pathway of gall bladder emptying; therefore, it was decided to analyse postprandial kinetics by investigating simultaneously the rates of gastric and gall bladder emptying of a mixed meal in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: Gastric and gall bladder emptying were measured using ultrasound techniques after a solid-liquid meal (14 g fat, 425 kcal) in 24 patients with liver cirrhosis and in 12 controls. None of the subjects had gall bladder disease. Sequential changes in cross sectional area of the gastric antrum and in gall bladder volume were represented as a monoexponential process after the test meal. Cirrhotic patients were analysed according to the severity of disease (Child classes). The presence of portal gastropathy was assessed by endoscopy. Differences between groups were assessed using the two tailed Student's t test for unpaired observations and the correlations by linear regression (Pearson's coefficient). RESULTS: It was found that gastric emptying after the solid-liquid meal was delayed in cirrhotic patients compared with controls. Gall bladder emptying was significantly diminished in cirrhotic patients: the area under curve was greater in Child A (p = 0.01), Child B (p = 0.04), and Child C (p = 0.014) cirrhotics compared with controls. No correlation was found between the variables of gastric and gall bladder emptying. Gall bladder refilling began earlier in cirrhotics than in controls, before completion of gastric emptying. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate the lack of coordination between gastric and gall bladder emptying in liver cirrhosis. They also support the hypothesis that diminished gall bladder contractility might contribute to the increased gallstone

  12. Cytotoxic Hydrophilic Iminophosphorane Coordination Compounds of d8 Metals. Studies of their Interactions with DNA and HSA

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Monica; Calvo-Sanjuán, Rubén; Sanaú, Mercedes; Zhao, Xiangbo; Magliozzo, Richard S.; Marzo, Isabel; Contel, María

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a new water-soluble N,N-chelating iminophosphorane ligand TPA=N-C(O)-2-NC5H4 (N,N-IM) (1) and its d8 (AuIII, PdII and PtII) coordination complexes are reported. The structures of cationic [AuCl2(N,N-IM)] ClO4 (2) and neutral [MCl2(N,N-IM)] M = Pd (3), Pt(4) complexes were determined by X-ray diffraction studies or by means of density-functional calculations. While the Pd and Pt compounds are stable in mixtures of DMSO/H2O over 4 days, the gold derivative (2) decomposes quickly to TPA=O and previously reported neutral gold(III) compound [AuCl2(N,N-H)] 5 (containing the chelating N,N- fragment HN-C(O)-2-NC5H4). The cytotoxicities of complexes 2–5 were evaluated in vitro against human Jurkat-T acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells and DU-145 human prostate cancer cells. Pt (4) and Au compounds (2 and 5) are more cytotoxic than cisplatin to these cell lines and to cisplatin-resistant Jurkat sh-Bak cell lines and their cell death mechanism is different from that of cisplatin. All the compounds show higher toxicity against leukemia cells when compared to normal human T-lymphocytes (PBMC). The interaction of the Pd and Pt compounds with calf thymus and plasmid (pBR322) DNA is different from that of cisplatin. All compounds bind to human serum albumin (HSA) faster than cisplatin (measured by fluorescence spectroscopy). Weak and stronger binding interactions were found for the Pd (3) and Pt (4) derivatives by isothermal titration calorimetry. Importantly, for the Pt (4) compounds the binding to HSA was reversed by addition of a chelating agent (citric acid) and by a decrease in pH. PMID:23063789

  13. Metal dependent motif transition in a self-assembled monolayer of bipyridine derivatives via coordination: An STM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Yuan, Qunhui; Xu, Hongbo; Zhu, Xuefeng; Gan, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Low-dimensional molecular motifs with diversity developed via the on-surface chemistry are attracting growing interest for their potential in advanced nanofabrication. In this work, scanning tunneling microscopy was employed to investigate the in situ and ex situ metal coordinations between 4,4'-ditetradecyl-2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) and Zn(ii) or Cu(ii) ions at a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG)/1-phenyloctane interface under ambient conditions. The results demonstrate that the bpy adopts a flat-lying orientation with its substituted alkyl chains in a tail-to-tail arrangement in a bpy monolayer. For the in situ coordination, the bpy/Zn(ii) and bpy/Cu(ii) complexes are aligned in edge-on fashions, wherein the bpy stands vertically on the HOPG surface and interdigitates at the alkyl chains. In the two-dimensional arrays of ex situ coordinated complexes, metal dependent motifs have been observed with Zn(ii) and Cu(ii), wherein the bipyridine moieties are parallel to the graphite surface. These results suggest that the desired on-surface coordination architectures may be achieved by the intentional selection of the metal centers.

  14. Exploring coupling coordination between urbanization and ecosystem quality (1985-2010): a case study from Lianyungang City, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Junyong; Feng, Lan; Dong, Xiaowei; Zhu, Xiaodong; Li, Yangfan

    2016-09-01

    Urbanization processes affect the ecosystem through alterations in ecological functions and landscape patterns. Currently, analysis of the total ecosystem services value (ESV) has targeted the overall benefits which human beings obtain from the regional ecosystem but does not generally include information regarding ecological structures and patterns. Therefore, the results cannot reflect the comprehensive state of the local ecosystem. We propose a new, integrative ecosystem quality indicator based on the ESVand landscape metrics for evaluating the quality of the regional ecosystem. We adopted the method of a coupled degree of coordination for evaluating the interrelationship between urbanization and ecosystem quality in Lianyungang City from 1985 to 2010. The coupling degree of coordination between urbanization and ecosystem quality showed an inverse U-shaped curve. At the primary stage of urbanization (1985‒1995), the degree of coupling of urbanization and the ecosystem was just barely balanced. From 1995 until 2000, the coupling system reached a balanced condition, in which the urbanization level increased. Since 2000, the urbanization process has accelerated. The coordination between urbanization and the ecosystem achieved the optimum condition in 2005. A turning point appeared at the same time, and the degree of coupling coordination began falling from the optimum. Subsequently, the coupled system once more entered a barely balanced state. Overall, the comprehensive level of ecosystem quality decreased since 1985 and degraded sharply after 2005, suggesting an overall degradation of the local ecosystem quality.

  15. Coordination of Education Policies with Policies in Other Fields: A Synthesis. Reports, Studies Working Series No. S.139.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallen, Dennis

    Issues pertinent to the coordination of educational policies with those in other fields for innovative policy formation are presented in this synthesis. The first section details objectives of the interdisciplinary approach, of which the development of common frameworks and methodological tools that are adaptable to specific countries or regions…

  16. Coordinated Health and Human Resources Development: Report of a WHO Study Group. Technical Report Series No. 801.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This report explores the theory and practice of coordinated health and human resources development as a concept that can help guard against the production of inappropriate categories or numbers of health personnel. The report concentrates of what can be done to make education and training programs more directly responsive to the priority needs in…

  17. Care coordination between specialty care and primary care: a focus group study of provider perspectives on strong practices and improvement opportunities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo; Lucatorto, Michelle A; Hawthorne, Kara; Hersh, Janis; Myers, Raquel; Elwy, A Rani; Graham, Glenn D

    2015-01-01

    Care coordination between the specialty care provider (SCP) and the primary care provider (PCP) is a critical component of safe, efficient, and patient-centered care. Veterans Health Administration conducted a series of focus groups of providers, from specialty care and primary care clinics at VA Medical Centers nationally, to assess 1) what SCPs and PCPs perceive to be current practices that enable or hinder effective care coordination with one another and 2) how these perceptions differ between the two groups of providers. A qualitative thematic analysis of the gathered data validates previous studies that identify communication as being an important enabler of coordination, and uncovers relationship building between specialty care and primary care (particularly through both formal and informal relationship-building opportunities such as collaborative seminars and shared lunch space, respectively) to be the most notable facilitator of effective communication between the two sides. Results from this study suggest concrete next steps that medical facilities can take to improve care coordination, using as their basis the mutual understanding and respect developed between SCPs and PCPs through relationship-building efforts. PMID:25653538

  18. Study of EVA operations associated with satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, J. O.; Wilde, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) factors associated with satellite servicing activities are identified and the EMU improvements necessary to enhance satellite servicing operations are outlined. Areas of EMU capabilities, equipment and structural interfaces, time lines, EMU modifications for satellite servicing, environmental hazards, and crew training are vital to manned Eva/satellite services and as such are detailed. Evaluation of EMU capabilities indicates that the EMU can be used in performing near term, basic satellite servicing tasks; however, satellite servicing is greatly enhanced by incorporating key modifications into the EMU. The servicing missions involved in contamination sensitive payload repair are illustrated. EVA procedures and equipment can be standardized, reducing both crew training time and in orbit operations time. By standardizing and coordinating procedures, mission cumulative time lines fall well within the EMU capability.

  19. A coordination theory for intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Fei-Yue; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    A formal model for the coordination level of intelligent machines is established. The framework of the coordination level investigated consists of one dispatcher and a number of coordinators. The model called coordination structure has been used to describe analytically the information structure and information flow for the coordination activities in the coordination level. Specifically, the coordination structure offers a formalism to (1) describe the task translation of the dispatcher and coordinators; (2) represent the individual process within the dispatcher and coordinators; (3) specify the cooperation and connection among the dispatcher and coordinators; (4) perform the process analysis and evaluation; and (5) provide a control and communication mechanism for the real-time monitor or simulation of the coordination process. A simple procedure for the task scheduling in the coordination structure is presented. The task translation is achieved by a stochastic learning algorithm. The learning process is measured with entropy and its convergence is guaranteed. Finally, a case study of the coordination structure with three coordinators and one dispatcher for a simple intelligent manipulator system illustrates the proposed model and the simulation of the task processes performed on the model verifies the soundness of the theory.

  20. Anxiety reduction associated with meditation: home study.

    PubMed

    Puryear, H B; Cayce, C T; Thurston, M A

    1976-10-01

    The effects of a new meditation technique were investigated; 159 A.R.E. members were randomly assigned either to a treatment or control group with the former learning the new technique using a home-study workbook manual and the latter continuing their customary meditational techniques. Analysis of variance (repeated measures) was used to compare group means of the scale scores yielded by two instruments, the IPAT Anxiety Scale (Self-analysis Form) and the Mooney Problem Check List, Adult Form (Mooney & Gordon, 1950). Unlike the control group, the treatment group reported highly significant reduction on the IPAT Anxiety Scale scores after 28 days of meditating with the new approach but no significant differences were found on the check list variables for either the treatment or control group. Implications of the findings for mental health professionals (psychiatrists, clinical and counseling psychologists) are briefly discussed.

  1. Experimental matrix isolation study and quantum-mechanics-based normal-coordinate analysis of the anharmonic infrared spectrum of picolinic acid N-oxide.

    PubMed

    Szczepaniak, Krystyna; Person, Willis B; Hadzi, Dusan

    2005-08-01

    This work is, according to our knowledge, the first experimental matrix isolation study of a molecular system with a very short and strong intramolecular OH...O hydrogen bond. It also includes a satisfying interpretation of its entire infrared spectrum. The interpretation relies on the calculation at the DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of the harmonic spectrum and of the anharmonic relaxed potential energy for the stretching motion of the hydrogen-bonded proton, used with our recently modified quantum-mechanics-based normal-coordinate analysis. An important observation about the anharmonic spectrum obtained from this procedure is that the OH stretch coordinate contributes to several normal modes, mixing extensively with other in-plane internal coordinates, in particular OH-bending and C=O-stretching. The two intense normal modes with the largest contributions from the OH-stretching coordinate to the potential energy distribution and to the intensity are located near 1700 and 1500 cm(-1). A calculated anharmonic spectrum obtained from this procedure agrees with the experimental spectrum (frequencies and intensity distribution), within the limits of the estimated uncertainties for the calculation and experiment, allowing the interpretation of the latter. The agreement for the frequencies is about 1-3%. The anharmonic spectrum calculated using the anharmonic keyword in Gaussian 03w is not in satisfactory agreement with experiment insofar as the OH-stretching mode is concerned.

  2. Principles of Coordination Polymerisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuran, Witold

    2001-11-01

    The first all-inclusive text covering coordination polymerisation, including important classes of non-hydrocarbon monomers. Charting the achievements and progress in the field, in terms of both basic and industrial research, this book offers a unified and complete overview of coordination polymerisation. Provides detailed description of the historical development of the subject Presents a unified view of catalysis, mechanisms, structures and utility Encourages learning through a step-by-step progression from basic to in-depth text Features end-of-chapter exercises to reinforce understanding Offers a full bibliography and comprehensive literature review Requisite reading for research students studying introductory and advanced courses in; polymer science, catalysis and polymerisation catalysis, and valuable reference for researchers and technicians in industry.

  3. Cilia and coordination of signaling networks during heart development

    PubMed Central

    Koefoed, Karen; Veland, Iben Rønn; Pedersen, Lotte Bang; Larsen, Lars Allan; Christensen, Søren Tvorup

    2014-01-01

    Primary cilia are unique sensory organelles that coordinate a wide variety of different signaling pathways to control cellular processes during development and in tissue homeostasis. Defects in function or assembly of these antenna-like structures are therefore associated with a broad range of developmental disorders and diseases called ciliopathies. Recent studies have indicated a major role of different populations of cilia, including nodal and cardiac primary cilia, in coordinating heart development, and defects in these cilia are associated with congenital heart disease. Here, we present an overview of the role of nodal and cardiac primary cilia in heart development. PMID:24345806

  4. Processing Coordinate Structures in Chinese: Evidence from Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Qingrong, Chen; Yan, Huang

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the results of an eye-tracking experiment that investigated the processing of coordinate structures in Chinese sentence comprehension. The study tracked the eye movements of native Chinese readers as they read sentences consisting of two independent clauses connected by the word huo zhe. The data strongly confirmed readers' preference for an initial noun phrase (NP)-coordination parsing in Chinese coordination structure. When huo zhe was absent from the beginning of a sentence, we identified a cost associated with abandoning the NP-coordination analysis, which was evident with regard to the second NP when the coordination was unambiguous. Otherwise, this cost was evident with regard to the verb, the syntactically disambiguating region, when the coordination was ambiguous. However, the presence of a sentence-initial huo zhe reduced reading times and regressions in the huo zhe NP and the verb regions. We believe that the word huo zhe at the beginning of a sentence helps the reader predict that the sentence contains a parallel structure. Before the corresponding phrases appear, the readers can use the word huo zhe and the language structure thereafter to predicatively construct the syntactic structure. Such predictive capability can eliminate the reader's preference for NP-coordination analysis. Implications for top-down parsing theory and models of initial syntactic analysis and reanalysis are discussed. PMID:22558163

  5. Processing coordinate structures in Chinese: evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Qingrong, Chen; Yan, Huang

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the results of an eye-tracking experiment that investigated the processing of coordinate structures in Chinese sentence comprehension. The study tracked the eye movements of native Chinese readers as they read sentences consisting of two independent clauses connected by the word huo zhe. The data strongly confirmed readers' preference for an initial noun phrase (NP)-coordination parsing in Chinese coordination structure. When huo zhe was absent from the beginning of a sentence, we identified a cost associated with abandoning the NP-coordination analysis, which was evident with regard to the second NP when the coordination was unambiguous. Otherwise, this cost was evident with regard to the verb, the syntactically disambiguating region, when the coordination was ambiguous. However, the presence of a sentence-initial huo zhe reduced reading times and regressions in the huo zhe NP and the verb regions. We believe that the word huo zhe at the beginning of a sentence helps the reader predict that the sentence contains a parallel structure. Before the corresponding phrases appear, the readers can use the word huo zhe and the language structure thereafter to predicatively construct the syntactic structure. Such predictive capability can eliminate the reader's preference for NP-coordination analysis. Implications for top-down parsing theory and models of initial syntactic analysis and reanalysis are discussed.

  6. Challenges for the understanding of the dynamics of social coordination

    PubMed Central

    Lagarde, Julien

    2013-01-01

    The way people interact can be examined by looking at the way they move relative to each other. Seeking the principles behind those interactions have consequences potentially related to any type of interpersonal function, far beyond the so-called “motor” processes typically associated with the study of movements, be it perceptive, cognitive, affective, pragmatic, or epistemic. Here, we present the way the framework of coordination dynamics define and addresses the interactive actions in a dyad. We first introduce the basics of pattern formation as the roots of the theoretical approach of coordination dynamics, and then the way this framework may contribute to establish a solution to classify behaviors. Thereafter we review promising empirical results on the dynamics of interpersonal coordination, and finally discuss were to go next to decipher the way the coordination between two people and the way each individual contribute may be disentangled. PMID:24130526

  7. Theoretical study of the Pb(II)-catechol system in dilute aqueous solution: Complex structure and metal coordination sphere determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapouge, Christine; Cornard, Jean-Paul

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the unknown interaction of Pb(II) with catechol ligand in diluted aqueous solution by electronic spectroscopies combined with quantum chemical calculations. The aim of this work is the determination of the complete structure of the complex formed and particularly the metal coordination sphere. Three successive steps have been necessary to reach this goal: (i) the comparison of the experimental electronic absorption spectrum with theoretical spectra calculated from various hypothetical structures, (ii) complexation reaction pathways calculations in vacuum and with taking into account the solvent effects and finally (iii) the fluorescence emission wavelength calculations. All these investigations led to identify a monodentate complex with the monodeprotonated ligand, in which the Pb atom presents a coordination number of five. The formula of the complex is [Pb(Hcat)(HO)4]mono+.

  8. Stabilization of coordinatively unsaturated Ir4 clusters with bulky ligands: a comparative study of chemical and mechanical effects.

    PubMed

    Okrut, Alexander; Gazit, Oz; de Silva, Namal; Nichiporuk, Rita; Solovyov, Andrew; Katz, Alexander

    2012-02-21

    The synthesis and characterization of new cluster compounds represented by the series Ir(4)(CO)(12-x)L(x) (L = tert-butyl-calix[4]-arene(OPr)(3)(OCH(2)PPh(2)); x = 2 and 3) is reported using ESI mass spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Thermally driven decarbonylation of the cluster compound series represented by x = 1-3 according to the formula above is followed via FTIR and NMR spectroscopies, and dynamic light scattering in toluene solution. The propensity of these clusters to decarbonylate in solution is shown to be directly correlated with number density of adsorbed calixarene phosphine ligands and controlled via Pauli repulsion between metal d and CO 5σ orbitals. The tendency for cluster aggregation unintuitively follows a trend that is exactly opposite to the cluster's propensity to decarbonylate. No cluster aggregation is observed for clusters consisting of x = 3, even after extensive decarbonylation via loss of all bridging CO ligands and coordinative unsaturation. Some of the CO lost during thermal treatment via decarbonylation can be rebound to the coordinatively unsaturated cluster consisting of x = 3. In contrast, the clusters consisting of x = 1 and x = 2 both aggregate into large nanoparticles when treated under identical conditions. Clusters in which the calixarene phosphine ligand is replaced with a sterically less demanding PPh(2)Me ligand 6 lead to significantly less coordinative unsaturation upon thermal treatment. Altogether, these data support a mechanical model of accessibility in coordinatively unsaturated metal clusters in solution, which hinges on having at least three sterically bulky organic ligands per Ir(4) core.

  9. Extraction and coordination studies of a carbonyl-phosphine oxide scorpionate ligand with uranyl and lanthanide(III) nitrates: structural, spectroscopic and DFT characterization of the complexes.

    PubMed

    Matveeva, Anna G; Vologzhanina, Anna V; Goryunov, Evgenii I; Aysin, Rinat R; Pasechnik, Margarita P; Matveev, Sergey V; Godovikov, Ivan A; Safiulina, Alfiya M; Brel, Valery K

    2016-03-28

    Hybrid scorpionate ligand (OPPh2)2CHCH2C(O)Me (L) was synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic methods and X-ray diffraction. The selected coordination chemistry of L with UO2(NO3)2 and Ln(NO3)3 (Ln = La, Nd, Lu) has been evaluated. The isolated mono- and binuclear complexes, namely, [UO2(NO3)2L] (1), [{UO2(NO3)L}2(μ2-O2)]·EtOH (2), [La(NO3)3L2]·2.33MeCN (3), [Nd(NO3)3L2]·3MeCN (4), [Nd(NO3)2L2]+·(NO3)−·EtOH (5) and [Lu(NO3)3L2] (6) have been characterized by IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Single-crystal X-ray structures have been determined for complexes 1-5. Intramolecular intraligand π-stacking interactions between two phenyl fragments of the coordinated ligand(s) were observed in all complexes 1-5. The π-stacking interaction energy was estimated from Bader's AIM theory calculations performed at the DFT level. Solution properties have been examined using IR and multinuclear ((1)H, (13)C, and (31)P) NMR spectroscopy in CD3CN and CDCl3. Coordination modes of L vary with the coordination polyhedron of the metal and solvent nature showing many coordination modes: P(O),P(O), P(O),P(O),C(O), P(O),C(O), and P(O). Preliminary extraction studies of U(VI) and Ln(III) (Ln = La, Nd, Ho, Yb) from 3.75 M HNO3 into CHCl3 show that scorpionate L extracts f-block elements (especially uranium) better than its unmodified prototype (OPPh2)2CH2.

  10. Papers arising from IAEA Coordinated Research Project "Utilization of ion accelerators for studying and modelling of radiation induced defects in semiconductors and insulators" (F11016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittone, Ettore; Breese, Mark; Simon, Aliz

    2016-04-01

    Within the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, activities are carried out to assist and advise IAEA Member States in assessing their needs for capacity building, research and development in nuclear sciences. Support is also provided to Member States' activities geared towards deriving benefits in fields such as (i) advanced materials for nuclear applications, (ii) application of accelerators and associated instrumentation, and (iii) nuclear, atomic and molecular data. One of the means that the IAEA uses to deliver its programme is Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) which are very effective in stimulating international research and scientific interaction among the Member States.

  11. 47 CFR 80.513 - Frequency coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency coordination. 80.513 Section 80.513... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.513 Frequency coordination. (a... frequency coordinating committee must be accompanied by: (1) A report based on a field study, indicating...

  12. 47 CFR 80.513 - Frequency coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency coordination. 80.513 Section 80.513... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.513 Frequency coordination. (a... frequency coordinating committee must be accompanied by: (1) A report based on a field study, indicating...

  13. 47 CFR 80.513 - Frequency coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency coordination. 80.513 Section 80.513... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.513 Frequency coordination. (a... frequency coordinating committee must be accompanied by: (1) A report based on a field study, indicating...

  14. 47 CFR 80.513 - Frequency coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency coordination. 80.513 Section 80.513... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.513 Frequency coordination. (a... frequency coordinating committee must be accompanied by: (1) A report based on a field study, indicating...

  15. 47 CFR 80.513 - Frequency coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency coordination. 80.513 Section 80.513... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.513 Frequency coordination. (a... frequency coordinating committee must be accompanied by: (1) A report based on a field study, indicating...

  16. Chemical Principles Revisited: Some Aspects of Coordination Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews characteristics of coordination chemistry, the study of coordination compounds, a major focal point for the inorganic chemist. Provides a brief history regarding the Wernerian System and background information in modern coordination theory. (CS)

  17. Combination of mouse models and genomewide association studies highlights novel genes associated with human kidney function.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jiaojiao; Pattaro, Cristian; Hoppmann, Anselm; Okada, Yukinori; Fox, Caroline S; Köttgen, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Genomewide association studies have identified numerous chronic kidney disease-associated genetic variants, but often do not pinpoint causal genes. This limitation was addressed by combining Mouse Genome Informatics with human genomewide association studies of kidney function. Genes for which mouse models showed abnormal renal physiology, morphology, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), or urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio were identified from Mouse Genome Informatics. The corresponding human orthologs were then evaluated for GFR-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 133,814 individuals and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio-associated SNPs in 54,451 individuals in genome-wide association studies meta-analysis of the CKDGen Consortium. After multiple testing corrections, significant associations with estimated GFR in humans were identified for single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 2, 7, and 17 genes causing abnormal GFR, abnormal physiology, and abnormal morphology in mice, respectively. Genes identified for abnormal kidney morphology showed significant enrichment for estimated GFR-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms. In total, 19 genes contained variants associated with estimated GFR or the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio of which 16 mapped into previously reported genomewide significant loci. CYP26A1 and BMP4 emerged as novel signals subsequently validated in a large, independent study. An additional gene, CYP24A1, was discovered after conditioning on a published nearby association signal. Thus, our novel approach to combine comprehensive mouse phenotype information with human genomewide association studies data resulted in the identification of candidate genes for kidney disease pathogenesis.

  18. Combination of mouse models and genomewide association studies highlights novel genes associated with human kidney function.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jiaojiao; Pattaro, Cristian; Hoppmann, Anselm; Okada, Yukinori; Fox, Caroline S; Köttgen, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Genomewide association studies have identified numerous chronic kidney disease-associated genetic variants, but often do not pinpoint causal genes. This limitation was addressed by combining Mouse Genome Informatics with human genomewide association studies of kidney function. Genes for which mouse models showed abnormal renal physiology, morphology, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), or urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio were identified from Mouse Genome Informatics. The corresponding human orthologs were then evaluated for GFR-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 133,814 individuals and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio-associated SNPs in 54,451 individuals in genome-wide association studies meta-analysis of the CKDGen Consortium. After multiple testing corrections, significant associations with estimated GFR in humans were identified for single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 2, 7, and 17 genes causing abnormal GFR, abnormal physiology, and abnormal morphology in mice, respectively. Genes identified for abnormal kidney morphology showed significant enrichment for estimated GFR-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms. In total, 19 genes contained variants associated with estimated GFR or the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio of which 16 mapped into previously reported genomewide significant loci. CYP26A1 and BMP4 emerged as novel signals subsequently validated in a large, independent study. An additional gene, CYP24A1, was discovered after conditioning on a published nearby association signal. Thus, our novel approach to combine comprehensive mouse phenotype information with human genomewide association studies data resulted in the identification of candidate genes for kidney disease pathogenesis. PMID:27263491

  19. Structural Studies of Copper(I) Complexes of Amyloid-Beta Peptide Fragments: Formation of Two-Coordinate Bis(Histidine) Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Himes, R.A.; Park, G.Young.; Siluvai, G.Sutha.; Blackburn, N.J.; Karlin, K.D.

    2009-05-18

    The beta bind: Copper(I) binds to amyloid {beta}-peptide fragments (see structure) as a stable bis(histidine), two-coordinate, near-linear complex, even in the presence of potential additional ligands. As has been proposed or assumed in other studies, the copper(I)-peptide complexes react with dioxygen to form the reactive oxygen species H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, without the need for a third histidine ligand to promote the chemistry.

  20. Inferring Quantitative Trait Pathways Associated with Bull Fertility from a Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Peñagaricano, Francisco; Weigel, Kent A.; Rosa, Guilherme J. M.; Khatib, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Whole-genome association studies typically focus on genetic markers with the strongest evidence of association. However, single markers often explain only a small component of the genetic variance and hence offer a limited understanding of the trait under study. As such, the objective of this study was to perform a pathway-based association analysis in Holstein dairy cattle in order to identify relevant pathways involved in bull fertility. The results of a single-marker association analysis, using 1,755 bulls with sire conception rate data and genotypes for 38,650 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), were used in this study. A total of 16,819 annotated genes, including 2,767 significantly associated with bull fertility, were used to interrogate a total of 662 Gene Ontology (GO) terms and 248 InterPro (IP) entries using a test of proportions based on the cumulative hypergeometric distribution. After multiple-testing correction, 20 GO categories and one IP entry showed significant overrepresentation of genes statistically associated with bull fertility. Several of these functional categories such as small GTPases mediated signal transduction, neurogenesis, calcium ion binding, and cytoskeleton are known to be involved in biological processes closely related to male fertility. These results could provide insight into the genetic architecture of this complex trait in dairy cattle. In addition, this study shows that quantitative trait pathways inferred from single-marker analyses could enhance our interpretations of the results of genome-wide association studies. PMID:23335935

  1. Genetic association studies in drug-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ann K; Day, Chris P

    2009-11-01

    Genetic studies on drug-induced liver injury (DILI) have proved challenging, both because of their rarity and their difficulty in replicating observed effects. However, significant progress has now been achieved by both candidate-gene and genome-wide association studies. These two approaches are considered in detail, together with examples of DILI due to specific drugs where consistent associations have been reported. Particular consideration is given to associations between antituberculosis drug-related liver injury and the "slow acetylator" genotype for N-acetyltransferase 2, amoxicillin/clavulanate-related liver injury, and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DRB1*1501 allele and flucloxacillin-related injury and the HLA class I B*5701 allele. Although these associations are drug-specific, the possibility that additional, more general susceptibility genes for DILI exist requires further investigation, ideally by genome-wide association studies involving international collaboration. The possibility of interethnic variation in susceptibility to DILI also requires further study.

  2. Successful Coordination and Execution of Non-Therapeutic Studies in a Cooperative Group Setting: Lessons Learned from Children’s Oncology Group Studies

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Andrea; Landier, Wendy; Schad, Amy; Moser, Allison; Schaible, Alexandra; Hanby, Cara; Kurian, Seira; Lennie Wong, F.; Villaluna, Doojduen; Bhatia, Smita

    2008-01-01

    The immense progress made in childhood cancer survival has been due to the systematic and efficient conduct of large multicenter therapeutic trials, utilizing the infrastructure developed by national cooperative groups. These therapeutic trials have been successful, in part due to the high participation rates by the participating member institutions. However, participation in non-therapeutic trials in the cooperative group setting has lagged behind that of therapeutic trials for a variety of reasons, such as lack of institutional resources, leading to low priority given to such activities. The purpose of this report is to share some of the methods developed and successfully implemented by a Coordinating Center (City of Hope National Medical Center) to maximize institutional participation and patient enrollment and to standardize data collection and quality control, in order to ensure successful execution of two large, extramurally funded, cooperative group non-therapeutic studies. To date, over 175 institutions have obtained regulatory approval for the protocols showcased here, accrual has been on target, and completeness and quality of the collected data has been excellent. The successful execution of these non-therapeutic studies demonstrates the advantages of diverse study publicity techniques, detailed standardized operating procedures, and effective utilization of technological resources. PMID:18628418

  3. Theoretical study of the coordination behavior of formate and formamidoximate with dioxovanadium( v ) cation: implications for selectivity towards uranyl

    DOE PAGES

    Mehio, Nada; Johnson, J. Casey; Dai, Sheng; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.

    2015-10-28

    Poly(acrylamidoxime)-based fibers bearing random mixtures of carboxylate and amidoxime groups are the most widely utilized materials for extracting uranium from seawater. However, the competition between uranyl (UO22+) and vanadium ions poses a significant challenge to the industrial mining of uranium from seawater using the current generation of adsorbents. To design more selective adsorbents, a detailed understanding of how major competing ions interact with carboxylate and amidoxime ligands is required. In this work, we employ density functional theory (DFT) and wave-function methods to investigate potential binding motifs of the dioxovanadium ion, VO2+, with water, formate, and formamidoximate ligands. Employing higher levelmore » of theory calculations (CCSD(T)) resolve the existing controversy between the experimental results and previous DFT calculations for the structure of the hydrated VO2+ ion. Consistent with the EXAFS data, CCSD(T) calculations predict higher stability of the distorted octahedral geometry of VO2+(H2O)4 compared to the five-coordinate complex with a single water molecule in the second hydration shell, while all seven tested DFT methods yield the reverse stability of the two conformations. Analysis of the relative stabilities of formate-VO2+ complexes indicates that both monodentate and bidentate forms may coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium in solution, with the equilibrium balance leaning more towards the formation of monodentate species. Investigations of VO2+ coordination with the formamidoximate anion has revealed the existence of seven possible binding motifs, four of which are within ~ 4.0 kcal/mol of each other. Calculations establish that the most stable binding motif entails the coordination of oxime oxygen and amide nitrogen atoms via a tautomeric rearrangement of amidoxime to imino hydroxylamine. Lastly, the difference in the most stable VO2+ and UO22+ binding conformation has important implications for the design of more

  4. A quantum-chemical study of the chlorophyll phosphorescence spectrum: Electron-vibrational coupling and coordination effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etinski, M.; Petković, M.; Ristić, M. M.

    2016-03-01

    The lowest triplet state and phosphorescence spectra of tetra-, penta- and hexacoordinated chlorophylls a, b and d were investigated by density functional theory and multimode harmonic approximation. We find good agreement between computed and experimental energies of the triplet state. Vibrational modes sensitive to coordination were identified. The simulated and experimental spectra are in reasonably good agreement. Comparing high-resolution simulated fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra we support an observation of Hartzler et al. (2014) [14] that the same vibrational modes govern lineshapes of phosphorescence and fluorescence spectra, although with different coupling strengths.

  5. Molecular orbital study of coordinated dioxygen. I. Structure and bonding of model monomeric Co(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boča, R.

    1980-08-01

    The CNDO—UHF type of MO—LCAO—SCP calculation is carried out for model systems of dioxygen fixation: O 2 CoCl 4L 2- complexes in which L = none and L = NH 3. A geometry variation is performed with respect to 5 internal coordinates describing the degrees of freedom of the Co—O 2 group. The calculated geometry, spin densities and atomic charges agree with available data based on X-ray and ESR measurements of real dioxygen carriers. Structure and bonding of complexes are discussed in more detail.

  6. Effective coordination as a predictor of adsorption energies: A model study of NO on Rh(100) and Rh/MgO(100) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pushpa, Raghani; Gironcoli, Stefano de; Narasimhan, Shobhana

    2009-04-15

    We have studied the adsorption of NO, and the coadsorption of N and O, on four physical and hypothetical systems: unstrained and strained Rh(100) surfaces and monolayers of Rh atoms on strained and unstrained MgO(100) surfaces. We find that as we go from Rh(100) to Rh/Mg0(100), via the other two hypothetical systems, the effective coordination progressively decreases, the d band narrows and its center shifts closer to the Fermi level, and the strength of adsorption and coadsorption increases. Both the strain and the presence of the oxide substrate contribute significantly to this. However, charge transfer is found to play a negligible role due to a canceling out between donation and back-donation processes. Our results suggest that lowering the effective coordination of Rh catalysts by strain, roughening, or the use of inert substrates might lower activation energies for the dissociation of NO.

  7. Tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns reveal a coordinated metabolic response associated with genetic selection for milk production in cows.

    PubMed

    Weikard, R; Goldammer, T; Brunner, R M; Kuehn, C

    2012-07-15

    The molecular mechanisms regulating the physiological adaptation of tissues important for nutrient partitioning and metabolism in lactating cows are still not completely understood. The aim of our study was to identify tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms necessary to accommodate metabolic changes associated with different genetic potential for milk performance. For this purpose, we analyzed mRNA expression of genes involved in energy metabolism of segregating F(2) beef type cows with a combined genetic dairy and beef background (Charolais × German Holstein cross, CH×GH) in contrast to purebred German Holstein (GH) dairy cows. Three groups of cows differing in milk performance were examined using quantitative real-time PCR in liver, mammary gland, and skeletal muscle. Our results describe substantial tissue-specific differences in mRNA transcription profiles between cow groups in relation to their genetic potential for milk performance and highlight genes exhibiting specific, partially yet-unknown functions in dairy and beef type cows, e.g., upregulation of PCK2 transcripts in the mammary gland and FBP2 transcripts in skeletal muscle of dairy cows. Noticeably, PCCA and PPARGC1A mRNA abundance varied significantly across experimental groups in all three tissues, pointing to potential key gene functions in the metabolic adaptation relative to divergent milk production performance. Correlations of mRNA expression levels to milk performance traits indicate that gene transcriptional processes may play a regulatory role in liver, mammary gland, and skeletal muscle to enable cows with different genetic potential for milk performance to cope with metabolic lactation-associated challenges.

  8. Movement and Coordination

    MedlinePlus

    ... will seem to be continually on the go—running, kicking, climbing, jumping. His attention span, which was ... his coordination. In the months ahead, your child’s running will become smoother and more coordinated. He’ll ...

  9. X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Studies of Mn Coordination in Doped Perovskite SrTiO3

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, I.; Krayzman, V; Woicik, J; Tkach, A; Vilarinho, P

    2010-01-01

    The coordination of Mn in doped SrTiO{sub 3} ceramics having nominal compositions SrTi{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.02}O{sub 3} and Sr{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.02}TiO{sub 3} was analyzed using x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements. As expected, Mn{sup 4+} substitution for Ti{sup 4+} leads to Mn occupancy of the octahedral B-sites of ABO{sub 3} perovskite lattice with a Mn-O bond distance of 1.902 {angstrom} (compared to 1.953 {angstrom} for Ti-O) and no significant local distortions around the Mn atoms. In contrast, for the composition Sr{sub 0.98}Mn{sup 0.02}TiO{sub 3}, Mn segregates to both the A-sites (as Mn{sup 2+}) and the B-sites (predominantly as Mn{sup 4+}). Extended XAFS confirms strong ({approx} 0.77 {angstrom}) displacements of Mn{sup 2+} cations off the ideal A-site positions along <001> directions with a significant distortion of several coordination shells around the dopant atoms.

  10. Detecting discontinuities in GNSS coordinate time series with STARS: case study, the Bologna and Medicina GPS sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, S.; Zerbini, Susanna; Raicich, F.; Errico, M.; Santi, E.

    2014-12-01

    Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) data are a fundamental source of information for achieving a better understanding of geophysical and climate-related phenomena. However, discontinuities in the coordinate time series might be a severe limiting factor for the reliable estimate of long-term trends. A methodological approach has been adapted from Rodionov (Geophys Res Lett 31:L09204, 2004; Geophys Res Lett 31:L12707, 2006) and from Rodionov and Overland (J Marine Sci 62:328-332, 2005) to identify both the epoch of occurrence and the magnitude of jumps corrupting GNSS data sets without any a priori information on these quantities. The procedure is based on the Sequential t test Analysis of Regime Shifts (STARS) (Rodionov in Geophys Res Lett 31:L09204, 2004). The method has been tested against a synthetic data set characterized by typical features exhibited by real GNSS time series, such as linear trend, seasonal cycle, jumps, missing epochs and a combination of white and flicker noise. The results show that the offsets identified by the algorithm are split into 48 % of true-positive, 28 % of false-positive and 24 % of false-negative events. The procedure has then been applied to GPS coordinate time series of stations located in the southeastern Po Plain, in Italy. The series span more than 15 years and are affected by offsets of different nature. The methodology proves to be effective, as confirmed by the comparison between the corrected GPS time series and those obtained by other observation techniques.

  11. Empirical force field for cisplatin based on quantum dynamics data: case study of new parameterization scheme for coordination compounds.

    PubMed

    Yesylevskyy, S; Cardey, Bruno; Kraszewski, S; Foley, Sarah; Enescu, Mironel; da Silva, Antônio M; Dos Santos, Hélio F; Ramseyer, Christophe

    2015-10-01

    Parameterization of molecular complexes containing a metallic compound, such as cisplatin, is challenging due to the unconventional coordination nature of the bonds which involve platinum atoms. In this work, we develop a new methodology of parameterization for such compounds based on quantum dynamics (QD) calculations. We show that the coordination bonds and angles are more flexible than in normal covalent compounds. The influence of explicit solvent is also shown to be crucial to determine the flexibility of cisplatin in quantum dynamics simulations. Two empirical topologies of cisplatin were produced by fitting its atomic fluctuations against QD in vacuum and QD with explicit first solvation shell of water molecules respectively. A third topology built in a standard way from the static optimized structure was used for comparison. The later one leads to an excessively rigid molecule and exhibits much smaller fluctuations of the bonds and angles than QD reveals. It is shown that accounting for the high flexibility of cisplatin molecule is needed for adequate description of its first hydration shell. MD simulations with flexible QD-based topology also reveal a significant decrease of the barrier of passive diffusion of cisplatin accross the model lipid bilayer. These results confirm that flexibility of organometallic compounds is an important feature to be considered in classical molecular dynamics topologies. Proposed methodology based on QD simulations provides a systematic way of building such topologies.

  12. Lower-Limb Joint Coordination Pattern in Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ranavolo, Alberto; Donini, Lorenzo M.; Mari, Silvia; Serrao, Mariano; Silvetti, Alessio; Iavicoli, Sergio; Cava, Edda; Asprino, Rosa; Pinto, Alessandro; Draicchio, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The coordinative pattern is an important feature of locomotion that has been studied in a number of pathologies. It has been observed that adaptive changes in coordination patterns are due to both external and internal constraints. Obesity is characterized by the presence of excess mass at pelvis and lower-limb areas, causing mechanical constraints that central nervous system could manage modifying the physiological interjoint coupling relationships. Since an altered coordination pattern may induce joint diseases and falls risk, the aim of this study was to analyze whether and how coordination during walking is affected by obesity. We evaluated interjoint coordination during walking in 25 obese subjects as well as in a control group. The time-distance parameters and joint kinematics were also measured. When compared with the control group, obese people displayed a substantial similarity in joint kinematic parameters and some differences in the time-distance and in the coupling parameters. Obese subjects revealed higher values in stride-to-stride intrasubjects variability in interjoint coupling parameters, whereas the coordinative mean pattern was unaltered. The increased variability in the coupling parameters is associated with an increased risk of falls and thus should be taken into account when designing treatments aimed at restoring a normal locomotion pattern. PMID:23484078

  13. Australian and South Pacific External Studies Association: Odlaa's Regional Predecessor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bewley, Donald

    2008-01-01

    The Australian and South Pacific External Studies Association (ASPESA)-- the predecessor of the Open and Distance Learning Association of Australia, Inc. (ODLAA)--was founded in 1973. From the outset, ASPESA adopted a broader-than-Australia focus for open and distance learning that included New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and the member countries…

  14. Analysis Coordinator Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nothnagel, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present the IVS analysis coordination issues of 2012. The IVS Analysis Coordinator is responsible for generating and disseminating the official IVS products. This requires consistency of the input data by strict adherence to models and conventions. The term of the current IVS Analysis Coordinator will end on February 28, 2013.

  15. Processing Coordination Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2010-01-01

    We examined temporarily ambiguous coordination structures such as "put the butter in the bowl and the pan on the towel." Minimal Attachment predicts that the ambiguous noun phrase "the pan" will be interpreted as a noun-phrase coordination structure because it is syntactically simpler than clausal coordination. Constraint-based theories assume…

  16. Literacy Coordinators' Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    This handbook is designed to provide support for England's National Literacy Strategy's Literacy Coordinators leading and coordinating literacy across the school. The handbook is designed as a working document and will contain additional materials, LEA (local education authorities) guidance, and additional papers which Coordinators may choose to…

  17. Cause versus association in observational studies in psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-08-01

    Hypotheses may be generated (and conclusions drawn) from observational studies in areas where information from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is unavailable. However, observational studies can only establish that significant associations exist between predictor and outcome variables. Observational studies cannot establish that the associations identified represent cause-and-effect relationships. This article discusses examples of associations that were identified in observational studies and that were subsequently refuted in RCTs. Examples are also provided of associations that have yet to be confirmed or refuted but that are nevertheless influential in psychopharmacologic practice. Explanations are offered about how confounding might explain significant relationships between variables that are not related by cause and effect. As a conclusion of this exercise, clinicians are cautioned against placing too much reliance on the findings of observational research.

  18. Higher coordinate gold(I) complexes with the weak Lewis base tri(4-fluorophenyl) phosphine. Synthesis, structural, luminescence, and DFT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbeworvi, George; Assefa, Zerihun; Sykora, Richard E.; Taylor, Jared; Crawford, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    The structures and spectroscopic properties of two high coordinate gold(I) phosphine complexes with the TFFPP=tri(4-fluorophenyl)phosphine ligand are reported. Synthesis in a 1:3 metal to ligand ratio provided the compound [AuCl(TFFPP)3] (2) that crystallize in the P 1 bar space group, where the asymmetric unit consists of three independent molecules. In all three sites, two sets of bond angles display distinctly different ranges. The three P-Au-P angles have average values of 117.92°, 117.57°, and 114.78° for sites A, B, and C, with the corresponding P-Au-Cl angles of 98.31°, 99.05°, and 103.38°, respectively. The chloride ion coordinates as the fourth ligand, at the corresponding Au-Cl distance of 2.7337, 2.6825, and 2.6951 Å for the three sites. This distance is longer by 0.40-0.45 Å than the Au-Cl distance found in the mono TFFPP complex 1 (2.285 Å) indicating a weakening of the Au-Cl interaction as the coordination number increases. In compound 3, [Au(TFFPP)3]Cl·½CH2Cl2·H2O, the structure consists of three phosphine ligands bound to the gold(I) atom, but the Cl- exists as uncoordinated counter anion. The structural differences observed in the two complexes are attributable to crystal-packing effects caused by the introduction of H-bonding as well as enhanced intra and inter-molecular π-interaction in 3. The photoluminescence of the complexes compared with that of the ligand show ligand centered emission perturbed by the metal coordination. Theoretical DFT studies conducted on these complexes supports assignments of the electronic transitions observed in these systems.

  19. A genome wide association study identifies common variants associated with lipid levels in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; He, Meian; Mo, Zengnan; Wu, Chen; Yang, Handong; Yu, Dianke; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wang, Yiqin; Sun, Jielin; Gao, Yong; Tan, Aihua; He, Yunfeng; Zhang, Haiying; Qin, Xue; Zhu, Jingwen; Li, Huaixing; Lin, Xu; Zhu, Jiang; Min, Xinwen; Lang, Mingjian; Li, Dongfeng; Zhai, Kan; Chang, Jiang; Tan, Wen; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Weihong; Wang, Youjie; Wei, Sheng; Miao, Xiaoping; Wang, Feng; Fang, Weimin; Liang, Yuan; Deng, Qifei; Dai, Xiayun; Lin, Dafeng; Huang, Suli; Guo, Huan; Lilly Zheng, S; Xu, Jianfeng; Lin, Dongxin; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun

    2013-01-01

    Plasma lipid levels are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease and are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several lipid-associated loci, but these loci have been identified primarily in European populations. In order to identify genetic markers for lipid levels in a Chinese population and analyze the heterogeneity between Europeans and Asians, especially Chinese, we performed a meta-analysis of two genome wide association studies on four common lipid traits including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) in a Han Chinese population totaling 3,451 healthy subjects. Replication was performed in an additional 8,830 subjects of Han Chinese ethnicity. We replicated eight loci associated with lipid levels previously reported in a European population. The loci genome wide significantly associated with TC were near DOCK7, HMGCR and ABO; those genome wide significantly associated with TG were near APOA1/C3/A4/A5 and LPL; those genome wide significantly associated with LDL were near HMGCR, ABO and TOMM40; and those genome wide significantly associated with HDL were near LPL, LIPC and CETP. In addition, an additive genotype score of eight SNPs representing the eight loci that were found to be associated with lipid levels was associated with higher TC, TG and LDL levels (P = 5.52 × 10(-16), 1.38 × 10(-6) and 5.59 × 10(-9), respectively). These findings suggest the cumulative effects of multiple genetic loci on plasma lipid levels. Comparisons with previous GWAS of lipids highlight heterogeneity in allele frequency and in effect size for some loci between Chinese and European populations. The results from our GWAS provided comprehensive and convincing evidence of the genetic determinants of plasma lipid levels in a Chinese population.

  20. Tidewater Regional Model for Articulation and Coordination of Nursing Education. Task Analyses Guides for Licensed Practical Nurses Pursuing an Associate Degree in Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norfolk Public Schools, VA.

    This instructional guide includes the curriculum for two complete and separate courses to be taught at the associate degree level. The first six units of the guide are the course content for a 2-3 semester hour course, "Transition from Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) to Associate Degree Nursing (ADN)." The entire content of the guide, 19 units in…

  1. Genome-wide association studies and contribution to cardiovascular physiology

    PubMed Central

    Munroe, Patricia B.

    2015-01-01

    The study of family pedigrees with rare monogenic cardiovascular disorders has revealed new molecular players in physiological processes. Genome-wide association studies of complex traits with a heritable component may afford a similar and potentially intellectually richer opportunity. In this review we focus on the interpretation of genetic associations and the issue of causality in relation to known and potentially new physiology. We mainly discuss cardiometabolic traits as it reflects our personal interests, but the issues pertain broadly in many other disciplines. We also describe some of the resources that are now available that may expedite follow up of genetic association signals into observations on causal mechanisms and pathophysiology. PMID:26106147

  2. Genome-wide association studies and contribution to cardiovascular physiology.

    PubMed

    Munroe, Patricia B; Tinker, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    The study of family pedigrees with rare monogenic cardiovascular disorders has revealed new molecular players in physiological processes. Genome-wide association studies of complex traits with a heritable component may afford a similar and potentially intellectually richer opportunity. In this review we focus on the interpretation of genetic associations and the issue of causality in relation to known and potentially new physiology. We mainly discuss cardiometabolic traits as it reflects our personal interests, but the issues pertain broadly in many other disciplines. We also describe some of the resources that are now available that may expedite follow up of genetic association signals into observations on causal mechanisms and pathophysiology.

  3. Study of coordination environments around Pd and Pt in a Pd-core Pt-shell nanoparticle during heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Y. F.; Hamaguchi, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Takagi, H.; Dohmae, K.; Nonaka, T.; Nagai, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Local coordination environments around Pd and Pt in a Pd-core Pt-shell nanoparticle (NP) at temperatures ranging from 473 to 873 K was evaluated by utilizing in situ XAFS measurement technique to investigate the temperature range in which a core-shell structure is preserved. The core-shell structure was considered to be kept up to 673 K and start to change at about 773 K. Heating to 873 K accelerated atomic mixing in the core-shell NPs. Catalytic properties of the present Pd-core Pt-shell NP are available in the stoichiometric C3H6-O2 atmosphere at temperatures less than 773 K at most.

  4. Novel loci associated with usual sleep duration: the CHARGE Consortium Genome-Wide Association Study.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, D J; Hek, K; Chen, T-H; Watson, N F; Eiriksdottir, G; Byrne, E M; Cornelis, M; Warby, S C; Bandinelli, S; Cherkas, L; Evans, D S; Grabe, H J; Lahti, J; Li, M; Lehtimäki, T; Lumley, T; Marciante, K D; Pérusse, L; Psaty, B M; Robbins, J; Tranah, G J; Vink, J M; Wilk, J B; Stafford, J M; Bellis, C; Biffar, R; Bouchard, C; Cade, B; Curhan, G C; Eriksson, J G; Ewert, R; Ferrucci, L; Fülöp, T; Gehrman, P R; Goodloe, R; Harris, T B; Heath, A C; Hernandez, D; Hofman, A; Hottenga, J-J; Hunter, D J; Jensen, M K; Johnson, A D; Kähönen, M; Kao, L; Kraft, P; Larkin, E K; Lauderdale, D S; Luik, A I; Medici, M; Montgomery, G W; Palotie, A; Patel, S R; Pistis, G; Porcu, E; Quaye, L; Raitakari, O; Redline, S; Rimm, E B; Rotter, J I; Smith, A V; Spector, T D; Teumer, A; Uitterlinden, A G; Vohl, M-C; Widen, E; Willemsen, G; Young, T; Zhang, X; Liu, Y; Blangero, J; Boomsma, D I; Gudnason, V; Hu, F; Mangino, M; Martin, N G; O'Connor, G T; Stone, K L; Tanaka, T; Viikari, J; Gharib, S A; Punjabi, N M; Räikkönen, K; Völzke, H; Mignot, E; Tiemeier, H

    2015-10-01

    Usual sleep duration is a heritable trait correlated with psychiatric morbidity, cardiometabolic disease and mortality, although little is known about the genetic variants influencing this trait. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of usual sleep duration was conducted using 18 population-based cohorts totaling 47 180 individuals of European ancestry. Genome-wide significant association was identified at two loci. The strongest is located on chromosome 2, in an intergenic region 35- to 80-kb upstream from the thyroid-specific transcription factor PAX8 (lowest P=1.1 × 10(-9)). This finding was replicated in an African-American sample of 4771 individuals (lowest P=9.3 × 10(-4)). The strongest combined association was at rs1823125 (P=1.5 × 10(-10), minor allele frequency 0.26 in the discovery sample, 0.12 in the replication sample), with each copy of the minor allele associated with a sleep duration 3.1 min longer per night. The alleles associated with longer sleep duration were associated in previous GWAS with a more favorable metabolic profile and a lower risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these associations may help elucidate biological mechanisms influencing sleep duration and its association with psychiatric, metabolic and cardiovascular disease.

  5. Meta-analysis of Dense Genecentric Association Studies Reveals Common and Uncommon Variants Associated with Height

    PubMed Central

    Lanktree, Matthew B.; Guo, Yiran; Murtaza, Muhammed; Glessner, Joseph T.; Bailey, Swneke D.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Lettre, Guillaume; Ongen, Halit; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Johnson, Toby; Shen, Haiqing; Nelson, Christopher P.; Klopp, Norman; Baumert, Jens; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pankratz, Nathan; Pankow, James S.; Shah, Sonia; Taylor, Kira; Barnard, John; Peters, Bas J.; M. Maloney, Cliona; Lobmeyer, Maximilian T.; Stanton, Alice; Zafarmand, M. Hadi; Romaine, Simon P.R.; Mehta, Amar; van Iperen, Erik P.A.; Gong, Yan; Price, Tom S.; Smith, Erin N.; Kim, Cecilia E.; Li, Yun R.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Atwood, Larry D.; Bailey, Kristian M.; Bhatt, Deepak; Bauer, Florianne; Behr, Elijah R.; Bhangale, Tushar; Boer, Jolanda M.A.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Brown, Morris; Braund, Peter S.; Burton, Paul R.; Carty, Cara; Chandrupatla, Hareesh R.; Chen, Wei; Connell, John; Dalgeorgou, Chrysoula; Boer, Anthonius de; Drenos, Fotios; Elbers, Clara C.; Fang, James C.; Fox, Caroline S.; Frackelton, Edward C.; Fuchs, Barry; Furlong, Clement E.; Gibson, Quince; Gieger, Christian; Goel, Anuj; Grobbee, Diederik E.; Hastie, Claire; Howard, Philip J.; Huang, Guan-Hua; Johnson, W. Craig; Li, Qing; Kleber, Marcus E.; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Kooperberg, Charles; Ky, Bonnie; LaCroix, Andrea; Lanken, Paul; Lathrop, Mark; Li, Mingyao; Marshall, Vanessa; Melander, Olle; Mentch, Frank D.; J. Meyer, Nuala; Monda, Keri L.; Montpetit, Alexandre; Murugesan, Gurunathan; Nakayama, Karen; Nondahl, Dave; Onipinla, Abiodun; Rafelt, Suzanne; Newhouse, Stephen J.; Otieno, F. George; Patel, Sanjey R.; Putt, Mary E.; Rodriguez, Santiago; Safa, Radwan N.; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Simpson, Claire; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Suver, Christine; Swergold, Gary; Sweitzer, Nancy K.; Thomas, Kelly A.; Thorand, Barbara; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tischfield, Sam; Tobin, Martin; Tomaszweski, Maciej; Verschuren, W.M. Monique; Wallace, Chris; Winkelmann, Bernhard; Zhang, Haitao; Zheng, Dongling; Zhang, Li; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Clarke, Robert; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Danesh, John; Day, Ian N.; Schork, Nicholas J.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Delles, Christian; Duggan, David; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofker, Marten H.; Humphries, Steve E.; Kivimaki, Mika; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Mega, Jessica L.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Morrow, David A.; Palmen, Jutta; Redline, Susan; Shields, Denis C.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sleiman, Patrick M.; Smith, George Davey; Farrall, Martin; Jamshidi, Yalda; Christiani, David C.; Casas, Juan P.; Hall, Alistair S.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; D. Christie, Jason; Berenson, Gerald S.; Murray, Sarah S.; Illig, Thomas; Dorn, Gerald W.; Cappola, Thomas P.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Sever, Peter; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Caulfield, Mark; Talmud, Philippa J.; Topol, Eric; Engert, James C.; Wang, Kai; Dominiczak, Anna; Hamsten, Anders; Curtis, Sean P.; Silverstein, Roy L.; Lange, Leslie A.; Sabatine, Marc S.; Trip, Mieke; Saleheen, Danish; Peden, John F.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; März, Winfried; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Klungel, Olaf H.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke Hilse; Schadt, Eric E.; Johnson, Julie A.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Papanicolaou, George J.; Grant, Struan F.A.; Munroe, Patricia B.; North, Kari E.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Gaunt, Tom R.; Anand, Sonia S.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Soranzo, Nicole; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Reiner, Alex; Hegele, Robert A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Keating, Brendan J.

    2011-01-01

    Height is a classic complex trait with common variants in a growing list of genes known to contribute to the phenotype. Using a genecentric genotyping array targeted toward cardiovascular-related loci, comprising 49,320 SNPs across approximately 2000 loci, we evaluated the association of common and uncommon SNPs with adult height in 114,223 individuals from 47 studies and six ethnicities. A total of 64 loci contained a SNP associated with height at array-wide significance (p < 2.4 × 10−6), with 42 loci surpassing the conventional genome-wide significance threshold (p < 5 × 10−8). Common variants with minor allele frequencies greater than 5% were observed to be associated with height in 37 previously reported loci. In individuals of European ancestry, uncommon SNPs in IL11 and SMAD3, which would not be genotyped with the use of standard genome-wide genotyping arrays, were strongly associated with height (p < 3 × 10−11). Conditional analysis within associated regions revealed five additional variants associated with height independent of lead SNPs within the locus, suggesting allelic heterogeneity. Although underpowered to replicate findings from individuals of European ancestry, the direction of effect of associated variants was largely consistent in African American, South Asian, and Hispanic populations. Overall, we show that dense coverage of genes for uncommon SNPs, coupled with large-scale meta-analysis, can successfully identify additional variants associated with a common complex trait. PMID:21194676

  6. Genetic Association Studies in Lumbar Disc Degeneration: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Eskola, Pasi J.; Lemmelä, Susanna; Kjaer, Per; Solovieva, Svetlana; Männikkö, Minna; Tommerup, Niels; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Cheung, Kenneth M. C.; Chan, Danny

    2012-01-01

    Objective Low back pain is associated with lumbar disc degeneration, which is mainly due to genetic predisposition. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review to evaluate genetic association studies in lumbar disc degeneration as defined on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in humans. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, SCOPUS, ISI Web of Science, The Genetic Association Database and The Human Genome Epidemiology Network for information published between 1990–2011 addressing genes and lumbar disc degeneration. Two investigators independently identified studies to determine inclusion, after which they performed data extraction and analysis. The level of cumulative genetic association evidence was analyzed according to The HuGENet Working Group guidelines. Results Fifty-two studies were included for review. Forty-eight studies reported at least one positive association between a genetic marker and lumbar disc degeneration. The phenotype definition of lumbar disc degeneration was highly variable between the studies and replications were inconsistent. Most of the associations presented with a weak level of evidence. The level of evidence was moderate for ASPN (D-repeat), COL11A1 (rs1676486), GDF5 (rs143383), SKT (rs16924573), THBS2 (rs9406328) and MMP9 (rs17576). Conclusions Based on this first extensive systematic review on the topic, the credibility of reported genetic associations is mostly weak. Clear definition of lumbar disc degeneration phenotypes and large population-based cohorts are needed. An international consortium is needed to standardize genetic association studies in relation to disc degeneration. PMID:23185509

  7. Generalization of Rare Variant Association Tests for Longitudinal Family Studies.

    PubMed

    Chien, Li-Chu; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Bowden, Donald W; Chiu, Yen-Feng

    2016-02-01

    Given the functional relevance of many rare variants, their identification is frequently critical for dissecting disease etiology. Functional variants are likely to be aggregated in family studies enriched with affected members, and this aggregation increases the statistical power to detect rare variants associated with a trait of interest. Longitudinal family studies provide additional information for identifying genetic and environmental factors associated with disease over time. However, methods to analyze rare variants in longitudinal family data remain fairly limited. These methods should be capable of accounting for different sources of correlations and handling large amounts of sequencing data efficiently. To identify rare variants associated with a phenotype in longitudinal family studies, we extended pedigree-based burden (BT) and kernel (KS) association tests to genetic longitudinal studies. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) approaches were used to generalize the pedigree-based BT and KS to multiple correlated phenotypes under the generalized linear model framework, adjusting for fixed effects of confounding factors. These tests accounted for complex correlations between repeated measures of the same phenotype (serial correlations) and between individuals in the same family (familial correlations). We conducted comprehensive simulation studies to compare the proposed tests with mixed-effects models and marginal models, using GEEs under various configurations. When the proposed tests were applied to data from the Diabetes Heart Study, we found exome variants of POMGNT1 and JAK1 genes were associated with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26783077

  8. Generalization of Rare Variant Association Tests for Longitudinal Family Studies.

    PubMed

    Chien, Li-Chu; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Bowden, Donald W; Chiu, Yen-Feng

    2016-02-01

    Given the functional relevance of many rare variants, their identification is frequently critical for dissecting disease etiology. Functional variants are likely to be aggregated in family studies enriched with affected members, and this aggregation increases the statistical power to detect rare variants associated with a trait of interest. Longitudinal family studies provide additional information for identifying genetic and environmental factors associated with disease over time. However, methods to analyze rare variants in longitudinal family data remain fairly limited. These methods should be capable of accounting for different sources of correlations and handling large amounts of sequencing data efficiently. To identify rare variants associated with a phenotype in longitudinal family studies, we extended pedigree-based burden (BT) and kernel (KS) association tests to genetic longitudinal studies. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) approaches were used to generalize the pedigree-based BT and KS to multiple correlated phenotypes under the generalized linear model framework, adjusting for fixed effects of confounding factors. These tests accounted for complex correlations between repeated measures of the same phenotype (serial correlations) and between individuals in the same family (familial correlations). We conducted comprehensive simulation studies to compare the proposed tests with mixed-effects models and marginal models, using GEEs under various configurations. When the proposed tests were applied to data from the Diabetes Heart Study, we found exome variants of POMGNT1 and JAK1 genes were associated with type 2 diabetes.

  9. Accounting for linkage disequilibrium in genome-wide association studies: A penalized regression method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Wang, Kai; Ma, Shuangge; Huang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Penalized regression methods are becoming increasingly popular in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for identifying genetic markers associated with disease. However, standard penalized methods such as LASSO do not take into account the possible linkage disequilibrium between adjacent markers. We propose a novel penalized approach for GWAS using a dense set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The proposed method uses the minimax concave penalty (MCP) for marker selection and incorporates linkage disequilibrium (LD) information by penalizing the difference of the genetic effects at adjacent SNPs with high correlation. A coordinate descent algorithm is derived to implement the proposed method. This algorithm is efficient in dealing with a large number of SNPs. A multi-split method is used to calculate the p-values of the selected SNPs for assessing their significance. We refer to the proposed penalty function as the smoothed MCP and the proposed approach as the SMCP method. Performance of the proposed SMCP method and its comparison with LASSO and MCP approaches are evaluated through simulation studies, which demonstrate that the proposed method is more accurate in selecting associated SNPs. Its applicability to real data is illustrated using heterogeneous stock mice data and a rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:25258655

  10. Accounting for linkage disequilibrium in genome-wide association studies: A penalized regression method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Wang, Kai; Ma, Shuangge; Huang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Penalized regression methods are becoming increasingly popular in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for identifying genetic markers associated with disease. However, standard penalized methods such as LASSO do not take into account the possible linkage disequilibrium between adjacent markers. We propose a novel penalized approach for GWAS using a dense set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The proposed method uses the minimax concave penalty (MCP) for marker selection and incorporates linkage disequilibrium (LD) information by penalizing the difference of the genetic effects at adjacent SNPs with high correlation. A coordinate descent algorithm is derived to implement the proposed method. This algorithm is efficient in dealing with a large number of SNPs. A multi-split method is used to calculate the p-values of the selected SNPs for assessing their significance. We refer to the proposed penalty function as the smoothed MCP and the proposed approach as the SMCP method. Performance of the proposed SMCP method and its comparison with LASSO and MCP approaches are evaluated through simulation studies, which demonstrate that the proposed method is more accurate in selecting associated SNPs. Its applicability to real data is illustrated using heterogeneous stock mice data and a rheumatoid arthritis.

  11. A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Multiple Regions Associated with Head Size in Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xin; Liu, Shikai; Yao, Jun; Bao, Lisui; Zhang, Jiaren; Li, Chao; Wang, Ruijia; Sha, Jin; Zeng, Peng; Zhi, Degui; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-01-01

    Skull morphology is fundamental to evolution and the biological adaptation of species to their environments. With aquaculture fish species, head size is also important for economic reasons because it has a direct impact on fillet yield. However, little is known about the underlying genetic basis of head size. Catfish is the primary aquaculture species in the United States. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study using the catfish 250K SNP array with backcross hybrid catfish to map the QTL for head size (head length, head width, and head depth). One significantly associated region on linkage group (LG) 7 was identified for head length. In addition, LGs 7, 9, and 16 contain suggestively associated regions for head length. For head width, significantly associated regions were found on LG9, and additional suggestively associated regions were identified on LGs 5 and 7. No region was found associated with head depth. Head size genetic loci were mapped in catfish to genomic regions with candidate genes involved in bone development. Comparative analysis indicated that homologs of several candidate genes are also involved in skull morphology in various other species ranging from amphibian to mammalian species, suggesting possible evolutionary conservation of those genes in the control of skull morphologies. PMID:27558670

  12. Studies on the ion-association of methylene blue and salicylic acid in neat and mixed binary solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Soumen; Ghosh, Sujit Kumar; Kundu, Subrata; Nath, Sudip; Panigrahi, Sudipa; Praharaj, Snigdhamayee; Pal, Tarasankar

    2005-05-01

    Thiazine dye, methylene blue forms 1:1 ion-associate with salicylic acid in aqueous phase and the ion-associate can be extracted in a series of non-polar non-coordinating solvent systems. The influence of different parameters on the process of ion-association has been studied. The suitability of a number of phenolic precursors for the formation of ion-associate with methylene blue has been tested. Charge-transfer absorption band of the dye molecules in relation to ion-pair has been followed in a sequence of neat and mixed binary solvents and the dependence of the absorption maxima has been found to correlate well with the solvent polarity.

  13. A systematic density functional study of the zero-field splitting in Mn(II) coordination compounds.

    PubMed

    Zein, Samir; Duboc, Carole; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Neese, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a detailed evaluation of the performance of density functional theory (DFT) for the prediction of zero-field splittings (ZFSs) in Mn(II) coordination complexes. Eighteen experimentally well characterized four-, five-, and six-coordinate complexes of the general formula [Mn(L)nL'2] with L' = Cl, Br, I, NCS, or N3 (L = an oligodentate ligand) are considered. Several DFT-based approaches for the prediction of the ZFSs are compared. For the estimation of the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) part of the ZFS, it was found that the Pederson-Khanna (PK) approach is more successful than the previously proposed quasi-restricted orbitals (QRO)-based method. In either case, accounting for the spin-spin (SS) interaction either with or without the inclusion of the spin-polarization effects improves the results. This argues for the physical necessity of accounting for this important contribution to the ZFS. On average, the SS contribution represents approximately 30% of the axial D parameters. In addition to the SS part, the SOC contributions of d-d spin flip (alphabeta) and ligand-to-metal charge transfer excited states (betabeta) were found to dominate the SOC part of the D parameter; the observed near cancellation between the alphaalpha and betaalpha parts is discussed in the framework of the PK model. The calculations systematically (correlation coefficient approximately 0.99) overestimate the experimental D values by approximately 60%. Comparison of the signs of calculated and measured D values shows that the signs of the calculated axial ZFS parameters are unreliable once E/D > 0.2. Finally, we find that the calculated D and E/D values are highly sensitive to small structural changes. It is observed that the use of theoretically optimized geometries leads to a significant deterioration of the theoretical predictions relative to the experimental geometries derived from X-ray diffraction. The standard deviation of the theoretical predictions for the D values

  14. Probing and modeling of pressure-induced coordination transformation in borate glasses: Inelastic x-ray scattering study at high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sung Keun; Eng, Peter J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Shu, Jinfu

    2009-01-15

    Here, we report on the in situ synchrotron inelastic x-ray scattering spectra of Na-borate glasses at high pressure up to 25 GPa. The pressure-induced boron coordination transformation from {sup [3]}B to {sup [4]}B is linear with pressure characterized by a single value of ({partial_derivative}{sup [3]}B/{partial_derivative}P){sub T}. Previous studies of Li-borate and pure-borate glasses show a nonlinear transformation with multiple ({partial_derivative}{sup [3]}B/{partial_derivative}P){sub T} values for different pressure ranges, revealing the important role cation field strength plays in densification and pressure-induced structural changes. Considering the distribution of the energy difference beween low- and high-pressure states ({Delta}{var_epsilon}) in the energy landscape and the variance of the ratio {Delta}{var_epsilon} to its pressure gradient ({partial_derivative}{Delta}{var_epsilon}/{partial_derivative}P){sub T} as a measure of network flexibility with pressure, an amorphous system with a large variance in {Delta}{var_epsilon} at 1 atm and/or a small ({partial_derivative}{Delta}{var_epsilon}/{partial_derivative}P){sub T} may undergo a gradual coordination transformation (e.g., Na borates). In contrast, a system with the opposite behavior (e.g., Li borates) undergoes an abrupt coordination transformation. The results and concepts of this study thus can shed light on opportunities to study the effect of composition on the nature of densification in low-z oxide and other archetypal glasses and melts.

  15. Conforming to coordinate: children use majority information for peer coordination.

    PubMed

    Grueneisen, Sebastian; Wyman, Emily; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Humans are constantly required to coordinate their behaviour with others. As this often relies on everyone's convergence on the same strategy (e.g., driving on the left side of the road), a common solution is to conform to majority behaviour. In this study, we presented 5-year-old children with a coordination problem: To retrieve some rewards, they had to choose the same of four options as a peer partner--in reality a stooge--whose decision they were unable to see. Before making a choice, they watched a video showing how other children from their partner's peer group had behaved; a majority chose the same option and a minority chose a different one. In a control condition, children watched the same video but could then retrieve the reward irrespective of their partner's choice (i.e., no coordination was necessary). Children followed the majority more often when coordination was required. Moreover, conformers mostly justified their choices by referring to the majority from the video demonstration. This study is the first to show that young children are able to strategically coordinate decisions with peers by conforming to the majority.

  16. Searching for missing heritability: Designing rare variant association studies

    PubMed Central

    Zuk, Or; Schaffner, Stephen F.; Samocha, Kaitlin; Do, Ron; Hechter, Eliana; Kathiresan, Sekar; Daly, Mark J.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; Lander, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic studies have revealed thousands of loci predisposing to hundreds of human diseases and traits, revealing important biological pathways and defining novel therapeutic hypotheses. However, the genes discovered to date typically explain less than half of the apparent heritability. Because efforts have largely focused on common genetic variants, one hypothesis is that much of the missing heritability is due to rare genetic variants. Studies of common variants are typically referred to as genomewide association studies, whereas studies of rare variants are often simply called sequencing studies. Because they are actually closely related, we use the terms common variant association study (CVAS) and rare variant association study (RVAS). In this paper, we outline the similarities and differences between RVAS and CVAS and describe a conceptual framework for the design of RVAS. We apply the framework to address key questions about the sample sizes needed to detect association, the relative merits of testing disruptive alleles vs. missense alleles, frequency thresholds for filtering alleles, the value of predictors of the functional impact of missense alleles, the potential utility of isolated populations, the value of gene-set analysis, and the utility of de novo mutations. The optimal design depends critically on the selection coefficient against deleterious alleles and thus varies across genes. The analysis shows that common variant and rare variant studies require similarly large sample collections. In particular, a well-powered RVAS should involve discovery sets with at least 25,000 cases, together with a substantial replication set. PMID:24443550

  17. Coordination behavior of new bis Schiff base ligand derived from 2-furan carboxaldehyde and propane-1,3-diamine. Spectroscopic, thermal, anticancer and antibacterial activity studies.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gehad G; Zayed, Ehab M; Hindy, Ahmed M M

    2015-06-15

    Novel bis Schiff base ligand, [N1,N3-bis(furan-2-ylmethylene)propane-1,3-diamine], was prepared by the condensation of furan-2-carboxaldehyde with propane-1,3-diamine. Its conformational changes on complexation with transition metal ions [Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Fe(III)] have been studied on the basis of elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, spectral (infrared, (1)H NMR, electronic), magnetic and thermogravimetric studies. The conductance data of the complexes revealed their electrolytic nature suggesting them as 1:2 (for bivalent metal ions) and 1:3 (for Fe(III) ion) electrolytes. The complexes were found to have octahedral geometry based on magnetic moment and solid reflectance measurements. Thermal analysis data revealed the decomposition of the complexes in successive steps with the removal of anions, coordinated water and bis Schiff base ligand. The thermodynamic parameters were calculated using Coats-Redfern equation. The Anticancer screening studies were performed on human colorectal cancer (HCT), hepatic cancer (HepG2) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines. The antimicrobial activity of all the compounds was studied against Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris) and Gram positive (Bacillus vulgaris and Staphylococcus pyogones) bacteria. It was observed that the coordination of metal ion has a pronounced effect on the microbial activities of the bis Schiff base ligand. All the metal complexes have shown higher antimicrobial effect than the free bis Schiff base ligand.

  18. Coordination behavior of new bis Schiff base ligand derived from 2-furan carboxaldehyde and propane-1,3-diamine. Spectroscopic, thermal, anticancer and antibacterial activity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; Zayed, Ehab M.; Hindy, Ahmed M. M.

    2015-06-01

    Novel bis Schiff base ligand, [N1,N3-bis(furan-2-ylmethylene)propane-1,3-diamine], was prepared by the condensation of furan-2-carboxaldehyde with propane-1,3-diamine. Its conformational changes on complexation with transition metal ions [Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Fe(III)] have been studied on the basis of elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, spectral (infrared, 1H NMR, electronic), magnetic and thermogravimetric studies. The conductance data of the complexes revealed their electrolytic nature suggesting them as 1:2 (for bivalent metal ions) and 1:3 (for Fe(III) ion) electrolytes. The complexes were found to have octahedral geometry based on magnetic moment and solid reflectance measurements. Thermal analysis data revealed the decomposition of the complexes in successive steps with the removal of anions, coordinated water and bis Schiff base ligand. The thermodynamic parameters were calculated using Coats-Redfern equation. The Anticancer screening studies were performed on human colorectal cancer (HCT), hepatic cancer (HepG2) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines. The antimicrobial activity of all the compounds was studied against Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris) and Gram positive (Bacillus vulgaris and Staphylococcus pyogones) bacteria. It was observed that the coordination of metal ion has a pronounced effect on the microbial activities of the bis Schiff base ligand. All the metal complexes have shown higher antimicrobial effect than the free bis Schiff base ligand.

  19. The MarR family transcription factor Rv1404 coordinates adaptation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to acid stress via controlled expression of Rv1405c, a virulence-associated methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Healy, Claire; Golby, Paul; MacHugh, David E; Gordon, Stephen V

    2016-03-01

    Coordinated regulation of gene expression is essential for pathogen adaptation in vivo. Understanding the control of these virulence circuits in the TB pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a key challenge if we are to increase our basic understanding of how this organism establishes infection. In this study we focused on the transcriptional regulator Rv1404 that shows similarity to the MarR family of transcriptional repressors. Rv1404 derepresses a set of genes in vivo that have been implicated in virulence and may therefore allow adaptation of M. tuberculosis to the intracellular environment. We used a combination of ChIP-qPCR and Electromobility Band Shift Assays (EMSA) to show that Rv1404 coordinates gene expression in response to stresses such as low pH in M. tuberculosis. Two genes regulated by Rv1404, rv1403c and rv1405c, encode putative SAM-dependent methyltransferases. To elucidate gene function, M. tuberculosis rv1403c and rv1405c mutants were constructed. The mutants showed attenuated growth in response to in vitro stress conditions that mimic the intracellular milieu. Our data sheds new light on the function of a novel regulon controlled by Rv1404 that coordinates adaptation of M. tuberculosis to the in vivo environment and reveals the Rv1405c and Rv1403c methyltransferases as playing a role in this adaptive process.

  20. Genome-Wide Association Studies of the Human Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Emily R; Cusanovich, Darren A; Michelini, Katelyn; Barreiro, Luis B; Ober, Carole; Gilad, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial composition of the human fecal microbiome is influenced by many lifestyle factors, notably diet. It is less clear, however, what role host genetics plays in dictating the composition of bacteria living in the gut. In this study, we examined the association of ~200K host genotypes with the relative abundance of fecal bacterial taxa in a founder population, the Hutterites, during two seasons (n = 91 summer, n = 93 winter, n = 57 individuals collected in both). These individuals live and eat communally, minimizing variation due to environmental exposures, including diet, which could potentially mask small genetic effects. Using a GWAS approach that takes into account the relatedness between subjects, we identified at least 8 bacterial taxa whose abundances were associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms in the host genome in each season (at genome-wide FDR of 20%). For example, we identified an association between a taxon known to affect obesity (genus Akkermansia) and a variant near PLD1, a gene previously associated with body mass index. Moreover, we replicate a previously reported association from a quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping study of fecal microbiome abundance in mice (genus Lactococcus, rs3747113, P = 3.13 x 10-7). Finally, based on the significance distribution of the associated microbiome QTLs in our study with respect to chromatin accessibility profiles, we identified tissues in which host genetic variation may be acting to influence bacterial abundance in the gut. PMID:26528553

  1. Genome-Wide Association Studies of the Human Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Emily R.; Cusanovich, Darren A.; Michelini, Katelyn; Barreiro, Luis B.; Ober, Carole; Gilad, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial composition of the human fecal microbiome is influenced by many lifestyle factors, notably diet. It is less clear, however, what role host genetics plays in dictating the composition of bacteria living in the gut. In this study, we examined the association of ~200K host genotypes with the relative abundance of fecal bacterial taxa in a founder population, the Hutterites, during two seasons (n = 91 summer, n = 93 winter, n = 57 individuals collected in both). These individuals live and eat communally, minimizing variation due to environmental exposures, including diet, which could potentially mask small genetic effects. Using a GWAS approach that takes into account the relatedness between subjects, we identified at least 8 bacterial taxa whose abundances were associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms in the host genome in each season (at genome-wide FDR of 20%). For example, we identified an association between a taxon known to affect obesity (genus Akkermansia) and a variant near PLD1, a gene previously associated with body mass index. Moreover, we replicate a previously reported association from a quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping study of fecal microbiome abundance in mice (genus Lactococcus, rs3747113, P = 3.13 x 10−7). Finally, based on the significance distribution of the associated microbiome QTLs in our study with respect to chromatin accessibility profiles, we identified tissues in which host genetic variation may be acting to influence bacterial abundance in the gut. PMID:26528553

  2. Systematic comparison of phenome-wide association study of electronic medical record data and genome-wide association study data.

    PubMed

    Denny, Joshua C; Bastarache, Lisa; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Carroll, Robert J; Zink, Raquel; Mosley, Jonathan D; Field, Julie R; Pulley, Jill M; Ramirez, Andrea H; Bowton, Erica; Basford, Melissa A; Carrell, David S; Peissig, Peggy L; Kho, Abel N; Pacheco, Jennifer A; Rasmussen, Luke V; Crosslin, David R; Crane, Paul K; Pathak, Jyotishman; Bielinski, Suzette J; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Xu, Hua; Hindorff, Lucia A; Li, Rongling; Manolio, Teri A; Chute, Christopher G; Chisholm, Rex L; Larson, Eric B; Jarvik, Gail P; Brilliant, Murray H; McCarty, Catherine A; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Haines, Jonathan L; Crawford, Dana C; Masys, Daniel R; Roden, Dan M

    2013-12-01

    Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants that modulate risk for human disease; many of these associations require further study to replicate the results. Here we report the first large-scale application of the phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) paradigm within electronic medical records (EMRs), an unbiased approach to replication and discovery that interrogates relationships between targeted genotypes and multiple phenotypes. We scanned for associations between 3,144 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (previously implicated by GWAS as mediators of human traits) and 1,358 EMR-derived phenotypes in 13,835 individuals of European ancestry. This PheWAS replicated 66% (51/77) of sufficiently powered prior GWAS associations and revealed 63 potentially pleiotropic associations with P < 4.6 × 10⁻⁶ (false discovery rate < 0.1); the strongest of these novel associations were replicated in an independent cohort (n = 7,406). These findings validate PheWAS as a tool to allow unbiased interrogation across multiple phenotypes in EMR-based cohorts and to enhance analysis of the genomic basis of human disease.

  3. Preliminary Results from a Coordinated Hisaki/Chandra/XMM-Newton Study of the Jovian Aurora and Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Ralph; Kimura, Tomoki; Elsner, Ronald; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Gladstone, Randy; Badman, Sarah Victoria; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Murakami, Go; Murray, Stephen S.; Roediger, Elke; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Yoshioka, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a coordinated Hisaki/Chandra/XMM-Newton observational campaign of the Jovian aurora and Io plasma torus. The data were taken over a three week period in April, 2014. Jupiter was observed continuously with Hisaki, six times with the Chandra/HRC instrument for roughly 12 hours per observation, and twice by XMM-Newton. The goal of this observational campaign was to understand how energy and matter are exchanged between the Jovian aurora, the IPT, and the Solar wind. X-ray observations provide key diagnostics on highly stripped ions and keV electrons in the Jovian magnetosphere. We use the temporal, spatial, and spectral capabilities of the three instruments to search for correlated variability between the Solar wind, the EUV-emitting plasma of the IPT and UV aurora, and the ions responsible for the X-ray aurora. Preliminary analysis suggests a strong 45 min periodicity in the EUV emission from the electron aurora. There is some evidence for complex variability of the X-ray auroras on scales of tens of minutes. There is also clear morphological changes in the X-ray aurora that do not appear to be correlated with either variations in the IPT or Solar wind.

  4. Theoretical Study of Pd11 Si6 Nanosheet Compounds Including Seven-Coordinated Si Species and Its Ge Analogues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Sunada, Yusuke; Nagashima, Hideo; Sakaki, Shigeyoshi

    2016-01-18

    Nanosheet compounds Pd11 (SiiPr)2 (SiiPr2 )4 (CNtBu)10 (1) and Pd11 (SiiPr)2 (SiiPr2 )4 (CNMes)10 (2), containing two Pd7 (SiiPr)(SiiPr2 )2 (CNR)4 plates (R=tBu or Mes) connected with three common Pd atoms, were investigated with DFT method. All Pd atoms are somewhat positively charged and the electron density is accumulated between the Pd and Si atoms, indicating that a charge transfer (CT) occurs from the Pd to the Si atoms of the SiMe2 and SiMe groups. Negative regions of the Laplacian of the electron density were found between the Pd and Si atoms. A model of a seven-coordinated Si species, that is, Pd5 (Pd-SiMe), is predicted to be a stable pentagonal bipyramidal molecule. Five Pd atoms in the equatorial plane form bonding overlaps with two 3p orbitals of the Si atom. This is a new type of hypervalency. The Ge analogues have geometry and an electronic structure similar to those of the Si compounds. But their formation energies are smaller than those of the Si analogues. The use of the element Si is crucial to synthesize these nanoplate compounds.

  5. Preliminary Results from a Coordinated Hisaki/Chandra/XMM-Newton Study of the Jovian Aurora and Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, R.; Kimura, T.; Elsner, R.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Gladstone, R.; Badman, S. V.; Ezoe, Y.; Murakami, G.; Murray, S. S.; Roediger, E.; Tsuchiya, F.; Yamazaki, A.; Yoshikawa, I.; Yoshioka, K.

    2014-12-01

    We present preliminary results from a coordinated Hisaki/Chandra/XMM-Newton observational campaign of the Jovian aurora and Io plasma torus. The data were taken over a three week period in April, 2014. Jupiter was observed continuously with Hisaki, six times with the Chandra/HRC instrument for roughly 12 hours per observation, and twice by XMM-Newton. The goal of this observational campaign was to understand how energy and matter are exchanged between the Jovian aurora, the IPT, and the Solar wind. X-ray observations provide key diagnostics on highly stripped ions and keV electrons in the Jovian magnetosphere. We use the temporal, spatial, and spectral capabilities of the three instruments to search for correlated variability between the Solar wind, the EUV-emitting plasma of the IPT and UV aurora, and the ions responsible for the X-ray aurora. Preliminary analysis suggests a strong 45 min periodicity in the EUV emission from the electron aurora. There is some evidence for complex variability of the X-ray auroras on scales of tens of minutes. There is also clear morphological changes in the X-ray aurora that do not appear to be correlated with either variations in the IPT or Solar wind.

  6. Social Motor Coordination in Unaffected Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients: A Potential Intermediate Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Del-Monte, Jonathan; Capdevielle, Delphine; Varlet, Manuel; Marin, Ludovic; Schmidt, Richard C.; Salesse, Robin N.; Bardy, Benoît G.; Boulenger, Jean Philippe; Gély-Nargeot, Marie Christine; Attal, Jérôme; Raffard, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Intermediate endophenotypes emerge as an important concept in the study of schizophrenia. Although research on phenotypes mainly investigated cognitive, metabolic or neurophysiological markers so far, some authors also examined the motor behavior anomalies as a potential trait-marker of the disease. However, no research has investigated social motor coordination despite the possible importance of its anomalies in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was thus to determine whether coordination modifications previously demonstrated in schizophrenia are trait-markers that might be associated with the risk for this pathology. Interpersonal motor coordination in 27 unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and 27 healthy controls was assessed using a hand-held pendulum task to examine the presence of interpersonal coordination impairments in individuals at risk for the disorder. Measures of neurologic soft signs, clinical variables and neurocognitive functions were collected to assess the cognitive and clinical correlates of social coordination impairments in at-risk relatives. After controlling for potential confounding variables, unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients had impaired intentional interpersonal coordination compared to healthy controls while unintentional interpersonal coordination was preserved. More specifically, in intentional coordination, the unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients exhibited coordination patterns that had greater variability and in which relatives did not lead the coordination. These results show that unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients, like the patients themselves, also present deficits in intentional interpersonal coordination. For the first time, these results suggest that intentional interpersonal coordination impairments might be a potential motor intermediate endophenotype of schizophrenia opening new perspectives for early diagnosis. PMID:24106467

  7. Genome-wide association study identifies 14 novel risk alleles associated with basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chahal, Harvind S.; Wu, Wenting; Ransohoff, Katherine J.; Yang, Lingyao; Hedlin, Haley; Desai, Manisha; Lin, Yuan; Dai, Hong-Ji; Qureshi, Abrar A.; Li, Wen-Qing; Kraft, Peter; Hinds, David A.; Tang, Jean Y.; Han, Jiali; Sarin, Kavita Y.

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer worldwide with an annual incidence of 2.8 million cases in the United States alone. Previous studies have demonstrated an association between 21 distinct genetic loci and BCC risk. Here, we report the results of a two-stage genome-wide association study of BCC, totalling 17,187 cases and 287,054 controls. We confirm 17 previously reported loci and identify 14 new susceptibility loci reaching genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10−8, logistic regression). These newly associated SNPs lie within predicted keratinocyte regulatory elements and in expression quantitative trait loci; furthermore, we identify candidate genes and non-coding RNAs involved in telomere maintenance, immune regulation and tumour progression, providing deeper insight into the pathogenesis of BCC. PMID:27539887

  8. Genome-wide association study identifies 14 novel risk alleles associated with basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chahal, Harvind S; Wu, Wenting; Ransohoff, Katherine J; Yang, Lingyao; Hedlin, Haley; Desai, Manisha; Lin, Yuan; Dai, Hong-Ji; Qureshi, Abrar A; Li, Wen-Qing; Kraft, Peter; Hinds, David A; Tang, Jean Y; Han, Jiali; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer worldwide with an annual incidence of 2.8 million cases in the United States alone. Previous studies have demonstrated an association between 21 distinct genetic loci and BCC risk. Here, we report the results of a two-stage genome-wide association study of BCC, totalling 17,187 cases and 287,054 controls. We confirm 17 previously reported loci and identify 14 new susceptibility loci reaching genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8), logistic regression). These newly associated SNPs lie within predicted keratinocyte regulatory elements and in expression quantitative trait loci; furthermore, we identify candidate genes and non-coding RNAs involved in telomere maintenance, immune regulation and tumour progression, providing deeper insight into the pathogenesis of BCC. PMID:27539887

  9. Anion-Directed Copper(II) Metallocages, Coordination Chain, and Complex Double Salt: Structures, Magnetic Properties, EPR Spectra, and Density Functional Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing-Yun; Zhong, Ming-Shiou; Chiang, Ming-Hsi; Bhattacharya, Dibyendu; Lee, Yen-Wei; Lai, Long-Li

    2016-05-17

    A series of Cu(II) metallo-assemblies showing anion-directed structural variations, including five metallocages [(G(n-) )⊂{Cu2 (Hdpma)4 }]((8-n)+) (A(-) )8-n (G(n-) =NO3 (-) , ClO4 (-) , SiF6 (2-) , BF4 (-) , SO4 (2-) ; A(-) =NO3 (-) , ClO4 (-) , BF4 (-) , CH3 SO4 (-) ; Hdpma=bis(3-pyridylmethyl)ammonium cation), a complex double salt, namely, (H3 dpma)4 (CuCl4 )5 Cl2 , and a coordination chain, namely, [Cu2 (dpma)(OAc)4 ], are reported. The influence of the anion can be explained by its coordinating ability, the affinity of which for the Cu(II) center interferes significantly with metallocage formation, and its shape, which offers host-guest recognition ability to engage in weak metal-anion coordination and hydrogen bonding to the organic ligand, which are responsible for metallocage templation. EPR studies of these metallocages in the powder phase at room temperature and 77 K showed a trend of the g values (g|| >2.10>g⊥ >2.00) indicating a dx2-y2 -based ground state with square-pyramidal geometry for the Cu(II) centers. The magnetism of these metallocages can be interpreted as the result of a combination of relatively small magnetic coupling integrals and a substantial contribution of temperature-independent paramagnetism (TIP). The weak magnetic interaction is corroborated by the results of DFT calculations and the EPR spectra. Availability of the low-lying state for spin population was confirmed by a magnetization study, which revealed a magnetic moment approaching 2Nβ, which would explain the presence of the larger TIP term. PMID:27080422

  10. Anion-Directed Copper(II) Metallocages, Coordination Chain, and Complex Double Salt: Structures, Magnetic Properties, EPR Spectra, and Density Functional Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing-Yun; Zhong, Ming-Shiou; Chiang, Ming-Hsi; Bhattacharya, Dibyendu; Lee, Yen-Wei; Lai, Long-Li

    2016-05-17

    A series of Cu(II) metallo-assemblies showing anion-directed structural variations, including five metallocages [(G(n-) )⊂{Cu2 (Hdpma)4 }]((8-n)+) (A(-) )8-n (G(n-) =NO3 (-) , ClO4 (-) , SiF6 (2-) , BF4 (-) , SO4 (2-) ; A(-) =NO3 (-) , ClO4 (-) , BF4 (-) , CH3 SO4 (-) ; Hdpma=bis(3-pyridylmethyl)ammonium cation), a complex double salt, namely, (H3 dpma)4 (CuCl4 )5 Cl2 , and a coordination chain, namely, [Cu2 (dpma)(OAc)4 ], are reported. The influence of the anion can be explained by its coordinating ability, the affinity of which for the Cu(II) center interferes significantly with metallocage formation, and its shape, which offers host-guest recognition ability to engage in weak metal-anion coordination and hydrogen bonding to the organic ligand, which are responsible for metallocage templation. EPR studies of these metallocages in the powder phase at room temperature and 77 K showed a trend of the g values (g|| >2.10>g⊥ >2.00) indicating a dx2-y2 -based ground state with square-pyramidal geometry for the Cu(II) centers. The magnetism of these metallocages can be interpreted as the result of a combination of relatively small magnetic coupling integrals and a substantial contribution of temperature-independent paramagnetism (TIP). The weak magnetic interaction is corroborated by the results of DFT calculations and the EPR spectra. Availability of the low-lying state for spin population was confirmed by a magnetization study, which revealed a magnetic moment approaching 2Nβ, which would explain the presence of the larger TIP term.

  11. Evolutionary triangulation: informing genetic association studies with evolutionary evidence.

    PubMed

    Huang, Minjun; Graham, Britney E; Zhang, Ge; Harder, Reed; Kodaman, Nuri; Moore, Jason H; Muglia, Louis; Williams, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    Genetic studies of human diseases have identified many variants associated with pathogenesis and severity. However, most studies have used only statistical association to assess putative relationships to disease, and ignored other factors for evaluation. For example, evolution is a factor that has shaped disease risk, changing allele frequencies as human populations migrated into and inhabited new environments. Since many common variants differ among populations in frequency, as does disease prevalence, we hypothesized that patterns of disease and population structure, taken together, will inform association studies. Thus, the population distributions of allelic risk variants should reflect the distributions of their associated diseases. Evolutionary Triangulation (ET) exploits this evolutionary differentiation by comparing population structure among three populations with variable patterns of disease prevalence. By selecting populations based on patterns where two have similar rates of disease that differ substantially from a third, we performed a proof of principle analysis for this method. We examined three disease phenotypes, lactase persistence, melanoma, and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We show that for lactase persistence, a phenotype with a simple genetic architecture, ET identifies the key gene, lactase. For melanoma, ET identifies several genes associated with this disease and/or phenotypes related to it, such as skin color genes. ET was less obviously successful for Type 2 diabetes mellitus, perhaps because of the small effect sizes in known risk loci and recent environmental changes that have altered disease risk. Alternatively, ET may have revealed new genes involved in conferring disease risk for diabetes that did not meet nominal GWAS significance thresholds. We also compared ET to another method used to filter for phenotype associated genes, population branch statistic (PBS), and show that ET performs better in identifying genes known to associate with

  12. Evolutionary triangulation: informing genetic association studies with evolutionary evidence.

    PubMed

    Huang, Minjun; Graham, Britney E; Zhang, Ge; Harder, Reed; Kodaman, Nuri; Moore, Jason H; Muglia, Louis; Williams, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    Genetic studies of human diseases have identified many variants associated with pathogenesis and severity. However, most studies have used only statistical association to assess putative relationships to disease, and ignored other factors for evaluation. For example, evolution is a factor that has shaped disease risk, changing allele frequencies as human populations migrated into and inhabited new environments. Since many common variants differ among populations in frequency, as does disease prevalence, we hypothesized that patterns of disease and population structure, taken together, will inform association studies. Thus, the population distributions of allelic risk variants should reflect the distributions of their associated diseases. Evolutionary Triangulation (ET) exploits this evolutionary differentiation by comparing population structure among three populations with variable patterns of disease prevalence. By selecting populations based on patterns where two have similar rates of disease that differ substantially from a third, we performed a proof of principle analysis for this method. We examined three disease phenotypes, lactase persistence, melanoma, and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We show that for lactase persistence, a phenotype with a simple genetic architecture, ET identifies the key gene, lactase. For melanoma, ET identifies several genes associated with this disease and/or phenotypes related to it, such as skin color genes. ET was less obviously successful for Type 2 diabetes mellitus, perhaps because of the small effect sizes in known risk loci and recent environmental changes that have altered disease risk. Alternatively, ET may have revealed new genes involved in conferring disease risk for diabetes that did not meet nominal GWAS significance thresholds. We also compared ET to another method used to filter for phenotype associated genes, population branch statistic (PBS), and show that ET performs better in identifying genes known to associate with

  13. Coordinated Career Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. Div. of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This document is a suggested course of study for a secondary coordinated career education program. It is designed to meet many of the life-skill needs of special needs learners. The course of study is designed in three levels. These levels correspond to an individual's amount of knowledge attained, level of skill developed, or awareness and…

  14. Studies of viomycin, an anti-tuberculosis antibiotic: copper(ii) coordination, DNA degradation and the impact on delta ribozyme cleavage activity.

    PubMed

    Stokowa-Sołtys, K; Barbosa, N A; Kasprowicz, A; Wieczorek, R; Gaggelli, N; Gaggelli, E; Valensin, G; Wrzesiński, J; Ciesiołka, J; Kuliński, T; Szczepanik, W; Jeżowska-Bojczuk, M

    2016-05-17

    Viomycin is a basic peptide antibiotic, which is among the most effective agents against multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. In this paper we provide the characteristics of its acid base properties, coordination preferences towards the Cu(ii) ions, as well as the reactivity of the resulting complexes against plasmid DNA and HDV ribozyme. Careful coordination studies throughout the wide pH range allow for the characterisation of all the Cu(ii)-viomycin complex species. The assignment of proton chemical shifts was achieved by NMR experiments, while the DTF level of theory was applied to support molecular structures of the studied complexes. The experiments with the plasmid DNA reveal that at the physiological levels of hydrogen peroxide the Cu(ii)-viomycin complex is more aggressive against DNA than uncomplexed metal ions. Moreover, the degradation of DNA by viomycin can be carried out without the presence of transition metal ions. In the studies of antigenomic delta ribozyme catalytic activity, viomycin and its complex are shown to modulate the ribozyme functioning. The molecular modelling approach allows the indication of two different locations of viomycin binding sites to the ribozyme. PMID:27143296

  15. Recommendations for using standardised phenotypes in genetic association studies.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Melissa G; Weiss, Scott T; Lange, Christoph

    2009-07-01

    Genetic association studies of complex traits often rely on standardised quantitative phenotypes, such as percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume and body mass index to measure an underlying trait of interest (eg lung function, obesity). These phenotypes are appealing because they provide an easy mechanism for comparing subjects, although such standardisations may not be the best way to control for confounders and other covariates. We recommend adjusting raw or standardised phenotypes within the study population via regression. We illustrate through simulation that optimal power in both population- and family-based association tests is attained by using the residuals from within-study adjustment as the complex trait phenotype. An application of family-based association analysis of forced expiratory volume in one second, and obesity in the Childhood Asthma Management Program data, illustrates that power is maintained or increased when adjusted phenotype residuals are used instead of typical standardised quantitative phenotypes.

  16. Studies on the Coordination of Ribosomal Protein Assembly Events Involved in Processing and Stabilization of Yeast Early Large Ribosomal Subunit Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Sauert, Martina; Martín-Marcos, Pilar; Tamame, Mercedes; Tschochner, Herbert; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Milkereit, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Cellular production of ribosomes involves the formation of highly defined interactions between ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). Moreover in eukaryotic cells, efficient ribosome maturation requires the transient association of a large number of ribosome biogenesis factors (RBFs) with newly forming ribosomal subunits. Here, we investigated how r-protein assembly events in the large ribosomal subunit (LSU) rRNA domain II are coordinated with each other and with the association of RBFs in early LSU precursors of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Specific effects on the pre-ribosomal association of RBFs could be observed in yeast mutants blocked in LSU rRNA domain II assembly. Moreover, formation of a cluster of r-proteins was identified as a downstream event in LSU rRNA domain II assembly. We analyzed in more detail the functional relevance of eukaryote specific bridges established by this r-protein cluster between LSU rRNA domain II and VI and discuss how they can support the stabilization and efficient processing of yeast early LSU precursor RNAs. PMID:26642313

  17. Metagenome-wide association studies: fine-mining the microbiome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Jia, Huijue

    2016-08-01

    Metagenome-wide association studies (MWAS) have enabled the high-resolution investigation of associations between the human microbiome and several complex diseases, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, liver cirrhosis, colorectal cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. The associations that can be identified by MWAS are not limited to the identification of taxa that are more or less abundant, as is the case with taxonomic approaches, but additionally include the identification of microbial functions that are enriched or depleted. In this Review, we summarize recent findings from MWAS and discuss how these findings might inform the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of human disease in the future. Furthermore, we highlight the need to better characterize the biology of many of the bacteria that are found in the human microbiota as an essential step in understanding how bacterial strains that have been identified by MWAS are associated with disease. PMID:27396567

  18. Intent inferencing by an intelligent operator's associate - A validation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Patricia M.

    1988-01-01

    In the supervisory control of a complex, dynamic system, one potential form of aiding for the human operator is a computer-based operator's associate. The design philosophy of the operator's associate is that of 'amplifying' rather than automating human skills. In particular, the associate possesses understanding and control properties. Understanding allows it to infer operator intentions and thus form the basis for context-dependent advice and reminders; control properties allow the human operator to dynamically delegate individual tasks or subfunctions to the associate. This paper focuses on the design, implementation, and validation of the intent inferencing function. Two validation studies are described which empirically demonstrate the viability of the proposed approach to intent inferencing.

  19. Optimal Trend Tests for Genetic Association Studies of Heterogeneous Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Chung

    2016-06-09

    The Cochran-Armitage trend test is a standard procedure in genetic association studies. It is a directed test with high power to detect genetic effects that follow the gene-dosage model. In this paper, the author proposes optimal trend tests for genetic association studies of heterogeneous diseases. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the power gain of the optimal trend tests over the conventional Cochran-Armitage trend test is striking when the genetic effects are heterogeneous. The easy-to-use R 3.1.2 software (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) code is provided. The optimal trend tests are recommended for routine use.

  20. Coordination Complexes of Decamethylytterbocene with4,4'-Disubstituted Bipyridines: An Experimental Study of Spin Coupling inLanthanide Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, Marc D.; Berg, David J.; Andersen, Richard A.

    2005-12-08

    The paramagnetic 1:1 coordination complexes of (C5Me5)2Ybwith a series of 4,4'-disubstituted bipyridines, bipy-X, where X is Me,tert-Bu, OMe, Ph, CO2Me, and CO2Et have been prepared. All of thecomplexes are paramagnetic and the values of the magnetic susceptibilityas a function of temperature show that these values are less thanexpected for the cation, [(C5Me5)2Yb(III)(bipy-X)]+, which have beenisolated as the cation-anion ion-pairs[(C5Me5)2Yb(III)(bipy-X)]+[(C5Me5)2YbI2]f fnfn where X is CO2Et, OMe andMe. The 1H NMR chemical shifts (293 K) for the methine resonances locatedat the 6,6' site in the bipy-X ring show a linear relationship with thevalues of chiT (300 K) for the neutral complexes which illustrates thatthe molecular behavior does not depend upon the phase with one exception,viz., (C5Me5)2Yb(bipy-Me). Single crystals of the 4,4'-dimethylbipyridinecomplex undergo an irreversible, abrupt first order phase change at 228 Kthat shatters the single crystals. The magnetic susceptibility,represented in a delta vs. T plot, on this complex, in polycrystallineform undergoes reversible abrupt changes in the temperature regime 205 -212 K, which is suggested to be due to the way the individual molec ularunits pack in the unit cell. A qualitative model is proposed thataccounts for the sub-normal magnetic moments in theseytterbocene-bipyridine complexes.

  1. Application of DFT methods to the study of the coordination environment of the VO2+ ion in V proteins.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Daniele; Pecoraro, Vincent L; Micera, Giovanni; Garribba, Eugenio

    2012-06-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) methods were used to simulate the environment of vanadium in several V proteins, such as vanadyl-substituted carboxypeptidase (sites A and B), vanadyl-substituted chloroplast F(1)-ATPase (CF(1); site 3), the reduced inactive form of vanadium bromoperoxidase (VBrPO; low- and high-pH sites), and vanadyl-substituted imidazole glycerol phosphate dehydratase (IGPD; sites α, β, and γ). Structural, electron paramagnetic resonance, and electron spin echo envelope modulation parameters were calculated and compared with the experimental values. All the simulations were performed in water within the framework of the polarizable continuum model. The angular dependence of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] on the dihedral angle θ between the V=O and N-C bonds and on the angle φ between the V=O and V-N bonds, where N is the coordinated aromatic nitrogen atom, was also found. From the results it emerges that it is possible to model the active site of a vanadium protein through DFT methods and determine its structure through the comparison between the calculated and experimental spectroscopic parameters. The calculations confirm that the donor sets of sites B and A of vanadyl-substituted carboxypeptidase are [[Formula: see text], H(2)O, H(2)O, H(2)O] and [N(His)(||), N(His)(⊥), [Formula: see text], H(2)O], and that the donor set of site 3 of CF(1)-ATPase is [[Formula: see text], OH(Thr), H(2)O, H(2)O, [Formula: see text

  2. A coordination chemistry study of hydrated and solvated cationic vanadium ions in oxidation states +III, +IV, and +V in solution and solid state.

    PubMed

    Krakowiak, Joanna; Lundberg, Daniel; Persson, Ingmar

    2012-09-17

    The coordination chemistry of hydrated and solvated vanadium(III), oxovanadium(IV), and dioxovanadium(V) ions in the oxygen-donor solvents water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and N,N'-dimethylpropyleneurea (DMPU) has been studied in solution by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and large-angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) and in the solid state by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and EXAFS. The hydrated vanadium(III) ion has a regular octahedral configuration with a mean V-O bond distance of 1.99 Å. In the hydrated and DMSO-solvated oxovanadium(IV) ions, vanadium binds strongly to an oxo group at ca. 1.6 Å. The solvent molecule trans to the oxo group is very weakly bound, at ca. 2.2 Å, while the remaining four solvent molecules, with a mean V-O bond distance of 2.0 Å, form a plane slightly below the vanadium atom; the mean O═V-O(perp) bond angle is ca. 98°. In the DMPU-solvated oxovanadium(IV) ion, the space-demanding properties of the DMPU molecule leave no solvent molecule in the trans position to the oxo group, which reduces the coordination number to 5. The O═V-O bond angle is consequently much larger, 107°, and the mean V═O and V-O bond distances decrease to 1.58 and 1.97 Å, respectively. The hydrated and DMSO-solvated dioxovanadium(V) ions display a very distorted octahedral configuration with the oxo groups in the cis position with a mean V═O bond distance of 1.6 Å and a O═V═O bond angle of ca. 105°. The solvent molecules trans to the oxo groups are weakly bound, at ca. 2.2 Å, while the remaining two have bond distances of 2.02 Å. The experimental studies of the coordination chemistry of hydrated and solvated vanadium(III,IV,V) ions are complemented by summarizing previously reported crystal structures to yield a comprehensive description of the coordination chemistry of vanadium with oxygen-donor ligands.

  3. SOHO-Ulysses Coordinated Studies During the Two Extended Quadratures and the Alignment of 2007-2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    2007-01-01

    us to study the variation of element abundances across streamer borders in the corona and,correspondingly, "in situ". Also, observing plasma over prolonged time intervals and at different latitudes, we may examine the latitude variation of the fractionation effect (e.g. Yon Steiger, 2002) and its dependence on time (e.g. Woo, 2004). For instance, if the FIP bias is dictated by the duration of plasma confinement in solar loops, its value in streamers should depend on the streamer age. Analogous variations should be found in the abundances of "in situ" plasma released by the streamer. All Ulysses and SOHO data is in the public domain and accessible so different objectives could be addressed by others. The winter 2008 quadrature will be well into the next sunspot cycle and there might be significant high mid-latitude activity. Ulysses will be up to 80 degrees in the northern hemisphere at this time and able to detect the resulting ICMEs and ejecta, allowing us to study the physical parameters of the propagating CME bubble/core/front, and/or to study the coronal and "in situ" characteristics of the current sheet associated with the event (e.g. Bemporad et al. 2005), so far still vaguely defined.

  4. The associations of selected technical parameters with discus throwing performance: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Steve; Yu, Bing

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify associations between discus throwing performance and the technical parameters of: hip-shoulder and shoulder-arm separation, trunk forward-backward tilt, and throwing-arm elevation angles. Video data of male and female discus throwers' competitive performances were captured during major competitions. Real-life three-dimensional coordinates of 21 body landmarks, and the discus's centre, were obtained for 94 trials using the direct linear transformation procedure. Each technical parameter was reduced at six critical instants. The trend of each parameter across four standards of performance was analysed separately for both sexes. For the female throwers, hip-shoulder and shoulder-arm separations after the flight phase, as well as forward-backward trunk tilts at the beginning and end of the throwing procedure were associated with performance. For male throwers, only the hip-shoulder separation immediately before the flight phase was associated with performance. These findings suggest that the relationships between technical parameters and discus throwing performance are different for males and females. Our results suggest that elite female discus throwers are reliant on effective technique throughout the throwing procedure to achieve long distances, whereas male discus throwers may have a relatively homogeneous technique, and a dependence on physical strength to achieve their long throws.

  5. Web-Based, Participant-Driven Studies Yield Novel Genetic Associations for Common Traits

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Nicholas; Macpherson, J. Michael; Tung, Joyce Y.; Hon, Lawrence S.; Naughton, Brian; Saxonov, Serge; Avey, Linda; Wojcicki, Anne; Pe'er, Itsik; Mountain, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Despite the recent rapid growth in genome-wide data, much of human variation remains entirely unexplained. A significant challenge in the pursuit of the genetic basis for variation in common human traits is the efficient, coordinated collection of genotype and phenotype data. We have developed a novel research framework that facilitates the parallel study of a wide assortment of traits within a single cohort. The approach takes advantage of the interactivity of the Web both to gather data and to present genetic information to research participants, while taking care to correct for the population structure inherent to this study design. Here we report initial results from a participant-driven study of 22 traits. Replications of associations (in the genes OCA2, HERC2, SLC45A2, SLC24A4, IRF4, TYR, TYRP1, ASIP, and MC1R) for hair color, eye color, and freckling validate the Web-based, self-reporting paradigm. The identification of novel associations for hair morphology (rs17646946, near TCHH; rs7349332, near WNT10A; and rs1556547, near OFCC1), freckling (rs2153271, in BNC2), the ability to smell the methanethiol produced after eating asparagus (rs4481887, near OR2M7), and photic sneeze reflex (rs10427255, near ZEB2, and rs11856995, near NR2F2) illustrates the power of the approach. PMID:20585627

  6. Web-based, participant-driven studies yield novel genetic associations for common traits.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Nicholas; Macpherson, J Michael; Tung, Joyce Y; Hon, Lawrence S; Naughton, Brian; Saxonov, Serge; Avey, Linda; Wojcicki, Anne; Pe'er, Itsik; Mountain, Joanna

    2010-06-24

    Despite the recent rapid growth in genome-wide data, much of human variation remains entirely unexplained. A significant challenge in the pursuit of the genetic basis for variation in common human traits is the efficient, coordinated collection of genotype and phenotype data. We have developed a novel research framework that facilitates the parallel study of a wide assortment of traits within a single cohort. The approach takes advantage of the interactivity of the Web both to gather data and to present genetic information to research participants, while taking care to correct for the population structure inherent to this study design. Here we report initial results from a participant-driven study of 22 traits. Replications of associations (in the genes OCA2, HERC2, SLC45A2, SLC24A4, IRF4, TYR, TYRP1, ASIP, and MC1R) for hair color, eye color, and freckling validate the Web-based, self-reporting paradigm. The identification of novel associations for hair morphology (rs17646946, near TCHH; rs7349332, near WNT10A; and rs1556547, near OFCC1), freckling (rs2153271, in BNC2), the ability to smell the methanethiol produced after eating asparagus (rs4481887, near OR2M7), and photic sneeze reflex (rs10427255, near ZEB2, and rs11856995, near NR2F2) illustrates the power of the approach.

  7. Web-based, participant-driven studies yield novel genetic associations for common traits.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Nicholas; Macpherson, J Michael; Tung, Joyce Y; Hon, Lawrence S; Naughton, Brian; Saxonov, Serge; Avey, Linda; Wojcicki, Anne; Pe'er, Itsik; Mountain, Joanna

    2010-06-01

    Despite the recent rapid growth in genome-wide data, much of human variation remains entirely unexplained. A significant challenge in the pursuit of the genetic basis for variation in common human traits is the efficient, coordinated collection of genotype and phenotype data. We have developed a novel research framework that facilitates the parallel study of a wide assortment of traits within a single cohort. The approach takes advantage of the interactivity of the Web both to gather data and to present genetic information to research participants, while taking care to correct for the population structure inherent to this study design. Here we report initial results from a participant-driven study of 22 traits. Replications of associations (in the genes OCA2, HERC2, SLC45A2, SLC24A4, IRF4, TYR, TYRP1, ASIP, and MC1R) for hair color, eye color, and freckling validate the Web-based, self-reporting paradigm. The identification of novel associations for hair morphology (rs17646946, near TCHH; rs7349332, near WNT10A; and rs1556547, near OFCC1), freckling (rs2153271, in BNC2), the ability to smell the methanethiol produced after eating asparagus (rs4481887, near OR2M7), and photic sneeze reflex (rs10427255, near ZEB2, and rs11856995, near NR2F2) illustrates the power of the approach. PMID:20585627

  8. Secondary Structure and Pd(II) Coordination in S-Layer Proteins from Bacillus sphaericus Studied by Infrared and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fahmy, Karim; Merroun, Mohamed; Pollmann, Katrin; Raff, Johannes; Savchuk, Olesya; Hennig, Christoph; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja

    2006-01-01

    The S-layer of Bacillus sphaericus strain JG-A12, isolated from a uranium-mining site, exhibits a high metal-binding capacity, indicating that it may provide a protective function by preventing the cellular uptake of heavy metals and radionuclides. This property has allowed the use of this and other S-layers as self-assembling organic templates for the synthesis of nanosized heavy metal cluster arrays. However, little is known about the molecular basis of the metal-protein interactions and their impact on secondary structure. We have studied the secondary structure, protein stability, and Pd(II) coordination in S-layers from the B. sphaericus strains JG-A12 and NCTC 9602 to elucidate the molecular basis of their biological function and of the metal nanocluster growth. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveals similar secondary structures, containing ∼35% β-sheets and little helical structure. pH-induced infrared absorption changes of the side-chain carboxylates evidence a remarkably low pK < 3 in both strains and a structural stabilization when Pd(II) is bound. The COO−-stretching absorptions reveal a predominant Pd(II) coordination by chelation/bridging by Asp and Glu residues. This agrees with XANES and EXAFS data revealing oxygens as coordinating atoms to Pd(II). The additional participation of nitrogen is assigned to side chains rather than to the peptide backbone. The topology of nitrogen- and carboxyl-bearing side chains appears to mediate heavy metal binding to the large number of Asp and Glu in both S-layers at particularly low pH as an adaptation to the environment from which the strain JG-A12 has been isolated. These side chains are thus prime targets for the design of engineered S-layer-based nanoclusters. PMID:16698775

  9. Structural, vibrational, and electronic properties of an uncoordinated pseudoephedrine derivative and its mononuclear and trinuclear copper(II)-coordinated compounds: A combined theoretical and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, Israel; Ávila-Torres, Yenny; Barba-Behrens, Norah; Garzón, Ignacio L.

    2014-11-01

    Multicopper oxidases are fundamental in a variety of biological processes in bacteria, fungi and vertebrates. The catalytic center in these enzymes is formed basically by three copper ions, bridged by oxygen bonds. In order to get insights into the reactivity of these complex systems, biomimetic compounds are usually synthesized. Accordingly, in this work, we studied structural, vibrational, and electronic properties of an uncoordinated pseudoephedrine derivative, as well as its corresponding mononuclear and trinuclear copper(II)-coordinated complexes by means of density functional theory. The calculations are compared with experimental results using measurements of the infrared spectra. It is obtained that the molecular configuration of the pseudoephedrine amino-alcohol derivative is stabilized by hydrogen bonding Osbnd H⋯N and by Csbnd H⋯π interactions that are not present in the mononuclear and trinuclear compounds. The coordination compounds show octahedral and square pyramid geometries, respectively, which are slightly distorted by Jahn-Teller effects. The analysis of their theoretical and experimental IR spectra reveals signals related with hydrogen bonding as well as metal-ligand vibrational modes. Regarding the electronic structure, the density of states was calculated in order to analyze the atomic orbital contributions present in these compounds. This analysis would provide useful insights about the optical behavior, for example, in the visible region of the spectrum of the coordinated compounds. At these energies, the optical absorption would be influenced by the orbital interaction of the Cu2+d orbitals with sp ones of the ligand, reflecting a decrease of the HOMO-LUMO gap of the organic ligand due to the presence of the copper(II) ions.

  10. Genome-wide Association Studies of Maximum Number of Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yue; Luo, Xingguang; Liu, Xuefeng; Wu, Long-Yang; Zhang, Qunyuan; Wang, Liang; Wang, Weize; Zuo, Lingjun; Wang, Ke-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Maximum number of drinks (MaxDrinks) defined as “Maximum number of alcoholic drinks consumed in a 24-hour period” is an intermediate phenotype that is closely related to alcohol dependence (AD). Family, twin and adoption studies have shown that the heritability of MaxDrinks is approximately 0.5. We conducted the first genome-wide association (GWA) study and meta-analysis of MaxDrinks as a continuous phenotype. 1059 individuals were from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) sample and 1628 individuals were from the Study of Addiction – Genetics and Environment (SAGE) sample. Family sample with 3137 individuals was from the Australian twin-family study of alcohol use disorder (OZALC). Two population-based Caucasian samples (COGA and SAGE) with 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used for gene discovery and one family-based Caucasian sample was used for replication. Through meta-analysis we identified 162 SNPs associated with MaxDirnks (p < 10−4). The most significant association with MaxDrinks was observed with SNP rs11128951 (p = 4.27×10−8) near SGOL1 gene at 3p24.3. Furthermore, several SNPs (rs17144687 near DTWD2, rs12108602 near NDST4, and rs2128158 in KCNB2) showed significant associations with MaxDrinks (p < 5×10−7) in the meta-analysis. Especially, 8 SNPs in DDC gene showed significant associations with MaxDrinks (p< 5×10−7) in the SAGE sample. Several flanking SNPs in above genes/regions were confirmed in the OZALC family sample. In conclusions, we identified several genes/regions associated with MaxDrinks. These findings can improve the understanding about the pathogenesis of alcohol consumption phenotypes and alcohol-related disorders. PMID:23953852

  11. Genome-wide association study reveals regions associated with gestation length in two pig populations.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, A M; Lopes, M S; Harlizius, B; Bastiaansen, J W M

    2016-04-01

    Reproduction traits, such as gestation length (GLE), play an important role in dam line breeding in pigs. The objective of our study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with GLE in two pig populations. Genotypes and deregressed breeding values were available for 2081 Dutch Landrace-based (DL) and 2301 Large White-based (LW) pigs. We identified two QTL regions for GLE, one in each population. For DL, three associated SNPs were detected in one QTL region spanning 0.52 Mbp on Sus scrofa chromosome (SSC) 2. For LW, four associated SNPs were detected in one region of 0.14 Mbp on SSC5. The region on SSC2 contains the heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) gene, which promotes embryo implantation and has been described to be involved in embryo survival throughout gestation. The associated SNP can be used for marker-assisted selection in the studied populations, and further studies of the HBEGF gene are warranted to investigate its role in GLE.

  12. Genome Wide Association Study Identifies Variants in NBEA Associated with Migraine in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Kaya K.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Zayats, Tetyana; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Anttila, Verneri; Akiskal, Hagop S.; Haavik, Jan; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Kelsoe, John R.; Johansson, Stefan; Oedegaard, Ketil J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Migraine is a common comorbidity among individuals with bipolar disorder, but the underlying mechanisms for this co-occurrence are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic background of bipolar patients with and without migraine. Methods We performed a genome-wide association analysis contrasting 460 bipolar migraneurs with 914 bipolar patients without migraine from the Bipolar Genome Study (BiGS). Results We identified one genome-wide significant association between migraine in bipolar disorder patients and rs1160720, an intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the NBEA gene (P= 2.97×10-8, OR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.47-2.25), although this was not replicated in a smaller sample of 289 migraine cases. Limitations Our study is based on self-reported migraine. Conclusions NBEA encodes neurobeachin, a scaffolding protein primarily expressed in the brain and involved in trafficking of vesicles containing neurotransmitter receptors. This locus has not previously been implicated in migraine per se. We found no evidence of association in data from the GWAS migraine meta-analysis consortium (n=118 710 participants) suggesting that the association might be specific to migraine co-morbid with bipolar disorder. PMID:25451450

  13. Prospects and pitfalls in whole genome association studies

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Robert W; Evans, David M; Cardon, Lon R

    2005-01-01

    Recent large-scale studies of common genetic variation throughout the human genome are making it feasible to conduct whole genome studies of genotype–phenotype associations. Such studies have the potential to uncover novel contributors to common complex traits and thus lead to insights into the aetiology of multifactorial phenotypes. Despite this promise, it is important to recognize that the availability of genetic markers and the ability to assay them at realistic cost does not guarantee success of this approach. There are a number of practical issues that require close attention, some forms of allelic architecture are not readily amenable to the association approach with even the most rigorous design, and doubtless new hurdles will emerge as the studies begin. Here we discuss the promise and current challenges of the whole genome approach, and raise some issues to consider in interpreting the results of the first whole genome studies. PMID:16096108

  14. Susceptibility to Chronic Mucus Hypersecretion, a Genome Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Akkelies E.; Smolonska, Joanna; van den Berge, Maarten; Wijmenga, Ciska; Zanen, Pieter; Luinge, Marjan A.; Platteel, Mathieu; Lammers, Jan-Willem; Dahlback, Magnus; Tosh, Kerrie; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Sterk, Peter J.; Spira, Avi; Vestbo, Jorgen; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Benn, Marianne; Nielsen, Sune F.; Dahl, Morten; Verschuren, W. Monique; Picavet, H. Susan J.; Smit, Henriette A.; Owsijewitsch, Michael; Kauczor, Hans U.; de Koning, Harry J.; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, Eva; Mejza, Filip; Nastalek, Pawel; van Diemen, Cleo C.; Cho, Michael H.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.; Beaty, Terri H.; Lomas, David A.; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Bossé, Yohan; Obeidat, M. A.; Loth, Daan W.; Lahousse, Lies; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hofman, Andre; Stricker, Bruno H.; Brusselle, Guy G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Brouwer, Uilke; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Vonk, Judith M.; Nawijn, Martijn C.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Timens, Wim; Boezen, H. Marike; Postma, Dirkje S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is associated with an increased frequency of respiratory infections, excess lung function decline, and increased hospitalisation and mortality rates in the general population. It is associated with smoking, but it is unknown why only a minority of smokers develops CMH. A plausible explanation for this phenomenon is a predisposing genetic constitution. Therefore, we performed a genome wide association (GWA) study of CMH in Caucasian populations. Methods GWA analysis was performed in the NELSON-study using the Illumina 610 array, followed by replication and meta-analysis in 11 additional cohorts. In total 2,704 subjects with, and 7,624 subjects without CMH were included, all current or former heavy smokers (≥20 pack-years). Additional studies were performed to test the functional relevance of the most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Results A strong association with CMH, consistent across all cohorts, was observed with rs6577641 (p = 4.25×10−6, OR = 1.17), located in intron 9 of the special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 locus (SATB1) on chromosome 3. The risk allele (G) was associated with higher mRNA expression of SATB1 (4.3×10−9) in lung tissue. Presence of CMH was associated with increased SATB1 mRNA expression in bronchial biopsies from COPD patients. SATB1 expression was induced during differentiation of primary human bronchial epithelial cells in culture. Conclusions Our findings, that SNP rs6577641 is associated with CMH in multiple cohorts and is a cis-eQTL for SATB1, together with our additional observation that SATB1 expression increases during epithelial differentiation provide suggestive evidence that SATB1 is a gene that affects CMH. PMID:24714607

  15. The effect of knee brace on coordination and neuronal leg muscle control: an early postoperative functional study in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed patients.

    PubMed

    Rebel, M; Paessler, H H

    2001-09-01

    Two studies were carried out after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction to determine the effect of a knee brace on coordination (test 1) and electromyographic muscle activity in drop jumps (test 2). Test 1 studied 25 patients with ACL reconstruction under three test conditions (one-leg static, two-legged static, two-legged dynamic) compared with a control (n=30). The results showed highly significant improvements in all braced conditions. In test 2 ten patients with ACL reconstruction and ten healthy subjects performed a two-legged drop-jump; this was repeated 15 times and again 15 times with a knee brace worn on the reconstructed limb. Changes in electromyographically determined muscle activity (vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius) were observed, but they were significant in only few cases because of high variability. Drop-jumps with knee brace improved jumping height, increased the maximum knee angle in the ground contact phase, and reduced the maximum knee angle in the landing phase. Patients thus develop an increased confidence in the stability of their knees. We conclude that the benefits of the knee brace are due to the mechanical action, an enhanced coordination, and a psychological effect.

  16. Structural transitions in ion coordination driven by changes in competition for ligand binding

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Sameer; Rempe, Susan B.

    2009-01-01

    Transferring Na+ and K+ ions from their preferred coordination states in water to states having different coordination numbers incurs a free energy cost. In several examples in nature, however, these ions readily partition from aqueous-phase coordination states into spatial regions having much higher coordination numbers. Here we utilize statistical theory of solutions, quantum chemical simulations, classical mechanics simulations and structural informatics to understand this aspect of ion partitioning. Our studies lead to the identification of a specific role of the solvation environment in driving transitions in ion coordination structures. Although ion solvation in liquid media is an exergonic reaction overall, we find it is also associated with considerable free energy penalties for extracting ligands from their solvation environments to form coordinated ion complexes. Reducing these penalties increases the stabilities of higher-order coordinations and brings down the energetic cost to partition ions from water into over-coordinated binding sites in biomolecules. These penalties can be lowered via a reduction in direct favorable interactions of the coordinating ligands with all atoms other than the ions themselves. A significant reduction in these penalties can, in fact, also drive up ion coordination preferences. Similarly, an increase in these penalties can lower ion coordination preferences, akin to a Hofmeister effect. Since such structural transitions are effected by the properties of the solvation phase, we anticipate that they will also occur for other ions. The influence of other factors, including ligand density, ligand chemistry and temperature, on the stabilities of ion coordination structures are also explored. PMID:18954053

  17. Association weight matrix: a network-based approach towards functional genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Reverter, Antonio; Fortes, Marina R S

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we describe the Association Weight Matrix (AWM), a novel procedure to exploit the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and, in combination with network inference algorithms, generate gene networks with regulatory and functional significance. In simple terms, the AWM is a matrix with rows represented by genes and columns represented by phenotypes. Individual {i, j}th elements in the AWM correspond to the association of the SNP in the ith gene to the jth phenotype. While our main objective is to provide a recipe-like tutorial on how to build and use AWM, we also take the opportunity to briefly reason the logic behind each step in the process. To conclude, we discuss the impact on AWM of issues like the number of phenotypes under scrutiny, the density of the SNP chip and the choice of contrast upon which to infer the cause-effect regulatory interactions. PMID:23756904

  18. Implications of genome-wide association studies in cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jai N; McLeod, Howard L; Innocenti, Federico

    2013-09-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) provide an agnostic approach to identifying potential genetic variants associated with disease susceptibility, prognosis of survival and/or predictive of drug response. Although these techniques are costly and interpretation of study results is challenging, they do allow for a more unbiased interrogation of the entire genome, resulting in the discovery of novel genes and understanding of novel biological associations. This review will focus on the implications of GWAS in cancer therapy, in particular germ-line mutations, including findings from major GWAS which have identified predictive genetic loci for clinical outcome and/or toxicity. Lessons and challenges in cancer GWAS are also discussed, including the need for functional analysis and replication, as well as future perspectives for biological and clinical utility. Given the large heterogeneity in response to cancer therapeutics, novel methods of identifying mechanisms and biology of variable drug response and ultimately treatment individualization will be indispensable.

  19. Effects of terrain-following vertical coordinates on high-resolution NWP simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Chen, Dehui; Li, Xingliang; Hu, Jianglin

    2015-06-01

    With increasing resolution in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, the model topography can be described with finer resolution and includes steeper slopes. Consequently, negative effects of the traditional terrain-following vertical coordinate on high-resolution numerical simulations become more distinct due to larger errors in the pressure gradient force (PGF) calculation and associated distortions of the gravity wave along the coordinate surface. A series of numerical experiments have been conducted in this study, including idealized test cases of gravity wave simulation over a complex mountain, error analysis of the PGF estimation over a real topography, and a suite of real-data test cases. The GRAPES-Meso model is utilized with four different coordinates, i.e., the traditional terrain-following vertical coordinate proposed by Gal-Chen and Somerville (hereinafter referred to as the Gal.C.S coordinate), the one-scale smoothed level (SLEVE1), the two-scale smoothed level (SLEVE2), and the COSINE (COS) coordinates. The results of the gravity wave simulation indicate that the GRAPES-Meso model generally can reproduce the mountain-induced gravity waves, which are consistent with the analytic solution. However, the shapes, vertical structures, and intensities of the waves are better simulated with the SLEVE2 coordinate than with the other three coordinates. The model with the COS coordinate also performs well, except at lower levels where it is not as effective as the SLEVE2 coordinate in suppressing the PGF errors. In contrast, the gravity waves simulated in both the Gal.C.S and SLEVE1 coordinates are relatively distorted. The estimated PGF errors in a rest atmosphere over the real complex topography are much smaller (even disappear at the middle and upper levels) in the GRAPES-Meso model using the SLEVE2 and COS coordinates than those using the Gal.C.S and SLEVE1 coordinates. The results of the real-data test cases conducted over a one-month period suggest

  20. Genome-wide association studies in nephrology: using known associations for data checks.

    PubMed

    Wuttke, Matthias; Schaefer, Franz; Wong, Craig S; Köttgen, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Prior to conducting genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of renal traits and diseases, systematic checks to ensure data integrity and analytical work flow should be conducted. Using positive controls (ie, known associations between a single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] and a corresponding trait) allows for identifying errors that are not apparent solely from global evaluation of summary statistics. Strong genetic control associations of chronic kidney disease (CKD), as derived from GWAS, are lacking in the non-African ancestry CKD population; thus, in this perspective, we provide examples of and considerations for using positive controls among patients with CKD. Using data from individuals with CKD who participated in the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study or PediGFR (Pediatric Investigation for Genetic Factors Linked to Renal Progression) Consortium, we evaluated 2 kinds of positive control traits: traits unrelated to kidney function (bilirubin level and body height) and those related to kidney function (cystatin C and urate levels). For the former, the proportion of variance in the control trait that is explained by the control SNP is the main determinant of the strength of the observable association, irrespective of adjustment for kidney function. For the latter, adjustment for kidney function can be effective in uncovering known associations among patients with CKD. For instance, in 1,092 participants in the PediGFR Consortium, the P value for the association of cystatin C concentrations and rs911119 in the CST3 gene decreased from 2.7×10(-3) to 2.4×10(-8) upon adjustment for serum creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate. In this perspective, we give recommendations for the appropriate selection of control traits and SNPs that can be used for data checks prior to conducting GWAS among patients with CKD.

  1. Genome-Wide Association Studies in Nephrology: Using Known Associations for Data Checks

    PubMed Central

    Wuttke, Matthias; Schaefer, Franz; Wong, Craig S.; Köttgen, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Prior to conducting genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of renal traits and diseases, systematic checks to ensure data integrity and analytical workflow should be conducted. Using positive controls (ie, known associations between a single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] and a corresponding trait) allows for identifying errors that are not apparent solely from global evaluation of summary statistics. Strong genetic control associations of chronic kidney disease (CKD), as derived from GWAS, are lacking in the non-African CKD population; thus, in this perspective we provide examples of and considerations for using positive controls among patients with CKD. Using data from individuals with CKD who participated in the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study or PediGFR (Pediatric Investigation for Genetic Factors Linked to Renal Progression) Consortium, we evaluated 2 kinds of positive control traits: traits unrelated to kidney function (bilirubin, body height) and those related to kidney function (cystatin C, urate). For the former, the proportion of variance in the control trait that is explained by the control SNP is the main determinant of the strength of the observable association, irrespective of adjustment for kidney function. For the latter, adjustment for kidney function can be effective in uncovering known associations among patients with CKD. For instance, in 1,092 participants of the PediGFR Consortium, the p-value for association of cystatin C concentrations and rs911119 in the CST3 gene decreased from 2.7*10-3 to 2.4*10-8 upon adjustment for serum creatinine–based estimated glomerular filtration rate. In this perspective, we give recommendations for the appropriate selection of control traits and SNPs that can be used for data checks prior to conducting GWAS among patients with CKD. PMID:25465167

  2. Genome-wide association study of relative telomere length.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Jennifer; Kraft, Peter; Chasman, Daniel I; Savage, Sharon A; Mirabello, Lisa; Berndt, Sonja I; Weissfeld, Joel L; Han, Jiali; Hayes, Richard B; Chanock, Stephen J; Hunter, David J; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2011-05-10

    Telomere function is essential to maintaining the physical integrity of linear chromosomes and healthy human aging. The probability of forming proper telomere structures depends on the length of the telomeric DNA tract. We attempted to identify common genetic variants associated with log relative telomere length using genome-wide genotyping data on 3,554 individuals from the Nurses' Health Study and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial that took part in the National Cancer Institute Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility initiative for breast and prostate cancer. After genotyping 64 independent SNPs selected for replication in additional Nurses' Health Study and Women's Genome Health Study participants, we did not identify genome-wide significant loci; however, we replicated the inverse association of log relative telomere length with the minor allele variant [C] of rs16847897 at the TERC locus (per allele β = -0.03, P = 0.003) identified by a previous genome-wide association study. We did not find evidence for an association with variants at the OBFC1 locus or other loci reported to be associated with telomere length. With this sample size we had >80% power to detect β estimates as small as ±0.10 for SNPs with minor allele frequencies of ≥0.15 at genome-wide significance. However, power is greatly reduced for β estimates smaller than ±0.10, such as those for variants at the TERC locus. In general, common genetic variants associated with telomere length homeostasis have been difficult to detect. Potential biological and technical issues are discussed.

  3. Balance and coordination after viewing stereoscopic 3D television

    PubMed Central

    Read, Jenny C. A.; Simonotto, Jennifer; Bohr, Iwo; Godfrey, Alan; Galna, Brook; Rochester, Lynn; Smulders, Tom V.

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers and the media have raised the possibility that viewing stereoscopic 3D television (S3D TV) may cause temporary disruption to balance and visuomotor coordination. We looked for evidence of such effects in a laboratory-based study. Four hundred and thirty-three people aged 4–82 years old carried out tests of balance and coordination before and after viewing an 80 min movie in either conventional 2D or stereoscopic 3D, while wearing two triaxial accelerometers. Accelerometry produced little evidence of any change in body motion associated with S3D TV. We found no evidence that viewing the movie in S3D causes a detectable impairment in balance or in visuomotor coordination. PMID:26587261

  4. A super powerful method for genome wide association study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome-Wide Association Studies shed light on the identification of genes underlying human diseases and agriculturally important traits. This potential has been shadowed by false positive findings. The Mixed Linear Model (MLM) method is flexible enough to simultaneously incorporate population struct...

  5. Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Okbay, Aysu; Beauchamp, Jonathan P; Fontana, Mark Alan; Lee, James J; Pers, Tune H; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Turley, Patrick; Chen, Guo-Bo; Emilsson, Valur; Meddens, S Fleur W; Oskarsson, Sven; Pickrell, Joseph K; Thom, Kevin; Timshel, Pascal; de Vlaming, Ronald; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Bacelis, Jonas; Baumbach, Clemens; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Brandsma, Johannes H; Pina Concas, Maria; Derringer, Jaime; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Galesloot, Tessel E; Girotto, Giorgia; Gupta, Richa; Hall, Leanne M; Harris, Sarah E; Hofer, Edith; Horikoshi, Momoko; Huffman, Jennifer E; Kaasik, Kadri; Kalafati, Ioanna P; Karlsson, Robert; Kong, Augustine; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J; deLeeuw, Christiaan; Lind, Penelope A; Lindgren, Karl-Oskar; Liu, Tian; Mangino, Massimo; Marten, Jonathan; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Michael B; van der Most, Peter J; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Payton, Antony; Pervjakova, Natalia; Peyrot, Wouter J; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rueedi, Rico; Salvi, Erika; Schmidt, Börge; Schraut, Katharina E; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert V; Poot, Raymond A; St Pourcain, Beate; Teumer, Alexander; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Verweij, Niek; Vuckovic, Dragana; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm-Jan; Yang, Jingyun; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Zhihong; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Biino, Ginevra; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boyle, Patricia A; Campbell, Harry; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Davies, Gail; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Deloukas, Panos; Demuth, Ilja; Ding, Jun; Eibich, Peter; Eisele, Lewin; Eklund, Niina; Evans, David M; Faul, Jessica D; Feitosa, Mary F; Forstner, Andreas J; Gandin, Ilaria; Gunnarsson, Bjarni; Halldórsson, Bjarni V; Harris, Tamara B; Heath, Andrew C; Hocking, Lynne J; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Homuth, Georg; Horan, Michael A; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; de Jager, Philip L; Joshi, Peter K; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika A; Kähönen, Mika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Keltigangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kraja, Aldi T; Kroh, Martin; Kutalik, Zoltan; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J; Lebreton, Maël P; Levinson, Douglas F; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter; Liewald, David C M; Loukola, Anu; Madden, Pamela A; Mägi, Reedik; Mäki-Opas, Tomi; Marioni, Riccardo E; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meddens, Gerardus A; McMahon, George; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Milaneschi, Yusplitri; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W; Myhre, Ronny; Nelson, Christopher P; Nyholt, Dale R; Ollier, William E R; Palotie, Aarno; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pedersen, Nancy L; Petrovic, Katja E; Porteous, David J; Räikkönen, Katri; Ring, Susan M; Robino, Antonietta; Rostapshova, Olga; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Schmidt, Helena; Scott, Rodney J; Smith, Blair H; Smith, Jennifer A; Staessen, Jan A; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Strauch, Konstantin; Terracciano, Antonio; Tobin, Martin D; Ulivi, Sheila; Vaccargiu, Simona; Quaye, Lydia; van Rooij, Frank J A; Venturini, Cristina; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Vonk, Judith M; Vozzi, Diego; Waage, Johannes; Ware, Erin B; Willemsen, Gonneke; Attia, John R; Bennett, David A; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Bisgaard, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bültmann, Ute; Chabris, Christopher F; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Deary, Ian J; Dedoussis, George V; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Franke, Barbara; Franke, Lude; Gasparini, Paolo; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Gratten, Jacob; Groenen, Patrick J F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Hinds, David A; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hyppönen, Elina; Iacono, William G; Jacobsson, Bo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L R; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lehrer, Steven F; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Pendleton, Neil; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perola, Markus; Pirastu, Nicola; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Posthuma, Danielle; Power, Christine; Province, Michael A; Samani, Nilesh J; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Reinhold; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tiemeier, Henning; Tung, Joyce Y; Uitterlinden, André G; Vitart, Veronique; Vollenweider, Peter; Weir, David R; Wilson, James F; Wright, Alan F; Conley, Dalton C; Krueger, Robert F; Davey Smith, George; Hofman, Albert; Laibson, David I; Medland, Sarah E; Meyer, Michelle N; Yang, Jian; Johannesson, Magnus; Visscher, Peter M; Esko, Tõnu; Koellinger, Philipp D; Cesarini, David; Benjamin, Daniel J

    2016-05-26

    Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:27225129

  6. Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Okbay, Aysu; Beauchamp, Jonathan P; Fontana, Mark Alan; Lee, James J; Pers, Tune H; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Turley, Patrick; Chen, Guo-Bo; Emilsson, Valur; Meddens, S Fleur W; Oskarsson, Sven; Pickrell, Joseph K; Thom, Kevin; Timshel, Pascal; de Vlaming, Ronald; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Bacelis, Jonas; Baumbach, Clemens; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Brandsma, Johannes H; Pina Concas, Maria; Derringer, Jaime; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Galesloot, Tessel E; Girotto, Giorgia; Gupta, Richa; Hall, Leanne M; Harris, Sarah E; Hofer, Edith; Horikoshi, Momoko; Huffman, Jennifer E; Kaasik, Kadri; Kalafati, Ioanna P; Karlsson, Robert; Kong, Augustine; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J; deLeeuw, Christiaan; Lind, Penelope A; Lindgren, Karl-Oskar; Liu, Tian; Mangino, Massimo; Marten, Jonathan; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Michael B; van der Most, Peter J; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Payton, Antony; Pervjakova, Natalia; Peyrot, Wouter J; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rueedi, Rico; Salvi, Erika; Schmidt, Börge; Schraut, Katharina E; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert V; Poot, Raymond A; St Pourcain, Beate; Teumer, Alexander; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Verweij, Niek; Vuckovic, Dragana; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm-Jan; Yang, Jingyun; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Zhihong; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Biino, Ginevra; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boyle, Patricia A; Campbell, Harry; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Davies, Gail; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Deloukas, Panos; Demuth, Ilja; Ding, Jun; Eibich, Peter; Eisele, Lewin; Eklund, Niina; Evans, David M; Faul, Jessica D; Feitosa, Mary F; Forstner, Andreas J; Gandin, Ilaria; Gunnarsson, Bjarni; Halldórsson, Bjarni V; Harris, Tamara B; Heath, Andrew C; Hocking, Lynne J; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Homuth, Georg; Horan, Michael A; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; de Jager, Philip L; Joshi, Peter K; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika A; Kähönen, Mika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Keltigangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kraja, Aldi T; Kroh, Martin; Kutalik, Zoltan; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J; Lebreton, Maël P; Levinson, Douglas F; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter; Liewald, David C M; Loukola, Anu; Madden, Pamela A; Mägi, Reedik; Mäki-Opas, Tomi; Marioni, Riccardo E; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meddens, Gerardus A; McMahon, George; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Milaneschi, Yusplitri; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W; Myhre, Ronny; Nelson, Christopher P; Nyholt, Dale R; Ollier, William E R; Palotie, Aarno; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pedersen, Nancy L; Petrovic, Katja E; Porteous, David J; Räikkönen, Katri; Ring, Susan M; Robino, Antonietta; Rostapshova, Olga; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Schmidt, Helena; Scott, Rodney J; Smith, Blair H; Smith, Jennifer A; Staessen, Jan A; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Strauch, Konstantin; Terracciano, Antonio; Tobin, Martin D; Ulivi, Sheila; Vaccargiu, Simona; Quaye, Lydia; van Rooij, Frank J A; Venturini, Cristina; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Vonk, Judith M; Vozzi, Diego; Waage, Johannes; Ware, Erin B; Willemsen, Gonneke; Attia, John R; Bennett, David A; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Bisgaard, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bültmann, Ute; Chabris, Christopher F; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Deary, Ian J; Dedoussis, George V; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Franke, Barbara; Franke, Lude; Gasparini, Paolo; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Gratten, Jacob; Groenen, Patrick J F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Hinds, David A; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hyppönen, Elina; Iacono, William G; Jacobsson, Bo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L R; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lehrer, Steven F; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Pendleton, Neil; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perola, Markus; Pirastu, Nicola; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Posthuma, Danielle; Power, Christine; Province, Michael A; Samani, Nilesh J; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Reinhold; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tiemeier, Henning; Tung, Joyce Y; Uitterlinden, André G; Vitart, Veronique; Vollenweider, Peter; Weir, David R; Wilson, James F; Wright, Alan F; Conley, Dalton C; Krueger, Robert F; Davey Smith, George; Hofman, Albert; Laibson, David I; Medland, Sarah E; Meyer, Michelle N; Yang, Jian; Johannesson, Magnus; Visscher, Peter M; Esko, Tõnu; Koellinger, Philipp D; Cesarini, David; Benjamin, Daniel J

    2016-05-11

    Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.

  7. 6. Coordination and control.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Any complex operation requires a system for management. In most societies, disaster management is the responsibility of the government. Coordination and control is a system that provides the oversight for all of the disaster management functions. The roles and responsibilities of a coordination and control centre include: (1) planning; (2) maintenance of inventories; (3) activation of the disaster response plan; (4) application of indicators of function; (5) surveillance; (6) information management; (7) coordination of activities of the BSFs; (8) decision-making; (9) priority setting; (10) defining overarching goal and objectives for interventions; (11) applying indicators of effectiveness; (12) applying indicators of benefit and impact; (13) exercising authority; (14) managing resources; (15) initiating actions; (16) preventing influx of unneeded resources; (17) defining progress; (18) providing information; (19) liasing with responding organisations; and (20) providing quality assurance. Coordination and control is impossible without communications. To accomplish coordination and control, three factors must be present: (1) mandate; (2) power and authority; and (3) available resources. Coordination and control is responsible for the evaluation of the effectiveness and benefits/impacts of all interventions. Coordination and control centres (CCCs) are organised hierarchically from the on-scene CCCs (incident command) to local provincial to national CCCs. Currently, no comprehensive regional and international CCCs have been universally endorsed. Systems such as the incident command system, the unified command system, and the hospital incident command system are described as are the humanitarian reform movement and the importance of coordination and control in disaster planning and preparedness.

  8. IVS Technology Coordinator Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This report of the Technology Coordinator includes the following: 1) continued work to implement the new VLBI2010 system, 2) the 1st International VLBI Technology Workshop, 3) a VLBI Digital- Backend Intercomparison Workshop, 4) DiFX software correlator development for geodetic VLBI, 5) a review of progress towards global VLBI standards, and 6) a welcome to new IVS Technology Coordinator Bill Petrachenko.

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study of Down Syndrome-Associated Atrioventricular Septal Defects

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Dhanya; Zeng, Zhen; Locke, Adam E.; Mulle, Jennifer G.; Bean, Lora J.H.; Rosser, Tracie C.; Dooley, Kenneth J.; Cua, Clifford L.; Capone, George T.; Reeves, Roger H.; Maslen, Cheryl L.; Cutler, David J.; Feingold, Eleanor; Sherman, Stephanie L.; Zwick, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the contribution of common genetic variants to Down syndrome−associated atrioventricular septal defect, a severe heart abnormality. Compared with the euploid population, infants with Down syndrome, or trisomy 21, have a 2000-fold increased risk of presenting with atrioventricular septal defects. The cause of this increased risk remains elusive. Here we present data from the largest heart study conducted to date on a trisomic background by using a carefully characterized collection of individuals from extreme ends of the phenotypic spectrum. We performed a genome-wide association study using logistic regression analysis on 452 individuals with Down syndrome, consisting of 210 cases with complete atrioventricular septal defects and 242 controls with structurally normal hearts. No individual variant achieved genome-wide significance. We identified four disomic regions (1p36.3, 5p15.31, 8q22.3, and 17q22) and two trisomic regions on chromosome 21 (around PDXK and KCNJ6 genes) that merit further investigation in large replication studies. Our data show that a few common genetic variants of large effect size (odds ratio >2.0) do not account for the elevated risk of Down syndrome−associated atrioventricular septal defects. Instead, multiple variants of low-to-moderate effect sizes may contribute to this elevated risk, highlighting the complex genetic architecture of atrioventricular septal defects even in the highly susceptible Down syndrome population. PMID:26194203

  10. Genome-Wide Association Study of Down Syndrome-Associated Atrioventricular Septal Defects.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Dhanya; Zeng, Zhen; Locke, Adam E; Mulle, Jennifer G; Bean, Lora J H; Rosser, Tracie C; Dooley, Kenneth J; Cua, Clifford L; Capone, George T; Reeves, Roger H; Maslen, Cheryl L; Cutler, David J; Feingold, Eleanor; Sherman, Stephanie L; Zwick, Michael E

    2015-07-20

    The goal of this study was to identify the contribution of common genetic variants to Down syndrome-associated atrioventricular septal defect, a severe heart abnormality. Compared with the euploid population, infants with Down syndrome, or trisomy 21, have a 2000-fold increased risk of presenting with atrioventricular septal defects. The cause of this increased risk remains elusive. Here we present data from the largest heart study conducted to date on a trisomic background by using a carefully characterized collection of individuals from extreme ends of the phenotypic spectrum. We performed a genome-wide association study using logistic regression analysis on 452 individuals with Down syndrome, consisting of 210 cases with complete atrioventricular septal defects and 242 controls with structurally normal hearts. No individual variant achieved genome-wide significance. We identified four disomic regions (1p36.3, 5p15.31, 8q22.3, and 17q22) and two trisomic regions on chromosome 21 (around PDXK and KCNJ6 genes) that merit further investigation in large replication studies. Our data show that a few common genetic variants of large effect size (odds ratio >2.0) do not account for the elevated risk of Down syndrome-associated atrioventricular septal defects. Instead, multiple variants of low-to-moderate effect sizes may contribute to this elevated risk, highlighting the complex genetic architecture of atrioventricular septal defects even in the highly susceptible Down syndrome population.

  11. Automated quality control for genome wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Ellingson, Sally R.; Fardo, David W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides details on the necessary steps to assess and control data in genome wide association studies (GWAS) using genotype information on a large number of genetic markers for large number of individuals. Due to varied study designs and genotyping platforms between multiple sites/projects as well as potential genotyping errors, it is important to ensure high quality data. Scripts and directions are provided to facilitate others in this process.

  12. Genome-wide association studies in pediatric endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Dauber, Andrew; Hirschhorn, Joel N

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies are a powerful tool for understanding the genetic underpinnings of human disease. In this article, we briefly review the role and findings of GWA studies in type 1 diabetes, stature, pubertal timing, obesity, and vitamin D deficiency. We then discuss the present and future implications of these findings with regards to disease prediction, uncovering basic biology, and the development of novel therapeutic agents.

  13. Genome-wide association study of antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Rautiainen, M-R; Paunio, T; Repo-Tiihonen, E; Virkkunen, M; Ollila, H M; Sulkava, S; Jolanki, O; Palotie, A; Tiihonen, J

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiology of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) remains unclear. Although the most consistent biological finding is reduced grey matter volume in the frontal cortex, about 50% of the total liability to developing ASPD has been attributed to genetic factors. The contributing genes remain largely unknown. Therefore, we sought to study the genetic background of ASPD. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a replication analysis of Finnish criminal offenders fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for ASPD (N=370, N=5850 for controls, GWAS; N=173, N=3766 for controls and replication sample). The GWAS resulted in suggestive associations of two clusters of single-nucleotide polymorphisms at 6p21.2 and at 6p21.32 at the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region. Imputation of HLA alleles revealed an independent association with DRB1*01:01 (odds ratio (OR)=2.19 (1.53-3.14), P=1.9 × 10(-5)). Two polymorphisms at 6p21.2 LINC00951-LRFN2 gene region were replicated in a separate data set, and rs4714329 reached genome-wide significance (OR=1.59 (1.37-1.85), P=1.6 × 10(-9)) in the meta-analysis. The risk allele also associated with antisocial features in the general population conditioned for severe problems in childhood family (β=0.68, P=0.012). Functional analysis in brain tissue in open access GTEx and Braineac databases revealed eQTL associations of rs4714329 with LINC00951 and LRFN2 in cerebellum. In humans, LINC00951 and LRFN2 are both expressed in the brain, especially in the frontal cortex, which is intriguing considering the role of the frontal cortex in behavior and the neuroanatomical findings of reduced gray matter volume in ASPD. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing genome-wide significant and replicable findings on genetic variants associated with any personality disorder.

  14. Pharmacogenetic Association Study of Warfarin Safety Endpoints in Puerto Ricans

    PubMed Central

    Valentín, Isa I.; Rivera, Giselle; Nieves-Plaza, Mariely; Cruz, Iadelisse; Renta, Jessica Y.; Cadilla, Carmen L.; Feliu, Juan F.; Seip, Richard L.; Ruaño, Gualberto; Duconge, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was intended to determine the incidence rate of warfarin-related adverse events (e.g., bleeding) in Puerto Ricans and whether a genetic association between warfarin pharmacogenes and any of these adverse events was observed over the initiation period (i.e., the first 90 days of therapy). Methods We conducted an observational, retrospective cohort study of pharmacogenetic association in 122 warfarin-treated, male, Puerto Rican patients (69.9 ±9.6 years) from the Veterans Affair Caribbean Healthcare System (VACHS) who consented to participate. Genotyping was performed using the CYP2C9 and VKORC 1 assays by Luminex. Event-free survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method and analyzed by log-rank test. Cox regression models were constructed and hazard ratios (HR) calculated. Results Carriers of functional CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms demonstrated a higher incidence rate of multiple adverse events (i.e., 5.2 vs. 1.0 cases per 100 patient-months; RR = 4.8, p = 0.12) than did wild types. A significant association was observed between multiple adverse events and carrier status (HR = 2.5; 95% CI : 1.0–6.3, p = 0.04). However, no significant associations between genotypes and individual outcomes over the first 90 days of therapy were found. Conclusion The association of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes and risks for adverse events due to exposure to warfarin was examined for the first time in Puerto Ricans. Despite a lack of association with individual events in this study population, our findings revealed a potential utility of genotyping for the prevention of multiple adverse events during warfarin therapy. PMID:25244877

  15. The Five-To-Six-Coordination Transition of Ferric Human Serum Heme-Albumin Is Allosterically-Modulated by Ibuprofen and Warfarin: A Combined XAS and MD Study

    PubMed Central

    Bionducci, Monica; Fanali, Gabriella; Meli, Massimiliano; Colombo, Giorgio; Fasano, Mauro; Ascenzi, Paolo; Mobilio, Settimio

    2014-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is involved physiologically in heme scavenging; in turn, heme-albumin (HSA-heme-Fe) displays globin-like properties. Here, the allosteric effect of ibuprofen and warfarin on the local atomic structure around the ferric heme-Fe (heme-Fe(III)) atom of HSA-heme-Fe (HSA-heme-Fe(III)) has been probed by Fe-K edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The quantitative analysis of the Fe-K edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) signals and modeling of the near edge (XANES) spectral features demonstrated that warfarin and ibuprofen binding modify the local structure of the heme-Fe(III). Combined XAS data analysis and targeted molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provided atomic resolution insights of protein structural rearrangements required to accommodate the heme-Fe(III) upon ibuprofen and warfarin binding. In the absence of drugs, the heme-Fe(III) atom is penta-coordinated having distorted 4+1 configuration made by the nitrogen atoms of the porphyrin ring and the oxygen phenoxy atom of the Tyr161 residue. MD simulations show that ibuprofen and warfarin association to the secondary fatty acid (FA) binding site 2 (FA2) induces a reorientation of domain I of HSA-heme-Fe(III), this leads to the redirection of the His146 residue providing an additional bond to the heme-Fe(III) atom, providing the 5+1 configuration. The comparison of Fe-K edge XANES spectra calculated using MD structures with those obtained experimentally confirms the reliability of the proposed structural model. As a whole, combining XAS and MD simulations it has been possible to provide a reliable model of the heme-Fe(III) atom coordination state and to understand the complex allosteric transition occurring in HSA-heme-Fe(III) upon ibuprofen and warfarin binding. PMID:25153171

  16. Care coordination impacts on access to care for children with special health care needs enrolled in Medicaid and CHIP.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kipyn

    2014-05-01

    Children with special health care needs (CSHCN) often require services from multiple health care providers. This study's objective is to evaluate whether CSHCN, enrolled in Medicaid or the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) and receiving care coordination services, experience improved access to mental and specialty health care services. Using data from the 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, two separate outcomes are used to evaluate children's access to care: receipt of needed mental and specialty care and timely access to services. Using propensity score matching, CSHCN propensity for receiving care coordination services is derived and an assessment is made of care coordination's impact on the receipt of health care and whether care is delayed. Results demonstrate that care coordination is positively associated with whether a child receives the mental and specialty care that they need, regardless of whether or not that coordination is perceived to be adequate by parents. However, receiving care coordination services that parents perceive to be adequate has a larger impact on the timeliness in which care is received. This study indicates that care coordination is associated with an increased ability for CSHCN to access needed mental and specialty care. States should consider offering care coordination services that support provider communication and fulfill families' coordination needs to the CSHCN enrolled in their Medicaid and CHIP programs.

  17. New Variational Method for the Ab Initio Study in Valence Coordinates of the Renner-Teller Effect in Tetra-Atomic Systems.

    PubMed

    Jutier, Laurent; Léonard, Céline

    2010-05-11

    A new variational methodology for the treatment of the Renner-Teller effect in tetra-atomic molecules has been developed in valence coordinates. The kinetic-energy operator of Bramley et al. [Mol. Phys. 1991, 73, 1183] for any sequentially bonded four-atom molecule, A-B-C-D, in the singlet nondegenerate electronic state has been adapted to the Renner-Teller and spin couplings by modifying the expression of the nuclear angular momentum. The total Schrödinger equation is solved by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix in a three-step contraction scheme. The main advantage of this new theoretical development is the possibility of studying different isotopomers using the same potential-energy surfaces. This procedure has been tested on HCCH(+) and its deuterated derivatives DCCD(+) and DCCH(+). The calculated rovibronic band origins were compared with previous data deduced from the Jacobi coordinates methodology, dimensionality reduced variational treatment, and photoelectron spectra with a good global agreement. Rotational structures for these systems are also tackled.

  18. Genetics, Genome-Wide Association Studies, and Menarche.

    PubMed

    Witchel, Selma Feldman

    2016-07-01

    Puberty is characterized by maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, development of secondary sexual features, increased linear growth velocity, maturation of the epiphyses limiting additional growth, and achievement of menarche. The age at menarche appears to have a significant genetic component. With the advent of genome-wide association studies (GWASs), the genome has been interrogated to find associations between specific loci and age at menarche. It is apparent that multiple genetic loci, epigenetic mechanisms, and environmental factors modulate this biological event crucial for reproductive competence.

  19. Genetics, Genome-Wide Association Studies, and Menarche.

    PubMed

    Witchel, Selma Feldman

    2016-07-01

    Puberty is characterized by maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, development of secondary sexual features, increased linear growth velocity, maturation of the epiphyses limiting additional growth, and achievement of menarche. The age at menarche appears to have a significant genetic component. With the advent of genome-wide association studies (GWASs), the genome has been interrogated to find associations between specific loci and age at menarche. It is apparent that multiple genetic loci, epigenetic mechanisms, and environmental factors modulate this biological event crucial for reproductive competence. PMID:27513021

  20. The Coordination of Unlike Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Samuel

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the account of coordination of unlike categories ought to be unified with the account of feature neutralization under phonological identity. Further argues that this unified account ought not be couched in terms of string of features, but rather in terms of the logic of categories. Study concludes with a discussion of the interactions…

  1. Voxelwise genome-wide association study (vGWAS).

    PubMed

    Stein, Jason L; Hua, Xue; Lee, Suh; Ho, April J; Leow, Alex D; Toga, Arthur W; Saykin, Andrew J; Shen, Li; Foroud, Tatiana; Pankratz, Nathan; Huentelman, Matthew J; Craig, David W; Gerber, Jill D; Allen, April N; Corneveaux, Jason J; Dechairo, Bryan M; Potkin, Steven G; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul

    2010-11-15

    The structure of the human brain is highly heritable, and is thought to be influenced by many common genetic variants, many of which are currently unknown. Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetics have allowed collection of both highly detailed structural brain scans and genome-wide genotype information. This wealth of information presents a new opportunity to find the genes influencing brain structure. Here we explore the relation between 448,293 single nucleotide polymorphisms in each of 31,622 voxels of the entire brain across 740 elderly subjects (mean age+/-s.d.: 75.52+/-6.82 years; 438 male) including subjects with Alzheimer's disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and healthy elderly controls from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We used tensor-based morphometry to measure individual differences in brain structure at the voxel level relative to a study-specific template based on healthy elderly subjects. We then conducted a genome-wide association at each voxel to identify genetic variants of interest. By studying only the most associated variant at each voxel, we developed a novel method to address the multiple comparisons problem and computational burden associated with the unprecedented amount of data. No variant survived the strict significance criterion, but several genes worthy of further exploration were identified, including CSMD2 and CADPS2. These genes have high relevance to brain structure. This is the first voxelwise genome wide association study to our knowledge, and offers a novel method to discover genetic influences on brain structure.

  2. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Novel Loci Associated With Diisocyanate-Induced Occupational Asthma.

    PubMed

    Yucesoy, Berran; Kaufman, Kenneth M; Lummus, Zana L; Weirauch, Matthew T; Zhang, Ge; Cartier, André; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Sastre, Joaquin; Quirce, Santiago; Tarlo, Susan M; Cruz, Maria-Jesus; Munoz, Xavier; Harley, John B; Bernstein, David I

    2015-07-01

    Diisocyanates, reactive chemicals used to produce polyurethane products, are the most common causes of occupational asthma. The aim of this study is to identify susceptibility gene variants that could contribute to the pathogenesis of diisocyanate asthma (DA) using a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) approach. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was performed in 74 diisocyanate-exposed workers with DA and 824 healthy controls using Omni-2.5 and Omni-5 SNP microarrays. We identified 11 SNPs that exceeded genome-wide significance; the strongest association was for the rs12913832 SNP located on chromosome 15, which has been mapped to the HERC2 gene (p = 6.94 × 10(-14)). Strong associations were also found for SNPs near the ODZ3 and CDH17 genes on chromosomes 4 and 8 (rs908084, p = 8.59 × 10(-9) and rs2514805, p = 1.22 × 10(-8), respectively). We also prioritized 38 SNPs with suggestive genome-wide significance (p < 1 × 10(-6)). Among them, 17 SNPs map to the PITPNC1, ACMSD, ZBTB16, ODZ3, and CDH17 gene loci. Functional genomics data indicate that 2 of the suggestive SNPs (rs2446823 and rs2446824) are located within putative binding sites for the CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein (CEBP) and Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4, Alpha transcription factors (TFs), respectively. This study identified SNPs mapping to the HERC2, CDH17, and ODZ3 genes as potential susceptibility loci for DA. Pathway analysis indicated that these genes are associated with antigen processing and presentation, and other immune pathways. Overlap of 2 suggestive SNPs with likely TF binding sites suggests possible roles in disruption of gene regulation. These results provide new insights into the genetic architecture of DA and serve as a basis for future functional and mechanistic studies.

  3. Contract to coordinate on-going documentation requirements associated with Title X legislation for DOE active-solar activities. Final project technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    The objectives of this work were to ensure that Title X Active Solar Program reports complied with all guidance regarding length, format, coverage, tone, tables and schedules; provide necessary Conservation and Renewable Energy Office background and back-up material; follow this activity through to its completion in January 1982; assess information requirements associated with on-going documentation of Federal Buildings Program and its predecessors; establish a method for collecting, maintaining and utilizing appropriate program data specifically related to the preparation of report due in June 1982. Work on this project has generally remained on schedule and within budget. DOE-SAN has been instrumental in keeping us on track, by providing timely guidance as needed. Attached are recommendations and methods for documenting solar heat technologies research and the Title X sunset policy, planning, and evaluation long report for Active Solar Heating and Cooling Program.

  4. Neuronal NLRP1 inflammasome activation of Caspase-1 coordinately regulates inflammatory interleukin-1-beta production and axonal degeneration-associated Caspase-6 activation

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, V; Dye, R; Pakavathkumar, P; Foveau, B; Flores, J; Hyman, B; Ghetti, B; Koller, B H; LeBlanc, A C

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal active Caspase-6 (Casp6) is associated with Alzheimer disease (AD), cognitive impairment, and axonal degeneration. Caspase-1 (Casp1) can activate Casp6 but the expression and functionality of Casp1-activating inflammasomes has not been well-defined in human neurons. Here, we show that primary cultures of human CNS neurons expressed functional Nod-like receptor protein 1 (NLRP1), absent in melanoma 2, and ICE protease activating factor, but not the NLRP3, inflammasome receptor components. NLRP1 neutralizing antibodies in a cell-free system, and NLRP1 siRNAs in neurons hampered stress-induced Casp1 activation. NLRP1 and Casp1 siRNAs also abolished stress-induced Casp6 activation in neurons. The functionality of the NLRP1 inflammasome in serum-deprived neurons was also demonstrated by NLRP1 siRNA-mediated inhibition of speck formation of the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain conjugated to green fluorescent protein. These results indicated a novel stress-induced intraneuronal NLRP1/Casp1/Casp6 pathway. Lipopolysaccharide induced Casp1 and Casp6 activation in wild-type mice brain cortex, but not in that of Nlrp1−/− and Casp1−/− mice. NLRP1 immunopositive neurons were increased 25- to 30-fold in AD brains compared with non-AD brains. NLRP1 immunoreactivity in these neurons co-localized with Casp6 activity. Furthermore, the NLRP1/Casp1/Casp6 pathway increased amyloid beta peptide 42 ratio in serum-deprived neurons. Therefore, CNS human neurons express functional NLRP1 inflammasomes, which activate Casp1 and subsequently Casp6, thus revealing a fundamental mechanism linking intraneuronal inflammasome activation to Casp1-generated interleukin-1-β-mediated neuroinflammation and Casp6-mediated axonal degeneration. PMID:25744023

  5. Genome-wide association studies in pediatric chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Jayanta; Kanetsky, Peter A; Wuttke, Matthias; Köttgen, Anna; Schaefer, Franz; Wong, Craig S

    2016-08-01

    The genome-wide association study (GWAS) has become an established scientific method that provides an unbiased screen for genetic loci potentially associated with phenotypes of clinical interest, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). Thus, GWAS provides opportunities to gain new perspectives regarding the genetic architecture of CKD progression by identifying new candidate genes and targets for intervention. As such, it has become an important arm of translational science providing a complementary line of investigation to identify novel therapeutics to treat CKD. In this review, we describe the method and the challenges of performing GWAS in the pediatric CKD population. We also provide an overview of successful GWAS for kidney disease, and we discuss the established pediatric CKD cohorts in North America and Europe that are poised to identify genetic risk variants associated with CKD progression.

  6. Coordination behavior of ligand based on NNS and NNO donors with ruthenium(III) complexes and their catalytic and DNA interaction studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, R.; Viswnathamurthi, P.

    2012-11-01

    Reactions of 2-acetylpyridine-thiosemicarbazone HL1, 2-acetylpyridine-4-methyl-thiosemicarbazone HL2, 2-acetylpyridine-4-phenyl-thiosemicarbazone HL3 and 2-acetylpyridine-semicarbazone HL4 with ruthenium(III) precursor complexes were studied and the products were characterized by analytical and spectral (FT-IR, electronic, EPR and EI-MS) methods. The ligands coordinated with the ruthenium(III) ion via pyridine nitrogen, azomethine nitrogen and thiolate sulfur/enolate oxygen. An octahedral geometry has been proposed for all the complexes based on the studies. All the complexes are redox active and display an irreversible and quasireversible metal centered redox processes. Further, the catalytic activity of the new complexes has been investigated for the transfer hydrogenation of ketones in the presence of isopropanol/KOH and the Kumada-Corriu coupling of aryl halides with aryl Grignard reagents. The DNA cleavage efficiency of new complexes has also been tested.

  7. Genome-wide association studies in Alzheimer's disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Tosto, Giuseppe; Reitz, Christiane

    2013-10-01

    Over the past decade, research aiming to disentangle the genetic underpinnings of late-onset Alzheimer's disease has mostly focused on the identification of common variants through genome-wide association studies. The identification of several new susceptibility genes through these efforts has reinforced the importance of amyloid precursor protein and tau metabolism in the cause of the disease and has implicated immune response, inflammation, lipid metabolism, endocytosis/intracellular trafficking, and cell migration in the cause of the disease. Ongoing and future large-scale genome-wide association studies, translational studies, and next-generation whole genome or whole exome sequencing efforts, hold the promise to map the specific causative variants in these genes, to identify several additional risk variants, including rare and structural variants, and to identify novel targets for genetic testing, prevention, and treatment.

  8. A genome-wide association study of attempted suicide

    PubMed Central

    Willour, Virginia L.; Seifuddin, Fayaz; Mahon, Pamela B.; Jancic, Dubravka; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Steele, Jo; Schweizer, Barbara; Goes, Fernando S.; Mondimore, Francis M.; MacKinnon, Dean F.; Perlis, Roy H.; Lee, Phil Hyoun; Huang, Jie; Kelsoe, John R.; Shilling, Paul D.; Rietschel, Marcella; Nöthen, Markus; Cichon, Sven; Gurling, Hugh; Purcell, Shaun; Smoller, Jordan W.; Craddock, Nicholas; DePaulo, J. Raymond; Schulze, Thomas G.; McMahon, Francis J.; Zandi, Peter P.; Potash, James B.

    2011-01-01

    The heritable component to attempted and completed suicide is partly related to psychiatric disorders and also partly independent of them. While attempted suicide linkage regions have been identified on 2p11–12 and 6q25–26, there are likely many more such loci, the discovery of which will require a much higher resolution approach, such as the genome-wide association study (GWAS). With this in mind, we conducted an attempted suicide GWAS that compared the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes of 1,201 bipolar (BP) subjects with a history of suicide attempts to the genotypes of 1,497 BP subjects without a history of suicide attempts. 2,507 SNPs with evidence for association at p<0.001 were identified. These associated SNPs were subsequently tested for association in a large and independent BP sample set. None of these SNPs were significantly associated in the replication sample after correcting for multiple testing, but the combined analysis of the two sample sets produced an association signal on 2p25 (rs300774) at the threshold of genome-wide significance (p= 5.07 × 10−8). The associated SNPs on 2p25 fall in a large linkage disequilibrium block containing the ACP1 gene, a gene whose expression is significantly elevated in BP subjects who have completed suicide. Furthermore, the ACP1 protein is a tyrosine phosphatase that influences Wnt signaling, a pathway regulated by lithium, making ACP1 a functional candidate for involvement in the phenotype. Larger GWAS sample sets will be required to confirm the signal on 2p25 and to identify additional genetic risk factors increasing susceptibility for attempted suicide. PMID:21423239

  9. A genome-wide association study of attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Willour, V L; Seifuddin, F; Mahon, P B; Jancic, D; Pirooznia, M; Steele, J; Schweizer, B; Goes, F S; Mondimore, F M; Mackinnon, D F; Perlis, R H; Lee, P H; Huang, J; Kelsoe, J R; Shilling, P D; Rietschel, M; Nöthen, M; Cichon, S; Gurling, H; Purcell, S; Smoller, J W; Craddock, N; DePaulo, J R; Schulze, T G; McMahon, F J; Zandi, P P; Potash, J B

    2012-04-01

    The heritable component to attempted and completed suicide is partly related to psychiatric disorders and also partly independent of them. Although attempted suicide linkage regions have been identified on 2p11-12 and 6q25-26, there are likely many more such loci, the discovery of which will require a much higher resolution approach, such as the genome-wide association study (GWAS). With this in mind, we conducted an attempted suicide GWAS that compared the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes of 1201 bipolar (BP) subjects with a history of suicide attempts to the genotypes of 1497 BP subjects without a history of suicide attempts. In all, 2507 SNPs with evidence for association at P<0.001 were identified. These associated SNPs were subsequently tested for association in a large and independent BP sample set. None of these SNPs were significantly associated in the replication sample after correcting for multiple testing, but the combined analysis of the two sample sets produced an association signal on 2p25 (rs300774) at the threshold of genome-wide significance (P=5.07 × 10(-8)). The associated SNPs on 2p25 fall in a large linkage disequilibrium block containing the ACP1 (acid phosphatase 1) gene, a gene whose expression is significantly elevated in BP subjects who have completed suicide. Furthermore, the ACP1 protein is a tyrosine phosphatase that influences Wnt signaling, a pathway regulated by lithium, making ACP1 a functional candidate for involvement in the phenotype. Larger GWAS sample sets will be required to confirm the signal on 2p25 and to identify additional genetic risk factors increasing susceptibility for attempted suicide. PMID:21423239

  10. Genome-wide association studies in pharmacogenetics research debate

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Kent R; Cheng, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Will genome-wide association studies (GWAS) ‘work’ for pharmacogenetics research? This question was the topic of a staged debate, with pro and con sides, aimed to bring out the strengths and weaknesses of GWAS for pharmacogenetics studies. After a full day of seminars at the Fifth Statistical Analysis Workshop of the Pharmacogenetics Research Network, the lively debate was held – appropriately – at Goonies Comedy Club in Rochester (MN, USA). The pro side emphasized that the many GWAS successes for identifying genetic variants associated with disease risk show that it works; that the current genotyping platforms are efficient, with good imputation methods to fill in missing data; that its global assessment is always a success even if no significant associations are detected; and that genetic effects are likely to be large because humans have not evolved in a drug-therapy environment. By contrast, the con side emphasized that we have limited knowledge of the complexity of the genome; limited clinical phenotypes compromise studies; the likely multifactorial nature of drug response clouding the small genetic effects; and limitations of sample size and replication studies in pharmacogenetic studies. Lively and insightful discussions emphasized further research efforts that might benefit GWAS in pharmacogenetics. PMID:20235786

  11. Set-based tests for genetic association in longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    He, Zihuai; Zhang, Min; Lee, Seunggeun; Smith, Jennifer A; Guo, Xiuqing; Palmas, Walter; Kardia, Sharon L R; Diez Roux, Ana V; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2015-09-01

    Genetic association studies with longitudinal markers of chronic diseases (e.g., blood pressure, body mass index) provide a valuable opportunity to explore how genetic variants affect traits over time by utilizing the full trajectory of longitudinal outcomes. Since these traits are likely influenced by the joint effect of multiple variants in a gene, a joint analysis of these variants considering linkage disequilibrium (LD) may help to explain additional phenotypic variation. In this article, we propose a longitudinal genetic random field model (LGRF), to test the association between a phenotype measured repeatedly during the course of an observational study and a set of genetic variants. Generalized score type tests are developed, which we show are robust to misspecification of within-subject correlation, a feature that is desirable for longitudinal analysis. In addition, a joint test incorporating gene-time interaction is further proposed. Computational advancement is made for scalable implementation of the proposed methods in large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The proposed methods are evaluated through extensive simulation studies and illustrated using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Our simulation results indicate substantial gain in power using LGRF when compared with two commonly used existing alternatives: (i) single marker tests using longitudinal outcome and (ii) existing gene-based tests using the average value of repeated measurements as the outcome.

  12. Genome-wide association study of schizophrenia in Ashkenazi Jews.

    PubMed

    Goes, Fernando S; McGrath, John; Avramopoulos, Dimitrios; Wolyniec, Paula; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Ruczinski, Ingo; Nestadt, Gerald; Kenny, Eimear E; Vacic, Vladimir; Peters, Inga; Lencz, Todd; Darvasi, Ariel; Mulle, Jennifer G; Warren, Stephen T; Pulver, Ann E

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a common, clinically heterogeneous disorder associated with lifelong morbidity and early mortality. Several genetic variants associated with schizophrenia have been identified, but the majority of the heritability remains unknown. In this study, we report on a case-control sample of Ashkenazi Jews (AJ), a founder population that may provide additional insights into genetic etiology of schizophrenia. We performed a genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) of 592 cases and 505 controls of AJ ancestry ascertained in the US. Subsequently, we performed a meta-analysis with an Israeli AJ sample of 913 cases and 1640 controls, followed by a meta-analysis and polygenic risk scoring using summary results from Psychiatric GWAS Consortium 2 schizophrenia study. The U.S. AJ sample showed strong evidence of polygenic inheritance (pseudo-R(2) ∼9.7%) and a SNP-heritability estimate of 0.39 (P = 0.00046). We found no genome-wide significant associations in the U.S. sample or in the combined US/Israeli AJ meta-analysis of 1505 cases and 2145 controls. The strongest AJ specific associations (P-values in 10(-6) -10(-7) range) were in the 22q 11.2 deletion region and included the genes TBX1, GLN1, and COMT. Supportive evidence (meta P < 1 × 10(-4) ) was also found for several previously identified genome-wide significant findings, including the HLA region, CNTN4, IMMP2L, and GRIN2A. The meta-analysis of the U.S. sample with the PGC2 results provided initial genome-wide significant evidence for six new loci. Among the novel potential susceptibility genes is PEPD, a gene involved in proline metabolism, which is associated with a Mendelian disorder characterized by developmental delay and cognitive deficits. PMID:26198764

  13. Genome-wide association studies suggest sex-specific loci associated with abdominal and visceral fat

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yun Ju; Pérusse, Louis; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Fornage, Myriam; Sidney, Steve; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rice, Treva; Terry, Gregg; Jacobs, David R.; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Curran, Joanne E; Carr, John Jeffrey; Blangero, John; Ghosh, Sujoy; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D.C.; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify loci associated with abdominal fat and replicate prior findings, we performed genome-wide association (GWA) studies of abdominal fat traits: subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total adipose tissue (TAT) and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VSR). Subjects and Methods Sex-combined and sex-stratified analyses were performed on each trait with (TRAIT-BMI) or without (TRAIT) adjustment for BMI, and cohort-specific results were combined via a fixed effects meta-analysis. A total of 2,513 subjects of European descent were available for the discovery phase. For replication, 2,171 European Americans and 772 African Americans were available. Results A total of 52 SNPs encompassing 7 loci showed suggestive evidence of association (p < 1.0 × 10−6) with abdominal fat in the sex-combined analyses. The strongest evidence was found on chromosome 7p14.3 between a SNP near BBS9 gene and VAT (rs12374818; p= 1.10 × 10−7), an association that was replicated (p = 0.02). For the BMI-adjusted trait, the strongest evidence of association was found between a SNP near CYCSP30 and VAT-BMI (rs10506943; p= 2.42 × 10−7). Our sex-specific analyses identified one genome-wide significant (p < 5.0 × 10−8) locus for SAT in women with 11 SNPs encompassing the MLLT10, DNAJC1 and EBLN1 genes on chromosome 10p12.31 (p = 3.97 × 10−8 to 1.13 × 10−8). The THNSL2 gene previously associated with VAT in women was also replicated (p= 0.006). The six gene/loci showing the strongest evidence of association with VAT or VAT-BMI were interrogated for their functional links with obesity and inflammation using the Biograph knowledge-mining software. Genes showing the closest functional links with obesity and inflammation were ADCY8 and KCNK9, respectively. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for new loci influencing abdominal visceral (BBS9, ADCY8, KCNK9) and subcutaneous (MLLT10/DNAJC1/EBLN1) fat, and confirmed a locus (THNSL2

  14. Liposomes- and ethosomes-associated distamycins: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, Rita; Romagnoli, Romeo; Drechsler, Markus; Menegatti, Enea; Zaid, Abdel N; Ravani, Laura; Esposito, Elisabetta

    2010-12-01

    The present article describes a comparative study of the performances of liposomes and ethosomes as specialized delivery systems for distamycin A (DA) and two of its derivatives. Liposomes and ethosomes were prepared by classical methods, extruded through polycarbonate filters, and characterized in terms of dimensions, morphology, and encapsulation efficiency. It was found that DA was associated with vesicles (either liposomes or ethosomes) by around 16.0%, while both derivatives of DA showed a percentage of association around 80% in the case of liposomes and around 50% in the case of ethosomes. In vitro antiproliferative activity experiments performed on cultured human and mouse leukemic cells demonstrated that vesicles were able to increase the activity of both derivatives of DA. In addition, it was demonstrated that the aging of both liposomes- and ethosomes-associated distamycin suspensions did not heavily influence the vesicle size, while all samples showed a relevant drug leakage with time. Moreover, according to the different physicochemical characteristics of DA and its derivatives (i.e., log P), vesicle-associated DA showed the highest loss of drug with respect to both its derivatives. In conclusion, the enhancement of drug activity expressed by these specialized delivery systems-associated DD could be interesting to obtain an efficient therapeutic effect aimed at reducing or minimizing toxic effects occurring with distamycins administration.

  15. Liposomes- and ethosomes-associated distamycins: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, Rita; Romagnoli, Romeo; Drechsler, Markus; Menegatti, Enea; Zaid, Abdel N; Ravani, Laura; Esposito, Elisabetta

    2010-12-01

    The present article describes a comparative study of the performances of liposomes and ethosomes as specialized delivery systems for distamycin A (DA) and two of its derivatives. Liposomes and ethosomes were prepared by classical methods, extruded through polycarbonate filters, and characterized in terms of dimensions, morphology, and encapsulation efficiency. It was found that DA was associated with vesicles (either liposomes or ethosomes) by around 16.0%, while both derivatives of DA showed a percentage of association around 80% in the case of liposomes and around 50% in the case of ethosomes. In vitro antiproliferative activity experiments performed on cultured human and mouse leukemic cells demonstrated that vesicles were able to increase the activity of both derivatives of DA. In addition, it was demonstrated that the aging of both liposomes- and ethosomes-associated distamycin suspensions did not heavily influence the vesicle size, while all samples showed a relevant drug leakage with time. Moreover, according to the different physicochemical characteristics of DA and its derivatives (i.e., log P), vesicle-associated DA showed the highest loss of drug with respect to both its derivatives. In conclusion, the enhancement of drug activity expressed by these specialized delivery systems-associated DD could be interesting to obtain an efficient therapeutic effect aimed at reducing or minimizing toxic effects occurring with distamycins administration. PMID:19961302

  16. Evaluation of Genome Wide Association Study Associated Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Loci in Sub Saharan Africans

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemo, Adebowale A.; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Bentley, Amy R.; Chen, Guanjie; Huang, Hanxia; Zhou, Jie; Shriner, Daniel; Fasanmade, Olufemi; Okafor, Godfrey; Eghan, Benjamin; Agyenim-Boateng, Kofi; Adeleye, Jokotade; Balogun, Williams; Elkahloun, Abdel; Chandrasekharappa, Settara; Owusu, Samuel; Amoah, Albert; Acheampong, Joseph; Johnson, Thomas; Oli, Johnnie; Adebamowo, Clement; Collins, Francis; Dunston, Georgia; Rotimi, Charles N.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for type 2 diabetes (T2D) undertaken in European and Asian ancestry populations have yielded dozens of robustly associated loci. However, the genomics of T2D remains largely understudied in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where rates of T2D are increasing dramatically and where the environmental background is quite different than in these previous studies. Here, we evaluate 106 reported T2D GWAS loci in continental Africans. We tested each of these SNPs, and SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with these index SNPs, for an association with T2D in order to assess transferability and to fine map the loci leveraging the generally reduced LD of African genomes. The study included 1775 unrelated Africans (1035 T2D cases, 740 controls; mean age 54 years; 59% female) enrolled in Nigeria, Ghana, and Kenya as part of the Africa America Diabetes Mellitus (AADM) study. All samples were genotyped on the Affymetrix Axiom PanAFR SNP array. Forty-one of the tested loci showed transferability to this African sample (p < 0.05, same direction of effect), 11 at the exact reported SNP and 30 others at SNPs in LD with the reported SNP (after adjustment for the number of tested SNPs). TCF7L2 SNP rs7903146 was the most significant locus in this study (p = 1.61 × 10−8). Most of the loci that showed transferability were successfully fine-mapped, i.e., localized to smaller haplotypes than in the original reports. The findings indicate that the genetic architecture of T2D in SSA is characterized by several risk loci shared with non-African ancestral populations and that data from African populations may facilitate fine mapping of risk loci. The study provides an important resource for meta-analysis of African ancestry populations and transferability of novel loci. PMID:26635871

  17. Coordination sequences and coordination waves in matter

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, V. G. Pugaev, A. A.; Rau, T. F.

    2006-01-15

    A possible way of partitioning a space into polycubes (n-dimensional modifications of Golomb polyominoes, which are generally nonconvex) is used as a basic model of ordered matter structure. It is suggested that layer-by-layer growth of a structure, occurring along the geodetics of the digraph of a net defined by the local rules of bonding of polycubes, justifies the phenomenological laws of shaping (self-similarity during the growth, independence of the polyhedron shape on the 'seed,' the symmetry of the growth polyhedron, etc.). Specific results of the analysis of number sequences of the increase in coordination circles for planar periodic partitions of model and real crystal structures, as well as the preliminary results of investigation of standing coordination topological waves, revealed for the first time in computer experiments, are reported.

  18. Genome-wide association study of blood lead shows multiple associations near ALAD

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Nicole M.; Zhu, Gu; Dy, Veronica; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Hemani, Gibran; Kemp, John P.; Mcmahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Taylor, Caroline M.; Golding, Jean; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Steer, Colin; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Davey Smith, George; Evans, David M.; Whitfield, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of environmental lead, or biomarker evidence of high body lead content, is associated with anaemia, developmental and neurological deficits in children, and increased mortality in adults. Adverse effects of lead still occur despite substantial reduction in environmental exposure. There is genetic variation between individuals in blood lead concentration but the polymorphisms contributing to this have not been defined. We measured blood or erythrocyte lead content, and carried out genome-wide association analysis, on population-based cohorts of adult volunteers from Australia and UK (N = 5433). Samples from Australia were collected in two studies, in 1993–1996 and 2002–2005 and from UK in 1991–1992. One locus, at ALAD on chromosome 9, showed consistent association with blood lead across countries and evidence for multiple independent allelic effects. The most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1805313 (P = 3.91 × 10−14 for lead concentration in a meta-analysis of all data), is known to have effects on ALAD expression in blood cells but other SNPs affecting ALAD expression did not affect blood lead. Variants at 12 other loci, including ABO, showed suggestive associations (5 × 10−6 > P > 5 × 10−8). Identification of genetic polymorphisms affecting blood lead reinforces the view that genetic factors, as well as environmental ones, are important in determining blood lead levels. The ways in which ALAD variation affects lead uptake or distribution are still to be determined. PMID:25820613

  19. A Candidate Gene Association Study of 77 Polymorphisms in Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Schürks, Markus; Kurth, Tobias; Buring, Julie E.; Zee, Robert Y.L.

    2009-01-01

    Population-based studies have established an association between migraine and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We sought to investigate whether genetic variants implicated in CVD are associated with migraine. We performed an association study among 25,713 women, participating in the Women’s Health Study, with information on 77 previously characterized polymorphisms. Migraine and migraine aura status were self-reported. We used logistic regression to investigate the genotype-migraine association. At baseline, 4,705 (18.3%) women reported history of migraine; 39.6% of the 3,306 women with active migraine indicated aura. Regarding any history of migraine, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for TNF rs673 were 0.52 (0.30-0.89), for TGFB1 rs1800469 0.93 (0.89-0.98), and for CCR2 rs1799864 1.12 (1.03-1.21). Among active migraine with aura the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.35 (1.0-1.81) for TNF rs1800750, 1.13 (1.02-1.26) for TNF rs1800629, and 1.22 (1.07-1.40) for CCR2 rs1799864; among active migraine without aura 0.9 (0.84-0.97) for TGFB1 rs1800469, 1.13 (1.01-1.27) for NOS3 rs3918226, and 1.12 (1.02-1.24) for IL9 rs2069885. After correction for multiple testing using the false discovery rate, none of the results remained significant. Our data suggest an association of polymorphisms implicated in inflammatory pathways and migraine in women. TNF, CCR2, TGFB1, NOS3, and IL9 warrant further investigation. Perspective This article presents results from an association study of 77 polymorphisms, implicated in CVD, and migraine. Variants in TNF, CCR2, TGFB1, NOS3, and IL9 were found to be associated with migraine, but did not remain significant after adjustment for multiple testing. Variations in these genes warrant further investigation. PMID:19559392

  20. Genome-Wide Association Studies for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbin; Zhao, Han; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Over the past several years, the field of reproductive medicine has witnessed great advances in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), leading to identification of several promising genes involved in hormone action, type 2 diabetes, and cell proliferation. This review summarizes the key findings and discusses their potential implications with regard to genetic mechanisms of PCOS. Limitations of GWAS are evaluated, emphasizing the understanding of the reasons for variability in results between individual studies. Root causes of misinterpretations of GWASs are also addressed. Finally, the impact of GWAS on future directions of multi- and interdisciplinary studies is discussed. PMID:27513023

  1. A whole-genome association study for pig reproductive traits.

    PubMed

    Onteru, S K; Fan, B; Du, Z-Q; Garrick, D J; Stalder, K J; Rothschild, M F

    2012-02-01

    A whole-genome association study was performed for reproductive traits in commercial sows using the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip and Bayesian statistical methods. The traits included total number born (TNB), number born alive (NBA), number of stillborn (SB), number of mummified foetuses at birth (MUM) and gestation length (GL) in each of the first three parities. We report the associations of informative QTL and the genes within the QTL for each reproductive trait in different parities. These results provide evidence of gene effects having temporal impacts on reproductive traits in different parities. Many QTL identified in this study are new for pig reproductive traits. Around 48% of total genes located in the identified QTL regions were predicted to be involved in placental functions. The genomic regions containing genes important for foetal developmental (e.g. MEF2C) and uterine functions (e.g. PLSCR4) were associated with TNB and NBA in the first two parities. Similarly, QTL in other foetal developmental (e.g. HNRNPD and AHR) and placental (e.g. RELL1 and CD96) genes were associated with SB and MUM in different parities. The QTL with genes related to utero-placental blood flow (e.g. VEGFA) and hematopoiesis (e.g. MAFB) were associated with GL differences among sows in this population. Pathway analyses using genes within QTL identified some modest underlying biological pathways, which are interesting candidates (e.g. the nucleotide metabolism pathway for SB) for pig reproductive traits in different parities. Further validation studies on large populations are warranted to improve our understanding of the complex genetic architecture for pig reproductive traits.

  2. A study of associated congenital anomalies with biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Lucky; Bhatnagar, Veereshwar

    2016-01-01

    Background/Purpose: This study aims to analyze the incidence and type of various associated anomalies among infants with extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA), compare their frequency with those quoted in the existing literature and assess their role in the overall management. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 137 infants who underwent the Kasai procedure for EHBA during the past 12 years. The medical records were reviewed for the incidence and type of associated anomalies in addition to the details of the management of the EHBA. Results: Of the137 infants, 40 (29.2%) were diagnosed as having 58 anomalies. The majority of patients had presented in the 3rd month of life; mean age was 81 ± 33 days (range = 20-150 days). There were 32 males and 8 females; boys with EHBA had a higher incidence of associated anomalies. Of these 40 patients, 22 (37.9%) had vascular anomalies, 13 patients (22.4%) had hernias (umbilical-10, inguinal-3), 7 patients (12.1%) had intestinal malrotation, 4 patients (6.8%) had choledochal cyst, 1 patient (1.7%) had Meckel's diverticulum, 3 patients (5%) had undergone prior treatment for jejunoileal atresias (jejunal-2, ileal-1), 2 patients (3.4%) had undergone prior treatment for esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula, 2 patients (3.4%) had spleniculi, and 2 patients (3.4%) were diagnosed as having situs inversus. Conclusions: The most common associated anomalies in our study were related to the vascular variation at the porta hepatis and the digestive system. The existence of anomalies in distantly developing anatomic regions in patients with EHBA supports the possibility of a “generalized” insult during embryogenesis rather than a “localized” defect. In addition, male infants were observed to have significantly more associated anomalies as compared with the female infants in contrast to earlier reports. PMID:26862288

  3. Neural network modelling and dynamical system theory: are they relevant to study the governing dynamics of association football players?

    PubMed

    Dutt-Mazumder, Aviroop; Button, Chris; Robins, Anthony; Bartlett, Roger

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have explored the organization of player movements in team sports using a range of statistical tools. However, the factors that best explain the performance of association football teams remain elusive. Arguably, this is due to the high-dimensional behavioural outputs that illustrate the complex, evolving configurations typical of team games. According to dynamical system analysts, movement patterns in team sports exhibit nonlinear self-organizing features. Nonlinear processing tools (i.e. Artificial Neural Networks; ANNs) are becoming increasingly popular to investigate the coordination of participants in sports competitions. ANNs are well suited to describing high-dimensional data sets with nonlinear attributes, however, limited information concerning the processes required to apply ANNs exists. This review investigates the relative value of various ANN learning approaches used in sports performance analysis of team sports focusing on potential applications for association football. Sixty-two research sources were summarized and reviewed from electronic literature search engines such as SPORTDiscus, Google Scholar, IEEE Xplore, Scirus, ScienceDirect and Elsevier. Typical ANN learning algorithms can be adapted to perform pattern recognition and pattern classification. Particularly, dimensionality reduction by a Kohonen feature map (KFM) can compress chaotic high-dimensional datasets into low-dimensional relevant information. Such information would be useful for developing effective training drills that should enhance self-organizing coordination among players. We conclude that ANN-based qualitative analysis is a promising approach to understand the dynamical attributes of association football players.

  4. Whole genome association study identifies polymorphisms associated with QT prolongation during iloperidone treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Volpi, S; Heaton, C; Mack, K; Hamilton, J B; Lannan, R; Wolfgang, C D; Licamele, L; Polymeropoulos, M H; Lavedan, C

    2009-11-01

    Administration of certain drugs (for example, antiarrhythmics, antihistamines, antibiotics, antipsychotics) may occasionally affect myocardial repolarization and cause prolongation of the QT interval. We performed a whole genome association study of drug-induced QT prolongation after 14 days of treatment in a phase 3 clinical trial evaluating the efficacy, safety and tolerability of a novel atypical antipsychotic, iloperidone, in patients with schizophrenia. We identified DNA polymorphisms associated with QT prolongation in six loci, including the CERKL and SLCO3A1 genes. Each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) defined two genotype groups associated with a low mean QT change (ranging from -0.69 to 5.67 ms depending on the SNP) or a higher mean QT prolongation (ranging from 14.16 to 17.81 ms). The CERKL protein is thought to be part of the ceramide pathway, which regulates currents conducted by various potassium channels, including the hERG channel. It is well established that inhibition of the hERG channel can prolong the QT interval. SLCO3A1 is thought to play a role in the translocation of prostaglandins, which have known cardioprotective properties, including the prevention of torsades de pointes. Our findings also point to genes involved in myocardial infarction (PALLD), cardiac structure and function (BRUNOL4) and cardiac development (NRG3). Results of this pharmacogenomic study provide new insight into the clinical response to iloperidone, developed with the goal of directing therapy to those patients with the optimal benefit/risk ratio.

  5. Genome-wide association study of toxic metals and trace elements reveals novel associations

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Esther; Lind, P. Monica; Lindgren, Cecilia; Ingelsson, Erik; Mahajan, Anubha; Morris, Andrew; Lind, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of toxic metals in the human body is influenced by exposure and mechanisms involved in metabolism, some of which may be under genetic control. This is the first genome-wide association study to investigate variants associated with whole blood levels of a range of toxic metals. Eleven toxic metals and trace elements (aluminium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, chromium, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead and zinc) were assayed in a cohort of 949 individuals using mass spectrometry. DNA samples were genotyped on the Infinium Omni Express bead microarray and imputed up to reference panels from the 1000 Genomes Project. Analyses revealed two regions associated with manganese level at genome-wide significance, mapping to 4q24 and 1q41. The lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 4q24 locus was rs13107325 (P-value = 5.1 × 10−11, β = −0.77), located in an exon of SLC39A8, which encodes a protein involved in manganese and zinc transport. The lead SNP in the 1q41 locus is rs1776029 (P-value = 2.2 × 10−14, β = −0.46). The SNP lies within the intronic region of SLC30A10, another transporter protein. Among other metals, the loci 6q14.1 and 3q26.32 were associated with cadmium and mercury levels (P = 1.4 × 10−10, β = −1.2 and P = 1.8 × 10−9, β = −1.8, respectively). Whole blood measurements of toxic metals are associated with genetic variants in metal transporter genes and others. This is relevant in inferring metabolic pathways of metals and identifying subsets of individuals who may be more susceptible to metal toxicity. PMID:26025379

  6. Genome-wide association study identifies a potent locus associated with human opioid sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, D; Fukuda, K; Kasai, S; Hasegawa, J; Aoki, Y; Nishi, A; Saita, N; Koukita, Y; Nagashima, M; Katoh, R; Satoh, Y; Tagami, M; Higuchi, S; Ujike, H; Ozaki, N; Inada, T; Iwata, N; Sora, I; Iyo, M; Kondo, N; Won, M-J; Naruse, N; Uehara-Aoyama, K; Itokawa, M; Koga, M; Arinami, T; Kaneko, Y; Hayashida, M; Ikeda, K

    2014-01-01

    Opioids, such as morphine and fentanyl, are widely used as effective analgesics for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. In addition, the opioid system has a key role in the rewarding effects of morphine, ethanol, cocaine and various other drugs. Although opioid sensitivity is well known to vary widely among individual subjects, several candidate genetic polymorphisms reported so far are not sufficient for fully understanding the wide range of interindividual differences in human opioid sensitivity. By conducting a multistage genome-wide association study (GWAS) in healthy subjects, we found that genetic polymorphisms within a linkage disequilibrium block that spans 2q33.3–2q34 were strongly associated with the requirements for postoperative opioid analgesics after painful cosmetic surgery. The C allele of the best candidate single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2952768, was associated with more analgesic requirements, and consistent results were obtained in patients who underwent abdominal surgery. In addition, carriers of the C allele in this SNP exhibited less vulnerability to severe drug dependence in patients with methamphetamine dependence, alcohol dependence, and eating disorders and a lower ‘Reward Dependence' score on a personality questionnaire in healthy subjects. Furthermore, the C/C genotype of this SNP was significantly associated with the elevated expression of a neighboring gene, CREB1. These results show that SNPs in this locus are the most potent genetic factors associated with human opioid sensitivity known to date, affecting both the efficacy of opioid analgesics and liability to severe substance dependence. Our findings provide valuable information for the personalized treatment of pain and drug dependence. PMID:23183491

  7. Genome-wide association study of toxic metals and trace elements reveals novel associations.

    PubMed

    Ng, Esther; Lind, P Monica; Lindgren, Cecilia; Ingelsson, Erik; Mahajan, Anubha; Morris, Andrew; Lind, Lars

    2015-08-15

    The accumulation of toxic metals in the human body is influenced by exposure and mechanisms involved in metabolism, some of which may be under genetic control. This is the first genome-wide association study to investigate variants associated with whole blood levels of a range of toxic metals. Eleven toxic metals and trace elements (aluminium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, chromium, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead and zinc) were assayed in a cohort of 949 individuals using mass spectrometry. DNA samples were genotyped on the Infinium Omni Express bead microarray and imputed up to reference panels from the 1000 Genomes Project. Analyses revealed two regions associated with manganese level at genome-wide significance, mapping to 4q24 and 1q41. The lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 4q24 locus was rs13107325 (P-value = 5.1 × 10(-11), β = -0.77), located in an exon of SLC39A8, which encodes a protein involved in manganese and zinc transport. The lead SNP in the 1q41 locus is rs1776029 (P-value = 2.2 × 10(-14), β = -0.46). The SNP lies within the intronic region of SLC30A10, another transporter protein. Among other metals, the loci 6q14.1 and 3q26.32 were associated with cadmium and mercury levels (P = 1.4 × 10(-10), β = -1.2 and P = 1.8 × 10(-9), β = -1.8, respectively). Whole blood measurements of toxic metals are associated with genetic variants in metal transporter genes and others. This is relevant in inferring metabolic pathways of metals and identifying subsets of individuals who may be more susceptible to metal toxicity.

  8. Insights into kidney diseases from genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Wuttke, Matthias; Köttgen, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Over the past decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have considerably improved our understanding of the genetic basis of kidney function and disease. Population-based studies, used to investigate traits that define chronic kidney disease (CKD), have identified >50 genomic regions in which common genetic variants associate with estimated glomerular filtration rate or urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Case-control studies, used to study specific CKD aetiologies, have yielded risk loci for specific kidney diseases such as IgA nephropathy and membranous nephropathy. In this Review, we summarize important findings from GWAS and clinical and experimental follow-up studies. We also compare risk allele frequency, effect sizes, and specificity in GWAS of CKD-defining traits and GWAS of specific CKD aetiologies and the implications for study design. Genomic regions identified in GWAS of CKD-defining traits can contain causal genes for monogenic kidney diseases. Population-based research on kidney function traits can therefore generate insights into more severe forms of kidney diseases. Experimental follow-up studies have begun to identify causal genes and variants, which are potential therapeutic targets, and suggest mechanisms underlying the high allele frequency of causal variants. GWAS are thus a useful approach to advance knowledge in nephrology.

  9. Factors associated with pharmacy student interest in international study.

    PubMed

    Owen, Chelsea; Breheny, Patrick; Ingram, Richard; Pfeifle, William; Cain, Jeff; Ryan, Melody

    2013-04-12

    OBJECTIVES. To examine the interest of pharmacy students in international study, the demographic factors and involvement characteristics associated with that interest, and the perceived advantages and barriers of engaging in international opportunities during pharmacy school. METHODS. A self-administered electronic survey instrument was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy. RESULTS. There were 192 total respondents, for a response rate of 50.9%. Seventy-two percent reported interest in international study. Previous international study experience (p=0.001), previous international travel experience (p=0.002), year in pharmacy school (p=0.03), level of academic involvement (p<0.001), and level of diversity involvement (p<0.001) were associated with international study interest. Positive influences to international study included desire to travel and availability of scholarships. Perceived barriers included an inability to pay expenses and lack of foreign language knowledge. CONCLUSIONS. The needs and interests of pharmacy students should be considered in the development and expansion of internationalization programs in order to effectively optimize global partnerships and available international experiences. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should engage students early in the curriculum when interest in study-abroad opportunities is highest and seek to alleviate concerns about expenses as a primary influence on study-abroad decisions through provision of financial assistance. PMID:23610472

  10. Factors Associated With Pharmacy Student Interest in International Study

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Chelsea; Breheny, Patrick; Ingram, Richard; Pfeifle, William; Cain, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the interest of pharmacy students in international study, the demographic factors and involvement characteristics associated with that interest, and the perceived advantages and barriers of engaging in international opportunities during pharmacy school. Methods. A self-administered electronic survey instrument was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy. Results. There were 192 total respondents, for a response rate of 50.9%. Seventy-two percent reported interest in international study. Previous international study experience (p=0.001), previous international travel experience (p=0.002), year in pharmacy school (p=0.03), level of academic involvement (p<0.001), and level of diversity involvement (p<0.001) were associated with international study interest. Positive influences to international study included desire to travel and availability of scholarships. Perceived barriers included an inability to pay expenses and lack of foreign language knowledge. Conclusions. The needs and interests of pharmacy students should be considered in the development and expansion of internationalization programs in order to effectively optimize global partnerships and available international experiences. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should engage students early in the curriculum when interest in study-abroad opportunities is highest and seek to alleviate concerns about expenses as a primary influence on study-abroad decisions through provision of financial assistance. PMID:23610472

  11. Influence of Acidity on Uranyl Nitrate Association in Aqueous Solutions: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

    SciTech Connect

    de Almeida, Valmor F; Cui, Shengting; Khomami, Bamin; Ye, Xianggui; Smith, Rodney Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Uranyl ion complexation with water and nitrate is a key aspect of the uranium/plutonium extraction process. We have carried out a molecular dynamics simulation study to investigate this complexation process, including the molecular composition of the various complex species, the corresponding structure, and the equilibrium distribution of the complexes. The observed structures of the complexes suggest that in aqueous solution, uranyls are generally hydrated by 5 water molecules in the equatorial plane. When associating with nitrate ions, a water molecule is replaced by a nitrate ion, preserving the five-fold coordination and planar symmetry. Analysis of the pair correlation function between uranyl and nitrate suggests that nitrates bind to uranyl in aqueous solution mainly in a monodentate mode, although a small portion of bidentates occur. Dynamic association and dissociation between uranyls and nitrates take place in aqueous solution with a substantial amount of fluctuation in the number of various uranyl nitrate species. The average number of the uranyl mononitrate complexes shows a dependence on acid concentration consistent with equilibrium-constant analysis, namely, the concentration of [UO2NO3]+ increases with nitric acid concentration.

  12. Uranyl ion coordination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, H.T.

    1963-01-01

    A review of the known crystal structures containing the uranyl ion shows that plane-pentagon coordination is equally as prevalent as plane-square or plane-hexagon. It is suggested that puckered-hexagon configurations of OH - or H2O about the uranyl group will tend to revert to plane-pentagon coordination. The concept of pentagonal coordination is invoked for possible explanations of the complex crystallography of the natural uranyl hydroxides and the unusual behavior of polynuclear ions in hydrolyzed uranyl solutions.

  13. Variation in sport participation, fitness and motor coordination with socioeconomic status among Flemish children.

    PubMed

    Vandendriessche, Joric B; Vandorpe, Barbara F R; Vaeyens, Roel; Malina, Robert M; Lefevre, Johan; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat M

    2012-02-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is often indicated as a factor that influences physical activity and associated health outcomes. This study examined the relationship between SES and sport participation, morphology, fitness and motor coordination in a sample of 1955 Flemish children 6-11 years of age. Gender, age and SES-specific values for morphologic dimensions, amount and type of sport participation and fitness and motor coordination tests were compared. SES was positively and significantly associated with sport participation and sports club membership in both sexes. Although differences were not consistently significant, morphologic dimensions and tests of fitness and motor coordination showed a trend in favor of children from higher SES. The results suggest that public and local authorities should consider providing equal opportunities for children in all social strata and especially those in the lower SES to experience the beneficial effects of sport participation through which they can enhance levels of physical fitness and motor coordination. PMID:22433257

  14. Statistical Analysis Strategies for Association Studies Involving Rare Variants

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Vikas; Libiger, Ondrej; Torkamani, Ali; Schork, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    The limitations of genome-wide association (GWA) studies that focus on the phenotypic influence of common genetic variants have motivated human geneticists to consider the contribution of rare variants to phenotypic expression. The increasing availability of high-throughput sequencing technology has enabled studies of rare variants, but will not be sufficient for their success since appropriate analytical methods are also needed. We consider data analysis approaches to testing associations between a phenotype and collections of rare variants in a defined genomic region or set of regions. Ultimately, although a wide variety of analytical approaches exist, more work is needed to refine them and determine their properties and power in different contexts. PMID:20940738

  15. A new dawn for genetic association studies in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kantarci, Orhun H

    2016-08-01

    Before the genomics technology revolution allowed us to do genome-wide science, genetics research relied on our limited knowledge about a subject to generate hypothesis and candidate genes to study. Despite the level of naiveté, several associations with susceptibility to a complex disease such as multiple sclerosis (MS) were discovered. Of these, HLA-DRB1 and IL7R (1) stand out as being confirmed and refined early by the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that followed.(2) Despite the expense and gargantuan efforts, these GWAS have successfully led to the discovery of more than 100 additional genes, albeit with smaller effect sizes, that contribute to MS susceptibility.(3) This list keeps growing, but it comes with no surprise that most of these genes identified the immune system as one large candidate for MS susceptibility. PMID:27540593

  16. Evaluating factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension: Isfahan cohort study, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Alireza; Pourheidar, Behrouz; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Moezzi, Masoumeh; Mousavi, Mehdi; Hajiannejad, Alireza; Bidram, Peyman; Gharipour, Mojgan; Shirani, Shahin; Golshahi, Jafar; Boshtam, Mansoureh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hypertension (HTN) considers as one of the most common risk factors, which potentially raises the risk of cardiovascular disease. Regarding high prevalence of HTN among Iranian population this study designed to examine a range of socio-demographic and clinical variables to determine the association with failure to achieve blood pressure control in a cohort of hypertensive subjects. METHODS This retrospective cohort study is a part of Isfahan cohort study which carried out on adults aged 35 years old or more. Subjects with confirmed HTN entered in this sub-study. For all subjects questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, clinical data and lifestyle behavior completed by trained nurses. Uncontrolled HTN was defined as systolic and diastolic blood pressure more than 140/90 in the presence or absent of pharmacological treatment. RESULTS The prevalence of uncontrolled men was significantly higher than controlled in both 2001 and 2007 (P < 0.001). A significant association was found between sex and control of blood pressure: compared with women, being men [odds ratio (OR) = 2.31; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.64-3.24] was significantly associated with uncontrolled HTN in 2001 and (OR = 2.38; 95% CI = 1.78-3.18). Among lifestyle behaviors, tendency for more consumption of salty foods increased the risk of uncontrolled HTN in 2001 by 1.73 times [OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.20-2.50, (P = 0.003)]. Patients who were naive to mono-therapy without considering the type of antihypertensive drug were found to be associated with uncontrolled blood pressure (OR = 0.14; 95 % CI =0.1-0.2). CONCLUSION Uncontrolled HTN was sex, marital status, diabetes, tendency to salty foods and medication adherence. Assessment of them presence of these risk factors is warranted to recommend an aggressive HTN management with the goal of reducing excessive risk of cardiovascular events caused by uncontrolled HTN. PMID:25815021

  17. Lipid nanotechnologies for structural studies of membrane-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Stoilova-McPhie, Svetla; Grushin, Kirill; Dalm, Daniela; Miller, Jaimy

    2014-11-01

    We present a methodology of lipid nanotubes (LNT) and nanodisks technologies optimized in our laboratory for structural studies of membrane-associated proteins at close to physiological conditions. The application of these lipid nanotechnologies for structure determination by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is fundamental for understanding and modulating their function. The LNTs in our studies are single bilayer galactosylceramide based nanotubes of ∼20 nm inner diameter and a few microns in length, that self-assemble in aqueous solutions. The lipid nanodisks (NDs) are self-assembled discoid lipid bilayers of ∼10 nm diameter, which are stabilized in aqueous solutions by a belt of amphipathic helical scaffold proteins. By combining LNT and ND technologies, we can examine structurally how the membrane curvature and lipid composition modulates the function of the membrane-associated proteins. As proof of principle, we have engineered these lipid nanotechnologies to mimic the activated platelet's phosphtaidylserine rich membrane and have successfully assembled functional membrane-bound coagulation factor VIII in vitro for structure determination by cryo-EM. The macromolecular organization of the proteins bound to ND and LNT are further defined by fitting the known atomic structures within the calculated three-dimensional maps. The combination of LNT and ND technologies offers a means to control the design and assembly of a wide range of functional membrane-associated proteins and complexes for structural studies by cryo-EM. The presented results confirm the suitability of the developed methodology for studying the functional structure of membrane-associated proteins, such as the coagulation factors, at a close to physiological environment.

  18. Prevalence of Adiposity and Associated Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the Samoan Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    HAWLEY, NICOLA L.; MINSTER, RYAN L.; WEEKS, DANIEL E.; VIALI, SATUPAITEA; REUPENA, MUAGUTUTIA SEFUIVA; SUN, GUANGYUN; CHENG, HONG; DEKA, RANJAN; MCGARVEY, STEPHEN T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of obesity-related noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and associated risk factors in a sample of Samoan adults studied in 2010 as part of a genome-wide assocation study (GWAS) for obesity related traits. Methods Anthropometric and biochemical data collected from n = 3,475 participants (n = 1,437 male; n = 2,038 female) aged 24.5 to <65 years were used to describe the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia within the study sample. One way analysis of variance, χ2 tests, and binary logistic regression were used to identify differences in disease and risk factor prevalence by 10-year age group, gender, or by census region of residence. Results Obesity was highly prevalent among the study sample; 64.6% of females and 41.2% of males were obese according to Polynesian cutoffs (BMI ≥ 32 kg/m2). Females were less likely than males to have hypertension (31.7% vs. 36.7%) but equally likely to have diabetes (17.8% vs. 16.4%). With the exception of obesity and low HDL-cholesterol in females only, there were significant differences in the prevalence of all NCDs and associated risk factors by age group, with the oldest age group (55 to <65 years) most affected. In both sexes, residents of the Apia Urban Area were at significantly greater risk of obesity, diabetes, low HDL-cholesterol, and high triglycerides than residents of the more rural Savaii region. Conclusions The phenotypic characteristics of this sample provide evidence of a continuation of previously reported temporal trends toward obesity and its associated disorders. Attention must be paid to the critical NCD situation in Samoa. PMID:24799123

  19. Crystal growth and characterization studies of novel luminescent 2D coordination polymer of lead-benzilate possessing edge sharing PbO6 polyhedra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soumya Mol, U. S.; Drisya, R.; Satheesh Chandran, P. R.; Sudarsanakumar, M. R.; Suma, S.; Sudhadevi Antharjanam, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    Single crystals of a new coordination polymer of lead-benzilate, C28H21O6Pb·C2H5OH have been successfully grown by gel diffusion technique at room temperature. The colourless single crystals were obtained within a week. The crystal structure was elucidated using single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The compound possesses a polymeric structure constructed from edge sharing PbO6 polyhedra. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the compound crystallizes in triclinic space group P-1. The grown crystals were further characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Visible and thermogravimetric analysis. The photoluminescent properties of the complex and the ligand were also investigated.

  20. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the developmental coordination disorder questionnaire for parents (DCD-Q): results from a community based study of school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Cairney, John; Missiuna, Cheryl; Veldhuizen, Scott; Wilson, Brenda

    2008-12-01

    In this study, we examine several key psychometric properties (reliability, construct validity, concurrent validity) of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCD-Q) using a large, school-based sample of children (n=523) and their parents. Children completed the Children's Self-perceptions of Adequacy in and Predilection toward Physical Activity (CSAPPA) and parents completed the DCD-Q. The internal reliability of the DCD-Q was high for both the full scale and the subscales. Confirmatory factor analysis established that the scale was multifactorial, but the fit of the hypothesized factor structure was poor. Finally, moderate correlations were observed between the CSAPPA and the DCD-Q, with the strongest correlation found between the "perceived adequacy" subscale of the CSAPPA and "control during movement" subscale of the DCD-Q. Implications for screening and further research are discussed in relation to both instruments.

  1. A Pooled Genome-Wide Association Study of Asperger Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Warrier, Varun; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Murphy, Laura; Chan, Allen; Craig, Ian; Mallya, Uma; Lakatošová, Silvia; Rehnstrom, Karola; Peltonen, Leena; Wheelwright, Sally; Allison, Carrie; Fisher, Simon E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Asperger Syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, alongside the presence of unusually repetitive, restricted interests and stereotyped behaviour. Individuals with AS have no delay in cognitive and language development. It is a subset of Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC), which are highly heritable and has a population prevalence of approximately 1%. Few studies have investigated the genetic basis of AS. To address this gap in the literature, we performed a genome-wide pooled DNA association study to identify candidate loci in 612 individuals (294 cases and 318 controls) of Caucasian ancestry, using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping version 6.0 array. We identified 11 SNPs that had a p-value below 1x10-5. These SNPs were independently genotyped in the same sample. Three of the SNPs (rs1268055, rs7785891 and rs2782448) were nominally significant, though none remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Two of our top three SNPs (rs7785891 and rs2782448) lie in loci previously implicated in ASC. However, investigation of the three SNPs in the ASC genome-wide association dataset from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium indicated that these three SNPs were not significantly associated with ASC. The effect sizes of the variants were modest, indicating that our study was not sufficiently powered to identify causal variants with precision.

  2. A Pooled Genome-Wide Association Study of Asperger Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Warrier, Varun; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Murphy, Laura; Chan, Allen; Craig, Ian; Mallya, Uma; Lakatošová, Silvia; Rehnstrom, Karola; Peltonen, Leena; Wheelwright, Sally; Allison, Carrie; Fisher, Simon E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Asperger Syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, alongside the presence of unusually repetitive, restricted interests and stereotyped behaviour. Individuals with AS have no delay in cognitive and language development. It is a subset of Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC), which are highly heritable and has a population prevalence of approximately 1%. Few studies have investigated the genetic basis of AS. To address this gap in the literature, we performed a genome-wide pooled DNA association study to identify candidate loci in 612 individuals (294 cases and 318 controls) of Caucasian ancestry, using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping version 6.0 array. We identified 11 SNPs that had a p-value below 1x10-5. These SNPs were independently genotyped in the same sample. Three of the SNPs (rs1268055, rs7785891 and rs2782448) were nominally significant, though none remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Two of our top three SNPs (rs7785891 and rs2782448) lie in loci previously implicated in ASC. However, investigation of the three SNPs in the ASC genome-wide association dataset from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium indicated that these three SNPs were not significantly associated with ASC. The effect sizes of the variants were modest, indicating that our study was not sufficiently powered to identify causal variants with precision. PMID:26176695

  3. A Pooled Genome-Wide Association Study of Asperger Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, Varun; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Murphy, Laura; Chan, Allen; Craig, Ian; Mallya, Uma; Lakatošová, Silvia; Rehnstrom, Karola; Wheelwright, Sally; Allison, Carrie; Fisher, Simon E.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Asperger Syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, alongside the presence of unusually repetitive, restricted interests and stereotyped behaviour. Individuals with AS have no delay in cognitive and language development. It is a subset of Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC), which are highly heritable and has a population prevalence of approximately 1%. Few studies have investigated the genetic basis of AS. To address this gap in the literature, we performed a genome-wide pooled DNA association study to identify candidate loci in 612 individuals (294 cases and 318 controls) of Caucasian ancestry, using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping version 6.0 array. We identified 11 SNPs that had a p-value below 1x10-5. These SNPs were independently genotyped in the same sample. Three of the SNPs (rs1268055, rs7785891 and rs2782448) were nominally significant, though none remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Two of our top three SNPs (rs7785891 and rs2782448) lie in loci previously implicated in ASC. However, investigation of the three SNPs in the ASC genome-wide association dataset from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium indicated that these three SNPs were not significantly associated with ASC. The effect sizes of the variants were modest, indicating that our study was not sufficiently powered to identify causal variants with precision. PMID:26176695

  4. Significance of genome-wide association studies in molecular anthropology.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vipin; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Sachdeva, Mohinder Pal

    2009-12-01

    The successful advent of a genome-wide approach in association studies raises the hopes of human geneticists for solving a genetic maze of complex traits especially the disorders. This approach, which is replete with the application of cutting-edge technology and supported by big science projects (like Human Genome Project; and even more importantly the International HapMap Project) and various important databases (SNP database, CNV database, etc.), has had unprecedented success in rapidly uncovering many of the genetic determinants of complex disorders. The magnitude of this approach in the genetics of classical anthropological variables like height, skin color, eye color, and other genome diversity projects has certainly expanded the horizons of molecular anthropology. Therefore, in this article we have proposed a genome-wide association approach in molecular anthropological studies by providing lessons from the exemplary study of the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. We have also highlighted the importance and uniqueness of Indian population groups in facilitating the design and finding optimum solutions for other genome-wide association-related challenges.

  5. An innovative care model coordinated by a physical therapist and nurse practitioner for osteoarthritis of the hip and knee in specialist care: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Voorn, Veronique M A; Vermeulen, Henricus M; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Huizinga, Tom W J; Leijerzapf, Nicolette A C; Kroon, Herman M; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M; van der Linden, Henrica M J

    2013-07-01

    The subject of the study is to investigate whether health-related quality of life (HRQoL), pain and function of patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) improves after a specialist care intervention coordinated by a physical therapist and a nurse practitioner (NP) and to assess satisfaction with this care at 12 weeks. This observational study included all consecutive patients with hip or knee OA referred to an outpatient orthopaedics clinic. The intervention consisted of a single, standardized visit (assessment and individually tailored management advice, to be executed in primary care) and a telephone follow-up, coordinated by a physical therapist and a NP, in cooperation with an orthopaedic surgeon. Assessments at baseline and 10 weeks thereafter included the short form-36 (SF-36), EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D), hip or knee disability and osteoarthritis outcome score (HOOS or KOOS), the intermittent and constant osteoarthritis pain questionnaire (ICOAP) for hip or knee and a multidimensional satisfaction questionnaire (23 items; 4 point scale). Eighty-seven patients (57 female), mean age 68 years (SD 10.9) were included, with follow-up data available in 63 patients (72 %). Statistically significant improvements were seen regarding the SF-36 physical summary component score, the EQ-5D, the ICOAP scores for hip and knee, the HOOS subscale sports and the KOOS subscales pain, symptoms and activities of daily living. The proportions of patients reporting to be satisfied ranged from 79 to 98 % per item. In patients with hip and knee OA pain, function and HRQoL improved significantly after a single-visit multidisciplinary OA management intervention in specialist care, with high patient satisfaction.

  6. A coordinated study of 1 h mesoscale gravity waves propagating from Logan to Boulder with CRRL Na Doppler lidars and temperature mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xian; Chen, Cao; Huang, Wentao; Smith, John A.; Chu, Xinzhao; Yuan, Tao; Pautet, Pierre-Dominique; Taylor, Mike J.; Gong, Jie; Cullens, Chihoko Y.

    2015-10-01

    We present the first coordinated study using two lidars at two separate locations to characterize a 1 h mesoscale gravity wave event in the mesopause region. The simultaneous observations were made with the Student Training and Atmospheric Research (STAR) Na Doppler lidar at Boulder, CO, and the Utah State University Na Doppler lidar and temperature mapper at Logan, UT, on 27 November 2013. The high precision possessed by the STAR lidar enabled these waves to be detected in vertical wind. The mean wave amplitudes are ~0.44 m/s in vertical wind and ~1% in relative temperature at altitudes of 82-107 km. Those in the zonal and meridional winds are 6.1 and 5.2 m/s averaged from 84 to 99 km. The horizontal and vertical wavelengths inferred from the mapper and lidars are ~219 ± 4 and 16.0 ± 0.3 km, respectively. The intrinsic period is ~1.3 h for the airglow layer, Doppler shifted by a mean wind of ~17 m/s. The wave packet propagates from Logan to Boulder with an azimuth angle of ~135° clockwise from north and an elevation angle of ~ 3° from the horizon. The observed phase difference between the two locations can be explained by the traveling time of the 1 h wave from Logan to Boulder, which is about ~2.4 h. The wave polarization relations are examined through the simultaneous quantifications of the three wind components and temperature. This study has developed a systematic methodology for fully characterizing mesoscale gravity waves, inspecting their intrinsic properties and validating the derivation of horizontal wave structures by applying multiple instruments from coordinated stations.

  7. A study of type-1 diabetes associated autoantibodies in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hallford, Philomena; Clair, David St; Halley, Lorna; Mustard, Colette; Wei, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological studies revealed an association between type-1 diabetes (T1D) and schizophrenia but the findings reported to date have been controversial. To clarify the inconsistency across studies, T1D-associated autoantibodies were examined in plasma samples collected from 272 patients with schizophrenia and 276 control subjects. An in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using three linear peptide antigens, one of which was derived from glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and two were derived from insulinoma-associated antigen 2 (IA2). Mann-Whitney U test showed a significant decrease in the levels of plasma IgG against the IA2b antigen in schizophrenia patients as compared to control subjects (Z=-3.54, p=0.0007), while no significant difference was found between these two groups either in anti-IA2a IgG levels (Z=-1.62, p=0.105) or in anti-GAD IgG levels (Z=-1.63, p=0.104). Linear regression analysis indicated no association of antipsychotic medication with the levels of plasma IgG against IA2a, IA2b or GAD, while the levels of plasma IgG for these 3 peptide antigens were significantly correlated with each other. Binary logistic regression showed that neither the DQ2.5 variant nor the DQ8 variant was associated with circulating levels of 3 T1D-associated autoantibodies in both the patient group and the control group. The coefficient of variation was 10.7% for anti-IA2a IgG assay, 10.1% for anti-IA2b IgG assay and 10.7% for anti-GAD IgG assay. The present work suggests that T1D-associated antibodies are unlikely to confer risk of schizophrenia and that the in-house ELISA developed with linear peptide antigens is highly reproducible. PMID:27474348

  8. Genomewide association studies: History, rationale and prospects for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective We review the history and empirical basis of genomewide association studies (GWAS), the rationale for GWAS of psychiatric disorders, results to date, limitations, and plans for GWAS meta-analyses. Method Literature review, power analysis, discussion of issues and description of planned studies. Results Most of the genomic DNA sequence differences between any two people are common (frequency > 5%) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Because of localized patterns of correlation (linkage disequilibrium), 500,000-1,000,000 of these SNPs can test the hypothesis that one or more common variants explain part of the genetic risk for a disease. GWAS technologies can also detect some of the copy number variants (CNVs; deletions and duplications) in the genome. Systematic study of rare variants will require large-scale resequencing studies. GWAS methods have detected a remarkable number of robust genetic associations for dozens of common diseases and traits, leading to new pathophysiological hypotheses, although only small proportions of genetic variance have been explained so far, and therapeutic applications will require substantial further effort. Study design issues, power and limitations are discussed. For psychiatric disorders, there are initial significant findings for common SNPs and rare CNVs. Many other studies are in progress. Conclusion GWAS of large samples have detected associations of common SNPs and of rare CNVs to psychiatric disorders. More findings are likely -- larger GWAS samples detect larger numbers of common susceptibility variants (with smaller effects). The Psychiatric GWAS Consortium (of 110 researchers from 54 institutions) is carrying out GWAS meta-analyses for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Based on results for other diseases, larger samples will be required. The contribution of GWAS will depend on the true genetic architecture of each disorder. PMID

  9. [Association study of telomere length with idiopathic male infertility].

    PubMed

    Shuyuan, Liu; Changjun, Zhang; Haiying, Peng; Xiaoqin, Huang; Hao, Sun; Keqin, Lin; Kai, Huang; Jiayou, Chu; Zhaoqing, Yang

    2015-11-01

    Telomeres are evolutionary conserved, multifunctional DNA-protein complexes located at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomeres maintain chromosome stability and genome integrity and also play an important role in meiosis which aid in synapsis, homologous recombination, and segregation. Sperm telomere has been reported to play an important role in fertilization and embryo development. Nowadays, the association between telomere and reproduction is one of the major areas of interest, however whether sperm telomere associated with male infertility is not clear. In this study, in order to find out the association between Chinese idiopathic infertility and sperm telomere length, we analyzed the difference of sperm telomere length between idiopathic infertile men and normal fertile men, as well as the correlations between sperm telomere length and human semen characteristics. We analyzed 126 Chinese idiopathic infertile men and 138 normal fertile men for sperm telomere length by using quantitative PCR. We found that the relative sperm mean telomere length of infertile men was significantly shorter than that of fertile men (2.894 ± 0.115 vs. 4.016 ± 0.603, P=5.097 x 10⁻⁵). Both sperm count and semen progressive motility are related with telomere length. Our results suggest that sperm telomere length is associated with idiopathic male infertility of China and we proposed the possibility that shorter telomeres in sperm chromosome will reduce spermatogenesis and sperm functions, which finally affected the fertility of male.

  10. Genome-wide association study of aggressive behaviour in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenhui; Zheng, Ming; Abdalla, Bahareldin Ali; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Zhenqiang; Ye, Qiao; Xu, Haiping; Luo, Wei; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    In the poultry industry, aggressive behaviour is a large animal welfare issue all over the world. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the aggressive behaviour. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to explore the genetic mechanism associated with aggressive behaviour in chickens. The GWAS results showed that a total of 33 SNPs were associated with aggressive behaviour traits (P < 4.6E-6). rs312463697 on chromosome 4 was significantly associated with aggression (P = 2.10905E-07), and it was in the intron region of the sortilin-related VPS10 domain containing receptor 2 (SORCS2) gene. In addition, biological function analysis of the nearest 26 genes around the significant SNPs was performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. An interaction network contained 17 genes was obtained and SORCS2 was involved in this network, interacted with nerve growth factor (NGF), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), dopa decarboxylase (L-dopa) and dopamine. After knockdown of SORCS2, the mRNA levels of NGF, L-dopa and dopamine receptor genes DRD1, DRD2, DRD3 and DRD4 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In summary, our data indicated that SORCS2 might play an important role in chicken aggressive behaviour through the regulation of dopaminergic pathways and NGF. PMID:27485826

  11. Genome-wide association study of aggressive behaviour in chicken.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenhui; Zheng, Ming; Abdalla, Bahareldin Ali; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Zhenqiang; Ye, Qiao; Xu, Haiping; Luo, Wei; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-08-03

    In the poultry industry, aggressive behaviour is a large animal welfare issue all over the world. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the aggressive behaviour. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to explore the genetic mechanism associated with aggressive behaviour in chickens. The GWAS results showed that a total of 33 SNPs were associated with aggressive behaviour traits (P < 4.6E-6). rs312463697 on chromosome 4 was significantly associated with aggression (P = 2.10905E-07), and it was in the intron region of the sortilin-related VPS10 domain containing receptor 2 (SORCS2) gene. In addition, biological function analysis of the nearest 26 genes around the significant SNPs was performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. An interaction network contained 17 genes was obtained and SORCS2 was involved in this network, interacted with nerve growth factor (NGF), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), dopa decarboxylase (L-dopa) and dopamine. After knockdown of SORCS2, the mRNA levels of NGF, L-dopa and dopamine receptor genes DRD1, DRD2, DRD3 and DRD4 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In summary, our data indicated that SORCS2 might play an important role in chicken aggressive behaviour through the regulation of dopaminergic pathways and NGF.

  12. Genome-wide association study of aggressive behaviour in chicken.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenhui; Zheng, Ming; Abdalla, Bahareldin Ali; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Zhenqiang; Ye, Qiao; Xu, Haiping; Luo, Wei; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    In the poultry industry, aggressive behaviour is a large animal welfare issue all over the world. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the aggressive behaviour. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to explore the genetic mechanism associated with aggressive behaviour in chickens. The GWAS results showed that a total of 33 SNPs were associated with aggressive behaviour traits (P < 4.6E-6). rs312463697 on chromosome 4 was significantly associated with aggression (P = 2.10905E-07), and it was in the intron region of the sortilin-related VPS10 domain containing receptor 2 (SORCS2) gene. In addition, biological function analysis of the nearest 26 genes around the significant SNPs was performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. An interaction network contained 17 genes was obtained and SORCS2 was involved in this network, interacted with nerve growth factor (NGF), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), dopa decarboxylase (L-dopa) and dopamine. After knockdown of SORCS2, the mRNA levels of NGF, L-dopa and dopamine receptor genes DRD1, DRD2, DRD3 and DRD4 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In summary, our data indicated that SORCS2 might play an important role in chicken aggressive behaviour through the regulation of dopaminergic pathways and NGF. PMID:27485826

  13. Molecular simulation study of cooperativity in hydrophobic association.

    PubMed Central

    Czaplewski, C.; Rodziewicz-Motowidło, S.; Liwo, A.; Ripoll, D. R.; Wawak, R. J.; Scheraga, H. A.

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the cooperativity of hydrophobic interactions, the potential of mean force of two- and three-molecule methane clusters in water was determined by molecular dynamics simulations using two methods: umbrella-sampling with the weighted histogram analysis method and thermodynamic integration. Two water models, TIP3P and TIP4P, were used, while each methane molecule was modeled as a united atom. It was found that the three-body potential of mean force is not additive, i.e., it cannot be calculated as a sum of two-body contributions, but requires an additional three-body cooperative term. The cooperative term, which amounts to only about 10% of the total hydrophobic association free energy, was found to increase the strength of hydrophobic association; this finding differs from the results of earlier Monte Carlo studies with the free energy perturbation method of Rank and Baker (1997). As in the work of Rank and Baker, the solvent contribution to the potential of mean force was found to be well approximated by the molecular surface of two methane molecules. Moreover, we also found that the cooperative term is well represented by the difference between the molecular surface of the three-methane cluster and those of all three pairs of methane molecules. In addition, it was found that, while there is a cooperative contribution to the hydrophobic association free energy albeit a small one, the errors associated with the use of pairwise potentials are comparable to or larger than this contribution. PMID:10892816

  14. Arm coordination in elite backstroke swimmers.

    PubMed

    Chollet, Didier; Seifert, Ludovic M; Carter, Melwyn

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we assessed arm coordination in the backstroke over increasing speeds by adapting the index of coordination originally used in the front crawl. Fourteen elite male backstroke swimmers swam four trials of 25 m at the speeds corresponding to the 400-m, 200-m, 100-m, and 50-m events. The six phases of the arm stroke were identified by video analysis and then used to calculate the index of coordination, which corresponded to the time between the propulsive phases of the two arms. With increases in speed, the elite swimmers increased the stroke rate, the relative duration of their arm pull, and their index of coordination, and decreased the distance per stroke (P < 0.05). Arm coordination was always in catch-up (index of coordination of -12.9%) because the alternating body-roll and the small shoulder flexibility did not allow the opposition or superposition coordination seen in the front crawl. This new method also quantified the relative duration of the hand's lag time at the thigh, which did not change ( approximately 2%) with increasing speed for the elite swimmers. The index of coordination enables coaches to assess mistakes in backstroke coordination, particularly in the hand's lag time at the thigh. PMID:18409098

  15. Motor Coordination and Intelligence Level in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planinsec, Jurij; Pisot, Rado

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motor coordination and intelligence level in adolescents. The sample was comprised of 550 adolescents from Slovenia, aged 13.1 years (SD = 0.87), who attended elementary schools. For assessment of motor coordination a battery of eight tests were used. Assessment of intelligence was carried out with…

  16. Clumsy children. Primer on developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, A. M.; Lent, B.

    1996-01-01

    The common assumption that children "grow out of" clumsiness is not supported by studies carried out over the last 15 years. About 6% of children lack the motor coordination to perform age-appropriate tasks. Greater awareness of this developmental coordination disorder will improve the rate of identification. Family physicians should incorporate questions about motor skills into their assessments of preschool children. PMID:8894243

  17. Automated quality control for genome wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Sally R; Fardo, David W

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides details on the necessary steps to assess and control data in genome wide association studies (GWAS) using genotype information on a large number of genetic markers for large number of individuals. Due to varied study designs and genotyping platforms between multiple sites/projects as well as potential genotyping errors, it is important to ensure high quality data. Scripts and directions are provided to facilitate others in this process. PMID:27635224

  18. Automated quality control for genome wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Ellingson, Sally R.; Fardo, David W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides details on the necessary steps to assess and control data in genome wide association studies (GWAS) using genotype information on a large number of genetic markers for large number of individuals. Due to varied study designs and genotyping platforms between multiple sites/projects as well as potential genotyping errors, it is important to ensure high quality data. Scripts and directions are provided to facilitate others in this process. PMID:27635224

  19. [Genome-wide association study for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis].

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yoji; Kou, Ikuyo; Scoliosis, Japan; Matsumoto, Morio; Watanabe, Kota; Ikegawa, Shiro

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis(AIS)is a polygenic disease. Genome-wide association studies(GWASs)have been performed for a lot of polygenic diseases. For AIS, we conducted GWAS and identified the first AIS locus near LBX1. After the discovery, we have extended our study by increasing the numbers of subjects and SNPs. In total, our Japanese GWAS has identified four susceptibility genes. GWASs for AIS have also been performed in the USA and China, which identified one and three susceptibility genes, respectively. Here we review GWASs in Japan and abroad and functional analysis to clarify the pathomechanism of AIS. PMID:27013625

  20. [Genome-wide association study for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis].

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yoji; Kou, Ikuyo; Scoliosis, Japan; Matsumoto, Morio; Watanabe, Kota; Ikegawa, Shiro

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis(AIS)is a polygenic disease. Genome-wide association studies(GWASs)have been performed for a lot of polygenic diseases. For AIS, we conducted GWAS and identified the first AIS locus near LBX1. After the discovery, we have extended our study by increasing the numbers of subjects and SNPs. In total, our Japanese GWAS has identified four susceptibility genes. GWASs for AIS have also been performed in the USA and China, which identified one and three susceptibility genes, respectively. Here we review GWASs in Japan and abroad and functional analysis to clarify the pathomechanism of AIS.

  1. Developmental coordination disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Physical causes and other types of learning disabilities must be ruled out before the diagnosis can be confirmed. ... Developmental coordination disorder can lead to: Learning problems ... wanting to participate in physical activities (such as sports)

  2. Understanding social motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, R C; Fitzpatrick, Paula; Caron, Robert; Mergeche, Joanna

    2011-10-01

    Recently there has been much interest in social coordination of motor movements, or as it is referred to by some researchers, joint action. This paper reviews the cognitive perspective's common coding/mirror neuron theory of joint action, describes some of its limitations and then presents the behavioral dynamics perspective as an alternative way of understanding social motor coordination. In particular, behavioral dynamics' ability to explain the temporal coordination of interacting individuals is detailed. Two experiments are then described that demonstrate how dynamical processes of synchronization are apparent in the coordination underlying everyday joint actions such as martial art exercises, hand-clapping games, and conversations. The import of this evidence is that emergent dynamic patterns such as synchronization are the behavioral order that any neural substrate supporting joint action (e.g., mirror systems) would have to sustain.

  3. A Comparative Study of Five Association Tests Based on CpG Set for Epigenome-Wide Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiuyi; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Ruyang; Wei, Yongyue; Yi, Honggang; Shao, Fang; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    An epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) is a large-scale study of human disease-associated epigenetic variation, specifically variation in DNA methylation. High throughput technologies enable simultaneous epigenetic profiling of DNA methylation at hundreds of thousands of CpGs across the genome. The clustering of correlated DNA methylation at CpGs is reportedly similar to that of linkage-disequilibrium (LD) correlation in genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) variation. However, current analysis methods, such as the t-test and rank-sum test, may be underpowered to detect differentially methylated markers. We propose to test the association between the outcome (e.g case or control) and a set of CpG sites jointly. Here, we compared the performance of five CpG set analysis approaches: principal component analysis (PCA), supervised principal component analysis (SPCA), kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), sequence kernel association test (SKAT), and sliced inverse regression (SIR) with Hotelling’s T2 test and t-test using Bonferroni correction. The simulation results revealed that the first six methods can control the type I error at the significance level, while the t-test is conservative. SPCA and SKAT performed better than other approaches when the correlation among CpG sites was strong. For illustration, these methods were also applied to a real methylation dataset. PMID:27258058

  4. Voxelwise genome-wide association study (vGWAS)

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Jason L.; Hua, Xue; Lee, Suh; Ho, April J.; Leow, Alex D.; Toga, Arthur W.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Shen, Li; Foroud, Tatiana; Pankratz, Nathan; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Craig, David W.; Gerber, Jill D.; Allen, April N.; Corneveaux, Jason J.; DeChairo, Bryan M.; Potkin, Steven G.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the human brain is highly heritable, and is thought to be influenced by many common genetic variants, many of which are currently unknown. Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetics have allowed collection of both highly detailed structural brain scans and genome-wide genotype information. This wealth of information presents a new opportunity to find the genes influencing brain structure. Here we explore the relation between 448,293 single nucleotide polymorphisms in each of 31,622 voxels of the entire brain across 740 elderly subjects (mean age±s.d.: 75.52±6.82 years; 438 male) including subjects with Alzheimer's disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and healthy elderly controls from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We used tensor-based morphometry to measure individual differences in brain structure at the voxel level relative to a study-specific template based on healthy elderly subjects. We then conducted a genome-wide association at each voxel to identify genetic variants of interest. By studying only the most associated variant at each voxel, we developed a novel method to address the multiple comparisons problem and computational burden associated with the unprecedented amount of data. No variant survived the strict significance criterion, but several genes worthy of further exploration were identified, including CSMD2 and CADPS2. These genes have high relevance to brain structure. This is the first voxelwise genome wide association study to our knowledge, and offers a novel method to discover genetic influences on brain structure. PMID:20171287

  5. Genome-wide association study of antisocial personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rautiainen, M-R; Paunio, T; Repo-Tiihonen, E; Virkkunen, M; Ollila, H M; Sulkava, S; Jolanki, O; Palotie, A; Tiihonen, J

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiology of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) remains unclear. Although the most consistent biological finding is reduced grey matter volume in the frontal cortex, about 50% of the total liability to developing ASPD has been attributed to genetic factors. The contributing genes remain largely unknown. Therefore, we sought to study the genetic background of ASPD. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a replication analysis of Finnish criminal offenders fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for ASPD (N=370, N=5850 for controls, GWAS; N=173, N=3766 for controls and replication sample). The GWAS resulted in suggestive associations of two clusters of single-nucleotide polymorphisms at 6p21.2 and at 6p21.32 at the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region. Imputation of HLA alleles revealed an independent association with DRB1*01:01 (odds ratio (OR)=2.19 (1.53–3.14), P=1.9 × 10-5). Two polymorphisms at 6p21.2 LINC00951–LRFN2 gene region were replicated in a separate data set, and rs4714329 reached genome-wide significance (OR=1.59 (1.37–1.85), P=1.6 × 10−9) in the meta-analysis. The risk allele also associated with antisocial features in the general population conditioned for severe problems in childhood family (β=0.68, P=0.012). Functional analysis in brain tissue in open access GTEx and Braineac databases revealed eQTL associations of rs4714329 with LINC00951 and LRFN2 in cerebellum. In humans, LINC00951 and LRFN2 are both expressed in the brain, especially in the frontal cortex, which is intriguing considering the role of the frontal cortex in behavior and the neuroanatomical findings of reduced gray matter volume in ASPD. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing genome-wide significant and replicable findings on genetic variants associated with any personality disorder. PMID:27598967

  6. Genome-wide association study of antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Rautiainen, M-R; Paunio, T; Repo-Tiihonen, E; Virkkunen, M; Ollila, H M; Sulkava, S; Jolanki, O; Palotie, A; Tiihonen, J

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiology of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) remains unclear. Although the most consistent biological finding is reduced grey matter volume in the frontal cortex, about 50% of the total liability to developing ASPD has been attributed to genetic factors. The contributing genes remain largely unknown. Therefore, we sought to study the genetic background of ASPD. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a replication analysis of Finnish criminal offenders fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for ASPD (N=370, N=5850 for controls, GWAS; N=173, N=3766 for controls and replication sample). The GWAS resulted in suggestive associations of two clusters of single-nucleotide polymorphisms at 6p21.2 and at 6p21.32 at the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region. Imputation of HLA alleles revealed an independent association with DRB1*01:01 (odds ratio (OR)=2.19 (1.53-3.14), P=1.9 × 10(-5)). Two polymorphisms at 6p21.2 LINC00951-LRFN2 gene region were replicated in a separate data set, and rs4714329 reached genome-wide significance (OR=1.59 (1.37-1.85), P=1.6 × 10(-9)) in the meta-analysis. The risk allele also associated with antisocial features in the general population conditioned for severe problems in childhood family (β=0.68, P=0.012). Functional analysis in brain tissue in open access GTEx and Braineac databases revealed eQTL associations of rs4714329 with LINC00951 and LRFN2 in cerebellum. In humans, LINC00951 and LRFN2 are both expressed in the brain, especially in the frontal cortex, which is intriguing considering the role of the frontal cortex in behavior and the neuroanatomical findings of reduced gray matter volume in ASPD. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing genome-wide significant and replicable findings on genetic variants associated with any personality disorder. PMID:27598967

  7. Genetic Variants Associated with Increased Risk of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Matullo, Giuseppe; Guarrera, Simonetta; Betti, Marta; Fiorito, Giovanni; Ferrante, Daniela; Voglino, Floriana; Cadby, Gemma; Di Gaetano, Cornelia; Rosa, Fabio; Russo, Alessia; Hirvonen, Ari; Casalone, Elisabetta; Tunesi, Sara; Padoan, Marina; Giordano, Mara; Aspesi, Anna; Casadio, Caterina; Ardissone, Francesco; Ruffini, Enrico; Betta, Pier Giacomo; Libener, Roberta; Guaschino, Roberto; Piccolini, Ezio; Neri, Monica; Musk, Arthur W. B.; de Klerk, Nicholas H.; Hui, Jennie; Beilby, John; James, Alan L.; Creaney, Jenette; Robinson, Bruce W.; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Palmer, Lyle J.; Mirabelli, Dario; Ugolini, Donatella; Bonassi, Stefano; Magnani, Corrado; Dianzani, Irma

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos exposure is the main risk factor for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), a rare aggressive tumor. Nevertheless, only 5–17% of those exposed to asbestos develop MPM, suggesting the involvement of other environmental and genetic risk factors. To identify the genetic risk factors that may contribute to the development of MPM, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS; 370,000 genotyped SNPs, 5 million imputed SNPs) in Italy, among 407 MPM cases and 389 controls with a complete history of asbestos exposure. A replication study was also undertaken and included 428 MPM cases and 1269 controls from Australia. Although no single marker reached the genome-wide significance threshold, several associations were supported by haplotype-, chromosomal region-, gene- and gene-ontology process-based analyses. Most of these SNPs were located in regions reported to harbor aberrant alterations in mesothelioma (SLC7A14, THRB, CEBP350, ADAMTS2, ETV1, PVT1 and MMP14 genes), causing at most a 2–3-fold increase in MPM risk. The Australian replication study showed significant associations in five of these chromosomal regions (3q26.2, 4q32.1, 7p22.2, 14q11.2, 15q14). Multivariate analysis suggested an independent contribution of 10 genetic variants, with an Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) of 0.76 when only exposure and covariates were included in the model, and of 0.86 when the genetic component was also included, with a substantial increase of asbestos exposure risk estimation (odds ratio, OR: 45.28, 95% confidence interval, CI: 21.52–95.28). These results showed that genetic risk factors may play an additional role in the development of MPM, and that these should be taken into account to better estimate individual MPM risk in individuals who have been exposed to asbestos. PMID:23626673

  8. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci associated with bladder cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Jonine D.; Ye, Yuanqing; Siddiq, Afshan; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Cortessis, Victoria K.; Kooperberg, Charles; Cussenot, Olivier; Benhamou, Simone; Prescott, Jennifer; Porru, Stefano; Dinney, Colin P.; Malats, Núria; Baris, Dalsu; Purdue, Mark; Jacobs, Eric J.; Albanes, Demetrius; Wang, Zhaoming; Deng, Xiang; Chung, Charles C.; Tang, Wei; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Ljungberg, Börje; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Krogh, Vittorio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Travis, Ruth; Tjønneland, Anne; Brenan, Paul; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Riboli, Elio; Conti, David; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Stern, Mariana C.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Van Den Berg, David; Yuan, Jian-Min; Hohensee, Chancellor; Rodabough, Rebecca; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Roupret, Morgan; Comperat, Eva; Chen, Constance; De Vivo, Immaculata; Giovannucci, Edward; Hunter, David J.; Kraft, Peter; Lindstrom, Sara; Carta, Angela; Pavanello, Sofia; Arici, Cecilia; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Kamat, Ashish M.; Lerner, Seth P.; Barton Grossman, H.; Lin, Jie; Gu, Jian; Pu, Xia; Hutchinson, Amy; Burdette, Laurie; Wheeler, William; Kogevinas, Manolis; Tardón, Adonina; Serra, Consol; Carrato, Alfredo; García-Closas, Reina; Lloreta, Josep; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R.; Johnson, Alison; Schned, Alan; Armenti, Karla R.; Hosain, G.M.; Andriole, Gerald; Grubb, Robert; Black, Amanda; Ryan Diver, W.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Haiman, Chris A.; Landi, Maria T.; Caporaso, Neil; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Vineis, Paolo; Wu, Xifeng; Silverman, Debra T.; Chanock, Stephen; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2014-01-01

    Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 11 independent susceptibility loci associated with bladder cancer risk. To discover additional risk variants, we conducted a new GWAS of 2422 bladder cancer cases and 5751 controls, followed by a meta-analysis with two independently published bladder cancer GWAS, resulting in a combined analysis of 6911 cases and 11 814 controls of European descent. TaqMan genotyping of 13 promising single nucleotide polymorphisms with P < 1 × 10−5 was pursued in a follow-up set of 801 cases and 1307 controls. Two new loci achieved genome-wide statistical significance: rs10936599 on 3q26.2 (P = 4.53 × 10−9) and rs907611 on 11p15.5 (P = 4.11 × 10−8). Two notable loci were also identified that approached genome-wide statistical significance: rs6104690 on 20p12.2 (P = 7.13 × 10−7) and rs4510656 on 6p22.3 (P = 6.98 × 10−7); these require further studies for confirmation. In conclusion, our study has identified new susceptibility alleles for bladder cancer risk that require fine-mapping and laboratory investigation, which could further understanding into the biological underpinnings of bladder carcinogenesis. PMID:24163127

  9. Genome-wide association study and premature ovarian failure.

    PubMed

    Christin-Maitre, S; Tachdjian, G

    2010-05-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as an amenorrhea for more than 4months, associated with elevated gonadotropins, usually higher than 20mIU/ml, occurring in a woman before the age of 40. Some candidate genes have been identified in the past 15years, such as FOXL2, FSHR, BMP15, GDF9, Xfra premutation. However, POF etiology remains unknown in more than 90% of cases. The first strategy to identify candidate gene, apart from studying genes involved in ovarian failure in animal models, relies on the study of X chromosome deletions and X;autosome translocations in patients. The second strategy is based on linkage analysis, the third one on Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) array. The latest strategy relies on Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS). This technique consists in screening single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in patients and controls. So far, three studies have been performed and have identified different loci potentially linked to POF, such as PTHB1 and ADAMTS19. However, replications in independent cohorts need to be performed. GWAS studies on large cohorts of women with POF should find new candidate genes in the near future.

  10. Genome-wide association studies of suicidal behaviors: a review.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Marcus; Wasserman, Jerzy; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-10-01

    Suicidal behaviors represent a fatal dimension of mental ill-health, involving both environmental and heritable (genetic) influences. The putative genetic components of suicidal behaviors have until recent years been mainly investigated by hypothesis-driven research (of "candidate genes"). But technological progress in genotyping has opened the possibilities towards (hypothesis-generating) genomic screens and novel opportunities to explore polygenetic perspectives, now spanning a wide array of possible analyses falling under the term Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS). Here we introduce and discuss broadly some apparent limitations but also certain developing opportunities of GWAS. We summarize the results from all the eight GWAS conducted up to date focused on suicidality outcomes; treatment emergent suicidal ideation (3 studies), suicide attempts (4 studies) and completed suicides (1 study). Clearly, there are few (if any) genome-wide significant and reproducible findings yet to be demonstrated. We then discuss and pinpoint certain future considerations in relation to sample sizes, the units of genetic associations used, study designs and outcome definitions, psychiatric diagnoses or biological measures, as well as the use of genomic sequencing. We conclude that GWAS should have a lot more potential to show in the case of suicidal outcomes, than what has yet been realized. PMID:25219938

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Novel Loci Associated With Diisocyanate-Induced Occupational Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Yucesoy, Berran; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Lummus, Zana L.; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Zhang, Ge; Cartier, André; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Sastre, Joaquin; Quirce, Santiago; Tarlo, Susan M.; Cruz, Maria-Jesus; Munoz, Xavier; Harley, John B.; Bernstein, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Diisocyanates, reactive chemicals used to produce polyurethane products, are the most common causes of occupational asthma. The aim of this study is to identify susceptibility gene variants that could contribute to the pathogenesis of diisocyanate asthma (DA) using a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) approach. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was performed in 74 diisocyanate-exposed workers with DA and 824 healthy controls using Omni-2.5 and Omni-5 SNP microarrays. We identified 11 SNPs that exceeded genome-wide significance; the strongest association was for the rs12913832 SNP located on chromosome 15, which has been mapped to the HERC2 gene (p = 6.94 × 10−14). Strong associations were also found for SNPs near the ODZ3 and CDH17 genes on chromosomes 4 and 8 (rs908084, p = 8.59 × 10−9 and rs2514805, p = 1.22 × 10−8, respectively). We also prioritized 38 SNPs with suggestive genome-wide significance (p < 1 × 10−6). Among them, 17 SNPs map to the PITPNC1, ACMSD, ZBTB16, ODZ3, and CDH17 gene loci. Functional genomics data indicate that 2 of the suggestive SNPs (rs2446823 and rs2446824) are located within putative binding sites for the CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein (CEBP) and Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4, Alpha transcription factors (TFs), respectively. This study identified SNPs mapping to the HERC2, CDH17, and ODZ3 genes as potential susceptibility loci for DA. Pathway analysis indicated that these genes are associated with antigen processing and presentation, and other immune pathways. Overlap of 2 suggestive SNPs with likely TF binding sites suggests possible roles in disruption of gene regulation. These results provide new insights into the genetic architecture of DA and serve as a basis for future functional and mechanistic studies. PMID:25918132

  12. Insights into the coordination mode of quercetin with the Al(III) ion from a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Furia, Emilia; Marino, Tiziana; Russo, Nino

    2014-05-21

    Combining potentiometric, spectroscopic and theoretical DFT computations we have studied the formation of t