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Sample records for copan isotopic evidence

  1. Evidence disputing deforestation as the cause for the collapse of the ancient Maya polity of Copan, Honduras

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Cameron L.; Burney, David A.; Burney, Lida Pigott

    2009-01-01

    Archaeologists have proposed diverse hypotheses to explain the collapse of the southern Maya lowland cities between the 8th and 10th centuries A.D. Although it generally is believed that no single factor was responsible, a commonly accepted cause is environmental degradation as a product of large-scale deforestation. To date, the most compelling scientific evidence used to support this hypothesis comes from the archaeological site of Copan, Honduras, where the analysis of a sediment core suggested a dramatic increase in forest clearance in the Late Classic period (A.D. 600–900). By contrast, in the work presented here, the authors’ analysis of a longer sediment core demonstrates that forest cover increased from A.D. 400 to A.D. 900, with arboreal pollen accounting for 59.8–71.0% of the pollen assemblage by approximately A.D. 780–980. The highest levels of deforestation are found about 900 B.C. when, at its peak, herb pollen made up 89.8% of the assemblage. A second, although less pronounced, period of elevated deforestation peaked at approximately A.D. 400 when herb pollen reached 65.3% of the assemblage. The first deforestation event likely coincided with the widespread adoption of agriculture, a pattern found elsewhere in Mesoamerica. The second period of forest clearance probably was associated with the incursion of Maya speakers into the Copan Valley and their subsequent construction of the earliest levels of the Copan Acropolis. These results refute the former hypothesis that the ancient Maya responded to their increasingly large urban population by exhausting, rather than conserving, natural resources. PMID:20018691

  2. Appendix C: The sources of Copan Valley obsidian

    SciTech Connect

    Harbottle, G.; Neff, H.; Bishop, R.L.

    1995-05-01

    One hundred thirty-nine obsidian samples from the Copan Valley were subjected to neutron activation analysis at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Obsidian sources from Mesoamerica have been characterized by a number of different laboratories using several techniques. Over 1,800 samples from Mesoamerica have been analyzed by neutron activation at BNL. These data are now housed both at BNL and in the Smithsonian Archaeometric Research Collections and Records (SARCAR) data base. Previous statistical analysis of the Mesoamerican obsidian artifacts and source samples has produced reference groups representing many of the sources, including Ixtepeque, San Martin Jilotepeque, and El Chayal, the three sources closest to the Copan Valley and therefore most likely to be represented in the analyzed sample. As anticipated, the overwhelming majority of obsidian recovered in the Copan Valley comes from the closest source, Ixtepeque. Of the seven El Chayal specimens, four pertain to CV-43 and three pertain to CV-20. These data provide no evidence of a difference between the two localities in external obsidian exchange relations. Thus, the authors find no grounds for questioning the assumption that the minor quantities of El Chayal obsidian that reached the Copan Valley were distributed through the same channels responsible for distribution of the more common Ixtepeque obsidian.

  3. Geology of Platanares geothermal area, Copan, Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.; Duffield, W.; Wohletz, K.; Priest, S.; Ramos, N.; Flores, W.; Eppler, D.; Ritchie, A.; Escobar, C.

    1987-05-01

    The Platanares, Copan (Honduras) geothermal area is located in a highly faulted terrain of Paleozoic(.) metamorphic rocks, Cretaceous clastic sedimentary rocks, and Tertiary volcanic rocks. All thermal manifestations are located along faults. The volcanic rocks are probably too old to represent the surface expression of an active crustal magma body. Thus, the thermal water is interpreted to be heated during deep circulation in a regime of elevated heat flow. The water chemistry suggests that the geothermal reservoir originates within the Cretaceous sedimentary sequence and that the reservoir temperature may be as high as 240/sup 0/ C. Two exploration coreholes penetrated the volcanic sequence and bottomed within Cretaceous redbeds. Well PLTG-1 is 650 m deep and flows at 3 Mw thermal from a 160/sup 0/ C permeable zone. Well PLTG-2 is 401 m deep and has a thermal gradient of 139/sup 0/ C/km. Exploration drilling is continuing, with a third corehole to be drilled in May, 1987.

  4. Stable Isotope Evidence for Planetary Differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahar, A.; Mao, W. L.; Schauble, E. A.; Caracas, R.; Reagan, M. M.; Gleason, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary differentiation occurred at high temperature and varying oxygen fugacity, on bodies with varying compositions and internal pressures. The specific conditions at which bodies differentiated and the chemical fingerprints left by differentiation can be investigated by measuring stable isotope ratios in natural samples. Much can be learned by combining those data with experiments that systematically investigate the chemical and physical conditions within differentiating bodies. In this talk we focus on one variable in particular that has not been well defined with respect to stable isotope fractionation: pressure. We will present new iron isotope data on how pressure affects isotope fractionation factors for a number of iron compounds relative to silicate. The processes governing iron isotope fractionation in igneous rocks have been debated extensively over the past decade. Analyses of natural samples show that iron isotopes are fractionated at both the whole rock and mineral scales. This fractionation has been interpreted to be a result of several processes including a possible signature of high pressure core formation. We have collected new high pressure synchrotron nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering data from Sector 16-ID-D at the Advanced Photon Source on 57Fe enriched Fe, FeO, FeHx and Fe3C. Our data show clear trends with pressure implying that not only does pressure have an effect on the iron isotope beta factors but also a fractionation amongst the alloys. This suggests that depending on the light element in the core, there will be a different resulting signature in the iron isotope record. We will discuss the likelihood of different light elements in the core based on these results, as well as the theoretical predictions for the same phases. Finally, we will present the fractionation expected between metal and silicate at high pressure and high temperature in order to determine if core formation would indeed leave an isotopic signature in

  5. Geology of the platanares geothermal area, Departamento de Copan, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heiken, G.; Ramos, N.; Duffield, W.; Musgrave, J.; Wohletz, K.; Priest, S.; Aldrich, J.; Flores, W.; Ritchie, A.; Goff, F.; Eppler, D.; Escobar, C.

    1991-01-01

    Platanares is located 16 km west of Santa Rosa de Copan, Honduras, along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente. The thermal manifestations are along faults in tuffs, tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, and lavas of the Padre Miguel Group. These tuffs are silicified near the faults, are fractured, and may provide the fracture permeability necessary for the hydrothermal system. Tuffs are overlain by a wedge of terrace gravels up to 60 m thick. Quaternary conglomerates of the Quebrada del Agua Caliente are cemented by silica sinter. The Platanares area contains numerous faults, all of which appear to be extensional. There are four groups of faults (N80/sup 0/E to N70/sup 0/W, N30/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/W, N40/sup 0/ to 65/sup 0/E, and N00/sup 0/ to 05/sup 0/W). All hot springs at this site are located along faults that trend mostly northwest and north. Twenty-eight spring groups were described over an area of 0.2 km/sup 2/; half were boiling. Based on surface temperatures and flow rates, between 0.7 and 1.0 MW thermal energy is estimated for the area. The increased temperature of the stream flowing through the thermal area indicates that several megawatts of thermal energy are being added to the stream. We recommend that a dipole-dipole resistivity line be run along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente to identify zones of fracture permeability associated with buried faults and hot water reservoirs within those fault zones. A thermal gradient corehole should be drilled at Platanares to test temperatures, lithologies, and permeability of the hydrothermal system.

  6. Isotopic evidence of early hominin diets

    PubMed Central

    Sponheimer, Matt; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Cerling, Thure E.; Grine, Frederick E.; Kimbel, William H.; Leakey, Meave G.; Lee-Thorp, Julia A.; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo; Reed, Kaye E.; Wood, Bernard A.; Wynn, Jonathan G.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon isotope studies of early hominins from southern Africa showed that their diets differed markedly from the diets of extant apes. Only recently, however, has a major influx of isotopic data from eastern Africa allowed for broad taxonomic, temporal, and regional comparisons among hominins. Before 4 Ma, hominins had diets that were dominated by C3 resources and were, in that sense, similar to extant chimpanzees. By about 3.5 Ma, multiple hominin taxa began incorporating 13C-enriched [C4 or crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)] foods in their diets and had highly variable carbon isotope compositions which are atypical for African mammals. By about 2.5 Ma, Paranthropus in eastern Africa diverged toward C4/CAM specialization and occupied an isotopic niche unknown in catarrhine primates, except in the fossil relations of grass-eating geladas (Theropithecus gelada). At the same time, other taxa (e.g., Australopithecus africanus) continued to have highly mixed and varied C3/C4 diets. Overall, there is a trend toward greater consumption of 13C-enriched foods in early hominins over time, although this trend varies by region. Hominin carbon isotope ratios also increase with postcanine tooth area and mandibular cross-sectional area, which could indicate that these foods played a role in the evolution of australopith masticatory robusticity. The 13C-enriched resources that hominins ate remain unknown and must await additional integration of existing paleodietary proxy data and new research on the distribution, abundance, nutrition, and mechanical properties of C4 (and CAM) plants.

  7. Isotopic evidence of early hominin diets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sponheimer, Matt; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Cerling, Thure E.; Grine, Frederick E.; Kimbel, William H.; Leakey, Meave G.; Lee-Thorp, Julia A.; Kyalo Manthi, Fredrick; Reed, Kaye E.; Wood, Bernard A.; Wynn, Jonathan G.

    2013-06-01

    Carbon isotope studies of early hominins from southern Africa showed that their diets differed markedly from the diets of extant apes. Only recently, however, has a major influx of isotopic data from eastern Africa allowed for broad taxonomic, temporal, and regional comparisons among hominins. Before 4 Ma, hominins had diets that were dominated by C3 resources and were, in that sense, similar to extant chimpanzees. By about 3.5 Ma, multiple hominin taxa began incorporating 13C-enriched [C4 or crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)] foods in their diets and had highly variable carbon isotope compositions which are atypical for African mammals. By about 2.5 Ma, Paranthropus in eastern Africa diverged toward C4/CAM specialization and occupied an isotopic niche unknown in catarrhine primates, except in the fossil relations of grass-eating geladas (Theropithecus gelada). At the same time, other taxa (e.g., Australopithecus africanus) continued to have highly mixed and varied C3/C4 diets. Overall, there is a trend toward greater consumption of 13C-enriched foods in early hominins over time, although this trend varies by region. Hominin carbon isotope ratios also increase with postcanine tooth area and mandibular cross-sectional area, which could indicate that these foods played a role in the evolution of australopith masticatory robusticity. The 13C-enriched resources that hominins ate remain unknown and must await additional integration of existing paleodietary proxy data and new research on the distribution, abundance, nutrition, and mechanical properties of C4 (and CAM) plants.

  8. Sources of oceanic basalts: radiogenic isotopic evidence

    SciTech Connect

    White, W.M.

    1985-02-01

    Oceanic basalts can be subdivided into five distinct groupings on the basis of their Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope composition. These classes, represented by mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and St. Helena, Kerguelen, the Society Islands, and the Hawaiian Islands, may represent different but internally heterogeneous mantle reservoirs or merely distinct groups within which chemical evolution has proceeded in a similar manner. Little systematic geographic distribution of volcanism tapping these sources is apparent. Depletion has been most important in the evolution of the MORB-type reservoirs, whereas crustal recycling has dominated the evolution of sources of the Kerguelen and Society types. Primitive mantle is identifiable in the Sr, Nd, Hf, and Pb isotope characteristics of the Hawaiian source only. The evolution of St. Helena-type sources remains enigmatic. 33 references, 2 figures.

  9. Osmium isotope evidence for a large Late Triassic impact event

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Honami; Onoue, Tetsuji; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Anomalously high platinum group element concentrations have previously been reported for Upper Triassic deep-sea sediments, which are interpreted to be derived from an extraterrestrial impact event. Here we report the osmium (Os) isotope fingerprint of an extraterrestrial impact from Upper Triassic chert successions in Japan. Os isotope data exhibit a marked negative excursion from an initial Os isotope ratio (187Os/188Osi) of ∼0.477 to unradiogenic values of ∼0.126 in a platinum group element-enriched claystone layer, indicating the input of meteorite-derived Os into the sediments. The timing of the Os isotope excursion coincides with both elevated Os concentrations and low Re/Os ratios. The magnitude of this negative Os isotope excursion is comparable to those found at Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary sites. These geochemical lines of evidence demonstrate that a large impactor (3.3–7.8 km in diameter) produced a global decrease in seawater 187Os/188Os ratios in the Late Triassic. PMID:24036603

  10. Zinc isotopic evidence for the origin of the Moon.

    PubMed

    Paniello, Randal C; Day, James M D; Moynier, Frédéric

    2012-10-18

    Volatile elements have a fundamental role in the evolution of planets. But how budgets of volatiles were set in planets, and the nature and extent of volatile-depletion of planetary bodies during the earliest stages of Solar System formation remain poorly understood. The Moon is considered to be volatile-depleted and so it has been predicted that volatile loss should have fractionated stable isotopes of moderately volatile elements. One such element, zinc, exhibits strong isotopic fractionation during volatilization in planetary rocks, but is hardly fractionated during terrestrial igneous processes, making it a powerful tracer of the volatile histories of planets. Here we present high-precision zinc isotopic and abundance data which show that lunar magmatic rocks are enriched in the heavy isotopes of zinc and have lower zinc concentrations than terrestrial or Martian igneous rocks. Conversely, Earth and Mars have broadly chondritic zinc isotopic compositions. We show that these variations represent large-scale evaporation of zinc, most probably in the aftermath of the Moon-forming event, rather than small-scale evaporation processes during volcanism. Our results therefore represent evidence for volatile depletion of the Moon through evaporation, and are consistent with a giant impact origin for the Earth and Moon.

  11. Osmium isotope evidence for a large Late Triassic impact event.

    PubMed

    Sato, Honami; Onoue, Tetsuji; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Anomalously high platinum group element concentrations have previously been reported for Upper Triassic deep-sea sediments, which are interpreted to be derived from an extraterrestrial impact event. Here we report the osmium (Os) isotope fingerprint of an extraterrestrial impact from Upper Triassic chert successions in Japan. Os isotope data exhibit a marked negative excursion from an initial Os isotope ratio ((187)Os/(188)Osi) of ~0.477 to unradiogenic values of ~0.126 in a platinum group element-enriched claystone layer, indicating the input of meteorite-derived Os into the sediments. The timing of the Os isotope excursion coincides with both elevated Os concentrations and low Re/Os ratios. The magnitude of this negative Os isotope excursion is comparable to those found at Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary sites. These geochemical lines of evidence demonstrate that a large impactor (3.3-7.8 km in diameter) produced a global decrease in seawater (187)Os/(188)Os ratios in the Late Triassic.

  12. Paleoclimate and Amerindians: evidence from stable isotopes and atmospheric circulation.

    PubMed

    Lovvorn, M B; Frison, G C; Tieszen, L L

    2001-02-27

    Two Amerindian demographic shifts are attributed to climate change in the northwest plains of North America: at approximately 11,000 calendar years before present (yr BP), Amerindian culture apparently split into foothills-mountains vs. plains biomes; and from 8,000-5,000 yr BP, scarce archaeological sites on the open plains suggest emigration during xeric "Altithermal" conditions. We reconstructed paleoclimates from stable isotopes in prehistoric bison bone and relations between weather and fractions of C(4) plants in forage. Further, we developed a climate-change model that synthesized stable isotope, existing qualitative evidence (e.g., palynological, erosional), and global climate mechanisms affecting this midlatitude region. Our isotope data indicate significant warming from approximately 12,400 to 11,900 yr BP, supporting climate-driven cultural separation. However, isotope evidence of apparently wet, warm conditions at 7,300 yr BP refutes emigration to avoid xeric conditions. Scarcity of archaeological sites is best explained by rapid climate fluctuations after catastrophic draining of the Laurentide Lakes, which disrupted North Atlantic Deep Water production and subsequently altered monsoonal inputs to the open plains.

  13. Paleoclimate and Amerindians: Evidence from stable isotopes and atmospheric circulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovvorn, M.B.; Frison, G.C.; Tieszen, L.L.

    2001-01-01

    Two Amerindian demographic shifts are attributed to climate change in the northwest plains of North America: at ???11,000 calendar years before present (yr BP), Amerindian culture apparently split into foothills-mountains vs. plains biomes; and from 8,000-5,000 yr BP, scarce archaeological sites on the open plains suggest emigration during xeric "Altithermal" conditions. We reconstructed paleoclimates from stable isotopes in prehistoric bison bone and relations between weather and fractions of C4 plants in forage. Further, we developed a climate-change model that synthesized stable isotope, existing qualitative evidence (e.g., palynological, erosional), and global climate mechanisms affecting this midlatitude region. Our isotope data indicate significant warming from ???12,400 to 11,900 yr BP, supporting climate-driven cultural separation. However, isotope evidence of apparently wet, warm conditions at 7,300 yr BP refutes emigration to avoid xeric conditions. Scarcity of archaeological sites is best explained by rapid climate fluctuations after catastrophic draining of the Laurentide Lakes, which disrupted North Atlantic Deep Water production and subsequently altered monsoonal inputs to the open plains.

  14. Recommendations report for the platanares geothermal site, Department of Copan, Honduras. Reporte de recomendaciones para el sitio geotermico de platanares, Departamento de Copan, Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    A geothermal assessment of six previously identified sites in Honduras has been conducted by a team comprised of staff from the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the US Geological Survey, and the Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica. The application of both reconnaissance and detailed scale techniques lead to the selection of Platanares in the Department of Copan as the highest potential site. Additional work resulted in the completion of a prefeasibility study at Platanares. We present here a tabulation of the work completed and short summaries of the results from these technical studies. We also present a brief model of the geothermal system and recommendations for additional feasibility work. Both English and Spanish versions of this report are provided in the same document. 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Diagnosis of CoPAN by whole exome sequencing: Waking up a sleeping tiger's eye.

    PubMed

    Evers, Christina; Seitz, Angelika; Assmann, Birgit; Opladen, Thomas; Karch, Stephanie; Hinderhofer, Katrin; Granzow, Martin; Paramasivam, Nagarajan; Eils, Roland; Diessl, Nicolle; Bartram, Claus R; Moog, Ute

    2017-05-10

    Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by iron accumulation in the basal ganglia. Recently, mutations in CoA synthase (COASY) have been identified as a cause of a novel NBIA subtype (COASY Protein-Associated Neurodegeneration, CoPAN) in two patients with dystonic paraparesis, parkinsonian features, cognitive impairment, behavior abnormalities, and axonal neuropathy. COASY encodes an enzyme required for Coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis. Using whole exome sequencing (WES) we identified compound heterozygous COASY mutations in two siblings with intellectual disability, ataxic gait, progressive spasticity, and obsessive-compulsive behavior. The "eye-of-the tiger-sign," a characteristic hypointense spot within the hyperintense globi pallidi on MRI found in the most common subtype of NBIA (Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration, PKAN), was not present. Instead, bilateral hyperintensity and swelling of caudate nucleus, putamen, and thalamus were found. In addition, our patients showed a small corpus callosum and frontotemporal and parietal white matter changes, expanding the brain phenotype of patients with CoPAN. Metabolic investigations showed increased free carnitine and decreased acylcarnitines in the patientś dried blood samples. Carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1) deficiency was excluded by further enzymatic and metabolic investigations. As CoA and its derivate Acetyl-CoA play an essential role in fatty acid metabolism, we assume that abnormal acylcarnitine profiles are a result of the COASY mutations. This report not only illustrates that WES is a powerful tool to elucidate the etiology of rare genetic diseases, but also identifies unique neuroimaging and metabolic findings that may be key features for an early diagnosis of CoPAN. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Trauma-induced changes in diaphyseal cross-sectional geometry in two elites from Copan, Honduras.

    PubMed

    Nystrom, Kenneth C; Buikstra, Jane E

    2005-12-01

    This research utilized biplanar radiographs to estimate cross-sectional biomechanical properties for the skeletal remains of two elite individuals from the Early Classic period (ca. AD 400-600) of Copan, Honduras: K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' (Hunal Burial 95-2), founder of the Early Classic Dynasty at Copan, and the primary female interment (Burial 37-8) from the Motmot tomb. Both individuals survived severe blunt-force insults to the right forearm. Gross skeletal examination and evaluation of the radiographs for K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' suggest that these traumas resulted from, at least in part, disuse atrophy of the affected forearm skeletal elements. Gross and radiologic evaluation of the Motmot remains countered the possibility that she suffered from a metabolic bone disease, and confirmed the presence of a well-healed parry fracture of the right ulna. The degree of asymmetry in cross-sectional biomechanical properties reported here for K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' is likely the secondary result of the described blunt-force trauma. The results obtained for the principal Motmot interment are not as dramatic, but suggest subtle changes to humeral cross-sectional geometry subsequent to trauma.

  17. Nitrogen isotope evidence for alkaline lakes on late Archean continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüeken, E. E.; Buick, R.; Schauer, A. J.

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen isotope ratios in ancient sedimentary rocks are generally interpreted as a proxy for metabolic nitrogen pathways and the redox state of the water column. Fractionation processes occurring under anoxic, alkaline conditions during the dissociation of NH4+ to H+ and volatile NH3 are frequently overlooked, although this mechanism imparts large isotopic fractionations. Here we propose that NH3 volatilization is largely responsible for δ15N values of up to + 50 ‰ at high C/N ratios in the late Archean Tumbiana Formation. This sequence of sedimentary rocks represents a system of lakes that formed on subaerial flood basalts and were partly filled by basaltic volcanic ash. Aqueous alteration of volcanic glass followed by evaporative concentration of ions should have led to the development of high alkalinity with a pH of 9 or higher, as in modern analogues. In this sedimentologically unusual setting, nitrogen isotope ratios thus provide indirect evidence for the oldest alkaline lake system in the rock record. These very heavy lacustrine δ15N values contrast markedly with those of Archean marine sedimentary rocks, making a Precambrian "soda ocean" unlikely. Today, alkaline lakes are among the most productive ecosystems on Earth. Some nutrients, in particular molybdenum, are more soluble at high pH, and certain prebiotic reactions would likely have been favored under alkaline conditions in similar settings earlier in Earth's history. Hence alkaline lakes in the Archean could have been significant for the origin and early evolution of life.

  18. Radiogenic isotope evidence for transatlantic atmospheric dust transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashwini; Abouchami, Wafa; Garrison, Virginia H.; Galer, Stephen J. G.; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2013-04-01

    Early studies by Prospero and colleagues [1] have shown that African dust reaches all across the Atlantic and into the Caribbean. It may contribute to fertilizing the Amazon rainforest [2,3,4], in addition to enhancing the ocean biological productivity via delivery of iron, a key nutrient element[5]. Radiogenic isotope ratios (Sr, Nd, Pb) are robust tracers of dust sources and can thus provide information on provenance and pathways of dust transport. Here we report Sr, Nd and Pb isotope data on atmospheric aerosols, collected in 2008 on quartz filters, from three different locations in Mali (12.6° N, 8.0° W; 555 m a.s.l.), Tobago (11.3° N, 60.5° W; 329 m a.s.l.) and the U.S. Virgin Islands (17.7° N, 64.6° W; 27 m a.s.l.) to investigate the hypothesis of dust transport across the Atlantic. About 2 cm2 of filter were acid-leached in 0.5 N HBr for selective removal of the anthropogenic labile Pb component (leachate) and possibly the fine soluble particle fraction. The remainder of the filter was subsequently dissolved using a mixture of HF and HNO3 acids, and should be representative of the silicate fraction. Isotopic compositions were measured by TIMS on a ThermoFisher Triton at MPIC, with Pb isotope ratios determined using the triple-spike method. Significant Pb isotope differences between leachates and residues were observed. The variability in Pb isotopic composition among leachates may be attributed to variable and distinct anthropogenic local Pb sources from Africa and South America [6], however, residues are imprinted by filter blank contribution suggesting to avoid the quartz fiber filter for isotopic study of aerosols. The Nd and Sr isotope ratios of aerosol leachates show similar signatures at all three locations investigated. The nearly identical Nd and Sr isotopic compositions in the Mali, Tobago and Virgin islands leachates are comparable to those obtained on samples from the Bodélé depression, Northern Chad [7] and suggest a possible common

  19. Isotopic evidence for Mesoarchaean anoxia and changing atmospheric sulphur chemistry.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, James; Peters, Marc; Johnston, David T; Strauss, Harald; Masterson, Andrew; Wiechert, Uwe; Kaufman, Alan J

    2007-10-11

    The evolution of the Earth's atmosphere is marked by a transition from an early atmosphere with very low oxygen content to one with an oxygen content within a few per cent of the present atmospheric level. Placing time constraints on this transition is of interest because it identifies the time when oxidative weathering became efficient, when ocean chemistry was transformed by delivery of oxygen and sulphate, and when a large part of Earth's ecology changed from anaerobic to aerobic. The observation of non-mass-dependent sulphur isotope ratios in sedimentary rocks more than approximately 2.45 billion years (2.45 Gyr) old and the disappearance of this signal in younger sediments is taken as one of the strongest lines of evidence for the transition from an anoxic to an oxic atmosphere around 2.45 Gyr ago. Detailed examination of the sulphur isotope record before 2.45 Gyr ago also reveals early and late periods of large amplitude non-mass-dependent signals bracketing an intervening period when the signal was attenuated. Until recently, this record has been too sparse to allow interpretation, but collection of new data has prompted some workers to argue that the Mesoarchaean interval (3.2-2.8 Gyr ago) lacks a non-mass-dependent signal, and records the effects of earlier and possibly permanent oxygenation of the Earth's atmosphere. Here we focus on the Mesoarchaean interval, and demonstrate preservation of a non-mass-dependent signal that differs from that of preceding and following periods in the Archaean. Our findings point to the persistence of an anoxic early atmosphere, and identify variability within the isotope record that suggests changes in pre-2.45-Gyr-ago atmospheric pathways for non-mass-dependent chemistry and in the ultraviolet transparency of an evolving early atmosphere.

  20. Detection of significant demographic differences between subpopulations of prehispanic Maya from Copan, Honduras, by survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Whittington, S L

    1991-06-01

    Heterogeneity and small sample size are problems that affect many paleodemographic studies. The former can cause the overall distribution of age at death to be an amalgam that does not accurately reflect the distributions of any of the groups composing the heterogeneous population. The latter can make it difficult to separate significant from nonsignificant demographic differences between groups. Survival analysis, a methodology that involves the survival distribution function and various regression models, can be applied to distributions of age at death in order to reveal statistically significant demographic differences and to control for heterogeneity. Survival analysis was used on demographic data from a heterogeneous sample of skeletons of low status Maya who lived in and around Copan, Honduras, between A.D. 400 and 1200. Results contribute to understanding the collapse of Classic Maya civilization.

  1. Oxygen isotope evidence for shallow emplacement of Adirondack anorthosite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valley, J.W.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen isotopic analysis of wollastonites from the Willsboro Mine, Adirondack Mountains, New York reveals a 400-ft wide zone of 18O depletion at anorthosite contacts. Values of ??18O vary more sharply with distance and are lower (to -1.3) than any yet reported for a granulite fades terrain. Exchange with circulating hot meteoric water best explains these results and implies that the anorthosite was emplaced at relatively shallow depths, <10 km, in marked contrast to the depth of granulite fades metamorphism (23 km). These 18O depletions offer the first strong evidence for shallow emplacement of anorthosite within the Grenville Province and suggest that regional metamorphism was a later and tectonically distinct event. ?? 1982 Nature Publishing Group.

  2. Isotopic evidence for nitrogen mobility in peat bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Martin; Stepanova, Marketa; Jackova, Ivana; Vile, Melanie A.; Wieder, R. Kelman; Buzek, Frantisek; Adamova, Marie; Erbanova, Lucie; Fottova, Daniela; Komarek, Arnost

    2014-05-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) input may reduce carbon (C) storage in peat. Under low atmospheric deposition, most N is bound in the moss layer. Under high N inputs, Sphagnum is not able to prevent penetration of dissolved N to deeper peat. Nitrogen may become available to the roots of invading vascular plants. The concurrent oxygenation of deeper peat layers, along with higher supply of labile organic C, may enhance microbial decomposition and lead to peat thinning. The resulting higher emissions of greenhouse gases may accelerate global warming. Seepage of N to deeper peat has never been quantified. Here we present evidence for post-depositional mobility of atmogenic N in peat, based on natural-abundance N isotope ratios. We conducted a reciprocal peat transplant experiment between two Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs in the Czech Republic (Central Europe), differing in anthropogenic N inputs. The northern site VJ received as much as 33 kg N ha-1 yr-1 via spruce canopy throughfall. The southern site was less polluted (17.6 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Isotope signatures of living moss differed between the two sites (δ15N of -3‰ and -7‰ at VJ and CB, respectively). After 18 months, an isotope mass balance was constructed. In the CB-to-VJ transplant, a significant portion of original CB nitrogen (98-31%) was removed and replaced by nitrogen of the host site throughout the top 10 cm of the profile. Nitrogen, deposited at VJ, was immobilized in imported CB peat that was up to 20 years old. Additionally, we compared N concentration and N accumulation rates in 210Pb-dated peat profiles with well-constrained data on historical atmospheric N pollution. Nationwide N emissions peaked in 1990, while VJ exhibited the highest N content in peat that formed in 1930. This de-coupling of N inputs and N retention in peat might be interpreted as a result of translocation of dissolved pollutant N downcore, corroborating our δ15N results at VJ and CB. Data from a variety of peat bogs along pollution

  3. Isotopic Evidence of Unaccounted for Fe and Cu Erythropoietic Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarede, F.; Telouk, P.; Lamboux, A.; Jaouen, K.; Balter, V.

    2011-12-01

    Despite its potential importance for understanding perturbations in the Fe-Cu homeostatic pathways, the natural isotopic variability of these metals in the human body remains unexplored. We measured the Fe, Cu, and Zn isotope compositions of total blood, serum, and red blood cells of ~50 young blood donors by multiple-collector ICP-MS after separation and purification by anion exchange chromatography. Zn is on average 0.2 permil heavier in erythrocytes (δ 66Zn=0.44±0.33 permil) with respect to serum but shows much less overall isotopic variability than Fe and Cu, which indicates that isotope fractionation depends more on redox conditions than on ligand coordination. On average, Fe in erythrocytes (δ 56Fe=-2.59±0.47 permil) is isotopically light by 1-2 permil with respect to serum, whereas Cu in erythrocytes (δ 65Cu=0.56±0.50 permil) is 0.8 percent heavier. Fe and Cu isotope compositions clearly separate erythrocytes of men and women. Fe and Cu from B-type men erythrocytes are visibly more fractionated than all the other blood types. Isotope compositions provide an original method for evaluating metal mass balance and homeostasis. Natural isotope variability shows that the current models of Fe and Cu erythropoiesis, which assume that erythropoiesis is restricted to bone marrow, violate mass balance requirements. It unveils unsuspected major pathways for Fe, with erythropoietic production of isotopically heavy ferritin and hemosiderin, and for Cu, with isotopically light Cu being largely channeled into blood and lymphatic circulation rather than into superoxide dismutase-laden erythrocytes. Iron isotopes provide an intrinsic measuring rod of the erythropoietic yield, while Cu isotopes seem to gauge the relative activity of erythropoiesis and lymphatics.

  4. Evidence of magnetic isotope effects during thermochemical sulfate reduction.

    PubMed

    Oduro, Harry; Harms, Brian; Sintim, Herman O; Kaufman, Alan J; Cody, George; Farquhar, James

    2011-10-25

    Thermochemical sulfate reduction experiments with simple amino acid and dilute concentrations of sulfate reveal significant degrees of mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation. Enrichments of up to 13‰ for (33)S are attributed to a magnetic isotope effect (MIE) associated with the formation of thiol-disulfide, ion-radical pairs. Observed (36)S depletions in products are explained here by classical (mass-dependent) isotope effects and mixing processes. The experimental data contrasts strongly with multiple sulfur isotope trends in Archean samples, which exhibit significant (36)S anomalies. These results support an origin other than thermochemical sulfate reduction for the mass-independent signals observed for early Earth samples.

  5. The process of glauconitization: chemical and isotopic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stille, Peter; Clauer, Norbert

    1994-08-01

    Sequential leaching experiments were made on Recent glauconies and clay fractions of the associated mud from off-shore Africa near the estuary of the Congo River. Analyses of major/rare earth elements (REE) and Nd isotopic compositions on the resulting leachate and residue pairs allow identification of at least three important and isotopically distinct components which contributed to the glauconitization process: (1) a detrital component with relatively high 87Sr/86Sr and relatively low 143Nd/144Nd isotopic ratios; (2) a phosphate phase rich in REE and Sr with sea water Sr and Nd isotopic characteristics; (3) a component rich in organic matter and Ca with a sea water Sr isotopic signature, a relatively low Nd isotopic composition and elevated Sm/Nd ratios. This latter component probably represents the suspended organic and carbonate-rich river load. The detrital and the river components were mixed up in the muddy off-shore sediment, ingested by worms, and integrated into faecal pellets. The resulting material has Sr and Nd isotopic signatures intermediate between those of the detrital and river components, and represents the precursor of the glaucony minerals. During the subsequent dissolution-crystallization process, the glauconitic pellets remain isotopically closed to any external supply, but expulsion of Sr and Nd with increasing degree of maturation is observed without any effect on the Sr and Nd isotopic compositions. At a higher maturation stage (K2O>4.5%), the Sr and Nd isotopic compositions tend to decrease and increase, respectively, approximating the isotopic composition values of the phosphate-rich phase. Because the Sr and Nd concentrations decrease, the evolution of the glauconies toward lower Sr and higher Nd isotopic compositions can only be explained by expulsion of Sr and Nd of the detrital component with high Sr and low Nd isotopic signatures. Dissolution of the chemically unstable, wormdigested clay material from mud may be responsible for the

  6. Evidence of magnetic isotope effects during thermochemical sulfate reduction

    PubMed Central

    Oduro, Harry; Harms, Brian; Sintim, Herman O.; Kaufman, Alan J.; Cody, George; Farquhar, James

    2011-01-01

    Thermochemical sulfate reduction experiments with simple amino acid and dilute concentrations of sulfate reveal significant degrees of mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation. Enrichments of up to 13‰ for 33S are attributed to a magnetic isotope effect (MIE) associated with the formation of thiol-disulfide, ion-radical pairs. Observed 36S depletions in products are explained here by classical (mass-dependent) isotope effects and mixing processes. The experimental data contrasts strongly with multiple sulfur isotope trends in Archean samples, which exhibit significant 36S anomalies. These results support an origin other than thermochemical sulfate reduction for the mass-independent signals observed for early Earth samples. PMID:21997216

  7. MYCORRHIZAL VS. SAPROTROPHIC STATUS OF FUNGI: THE ISOTOPIC EVIDENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Relative abundance of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotopes in fungal sporocarps may prove useful in unraveling fungal roles in ecosystems. Sporocarps of known mycorrhizal or saprotrophic genera were collected from a single site in Oregon and isotopically compared to foliage, litt...

  8. Meteorites and their parent bodies: Evidence from oxygen isotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, R. N.

    1978-01-01

    Isotopic abundance variations among meteorites are used to establish genetic associations between meteorite classes. Oxygen isotope distributions between group II E irons with H-group ordinary chondrites and enstatic meteorites indicate that the parent bodies were formed out of pre-solar material that was not fully mixed at the time condensation occurred within the solar nebula.

  9. MYCORRHIZAL VS. SAPROTROPHIC STATUS OF FUNGI: THE ISOTOPIC EVIDENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Relative abundance of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotopes in fungal sporocarps may prove useful in unraveling fungal roles in ecosystems. Sporocarps of known mycorrhizal or saprotrophic genera were collected from a single site in Oregon and isotopically compared to foliage, litt...

  10. Episodic mantle differentiation - Nd and Sr isotopic evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stosch, H. G.; Carlson, R. W.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    A study of Nd and Sr isotopic composition of clinopyroxenes separated from two hydrous and four anhydrous ultramafic nodules is presented. Correlation of Nd-143/Nd-144 with Sm/Nd suggests that a second partial melting occurred about 560 m.y. ago resulting in LREE enrichment of a part of the anhydrous mantle. The isotopic data for anhydrous nodules show that oceanic type mantle underlies at some continental areas. It is concluded that the separation of subcontinental mantle regions from an initially chondritic reservoir may occur in discrete episodes, and that different histories of depletion and/or enrichment will produce isotopically distinct mantle reservoirs.

  11. Palladium Isotopic Evidence for Nucleosynthetic and Cosmogenic Isotope Anomalies in IVB Iron Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Bernhard; Wittig, Nadine; Humayun, Munir; Leya, Ingo

    2015-08-01

    The origin of ubiquitous nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies in meteorites may represent spatial and/or temporal heterogeneity in the sources that supplied material to the nascent solar nebula, or enhancement by chemical processing. For elements beyond the Fe peak, deficits in s-process isotopes have been reported in some (e.g., Mo, Ru, W) but not all refractory elements studied (e.g., Os) that, among the iron meteorites, are most pronounced in IVB iron meteorites. Palladium is a non-refractory element in the same mass region as Mo and Ru. In this study, we report the first precise Pd isotopic abundances from IVB irons to test the mechanisms proposed for the origin of isotope anomalies. First, this study determined the existence of a cosmogenic neutron dosimeter from the reaction 103Rh(n, β-)104Pd in the form of excess 104Pd, correlated with excess 192Pt, in IVB irons. Second, all IVB irons show a deficit of the s-process only isotope 104Pd (\\varepsilon 104Pd = -0.48 ± 0.24), an excess of the r-only isotope 110Pd (\\varepsilon 110Pd = +0.46 ± 0.12), and no resolvable anomaly in the p-process 102Pd (\\varepsilon 102Pd = +1 ± 1). The magnitude of the Pd isotope anomaly is about half that predicted from a uniform depletion of the s-process yields from the correlated isotope anomalies of refractory Mo and Ru. The discrepancy is best understood as the result of nebular processing of the less refractory Pd, implying that all the observed nucleosynthetic anomalies in meteorites are likely to be isotopic relicts. The Mo-Ru-Pd isotope systematics do not support enhanced rates of the 22Ne(α,n)25Mg neutron source for the solar system s-process.

  12. Retrograde fluids in granulites: Stable isotope evidence of fluid migration

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J. ); Valley, J.W. )

    1991-07-01

    Widespread retrograde alteration assemblages document the migration of mixed H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} fluids into granulite facies rocks in the Adirondack Mountains. Fluid migration is manifest by (1) veins and patchy intergrowths of chlorite {plus minus} sericite {plus minus} calcite, (2) small veins of calcite, many only identifiable by cathodoluminescence, and (3) high-density, CO{sub 2}-rich or mixed H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} fluid inclusions. The distinct and varied textural occurrences of the alteration minerals indicate that fluid-rock ratios were low and variable on a local scale. Stable isotope ratios of C, O, and S have been determined in retrograde minerals from samples of the Marcy anorthosite massif and adjacent granitic gneisses (charnockites). Retrograde calcite in the anorthosite has a relatively small range in both {delta}{sup 18}O{sub SMOW} and {delta}{sup 13}C{sub PDB} (8.6 to 14.9% and {minus}4.1 to 0.4%, respectively), probably indicating that the hydrothermal fluids that precipitated the calcite had exchanged with a variety of crustal lithologies including marbles and orthogneisses, and that calcite was precipitated over a relatively narrow temperature interval. Values of {delta}{sup 34}S{sub CDT} that range from 2.8 to 8.3% within the anorthosite can also be interpreted to reflect exchange between orthogneisses and metasediments. The recognition of retrograde fluid migration is particularly significant in granulite facies terranes because the controversy surrounding the origin of granulites arises in part from differing interpretations of fluid inclusion data, specifically, the timing of entrapment of high-density, CO{sub 2}-rich inclusions. Results indicate that retrograde fluid migration, which in some samples may leave only cryptic petrographic evidence, is a process capable of producing high-density, CO{sub 2}-rich fluid inclusions.

  13. Trophic dynamics of scleractinian corals: stable isotope evidence.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Pascale; Maguer, Jean François; Grover, Renaud; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine

    2015-04-15

    Reef-building corals form symbioses with dinoflagellates from the diverse genus Symbiodinium. This symbiotic association has developed adaptations to acquire and share nutrients, which are essential for its survival and growth in nutrient-poor tropical waters. The host is thus able to prey on a wide range of organic food sources (heterotrophic nutrition) whereas the symbionts acquire most of the inorganic nutrients (autotrophic nutrition). However, nutrient fluxes between the two partners remain unclear, especially concerning heterotrophically acquired carbon and nitrogen. We combined physiological measurements and pulse-chase isotopic labeling of heterotrophic carbon and nitrogen, as well as autotrophic carbon to track nutrient fluxes in two coral species, Stylophora pistillata and Turbinaria reniformis, in symbiosis with Symbiodinium clades A, and C,D respectively. We showed a rapid acquisition, exchange and a long-term retention of heterotrophic nutrients within the symbiosis, whereas autotrophic nutrients were rapidly used to meet immediate metabolic needs. In addition, there was a higher retention of heterotrophic nitrogen compared with carbon, in agreement with the idea that tropical corals are nitrogen-limited. Finally, a coupling between auto- and heterotrophy was observed in the species S. pistillata, with a higher acquisition and retention of heterotrophic nutrients under low irradiance to compensate for a 50% reduction in autotrophic nutrient acquisition and translocation. Conversely, T. reniformis conserved an equivalent heterotrophic nutrient acquisition at both light levels because this coral species did not significantly reduce its rates of gross photosynthesis and autotrophic carbon acquisition between the two irradiances. These experiments advance the current understanding of the nutrient exchanges between the two partners of a symbiotic association, providing evidence of the complexity of the host-symbiont relationship. © 2015. Published by The

  14. Pb isotopic evidence for early Archaean crust in South Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, P. N.; Kalsbeek, F.

    1986-01-01

    The results of an isotopic remote sensing study focussed on delineating the extent of Early Archean crust north and south of the Nuuk area and in south Greenland is presented. Contamination of the Late Archean Nuk gneisses and equivalents by unradiogenic Pb uniquely characteristic of Amitsoq gneiss was detected as far south as Sermilik about 70 km south of Nuuk and only as far north as the mouth of Godthabsfjord. This study was extended to the southern part of the Archean craton and the adjoining Early Proterozoic Ketilidian orogenic belt where the Pb isotopes suggest several episodes of reworking of older uranium depleted continental crust. The technique of using the Pb isotope character of younger felsic rocks, in this case Late Archean and Early Proterozoic gneisses and granites to sense the age and isotopic character of older components, is a particularly powerful tool for reconstructing the evolutionary growth and development of continental crust.

  15. Origin of petroporphyrins. 2. Evidence from stable carbon isotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boreham, C. J.; Fookes, C. J.; Popp, B. N.; Hayes, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Compared with the carbon-13 isotopic composition of the ubiquitous C32DPEP (DPEP, deoxophylloerythroetioporphyrin) the heavy but equivalent carbon-13 isotopic composition for the porphyrin structures 15(2)-methyl-15,17-ethano-17-nor-H-C30DPEP and 15,17-butano-, 13,15-ethano-13(2),17-propano-, and 13(1)-methyl-13,15-ethano-13(2),17-propanoporphyrin suggests a common precursor, presumably chlorophyll c, for these petroporphyrins isolated from the marine Julia Creek oil shale and the lacustrine Condor oil shale. Similarly, the heavy but variable carbon-13 isotopic composition of 7-nor-H-C31DPEP compared with C32DPEP is consistent with an origin from both chlorophyll b and chlorophyll c3. The equivalent carbon-13 isotopic composition for 13(2)-methyl-C33DPEP compared with C32DPEP suggests a common origin resulting from a weighted average of chlorophyll inputs.

  16. Stellar condensates in meteorites - Isotopic evidence from noble gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, R. S.; Alaerts, L.; Matsuda, J.-I.; Anders, E.

    1979-01-01

    The Murchison carbonaceous chondrite contains three isotopically anomalous noble-gas components of apparently presolar origin: two kinds of Ne-E, (Ne-20)/(Ne-22) less than 0.6, and s-process Kr + Xe (enriched in the even isotopes 82, 84, 86, 128, 130, 132). Their carriers are tentatively identified as spinel and two carbonaceous phases, the principal high-temperature stellar condensates at low and high C/O ratios, respectively.

  17. Stellar condensates in meteorites - Isotopic evidence from noble gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, R. S.; Alaerts, L.; Matsuda, J.-I.; Anders, E.

    1979-01-01

    The Murchison carbonaceous chondrite contains three isotopically anomalous noble-gas components of apparently presolar origin: two kinds of Ne-E, (Ne-20)/(Ne-22) less than 0.6, and s-process Kr + Xe (enriched in the even isotopes 82, 84, 86, 128, 130, 132). Their carriers are tentatively identified as spinel and two carbonaceous phases, the principal high-temperature stellar condensates at low and high C/O ratios, respectively.

  18. Stable isotopes may provide evidence for starvation in reptiles.

    PubMed

    McCue, Marshall D; Pollock, Erik D

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies have attempted to correlate stable isotope signatures of tissues with the nutritional condition of birds, mammals, fishes, and invertebrates. Unfortunately, very little is known about the relationship between food limitation and the isotopic composition of reptiles. We examined the effects that starvation has on delta13C and delta15N signatures in the tissues (excreta, carcass, scales, and claws) of six, distantly related squamate reptiles (gaboon vipers, Bitis gabonica; ball pythons, Python regius; ratsnakes, Elaphe obsoleta; boa constrictors, Boa constrictor; western diamondback rattlesnakes, Crotalus atrox, and savannah monitor lizards, Varanus exanthematicus). Analyses revealed that the isotopic composition of reptile carcasses did not change significantly in response to bouts of starvation lasting up to 168 days. In contrast, the isotopic signatures of reptile excreta became significantly enriched in 15N and depleted in 13C during starvation. The isotopic signatures of reptile scales and lizard claws were less indicative of starvation time than those of excreta. We discuss the physiological mechanisms that might be responsible for the starvation-induced changes in 13C and 15N signatures in the excreta, and present a mixing model to describe the shift in excreted nitrogen source pools (i.e. from a labile source pool to a nonlabile source pool) that apparently occurs during starvation in these animals. The results of this study suggest that naturally occurring stable isotopes might ultimately have some utility for characterizing nitrogen and carbon stress among free-living reptiles.

  19. Isotope evidence of hexavalent chromium stability in ground water samples.

    PubMed

    Čadková, Eva; Chrastný, Vladislav

    2015-11-01

    Chromium stable isotopes are of interest in many geochemical studies as a tool to identify Cr(VI) reduction and/or dilution in groundwater aquifers. For such studies the short term stability of Cr(VI) in water samples is required before the laboratory analyses can be carried out. Here the short term stability of Cr(VI) in groundwater samples was studied using an isotope approach. Based on commonly available methods for Cr(VI) stabilization, water samples were filtered and the pH value was adjusted to be equal to or greater than 8 before Cr isotope analysis. Based on our Cr isotope data (expressed as δ(53)CrNIST979), Cr(VI) was found to be unstable over short time periods in anthropogenically contaminated groundwater samples regardless of water treatment (e.g., pH adjustment, different storage temperatures). Based on our laboratory experiments, δ(53)CrNIST979 of the Cr(VI) pool was found to be unstable in the presence of dissolved Fe(II), Mn(IV) and/or SO2. Threshold concentrations of Fe(II) causing Cr(VI) reduction range between 10 mg L(-1) and 100 mg L(-1)and less than 1 mg L(-1) for Mn. Hence our isotope data show that water samples containing Cr(VI) should be processed on-site through anion column chemistry to avoid any isotope shifts.

  20. Helium isotopic evidence for episodic mantle melting and crustal growth.

    PubMed

    Parman, S W

    2007-04-19

    The timing of formation of the Earth's continental crust is the subject of a long-standing debate, with models ranging from early formation with little subsequent growth, to pulsed growth, to steadily increasing growth. But most models do agree that the continental crust was extracted from the mantle by partial melting. If so, such crustal extraction should have left a chemical fingerprint in the isotopic composition of the mantle. The subduction of oceanic crust and subsequent convective mixing, however, seems to have largely erased this record in most mantle isotopic systems (for example, strontium, neodymium and lead). In contrast, helium is not recycled into the mantle because it is volatile and degasses from erupted oceanic basalts. Therefore helium isotopes may potentially preserve a clearer record of mantle depletion than recycled isotopes. Here I show that the spectrum of 4He/3He ratios in ocean island basalts appears to preserve the mantle's depletion history, correlating closely with the ages of proposed continental growth pulses. The correlation independently predicts both the dominant 4He/3He peak found in modern mid-ocean-ridge basalts, as well as estimates of the initial 4He/3He ratio of the Earth. The correspondence between the ages of mantle depletion events and pulses of crustal production implies that the formation of the continental crust was indeed episodic and punctuated by large, potentially global, melting events. The proposed helium isotopic evolution model does not require a primitive, undegassed mantle reservoir, and therefore is consistent with whole mantle convection.

  1. Magnesium isotope evidence that accretional vapour loss shapes planetary compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hin, Remco C.; Coath, Christopher D.; Carter, Philip J.; Nimmo, Francis; Lai, Yi-Jen; Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Willbold, Matthias; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Walter, Michael J.; Elliott, Tim

    2017-09-01

    It has long been recognized that Earth and other differentiated planetary bodies are chemically fractionated compared to primitive, chondritic meteorites and, by inference, the primordial disk from which they formed. However, it is not known whether the notable volatile depletions of planetary bodies are a consequence of accretion or inherited from prior nebular fractionation. The isotopic compositions of the main constituents of planetary bodies can contribute to this debate. Here we develop an analytical approach that corrects a major cause of measurement inaccuracy inherent in conventional methods, and show that all differentiated bodies have isotopically heavier magnesium compositions than chondritic meteorites. We argue that possible magnesium isotope fractionation during condensation of the solar nebula, core formation and silicate differentiation cannot explain these observations. However, isotopic fractionation between liquid and vapour, followed by vapour escape during accretionary growth of planetesimals, generates appropriate residual compositions. Our modelling implies that the isotopic compositions of magnesium, silicon and iron, and the relative abundances of the major elements of Earth and other planetary bodies, are a natural consequence of substantial (about 40 per cent by mass) vapour loss from growing planetesimals by this mechanism.

  2. Isotopic evidence of Cr partitioning into Earth's core.

    PubMed

    Moynier, Frederic; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Schauble, Edwin

    2011-03-18

    The distribution of chemical elements in primitive meteorites (chondrites), as building blocks of terrestrial planets, provides insight into the formation and early differentiation of Earth. The processes that resulted in the depletion of some elements [such as chromium (Cr)] in the bulk silicate Earth relative to chondrites, however, remain debated between leading candidate causes: volatility versus core partitioning. We show through high-precision measurements of Cr stable isotopes in a range of meteorites, which deviate by up to ~0.4 per mil from those of the bulk silicate Earth, that Cr depletion resulted from its partitioning into Earth's core, with a preferential enrichment in light isotopes. Ab initio calculations suggest that the isotopic signature was established at mid-mantle magma ocean depth as Earth accreted planetary embryos and progressively became more oxidized.

  3. Isotopic evidence for reduced productivity in the glacial Southern Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Shemesh, A. ); Macko, S.A. ); Charles, C.D. ); Rau, G.H. )

    1993-10-15

    Records of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in biogenic silica and carbon isotopes in planktonic foraminifera from deep-sea sediment cores from the Southern Ocean reveal that the primary production during the last glacial maximum was lower than Holocene productivity. These observations conflict with the hypothesis that the low atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were introduced by an increase in the efficiency of the high-latitude biological pump. Instead, different oceanic sectors may have had high glacial productivity, or alternative mechanisms that do not involve the biological pump must be considered as the primary cause of the low glacial atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

  4. Metasomatism-induced mantle magnesium isotopic heterogeneity: Evidence from pyroxenites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yan; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Xiao, Yan; Su, Ben-Xun

    2016-07-01

    High-precision Mg isotopic measurements on diverse mantle pyroxenite xenoliths collected from Hannuoba, North China Craton, revealed multi-stage interactions between the lithospheric mantle and melts of different origins. The garnet-bearing pyroxenites yield variable δ26Mg values from -0.48‰ to -0.10‰, consistent with their origin as reaction products between mantle peridotites and melts from subducted oceanic slab with highly heterogeneous δ26Mg. Most of their constituent olivine, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene have indistinguishable δ26Mg ratios around the normal mantle range (-0.25 ± 0.07‰, Teng et al., 2010). The lack of fractionation among these three mineral phases agrees with their similar bonding environments for Mg (6-fold), and hence indicates a general isotopic equilibrium among them. By contrast, garnet has variably lighter δ26Mg values (-0.75‰ to -0.37‰, n = 15), consistent with its higher coordination number for Mg (8-fold), and thus weaker Mg-O bonds. The magnitude of fractionation between garnet and olivine/pyroxene, however, is not correlated with equilibrium temperature, and therefore reflects disequilibrium Mg isotope partitioning. Considering the metasomatic origin of these garnets, the disequilibrium isotopic fractionation is most likely the result of rapid and incomplete metasomatic reaction during which garnets were formed at the expense of isotopically heavier co-existing minerals, particularly spinels. The two garnet-free clinopyroxenites, which display highly enriched light rare earth element (LREE) patterns and very low Ti/Eu ratios, are characterized by extremely light δ26Mg (as low as -1.51‰). Their formation possibly indicates an episode of carbonatite infiltration. In comparison, the three Cr websterites and one Al websterite, as well as an orthopyroxenite, all have mantle-like whole-rock and mineral δ26Mg ratios, with equilibrated clinopyroxene-orthopyroxene pairs. Their presence thus implies different episodes

  5. Origins of etioporphyrins in sediments: evidence from stable carbon isotopes.

    PubMed

    Boreham, C J; Fookes, C J; Popp, B N; Hayes, J M

    1989-01-01

    In samples of the Julia Creek and Condor oil shales (Australia, Albian, and early Tertiary, respectively) etioporphyrin III is significantly depleted in 13C (4%) relative to porphyrins derived from chlorophylls. This isotopic difference suggests a large contribution from some independent source. The haem group found in cytochromes derived from microbial sources is the most likely candidate.

  6. Molecular carbon isotopic evidence for the origin of geothermal hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, D. J.; Donchin, J. H.; Nehring, N. L.; Truesdell, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    Isotopic measurements of individual geothermal hydrocarbons that are, as a group, of higher molecular weight than methane are reported. It is believed in light of this data that the principal source of hydrocarbons in four geothermal areas in western North America is the thermal decomposition of sedimentary or groundwater organic matter.

  7. Molecular carbon isotopic evidence for the origin of geothermal hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, D. J.; Donchin, J. H.; Nehring, N. L.; Truesdell, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    Isotopic measurements of individual geothermal hydrocarbons that are, as a group, of higher molecular weight than methane are reported. It is believed in light of this data that the principal source of hydrocarbons in four geothermal areas in western North America is the thermal decomposition of sedimentary or groundwater organic matter.

  8. Origins of etioporphyrins in sediments - Evidence from stable carbon isotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boreham, Christopher J.; Fookes, Christopher J. R.; Popp, Brian N.; Hayes, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    In samples of the Julia Creek and Condor oil shales (Australia, Albian, and early Tertiary, respectively) etioporphyrin III is significantly depleted in C-13 (4 per mil) relative to porphyrins derived from chlorophylls. This isotopic difference suggests a large contribution from some independent source. The haem group found in cytochromes derived from microbial sources is the most likely candidate.

  9. Origins of etioporphyrins in sediments: Evidence from stable carbon isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Boreham, C.J. ); Fookes, C.J.R. ); Popp, B.N.; Hayes, J.M. )

    1989-09-01

    In samples of the Julia Creek and Condor oil shales (Australia, Albian, and early Tertiary, respectively) etioporphyrin III is significantly depleted in {sup 13}C (4{per thousand}) relative to porphyrins derived from chlorophylls. This isotopic difference suggest a large contribution from some independent source. The haem group found in cytochromes derived from microbial sources is the most likely candidate.

  10. Origins of etioporphyrins in sediments - Evidence from stable carbon isotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boreham, Christopher J.; Fookes, Christopher J. R.; Popp, Brian N.; Hayes, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    In samples of the Julia Creek and Condor oil shales (Australia, Albian, and early Tertiary, respectively) etioporphyrin III is significantly depleted in C-13 (4 per mil) relative to porphyrins derived from chlorophylls. This isotopic difference suggests a large contribution from some independent source. The haem group found in cytochromes derived from microbial sources is the most likely candidate.

  11. Isotope evidence for N2-fixation in Sphagnum peat bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Martin; Jackova, Ivana; Buzek, Frantisek; Stepanova, Marketa; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Curik, Jan; Prechova, Eva

    2016-04-01

    Waterlogged organic soils store as much as 30 % of the world's soil carbon (C), and 15 % of the world's soil nitrogen (N). In the era of climate change, wetlands are vulnerable to increasing temperatures and prolonged periods of low rainfall. Higher rates of microbial processes and/or changing availability of oxygen may lead to peat thinning and elevated emissions of greenhouse gases (mostly CO2, but also CH4 and N2O). Biogeochemical cycling of C and N in peat bogs is coupled. Under low levels of pollution by reactive nitrogen (NO3-, NH4+), increasing N inputs may positively affect C storage in peat. Recent studies in North America and Scandinavia have suggested that pristine bogs are characterized by significant rates of microbial N2 fixation that augments C storage in the peat substrate. We present a nitrogen isotope study aimed at corroborating these findings. We conducted an isotope inventory of N fluxes and pools at two Sphagnum-dominated ombrotrophic peat bogs in the Czech Republic (Central Europe). For the first time, we present a time-series of del15N values of atmospheric input at the same locations as del15N values of living Sphagnum and peat. The mean del15N values systematically increased in the order: input NH4+ (-10.0 ‰) < input NO3- (-7.9 ‰) < peat porewater (-5.6 ‰) < Sphagnum (-5.0 ‰) < shallow peat (-4.2 ‰) < deep peat (-2.2 ‰) < runoff (-1.4 ‰) < porewater N2O (1.4 ‰). Importantly, N of Sphagnum was isotopically heavier than N of the atmospheric input (p < 0.001). If partial incorporation of reactive N from the atmosphere into Sphagnum was isotopically selective, the residual N would have to be isotopically extremely light. Such N, however, was not identified anywhere in the ecosystem. Alternatively, Sphagnum may have contained an admixture of isotopically heavier N from atmospheric N2 (del15N N2 = 0 ‰). We conlude that the N isotope systematics at the two Czech sites is consistent with the concept of significant N2 fixation

  12. Oxygen Isotopes in porewater sulfate: evidence for unrecognized sulfur cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchyn, A. V.; Sivan, O.; Schrag, D. P.

    2005-12-01

    Changes in the major element and related isotope profiles in porewaters of organic-rich sediments suggest that various microbial processes using a succession of electron acceptors are in play during the remineralization of organic matter. Of the electron acceptors, sulfate is by far the most abundant and bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) is responsible for most organic matter remineralization in sediments. In addition, nearly all the methane produced during methanogenesis below the sulfate minimum zone is oxidized anaerobically through sulfate reduction (anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO)). In places where AMO occurs, recent studies have demonstrated that the majority of the sulfate is reduced by methane. This results in linear diffusive profiles of sulfate concentrations over tens and even hundreds of meters. Oxygen isotopes in marine sulfate (δ18OSO4) from porewater profiles from ODP leg 175 were measured to better understand microbial sulfur cycling and the coupling between sulfate reduction and methane oxidation. In these sites, sulfate concentrations are depleted with depth, mainly through AMO. The δ18OSO4profiles show a rapid increase near the top of all sites from seawater values of 9% to maximums between 22 and 25%. The δ18OSO4 remains enriched and constant (between 22 and 25%) through the rest of the core as sulfate is continually depleted, then decreases at the bottom of the core as sulfate is consumed in the zone of AMO. The δ18OSO4 increase at the top of the cores is difficult to explain without significant rates of sulfate reduction, yet reoxidation rates must approach 100 percent because of the lack of depletion in sulfate concentrations and lack of change in sulfur isotopes. This suggests that sulfate is recycled in the system. The isotopic decrease in δ18OSO4 into the zone of AMO in all cores indicates that isotopically heavier sulfate is preferentially reduced during sulfate reduction associated with methane oxidation.

  13. Isotopic equilibrium between mantle peridotite and melt: Evidence from the Corsica ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampone, Elisabetta; Hofmann, Albrecht W.; Raczek, Ingrid

    2009-11-01

    A widely used assumption of mantle geochemistry and the theory of partial melting at oceanic settings is the existence of isotopic equilibrium between mantle source and melt. Yet, recent diffusion studies and isotopic investigations of ophiolites, abyssal peridotites and associated MORBs have cast doubts on this assumption, by providing evidence for isotopic disequilibrium between residual peridotites and MORBs. Here we present Sr and Sm-Nd isotope data on mantle peridotites and gabbroic intrusions from the Mt. Maggiore (Alpine Corsica, France) Tethyan ophiolite, which document Nd isotopic homogeneity, implying isotopic equilibrium, on a 1-kilometer scale. The peridotites record multi-stage melt-rock interaction and melt intrusion occurring at different lithospheric depths. Samples studied are residual cpx-poor spinel lherzolites, reactive spinel harzburgites, impregnated plagioclase peridotites and related gabbronoritic veinlets, later gabbroic dykes. Strontium isotopes in peridotites and gabbros are highly variable, due to interaction with sea-water derived fluids, and cannot be used to test melt-residue isotopic equilibrium. In contrast, Nd isotopes are unaffected by sea-water alteration. Peridotites display present-day high 147Sm/ 144Nd (0.49-0.59) and 143Nd/ 144Nd (0.513367-0.513551) ratios, with no appreciable differences between residual and reactive spinel peridotites, and between spinel and plagioclase peridotites. Gabbroic dykes have present-day Nd isotopic compositions typical of MORB ( 143Nd/ 144Nd = 0.513122-0.513138). Internal (plag-whole rock-cpx) Sm-Nd isochrons for olivine gabbro dykes and a gabbronoritic veinlet yield Jurassic ages (162 ± 10 and 159 ± 15 Ma in ol-gabbros, 155 ± 6 Ma in gabbronorite), and initial ɛNd = 8.9-9.7 indicative of a MORB-type source. Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of peridotites conform to the linear array defined by the gabbroic rocks, and yield initial (160 Ma) ɛNd values of 7.6-8.9, again consistent with a MORB

  14. Automatic Digital Analysis of Chromogenic Media for Vancomycin-Resistant-Enterococcus Screens Using Copan WASPLab

    PubMed Central

    Faron, Matthew L.; Coon, Christopher; Liebregts, Theo; van Bree, Anita; Jansz, Arjan R.; Soucy, Genevieve; Korver, John

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are an important cause of health care-acquired infections (HAIs). Studies have shown that active surveillance of high-risk patients for VRE colonization can aid in reducing HAIs; however, these screens generate a significant cost to the laboratory and health care system. Digital imaging capable of differentiating negative and “nonnegative” chromogenic agar can reduce the labor cost of these screens and potentially improve patient care. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the WASPLab Chromogenic Detection Module (CDM) (Copan, Brescia, Italy) software to analyze VRE chromogenic agar and compared the results to technologist plate reading. Specimens collected at 3 laboratories were cultured using the WASPLab CDM and plated to each site's standard-of-care chromogenic media, which included Colorex VRE (BioMed Diagnostics, White City, OR) or Oxoid VRE (Oxoid, Basingstoke, United Kingdom). Digital images were scored using the CDM software after 24 or 40 h of growth, and all manual reading was performed using digital images on a high-definition (HD) monitor. In total, 104,730 specimens were enrolled and automation agreed with manual analysis for 90.1% of all specimens tested, with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 89.5%, respectively. Automation results were discordant for 10,348 specimens, and all discordant images were reviewed by a laboratory supervisor or director. After a second review, 499 specimens were identified as representing missed positive cultures falsely called negative by the technologist, 1,616 were identified as containing borderline color results (negative result but with no package insert color visible), and 8,234 specimens were identified as containing colorimetric pigmentation due to residual matrix from the specimen or yeast (Candida). Overall, the CDM was accurate at identifying negative VRE plates, which comprised 84% (87,973) of the specimens in this study. PMID:27413193

  15. Automatic Digital Analysis of Chromogenic Media for Vancomycin-Resistant-Enterococcus Screens Using Copan WASPLab.

    PubMed

    Faron, Matthew L; Buchan, Blake W; Coon, Christopher; Liebregts, Theo; van Bree, Anita; Jansz, Arjan R; Soucy, Genevieve; Korver, John; Ledeboer, Nathan A

    2016-10-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are an important cause of health care-acquired infections (HAIs). Studies have shown that active surveillance of high-risk patients for VRE colonization can aid in reducing HAIs; however, these screens generate a significant cost to the laboratory and health care system. Digital imaging capable of differentiating negative and "nonnegative" chromogenic agar can reduce the labor cost of these screens and potentially improve patient care. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the WASPLab Chromogenic Detection Module (CDM) (Copan, Brescia, Italy) software to analyze VRE chromogenic agar and compared the results to technologist plate reading. Specimens collected at 3 laboratories were cultured using the WASPLab CDM and plated to each site's standard-of-care chromogenic media, which included Colorex VRE (BioMed Diagnostics, White City, OR) or Oxoid VRE (Oxoid, Basingstoke, United Kingdom). Digital images were scored using the CDM software after 24 or 40 h of growth, and all manual reading was performed using digital images on a high-definition (HD) monitor. In total, 104,730 specimens were enrolled and automation agreed with manual analysis for 90.1% of all specimens tested, with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 89.5%, respectively. Automation results were discordant for 10,348 specimens, and all discordant images were reviewed by a laboratory supervisor or director. After a second review, 499 specimens were identified as representing missed positive cultures falsely called negative by the technologist, 1,616 were identified as containing borderline color results (negative result but with no package insert color visible), and 8,234 specimens were identified as containing colorimetric pigmentation due to residual matrix from the specimen or yeast (Candida). Overall, the CDM was accurate at identifying negative VRE plates, which comprised 84% (87,973) of the specimens in this study.

  16. Geology of the platanares geothermal site, Departamento de Copan, Honduras, Central America. Field report

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.; Eppler, D.; Wohletz, K.; Flores, W.; Ramos, N.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-05-01

    Platanares is located 16 km west of Santa Rosa de Copan, Honduras, along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente. The thermal manifestations are along faults in tuffs, tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, and lavas of the Padre Miguel Group. These tuffs are silicified near the faults, are fractured, and may provide the fracture permeability necessary for the hydrothermal system. Tuffs are overlain by a wedge of terrace gravels up to 60 m thick. Quaternary conglomerates of the Quebrada del Agua Caliente are cemented by silica sinter. The Platanares area contains numerous faults, all of which appear to be extensional. There are four groups of faults (N80/sup 0/E to N70/sup 0/W, N30/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/W, N40/sup 0/ to 65/sup 0/E, and N00/sup 0/ to 05/sup 0/W). All hot springs at this site are located along faults that trend mostly northwest and north. Twenty-eight spring groups were described over an area of 0.2 km/sup 2/; half were boiling. Based on surface temperatures and flow rates, between 0.7 and 1.0 MW thermal energy is estimated for the area. The increased temperature of the stream flowing through the thermal area indicates that several megawatts of thermal energy are being added to the stream. We recommend that a dipole-dipole resistivity line be run along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente to identify zones of fracture permeability associated with buried faults and hot water reservoirs within those fault zones. A thermal gradient corehole should be drilled at Platanares to test temperatures, lithologies, and permeability of the hydrothermal system.

  17. The origin of epigenetic graphite: evidence from isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weis, P.L.; Friedman, I.; Gleason, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios measured in syngenetic graphite, epigenetic graphite, and graphitic marble suggests that syngenetic graphite forms only by the metamorphism of carbonaceous detritus. Metamorphism of calcareous rocks with carbonaceous detritus is accompanied by an exchange of carbon between the two, which may result in large changes in isotopic composition of the non-carbonate phase but does not affect the relative proportions of the two reactants in the rock. Epigenetic graphite forms only from carbonaceous material or preexisting graphite. The reactions involved are the water gas reaction (C + H2O ??? CO + H2) at 800-900??C, and the Boudouard reaction (2CO ??? C + CO2), which probably takes place at temperatures about 50-100??C lower. ?? 1982.

  18. The origin of epigenetic graphite: evidence from isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Paul L.; Friedman, Irving; Gleason, Jim P.

    1981-12-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios measured in syngenetic graphite, epigenetic graphite, and graphitic marble suggests that syngenetic graphite forms only by the metamorphism of carbonaceous detritus. Metamorphism of calcareous rocks with carbonaceous detritus is accompanied by an exchange of carbon between the two, which may result in large changes in isotopic composition of the non-carbonate phase but does not affect the relative proportions of the two reactants in the rock. Epigenetic graphite forms only from carbonaceous material or preexisting graphite. The reactions involved are the water gas reaction (C + H2O → CO + H2) at 800-900°C, and the Boudouard reaction (2CO → C + CO2), which probably takes place at temperatures about 50-100°C lower.

  19. Isotopic evidence for long term warmth in the Mesozoic.

    PubMed

    Price, Gregory D; Twitchett, Richard J; Wheeley, James R; Buono, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations appear to have been considerably higher than modern levels during much of the Phanerozoic and it has hence been proposed that surface temperatures were also higher. Some studies have, however, suggested that Earth's temperature (estimated from the isotopic composition of fossil shells) may have been independent of variations in atmospheric CO2 (e.g. in the Jurassic and Cretaceous). If large changes in atmospheric CO2 did not produce the expected climate responses in the past, predictions of future climate and the case for reducing current fossil-fuel emissions are potentially undermined. Here we evaluate the dataset upon which the Jurassic and Cretaceous assertions are based and present new temperature data, derived from the isotopic composition of fossil brachiopods. Our results are consistent with a warm climate mode for the Jurassic and Cretaceous and hence support the view that changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations are linked with changes in global temperatures.

  20. Isotopic evidence for long term warmth in the Mesozoic

    PubMed Central

    Price, Gregory D.; Twitchett, Richard J.; Wheeley, James R.; Buono, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations appear to have been considerably higher than modern levels during much of the Phanerozoic and it has hence been proposed that surface temperatures were also higher. Some studies have, however, suggested that Earth's temperature (estimated from the isotopic composition of fossil shells) may have been independent of variations in atmospheric CO2 (e.g. in the Jurassic and Cretaceous). If large changes in atmospheric CO2 did not produce the expected climate responses in the past, predictions of future climate and the case for reducing current fossil-fuel emissions are potentially undermined. Here we evaluate the dataset upon which the Jurassic and Cretaceous assertions are based and present new temperature data, derived from the isotopic composition of fossil brachiopods. Our results are consistent with a warm climate mode for the Jurassic and Cretaceous and hence support the view that changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations are linked with changes in global temperatures. PMID:23486483

  1. Isotopic Evidence for a Martian Regolith Component in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M. N.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.; Sutton, S.

    2009-01-01

    Noble gas measurements in gas-rich impact-melt (GRIM) glasses in EET79001 shergottite showed that their elemental and isotopic composition is similar to that of the Martian atmosphere [1-3]. The GRIM glasses contain large amounts of Martian atmospheric gases. Those measurements further suggested that the Kr isotopic composition of Martian atmosphere is approximately similar to that of solar Kr. The (80)Kr(sub n) - (80)Kr(sub M) mixing ratio in the Martian atmosphere reported here is approximately 3%. These neutron-capture reactions presumably occurred in the glass-precursor regolith materials containing Sm- and Br- bearing mineral phases near the EET79001/ Shergotty sites on Mars. The irradiated materials were mobilized into host rock voids either during shock-melting or possibly by earlier aeolian / fluvial activity.

  2. Survival of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria in Purulent Clinical Specimens Maintained in the Copan Venturi Transystem and Becton Dickinson Port-a-Cul Transport Systems

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Diane M.; Warren, Yumi A.; Hudspeth, Marie K.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2000-01-01

    Recovery of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from clinical specimens maintained in the Copan Venturi Transystem and the Becton Dickinson Port-a-Cul transport was assessed. Of 54 anaerobes, 53 were recovered after 4 h, and 52 were recovered after 24 h, from both systems. After 48 h, 45 and 50 were recovered from the two systems, respectively. PMID:10655410

  3. Isotopic evidence of pollutant lead sources in Northwestern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Véron, Alain; Flament, Pascal; Bertho, Marie Laure; Alleman, Laurent; Flegal, Russell; Hamelin, Bruno

    Ratios of stable lead isotopes ( 204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) are used to characterize both spatial and temporal variations in anthropogenic emissions of industrial lead aerosols to the atmosphere of northwestern France. Differences in isotopic compositions of aerosols collected from a rural area (Wimereux) in the Nord-Pas de Calais region along the English Channel in 1982-1983 ( 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.108±0.005) and 1994 ( 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.148±0.003) are paralleled by similar variations in urban aerosols within France during the same period (e.g., 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.115±0.008 from 1981-1989 and 1.143±0.006 from 1992-1995). These results correlate well with recent findings in the Mediterranean basin (Alleman, 1997) where this radiogenicity increase is clearly associated with industrial sources other than leaded gasoline that has remained relatively constant during its phasing out ( 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.08-1.11). Here we used archived data, air mass trajectories and aerosol diameters combined with isotopic signatures to confirm this trend at a regional scale. Indeed, the main industrial signatures from lead smelting ( 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.133±0.001) and steel metallurgy ( 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.196±0.015) in northwestern France appear more radiogenic than that of leaded gasoline. The shift in isotopic compositions also conform with the systematic change in the mean size (diameter) of aerosols at Wimereux, which ranged from 0.30 to 0.61 μm in 1982-1984 and from 0.70 to 0.89 μm in 1994.

  4. Isotopic evidence for nitrification in the Antarctic winter mixed layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Sandi M.; Fawcett, Sarah E.; Thomalla, Sandy J.; Weigand, Mira A.; Reason, Chris J. C.; Sigman, Daniel M.

    2015-04-01

    We report wintertime nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios (δ15N and δ18O) of seawater nitrate in the Southern Ocean south of Africa. Depth profile and underway surface samples collected in July 2012 extend from the subtropics to just beyond the Antarctic winter sea ice edge. We focus here on the Antarctic region (south of 50.3°S), where application of the Rayleigh model to depth profile δ15N data yields estimates for the isotope effect (the degree of isotope discrimination) of nitrate assimilation (1.6-3.3‰) that are significantly lower than commonly observed in the summertime Antarctic (5-8‰). The δ18O data from the same depth profiles and lateral δ15N variations within the mixed layer, however, imply O and N isotope effects that are more similar to those suggested by summertime data. These findings point to active nitrification (i.e., regeneration of organic matter to nitrate) within the Antarctic winter mixed layer. Nitrite removal from samples reveals a low δ15N for nitrite in the winter mixed layer (-40‰ to -20‰), consistent with nitrification, but does not remove the observation of an anomalously low δ15N for nitrate. The winter data, and the nitrification they reveal, explain the previous observation of an anomalously low δ15N for nitrate in the temperature minimum layer (remnant winter mixed layer) of summertime depth profiles. At the same time, the wintertime data require a low δ15N for the combined organic N and ammonium in the autumn mixed layer that is available for wintertime nitrification, pointing to intense N recycling as a pervasive condition of the Antarctic in late summer.

  5. Stable lead isotopes evidence anthropogenic contamination in Alaskan sea otters

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.R.; Estes, J.A.; Flegal, A.R. ); Niemeyer, S. )

    1990-10-01

    Lead concentrations and stable isotopic compositions were measured in teeth of preindustrial and contemporary sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from Amchitka Island, AK, to determine if changes had occurred in the magnitude and source of assimilated lead. Although there was no significant difference in lead concentrations between the two groups of otters ({bar x} {plus minus} {sigma}Pb/Ca atomic = 3.6 {plus minus} 2.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}8}), differences in stable lead isotopic compositions revealed a pronounced change in the source of accumulated lead. Lead {bar x} {plus minus} 2{sigma}{sub {bar x}} in the preindustrial otters ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 0.828 {plus minus} 0.006) was derived from natural deposits in the Aleutian arc, while lead in the contemporary animals ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 0.856 {plus minus} 0.003) was primarily industrial lead from Asia and western Canada. The isotopic ratios demonstrate anthropogenic perturbations of the lead cycle in present-day coastal food webs and indicate that lead concentration measurements alone are inadequate in assessing the introduction and transport of contaminant lead in the environment.

  6. [Richness and abundance of birds in riparian forest belts of varied breadths at the Sesesmiles river microwatershed, Copan, Honduras].

    PubMed

    Arcos, Inty T; Jiménez, Francisco; Harvey, Célia A; Casanoves, Fernando

    2008-03-01

    Richness and abundance of birds in riparian forest belts of varied breadths at the Sesesmiles river microwatershed, Copan, Honduras. Riparian forests protect many species of plants and animals. We studied bird communities in riparian forest belts of the Sesesmiles river microwatershed, Copan, Honduras (140 degrees 43' 12" - 140 degrees 58' 35" N, 88 degrees 53' 23" - 89 degrees 14' 17" W). The main goal was to explore the effects of belt breadth on the richness and abundance of avian species visiting these forests. We selected 20 belts, and randomly established 30 observation points to monitor bird presence in the dry (March-April 2005) and rainy (June-July 2005) season (N= 60 observations). A total of 1,294 birds belonging to 145 species were recorded. Bird diversity was significantly correlated to the breadth of the riparian belts, with a greater number of species and individuals in belts 50 m wide or wider. Insectivorous and nectarivorous birds were the most abundant guilds. All bird species identified depend to some degree on riparian forests and are affected by belt breadth. Riparian belts over 50 m should be kept or established in order to conserve bird populations within agricultural and fragmented landscapes in similar tropical areas.

  7. Persistently strong Indonesian Throughflow during marine isotope stage 3: evidence from radiogenic isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpf, Roland; Kraft, Steffanie; Frank, Martin; Haley, Brian; Holbourn, Ann; Kuhnt, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) connects the western Pacific Ocean with the eastern Indian Ocean, thus forming one of the major near surface current systems of the global thermohaline circulation. The intensity of the ITF has been found to be sensitive to changes in global ocean circulation, fluctuations in sea level, as well as to the prevailing monsoonal conditions of the Indonesian Archipelago and NW Australia. This study presents the first reconstruction of ITF dynamics combining radiogenic isotope compositions of neodymium (Nd), strontium (Sr), and lead (Pb) of the clay-size detrital fraction to investigate changes in sediment provenance, and paleo seawater Nd signatures extracted from the planktonic foraminifera and authigenic Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide coatings of the marine sediments focussing on marine isotope stage 3 (MIS3). Sediment core MD01-2378 was recovered within the framework of the International Marine Global Change Study (IMAGES) and is located in the area of the ITF outflow in the western Timor Sea (Scott Plateau, 13° 04.95‧ S and 121° 47.27‧ E, 1783 m water depth). In order to produce reliable seawater signatures, several extraction methods were tested against each other. The results of the study show that at this core location the extraction of surface water Nd isotope compositions from planktonic foraminifera is complicated by incomplete removal of contributions from Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides carrying ambient bottom water signatures. The bottom water Nd isotope signatures reliably obtained from the sediment coatings (average ɛNd = -5.0) document an essentially invariable water mass composition similar to today throughout the entire MIS3. The radiogenic Nd, Sr, and Pb isotope records of the clay-sized detrital fraction suggest that the Indonesian Archipelago rather than NW Australia was the main particle source at the location of core MD01-2378, and thus indicating a persistently strong ITF during MIS3. Furthermore, the variations of the detrital

  8. EVIDENCE FOR MAGNESIUM ISOTOPE HETEROGENEITY IN THE SOLAR PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Kirsten K.; Trinquier, Anne; Paton, Chad; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Connelly, James N.; Nordlund, Ake; Krot, Alexander N.; Bizzarro, Martin; Ivanova, Marina A.

    2011-07-10

    With a half-life of 0.73 Myr, the {sup 26}Al-to-{sup 26}Mg decay system is the most widely used short-lived chronometer for understanding the formation and earliest evolution of the solar protoplanetary disk. However, the validity of {sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg ages of meteorites and their components relies on the critical assumption that the canonical {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratio of {approx}5 x 10{sup -5} recorded by the oldest dated solids, calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs), represents the initial abundance of {sup 26}Al for the solar system as a whole. Here, we report high-precision Mg-isotope measurements of inner solar system solids, asteroids, and planets demonstrating the existence of widespread heterogeneity in the mass-independent {sup 26}Mg composition ({mu}{sup 26}Mg*) of bulk solar system reservoirs with solar or near-solar Al/Mg ratios. This variability may represent heterogeneity in the initial abundance of {sup 26}Al across the solar protoplanetary disk at the time of CAI formation and/or Mg-isotope heterogeneity. By comparing the U-Pb and {sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg ages of pristine solar system materials, we infer that the bulk of the {mu}{sup 26}Mg* variability reflects heterogeneity in the initial abundance of {sup 26}Al across the solar protoplanetary disk. We conclude that the canonical value of {approx}5 x 10{sup -5} represents the average initial abundance of {sup 26}Al only in the CAI-forming region, and that large-scale heterogeneity-perhaps up to 80% of the canonical value-may have existed throughout the inner solar system. If correct, our interpretation of the Mg-isotope composition of inner solar system objects precludes the use of the {sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg system as an accurate early solar system chronometer.

  9. Evidence for an ancient osmium isotopic reservoir in Earth.

    PubMed

    Meibom, Anders; Frei, Robert

    2002-04-19

    Iridosmine grains from placer deposits associated with peridotite-bearing ophiolites in the Klamath mountains have extremely radiogenic 186Os/188Os ratios and old Re-Os minimum ages, from 256 to 2644 million years. This indicates the existence of an ancient platinum group element reservoir with a supra-chondritic Pt/Os ratio. Such a ratio may be produced in the outer core as a result of inner core crystallization that fractionates Os from Pt. However, if the iridosmine Os isotopic compositions are a signature of the outer core, then the inner core must have formed very early, within several hundred million years after the accretion of Earth.

  10. Isotopic Evidence For Chaotic Imprint In The Upper Mantle Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armienti, P.; Gasperini, D.

    2006-12-01

    Heterogeneities of the asthenospheric mantle along mid-ocean ridges have been documented as the ultimate effect of complex processes dominated by temperature, pressure and composition of the shallow mantle, in a convective regime that involves mass transfer from the deep mantle, occasionally disturbed by the occurrence of hot spots (e.g. Graham et al., 2001; Agranier et al., 2005; Debaille et al., 2006). Alternatively, upper mantle heterogeneity is seen as the natural result of basically athermal processes that are intrinsic to plate tectonics, such as delamination and recycling of continental crust and of subducted aseismic ridges (Meibom and Anderson, 2003; Anderson, 2006). Here we discuss whether the theory of chaotic dynamical systems applied to isotopic space series along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the East Pacific Rise (EPR) can delimit the length-scale of upper mantle heterogeneities, then if the model of marble-cake mantle (Allègre and Turcotte, 1986) is consistent with a fractal distribution of such heterogeneity. The correlations between the isotopic (Sr, Nd, Hf, Pb) composition of MORB were parameterized as a function of the ridge length. We found that the distribution of isotopic heterogenity along both the MAR and EPR is self- similar in the range of 7000-9000 km. Self-similarity is the imprint of chaotic mantle processes. The existence of strange attractors in the distribution of isotopic composition of the asthenosphere sampled at ridge crests reveals recursion of the same mantle process(es), endured over long periods of time, up to a stationary state. The occurrence of the same fractal dimension for both the MAR and EPR implies independency of contingent events, suggesting common mantle processes, on a planetary scale. We envisage the cyclic route of "melting, melt extraction and recycling" as the main mantle process which could be able to induce scale invariance. It should have happened for a significant number of times over the Earth

  11. Seawater osmium isotope evidence for a middle Miocene flood basalt event in ferromanganese crust records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klemm, V.; Frank, M.; Levasseur, S.; Halliday, A.N.; Hein, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Three ferromanganese crusts from the northeast, northwest and central Atlantic were re-dated using osmium (Os) isotope stratigraphy and yield ages from middle Miocene to the present. The three Os isotope records do not show evidence for growth hiatuses. The reconstructed Os isotope-based growth rates for the sections older than 10??Ma are higher than those determined previously by the combined beryllium isotope (10Be/9Be) and cobalt (Co) constant-flux methods, which results in a decrease in the maximum age of each crust. This re-dating does not lead to significant changes to the interpretation of previously determined radiogenic isotope neodymium, lead (Nd, Pb) time series because the variability of these isotopes was very small in the records of the three crusts prior to 10??Ma. The Os isotope record of the central Atlantic crust shows a pronounced minimum during the middle Miocene between 15 and 12??Ma, similar to a minimum previously observed in two ferromanganese crusts from the central Pacific. For the other two Atlantic crusts, the Os isotope records and their calibration to the global seawater curve for the middle Miocene are either more uncertain or too short and thus do not allow for a reliable identification of an isotopic minimum. Similar to pronounced minima reported previously for the Cretaceous/Tertiary and Eocene/Oligocene boundaries, possible interpretations for the newly identified middle Miocene Os isotope minimum include changes in weathering intensity and/or a meteorite impact coinciding with the formation of the No??rdlinger Ries Crater. It is suggested that the eruption and weathering of the Columbia River flood basalts provided a significant amount of the unradiogenic Os required to produce the middle Miocene minimum. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Seawater osmium isotope evidence for a middle Miocene flood basalt event in ferromanganese crust records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemm, Veronika; Frank, Martin; Levasseur, Sylvain; Halliday, Alex N.; Hein, James R.

    2008-08-01

    Three ferromanganese crusts from the northeast, northwest and central Atlantic were re-dated using osmium (Os) isotope stratigraphy and yield ages from middle Miocene to the present. The three Os isotope records do not show evidence for growth hiatuses. The reconstructed Os isotope-based growth rates for the sections older than 10 Ma are higher than those determined previously by the combined beryllium isotope (10Be/9Be) and cobalt (Co) constant-flux methods, which results in a decrease in the maximum age of each crust. This re-dating does not lead to significant changes to the interpretation of previously determined radiogenic isotope neodymium, lead (Nd, Pb) time series because the variability of these isotopes was very small in the records of the three crusts prior to 10 Ma. The Os isotope record of the central Atlantic crust shows a pronounced minimum during the middle Miocene between 15 and 12 Ma, similar to a minimum previously observed in two ferromanganese crusts from the central Pacific. For the other two Atlantic crusts, the Os isotope records and their calibration to the global seawater curve for the middle Miocene are either more uncertain or too short and thus do not allow for a reliable identification of an isotopic minimum. Similar to pronounced minima reported previously for the Cretaceous/Tertiary and Eocene/Oligocene boundaries, possible interpretations for the newly identified middle Miocene Os isotope minimum include changes in weathering intensity and/or a meteorite impact coinciding with the formation of the Nördlinger Ries Crater. It is suggested that the eruption and weathering of the Columbia River flood basalts provided a significant amount of the unradiogenic Os required to produce the middle Miocene minimum.

  13. Evidence From Hydrogen Isotopes in Meteorites for a Martian Permafrost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usui, T.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Wang, J.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial landforms on Mars suggest that it was once warm enough to maintain persistent liquid water on its surface. The transition to the present cold and dry Mars is closely linked to the history of surface water, yet the evolution of surficial water is poorly constrained. We have investigated the evolution of surface water/ ice and its interaction with the atmosphere by measurements of hydrogen isotope ratios (D/H: deuterium/ hydrogen) of martian meteorites. Hydrogen is a major component of water (H2O) and its isotopes fractionate significantly during hydrological cycling between the atmosphere, surface waters, ground ice, and polar cap ice. Based on in situ ion microprobe analyses of three geochemically different shergottites, we reported that there is a water/ice reservoir with an intermediate D/H ratio (delta D = 1,000?2500 %) on Mars. Here we present the possibility that this water/ice reservoir represents a ground-ice/permafrost that has existed relatively intact over geologic time.

  14. Isotopic evidence for age-related immigration to imperial Rome.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Tracy L; Schwarcz, Henry P; Garnsey, Peter; Knyf, Martin; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Bondioli, Luca

    2007-04-01

    Oxygen stable isotope ratios (delta(18)O) have been determined in carbonate in paired first and third molar teeth from individuals (N = 61) who lived in the town of Portus Romae ("Portus") and who were buried in the necropolis of Isola Sacra (First to Third centuries AD) near Rome, Italy. We compare these analyses with data for deciduous teeth of modern Roman children. Approximately one-third of the archaeological sample has first molar (M1) values outside the modern range, implying a large rate of population turnover at that time, consistent with historical data. Delta (18)O(ap) values suggest that a group within the sample migrated to the area before the third molar (M3) crown had completely formed (i.e., between 10 and 17.5 years of age). This is the first quantitative assessment of population mobility in Classical antiquity. This study demonstrates that migration was not limited to predominantly single adult males, as suggested by historical sources, but rather a complex phenomenon involving families. We hypothesize that migrants most likely came from higher elevations to the East and North of Rome. One individual with a higher delta(18)O value may have come (as a child) from an area isotopically similar to North Africa.

  15. Multi-Isotopic evidence from West Eifel Xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemens, M. M.; Sprung, P.

    2015-12-01

    Mantle Xenoliths from the West Eifel intraplate volcanic field of Germany provide insights into the nature and evolution of the regional continental lithospheric mantle. Previous isotope studies have suggested a primary Paleoproterozoic depletion age, a second partial melting event in the early Cambrian, and a Variscan metasomatic overprint. Textural and Sr-Nd isotopic observations further suggest two episodes of melt infiltration of early Cretaceous and Quaternary age. We have investigated anhydrous, vein-free lherzolites from this region, focusing on the Dreiser Weiher and Meerfelder Maar localities. Hand separated spinel, olivine, ortho- and clinopryoxene, along with host and bulk rocks were dissolved and purified for Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and Lu-Hf analysis on the Cologne/Bonn Neptune MC-ICP-MS. We find an unexpected discontinuity between mineral separates and whole rocks. While the latter have significantly more radiogenic ɛNd and ɛHf, mineral separates imply close-to chondritic compositions. Our Lu-Hf data imply resetting of the Lu-Hf systematic after 200 Ma. Given the vein-free nature of the lherzolites, this appears to date to the second youngest metasomatic episode. We suggest that markedly radiogenic Nd and Hf were introduced during the Quarternary metasomatic episode and most likely reside on grain boundaries.

  16. Stable isotope evidence for crustal recycling as recorded by superdeep diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnham, A. D.; Thomson, A. R.; Bulanova, G. P.; Kohn, S. C.; Smith, C. B.; Walter, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Sub-lithospheric diamonds from the Juina-5 and Collier-4 kimberlites and the Machado River alluvial deposit in Brazil have carbon isotopic compositions that co-vary with the oxygen isotopic compositions of their inclusions, which implies that they formed by a mixing process. The proposed model for this mixing process, based on interaction of slab-derived carbonate melt with reduced (carbide- or metal-bearing) ambient mantle, explains these isotopic observations. It is also consistent with the observed trace element chemistries of diamond inclusions from these localities and with the experimental phase relations of carbonated subducted crust. The 18O-enriched nature of the inclusions demonstrates that they incorporate material from crustal protoliths that previously interacted with seawater, thus confirming the subduction-related origin of superdeep diamonds. These samples also provide direct evidence of an isotopically anomalous reservoir in the deep (≥350 km) mantle.

  17. Evidence from carbon isotope measurements for diverse origins of sedimentary hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, K. H.; Hayes, J. M.; Trendel, J. M.; Albrecht, P.

    1990-01-01

    The organic matter found in sedimentary rocks must derive from many sources; not only from ancient primary producers but also from consumers and secondary producers. In all of these organisms, isotope effects can affect the abundance and distribution of 13C in metabolites. Here, by using an improved form of a previously described technique in which the effluent of a gas chromatograph is continuously analysed isotopically, we report evidence of the diverse origins of sedimentary organic matter. The record of 13C abundances in sedimentary carbonate and total organic carbon can be interpreted in terms of variations in the global carbon cycle. Our results demonstrate, however, that isotope variations within sedimentary organic mixtures substantially exceed those observed between samples of total organic carbon. Resolution of isotope variations at the molecular level offers a new and convenient means of refining views both of localized palaeoenvironments and of control mechanisms within the global carbon cycle.

  18. Early African Diaspora in colonial Campeche, Mexico: strontium isotopic evidence.

    PubMed

    Price, T Douglas; Tiesler, Vera; Burton, James H

    2006-08-01

    Construction activities around Campeche's central park led to the discovery of an early colonial church and an associated burial ground, in use from the mid-16th century AD to the late 17th century. Remains of some individuals revealed dental mutilations characteristic of West Africa. Analyses of strontium isotopes of dental enamel from these individuals yielded unusually high (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, inconsistent with an origin in Mesoamerica, but consistent with an origin in West Africa in terrain underlain by the West Africa Craton, perhaps near the port of Elmina, a principal source of slaves for the New World during the 16th century. These individuals likely represent some of the earliest representatives of the African Diaspora in the Americas.

  19. Thermophysiology of Tyrannosaurus rex: Evidence from Oxygen Isotopes.

    PubMed

    Barrick, R E; Showers, W J

    1994-07-08

    The oxygen isotopic composition of vertebrate bone phosphate (delta(p)) is related to ingested water and to the body temperature at which the bone forms. The delta(p) is in equilibrium with the individual's body water, which is at a physiological steady state throughout the body. Therefore, intrabone temperature variation and the mean interbone temperature differences of well-preserved fossil vertebrates can be determined from the deltap variation. Values of delta(p) from a well-preserved Tyrannosaurus rex suggest that this species maintained homeothermy with less than 4 degrees C of variability in body temperature. Maintenance of homeothermy implies a relatively high metabolic rate that is similar to that of endotherms.

  20. Carbon isotopic evidence for methane hydrate instability during quaternary interstadials

    PubMed

    Kennett; Cannariato; Hendy; Behl

    2000-04-07

    Large (about 5 per mil) millennial-scale benthic foraminiferal carbon isotopic oscillations in the Santa Barbara Basin during the last 60,000 years reflect widespread shoaling of sedimentary methane gradients and increased outgassing from gas hydrate dissociation during interstadials. Furthermore, several large, brief, negative excursions (up to -6 per mil) coinciding with smaller shifts (up to -3 per mil) in depth-stratified planktonic foraminiferal species indicate massive releases of methane from basin sediments. Gas hydrate stability was modulated by intermediate-water temperature changes induced by switches in thermohaline circulation. These oscillations were likely widespread along the California margin and elsewhere, affecting gas hydrate instability and contributing to millennial-scale atmospheric methane oscillations.

  1. Isotopic evidence for the diets of European Neanderthals and early modern humans

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Michael P.; Trinkaus, Erik

    2009-01-01

    We report here on the direct isotopic evidence for Neanderthal and early modern human diets in Europe. Isotopic methods indicate the sources of dietary protein over many years of life, and show that Neanderthals had a similar diet through time (≈120,000 to ≈37,000 cal BP) and in different regions of Europe. The isotopic evidence indicates that in all cases Neanderthals were top-level carnivores and obtained all, or most, of their dietary protein from large herbivores. In contrast, early modern humans (≈40,000 to ≈27,000 cal BP) exhibited a wider range of isotopic values, and a number of individuals had evidence for the consumption of aquatic (marine and freshwater) resources. This pattern includes Oase 1, the oldest directly dated modern human in Europe (≈40,000 cal BP) with the highest nitrogen isotope value of all of the humans studied, likely because of freshwater fish consumption. As Oase 1 was close in time to the last Neanderthals, these data may indicate a significant dietary shift associated with the changing population dynamics of modern human emergence in Europe. PMID:19706482

  2. Selenium isotope evidence for progressive oxidation of the Neoproterozoic biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Stüeken, Eva E.; Elliott, Tim; Poulton, Simon W.; Dehler, Carol M.; Canfield, Don E.; Catling, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Neoproterozoic (1,000–542 Myr ago) Earth experienced profound environmental change, including ‘snowball' glaciations, oxygenation and the appearance of animals. However, an integrated understanding of these events remains elusive, partly because proxies that track subtle oceanic or atmospheric redox trends are lacking. Here we utilize selenium (Se) isotopes as a tracer of Earth redox conditions. We find temporal trends towards lower δ82/76Se values in shales before and after all Neoproterozoic glaciations, which we interpret as incomplete reduction of Se oxyanions. Trends suggest that deep-ocean Se oxyanion concentrations increased because of progressive atmospheric and deep-ocean oxidation. Immediately after the Marinoan glaciation, higher δ82/76Se values superpose the general decline. This may indicate less oxic conditions with lower availability of oxyanions or increased bioproductivity along continental margins that captured heavy seawater δ82/76Se into buried organics. Overall, increased ocean oxidation and atmospheric O2 extended over at least 100 million years, setting the stage for early animal evolution. PMID:26679529

  3. Isotopic evidence for lithospheric thinning during extension: Southeastern Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, E.E.; DePaolo, D.J. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1992-02-01

    Mafic rocks erupted during late Cenozoic extension near Las Vegas, Nevada, show temporal patterns of variation in Nd and Sr isotope ratios and in bulk chemistry. The patterns indicate that depths of magma generation were varying through time and that lithospheric mantle was partially replaced with asthenospheric mantle as extension proceeded. In alkalic rocks, {epsilon}{sub Nd} changed through time from {minus}9.1 (typical of lithospheric mantle in this area) before the onset of major (16 Ma) extension to +6.4 (typical of asthenospheric mantle) after extension (4.6 Ma). Near the end of the period of major extension (10-6 Ma), tholeiitic rocks erupted, the {epsilon}{sub Nd} of which ranged from {minus}10.1 to {minus}7.9; this indicates that the lithosphere had not thinned sufficiently by that time to bring asthenospheric mantle into the depth range of tholeiitic magma generation (33-50 km). The lithosphere in the Las Vegas area appears to have thinned by about 50%, less than would be predicted by the magnitude of upper crustal extension (a factor of 3 or 4), and indicative of a nonuniform lithospheric response to extension.

  4. Selenium isotope evidence for progressive oxidation of the Neoproterozoic biosphere.

    PubMed

    Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A E; Stüeken, Eva E; Elliott, Tim; Poulton, Simon W; Dehler, Carol M; Canfield, Don E; Catling, David C

    2015-12-18

    Neoproterozoic (1,000-542 Myr ago) Earth experienced profound environmental change, including 'snowball' glaciations, oxygenation and the appearance of animals. However, an integrated understanding of these events remains elusive, partly because proxies that track subtle oceanic or atmospheric redox trends are lacking. Here we utilize selenium (Se) isotopes as a tracer of Earth redox conditions. We find temporal trends towards lower δ(82/76)Se values in shales before and after all Neoproterozoic glaciations, which we interpret as incomplete reduction of Se oxyanions. Trends suggest that deep-ocean Se oxyanion concentrations increased because of progressive atmospheric and deep-ocean oxidation. Immediately after the Marinoan glaciation, higher δ(82/76)Se values superpose the general decline. This may indicate less oxic conditions with lower availability of oxyanions or increased bioproductivity along continental margins that captured heavy seawater δ(82/76)Se into buried organics. Overall, increased ocean oxidation and atmospheric O2 extended over at least 100 million years, setting the stage for early animal evolution.

  5. Selenium isotope evidence for progressive oxidation of the Neoproterozoic biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Stüeken, Eva E.; Elliott, Tim; Poulton, Simon W.; Dehler, Carol M.; Canfield, Don E.; Catling, David C.

    2015-12-01

    Neoproterozoic (1,000-542 Myr ago) Earth experienced profound environmental change, including `snowball' glaciations, oxygenation and the appearance of animals. However, an integrated understanding of these events remains elusive, partly because proxies that track subtle oceanic or atmospheric redox trends are lacking. Here we utilize selenium (Se) isotopes as a tracer of Earth redox conditions. We find temporal trends towards lower δ82/76Se values in shales before and after all Neoproterozoic glaciations, which we interpret as incomplete reduction of Se oxyanions. Trends suggest that deep-ocean Se oxyanion concentrations increased because of progressive atmospheric and deep-ocean oxidation. Immediately after the Marinoan glaciation, higher δ82/76Se values superpose the general decline. This may indicate less oxic conditions with lower availability of oxyanions or increased bioproductivity along continental margins that captured heavy seawater δ82/76Se into buried organics. Overall, increased ocean oxidation and atmospheric O2 extended over at least 100 million years, setting the stage for early animal evolution.

  6. Nd-isotopic evidence for the origin of the Sudbury complex by meteoritic impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faggart, B. E.; Basu, A. R.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1985-01-01

    A Neodymium isotopic investigation was undertaken in order to determine the possibility that the Sudbury geological structure in Ontario, Canada was formed by meteoritic impact. Conclusive evidence points to the melting of crustal rocks by way of meteoritic impact in the forming of the Sudbury structure.

  7. Validation and comparison of the Copan Milk Test and Delvotest SP-NT for the detection of antimicrobials in milk.

    PubMed

    Le Breton, Marie-Hélène; Savoy-Perroud, Marie-Claude; Diserens, Jean-Marc

    2007-03-14

    The Delvotest SP-NT and Copan Milk Test, two microbiological tests designed for screening antimicrobial substances in milk were compared and validated. The performance criteria described by the European Decision 2002/657/EC were used for the study. Both tests were evaluated with visual and automated reading (scanner) and the validation was performed on 10 different antibiotics (penicillin-G, cloxacillin, sulfamethazine, sulfadiazine, oxytetracycline, gentamicin, cephalexin, cefquinome, dihydrostreptomycin and trimethoprim). Both tests were found to detect penicillin, cloxacillin, sulfamethazine, sulfadiazine, cephalexin and gentamicin at or below the EU maximum residue limits (MRLs). Some other antibiotics such as oxytetracycline, dihydrostreptomycin, trimethoprim and cefquinome were not detected or only with a low sensitivity. Both tests were found easy to use, robust and fulfilled EU requirements.

  8. Osmium isotopic evidence for mesozoic removal of lithospheric mantle beneath the sierra nevada, california

    PubMed

    Lee; Yin; Rudnick; Chesley; Jacobsen

    2000-09-15

    Thermobarometric and Os isotopic data for peridotite xenoliths from late Miocene and younger lavas in the Sierra Nevada reveal that the lithospheric mantle is vertically stratified: the shallowest portions (<45 to 60 kilometers) are cold (670 degrees to 740 degrees C) and show evidence for heating and yield Proterozoic Os model ages, whereas the deeper portions (45 to 100 kilometers) yield Phanerozoic Os model ages and show evidence for extensive cooling from temperatures >1100 degrees C to 750 degrees C. Because a variety of isotopic evidence suggests that the Sierran batholith formed on preexisting Proterozoic lithosphere, most of the original lithospheric mantle appears to have been removed before the late Miocene, leaving only a sliver of ancient mantle beneath the crust.

  9. Stable isotope evidence for increasing dietary breadth in the European mid-Upper Paleolithic

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Michael P.; Pettitt, Paul B.; Stiner, Mary C.; Trinkaus, Erik

    2001-01-01

    New carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values for human remains dating to the mid-Upper Paleolithic in Europe indicate significant amounts of aquatic (fish, mollusks, and/or birds) foods in some of their diets. Most of this evidence points to exploitation of inland freshwater aquatic resources in particular. By contrast, European Neandertal collagen carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values do not indicate significant use of inland aquatic foods but instead show that they obtained the majority of their protein from terrestrial herbivores. In agreement with recent zooarcheological analyses, the isotope results indicate shifts toward a more broad-spectrum subsistence economy in inland Europe by the mid-Upper Paleolithic period, probably associated with significant population increases. PMID:11371652

  10. Petrogenesis of Challis volcanics from central and southwestern Idaho - Trace element and Pb isotopic evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Marc D.; Mertzman, Stanley A.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of the lava flows and ash-flow tuffs in Idaho is conducted to determine the composition of the volcanics in terms of major and trace elements and Pb isotopic substances. Al2O3 is found to be low, MgO content is high, and the concentration of K2O is higher or equal to that of Na2O with respect to the lavas of mafic to intermediate composition. Trace elements and element ratios are compatible with the crustal component, and the Pb isotopic compositions suggest a lack of assimilation during crystallization. The evidence does not support the notion of a magma system related to subduction, and the data regarding Pb isotopes and trace elements point to a connection with the lithosphere. A model is proposed for the Challis volcanics in which they resulted from completely melting within the lithosphere and then extending during the late Mesozoic and early Cenozoic compression.

  11. Stable isotope evidence for increasing dietary breadth in the European mid-Upper Paleolithic.

    PubMed

    Richards, M P; Pettitt, P B; Stiner, M C; Trinkaus, E

    2001-05-22

    New carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values for human remains dating to the mid-Upper Paleolithic in Europe indicate significant amounts of aquatic (fish, mollusks, and/or birds) foods in some of their diets. Most of this evidence points to exploitation of inland freshwater aquatic resources in particular. By contrast, European Neandertal collagen carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values do not indicate significant use of inland aquatic foods but instead show that they obtained the majority of their protein from terrestrial herbivores. In agreement with recent zooarcheological analyses, the isotope results indicate shifts toward a more broad-spectrum subsistence economy in inland Europe by the mid-Upper Paleolithic period, probably associated with significant population increases.

  12. Long Term Trends in Subantarctic Nutrient Consumption: Evidence from Sedimentary and Diatom-Bound Nitrogen Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedsole, P.

    2014-12-01

    It has been proposed that the long term increase in Subantarctic opal export during glacial periods, centered around 1 Ma, is related to enhanced iron deposition and, potentially, carbon dioxide drawdown. New bulk sedimentary and diatom-bound nitrogen isotope records are used in combination with opal accumulation data from ODP Site 1090 to investigate controls on export production over the last 3 Ma. Sedimentary nitrogen content tracks opal during periods of high iron accumulation, especially after ~1 Ma. Bulk sedimentary nitrogen isotope trends are negatively correlated with sedimentary N-content and opal accumulation. This may be signal weaker nutrient consumption during times of high production, perhaps as a result of enhanced vertical nutrient supply. Alternatively, this variation in bulk, where high values occur in organic poor intervals, is consistent with other evidence for nitrogen isotopic alteration during periods of low export to the seafloor. The diatom-bound nitrogen isotope record does not have a clear relationship with opal or iron accumulation. A long term shift in the diatom-bound N isotope values is apparent, where the average diatom-bound δ15N from 0.5-1 Ma is 4.4 ‰, and from 2-2.6 Ma is 5.9 ‰. This decrease may reflect long-term changes in nitrate availability. A first order comparison to planktonic/benthic carbon isotopic gradients suggests that enhanced vertical mixing may explain the observed productivity peaks and lower overall diatom-bound N isotope values in the interval centered around 1 Ma.

  13. Mercury Isotopic Evidence for Contrasting Mercury Transport Pathways to Coastal versus Open Ocean Fisheries (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, J. D.; Senn, D. B.; Chesney, E. J.; Bank, M. S.; Maage, A.; Shine, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    Mercury stable isotopes provide a new method for tracing the sources and chemical transformations of Hg in the environment. In this study we used Hg isotopes to investigate Hg sources to coastal versus migratory open-ocean species of fish residing in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM). We report Hg isotope ratios as δ202Hg (mass dependent fractionation relative to NIST 3133) and Δ201Hg (mass independent fractionation of odd isotopes). In six coastal and two open ocean species (blackfin and yellowfin tuna), Hg isotopic compositions fell into two non-overlapping ranges. The tuna had significantly higher δ202Hg (0.1 to 0.7‰) and Δ201Hg (1.0 to 2.2‰) than the coastal fish (δ202Hg = 0 to -1.0‰; Δ201Hg = 0.4 to 0.5‰). The observations can be best explained by largely disconnected food webs with isotopically distinct MeHg sources. The ratio Δ199Hg/Δ201Hg in nGOM fish is 1.30±0.10 which is consistent with laboratory studies of photochemical MeHg degradation and with ratios measured in freshwater fish (Bergquist and Blum, 2007). The magnitude of mass independent fractionation of Hg in the open-ocean fish suggests that this source of MeHg was subjected to extensive photodegradation (~50%) before entering the base of the open-ocean food web. Given the Mississippi River’s large, productive footprint in the nGOM and the potential for exporting prey and MeHg to the adjacent oligotrophic GOM, the different MeHg sources are noteworthy and consistent with recent evidence in other systems of important open-ocean MeHg sources. Bergquist, B. A. and Blum, J. D., 2007. Mass-dependent and -independent fractionation of Hg isotopes by photoreduction in aquatic systems. Science 318, 417-420.

  14. Evidence for Mo isotope fractionation in the solar nebula and during planetary differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, Christoph; Hin, Remco C.; Kleine, Thorsten; Bourdon, Bernard

    2014-04-01

    Mass-dependent Mo isotope fractionation has been investigated for a wide range of meteorites including chondrites (enstatite, ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites), iron meteorites, and achondrites (eucrites, angrites and martian meteorites), as well as for lunar and terrestrial samples. Magmatic iron meteorites together with enstatite, ordinary and most carbonaceous chondrites define a common δMo value of -0.16±0.02‰ (relative to the NIST SRM 3134 Mo standard), which is interpreted to reflect the Mo isotope composition of bulk planetary bodies in the inner solar system. Heavy Mo isotope compositions for IAB iron meteorites most likely reflect impact-induced evaporative losses of Mo from these meteorites. Carbonaceous chondrites define an inverse correlation between δMo and metal content, and a positive correlation between δMo and matrix abundance. These correlations are mainly defined by CM and CK chondrites, and may reflect the heterogeneous distribution of an isotopically light metal and/or an isotopically heavy matrix component in the formation region of carbonaceous chondrites. Alternatively, the elevated δMo of the CM and CK chondrites could result from the loss of volatile, isotopically light Mo oxides, that formed under oxidized conditions typical for the formation of these chondrites. The Mo isotope compositions of samples derived from the silicate portion of differentiated planetary bodies are heavy compared to the mean composition of chondrites and iron meteorites. This difference is qualitatively consistent with experimental evidence for Mo isotope fractionation between metal and silicate. The common δMo values of -0.05±0.03‰ of lunar samples derived from different geochemical reservoirs indicate the absence of significant Mo isotope fractionation by silicate differentiation or impact metamorphism/volatilization on the Moon. The most straightforward interpretation of the Mo isotope composition of the lunar mantle corresponds to the formation

  15. Stable isotopic evidence for methane seeps in Neoproterozoic postglacial cap carbonates.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ganqing; Kennedy, Martin J; Christie-Blick, Nicholas

    2003-12-18

    The Earth's most severe glaciations are thought to have occurred about 600 million years ago, in the late Neoproterozoic era. A puzzling feature of glacial deposits from this interval is that they are overlain by 1-5-m-thick 'cap carbonates' (particulate deep-water marine carbonate rocks) associated with a prominent negative carbon isotope excursion. Cap carbonates have been controversially ascribed to the aftermath of almost complete shutdown of the ocean ecosystems for millions of years during such ice ages--the 'snowball Earth' hypothesis. Conversely, it has also been suggested that these carbonate rocks were the result of destabilization of methane hydrates during deglaciation and concomitant flooding of continental shelves and interior basins. The most compelling criticism of the latter 'methane hydrate' hypothesis has been the apparent lack of extreme isotopic variation in cap carbonates inferred locally to be associated with methane seeps. Here we report carbon isotopic and petrographic data from a Neoproterozoic postglacial cap carbonate in south China that provide direct evidence for methane-influenced processes during deglaciation. This evidence lends strong support to the hypothesis that methane hydrate destabilization contributed to the enigmatic cap carbonate deposition and strongly negative carbon isotopic anomalies following Neoproterozoic ice ages. This explanation requires less extreme environmental disturbance than that implied by the snowball Earth hypothesis.

  16. Evidence from Lake Baikal for Siberian glaciation during oxygen-isotope substage 5d

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karabanov, E.B.; Prokopenko, A.A.; Williams, D.F.; Colman, Steven M.

    1998-01-01

    The paleoclimatic record from bottom sediments of Lake Baikal (eastern Siberia) reveals new evidence for an abrupt and intense glaciation during the initial part of the last interglacial period (isotope substage 5d). This glaciation lasted about 12 000 yr from 117 000 to 105 000 yr BP according to correlation with the SPEC-MAP isotope chronology. Lithological and biogeochemical evidence of glaciation from Lake Baikal agrees with evidence for the advance of ice sheet in northwestern Siberia during this time period and also with cryogenic features within the strata of Kazantzevo soils in Southern Siberia. The severe 5d glaciation in Siberia was caused by dramatic cooling due to the decrease in solar insolation (as predicted by the model of insulation changes for northern Asia according to Milankovich theory) coupled with western atmospheric transport of moisture from the opea areas of Northern Atlantic and Arctic seas (which became ice-free due to the intense warming during preceeding isotope substage 5e). Other marine and continental records show evidence for cooling during 5d, but not for intense glaciation. Late Pleistocene glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere may have begun in northwestern Siberia.

  17. Mantle fluids in the Karakoram fault: Helium isotope evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemperer, Simon L.; Kennedy, B. Mack; Sastry, Siva R.; Makovsky, Yizhaq; Harinarayana, T.; Leech, Mary L.

    2013-03-01

    The Karakoram fault (KKF) is the 1000 km-long strike-slip fault separating the western Himalaya from the Tibetan Plateau. From geologic and geodetic data, the KKF is argued either to be a lithospheric-scale fault with hundreds of km of offset at several cm/a, or to be almost inactive with cumulative offset of only a few tens of kilometers and to be just the upper-crustal localization of distributed deformation at depth. Here we show 3He/4He ratios in geothermal springs along a 500-km segment of the KKF are 3-100 times the normal ratio in continental crust, providing unequivocal evidence that a component of these hydrologic systems is derived from tectonically active mantle. Mantle enrichment is absent along the Indus-Yarlung suture zone (ISZ) just 35 km southwest of the KKF, suggesting that the mantle fluids flow only within the KKF. Within the last few Ma, the KKF must have accessed tectonically active Tibetan mantle northeast of the "mantle suture" which we therefore locate vertically beneath the KKF, very close to the surface trace of the ISZ. Hence, in southwestern Tibet, Indian crust may not now be underthrusting substantially north of the ISZ, even though Miocene underthrusting may have placed Indian crust north of the ISZ in the lower half of the Tibetan Plateau crust. This is in significant contrast to central and eastern Tibet where underthrust Indian material not only forms the lower half of the Tibetan crust but is also currently underthrusting for ∼200 km north of the ISZ. Our new constraint on KKF penetration to the mantle allows an improved description of the continuously evolving Karakoram fault, as a tectonically significant yet perhaps geologically ephemeral lithospheric structure.

  18. Fluid heterogeneity during granulite facies metamorphism in the Adirondacks: stable isotope evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valley, J.W.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    premetamorphic isotopic compositions. Such preservation is particularly evident in instances of high ??18O calcites (25.0 to 27.2), low ??18O wollastonites (-1.3 to 3.5), and sharp gradients in ??18O (18 permil/15m between marble and anorthosite, 8 permil/25 m in metasediments, and 6 permil/1 m in skarn). Isotopic exchange is seen across marble-anorthosite and marble-granite contacts only at the scale of a few meters. Small (<5 m) marble xenoliths are in approximate exchange equilibrium with their hosts, but for larger xenoliths and layers of marble there is no evidence of exchange at distances greater than 10 m from meta-igneous contacts. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Magmatic Fluid Source of the Chingshui Geothermal Field: Evidence of Carbonate Isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S. R.; Lu, Y. C.; Wang, P. L.; John, C. M.; MacDonald, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Chingshui geothermal field is located at the northern tip of the Miocene Lushan Slate Formation, which was part of the Eurasian continental margin subject to the Plio-Pleistocene collision associated with the Luzon Arc. The remnant heat of the Taiwan orogeny has long been considered to drive the circulation of hydrothermal fluids in the Chingshui geothermal field. However, recent studies based on magnetic anomalies and helium isotopic ratios suggest that the heat might instead be derived from igneous bodies. By examining isotope data of calcite veins and scaling in geothermal wells, this study aimed to clarify the fluid origin and possible heat source accounting for the geothermal fluids in the Chingshui geothermal field. Carbon and oxygen isotope analyses indicate that veins from outcrops and scalings in geothermal wells have high and low d values, respectively. Data for veins in drilled cores fall in between outcrop veins and scalings values. Such an isotopic pattern could be interpreted as the mixing of two end member fluids. The clumped isotope analysis of calcite veins from the outcrops yielded precipitation temperatures of up to 232 ± 16 ℃ and a reconstructed d18O fluid value of 9.5 ‰(magmatic fluid: 6-11 ‰; metamorphic fluid: 5-28 ‰ by Taylor, 1974). The inferred d18O values of hot fluids for the vein formation are significantly different from that of meteoric water in Chingshui area (around -5.4 ‰) as well as the scaling in geothermal wells (around -7.6 ‰). Previous study of magnetotelluric image demonstrated two possible fluid reservoirs at different depths (Chen et al. 2012). Our isotope data combined with these lines of evidence suggest that the scaling in geothermal wells could be derived from fluids originating from the shallower reservoir. In contrast, the veins present at outcrops could have been formed from 18O-enriched, deeply-sourced fluids related to either metamorphic dehydration or magmatic processes.

  20. Compound-Specific Carbon and Hydrogen Isotope Analysis - Field Evidence of MTBE Bioremediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuder, T.; Kolhatkar, R. V.; Philp, P.; Wilson, J. T.; Landmeyer, J. E.; Allen, J.

    2002-12-01

    . (Env. Sci. Tech., 2002, 36, 1931-1938) and appears to be in excess of -60 for H and under -2 for C. The high H fractionation observed under aerobic conditions may be attributed to the initial, monooxygenase transformation of MTBE (cf., Deeb et al., Biodegradation, 2000, 11, 171-186). The anaerobic enzymatic reactions were not characterized yet, but a hydrolytic process may be responsible. Interestingly, isotopic fractionation at an anaerobic site, which was treated by oxygen injection, did not show differences between aerobic and anaerobic parts of the plume. Despite oxygen addition, there was no evidence for monooxygenase activity.

  1. Stable isotope evidence for shifting Mediterranean climatic influences in Western Romania, East-Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perşoiu, Aurel; Viorica, Nagavciuc; Carmen, Bădăluţă

    2015-04-01

    The stable isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen in precipitation, preserved in various sedimentary archives (speleothems, cave ice, tree rings) is being intensively used to reconstruct past climatic variability in western Romania. These studies heavily rely on the assumption that air temperature is the main factor controlling the isotopic composition of precipitation and hence this climatic parameter is the one reconstructed. However, ongoing monitoring studies are increasingly showing that this, especially along Romania's western border, moisture source is playing an important role in determining the isotopic composition of precipitation, hence complicating the simplistic picture outlined above. One of the main factors influencing climate variability in Romania is the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), a measure of the strength of the Icelandic Low and Azores High. Over During the positive NAO phase, the Atlantic storms are displaced northward and, although reduced in strength, Mediterranean cyclones penetrate further north. During the negative phase however, the Atlantic storms track is displaced southward, restricting the area receiving Mediterranean precipitation to the SW corner of Romania. Here we present isotopic evidence for a shift in the source of precipitation from North Atlantic to Mediterranean ones in SW Romania that masks the temperature signal recorded in the stable isotopic composition of precipitation. Between April 2012 and 2014 we have collected monthly samples of precipitation along a N-S transect in Western Romania and have analyzed them for their δ18O and δ2H. Precipitation in NW Romania are derived solely from North Atlantic sources, while those in SW Romania mix moisture evaporated from both the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. The northern boundary of the Mediterranean influence is shifting in phase with the NAO index and the position of the jet-stream. As a result, during periods with high NAO index, the stable isotope

  2. Thallium isotope evidence for a permanent increase in marine organic carbon export in the early Eocene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, S.G.; Mar-Gerrison, S.; Gannoun, A.; LaRowe, D.; Klemm, V.; Halliday, A.N.; Burton, K.W.; Hein, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The first high resolution thallium (Tl) isotope records in two ferromanganese crusts (Fe-Mn crusts), CD29 and D11 from the Pacific Ocean are presented. The crusts record pronounced but systematic changes in 205Tl/203Tl that are unlikely to reflect diagenetic overprinting or changes in isotope fractionation between seawater and Fe-Mn crusts. It appears more likely that the Fe-Mn crusts track the Tl isotope composition of seawater over time. The present-day oceanic residence time of Tl is estimated to be about 20,000??yr, such that the isotopic composition should reflect ocean-wide events. New and published Os isotope data are used to construct age models for these crusts that are consistent with each other and significantly different from previous age models. Application of these age models reveals that the Tl isotope composition of seawater changed systematically between ~ 55??Ma and ~ 45??Ma. Using a simple box model it is shown that the present day Tl isotope composition of seawater depends almost exclusively on the ratio between the two principal output fluxes of marine Tl. These fluxes are the rate of removal of Tl from seawater via scavenging by authigenic Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide precipitation and the uptake rate of Tl during low temperature alteration of oceanic crust. It is highly unlikely that the latter has changed greatly. Therefore, assuming that the marine Tl budget has also not changed significantly during the Cenozoic, the low 205Tl/203Tl during the Paleocene is best explained by a more than four-fold higher sequestration of Tl by Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides compared with at the present day. The calculated Cenozoic Tl isotopic seawater curve displays a striking similarity to that of S, providing evidence that both systems may have responded to the same change in the marine environment. A plausible explanation is a marked and permanent increase in organic carbon export from ~ 55??Ma to ~ 45??Ma, which led to higher pyrite burial rates and a significantly reduced

  3. Isotopic Evidence for Early Trade in Animals between Old Kingdom Egypt and Canaan

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Haskel J.; Shai, Itzhaq; Babcock, Lindsay E.; Maeir, Aren M.

    2016-01-01

    Isotope data from a sacrificial ass and several ovicaprines (sheep/goat) from Early Bronze Age household deposits at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel provide direct evidence for the movement of domestic draught/draft and husbandry animals between Old Kingdom Egypt (during the time of the Pyramids) and Early Bronze Age III Canaan (ca. 2900–2500 BCE). Vacillating, bi-directional connections between Egypt and Canaan are known throughout the Early Bronze Age, but here we provide the first concrete evidence of early trade in animals from Egypt to Canaan. PMID:27322197

  4. Isotopic Evidence for Early Trade in Animals between Old Kingdom Egypt and Canaan.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Elizabeth R; Hartman, Gideon; Greenfield, Haskel J; Shai, Itzhaq; Babcock, Lindsay E; Maeir, Aren M

    2016-01-01

    Isotope data from a sacrificial ass and several ovicaprines (sheep/goat) from Early Bronze Age household deposits at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel provide direct evidence for the movement of domestic draught/draft and husbandry animals between Old Kingdom Egypt (during the time of the Pyramids) and Early Bronze Age III Canaan (ca. 2900-2500 BCE). Vacillating, bi-directional connections between Egypt and Canaan are known throughout the Early Bronze Age, but here we provide the first concrete evidence of early trade in animals from Egypt to Canaan.

  5. Zn/Cd ratios and cadmium isotope evidence for the classification of lead-zinc deposits.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hanjie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Zhang, Yuxu; Cloquet, Christophe; Fan, Haifeng; Fu, Shaohong

    2016-04-28

    Lead-zinc deposits are often difficult to classify because clear criteria are lacking. In recent years, new tools, such as Cd and Zn isotopes, have been used to better understand the ore-formation processes and to classify Pb-Zn deposits. Herein, we investigate Cd concentrations, Cd isotope systematics and Zn/Cd ratios in sphalerite from nine Pb-Zn deposits divided into high-temperature systems (e.g., porphyry), low-temperature systems (e.g., Mississippi Valley type [MVT]) and exhalative systems (e.g., sedimentary exhalative [SEDEX]). Our results showed little evidence of fractionation in the high-temperature systems. In the low-temperature systems, Cd concentrations were the highest, but were also highly variable, a result consistent with the higher fractionation of Cd at low temperatures. The δ(114/110)Cd values in low-temperature systems were enriched in heavier isotopes (mean of 0.32 ± 0.31‰). Exhalative systems had the lowest Cd concentrations, with a mean δ(114/110)Cd value of 0.12 ± 0.50‰. We thus conclude that different ore-formation systems result in different characteristic Cd concentrations and fraction levels and that low-temperature processes lead to the most significant fractionation of Cd. Therefore, Cd distribution and isotopic studies can support better understanding of the geochemistry of ore-formation processes and the classification of Pb-Zn deposits.

  6. Dietary resilience among hunter-gatherers of Tierra del Fuego: Isotopic evidence in a diachronic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tessone, Augusto; Kochi, Sayuri; Moggi Cecchi, Jacopo; Di Vincenzo, Fabio; Profico, Antonio; Manzi, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    The native groups of Patagonia have relied on a hunter-gatherer economy well after the first Europeans and North Americans reached this part of the world. The large exploitation of marine mammals (i.e., seals) by such allochthonous groups has had a strong impact on the local ecology in a way that might have forced the natives to adjust their subsistence strategies. Similarly, the introduction of new foods might have changed local diet. These are the premises of our isotopic-based analysis. There is a large set of paleonutritional investigations through isotopic analysis on Fuegians groups, however a systematic exploration of food practices across time in relation to possible pre- and post-contact changes is still lacking. In this paper we investigate dietary variation in hunter-gatherer groups of Tierra del Fuego in a diachronic perspective, through measuring the isotopic ratio of carbon (∂13C) and nitrogen (∂15N) in the bone collagen of human and a selection of terrestrial and marine animal samples. The data obtained reveal an unexpected isotopic uniformity across prehistoric and recent groups, with little variation in both carbon and nitrogen mean values, which we interpret as the possible evidence of resilience among these groups and persistence of subsistence strategies, allowing inferences on the dramatic contraction (and extinction) of Fuegian populations. PMID:28407013

  7. Dietary resilience among hunter-gatherers of Tierra del Fuego: Isotopic evidence in a diachronic perspective.

    PubMed

    Tafuri, Mary Anne; Zangrando, Atilio Francisco Javier; Tessone, Augusto; Kochi, Sayuri; Moggi Cecchi, Jacopo; Di Vincenzo, Fabio; Profico, Antonio; Manzi, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    The native groups of Patagonia have relied on a hunter-gatherer economy well after the first Europeans and North Americans reached this part of the world. The large exploitation of marine mammals (i.e., seals) by such allochthonous groups has had a strong impact on the local ecology in a way that might have forced the natives to adjust their subsistence strategies. Similarly, the introduction of new foods might have changed local diet. These are the premises of our isotopic-based analysis. There is a large set of paleonutritional investigations through isotopic analysis on Fuegians groups, however a systematic exploration of food practices across time in relation to possible pre- and post-contact changes is still lacking. In this paper we investigate dietary variation in hunter-gatherer groups of Tierra del Fuego in a diachronic perspective, through measuring the isotopic ratio of carbon (∂13C) and nitrogen (∂15N) in the bone collagen of human and a selection of terrestrial and marine animal samples. The data obtained reveal an unexpected isotopic uniformity across prehistoric and recent groups, with little variation in both carbon and nitrogen mean values, which we interpret as the possible evidence of resilience among these groups and persistence of subsistence strategies, allowing inferences on the dramatic contraction (and extinction) of Fuegian populations.

  8. The Origin of Dark Inclusions in Allende: New Evidence from Lithium Isotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sephton, Mark A.; James, Rachael H.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    Aqueous and thermal processing of primordial material occurred prior to and during planet formation in the early solar system. A record of how solid materials were altered at this time is present in the carbonaceous chondrites, which are naturally delivered fragments of primitive asteroids. It has been proposed that some materials, such as the clasts termed dark inclusions found in type III chondrites, suggest a sequence of aqueous and thermal events. Lithium isotopes (Li-6 and Li-7) can reveal the role of liquid water in dark inclusion history. During aqueous alteration, Li-7 passes preferentially into solution leaving Li-6 behind in the solid phase and, consequently, any relatively extended periods of interaction with Li-7-rich fluids would have left the dark inclusions enriched in the heavier isotope when compared to the meteorite as a whole. Our analyses of lithium isotopes in Allende and its dark inclusions reveal marked isotopic homogeneity and no evidence of greater levels of aqueous alteration in dark inclusion history.

  9. Zn/Cd ratios and cadmium isotope evidence for the classification of lead-zinc deposits

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Hanjie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Zhang, Yuxu; Cloquet, Christophe; Fan, Haifeng; Fu, Shaohong

    2016-01-01

    Lead-zinc deposits are often difficult to classify because clear criteria are lacking. In recent years, new tools, such as Cd and Zn isotopes, have been used to better understand the ore-formation processes and to classify Pb-Zn deposits. Herein, we investigate Cd concentrations, Cd isotope systematics and Zn/Cd ratios in sphalerite from nine Pb-Zn deposits divided into high-temperature systems (e.g., porphyry), low-temperature systems (e.g., Mississippi Valley type [MVT]) and exhalative systems (e.g., sedimentary exhalative [SEDEX]). Our results showed little evidence of fractionation in the high-temperature systems. In the low-temperature systems, Cd concentrations were the highest, but were also highly variable, a result consistent with the higher fractionation of Cd at low temperatures. The δ114/110Cd values in low-temperature systems were enriched in heavier isotopes (mean of 0.32 ± 0.31‰). Exhalative systems had the lowest Cd concentrations, with a mean δ114/110Cd value of 0.12 ± 0.50‰. We thus conclude that different ore-formation systems result in different characteristic Cd concentrations and fraction levels and that low-temperature processes lead to the most significant fractionation of Cd. Therefore, Cd distribution and isotopic studies can support better understanding of the geochemistry of ore-formation processes and the classification of Pb-Zn deposits. PMID:27121538

  10. Keratin decomposition by trogid beetles: evidence from a feeding experiment and stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Shinji; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    The decomposition of vertebrate carcasses is an important ecosystem function. Soft tissues of dead vertebrates are rapidly decomposed by diverse animals. However, decomposition of hard tissues such as hairs and feathers is much slower because only a few animals can digest keratin, a protein that is concentrated in hairs and feathers. Although beetles of the family Trogidae are considered keratin feeders, their ecological function has rarely been explored. Here, we investigated the keratin-decomposition function of trogid beetles in heron-breeding colonies where keratin was frequently supplied as feathers. Three trogid species were collected from the colonies and observed feeding on heron feathers under laboratory conditions. We also measured the nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) stable isotope ratios of two trogid species that were maintained on a constant diet (feathers from one heron individual) during 70 days under laboratory conditions. We compared the isotopic signatures of the trogids with the feathers to investigate isotopic shifts from the feathers to the consumers for δ15N and δ13C. We used mixing models (MixSIR and SIAR) to estimate the main diets of individual field-collected trogid beetles. The analysis indicated that heron feathers were more important as food for trogid beetles than were soft tissues under field conditions. Together, the feeding experiment and stable isotope analysis provided strong evidence of keratin decomposition by trogid beetles.

  11. Stable isotope evidence for hydrologic conditions during regional metamorphism in the Panamint Mountains, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bergfeld, D.; Nabelek, P.I. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Labotka, T.C. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Kingston Peak Formation forms part of the Panamint Mountains, California, metamorphic core-complex. Peak tremolite-grade metamorphism as exhibited in Wildrose Canyon occurred in the Jurassic; a retrograde thermal event may have occurred in the Cretaceous. The formation consists dominantly of interbedded siliceous limestones and graphitic calcareous schists. Stable isotopic analysis shows two distinct groups of data. delta O-18 values of calcite from the limestones range between 15.3 and 17.3[per thousand], probably reflecting their original Proterozoic depositional values. Likewise the delta C-13 values are also unshifted, ranging from +1% to +3.8%o. In contrast, delta O-18 values of calcite from the schists are for the most part > 20[per thousand]. These high values could reflect the original depostional conditions; however, they may be due to equilibration with silicate minerals which range from 14.9 to 17.9[per thousand]. Overall, the combined oxygen and carbon isotopic data indicate that most isotopic changes can be explained by closed-system equilibration. Only a limited amount of interaction with externally-derived fluids during metamorphism is evident in the isotopic data. The interaction may have been confined to vicinities of faults and fractures which are common in Wildrose Canyon.

  12. Zn/Cd ratios and cadmium isotope evidence for the classification of lead-zinc deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hanjie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Zhang, Yuxu; Cloquet, Christophe; Fan, Haifeng; Fu, Shaohong

    2016-04-01

    Lead-zinc deposits are often difficult to classify because clear criteria are lacking. In recent years, new tools, such as Cd and Zn isotopes, have been used to better understand the ore-formation processes and to classify Pb-Zn deposits. Herein, we investigate Cd concentrations, Cd isotope systematics and Zn/Cd ratios in sphalerite from nine Pb-Zn deposits divided into high-temperature systems (e.g., porphyry), low-temperature systems (e.g., Mississippi Valley type [MVT]) and exhalative systems (e.g., sedimentary exhalative [SEDEX]). Our results showed little evidence of fractionation in the high-temperature systems. In the low-temperature systems, Cd concentrations were the highest, but were also highly variable, a result consistent with the higher fractionation of Cd at low temperatures. The δ114/110Cd values in low-temperature systems were enriched in heavier isotopes (mean of 0.32 ± 0.31‰). Exhalative systems had the lowest Cd concentrations, with a mean δ114/110Cd value of 0.12 ± 0.50‰. We thus conclude that different ore-formation systems result in different characteristic Cd concentrations and fraction levels and that low-temperature processes lead to the most significant fractionation of Cd. Therefore, Cd distribution and isotopic studies can support better understanding of the geochemistry of ore-formation processes and the classification of Pb-Zn deposits.

  13. Coupled Fe and S Isotope Evidence for Archaean Microbial Fe(III) and Sulphate Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, C.; Vance, D.

    2004-12-01

    The development of transition metal stable isotope geochemistry over recent years, fuelled by advances in analytical technology, has permitted new approaches to established geochemical problems. One such application is the understanding and tracing of early Earth biogeochemistry, with a particular emphasis on the activities of primitive microbial life, where evidence from traditional isotope systems has so far been equivocal. The earliest forms of microbial respiration are thought to involve sulphate or Fe (III) reduction, {e.g. 1,2} or perhaps both, and as such combined Fe-S isotope systems provide a potentially powerful tool to trace these processes. Here we report a Zn-Fe-S data set from sulphide and pyrite grains from the 2.7 Ga Belingwe Belt, associated with sulphate reducing microbial communities. Analyses of individual mm size sulphide and pyrite grains show large depletions of light Fe isotopes, as well as a large variation in Fe isotope composition with a range of -0.7 to -2.7 \\permil. Furthermore these variations are correlated with depletions in light S isotopes measured from the same samples, which range in isotope composition from -3 to -18 \\permil 3. Zn isotopes also show significant positive fractionations, up to 0.8\\permil, particularly in organic rich black shales. The most striking feature of our dataset is a tight correlation between sulphur and iron isotopes. This relationship is most readily explained in terms of a reducing sedimentary environment. In modern anoxic sediments dissimilatory bacterial Fe (III) reduction, and further down the sediment column, sulphate reduction produce solubilised light Fe2+ and S2-, which in solution together immediately react to form isotopically depleted sulphides and ultimately pyrite. Experimental constraints4 and measurements of natural pyrite from modern sedimentary settings (S. Severmann, pers comm) demonstrate that the solid sulphide produced is light in Fe. We will present a quantitative diagenetic

  14. Anthropogenic Pb input into Bohai Bay, China: Evidence from stable Pb isotopic compositions in sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ningjing; Huang, Peng

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic Pb input into Bohai Bay, China: Evidence from stable Pb isotopic compositions in sediments Hu Ning-jinga, Huang Pengb,, Liu Ji-huaa, a First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061, China b Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China To investigate the source of Pb within Bohai Bay, Pb concentrations and Pb isotopic compositions (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, and 208Pb) of surface sediments in this area were determined. The Pb concentration in this bay varied widely from 6.9 to 39.2 μg/g (average: 21.8 ± 7.8 μg/g), and the Pb isotopic compositions ranged from 0.8338 to 0.8864 (average: 2.0997 ± 0.0180) for 208Pb/206Pb and from 2.0797 to 2.1531 (average: 0.8477 ± 0.0135) for 207Pb/206Pb, presenting in three distinct clusters. The Pb isotopic ratios of sediments from the northeastern (NE zone) and northwestern (NW zone) coastal areas were significantly influenced by anthropogenic sources such as coal combustion and automobile emission. In sediments from the central and southern Bohai Bay (C-S zone); however, Pb mainly originated from the Yellow River catchment, as a result of lithogenic sediment (from rock weathering) accumulation. The Pb isotopic ratios further indicate that, apart from riverine inputs, the neighboring large-scale ports and aerosols significantly contributed to the anthropogenic Pb contained in these sediments. Pb contamination in the Haihe and Luanhe river mouths as well as in the regions near ports is also suggested from anthropogenic enrichment factors. As cities and ports continue to develop around Bohai Bay, a long-term extensive sewage monitoring program is highly recommended.

  15. Pb-isotopic evidence for an early, enriched crust on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, J. J.; Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Humayun, M.; Hewins, R.; Zanda, B.

    2015-01-01

    Martian meteorite NWA 7533 is a regolith breccia that compositionally resembles the Martian surface measured by orbiters and landers. NWA 7533 contains monzonitic clasts that have zircon with U-Pb ages of 4.428 Ga. The Pb isotopic compositions of plagioclase and alkali feldspars, as well as U-Pb isotopic compositions of chlorapatite in the monzonitic clasts of NWA 7533 have been measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). The U-Pb isotopic compositions measured from the chlorapatite in NWA 7533 yield an age of 1.357 ± 81 Ga (2σ). The least radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions measured in plagioclase and K-feldspar lie within error of the 4.428 Ga Geochron. These data indicate that the monzonitic clasts in NWA 7533 are a product of a differentiation history that includes residence in a reservoir that formed prior to 4.428 Ga with a μ-value (238U/204Pb) of at least 13.4 ± 1.7 (2 σ) and a κ-value (232Th/238U) of ∼4.3. This μ-value is more than three times higher than any other documented Martian reservoir. These results indicate either the Martian mantle is significantly more heterogeneous than previously thought (μ-value of 1-14 vs. 1-5) and/or the monzonitic clasts formed by the melting of Martian crust with a μ-value of at least 13.4. Therefore, NWA 7533 may contain the first isotopic evidence for an enriched, differentiated crust on Mars.

  16. Isotopic evidence of magmatism and a sedimentary carbon source at the Endeavour hydrothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T A; Proskurowski, G; Lilley, M D

    2004-01-07

    Stable and radiocarbon isotope measurements made on CO{sub 2} from high temperature hydrothermal vents on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge indicate both magmatic and sedimentary sources of carbon to the hydrothermal system. The Endeavour segment is devoid of overlying sediments and has shown no observable signs of surficial magmatic activity during the {approx}20 years of ongoing studies. The appearance of isotopically heavy, radiocarbon dead CO{sub 2} after a 1999 earthquake swarm requires that this earthquake event was magmatic in origin. Evidence for a sedimentary organic carbon source suggests the presence of buried sediments at the ridge axis. These findings, which represent the first temporally coherent set of radiocarbon measurements from hydrothermal vent fluids, demonstrate the utility of radiocarbon analysis in hydrothermal studies. The existence of a sediment source at Endeavour and the occurrence of magmatic episodes illustrate the extremely complex and evolving nature of the Endeavour hydrothermal system.

  17. Neanderthal diet at Vindija and Neanderthal predation: The evidence from stable isotopes

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Michael P.; Pettitt, Paul B.; Trinkaus, Erik; Smith, Fred H.; Paunović, Maja; Karavanić, Ivor

    2000-01-01

    Archeological analysis of faunal remains and of lithic and bone tools has suggested that hunting of medium to large mammals was a major element of Neanderthal subsistence. Plant foods are almost invisible in the archeological record, and it is impossible to estimate accurately their dietary importance. However, stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) analysis of mammal bone collagen provides a direct measure of diet and has been applied to two Neanderthals and various faunal species from Vindija Cave, Croatia. The isotope evidence overwhelmingly points to the Neanderthals behaving as top-level carnivores, obtaining almost all of their dietary protein from animal sources. Earlier Neanderthals in France and Belgium have yielded similar results, and a pattern of European Neanderthal adaptation as carnivores is emerging. These data reinforce current taphonomic assessments of associated faunal elements and make it unlikely that the Neanderthals were acquiring animal protein principally through scavenging. Instead, these findings portray them as effective predators. PMID:10852955

  18. Isotopic evidence of plutonium release into the environment from the Fukushima DNPP accident

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Watanabe, Yoshito; Uchida, Shigeo; Aono, Tatsuo; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Yoshida, Satoshi; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Fuma, Shoichi; Ihara, Sadao

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (DNPP) accident caused massive releases of radioactivity into the environment. The released highly volatile fission products, such as 129mTe, 131I, 134Cs, 136Cs and 137Cs were found to be widely distributed in Fukushima and its adjacent prefectures in eastern Japan. However, the release of non-volatile actinides, in particular, Pu isotopes remains uncertain almost one year after the accident. Here we report the isotopic evidence for the release of Pu into the atmosphere and deposition on the ground in northwest and south of the Fukushima DNPP in the 20–30 km zones. The high activity ratio of 241Pu/239+240Pu (> 100) from the Fukushima DNPP accident highlights the need for long-term 241Pu dose assessment, and the ingrowth of 241Am. The results are important for the estimation of reactor damage and have significant implication in the strategy of decontamination. PMID:22403743

  19. Isotopic evidence for an aerobic nitrogen cycle in the latest Archean.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Jessica; Buick, Roger; Anbar, Ariel D; Arnold, Gail L; Kaufman, Alan J

    2009-02-20

    The nitrogen cycle provides essential nutrients to the biosphere, but its antiquity in modern form is unclear. In a drill core though homogeneous organic-rich shale in the 2.5-billion-year-old Mount McRae Shale, Australia, nitrogen isotope values vary from +1.0 to +7.5 per mil (per thousand) and back to +2.5 per thousand over approximately 30 meters. These changes evidently record a transient departure from a largely anaerobic to an aerobic nitrogen cycle complete with nitrification and denitrification. Complementary molybdenum abundance and sulfur isotopic values suggest that nitrification occurred in response to a small increase in surface-ocean oxygenation. These data imply that nitrifying and denitrifying microbes had already evolved by the late Archean and were present before oxygen first began to accumulate in the atmosphere.

  20. Comparison of the Copan ESwab system with two Amies agar swab transport systems for maintenance of microorganism viability.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, Kenneth G; Audette, Carol D; Sebeck, Denise; Tucker, Kelly A

    2008-05-01

    Swab transport systems are used for a variety of specimen types and must maintain organism viability throughout the transport process. The Copan ESwab is a new nylon-flocked swab designed to optimize specimen collection and to minimize entrapment of the specimen. We used the quantitative elution method with recommended strains, as described in CLSI document M40-A, to evaluate the ESwab for maintenance of viability of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms for 0, 6, 24, and 48 h during room temperature and refrigerated temperature storage. The Becton Dickinson CultureSwab MaxV swab and the Remel BactiSwab were used as comparators. The ESwab met CLSI acceptance criteria for all aerobic isolates stored at both temperatures and for all anaerobic isolates stored at refrigerated temperature. The ESwab also met CLSI criteria for four of five anaerobic strains at room temperature. Prevotella melaninogenica was not recovered after 24 or 48 h of room temperature storage with any of the three swab transport systems tested. Overall, the ESwab was equivalent to the Becton Dickinson CultureSwab MaxV swab in organism recovery but recovered more isolates than Remel BactiSwab.

  1. ZIRCONIUM—HAFNIUM ISOTOPE EVIDENCE FROM METEORITES FOR THE DECOUPLED SYNTHESIS OF LIGHT AND HEAVY NEUTRON-RICH NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Akram, W.; Schönbächler, M.; Sprung, P.; Vogel, N.

    2013-11-10

    Recent work based on analyses of meteorite and terrestrial whole-rock samples showed that the r- and s- process isotopes of Hf were homogeneously distributed throughout the inner solar system. We report new Hf isotope data for Calcium-Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) of the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende, and novel high-precision Zr isotope data for these CAIs and three carbonaceous chondrites (CM, CO, CK). Our Zr data reveal enrichments in the neutron-rich isotope {sup 96}Zr (≤1ε in {sup 96}Zr/{sup 90}Zr) for bulk chondrites and CAIs (∼2ε). Potential isotope effects due to incomplete sample dissolution, galactic and cosmic ray spallation, and the nuclear field shift are assessed and excluded, leading to the conclusion that the {sup 96}Zr isotope variations are of nucleosynthetic origin. The {sup 96}Zr enrichments are coupled with {sup 50}Ti excesses suggesting that both nuclides were produced in the same astrophysical environment. The same CAIs also exhibit deficits in r-process Hf isotopes, which provides strong evidence for a decoupling between the nucleosynthetic processes that produce the light (A ≤ 130) and heavy (A > 130) neutron-rich isotopes. We propose that the light neutron-capture isotopes largely formed in Type II supernovae (SNeII) with higher mass progenitors than the supernovae that produced the heavy r-process isotopes. In the context of our model, the light isotopes (e.g. {sup 96}Zr) are predominantly synthesized via charged-particle reactions in a high entropy wind environment, in which Hf isotopes are not produced. Collectively, our data indicates that CAIs sampled an excess of materials produced in a normal mass (12-25 M{sub ☉}) SNII.

  2. Osmium Isotopic Evidence Against an Impact at the Frasnian-Famennian Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, G. W.; Turekian, K. K.; Rockman, M.; Over, J.

    2007-12-01

    Two sections across the Frasnian-Famennian boundary were analyzed for Re and Os concentrations and 187Os/188Os ratios to evaluate evidence for a meteoritic input coincident with this boundary and its associated mass extinction. These sections are from a siltstone and shale sequence at Irish Gulf in New York, US and a calcareous shale and ferromanganese oxide sequence at La Serre in France. The Irish Gulf section, with an initial 187Os/188Os of ~0.49, does not show the characteristic meteoritic Os imprint with a 187Os/188Os value of about 0.13. Both Re and Os are retained in this section, as indicated by the construction of an isochron with an age of 388 ±41 Ma, consistent with independently determined ages for the Frasnian-Famennian boundary. Although the La Serre section, with Os concentrations as high as 33 ppb and Re concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 7.4 ppb, might be expected to show excellent evidence for a meteoritic contribution, the highly radiogenic isotopic composition (187Os/188Os ranges from 2.42-3.61) instead suggests recent massive Re loss or addition of radiogenic Os. This open system behavior prevents the reconstruction of an initial 187Os/188Os value for the boundary at La Serre. Assuming reasonable Re concentrations prior to loss, however, the Os isotopic value is inconsistent with a large meteoritic component. In addition, this study reinforces the need for Os isotopic evidence, not only enriched PGE concentrations, as substantiation for a meteoritic impact.

  3. Isotopic evidence of nitrate sources and denitrification in the Mississippi River, Illinois.

    PubMed

    Panno, Samuel V; Hackley, Keith C; Kelly, Walton R; Hwang, Hue-Hwa

    2006-01-01

    Anthropogenic nitrate (NO3-) within the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin and discharge to the Gulf of Mexico has been linked to serious environmental problems. The sources of this NO3- have been estimated by others using mass balance methods; however, there is considerable uncertainty in these estimates. Part of the uncertainty is the degree of denitrification that the NO3- has undergone. The isotopic composition of NO3- in the Mississippi River adjacent to Illinois and tile drain (subsurface drain) discharge in agricultural areas of east-central Illinois was examined using N and O isotopes to help identify the major sources of NO3- and assess the degree of denitrification in the samples. The isotopic evidence suggests that most of the NO3- in the river is primarily derived from synthetic fertilizers and soil organic N, which is consistent with published estimates of N inputs to the Mississippi River. The 1:2 relationship between delta18O and delta15N also indicate that, depending on sample location and season, NO3- in the river and tile drains has undergone significant denitrification, ranging from about 0 to 55%. The majority of the denitrification appears to have occurred before discharge into the Mississippi River.

  4. Re-Os isotopic evidence for a lower crustal origin of massif-type anorthosites

    PubMed

    Schiellerup; Lambert; Prestvik; Robins; McBride; Larsen

    2000-06-15

    Massif-type anorthosites are large igneous complexes of Proterozoic age. They are almost monomineralic, representing vast accumulations of plagioclase with subordinate pyroxene or olivine and Fe-Ti oxides--the 930-Myr-old Rogaland anorthosite province in southwest Norway represents one of the youngest known expressions of such magmatism. The source of the magma and geodynamic setting of massif-type anorthosites remain long-standing controversies in Precambrian geology, with no consensus existing as to the nature of the parental magmas or whether these magmas primarily originate in the Earth's mantle or crust. At present, massif-type anorthosites are believed to have crystallized from either crustally contaminated mantle-derived melts that have fractionated olivine and pyroxenes at depth or primary aluminous gabbroic to jotunitic melts derived from the lower continental crust. Here we report rhenium and osmium isotopic data from the Rogaland anorthosite province that strongly support a lower crustal source for the parental magmas. There is no evidence of significantly older crust in southwest Scandinavia and models invoking crustal contamination of mantle-derived magmas fail to account for the isotopic data from the Rogaland province. Initial osmium and neodymium isotopic values testify to the melting of mafic source rocks in the lower crust with an age of 1,400-1,550 Myr.

  5. Isotopic evidence of nitrate sources and denitrification in the Mississippi River, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panno, S.V.; Hackley, Keith C.; Kelly, W.R.; Hwang, H.-H.

    2006-01-01

    Anthropogenic nitrate (NO3-) within the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin and discharge to the Gulf of Mexico has been linked to serious environmental problems. The sources of this NO 3- have been estimated by others using mass balance methods; however, there is considerable uncertainty in these estimates. Part of the uncertainty is the degree of denitrification that the NO3- has undergone. The isotopic composition of NO3- in the Mississippi River adjacent to Illinois and tile drain (subsurface drain) discharge in agricultural areas of east-central Illinois was examined using N and O isotopes to help identify the major sources of NO 3- and assess the degree of denitrification in the samples. The isotopic evidence suggests that most of the NO3- in the river is primarily derived from synthetic fertilizers and soil organic N, which is consistent with published estimates of N inputs to the Mississippi River. The 1:2 relationship between ??18O and ??15N also indicate that, depending on sample location and season, NO3- in the river and tile drains lias undergone significant denitrification, ranging from about 0 to 55%. The majority of the denitrification appears to have occurred before discharge into the Mississippi River. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  6. New isotopic evidence bearing on bonanza (Au-Ag) epithermal ore-forming processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, James A.; Mathur, Ryan; Kamenov, George D.; Shimizu, Toru; Brueseke, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    New Cu, S, and Pb isotope data provide evidence for a magmatic source of metal(loid)s and sulfur in epithermal Au-Ag deposits even though their ore-forming solutions are composed primarily of heated meteoric (ground) waters. The apparent isotopic discrepancy between ore metals and ore-forming solutions, and even between the ore and associated gangue minerals, indicates two different sources of epithermal ore-forming constituents: (1) a shallow geothermal system that not only provides the bulk of water for the ore-forming solutions but also major chemical constituents leached from host rocks (silica, aluminum, potassium, sodium, calcium) to make gangue minerals and (2) metals and metalloids (As, Te, Sb, etc.) and sulfur (±Se) derived from deeper magma bodies. Isotopic data are consistent with either vapor-phase transport of metal(loids) and sulfur and their subsequent absorption by shallow geothermal waters or formation of metallic (Au, Ag, Cu phases) nanoparticles at depth from magmatic fluids prior to encountering the geothermal system. The latter is most consistent with ore textures that indicate physical transport and aggregation of nanoparticles were significant ore-forming processes. The recognition that epithermal Au-Ag ores form in tectonic settings that produce magmas capable of releasing metal-rich fluids necessary to form these deposits can refine exploration strategies that previously often have focused on locating fossil geothermal systems.

  7. Natal origins of migratory monarch butterflies at wintering colonies in Mexico: New isotopic evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Hobson, Keith A.

    1998-01-01

    Each year, millions of monarch butterflies from eastern North America migrate to overwinter in 10–13 discrete colonies located in the Oyamel forests of central Mexico. For decades efforts to track monarch migration have relied on observations and tag-recapture methods, culminating with the discovery of the wintering colonies in 1975. Monarch tag returns from Mexico, however, are few and primarily from two accessible colonies, and therefore tag-recapture techniques have not quantified natal origins or distinctiveness among monarch populations at wintering sites. Such information would be invaluable in the conservation of the monarch and its migration phenomenon since the wintering sites currently are threatened by habitat alteration. Here we show that stable hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ13C) isotope ratios of wintering monarchs can be used to evaluate natal origins on the summer breeding range. Stable-hydrogen and carbon isotopic values of 597 wintering monarchs from 13 wintering roost sites were compared with isotopic patterns measured in individuals at natal sites across their breeding range over a single migration cycle. We determined that all monarch wintering colonies were composed of individuals originating mainly from the Midwest, United States, thereby providing evidence for a panmictic model of wintering colony composition. However, two colonies showed more northerly origins, suggesting possible priority colonies for conservation efforts. PMID:9860986

  8. Natal origins of migratory monarch butterflies at wintering colonies in Mexico: new isotopic evidence.

    PubMed

    Wassenaar, L I; Hobson, A

    1998-12-22

    Each year, millions of monarch butterflies from eastern North America migrate to overwinter in 10-13 discrete colonies located in the Oyamel forests of central Mexico. For decades efforts to track monarch migration have relied on observations and tag-recapture methods, culminating with the discovery of the wintering colonies in 1975. Monarch tag returns from Mexico, however, are few and primarily from two accessible colonies, and therefore tag-recapture techniques have not quantified natal origins or distinctiveness among monarch populations at wintering sites. Such information would be invaluable in the conservation of the monarch and its migration phenomenon since the wintering sites currently are threatened by habitat alteration. Here we show that stable hydrogen (deltaD) and carbon (delta13C) isotope ratios of wintering monarchs can be used to evaluate natal origins on the summer breeding range. Stable-hydrogen and carbon isotopic values of 597 wintering monarchs from 13 wintering roost sites were compared with isotopic patterns measured in individuals at natal sites across their breeding range over a single migration cycle. We determined that all monarch wintering colonies were composed of individuals originating mainly from the Midwest, United States, thereby providing evidence for a panmictic model of wintering colony composition. However, two colonies showed more northerly origins, suggesting possible priority colonies for conservation efforts.

  9. The Hf-Nd Isotopic Record of Southwest - no Evidence for Early Continental Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, C. M.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The nature and timing of the growth of continental crust has generated debate for decades, with numerous models for the rate of crustal growth being suggested. Ultimately, two end-member models have been proposed. One favors rapid and early differentiation of continental crust and a complimentary depleted mantle, while the other proposes an early basaltic proto-crust with true continental crust and depleted mantle forming many hundreds of millions of years later. Radiogenic isotope systems (e.g., Nd and Hf) are crucial in this debate, as they provide constraints on ancient fractionation of Sm from Nd and Lu from Hf, signaling mantle depletetion, relative to the Chondritic Uniform Reservior (CHUR). Southwest Greenland contains some of the best-studied Eoarchean rocks on Earth. As such, these rocks provide one of the best vantage points on the long-standing question of the growth of early continental crust. In order to address the question of the timing of early crustal growth, our approach is to focus on the zircon record from this area, as it is clearly the most robust repository of age and Hf isotopic information. We have conducted Laser Ablation Split Stream analysis on the U-Pb and Hf isotopic composition of twelve samples of the least-altered meta-igneous rocks from the Amitsoq gneiss from the Isukasia and Nuuk regions of southwest Greenland. This analytical approach allows us to unambiguously determine the age and Hf isotopic composition on the same zircon volume. Further, we have conducted new isotope-dilution whole rock Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf solution MC-ICPMS analyses of these same samples. Our results show that zircon from rocks ranging in age from ~3.8 Ga to ~3.6 Ga have initial ɛHf values within analytical uncertainty (~1.5 ɛHf units) of CHUR, consistent with previous age and Hf isotope studies conducted in the region. Thus, we conclude that these samples from southwest Greenland (which contains one of the largest tracts of Eoarchean crust) contain no

  10. Stable isotope and DNA evidence for ritual sequences in Inca child sacrifice

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Andrew S.; Taylor, Timothy; Ceruti, Maria Constanza; Chavez, Jose Antonio; Reinhard, Johan; Grimes, Vaughan; Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Cartmell, Larry; Stern, Ben; Richards, Michael P.; Worobey, Michael; Barnes, Ian; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2007-01-01

    Four recently discovered frozen child mummies from two of the highest peaks in the south central Andes now yield tantalizing evidence of the preparatory stages leading to Inca ritual killing as represented by the unique capacocha rite. Our interdisciplinary study examined hair from the mummies to obtain detailed genetic and diachronic isotopic information. This approach has allowed us to reconstruct aspects of individual identity and diet, make inferences concerning social background, and gain insight on the hitherto unknown processes by which victims were selected, elevated in social status, prepared for a high-altitude pilgrimage, and killed. Such direct information amplifies, yet also partly contrasts with, Spanish historical accounts. PMID:17923675

  11. Geochronologic and isotopic evidence for early Proterozoic crust in the eastern Arabian Shield

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, J.S.; Hedge, C.E.

    1984-05-01

    The authors report zircon U-Pb, feldspar common Pb, whole-rock Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr data from sample Z-103, a fine-grained granodiorite from the Jabal Khida region of the Saudi Arabian Shield (lat 21/sup 0/19'N; long 44/sup 0/50'W). The measurements yield conclusive evidence for continental crust of early Proterozoic age (approx.1630 Ma) at that locality. Furthermore, lead-isotope data indicate an even earlier, perhaps Archean, crustal history for the source of the lower Proterozoic rocks. 17 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  12. Neodymium and lead isotope evidence for enriched early Archean crust in North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowring, Samuel A.; Housh, Todd B.; Isachsen, Clark E.; Podosek, Frank A.; King, Janet E.

    1989-01-01

    Neodymium and lead isotope measurements and uranium-lead zircon geochronology from Archaean gneisses of the Slave Province in the Northwest Territories of Canada are reported. The gneisses contain zircons with cores older than 3.842 Gyr and an epsilon(Nd) (3.7 Gyr) of - 4.8. This is the oldest reported chondritic model age for a terrestrial sample and provides evidence for strongly enriched pre-3.8-Gyr crust, a reservoir complementary to the depleted mantle already in existence by 3.8 Gyr before the present.

  13. Stable isotope and DNA evidence for ritual sequences in Inca child sacrifice.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Andrew S; Taylor, Timothy; Ceruti, Maria Constanza; Chavez, Jose Antonio; Reinhard, Johan; Grimes, Vaughan; Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Cartmell, Larry; Stern, Ben; Richards, Michael P; Worobey, Michael; Barnes, Ian; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2007-10-16

    Four recently discovered frozen child mummies from two of the highest peaks in the south central Andes now yield tantalizing evidence of the preparatory stages leading to Inca ritual killing as represented by the unique capacocha rite. Our interdisciplinary study examined hair from the mummies to obtain detailed genetic and diachronic isotopic information. This approach has allowed us to reconstruct aspects of individual identity and diet, make inferences concerning social background, and gain insight on the hitherto unknown processes by which victims were selected, elevated in social status, prepared for a high-altitude pilgrimage, and killed. Such direct information amplifies, yet also partly contrasts with, Spanish historical accounts.

  14. Nd and Si isotope evidence for increased Antarctic Intermediate Water ventilation in western tropical Atlantic: evidence for silica leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, J. D.; Barker, S.; Hendry, K. R.; Thornalley, D. J.; Hall, I. R.; van de Flierdt, T.

    2011-12-01

    We present records of isotopic variations in neodymium and silicon from intermediate depths in the western tropical Atlantic ocean from sediment core MD99-2198 (12.09°N, 61.23°W; 1,330m water depth). The records span Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5a to 3 (~40-92 ka BP). The ɛNd isotopic variation, used as a proxy for water mass mixing, reveals a transient excursion in the ventilation of Antarctic Intermediate Water (less negative ɛNd) during MIS 4 and also during MIS 3, when compared to a characteristic North Atlantic Deep Water signal (more negative ɛNd), observed at the end of MIS 5. The silicon isotopic composition (δ30Si) from deep sea sponges is a new proxy which reflects the ambient silicic acid concentration [Si(OH)4] of the water in which the sponges grew. The δ30Si record from the same depth intervals in MD99-2198 reveal that the δ30Si co-varies with the ɛNd record (more negative δ30Si values reflect higher concentrations of silicic acid), suggesting that excess silicic acid was transported in AAIW and penetrated the tropical Atlantic during these intervals. These data are consistent with the 'Silicic Acid Leakage Hypothesis' (SALH), where enhanced silicic acid availability at low latitudes would cause a shift in the phytoplankton assemblage towards diatoms being more dominant, and result in a change in the carbonate:organic carbon (CaCO3/Corg) rain ratio, and so draw down atmospheric CO2 in this region. Evidence for an increase in diatom productivity comes from the thorium-normalised opal flux record of core ODP 663A (1° 11.87'S, 11° 52.71'W; 3,706m water depth) with the sustained maxima in opal flux concurrent with the excursions in ɛNd and δ30Si. Authigenic uranium data from ODP 663A increases concurrently with opal flux rate, suggesting that diatoms were dominating primary productivity. These data do not preclude the SALH as a cause of the ~47ppm decrease in pCO2 which occurred during the MIS5a-4 transition.

  15. Non-canonical mass laws in equilibrium isotopic fractionations: Evidence from the vapor pressure isotope effect of SF6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiler, John; Cartigny, Pierre; Hofmann, Amy E.; Piasecki, Alison

    2013-04-01

    We report experimental observations of the vapor pressure isotope effect, including 33S/32S and 34S/32S ratios, for SF6 ice between 137 and 173 K. The temporal evolution of observed fractionations, mass-balance of reactants and products, and reversal of the fractionation at one temperature (155 K) are consistent with a subset of our experiments having reached or closely approached thermodynamic equilibrium. That equilibrium involves a reversed vapor pressure isotope effect; i.e., vapor is between 2‰ and 3‰ higher in 34S/32S than co-existing ice, with the difference increasing with decreasing temperature. At the explored temperatures, the apparent equilibrium fractionation of 33S/32S ratios is 0.551 ± 0.010 times that for 34S/32S ratios—higher than the canonical ratio expected for mass dependent thermodynamic fractionations (˜0.515). Two experiments examining exchange between adsorbed and vapor SF6 suggest the sorbate-vapor fractionation at 180-188 K is similar to that for ice-vapor at ˜150 K. In contrast, the liquid-vapor fractionation at 228-300 K is negligibly small (˜0.1‰ for 34S/32S; the mass law is ill defined due to the low amplitude of fractionation). We hypothesize that the observed vapor pressure isotope for SF6 ice and sorbate is controlled by commonly understood effects of isotopic substitution on vibrational energies of molecules, but leads to both an exotic mass law and reversed fractionation due to the competition between isotope effects on intramolecular vibrations, which promote heavy isotope enrichment in vapor, and isotope effects on intermolecular (lattice) vibrations, which promote heavy isotope enrichment in ice. This explanation implies that a variety of naturally important compounds having diverse modes of vibration (i.e., varying greatly in frequency and particularly, reduced mass) could potentially exhibit similarly non-canonical mass laws for S and O isotope fractionations. We examined this hypothesis using a density function

  16. Antiquity and evolutionary status of bacterial sulfate reduction: sulfur isotope evidence.

    PubMed

    Schidlowski, M

    1979-09-01

    The presently available sedimentary sulfur isotope record for the Precambrian seems to allow the following conclusions: (1) In the Early Archaean, sedimentary delta 34S patterns attributable to bacteriogenic sulfate reduction are generally absent. In particular, the delta 34S spread observed in the Isua banded iron formation (3.7 x 10(9) yr) is extremely narrow and coincides completely with the respective spreads yielded by contemporaneous rocks of assumed mantle derivation. Incipient minor differentiation of the isotope pattersn notably of Archaean sulfates may be accounted for by photosynthetic sulfur bacteria rather than by sulfate reducers. (2) Isotopic evidence of dissimilatory sulfate reduction is first observed in the upper Archaean of the Aldan Shield, Siberia (approximately 3.0 x 10(9) yr) and in the Michipicoten and Woman River banded iron formations of Canada (2.75 x 10(9) yr). This narrows down the possible time of appearance of sulfate respirers to the interval 2.8--3.1 x 10(9) yr. (3) Various lines of evidence indicate that photosynthesis is older than sulfate respiration, the SO4(2-) Utilized by the first sulfate reducers deriving most probably from oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds by photosynthetic sulfur bacteria. Sulfate respiration must, in turn, have antedated oxygen respiration as O2-respiring multicellular eucaryotes appear late in the Precambrian. (4) With the bulk of sulfate in the Archaean oceans probably produced by photosynthetic sulfur bacteria, the accumulation of SO4(2-) in the ancient seas must have preceded the buildup of appreciable steady state levels of free oxygen. Hence, the occurrence of sulfate evaporites in Archaean sediments does not necessarily provide testimony of oxidation weathering on the ancient continents and, consequently, of the existence of an atmospheric oxygen reservoir.

  17. Mineralogical, Chemical, and Isotopic Heterogeneity in Zagami: Evidence for a Complex Petrogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Misawa, K.; Shih, C-Y.; Niihara, T.; Park, J.

    2013-01-01

    Textural variations in the shergottite Zagami were initially interpreted as evidence that it formed in a heterogeneous lava flow. Variations in initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios between a Coarse Grained (CG) and a Fine Grained (FG) lithology and evidence for more extensive fractionation of the Rb/Sr ratio in a Dark Mottled Lithology (DML) are consistent with such an interpretation. More recently, Niihara et al. and Misawa et al. have reported the mineralogy and Sr-isotopic systematics of an Olivine Rich Lithology (ORL) found in association with the coarse-grained DML lithology in the Kanagawa Zagami specimen [6,7]. Here we call this lithology DML(Ka) to maintain a distinction with DML(USNM) as studied. An Ar-Ar study by Park et al. of a late stage K-rich melt enriched in K2O to approx 7% and intruded into ORL yielded an Ar-Ar age of 202+/0 7 Ma. The present work extends the study of Kanagawa Zagami to Nd-isotopes.

  18. PRESOLAR GRAINS FROM NOVAE: EVIDENCE FROM NEON AND HELIUM ISOTOPES IN COMET DUST COLLECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pepin, Robert O.; Palma, Russell L.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Starrfield, Sumner

    2011-12-01

    Presolar grains in meteorites and interplanetary dust particles carry non-solar isotopic signatures pointing to origins in supernovae, giant stars, and possibly other stellar sources. There have been suggestions that some of these grains condensed in the ejecta of classical nova outbursts, but the evidence is ambiguous. We report neon and helium compositions in particles captured on stratospheric collectors flown to sample materials from comets 26P/Grigg-Skjellerup and 55P/Tempel-Tuttle that point to condensation of their gas carriers in the ejecta of a neon (ONe) nova. The absence of detectable {sup 3}He in these particles indicates space exposure to solar wind irradiation of a few decades at most, consistent with origins in cometary dust streams. Measured {sup 4}He/{sup 20}Ne, {sup 20}Ne/{sup 22}Ne, {sup 21}Ne/{sup 22}Ne, and {sup 20}Ne/{sup 21}Ne isotope ratios, and a low upper limit on {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He, are in accord with calculations of nucleosynthesis in neon nova outbursts. Of these, the uniquely low {sup 4}He/{sup 20}Ne and high {sup 20}Ne/{sup 22}Ne ratios are the most diagnostic, reflecting the large predicted {sup 20}Ne abundances in the ejecta of such novae. The correspondence of measured Ne and He compositions in cometary matter with theoretical predictions is evidence for the presence of presolar grains from novae in the early solar system.

  19. Evidence for extinct 135Cs from Ba isotopes in Allende CAIs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermingham, K. R.; Mezger, K.; Desch, S. J.; Scherer, E. E.; Horstmann, M.

    2014-05-01

    The abundance and distribution of isotopes throughout the Solar System can be used to constrain the number and type of nucleosynthetic events that contributed material to the early nebula. Barium is particularly well suited to quantifying the degree of isotope heterogeneity in the Solar System because it comprises seven stable isotopes that were synthesized by three different nucleosynthetic processes (s-, r-, and p-processes), all of which contributed material to the Solar System. There is also potential contribution to 135Ba from short-lived radioisotope 135Cs, conclusive evidence for which is yet to be reported. Four Allende (CV3) Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAI 1, CAI 2, CAI 4, CAI 5) and one Allende dark inclusion (DI) were analyzed for Ba isotope variability. Two CAIs (CAI 2 and CAI 5) display 135Ba excesses that are not accompanied by 137Ba anomalies. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion 1 displays a 135Ba excess that is possibly coupled with a 137Ba excess, and the remaining refractory inclusions (CAI 2 and DI) have terrestrial Ba isotope compositions. These Ba isotope data are presented in conjunction with published whole rock Ba isotope data from individual Allende CAIs. The enrichment in 135Ba and absence of coupled 137Ba excesses in CAI 2 and CAI 5 is interpreted to indicate that the anomalies are not purely nucleosynthetic in origin but also contain contributions (16-48 ppm) from the decay of short-lived 135Cs. The majority of Allende CAIs studied to date may also have similar contributions from 135Cs on the basis of higher than expected 135Ba excesses if the Ba isotope anomalies were purely nucleosynthetic in origin. The 135Ba anomalies appear not to be coupled with superchondritic Cs/Ba, which may imply that the contribution to 135Ba did not occur via in situ decay of live 135Cs. However, it is feasible that the CAIs had a superchondritic Cs/Ba during decay of 135Cs, but Cs was subsequently removed from the system during aqueous alteration on the parent body

  20. Sr-isotopic, paleomagnetic, and biostratigraphic calibration of horse evolution: Evidence from the Miocene of Florida

    SciTech Connect

    MacFadden, B.J.; Bryant, J.D.; Mueller, P.A. )

    1991-03-01

    During the middle Miocene an explosive adaptive radiation resulted in the advent of grazing horses with high-crowned teeth in North America. New Sr isotopic, paleomagnetic, and biostratigrahic evidence from the Miocene marine and nonmarine sequence of the Florida panhandle calibrates the base of this adaptive radiation. The transition from the primitive outgroup species 'Parahippus' leonensis to the most primitive high-crowned horse, 'Merychippus' gunteri occured after about 17.7 Ma. After this event, the lowest known stratigraphic level at which diversification (i.e., presence of two or more sympatric species) of grazing merychippine horses occurs is about 16.2 Ma, or within the early part of Chron C5BR. Although this currently is the only sequence where the parahippine-merychippine transition is directly calibrated, biochronologic evidence from other important, contemporaneous localities in Texas, Nebraska, and California indicate that diversification occured rapidly throughout North America between 15 and 16 Ma.

  1. Geochronological and isotopic evidence for early Proterozoic crust in the eastern Arabian Shield.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Hedge, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    Zircon U/Pb, feldspar common Pb, whole-rock Sm/Nd, and Rb/Sr data indicate that the fine-grained granodiorite (Z103) has yielded conclusive evidence for rocks of early Proterozoic age in the eastern Arabian Shield (21o19' N, 44o50' W). Z103 may have been emplaced approx 1630 m.y. ago and subsequently was severely deformed or perhaps even remobilized at approx 660 m.y. Furthermore, lead isotope data, along with other evidence, show that the 1630 m.y. crustal rocks inherited material from an older, probably Archaean, source at the time of their formation. At that time addition of mantle material considerably modified the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd systems so that they now yield similar, or only slightly older apparent ages (1600-1800 m.y.).-L.diH.

  2. Isotopic evidence in tree rings for historical changes in atmospheric sulfur sources.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Hidehisa; Matsuoka, Nobuaki; Momoshima, Noriyuki; Koike, Masami; Takashima, Yoshimasa

    2006-09-15

    Little is understood about the usefulness of sulfur isotopic ratios (sigma 34S) in tree rings because the sulfur content in rings is generally insufficient for analysis using conventional methods. We present sigma 34S values of the water-soluble and the organically bound sulfur fractions in rings of coniferous trees grown in Japan, analyzed using a large-volume oxygen bomb. Comparing the sigma 34S values of the organically bound fraction in tree rings with past atmospheric sulfur concentrations and with those of their sources, we find clear evidence that the sigma 34S values of the organically bound fraction in the rings are dependent upon the values of the atmospheric sulfur sources. The evidence suggests that the sigma 34S values in tree rings are a useful chronological proxy for evaluating possible causes of past atmospheric sulfur pollution.

  3. Nd Isotopic Evidence of Deglacial Antarctic Intermediate Water in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, C.; Martin, E. E.; Marchitto, T. M.

    2008-12-01

    Nd isotopes from fossil fish teeth and debris are a potential water mass tracer. Initial Nd isotopic analyses from marine sediment core (MC19/GC31/PC08) from a water depth of 705 m on the open margin off the western coast of southern Baja California have been used to test changes in deep ocean circulation proposed by Marchitto et al. (2007). These authors identified two pulses of highly negative Δ14C during the deglaciation from 19 to 11 ky at this shallow water site. They proposed that the negative Δ14C signal represented a water mass that was isolated from the atmosphere for a prolonged period of time. Specifically, they suggested that extensive sea ice growth off Antarctica during the last glacial period reduced atmospheric exchange with the deep ocean and created conditions favorable for brine formation, thereby redistributing CO2 from the atmosphere to the deep ocean. Deglaciation and retreat of the sea ice would have re-established ventilation of the Southern Ocean and returned old carbon to the sea surface and atmosphere. Pulses of old, poorly ventilated, negative Δ14C water observed at site MC19/GC31/PC08 suggest renewed Southern Ocean upwelling and spreading of the signal via Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), coincident with the timing of the atmospheric CO2 rise across the last deglaciation. This interpretation requires that AAIW was volumetrically more important along the Baja California margin during deglaciation than it is today. While radiocarbon data indicate the age of the water mass at this shallow site, Nd isotopic data can be used to determine the source of this water. Nd isotopic values of 0 to 2 ɛ Nd units after the deglaciation from the Baja site are similar to values for Pacific intermediate waters. In contrast, values of -2 during the deglaciation trend towards typical AAIW values, supporting the interpretation of deglacial circulation and ocean/atmosphere CO2 exchange proposed by Marchitto et al. (2007). Additional Nd isotopic work

  4. Zirconium isotope evidence for the heterogeneous distribution of s-process materials in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akram, W.; Schönbächler, M.; Bisterzo, S.; Gallino, R.

    2015-09-01

    A growing number of elements show well-resolved nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies in bulk-rock samples of solar system materials. In order to establish the occurrence and extent of such isotopic heterogeneities in Zr, and to investigate the origin of the widespread heterogeneities in our solar system, new high-precision Zr isotope data are reported for a range of primitive and differentiated meteorites. The majority of the carbonaceous chondrites (CV, CM, CO, CK) display variable ε96Zr values (⩽1.4) relative to the Earth. The data indicate the heterogeneous distribution of 96Zr-rich CAIs in these meteorites, which sampled supernova (SN) material that was likely synthesized by charged-particle reactions or neutron-captures. Other carbonaceous chondrites (CI, CB, CR), ordinary chondrites and eucrites display variable, well-resolved 96Zr excesses correlated with potential, not clearly resolved variations in 91Zr relative to the bulk-Earth and enstatite chondrites. This tentative correlation is supported by nucleosynthetic models and provides evidence for variable contributions of average solar system s-process material to different regions of the solar system, with the Earth representing the most s-process enriched material. New s-process model calculations indicate that this s-process component was produced in both low and intermediate mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. The isotopic heterogeneity pattern is different to the s-process signature resolved in a previous Zr leaching experiment, which was attributed to low mass AGB stars. The bulk-rock heterogeneity requires several nucleosynthetic sources, and therefore opposes the theory of the injection of material from a single source (e.g., supernova, AGB star) and argues for a selective dust-sorting mechanism within the solar nebula. Thermal processing of labile carrier phases is considered and, if correct, necessitates the destruction and removal of non-s-process material from the innermost solar system

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Inoculation of Urine Samples with the Copan WASP and BD Kiestra InoqulA Instruments.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Jesper; Stendal, Gitta; Gerdes, Cecilie M; Meyer, Christian H; Andersen, Christian Østergaard; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the quantitative results from and quality of the inoculation patterns of urine specimens produced by two automated instruments, the Copan WASP and the BD InoqulA. Five hundred twenty-six urine samples submitted in 10-ml canisters containing boric acid were processed within 30 min on an InoqulA instrument plating 10 μl of specimen, and on two WASP instruments, one plating 1 μl of specimen (WASP-1), and the second plating 10 μl of WASP (WASP-10). All samples were incubated, analyzed, and digitally imaged using the BD Kiestra total lab automation system. The results were evaluated using a quantitative protocol and assessed for the presence or absence of ≥5 distinct colonies. Separate studies were conducted using quality control (QC) organisms to determine the relative accuracy of WASP-1, WASP-10, and InoqulA instruments compared to the results obtained with a calibrated pipette. The results with QC organisms were calculated as the ratios of the counts of the automated instruments divided by the counts for the calibrated pipette (the gold standard method). The ratios for the InoqulA instrument were closest to 1.0, with the smallest standard deviations indicating that compared to a calibrated pipette, the InoqulA results were more accurate than those with the WASP instrument. For clinical samples, the WASP instruments produced higher colony counts and more commensals than the InoqulA instrument, with differences most notable for WASP-1. The InoqulA instrument was significantly better at dispersing organisms with counts of ≥10(5) bacteria/ml of urine than were the WASP-1 and WASP-10 instruments (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the InoqulA quantitative results are more accurate than the WASP results, and, moreover, the number of isolated colonies produced by the InoqulA instrument was significantly greater than that produced by the WASP instrument.

  6. Isotopic equilibration between dissolved and suspended particulate lead in the Atlantic Ocean: Evidence from 210Pb and stable Pb isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrell, Robert M.; Boyle, Edward A.; Hamelin, Bruno

    1992-07-01

    Decreased consumption of leaded gasoline in the United States over the past two decades has drastically altered the flux and isotopic composition of Pb entering the western North Atlantic from the atmosphere. Here we exploit the resulting temporal changes in the distribution and isotopic composition of oceanic Pb to investigate interactions between dissolved and particulate Pb in the oceanic water column. Measurements of dissolved Pb isotopic composition on samples collected in 1987 in the upper water column near Bermuda demonstrate that surface water 206Pb/207Pb decreased from ˜1.203 to ˜1.192 since 1983 and that a measurable change propagated to 300-500 m since the 1984 profile of Shen and Boyle (1988). The first accurate measurements of suspended particulate Pb in an open ocean profile show concentrations of 1-3 pmol/L, equal to 2-4% of total Pb. Vertical profiles of (1) the stable lead isotopic composition and (2) the ratio of total Pb to 210Pb in suspended particles closely track contemporaneous depth variations in these ratios for dissolved Pb throughout the upper 2000 m of the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda. Thus suspended particles reach isotopic equilibrium with ambient sea water Pb on a time scale which is shorter than their residence time with respect to vertical removal, in agreement with equilibrium scavenging hypotheses based on interpretations of Th isotope distributions. A simple flux model suggests that the effect of deep ocean scavenging processes on the flux and isotopic composition of Pb sinking on large particles was minor throughout the preanthropogenic and most of the anthropogenic era but has become important as surface inputs decrease to pre-leaded gasoline levels and may exceed the contribution of surface-derived Pb flux in the next decade.

  7. Textural and Isotopic Evidence for Silica Cementation in 1.88 GA Granular Iron Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brengman, L. A.; Fedo, C.; Martin, W.

    2016-12-01

    Controls on quartz precipitation mechanisms and silicon isotope fractionation during diagenesis of Precambrian iron formation (IF) are not well constrained. The goal of this study is to identify textural evidence for the relative timing of silica cementation of granular units from the near un-metamorphosed 1.88 Ga Biwabik IF and determine the silicon isotope composition for such a silicification event. The lowermost IF (lower cherty, LC) consists of granular units associated with high-energy sedimentary structures interpreted to represent shallow-marine shelf deposition. Up-section is marked by an abrupt shift to banded units interpreted as a transition to quiescent (deeper) water, followed by a return to granular textures and shallower conditions (upper cherty, UC). We first surveyed granular samples of the lower stromatolitic (LC) and upper oncolitic facies (UC) to identify sedimentary textures and cement. LC units consist of microquartz (chert), megaquartz, hematite, carbonate, and detrital quartz, chert, and quartz/Fe-oxide intraclastic material. In UC samples, space between granular material (hematite, magnetite, quartz ooids/intraclasts) is filled by mega-quartz cement, and cross-cutting mega-quartz veins. We targeted mega-quartz cement, and veins for δ30Si analysis via secondary ion mass spectrometry. The average measured δ30Si value of cement (δ30Siavg. cement UC6b = -3.11 ± 0.21 ‰) is significantly different than associated veins (δ30Siavg. vein UC6b = 0.21 ± 0.21 ‰; δ30Siavg. vein LC4 = 0.39 ± 0.21 ‰), both within and between samples. We interpret the relative difference between cement and veins to represent quartz precipitation under different geochemical conditions, and therefore at different times. Combining isotopic and textural evidence, we interpret silica cementation to pre-date veins, and represent quartz precipitation that either varied in rate, or occurred under closed-system conditions affected by Rayleigh distillation. Both

  8. Isotopic and physical evidence for persistently high eruption temperatures for Yellowstone-Snake River Plain rhyolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewen, M.; Bindeman, I. N.; Melnik, O. E.

    2015-12-01

    Low crystallinity rhyolite lavas and tuffs from the Yellowstone-Snake River plain system were long-thought to erupt at high 800-900 °C temperatures with evidence derived from experimental work and geothermometry (e.g., QUILF, Ti-in-quartz). Despite this evidence, newer experimental phase equilibria studies as well as a reformulation of zircon saturation temperatures support lower temperature magma eruption conditions. Here we present two independent lines of evidence for 850 °C and greater temperatures. We present high precision oxygen isotope thermometry for coexisting quartz, glass, pyroxene, and magnetite in order make temperature estimates independent of phase equilibria. For all analyzed Snake River Plain-Yellowstone rhyolites, we determine 800-1100 °C temperatures for clinopyroxene and 850-1100 °C temperatures for magnetite. Extremely slow oxygen diffusion in pyroxene will preserve oxygen isotope crystal composition for millions of years stored at magmatic temperatures. Interestingly, oxygen in magnetite will reequilibrate in <1000 years, so systematically higher magnetite-quartz temperatures suggests a short lifespan of magmas from liquidus crystallization to eruption. In an alternative approach, we have modeled the physical emplacement of the large volume (up to 70 km3) rhyolite lavas of the recent Central Plateau Member group. Using simple solutions to gravity-driven viscous fluid flow, we have made first-order estimates for extremely high discharge rates in order to enable effusion of sufficient volume in relatively axisymmetric morphologies—where glacial ice caps or prexisiting topography did not otherwise restrict flow. Using these results and simple conductive cooling models, we show that flows erupted at >800 °C and probably ~850 °C in order to be emplaced before cooling below the melt-glass transition and forming a more dome-like and lobate morphology.

  9. Uplift and submarine formation of some Melanesian porphyry copper deposits: Stable isotope evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chivas, A.R.; O'Neil, J.R.; Katchan, G.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogen and oxygen isotope analyses of sericites and kaolinites from four young porphyry copper deposits (Ok Tedi (1.2 Ma) and Yandera (6.5 Ma), Papua New Guinea; Koloula (1.5 Ma), Solomon Islands; and Waisoi (<5 Ma), Fiji) indicate that the fluids from which these minerals precipitated were of mixed magmatic and non-magmatic sources. The non-magmatic component of the fluid from the island arc deposits (Koloula, Waisoi) was ocean water. For Ok Tedi, the non-magmatic component was a meteoric water with an isotopic composition different from that of the present meteoric water in the region. The isotopic signature of the former meteoric water is consistent with a surface elevation of 200 m a.s.l. or less at the time of mineralization. The deposit was later exposed and supergene kaolinitization commenced at approximately 1200 m a.s.l. Uplift and erosion has continued to the present at which time the elevation of the exposed deposit is 1800 m a.s.l. This rate of uplift is consistent with that known from other geological evidence. If the rate of uplift were approximately constant during the last 1.2 Ma, the age of supergene enrichment can be dated at approximately 0.4 Ma B.P. Similarly, influx of meteoric water at Yandera occurred when the ground surface above the deposit was at an elevation of approximately 600 m a.s.l. The deposit's present elevation is 1600 m a.s.l. In this case a total uplift of approximately 2.2 km is indicated, with removal of 1.2 km of overburden by erosion. ?? 1984.

  10. Not all jellyfish are equal: isotopic evidence for inter- and intraspecific variation in jellyfish trophic ecology

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Nicholas E.C.; Newton, Jason; Houghton, Jonathan D.R.

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish are highly topical within studies of pelagic food-webs and there is a growing realisation that their role is more complex than once thought. Efforts being made to include jellyfish within fisheries and ecosystem models are an important step forward, but our present understanding of their underlying trophic ecology can lead to their oversimplification in these models. Gelatinous zooplankton represent a polyphyletic assemblage spanning >2,000 species that inhabit coastal seas to the deep-ocean and employ a wide variety of foraging strategies. Despite this diversity, many contemporary modelling approaches include jellyfish as a single functional group feeding at one or two trophic levels at most. Recent reviews have drawn attention to this issue and highlighted the need for improved communication between biologists and theoreticians if this problem is to be overcome. We used stable isotopes to investigate the trophic ecology of three co-occurring scyphozoan jellyfish species (Aurelia aurita, Cyanea lamarckii and C. capillata) within a temperate, coastal food-web in the NE Atlantic. Using information on individual size, time of year and δ13C and δ15N stable isotope values, we examined: (1) whether all jellyfish could be considered as a single functional group, or showed distinct inter-specific differences in trophic ecology; (2) Were size-based shifts in trophic position, found previously in A. aurita, a common trait across species?; (3) When considered collectively, did the trophic position of three sympatric species remain constant over time? Differences in δ15N (trophic position) were evident between all three species, with size-based and temporal shifts in δ15N apparent in A. aurita and C. capillata. The isotopic niche width for all species combined increased throughout the season, reflecting temporal shifts in trophic position and seasonal succession in these gelatinous species. Taken together, these findings support previous assertions that

  11. Not all jellyfish are equal: isotopic evidence for inter- and intraspecific variation in jellyfish trophic ecology.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Nicholas E C; Harrod, Chris; Newton, Jason; Houghton, Jonathan D R

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish are highly topical within studies of pelagic food-webs and there is a growing realisation that their role is more complex than once thought. Efforts being made to include jellyfish within fisheries and ecosystem models are an important step forward, but our present understanding of their underlying trophic ecology can lead to their oversimplification in these models. Gelatinous zooplankton represent a polyphyletic assemblage spanning >2,000 species that inhabit coastal seas to the deep-ocean and employ a wide variety of foraging strategies. Despite this diversity, many contemporary modelling approaches include jellyfish as a single functional group feeding at one or two trophic levels at most. Recent reviews have drawn attention to this issue and highlighted the need for improved communication between biologists and theoreticians if this problem is to be overcome. We used stable isotopes to investigate the trophic ecology of three co-occurring scyphozoan jellyfish species (Aurelia aurita, Cyanea lamarckii and C. capillata) within a temperate, coastal food-web in the NE Atlantic. Using information on individual size, time of year and δ (13)C and δ (15)N stable isotope values, we examined: (1) whether all jellyfish could be considered as a single functional group, or showed distinct inter-specific differences in trophic ecology; (2) Were size-based shifts in trophic position, found previously in A. aurita, a common trait across species?; (3) When considered collectively, did the trophic position of three sympatric species remain constant over time? Differences in δ (15)N (trophic position) were evident between all three species, with size-based and temporal shifts in δ (15)N apparent in A. aurita and C. capillata. The isotopic niche width for all species combined increased throughout the season, reflecting temporal shifts in trophic position and seasonal succession in these gelatinous species. Taken together, these findings support previous assertions

  12. Uranium isotope evidence for temporary ocean oxygenation in the aftermath of the Sturtian Snowball Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Kimberly V.; Macdonald, Francis A.; Maher, Kate; Payne, Jonathan L.

    2017-01-01

    The appearance and radiation of animals are commonly attributed to Neoproterozoic oceanic oxygenation, yet independent geochemical evidence for such an event remains equivocal. Strata deposited between the Sturtian and Marinoan Snowball Earth glaciations (660 to 640 Ma) contain the earliest animal biomarkers and possible body fossils. To quantify the extent of seafloor oxygenation during this critical interval, we present uranium isotope ratios (238U/235U denoted as δ238 U) from limestone of the Taishir Formation in Mongolia through two stratigraphic sections that are separated by ∼75 km within the same depositional basin. Above the Sturtian glacial deposits, through ∼150 m of stratigraphy, δ238 U compositions have a mean value of -0.47‰. This interval is followed by a ∼0.3‰ decrease in δ238 U, coincident with the Taishir negative carbon isotope excursion. Thereafter, δ238 U values remain relatively low until the erosional unconformity at the base of the Marinoan glacial deposits. Using a box model, we show that the best explanation for the higher δ238 U values of the post-Sturtian limestones is extensive-but temporary-oxygenation of the seafloor, and is inconsistent with a scenario involving only increased delivery of uranium to the oceans due to post-Snowball weathering. The decline in δ238 U in overlying strata, coincident with the Taishir negative δ13 C excursion, indicates a subsequent decrease in seafloor oxygenation. The U isotopic data, combined with modeling results, challenge the notion of a simple, unidirectional oxygenation of Neoproterozoic oceans.

  13. Kinetic 12C/13C isotope fractionation by invertase: evidence for a small in vitro isotope effect and comparison of two techniques for the isotopic analysis of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Mauve, Caroline; Bleton, Jean; Bathellier, Camille; Lelarge-Trouverie, Caroline; Guérard, Florence; Ghashghaie, Jaleh; Tchapla, Alain; Tcherkez, Guillaume

    2009-08-30

    The natural (13)C/(12)C isotope composition (delta(13)C) of plants and organic compounds within plant organs is a powerful tool to understand carbon allocation patterns and the regulation of photosynthetic or respiratory metabolism. However, many enzymatic fractionations are currently unknown, thus impeding our understanding of carbon trafficking pathways within plant cells. One of them is the (12)C/(13)C isotope effect associated with invertases (EC 3.2.1.26) that are cornerstone enzymes for Suc metabolism and translocation in plants. Another conundrum of isotopic plant biology is the need to measure accurately the specific delta(13)C of individual carbohydrates. Here, we examined two complementary methods for measuring the delta(13)C value of sucrose, glucose and fructose, that is, off-line high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification followed by elemental analysis and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) analysis, and gas chromatography-combustion (GC-C)-IRMS. We also used these methods to determine the in vitro (12)C/(13)C isotope effect associated with the yeast invertase. Our results show that, although providing more variable values than HPLC approximately EA-IRMS, and being sensitive to derivatization conditions, the GC-C-IRMS method gives reliable results. When applied to the invertase reaction, both methods indicate that the (12)C/(13)C isotope effect is rather small and it is not affected by the use of heavy water (D(2)O). 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Boron Isotope Evidence for Shallow Fluid Transfer Across Subduction Zones by Serpentinized Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scambelluri, M.; Tonarini, S.; Agostini, S.; Cannaò, E.

    2012-12-01

    Boron Isotope Evidence for Shallow Fluid Transfer Across Subduction Zones by Serpentinized Mantle M. Scambelluri (1), S. Tonarini (2), S. Agostini (2), E. Cannaò (1) (1) Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Ambiente e vita, University of Genova, Italy (2) Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse-CNR, Pisa, Italy In subduction zones, fluid-mediated chemical exchange between slabs and mantle dictates volatile and incompatible element cycles and influences arc magmatism. Outstanding issues concern the sources of water for arc magmas and its slab-to-mantle wedge transport. Does it occur by slab dehydration beneath arc fronts, or by hydration of fore-arc mantle and subsequent subduction of the hydrated mantle? So far, the deep slab dehydration hypothesis had strong support, but the hydrated mantle wedge idea is advancing supported by studies of fluid-mobile elements in serpentinized wedge peridotites and their subducted high-pressure (HP) equivalents. Serpentinites are volatile and fluid-mobile element reservoirs for subduction: their dehydration causes large fluid and element flux to the mantle.However, direct evidence for their key role in arc magmatism and identification of dehydration environments has been elusive and boron isotopes can trace the process. Until recently, the altered oceanic crust (AOC) was considered the 11B reservoir for arcs, which largely display positive δ11B. However, shallow slab dehydration transfers 11B to the fore-arc mantle and leaves the residual AOC very depleted in 11B below arcs. Here we present high positive δ11B of HP serpentinized peridotites from Erro Tobbio (Ligurian Alps), recording subduction metamorphism from hydration at low-grade to eclogite-facies dehydration. We show a connection among serpentinite dehydration, release of 11B-rich fluids and arc magmatism. The dataset is completed by B isotope data on other HP Alpine serpentinites from Liguria and Lanzo Massif. In general, the δ11B of these rocks is heavy (16 to + 30 permil

  15. Identification of Groundwater Nitrate Contamination from Explosives Used in Road Construction: Isotopic, Chemical, and Hydrologic Evidence.

    PubMed

    Degnan, James R; Böhlke, J K; Pelham, Krystle; Langlais, David M; Walsh, Gregory J

    2016-01-19

    Explosives used in construction have been implicated as sources of NO3(-) contamination in groundwater, but direct forensic evidence is limited. Identification of blasting-related NO3(-) can be complicated by other NO3(-) sources, including agriculture and wastewater disposal, and by hydrogeologic factors affecting NO3(-) transport and stability. Here we describe a study that used hydrogeology, chemistry, stable isotopes, and mass balance calculations to evaluate groundwater NO3(-) sources and transport in areas surrounding a highway construction site with documented blasting in New Hampshire. Results indicate various groundwater responses to contamination: (1) rapid breakthrough and flushing of synthetic NO3(-) (low δ(15)N, high δ(18)O) from dissolution of unexploded NH4NO3 blasting agents in oxic groundwater; (2) delayed and reduced breakthrough of synthetic NO3(-) subjected to partial denitrification (high δ(15)N, high δ(18)O); (3) relatively persistent concentrations of blasting-related biogenic NO3(-) derived from nitrification of NH4(+) (low δ(15)N, low δ(18)O); and (4) stable but spatially variable biogenic NO3(-) concentrations, consistent with recharge from septic systems (high δ(15)N, low δ(18)O), variably affected by denitrification. Source characteristics of denitrified samples were reconstructed from dissolved-gas data (Ar, N2) and isotopic fractionation trends associated with denitrification (Δδ(15)N/Δδ(18)O ≈ 1.31). Methods and data from this study are expected to be applicable in studies of other aquifers affected by explosives used in construction.

  16. Isotopic evidence for in-lake production of accumulating nitrate in Lake Superior.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Jacques C; Sterner, Robert W; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2007-12-01

    A century-long increase in nitrate (NO3-) in the water column of Lake Superior is a classic example of recent nitrogen accumulation in ecosystems, but its cause and relationship to historical NO3- deposition is unknown. We used stable isotope ratios of oxygen and nitrogen in nitrate (delta18O-NO3 and delta15N-NO3) to examine its sources in this large lake, which represents 10% of the world's surficial liquid freshwater. The most parsimonious hypothesis to explain the rise in NO3- is that the lake is accruing NO3- deposited directly on the lake surface because it is too unproductive to completely assimilate all of it. Data for delta18O-NO3 in external sources and the water column, however, are inconsistent with this hypothesis. Instead, the isotopic evidence indicates strongly that the accumulating NO3- is almost entirely derived from nitrification occurring within the lake. While increases in atmospheric deposition of NO3- may have played a role in its buildup in the lake, other factors such as increases in NH4+ and dissolved organic nitrogen inputs from precipitation or rivers, increases in nitrogen fluxes from the sediments, and decreases in burial rates must also be considered as potential drivers of rising NO3-. The sustained accumulation of nitrogen in Lake Superior is thus more complex and incompletely understood than previously assumed.

  17. Evidence for dilution of deep, confined ground water by vertical recharge of isotopically heavy Pleistocene water

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, D.I. )

    1991-05-01

    New analyses of the isotopic composition of water, {sup 14}C-dating of dissolved inorganic carbon, and order-of-magnitude Darcy calculations suggest that a dilute body of water, trending north-south in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer of Iowa, was emplaced as vertical recharge of Pleistocene-age water from the base of the Des Moines lobe of late Wisconsin time. The recharge occurred through more than 300 m of overlaying Silurian to Mississippian age rocks. The {delta}{sup 18}O values range from {minus}10{per thousand} to {minus}9{per thousand} for the dilute water body and are consistent with a mixture of Des Moines lobe meltwater and precipitation found today in the north-central US. These results suggest that (1) the climate at the end of the last glaciation was mild and (2) a ground-water stable isotope signature similar to that of modern precipitation in an aquifers recharge area is not a priori evidence for relatively recent recharge.

  18. Stable isotope evidence for an amphibious phase in early proboscidean evolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Alexander G S C; Seiffert, Erik R; Simons, Elwyn L

    2008-04-15

    The order Proboscidea includes extant elephants and their extinct relatives and is closely related to the aquatic sirenians (manatees and dugongs) and terrestrial hyracoids (hyraxes). Some analyses of embryological, morphological, and paleontological data suggest that proboscideans and sirenians shared an aquatic or semiaquatic common ancestor, but independent tests of this hypothesis have proven elusive. Here we test the hypothesis of an aquatic ancestry for advanced proboscideans by measuring delta(18)O in tooth enamel of two late Eocene proboscidean genera, Barytherium and Moeritherium, which are sister taxa of Oligocene-to-Recent proboscideans. The combination of low delta(18)O values and low delta(18)O standard deviations in Barytherium and Moeritherium matches the isotopic pattern seen in aquatic and semiaquatic mammals, and differs from that of terrestrial mammals. delta(13)C values of these early proboscideans suggest that both genera are likely to have consumed freshwater plants, although a component of C(3) terrestrial vegetation cannot be ruled out. The simplest explanation for the combined evidence from isotopes, dental functional morphology, and depositional environments is that Barytherium and Moeritherium were at least semiaquatic and lived in freshwater swamp or riverine environments, where they grazed on freshwater vegetation. These results lend new support to the hypothesis that Oligocene-to-Recent proboscideans are derived from amphibious ancestors.

  19. Isotopic evidence of pollutant lead transport from North America to the subtropical North Atlantic gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelin, B.; Ferrand, J. L.; Alleman, L.; Nicolas, E.; Veron, A.

    1997-10-01

    Lead isotope ratios have been measured in aerosols, seawater, and marine particles collected in 1990-1992 in the subtropical northeastern Atlantic Ocean as part of the JGOFS-EUMELI program. While the atmospheric input has unradiogenic 206Pb/207Pb ratios (1.158 ± 0.006), typical of the tradewinds bringing lead from European countries, all the samples collected in the water column have more radiogenic 206Pb/207Pb (from 1.170 to 1.196). This demonstrates that lead at the Eumeli sites contains a dominant input from American emissions, that has been circulated across the North Atlantic by the subtropical North Atlantic gyre. Using measurements in Sargasso Sea surface waters as an estimate of the isotopic composition of this input ( 206Pb/207Pb = 1.195 ± 0.004 ), we calculate a contribution of 42-57% from America in these waters. This demonstrates that American emissions still dominated lead contamination over the North Atlantic in the early 1990s, in spite of the early reduction of leaded gasoline in the USA. These results also give new evidence of the equilibrium between dissolved and particulate phases during scavenging processes.

  20. Chemical and Isotopic Evidence of Steam Upflow and Partial Condensation in Los Azufres Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Nieva, D.; Verma, M.; Santoyo, E.; Barragan, R.M.; Portugal, E.; Ortiz, J.; Quijano, J.L.

    1987-01-20

    Data of chemical and isotopic composition of fluids from Los Azufres wells, collected over a two year period, provide evidence of a process of upward flow and partial condensation of steam in the reservoir, which explains part of the previously reported heterogeneity in isotopic composition of the liquid phase (Nieva et al, 1983). For the southern part of the field, a direct correlation is found between chloride and oxygen-18 concentrations, and an inverse correlation between these parameters and deuterium and carbon dioxide concentrations in the liquid phase of the reservoir. Chloride ion concentrations increase gradually from ca 660 ppm in the production zones of shallow wells to ca 1900 ppm in the case of deep wells. This observation agrees with predictions based on the well-known model for vapor dominated systems of White et al (1971). For the northern part of the field the same correlations are observed, except for the deuterium concentration which in this case correlates directly with oxygen-18. It is concluded that the same process of steam upflow occurs in the northern section but that some other process — perhaps a mixture with other hydrothermal fluid — is also occurring. 3 tabs., 16 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Isotopic evidence on multiple sources of nitrogen in the northern Jiulong River, Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenzhi; Huang, Zheng; Zhai, Weidong; Li, Ying; Hong, Huasheng

    2015-09-01

    Riverine export accounts for a large portion of estuarine and coastal nutrients and could lead to severe eutrophication. However, nitrogen (N) sources at the catchment scale remain unclear because of spatial and temporal variations. The stable isotope of 15N, which has been proven to be effective in deducing sources and testing biogeochemical behaviours, is applied in this study to explore multiple sources of riverine N and their nutrient concentrations in the northern section of Jiulong River catchment seasonally. Results show that drastic seasonal variation in external nitrate sources occurs in the river; manure and sewage dominate during base flows, whereas organic N in soil and atmospheric deposition dominate during storm flows. The external sources change throughout the year depending on the environmental conditions. Furthermore, riverine nitrate import in the northern Jiulong River is dominated by an external process because of the increasing NO3- - δ15N value accompanied by an increasing NO3- -N concentration (p < 0.05). Manure and sewage show an increasing proportion of contribution to the downstream section and proximity to the estuary with high NO3- - δ15N values. The findings in this study highlight the fact that the isotopic composition of riverine NO3- -N provides effective evidence for identifying nitrate sources in catchments. The study could serve as a critical reference for nutrient management and eutrophication reversal.

  2. Stable isotope evidence for an amphibious phase in early proboscidean evolution

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Alexander G. S. C.; Seiffert, Erik R.; Simons, Elwyn L.

    2008-01-01

    The order Proboscidea includes extant elephants and their extinct relatives and is closely related to the aquatic sirenians (manatees and dugongs) and terrestrial hyracoids (hyraxes). Some analyses of embryological, morphological, and paleontological data suggest that proboscideans and sirenians shared an aquatic or semiaquatic common ancestor, but independent tests of this hypothesis have proven elusive. Here we test the hypothesis of an aquatic ancestry for advanced proboscideans by measuring δ18O in tooth enamel of two late Eocene proboscidean genera, Barytherium and Moeritherium, which are sister taxa of Oligocene-to-Recent proboscideans. The combination of low δ18O values and low δ18O standard deviations in Barytherium and Moeritherium matches the isotopic pattern seen in aquatic and semiaquatic mammals, and differs from that of terrestrial mammals. δ13C values of these early proboscideans suggest that both genera are likely to have consumed freshwater plants, although a component of C3 terrestrial vegetation cannot be ruled out. The simplest explanation for the combined evidence from isotopes, dental functional morphology, and depositional environments is that Barytherium and Moeritherium were at least semiaquatic and lived in freshwater swamp or riverine environments, where they grazed on freshwater vegetation. These results lend new support to the hypothesis that Oligocene-to-Recent proboscideans are derived from amphibious ancestors. PMID:18413605

  3. Isotopic inhomogeneity of leaf water: Evidence and implications for the use of isotopic signals transduced by plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakir, Dan; DeNiro, Michael J.; Rundel, Philip W.

    1989-10-01

    Variations as large as 11%. in δ18O values and 50%. in δD values were observed among different fractions of water in leaves of ivy (Hedera helix) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus). This observation contradicts previous experimental approaches to leaf water as an isotopically uniform pool. Using ion analysis of the water fractions to identify sources within the leaf, we conclude that the isotopic composition of the water within cells, which is involved in biosynthesis and therefore recorded in the plant organic matter, differs substantially from that of total leaf water. This conclusion must be taken into account in studies in which isotope ratios of fossil plant cellulose are interpreted in paleoclimatic terms. In addition, our results have implications for attempts to explain the Dole effect and to account for the variations of 18O/16O ratios in atmospheric carbon dioxide, since the isotopic composition of cell water, not of total leaf water, influences theδ18O values of O2 and CO2 released from plants into the atmosphere.

  4. Calcium-48 isotopic anomalies in bulk chondrites and achondrites: Evidence for a uniform isotopic reservoir in the inner protoplanetary disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauphas, Nicolas; Chen, James H.; Zhang, Junjun; Papanastassiou, Dimitri A.; Davis, Andrew M.; Travaglio, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) was used to measure the calcium isotopic compositions of carbonaceous, ordinary, enstatite chondrites as well as eucrites and aubrites. We find that after correction for mass-fractionation by internal normalization to a fixed 42Ca/44Ca ratio, the 43Ca/44Ca and 46Ca/44Ca ratios are indistinguishable from terrestrial ratios. In contrast, the 48Ca/44Ca ratios show significant departure from the terrestrial composition (from -2 ε in eucrites to +4 ε in CO and CV chondrites). Isotopic anomalies in ε48Ca correlate with ε50Ti: ε 48Ca=(1.09±0.11)×ε 50Ti+(0.03±0.14). Further work is needed to identify the carrier phase of 48Ca-50Ti anomalies but we suggest that it could be perovskite and that the stellar site where these anomalies were created was also responsible for the nucleosynthesis of the bulk of the solar system inventory of these nuclides. The Earth has identical 48Ca isotopic composition to enstatite chondrites (EH and EL) and aubrites. This adds to a long list of elements that display nucleosynthetic anomalies at a bulk planetary scale but show identical or very similar isotopic compositions between enstatite chondrites, aubrites, and Earth. This suggests that the inner protoplanetary disk was characterized by a uniform isotopic composition (IDUR for Inner Disk Uniform Reservoir), sampled by enstatite chondrites and aubrites, from which the Earth drew most of its constituents. The terrestrial isotopic composition for 17O, 48Ca, 50Ti, 62Ni, and 92Mo is well reproduced by a mixture of 91% enstatite, 7% ordinary, and 2% carbonaceous chondrites. The Earth was not simply made of enstatite chondrites but it formed from the same original material that was later modified by nebular and disk processes. The Moon-forming impactor probably came from the same region as the other embryos that made the Earth, explaining the strong isotopic similarity between lunar and terrestrial rocks.

  5. Molybdenum isotope evidence for widespread anoxia in mid-Proterozoic oceans.

    PubMed

    Arnold, G L; Anbar, A D; Barling, J; Lyons, T W

    2004-04-02

    How much dissolved oxygen was present in the mid-Proterozoic oceans between 1.8 and 1.0 billion years ago is debated vigorously. One model argues for oxygenation of the oceans soon after the initial rise of atmospheric oxygen approximately 2.3 billion years ago. Recent evidence for H(2)S in some mid-Proterozoic marine basins suggests, however, that the deep ocean remained anoxic until much later. New molybdenum isotope data from modern and ancient sediments indicate expanded anoxia during the mid-Proterozoic compared to the present-day ocean. Consequently, oxygenation of the deep oceans may have lagged that of the atmosphere by over a billion years.

  6. Zinc isotope evidence for sulfate-rich fluid transfer across subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, Marie-Laure; Debret, Baptiste; Bouilhol, Pierre; Delacour, Adélie; Williams, Helen

    2016-12-01

    Subduction zones modulate the chemical evolution of the Earth's mantle. Water and volatile elements in the slab are released as fluids into the mantle wedge and this process is widely considered to result in the oxidation of the sub-arc mantle. However, the chemical composition and speciation of these fluids, which is critical for the mobility of economically important elements, remain poorly constrained. Sulfur has the potential to act both as oxidizing agent and transport medium. Here we use zinc stable isotopes (δ66Zn) in subducted Alpine serpentinites to decipher the chemical properties of slab-derived fluids. We show that the progressive decrease in δ66Zn with metamorphic grade is correlated with a decrease in sulfur content. As existing theoretical work predicts that Zn-SO42- complexes preferentially incorporate heavy δ66Zn, our results provide strong evidence for the release of oxidized, sulfate-rich, slab serpentinite-derived fluids to the mantle wedge.

  7. Isotopic evidence for neogene hominid paleoenvironments in the Kenya Rift Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, J.D.; Hill, A. ); Marino, B.D. )

    1994-05-13

    Bipedality, the definitive characteristic of the earliest hominids, has been regarded as an adaptive response to a transition from forested to more-open habitats in East Africa sometime between 12 million and 5 million years ago. Analyses of the stable carbon isotopic composition ([delta][sup 13]C) of paleosol carbonate and organic matter from the Tugen Hills succession in Kenya indicate that a heterogeneous environment with a mix of C3 and C4 plants has persisted for the last 15.5 million years. Open grasslands at no time dominated this portion of the rift valley. The observed [delta][sup 13]C values offer no evidence for a shift from more-closed C3 environments to C4 grasslands habitats. If hominids evolved in East Africa during the Late Miocene, they did so in an ecologically diverse setting.

  8. Isotopic Evidence for Neogene Hominid Paleoenvironments in the Kenya Rift Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingston, John D.; Marino, Bruno D.; Hill, Andrew

    1994-05-01

    Bipedality, the definitive characteristic of the earliest hominids, has been regarded as an adaptive response to a transition from forested to more-open habitats in East Africa sometime between 12 million and 5 million years ago. Analyses of the stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of paleosol carbonate and organic matter from the Tugen Hills succession in Kenya indicate that a heterogeneous environment with a mix of C3 and C4 plants has persisted for the last 15.5 million years. Open grasslands at no time dominated this portion of the rift valley. The observed δ13C values offer no evidence for a shift from more-closed C3 environments to C4 grassland habitats. If hominids evolved in East Africa during the Late Miocene, they did so in an ecologically diverse setting.

  9. Zinc isotope evidence for sulfate-rich fluid transfer across subduction zones

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Marie-Laure; Debret, Baptiste; Bouilhol, Pierre; Delacour, Adélie; Williams, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Subduction zones modulate the chemical evolution of the Earth's mantle. Water and volatile elements in the slab are released as fluids into the mantle wedge and this process is widely considered to result in the oxidation of the sub-arc mantle. However, the chemical composition and speciation of these fluids, which is critical for the mobility of economically important elements, remain poorly constrained. Sulfur has the potential to act both as oxidizing agent and transport medium. Here we use zinc stable isotopes (δ66Zn) in subducted Alpine serpentinites to decipher the chemical properties of slab-derived fluids. We show that the progressive decrease in δ66Zn with metamorphic grade is correlated with a decrease in sulfur content. As existing theoretical work predicts that Zn-SO42− complexes preferentially incorporate heavy δ66Zn, our results provide strong evidence for the release of oxidized, sulfate-rich, slab serpentinite-derived fluids to the mantle wedge. PMID:27982033

  10. Zinc isotope evidence for sulfate-rich fluid transfer across subduction zones.

    PubMed

    Pons, Marie-Laure; Debret, Baptiste; Bouilhol, Pierre; Delacour, Adélie; Williams, Helen

    2016-12-16

    Subduction zones modulate the chemical evolution of the Earth's mantle. Water and volatile elements in the slab are released as fluids into the mantle wedge and this process is widely considered to result in the oxidation of the sub-arc mantle. However, the chemical composition and speciation of these fluids, which is critical for the mobility of economically important elements, remain poorly constrained. Sulfur has the potential to act both as oxidizing agent and transport medium. Here we use zinc stable isotopes (δ(66)Zn) in subducted Alpine serpentinites to decipher the chemical properties of slab-derived fluids. We show that the progressive decrease in δ(66)Zn with metamorphic grade is correlated with a decrease in sulfur content. As existing theoretical work predicts that Zn-SO4(2-) complexes preferentially incorporate heavy δ(66)Zn, our results provide strong evidence for the release of oxidized, sulfate-rich, slab serpentinite-derived fluids to the mantle wedge.

  11. Carbon isotope ratios of human tooth enamel record the evidence of terrestrial resource consumption during the Jomon period, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kusaka, Soichiro; Uno, Kevin T; Nakano, Takanori; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Cerling, Thure E

    2015-08-17

    Archaeological remains strongly suggest that the Holocene Japanese hunter-gatherers, the Jomon people, utilized terrestrial plants as their primary food source. However, carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of bone collagen indicates that they primarily exploited marine resources. We hypothesize that this inconsistency stems from the route of protein synthesis and the different proportions of protein-derived carbon in tooth enamel versus bone collagen. Carbon isotope ratios from bone collagen reflect that of dietary protein and may provide a biased signal of diet, whereas isotope ratios from tooth enamel reflect the integrated diet from all macronutrients (carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins). In order to evaluate the differences in inferred diet between the archaeological evidence and bone collagen isotope data, this study investigated carbon isotopes in Jomon tooth enamel from four coastal sites of the Middle to Late-Final Jomon period (5,000-2,300 years BP). Carbon isotope ratios of human teeth are as depleted as coeval terrestrial mammals, suggesting that C3 plants and terrestrial mammals were major dietary resources for the Jomon people. Dietary dependence on marine resources calculated from enamel was significantly lower than that calculated from bone collagen. The discrepancy in isotopic ratios between enamel and collagen and the nitrogen isotope ratio in collagen shows a negative correlation on individual and population levels, suggesting diets with variable proportions of terrestrial and marine resources. This study highlights the usefulness of coupling tooth enamel and bone collagen in carbon isotopic studies to reconstruct prehistoric human diet. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pedogenic Formation of Perylene in a Terrestrial Soil Profile: Evidence From Carbon Isotopic Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocht, T.; Jochmann, M. A.; Blessing, M.; Barth, J.; Schmidt, T. C.; Grathwohl, P.

    2005-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistent organic pollutants (POP), which are introduced into the environment mainly due to combustion of fossil fuel. Perylene is one compound of the PAHs that consists of 5 condensed rings like the well known carcinogenic benzo(a)pyrene. Apart from the pyrogenic formation, there are strong indications that it is produced biologically and/or diagenetically under anaerobic conditions. This conclusion was derived from the presence of perylene in deeper parts of marine and lacustrine sediment profiles, where the combustion-derived PAHs are almost absent ( Lima et al., 2003). 13C/12C compound-specific stable isotopic ratios were successfully applied for the differentiation of probably biologically generated perylene in tropical termite nests and pyrolytic perylene from surface soils of temperate regions ( Wilcke et al., 2002). Our study is the first aiming on the determination of the different processes of perylene formation at one location using carbon isotopic ratios such as 13C/12C. We determined PAHs in natural soils of southern Germany. At one location in the Black Forest we found for the first time evidence for natural perylene production in the subsoil of terrestrial environments. Apart from the combustion derived PAHs that accumulate at the top of all soil profiles, the depth distribution of perylene shows the highest peak in the subsoil about 1 m below the surface. Due to its very low solubility (0.4 μg l-1 at 25 °C) vertical transport of perylene with seepage water is very unlikely. Thus, we suggest atmospheric deposition of pyrogenic perylene at the top of the profile and in-situ generation in the subsoil, probably due to microbial activities. In order to distinguish between the pyrogenic and natural generation we employed 13C/12C compound-specific stable isotope analysis of perylene in soil samples from the top of the profile as well as from the subsoil. Preliminary measurements with soil extracts show strong

  13. Stable Isotopes and Zooarchaeology at Teotihuacan, Mexico Reveal Earliest Evidence of Wild Carnivore Management in Mesoamerica

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Nawa; Somerville, Andrew D.; Schoeninger, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    From Roman gladiatorial combat to Egyptian animal mummies, the capture and manipulation of carnivores was instrumental in helping to shape social hierarchies throughout the ancient world. This paper investigates the historical inflection point when humans began to control animals not only as alimental resources but as ritual symbols and social actors in the New World. At Teotihuacan (A.D. 1–550), one of the largest pre-Hispanic cities, animal remains were integral components of ritual caches expressing state ideology and militarism during the construction of the Moon and the Sun Pyramids. The caches contain the remains of nearly 200 carnivorous animals, human sacrificial victims and other symbolic artifacts. This paper argues the presence of skeletal pathologies of infectious disease and injuries manifest on the carnivore remains show direct evidence of captivity. Stable isotope analysis (δ13C and δ15N) of bones and teeth confirms that some of these carnivores were consuming high levels of C4 foods, likely reflecting a maize-based anthropocentric food chain. These results push back the antiquity of keeping captive carnivores for ritualistic purposes nearly 1000 years before the Spanish conquistadors described Moctezuma’s zoo at the Aztec capital. Mirroring these documents the results indicate a select group of carnivores at Teotihuacan may have been fed maize-eating omnivores, such as dogs and humans. Unlike historical records, the present study provides the earliest and direct archaeological evidence for this practice in Mesoamerica. It also represents the first systematic isotopic exploration of a population of archaeological eagles (n = 24) and felids (n = 29). PMID:26332042

  14. Stable Isotopes and Zooarchaeology at Teotihuacan, Mexico Reveal Earliest Evidence of Wild Carnivore Management in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Nawa; Somerville, Andrew D; Schoeninger, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    From Roman gladiatorial combat to Egyptian animal mummies, the capture and manipulation of carnivores was instrumental in helping to shape social hierarchies throughout the ancient world. This paper investigates the historical inflection point when humans began to control animals not only as alimental resources but as ritual symbols and social actors in the New World. At Teotihuacan (A.D. 1-550), one of the largest pre-Hispanic cities, animal remains were integral components of ritual caches expressing state ideology and militarism during the construction of the Moon and the Sun Pyramids. The caches contain the remains of nearly 200 carnivorous animals, human sacrificial victims and other symbolic artifacts. This paper argues the presence of skeletal pathologies of infectious disease and injuries manifest on the carnivore remains show direct evidence of captivity. Stable isotope analysis (δ13C and δ15N) of bones and teeth confirms that some of these carnivores were consuming high levels of C4 foods, likely reflecting a maize-based anthropocentric food chain. These results push back the antiquity of keeping captive carnivores for ritualistic purposes nearly 1000 years before the Spanish conquistadors described Moctezuma's zoo at the Aztec capital. Mirroring these documents the results indicate a select group of carnivores at Teotihuacan may have been fed maize-eating omnivores, such as dogs and humans. Unlike historical records, the present study provides the earliest and direct archaeological evidence for this practice in Mesoamerica. It also represents the first systematic isotopic exploration of a population of archaeological eagles (n = 24) and felids (n = 29).

  15. STABLE ISOTOPIC EVIDENCE OF CARBON AND NITROGEN USE IN CULTURED ECTOMYCORRHIZAL AND SAPROTROPHIC FUNGI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotopes in sporocarps have proven useful for inferring ectomycorrhizal or saprotrophic status and understanding carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) utilization. However, greater understanding of processes producing isotopic concentrations is needed. We measured natural abundanc...

  16. STABLE ISOTOPIC EVIDENCE OF CARBON AND NITROGEN USE IN CULTURED ECTOMYCORRHIZAL AND SAPROTROPHIC FUNGI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotopes in sporocarps have proven useful for inferring ectomycorrhizal or saprotrophic status and understanding carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) utilization. However, greater understanding of processes producing isotopic concentrations is needed. We measured natural abundanc...

  17. COMPOUND-SPECIFIC CARBON AND HYDROGEN ISOTOPE ANALYSIS-FIELD EVIDENCE OF MTBE BIOREMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical reactions (including bio- and abiotic degradation) tend to favor molecules with the lighter isotopic species (e.g., 12C, 1H), resulting in enrichment of the heavier isotopic species (13C, D) in the unreacted substrate, referred to as isotopic fractionation. On the other ...

  18. Isotopic equilibration between dissolved and suspended particulate lead in the Atlantic Ocean - Evidence from Pb-210 and stable Pb isotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrell, Robert M.; Boyle, Edward A.; Hamelin, Bruno

    1992-01-01

    Vertical profiles of, on one hand, the stable Pb isotopic composition, and on the other, the ratio of total Pb to Pb-210 in suspended particles, are noted to closely track contemporaneous depth variations in these ratios for dissolved Pb throughout the upper 2 km of the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda. A simple flux model suggests that the effect of deep ocean scavenging processes on the flux and isotopic composition of Pb sinking on large particles was minor throughout the preanthropogenic, and most of the anthropogenic era: but it has become more important as surface inputs decrease to preleaded gasoline levels, perhaps exceeding the contribution of surface-derived Pb flux in the next decade.

  19. Isotopic equilibration between dissolved and suspended particulate lead in the Atlantic Ocean - Evidence from Pb-210 and stable Pb isotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrell, Robert M.; Boyle, Edward A.; Hamelin, Bruno

    1992-01-01

    Vertical profiles of, on one hand, the stable Pb isotopic composition, and on the other, the ratio of total Pb to Pb-210 in suspended particles, are noted to closely track contemporaneous depth variations in these ratios for dissolved Pb throughout the upper 2 km of the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda. A simple flux model suggests that the effect of deep ocean scavenging processes on the flux and isotopic composition of Pb sinking on large particles was minor throughout the preanthropogenic, and most of the anthropogenic era: but it has become more important as surface inputs decrease to preleaded gasoline levels, perhaps exceeding the contribution of surface-derived Pb flux in the next decade.

  20. Isotopic evidence of dietary variations and weaning practices in the Gaya cemetery at Yeanri, Gimhae, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choy, Kyungcheol; Jeon, Ok-Ryun; Fuller, Benjamin T; Richards, Micheal P

    2010-05-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses were conducted to investigate dietary variation in human skeletons (n = 109) from the Gaya cemetery at Yeanri located near Gimhae City, South Korea. The cemetery contained three distinct grave types dating to 4th-7th century AD. The main purposes of this research were to reconstruct palaeodiet in the Gaya population and to explore correlations between stable isotope compositions and burial types, inferred age, and sex of these individuals. The isotopic data indicate that the people at Yeanri consumed a predominantly C(3)-based terrestrial diet supplemented with freshwater and/or marine resources. The comparison of isotopic results reveals significant differences in delta(13)C values among three adult burial types (wood-cist coffin: -18.5 +/- 0.5 per thousand, stone-cist coffin: -18.1 +/- 0.6 per thousand, mausoleum: -17.8 +/- 0.9 per thousand). Males in wood-cist and stone-cist coffins have relatively more elevated mean delta(13)C and delta(15)N values than females. The isotopic ratios from the two adult age groups (21-40 years and 40-60 years) indicate that there was no significant dietary change in individuals with age. The isotope data from the infants and children suggest the weaning was a gradual process that was completed between 3 and 4 years of age in the Gaya population. This evidence indicates that the dietary variations within the cemetery reflect social status, sex, and childhood consumption patterns.

  1. Evidence for in-situ methane production in ice based on anomalous isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowers, T. A.; Priscu, J.

    2004-12-01

    the Sajama ice core from central Bolivia (18oS, 69oW, 6542masl), for example, were 1X-5X higher than contemporaneous values recorded in polar ice cores [Campen et al., 2003]. \\delta13CH4 values from five discrete depths were compared to corresponding measurements made on the Taylor Dome ice core and suggest the additional (in-situ) CH_{4} in the Sajama samples has an average isotopic composition of -63.2±2.8‰ . For reference, atmospheric δ ^{13}CH_{4} values range from -42 to -45/pm over this period. The Sajama isotope values are characteristic of methanogenic CH_{4} emitted from most terrestrial ecosystems. The second case study revolves around ice that was recovered from a perennially ice covered lake in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Previous work on ice from Lake Bonney demonstrated a rich microbial consortium located ~2m below the surface [Priscu et al., 1998]. Methane isotope analyses were made on ice from this depth interval to identify the presence of microbially produced CH_{4}. δ ^{13}CH_{4} and δ DCH4 results suggest the CH4 arises from acetogenic CH4 production as opposed to CO2 reduction. Campen, R.K., T. Sowers, and R.B. Alley, Evidence of Microbial Consortia Metabolizing Within a Low-Latitude Mountain Glacier, Geology, 31 (No. 3), 231-234, 2003. Priscu, J.C., et al., Perennial Antarctic Lake Ice: An oasis for life in a polar desert, Science, 280, 2095-2098, 1998.

  2. Carbon Retention and Isotopic Evolution in Deeply Subducted Sediments: Evidence from the Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook-Kollars, J.; Bebout, G. E.; Agard, P.; Angiboust, S.

    2012-12-01

    Subduction-zone metamorphism of oceanic crust and carbonate-rich seafloor sediments plays an important regulatory role in the global C cycle by controlling the fraction of subducting C entering long-term storage in the mantle and the fraction of subducting C emitted into the atmosphere in arc volcanic gases. Modeling studies suggest that the extent of decarbonation of subducting sediments could be strongly affected by extents of infiltration by external H2O-rich fluids and that, in cool subduction zones, the dehydration of subducting oceanic slabs may not release sufficient H2O to cause significant decarbonation of overlying sediments [Gorman et al. (2006), G-cubed; Hacker (2008), G-cubed]. Metasedimentary suites in the Western Alps (sampled from the Schistes Lustres, Zermatt-Saas ophiolite, and at Lago di Cignana) were subducted to depths corresponding to 1.5-3.2 GPa, over a range of peak temperatures of 350-600°C, and are associated with HP/UHP-metamorphosed Jurassic ophiolitic rocks [Agard et al. (2001), Bull. soc. geol. France; Frezzotti et al. (2011), Nature Geoscience]. These metasedimentary suites are composed of interlayered metapelites and metacarbonates and represent a range of peak P-T conditions experienced in modern, relatively cool subduction zones. Integrated petrologic and isotopic study of these rocks allows an analysis of decarbonation and isotopic exchange among oxidized and reduced C reservoirs along prograde subduction-zone P-T paths. Petrographic work on Schistes Lustres metacarbonates indicates only minor occurrences of calc-silicate phases, consistent with the rocks having experienced only very minor decarbonation during prograde metamorphism. Carbonate δ13CVPDB values (-1.5 to 1‰) are similar to values typical of marine carbonates. Higher grade, UHP-metamorphosed carbonates at Cignana show mineralogic evidence of decarbonation; however, the δ13C of the calcite in these samples remains similar to that of marine carbonate. With

  3. Insights into early Earth from Barberton komatiites: Evidence from lithophile isotope and trace element systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchtel, I. S.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Touboul, M.; Walker, R. J.; Byerly, G. R.; Nisbet, E. G.; Anhaeusser, C. R.

    2013-05-01

    Major, minor, and lithophile trace element abundances and Nd and Hf isotope systematics are reported for two sets of remarkably fresh, by Archean standards, samples of komatiitic lavas from the 3.48 Ga Komati and the 3.27 Ga Weltevreden Formations of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB) in South Africa. These data are used to place new constraints on the thermal history of the early Archean mantle, on the timing of its differentiation, and on the origin and chemical nature of early mantle reservoirs and their evolution through time. Projected moderate to strong depletions of highly incompatible lithophile trace elements and water in the mantle sources of both komatiite systems, combined with the partitioning behavior of V during lava differentiation, are consistent with anhydrous conditions during generation of the komatiite magmas. Komati and Weltevreden lavas are inferred to have erupted with temperatures of ∼1600 °C, and, thus, represent the hottest known lavas on Earth. The calculated mantle potential temperatures of ∼1800 °C for both komatiite systems are 150-200 °C higher than those of contemporary ambient mantle. Combined, these observations are consistent with the origin of these BGB komatiite magmas in mantle plumes in the lower mantle. New Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotopic data allow precise determination of initial ε143Nd = +0.46 ± 0.10 and +0.50 ± 0.11 and initial ε176Hf = +1.9 ± 0.3 and +4.7 ± 0.8 for the Komati and the Weltevreden system komatiites, respectively. These positive initial values reflect prior fractionation of Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf in the mantle early in Earth history. Conversely, μ142Nd values are 0.0 ± 2.4 and +2.2 ± 4.1 for the Komati and the Weltevreden systems, respectively. These values overlap, within uncertainties, those of modern terrestrial rocks, thus, limiting the magnitudes of possible Sm/Nd fractionations generated by early Earth processes in the sources of these rocks. Combined 142,143Nd and Hf isotope and lithophile trace

  4. Calcium isotope evidence for suppression of carbonate dissolution in carbonate-bearing organic-rich sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchyn, Alexandra V.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2011-11-01

    sites (the actual rates could be significantly slower) because other processes that impact the calcium isotope composition of sedimentary pore fluid have not been included. The results provide direct geochemical evidence for the anecdotal observation that the best-preserved carbonate fossils are often found in clay or organic-rich sedimentary horizons. The results also suggest that the presence of clay minerals has a strong passivating effect on the surfaces of biogenic carbonate minerals, slowing dissolution dramatically even in relation to the already-slow rates typical of carbonate-rich sediments.

  5. Stable carbon isotope evidence for nitrogenous fertilizer impact on carbonate weathering in a small agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Brunet, F; Potot, C; Probst, A; Probst, J-L

    2011-10-15

    The isotopic signature of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC), δ(13)C(DIC), has been investigated in the surface waters of a small agricultural catchment on calcareous substratum, Montoussé, located at Auradé (south-west France). The Montoussé catchment is subjected to intense farming (wheat/sunflower rotation) and a moderated application of nitrogenous fertilizers. During the nitrification of the NH(4)(+), supplied by fertilization, nitrate and H(+) ions are produced in the soil. This anthropogenic acidity is combined with the natural acidity due to carbonic acid in weathering processes. From an isotopic point of view, with 'natural weathering', using carbonic acid, δ(13)C(DIC) is intermediate between the δ(13)C of soil CO(2) produced by organic matter oxidation and that of the carbonate rocks, while it has the same value as the carbonates when carbonic acid is substituted by another acid like nitric acid derived from nitrogen fertilizer. The δ(13)C(DIC) values range from -17.1‰ to -10.7‰ in Montoussé stream waters. We also measured the δ(13)C of calcareous molassic deposits (average -7.9‰) and of soil organic carbon (between -24.1‰ and -26‰) to identify the different sources of DIC and to estimate their contribution. The δ(13) C(DIC) value indicates that weathering largely follows the carbonic acid pathway at the springs (sources of the stream). At the outlet of the basin, H(+) ions, produced during the nitrification of N-fertilizer, also contribute to weathering, especially during flood events. This result is illustrated by the relationship between δ(13)C(DIC) and the molar ratio NO(3)(-)/(Ca(2+) + Mg(2+)). Consequently, when the contribution of nitrate increases, the δ(13)C(DIC) increases towards the calcareous end-member. This new isotopic result provides evidence for the direct influence of nitrogen fertilizer inputs on weathering, CO(2) consumption and base cation leaching and confirms previous results obtained using the chemistry of the

  6. Isotopic evidence of source variations in commingled magma systems: Colorado River extensional corridor, Arizona and Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, R.V.; Smith, E.I.; Martin, M.W. . Dept. of Geoscience); Gonzales, D.A.; Walker, J.D. . Isotope Geochronology Lab.)

    1993-04-01

    Mixing of mantle derived mafic and crustal derived felsic magmas is a major Province-wide process forming Tertiary intermediate magmas within the Basin and Range. Major variations in magma sources, however, may exist in temporally and spatially related systems. Such variations are exemplified by two closely spaced plutons within the northern Colorado River extensional corridor. The 15.96 Ma Mt. Perkins pluton (MPP) was emplaced in three major phases: phase 1 (oldest) gabbro; phase 2 quartz diorite to hornblende granodiorite; and phase 3 biotite granodiorite ([+-]hbld). Phases 2 and 3 contain mafic microgranitoid enclaves (MME) that exhibit evidence of magma mingling. Combined data from phase 2 and 3 rocks, including MMW, shows positive [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr and negative [var epsilon]Nd correlations vs. SiO[sub 2] (50--72 wt %). Phase 2 rocks, which plot between phase 2 MME and MME-free phase 3 granodiorite, represent hybrid magmas formed by mixing of mantle and crustal derived magmas. Phase 1 gabbro falls off isotope-SiO[sub 2] trends and represents a separate mantle derived magma. The 13.2 Ma Wilson Ridge pluton (WRP), <20 km north of MPP, is cogenetic with the river Mountains volcano (RMV). In WRP an early diorite was intruded by a suite of monzodiorite to quartz monzonite. The monzodiorite portion contains MME and mafic schlieren representing mingled and mixed mafic magmas. The WRP and MPP represent two closely spaced isotopically distinct and separate magma systems. There are five magma sources. The two felsic mixing end members represent two different crustal magma sources. Two mantle sources are presented by MPP phase 1 gabbro and phase 2 MME, reflecting lithospheric and asthenospheric components, respectively. The latter represents the oldest reported Tertiary asthenospheric component within the region. A single lithospheric mantle source, different from the MPP gabbro, is indicated for the mafic mixing end member in the WRP-RMV suite.

  7. Upper Paleozoic oceanic crust in the Polish Sudetes: NdSr isotope and trace element evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pin, C.; Majerowicz, A.; Wojciechowska, I.

    1988-03-01

    The two main mafic-ultramafic complexes outcropping in the Polish Sudetes around the Sowie Góry high-grade massif (Mt. Sleza and Nowa Ruda) have been studied for trace elements and NdSr isotopes. Upper Paleozoic SmNd whole-rock isochron ages are obtained for both massifs: 353 ± 21 Ma (2σ) with ɛi = + 8.8 ± 0.1 (Mt. Sleza) and 351 ± 16 Ma with ɛi = 8.5 ± 0.1 (Nowa Ruda). The high initial ɛNd point to a source characterized by a strong time-integrated LREE depletion and, along with incompatible trace-element patterns, they substantiate the oceanic derivation of these massifs. Although a subduction-related marginal basin setting cannot be totally precluded, trace-element and isotopic data rather suggest a normal mid-ocean ridge origin for the Sudetic ophiolites. While these results are in marked contrast with previously inferred Precambrian or early Paleozoic ages, remnants of oceanic crust as young as the Early Carboniferous are consistent with the local sedimentary record of pelagic facies from the Frasnian to the Tournaisian, and they may provide a suitable explanation for the contrasted evolution displayed by different domains of the Sudetes. The Sudetic ophiolites might tentatively be correlated with the upper Paleozoic "prasinites" of the Saxon Lineament if a Late Hercynian ca. 150 km dextral offset is assumed along the Elbe Fracture. In that case, they might represent the latest-stage remnants of an oceanic suture zone between the Saxo-Thuringian and Moldanubian zones. Together with several other examples throughout Europe, these ophiolites provide compelling evidence for the involvement of oceanic crust and plate-tectonic processes in the Variscan belt.

  8. Identification of groundwater nitrate contamination from explosives used in road construction: Isotopic, chemical, and hydrologic evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Degnan, James R.; Böhlke, John Karl; Pelham, Krystle; David M. Langlais,; Walsh, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Explosives used in construction have been implicated as sources of NO3– contamination in groundwater, but direct forensic evidence is limited. Identification of blasting-related NO3– can be complicated by other NO3– sources, including agriculture and wastewater disposal, and by hydrogeologic factors affecting NO3– transport and stability. Here we describe a study that used hydrogeology, chemistry, stable isotopes, and mass balance calculations to evaluate groundwater NO3– sources and transport in areas surrounding a highway construction site with documented blasting in New Hampshire. Results indicate various groundwater responses to contamination: (1) rapid breakthrough and flushing of synthetic NO3– (low δ15N, high δ18O) from dissolution of unexploded NH4NO3 blasting agents in oxic groundwater; (2) delayed and reduced breakthrough of synthetic NO3– subjected to partial denitrification (high δ15N, high δ18O); (3) relatively persistent concentrations of blasting-related biogenic NO3– derived from nitrification of NH4+ (low δ15N, low δ18O); and (4) stable but spatially variable biogenic NO3– concentrations, consistent with recharge from septic systems (high δ15N, low δ18O), variably affected by denitrification. Source characteristics of denitrified samples were reconstructed from dissolved-gas data (Ar, N2) and isotopic fractionation trends associated with denitrification (Δδ15N/Δδ18O ≈ 1.31). Methods and data from this study are expected to be applicable in studies of other aquifers affected by explosives used in construction.

  9. Evidence from Hydrogen Isotopes in Meteorites for a Subsurface Hydrogen Reservoir on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usui, Tomohiro; Alexander, Conel M. O'D.; Wang, Jianhua; Simon, Justin I.; Jones, John H.

    2015-01-01

    The surface geology and geomorphology of Mars indicates that it was once warm enough to maintain a large body of liquid water on its surface, though such a warm environment might have been transient. The transition to the present cold and dry Mars is closely linked to the history of surface water, yet the evolution of surficial water is poorly constrained. We have conducted in situ hydrogen isotope (D/H) analyses of quenched and impact glasses in three Martian meteorites (Yamato 980459, EETA79001, LAR 06319) by Cameca ims-6f at Digital Terrain Models (DTM) following the methods of [1]. The hydrogen isotope analyses provide evidence for the existence of a distinct but ubiquitous water/ice reservoir (D/H = 2-3 times Earth's ocean water: Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW)) that lasted from at least the time when the meteorites crystallized (173-472 Ma) to the time they were ejected by impacts (0.7-3.3 Ma), but possibly much longer [2]. The origin of this reservoir appears to predate the current Martian atmospheric water (D/H equals approximately 5-6 times SMOW) and is unlikely to be a simple mixture of atmospheric and primordial water retained in the Martian mantle (D/H is approximately equal to SMOW [1]). Given the fact that this intermediate-D/H reservoir (2-3 times SMOW) is observed in a diverse range of Martian materials with different ages (e.g., SNC (Shergottites, Nakhlites, Chassignites) meteorites, including shergottites such as ALH 84001; and Curiosity surface data [3]), we conclude that this intermediate-D/H reservoir is likely a global surficial feature that has remained relatively intact over geologic time. We propose that this reservoir represents either hydrated crust and/or ground ice interbedded within sediments. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that a buried cryosphere accounts for a large part of the initial water budget of Mars.

  10. STABLE CARBON ISOTOPES OF HCO//3 IN THE AQUIA AQUIFER, MARYLAND: EVIDENCE FOR AN ISOTOPICALLY HEAVY SOURCE OF CO//2.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Knobel, LeRoy L.

    1985-01-01

    Identifying sources and sinks of dissolved inorganic carbon species is an important step in understanding the geochemistry of ground-water systems. This is particularly important for Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers because bicarbonate (HCO//3** minus ) is frequently the major dissolved anion. The purpose of this paper is to document the stable carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in the Aquia aquifer, Maryland, and to use this data to help identify sources and sinks of dissolved HCO//3** minus . Subjects covered include hydrogeology, ground-water chemistry, sources and sinks, and others. Refs.

  11. Interaction of surface water and groundwater in the Nile River basin: isotopic and piezometric evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Seifu; Abdalla, Osman; Sefelnasr, Ahmed; Tindimugaya, Callist; Mustafa, Osman

    2017-05-01

    Past discussions around water-resources management and development in the River Nile basin disregard groundwater resources from the equation. There is an increasing interest around factoring the groundwater resources as an integral part of the Nile Basin water resources. This is hampered by knowledge gap regarding the groundwater resources dynamics (recharge, storage, flow, quality, surface-water/groundwater interaction) at basin scale. This report provides a comprehensive analysis of the state of surface-water/groundwater interaction from the headwater to the Nile Delta region. Piezometric and isotopic (δ18O, δ2H) evidence reveal that the Nile changes from a gaining stream in the headwater regions to mostly a loosing stream in the arid lowlands of Sudan and Egypt. Specific zones of Nile water leakage to the adjacent aquifers is mapped using the two sources of evidence. Up to 50% of the surface-water flow in the equatorial region of the Nile comes from groundwater as base flow. The evidence also shows that the natural direction and rate of surface-water/groundwater interaction is largely perturbed by human activities (diversion, dam construction) particularly downstream of the Aswan High Dam in Egypt. The decrease in discharge of the Nile River along its course is attributed to leakage to the aquifers as well as to evaporative water loss from the river channel. The surface-water/groundwater interaction occurring along the Nile River and its sensitivity to infrastructure development calls for management strategies that account groundwater as an integral part of the Nile Basin resources.

  12. Interaction of surface water and groundwater in the Nile River basin: isotopic and piezometric evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Seifu; Abdalla, Osman; Sefelnasr, Ahmed; Tindimugaya, Callist; Mustafa, Osman

    2016-12-01

    Past discussions around water-resources management and development in the River Nile basin disregard groundwater resources from the equation. There is an increasing interest around factoring the groundwater resources as an integral part of the Nile Basin water resources. This is hampered by knowledge gap regarding the groundwater resources dynamics (recharge, storage, flow, quality, surface-water/groundwater interaction) at basin scale. This report provides a comprehensive analysis of the state of surface-water/groundwater interaction from the headwater to the Nile Delta region. Piezometric and isotopic (δ18O, δ2H) evidence reveal that the Nile changes from a gaining stream in the headwater regions to mostly a loosing stream in the arid lowlands of Sudan and Egypt. Specific zones of Nile water leakage to the adjacent aquifers is mapped using the two sources of evidence. Up to 50% of the surface-water flow in the equatorial region of the Nile comes from groundwater as base flow. The evidence also shows that the natural direction and rate of surface-water/groundwater interaction is largely perturbed by human activities (diversion, dam construction) particularly downstream of the Aswan High Dam in Egypt. The decrease in discharge of the Nile River along its course is attributed to leakage to the aquifers as well as to evaporative water loss from the river channel. The surface-water/groundwater interaction occurring along the Nile River and its sensitivity to infrastructure development calls for management strategies that account groundwater as an integral part of the Nile Basin resources.

  13. OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF THE ALLENDE TYPE C CAIs: EVIDENCE FOR ISOTOPIC EXCHANGE DURING NEBULAR MELTING AND ASTEROIDAL THERMAL METAMORPHISM

    SciTech Connect

    Krot, A N; Chaussidon, M; Yurimoto, H; Sakamoto, N; Nagashima, K; Hutcheon, I D; MacPherson, G J

    2008-02-21

    Based on the mineralogy and petrography, coarse-grained, igneous, anorthite-rich (Type C) calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende have been recently divided into three groups: (i) CAIs with melilite and Al,Ti-diopside of massive and lacy textures (coarse grains with numerous rounded inclusions of anorthite) in a fine-grained anorthite groundmass (6-1-72, 100, 160), (ii) CAI CG5 with massive melilite, Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite, and (iii) CAIs associated with chondrule material: either containing chondrule fragments in their peripheries (ABC, TS26) or surrounded by chondrule-like, igneous rims (93) (Krot et al., 2007a,b). Here, we report in situ oxygen isotopic measurements of primary (melilite, spinel, Al,Ti-diopside, anorthite) and secondary (grossular, monticellite, forsterite) minerals in these CAIs. Spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -25{per_thousand} to -20{per_thousand}), massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -20{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}) and fine-grained anorthite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -15{per_thousand} to -2{per_thousand}) in 100, 160 and 6-1-72 are {sup 16}O-enriched relative spinel and coarse-grained Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite in ABC, 93 and TS26 ({Delta}{sup 17}O ranges from -20{per_thousand} to -15{per_thousand}, from -15{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}, and from -5{per_thousand} to 0{per_thousand}, respectively). In 6-1-72, massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside grains are {sup 16}O-depleted ({Delta}{sup 17}O {approx} -13{per_thousand}) relative to spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -23{per_thousand}). Melilite is the most {sup 16}O-depleted mineral in all Allende Type C CAIs. In CAI 100, melilite and secondary grossular, monticellite and forsterite (minerals replacing melilite) are similarly {sup 16}O-depleted, whereas grossular in CAI 160 is {sup 16}O-enriched ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -10{per_thousand} to -6{per_thousand}) relative to melilite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -5{per_thousand} to -3{per_thousand}). We infer

  14. Reply to: “Recycled” volatiles in mantle derived diamonds—Evidence from nitrogen and noble gas isotopic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautheron, Cécile; Cartigny, Pierre; Moreira, Manuel; Harris, Jeff W.; Allègre, Claude J.

    2006-11-01

    In a reinterpretation of our published rare gas data obtained on polycrystalline diamonds from the Orapa kimberlite (Botswana) [C.E. Gautheron, P. Cartigny, M. Moreira, J.W. Harris and C.J. Allègre, Evidence for a mantle component shown by rare gases, C. and N isotopes in polycrystalline diamonds from Orapa (Botswana), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 240 (2005) 559-572.], Mohapatra and Honda [R.K. Mohapatra, and M. Honda, "Recycled" volatiles in mantle derived diamonds-evidence from nitrogen and noble gas isotopic data, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., this issue, 2006.] claim that mixing between a-priori defined proportions of subducted seawater, subducted recycled oceanic crust, recycled sediments, air and the mantle would be more appropriate to account for the observations. This view sharply contrasts with our conclusions that the chemical and isotope compositions of rare gases record diamond formation from mantle-derived fluid(s) together with mantle post-crystallization radiogenic/nucleogenic/fissiogenic ingrowth and preferential diffusion of the lightest atoms out of the diamonds in the mantle [C.E. Gautheron, P. Cartigny, M. Moreira, J.W. Harris and C.J. Allègre, Evidence for a mantle component shown by rare gases, C and N isotopes in polycrystalline diamonds from Orapa (Botswana), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 240 (2005) 559-572.]. We present here reasons why the alternative view of Mohapatra and Honda [R.K. Mohapatra and M. Honda, "Recycled" volatiles in mantle derived diamonds-evidence from nitrogen and noble gas isotopic data, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., this issue, 2006.] is not supportable.

  15. A randomized controlled trial of the plastic-housing BioSand filter and its impact on diarrheal disease in Copan, Honduras.

    PubMed

    Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna M; Stauber, Christine E; Walters, Adam R; Meza Sanchez, Rony E; Sobsey, Mark D

    2012-06-01

    Point of use drinking water treatment with the BioSand filter (BSF) allows people to treat their water in the home. The purpose of this research was to document the ability of the Hydraid plastic-housing BSF to reduce diarrheal disease in households who received a BSF in a randomized controlled trial. The trial of the Hydraid plastic-housing BSF was carried out in rural, mountainous communities in Copan, Honduras during April of 2008 to February of 2009. A logistic regression adjusting for clustering showed that the incidence of diarrheal disease in children under 5 years was reduced by approximately 45% (odds ratio = 0.55, 95% confidence interval = 0.28, 1.10) in households that had a BSF compared with those households without a BSF, but this finding fluctuated depending on season and was not statistically significant. Households with a BSF had significantly better drinking water quality regardless of water source or season.

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Plastic-Housing BioSand Filter and Its Impact on Diarrheal Disease in Copan, Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna M.; Stauber, Christine E.; Walters, Adam R.; Meza Sanchez, Rony E.; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Point of use drinking water treatment with the BioSand filter (BSF) allows people to treat their water in the home. The purpose of this research was to document the ability of the Hydraid plastic-housing BSF to reduce diarrheal disease in households who received a BSF in a randomized controlled trial. The trial of the Hydraid plastic-housing BSF was carried out in rural, mountainous communities in Copan, Honduras during April of 2008 to February of 2009. A logistic regression adjusting for clustering showed that the incidence of diarrheal disease in children under 5 years was reduced by approximately 45% (odds ratio = 0.55, 95% confidence interval = 0.28, 1.10) in households that had a BSF compared with those households without a BSF, but this finding fluctuated depending on season and was not statistically significant. Households with a BSF had significantly better drinking water quality regardless of water source or season. PMID:22665593

  17. Post-eruptive alteration of silicic ignimbrites and lavas, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands - Strontium, neodymium, lead, and oxygen isotopic evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cousens, Brian L.; Spera, Frank J.; Dobson, Patrick F.

    1993-01-01

    The isotopic composition of lavas from oceanic islands provides important information about the composition and evolution of the earth's mantle. Isotopic analyses of Miocene comenditic, pantelleritic, and trachyphonolitic ignimbrites and lavas from the Canary islands were performed. Results provide evidence for posteruptive mobility of Rb and Sr during low temperature postemplacement interaction with circulating ground water. Calculated Sr isotope ratios define a magmatic trend in the stratigraph section. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in hydrated vitrophyte and devitrified matrix separates indicate significant posteruptive interaction with meteoric water starting soon after deposition. This process extends patchily through the entire pyroclastic flow and may be ongoing. 87Sr/86Sr ratios determined by whole rock analysis of silicic rocks from oceanic islands are suspect and should not be incorporated into mantle tracer studies. Anorthoclase phenocrysts are resistant to these processes and may produce useful data.

  18. Evidence from stable isotopes and 10Be for solar system formation triggered by a low-mass supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Projjwal; Qian, Yong-Zhong; Heger, Alexander; Haxton, W. C.

    2016-11-01

    About 4.6 billion years ago, some event disturbed a cloud of gas and dust, triggering the gravitational collapse that led to the formation of the solar system. A core-collapse supernova, whose shock wave is capable of compressing such a cloud, is an obvious candidate for the initiating event. This hypothesis can be tested because supernovae also produce telltale patterns of short-lived radionuclides, which would be preserved today as isotopic anomalies. Previous studies of the forensic evidence have been inconclusive, finding a pattern of isotopes differing from that produced in conventional supernova models. Here we argue that these difficulties either do not arise or are mitigated if the initiating supernova was a special type, low in mass and explosion energy. Key to our conclusion is the demonstration that short-lived 10Be can be readily synthesized in such supernovae by neutrino interactions, while anomalies in stable isotopes are suppressed.

  19. Evidence from stable isotopes and (10)Be for solar system formation triggered by a low-mass supernova.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Projjwal; Qian, Yong-Zhong; Heger, Alexander; Haxton, W C

    2016-11-22

    About 4.6 billion years ago, some event disturbed a cloud of gas and dust, triggering the gravitational collapse that led to the formation of the solar system. A core-collapse supernova, whose shock wave is capable of compressing such a cloud, is an obvious candidate for the initiating event. This hypothesis can be tested because supernovae also produce telltale patterns of short-lived radionuclides, which would be preserved today as isotopic anomalies. Previous studies of the forensic evidence have been inconclusive, finding a pattern of isotopes differing from that produced in conventional supernova models. Here we argue that these difficulties either do not arise or are mitigated if the initiating supernova was a special type, low in mass and explosion energy. Key to our conclusion is the demonstration that short-lived (10)Be can be readily synthesized in such supernovae by neutrino interactions, while anomalies in stable isotopes are suppressed.

  20. Evidence from stable isotopes and 10Be for solar system formation triggered by a low-mass supernova

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Projjwal; Qian, Yong-Zhong; Heger, Alexander; Haxton, W C

    2016-01-01

    About 4.6 billion years ago, some event disturbed a cloud of gas and dust, triggering the gravitational collapse that led to the formation of the solar system. A core-collapse supernova, whose shock wave is capable of compressing such a cloud, is an obvious candidate for the initiating event. This hypothesis can be tested because supernovae also produce telltale patterns of short-lived radionuclides, which would be preserved today as isotopic anomalies. Previous studies of the forensic evidence have been inconclusive, finding a pattern of isotopes differing from that produced in conventional supernova models. Here we argue that these difficulties either do not arise or are mitigated if the initiating supernova was a special type, low in mass and explosion energy. Key to our conclusion is the demonstration that short-lived 10Be can be readily synthesized in such supernovae by neutrino interactions, while anomalies in stable isotopes are suppressed. PMID:27873999

  1. Evidence of a warm early instrumental period found in temperature related water isotope records from high elevation Alpine ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohleber, Pascal; Schöner, Wolfgang; Wagenbach, Dietmar

    2015-04-01

    reason for the systematic discrepancies within the EIP is not settled, we discuss their implications with respect to performing a calibration of the ice core isotope thermometer against instrumental data over the entire instrumental period. In order to illustrate dating uncertainties and the intricate role of snow deposition, the inter-core isotope comparison is supplemented by impurity time series, including a tentative look at evidence of volcanic eruptions within the EIP. Finally, newest ice core isotope evidence is evaluated in the light of inconsistencies between the multi-decadal temperature variability derived from instrumental and other proxy sources, including the possibility of the EIP-correction of instrumental data being overestimated, at least, with respect to the high Alpine air temperature.

  2. Two isotopically distinct fluid components involved in the Mariana arc: Evidence from Nb/B ratios and B, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Tera, Fouad

    1999-01-01

    Nb/B ratios and δ11B values of Mariana lavas reveal the involvement of two isotopically distinct slab-derived fluids in the magma genesis. The evidence of one type of fluid is observed in lavas of the islands of Anatahan, Alamagan, Agrigan, and Uracas, in which simple mixing between fluid with very homogeneous δ11B values (+5.40‰ ± 0.05‰) and the mantle wedge controls the magma compositions. In lavas of the islands of Guguan, Asuncion, and Pagan, however, the fluids that mixed with the mantle wedge are significantly heterogeneous in δ11B (+5.4‰ to +7.6‰) even within a single island. The compositional difference between these two types of fluid can result from different ratios of sediment to altered oceanic crust (AOC) in the slabs, and this hypothesis is consistent with the Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope data. We propose that the variable isotope compositions of the latter fluid may be derived from local changes in sediment/AOC ratios of the slab that are caused by subduction of the Magellan seamounts beneath the Mariana arc.

  3. Mass dependent isotope fractionation during impacts induced the Archaean mass-independent fractionation of sulphur: Evidence against Great Oxidation Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.

    2010-12-01

    A prevailing hypothesis, low-oxygen level of the Archaean atmosphere, relies strongly on the presence of strong mass-independent fractionation (MIF) of the sulfur isotopes in sulfide- and sulfate-bearing minerals older than 2.4 billion years. Actually, there is “a broad overlap between MIF signals observed within Archaean sedimentary sequences and periods of enhanced asteroid impacts represented by impact ejecta/fallout units”(Glikson 2010) (Fig. 1). Moreover, usually MIF- related sulphur occurs in the Archaean sedimentary rocks as pyrite (FeS2) which has been found in the K-T boundary clay beds and in several identified impact craters, which is an independent argument in favor of pyrites could be the product of impact. Impact processes (vaporization and condensation) are sufficient to explain the MIF signals following the principle: the earlier the condensed material, the more enriched in lighter isotopes (Huang 2010). The nature of the MIF of the sulfur isotopes is that the fractionation of isotope is still mass dependent during impacts, which means the measured nonzero Δ33S values of Archean sulfide- and sulfate-bearing minerals indicate that their different condensation sequences. Another important line of evidence that support the impact-generated MIF of the sulfur isotopes comes from the various iron isotope values of the pyrites especially those with iron isotope heterogeneity at grain scale. Thus, it is clear that the signals are the markers of impact rather than O2 poor atmosphere. Furthermore, this can also account for the lack of MIF-S in several Archaean units before 2.4 billion years. Figure 1 Plot of mass-independent fractionation of sulphur and asteroid impact events with age. Modified from Glikson (2010)

  4. Biogeochemical processes in the saline meromictic Lake Kaiike, Japan: implications from molecular isotopic evidences of photosynthetic pigments.

    PubMed

    Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Nakajima, Yoji; Okada, Hisatake; Ogawa, Nanako O; Suga, Hisami; Oguri, Kazumasa; Kitazato, Hiroshi

    2005-07-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions were determined for individual photosynthetic pigments isolated and purified from the saline meromictic Lake Kaiike, Japan, to investigate species-independent biogeochemical processes of photoautotrophs in the natural environment. In the anoxic monimolimnion and benthic microbial mats, the carbon isotopic compositions of BChls e and isorenieratene related to brown-coloured strains of green sulfur bacteria are substantially ( approximately 10 per thousand) depleted in (13)C relative to those found in the chemocline. In conjunction with 16S rDNA evidence reported previously, it strongly suggests that Pelodyctyon luteolum inhabited and photosynthesized in the anoxic monimolimnion and benthic microbial mats by using (13)C-depleted regenerated CO(2). By contrast, both Chl a and BChl a in the monimolimnion and microbial mats have similar isotopic compositions as they do in the chemocline, implying that the source organisms live only in the chemocline. In the chemocline, the nitrogen isotopic compositions of BChl e homologues ranges from -7.7 to-6.5 per thousand, whereas that of BChl a is -2.1 per thousand. These isotopic compositions suggest that green sulfur bacteria Chlorobium phaeovibrioides would conduct nitrogen fixation in the chemocline, whereas purple sulfur bacteria Halochromatium sp. and cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. may assimilate nitrite.

  5. [Carbon isotope (13C/12C) effect of photorespiration in photosynthetic organisms. Evidence for existence, probable mechanism].

    PubMed

    Ivlev, A A

    2002-01-01

    Experimental evidence in favor of the new phenomenon predicted for photosynthesizing organisms, the fractionation of carbon isotopes in photorespiration is presented. A possible mechanism of this process is discussed. The fractionation of carbon in isotopes photorespiration occurs in the oxygenase phase of the functioning of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco), the key enzyme of photosynthesis, which is capable to act as carboxylase and oxygenase. Which function of the enzyme is active depends on CO2/O2 concentration ratio, which periodically changes in a cell. The key reaction in the mechanism of carbon isotope fractionation in photorespiration is glycine decarboxylation, which results in the splitting and removal from the cell of CO2 enriched with 12C and the accumulation of 13C photorespiratory carbon flow. The coupling of photorespiration and CO2 photoassimilation gives rise to two isotopically different carbon flows, which fill up separate carbohydrate pools, which are the sources of carbon in the following syntheses in the dark phase of photosynthesis. This enables one to identify, from the carbon isotope ratio of metabolites, their involvement in the photorespiratory and assimilatory carbon flows, to investigate the pathways of carbon metabolism, and to estimate more thoroughly the biosynthetic role of photorespiration.

  6. ISOTOPIC AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MERCURY IN ORGANS AND TISSUES OF FISH IN A MERCURY-POLLUTED LAKE: EVIDENCE FOR FRACTIONATION OF MERCURY ISOTOPES BY PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Togwell A

    2017-09-19

    Organs and tissues of whitefish and trout from mercury (Hg)-polluted Lake Ontario were analysed for Hg isotopes, methylmercury (CH3 Hg(+) ), and inorganic Hg to investigate possible mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) of Hg isotopes by physiological processes of the fish. Isotope signatures of different body parts were defined by δ-values of (198) Hg/(202) Hg, (199) Hg/(202) Hg, (200) Hg/(202) Hg, and (201) Hg/(202) Hg ratios and by Δ-values representing effects of MIF on (199) Hg/(202) Hg and (201) Hg/(202) Hg ratios. The research yielded the following evidence for MDF and MIF, including MIF of isotopes with even as well as odd mass numbers, by metabolic activities: (1) anomalously low δ-values for whitefish kidneys but not for trout kidneys; (2) widely varying differences between the δ-values of different body parts of whitefish but practically uniform differences for those of trout; (3) different relationships between Δ(199) Hg and Δ(201) Hg for whitefish than for trout; (4) non-linear correlation between δ(198) Hg and δ(200) Hg for whitefish but linear correlation for trout; (5) an inverse correlation between the δ(199) Hg values and CH3 Hg(+) concentrations of whitefish and trout; (6) an inverse correlation between the δ(201) Hg/δ(199) Hg and CH3 Hg(+) /inorganic Hg ratios of trout kidneys and gills (and lipids of trout near the sources of pollution) but a positive correlation for muscle, liver, and gut; and (7) inverse correlations between Δ(199) Hg and the CH3 Hg(+) /inorganic Hg ratio for trout liver, kidneys, and gut. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Nitrogen Isotope Evidence for a Shift in Eastern Beringian Nitrogen Cycle after the Terminal Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmasebi, F.; Longstaffe, F. J.; Zazula, G.

    2016-12-01

    The loess deposits of eastern Beringia, a region in North America between 60° and 70°N latitude and bounded by Chukchi Sea to the west and the Mackenzie River to the east, are a magnificent repository of Late Pleistocene megafauna fossils. The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of these fossils are measured to determine the paleodiet of these animals, and hence the paleoenvironment of this ecosystem during the Quaternary. For this approach to be most successful, however, requires consideration of possible changes in nutrient cycling and hence the carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of vegetation in this ecosystem. To test for such a shift following the terminal Pleistocene, we analyzed the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of modern plants and bone collagen of Arctic ground squirrels from Yukon Territory, and fossil plants and bones recovered from Late Pleistocene fossil Arctic ground squirrel nests. The data for modern samples provided a measure of the isotopic fractionation between ground squirrel bone collagen and their diet. The over-wintering isotopic effect of decay on typical forage grasses was also measured to evaluate its role in determining fossil plant isotopic compositions. The grasses showed only a minor change ( 0-1 ‰) in carbon isotope composition, but a major change ( 2-10 ‰) in nitrogen isotope composition over the 317-day experiment. Based on the modern carbon isotope fractionation between ground squirrel bone collagen and their diet, the modern vegetation carbon isotopic baseline provides a suitable proxy for the Late Pleistocene of eastern Beringia, after accounting for the Suess effect. However, the predicted nitrogen isotope composition of vegetation comprising the diet of fossil ground squirrels remains 2.5 ‰ higher than modern grasslands in this area, even after accounting for possible N-15 enrichment during decay. This result suggests a change in N cycling in this region since the Late Pleistocene.

  8. Atmospheric evidence for a global secular increase in isotopic discrimination of land photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeling, R. F.; Graven, H. D.; Welp, L.; Piper, S. C.; Bollenbacher, A.; Resplandy, L.; Meijer, H. A. J.

    2016-12-01

    A decrease in the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2 owing to the addition of fossil-fuel derived CO2, known as the 13C-Suess effect, has been documented by direct observations since 1977 and from ice-core measurements since the industrial revolution. Measurements of this decrease have previously been used to constrain land and ocean carbon sinks. Here we show, however, that no plausible combination of land and ocean sinks can explain the 13C/12C decrease unless an increase has occurred in the isotopic discrimination of land photosynthesis, i.e. the tendency of land plants to preferentially assimilate 12CO2 compared to 13CO2. A trend toward greater discrimination at higher CO2 levels is broadly consistent with geological evidence for the response of C3 plants at times of altered atmospheric CO2 as well as with tree-ring studies over the past century. The discrimination trend will be discussed in the context of theories for optimal stomatal behavior under changing atmospheric CO2.

  9. Isotopic and elemental evidence for Scabland Flood sediments offshore Vancouver Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gombiner, Joel H.; Hemming, Sidney R.; Hendy, Ingrid L.; Bryce, Julia G.; Blichert-Toft, Janne

    2016-05-01

    Geological records contain evidence for catastrophic ice-sheet processes such as megafloods and massive ice discharges. Such large-scale phenomena, associated with ice sheet collapse, rapid sea-level rise, and disruptions to ocean circulation, have never been directly observed, but are forecast as a consequence of global warming. Here we use potassium-argon (K/Ar) ages and neodymium (Nd) isotopes as provenance tools to show that cyclical megafloods from the Cordilleran Ice Sheet of western North America traveled through the Channeled Scabland of Washington and transported sediments to the continental slope of Vancouver Island during the last glacial, laying down a sequence of rhythmically bedded sediments in deep-sea core MD02-2496. This work addresses longstanding questions about the absolute timing of Scabland Floods, their cyclicity, and the fate of their sediments and freshwater in the marine realm. Our data suggest that, between ˜19.3 and ˜14.9 ka, Scabland Floods repeatedly generated far-traveled sediment-water plumes in the NE Pacific Ocean, requiring a hydrologically active ice sheet system capable of producing catastrophic megafloods for about 4500 years.

  10. Mesoproterozoic graphite deposits, New Jersey Highlands: Geologic and stable isotopic evidence for possible algal origins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Volkert, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Graphite deposits of Mesoproterozoic age are locally abundant in the eastern New Jersey Highlands, where they are hosted by sulphidic biotite-quartz-feldspar gneiss, metaquartzite, and anatectic pegmatite. Gneiss and metaquartzite represent a shallow marine shelf sequence of locally organic-rich sand and mud. Graphite from massive deposits within metaquartzite yielded ??13C values of -26 ?? 2??? (1??), and graphite from massive deposits within biotite-quartz-feldspar gneiss yielded ??13C values of -23 ??4???. Disseminated graphite from biotite-quartz-feldspar gneiss country rock was -22 ??3???, indistinguishable from the massive deposits hosted by the same lithology. Anatectic pegmatite is graphitic only where generated from graphite-bearing host rocks; one sample gave a ??13C value of -15???. The ??34S values of trace pyrrhotite are uniform within individual deposits, but vary from 0 to 9??? from one deposit to another. Apart from pegmatitic occurrences, evidence is lacking for long-range mobilization of carbon during Grenvillian orogenesis or post-Grenvillian tectonism. The field, petrographic, and isotope data suggest that massive graphite was formed by granulite-facies metamorphism of Proterozoic accumulations of sedimentary organic matter, possibly algal mats. Preservation of these accumulations in the sedimentary environment requires anoxic basin waters or rapid burial. Anoxia would also favour the accumulation of dissolved ferrous iron in basin waters, which may explain some of the metasediment-hosted massive magnetite deposits in the New Jersey Highlands. ?? 2000 NRC.

  11. Coral oxygen isotope evidence for recent groundwater fluxes to the Australian Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagan, Michael K.; Ayliffe, Linda K.; Opdyke, Bradley N.; Hopley, David; Scott-Gagan, Heather; Cowley, Joan

    2002-10-01

    High-resolution measurements of Sr/Ca and 18O/16O in mid-Holocene and modern Porites corals were used to derive a history of freshwater fluxes to the Australian Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Interannual variations in dry-season seawater 18O/16O evident in the coral record for the late 20th century, but not 6200 years ago, correlate with variations in groundwater recharge of coastal aquifers. The results suggest that a delay in groundwater recharge following the post-glacial sea-level rise, and recent deforestation for agriculture, may have lead to higher land-sea hydraulic gradients and greater groundwater discharge to the GBR today. Oxygen-isotope mass balance calculations show that ~3% in-mixing of CO2-enriched groundwater could raise the partial pressure of CO2 in coastal seawater by ~90 μatm following strong summer monsoons. Consequently, modern nearshore corals in the GBR may now be subjected to lower aragonite saturation states, which could reduce coral calcification and contribute to recent reef degradation.

  12. The changing trophic status of shallow Minnesota lakes: evidence from stable isotopic and biological proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theissen, K. M.; Zimmer, K.; Cotner, J. B.; Sugita, S.; Hobbs, W.; Ramstack, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Shallow lakes can exist in two alternative stable regimes: a clear-water regime dominated by macrophytes with little phytoplankton abundance, or a turbid-water regime where conditions are the opposite. There is a need for more historical studies of shallow lakes as these systems constitute a critical habitat for waterfowl across a large region of the upper Midwestern U.S. and Canada and evidence suggests that the clear regime is preferable for healthy communities of the waterfowl and desired fish populations. Recent work also suggests that the clear regime favors the enhanced burial of organic carbon and thus might constitute an important natural sink for greenhouse gases. Here, we report on our study of C and N elemental and stable isotopic values of organic matter and biological proxies from the sediment core records of numerous shallow lakes in west-central MN and in other areas of the state. These records span the last few centuries including the time of settlement of the region and they have been age dated using 210Pb and ambrosia pollen counts. Results of our work suggest that in the past 50-60 years the majority of the lakes have shifted towards a generally more turbid, eutrophic, and algal-dominated condition that is less favorable to both carbon burial and desired animal habitat.

  13. Isotopic evidence that dragonflies (Pantala flavescens) migrating through the Maldives come from the northern Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Keith A; Anderson, R Charles; Soto, David X; Wassenaar, Leonard I

    2012-01-01

    Large numbers of the Globe Skimmer dragonfly (Pantala flavescens) appear in the Maldives every October-December. Since they cannot breed on these largely waterless islands, it has recently been suggested that they are "falling out" during a trans-oceanic flight from India to East Africa. In addition, it has been suggested that this trans-oceanic crossing is just one leg of a multi-generational migratory circuit covering about 14,000-18,000 km. The dragonflies are presumed to accomplish this remarkable feat by riding high-altitude winds associated with the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). While there is considerable evidence for this migratory circuit, much of that evidence is circumstantial. Recent developments in the application of stable isotope analyses to track migratory dragonflies include the establishment of direct associations between dragonfly wing chitin δ(2)H values with those derived from long-term δ(2)H precipitation isoscapes. We applied this approach by measuring wing chitin δ(2)H values in 49 individual Pantala flavescens from the November-December migration through the Maldives. Using a previously established spatial calibration algorithm for dragonflies, the mean wing δ(2)H value of -117±16 ‰ corresponded to a predicted mean natal ambient water source of -81 ‰, which resulted in a probabilistic origin of northern India, and possibly further north and east. This strongly suggests that the migratory circuit of this species in this region is longer than previously suspected, and could possibly involve a remarkable trans-Himalayan high-altitude traverse.

  14. Isotopic Evidence That Dragonflies (Pantala flavescens) Migrating through the Maldives Come from the Northern Indian Subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, Keith A.; Anderson, R. Charles; Soto, David X.; Wassenaar, Leonard I.

    2012-01-01

    Large numbers of the Globe Skimmer dragonfly (Pantala flavescens) appear in the Maldives every October–December. Since they cannot breed on these largely waterless islands, it has recently been suggested that they are “falling out” during a trans-oceanic flight from India to East Africa. In addition, it has been suggested that this trans-oceanic crossing is just one leg of a multi-generational migratory circuit covering about 14,000–18,000 km. The dragonflies are presumed to accomplish this remarkable feat by riding high-altitude winds associated with the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). While there is considerable evidence for this migratory circuit, much of that evidence is circumstantial. Recent developments in the application of stable isotope analyses to track migratory dragonflies include the establishment of direct associations between dragonfly wing chitin δ2H values with those derived from long-term δ2H precipitation isoscapes. We applied this approach by measuring wing chitin δ2H values in 49 individual Pantala flavescens from the November–December migration through the Maldives. Using a previously established spatial calibration algorithm for dragonflies, the mean wing δ2H value of −117±16 ‰ corresponded to a predicted mean natal ambient water source of −81 ‰, which resulted in a probabilistic origin of northern India, and possibly further north and east. This strongly suggests that the migratory circuit of this species in this region is longer than previously suspected, and could possibly involve a remarkable trans-Himalayan high-altitude traverse. PMID:23285106

  15. Pb, Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic evidence of multiple sources for Oahu, Hawaii basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stille, P.; Unruh, D. M.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1983-01-01

    Pb, Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic compositions of Oahu volcanics indicate that the three principal volcanic series on Oahu Koolau, Honolulu and Waianae - were derived from isotopically distinct sources. Honolulu and Waianae basalts plot on the Nd-Pb-Sr 'mantle plane' whereas Koolau data plot distinctly below the plane.

  16. The Rurutu Hotspot: Isotopic and Trace Element Evidence of HIMU Hotspot Volcanism in the Tuvalu Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, V.; Konter, J. G.; Konrad, K.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Jackson, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Current Pacific absolute plate motion (APM) models include 2 major, long-lived hotspot tracks: the ~85 Ma Hawaiian-Emperor and the ~76 Ma Louisville tracks. Prior to ~50 Ma, these two hotspot tracks show significant inter-hotspot drift, mainly due to large southern motion of the Hawaiian hotspot [1,2]. A third track would allow for a more robust evaluation of the relationship between APM models and inter-hotspot drift. We present trace element and Pb isotope evidence for a potential third long-lived Pacific hotspot trail—the Rurutu hotspot—anchored in the Cook-Austral Islands. Based on high 206Pb/204Pb ratios, 70-55 Ma volcanism in the Gilbert Ridge has been linked to the Rurutu hotspot [3]. The Gilbert Ridge may continue south into the Tuvalu Islands, where APM models predict that the Rurutu hotspot track captures the change in Pacific plate motion around 50 Ma at the intersection of Tuvalu and Samoa. Sampling of the deep submarine flanks of atolls and seamounts in Tuvalu and westernmost Samoa took place during the 2013 RR1310 (R/V Roger Revelle) expedition. We present new Pb isotope and HFSE trace element data on 28 samples that support a Rurutu origin for Tuvalu volcanism and confirm HIMU signatures previously observed in 5 Tuvalu samples (206Pb/204Pb >20.1, several >21.0; 87Sr/86Sr < 0.705). Statistical tests indicate that Tuvalu HFSE element ratios show similarities with Cook-Austral HIMU and differences with Samoa EMII volcanism. Low Hf/Nb ratios are often a predictor of HIMU samples (206Pb/204Pb > 20.8). Moderately HIMU compositions (206Pb/204Pb = 20.0) correspond to slightly higher Hf/Nb. In an effort to test if compositional agreement with the Cook-Australs is reflected in an age progression, 40Ar/39Ar ages will be presented by Konrad et al. (this volume). [1] Tarduno et al., (2003) DOI:10.1126/science.1086442 [2] Koppers et al., (2012) DOI: 10.1038/ngeo1638 [3] Konter et al., (2008) DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2008.08.023

  17. Uranium Isotope Evidence for Temporary Ocean Oxygenation Following the Sturtian Glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, K. V.; Maher, K.; Macdonald, F. A.; Payne, J.

    2015-12-01

    The link between widespread ocean oxygenation in the Neoproterozoic and the rise of animals has long been debated, largely because the timing and nature of oxygenation of the oceans remain poorly constrained. Strata deposited during the Cryogenian non-glacial interlude (660 to 635 Ma), between the Sturtian and Marinoan Snowball Earth glaciations, contain the earliest fossil evidence of animals. To quantitatively estimate patterns of seafloor oxygenation during this critical interval, we present uranium isotope (δ238U) data from limestone of the Taishir Formation (Fm) in Mongolia in two stratigraphic sections that are separated by ~75 km across the basin. The Taishir Fm hosts two large δ13C excursions that co-vary in total organic and inorganic (carbonate) carbon: a basal carbonate δ13C excursion to -4‰ in the Sturtian cap carbonate, followed by a rise to enriched values of +8‰, a second negative δ13C excursion to -7‰ referred to as the Taishir excursion, followed by a second rise to +10‰. Above the Sturtian glacial deposits, in the stratigraphic interval below the Taishir excursion, δ238U compositions have a mean value that is similar to that of modern seawater. After the Taishir excursion, the δ238U record exhibits a step decrease of ~0.3‰, and δ238U remains approximately constant until the erosional unconformity at the base of the Marinoan glacial deposits. We use a box model to constrain the uranium cycle behavior that best explains our observations. In the model, the best explanation for the less negative post-Sturtian values of δ238U is extensive oxygenation of the seafloor. Moreover, the model demonstrates that the higher δ238U values of the post-Sturtian limestones are inconsistent with an increased flux of uranium to the oceans due to post-Snowball weathering as the primary driver of the excursion. Thus, we favor a scenario in which there was a rise in oxygen levels following the Sturtian glaciation followed by a decrease in seafloor

  18. Coupled iron, sulfur and carbon isotope evidences for arsenic enrichment in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanxin; Xie, Xianjun; Johnson, Thomas M.; Lundstrom, Craig C.; Ellis, Andre; Wang, Xiangli; Duan, Mengyu; Li, Junxia

    2014-11-01

    It is generally accepted that microbial processes play a key role in the mobilization and enrichment of arsenic (As) in groundwater. However, the detailed mechanism of the metabolic processes remain poorly understand. We apply isotopic measurements of iron (δ56Fe vs. IRMM-14), sulfur (δ34SSO4 vs. V-CDT) and carbon (δ13CDIC vs. V-PDB) to an experimental field plot in the Datong Basin, northern China. An array of monitoring wells was installed in a ≈1700-m2 plot in which high concentrations of As, ranging from 4.76 to 469.5 μg/L, were detected in the groundwater. The measured range of δ34SSO4 values from 10.0‰ to 24.7‰ indicates the prevalence of microbial sulfate reduction within aquifers. The range of δ56Fe values measured in the groundwater suggests microbial Fe(III) reduction and the occurrence of isotopic exchange between Fe(II)aq and FeS precipitation. The low δ13CDIC values (up to -33.6‰) measured in groundwater are evidences for the microbial oxidation of organic matter, which is interpreted as the light carbon pool within the aquifer sediments. The high As (As > 50 μg/L) groundwater, which has higher δ34SSO4 and δ56Fe values and lower δ13C values, indicates the following: (1) microbial reduction of sulfate causes the mobilization of As through HS- abiotic reduction of Fe(III) minerals and/or formation of As-sulfur components; and (2) direct microbial reduction of Fe(III) oxides, hydroxides and oxyhydroxides cannot increase As concentrations to greater than 50 μg/L. Re-oxidation of Fe-sufide explains how sample C1-2 can have a high As concentration and low δ34SSO4 and high δ56Fe values. The results provide new insight into the mechanism of As enrichment in groundwater.

  19. Sources and transformations of nitrate from streams draining varying land uses: Evidence from dual isotope analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Douglas A.; Boyer, E.W.; Elliott, E.M.; Kendall, C.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of key sources and biogeochemical processes that affect the transport of nitrate (NO3-) in streams can inform watershed management strategies for controlling downstream eutrophication. We applied dual isotope analysis of NO3- to determine the dominant sources and processes that affect NO3- concentrations in six stream/river watersheds of different land uses. Samples were collected monthly at a range of flow conditions for 15 mo during 2004-05 and analyzed for NO3- concentrations, ?? 15NNO3, and ??18ONO3. Samples from two forested watersheds indicated that NO3- derived from nitrification was dominant at baseflow. A watershed dominated by suburban land use had three ??18ONO3 values greater than +25???, indicating a large direct contribution of atmospheric NO 3- transported to the stream during some high flows. Two watersheds with large proportions of agricultural land use had many ??15NNO3 values greater than +9???, suggesting an animal waste source consistent with regional dairy farming practices. These data showed a linear seasonal pattern with a ??18O NO3:??15NNO3 of 1:2, consistent with seasonally varying denitrification that peaked in late summer to early fall with the warmest temperatures and lowest annual streamflow. The large range of ?? 15NNO3 values (10???) indicates that NO 3- supply was likely not limiting the rate of denitrification, consistent with ground water and/or in-stream denitrification. Mixing of two or more distinct sources may have affected the seasonal isotope patterns observed in these two agricultural streams. In a mixed land use watershed of large drainage area, none of the source and process patterns observed in the small streams were evident. These results emphasize that observations at watersheds of a few to a few hundred km2 may be necessary to adequately quantify the relative roles of various NO 3- transport and process patterns that contribute to streamflow in large basins. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of

  20. Potassium isotopic evidence for a high-energy giant impact origin of the Moon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Jacobsen, Stein B

    2016-10-27

    The Earth-Moon system has unique chemical and isotopic signatures compared with other planetary bodies; any successful model for the origin of this system therefore has to satisfy these chemical and isotopic constraints. The Moon is substantially depleted in volatile elements such as potassium compared with the Earth and the bulk solar composition, and it has long been thought to be the result of a catastrophic Moon-forming giant impact event. Volatile-element-depleted bodies such as the Moon were expected to be enriched in heavy potassium isotopes during the loss of volatiles; however such enrichment was never found. Here we report new high-precision potassium isotope data for the Earth, the Moon and chondritic meteorites. We found that the lunar rocks are significantly (>2σ) enriched in the heavy isotopes of potassium compared to the Earth and chondrites (by around 0.4 parts per thousand). The enrichment of the heavy isotope of potassium in lunar rocks compared with those of the Earth and chondrites can be best explained as the result of the incomplete condensation of a bulk silicate Earth vapour at an ambient pressure that is higher than 10 bar. We used these coupled constraints of the chemical loss and isotopic fractionation of K to compare two recent dynamic models that were used to explain the identical non-mass-dependent isotope composition of the Earth and the Moon. Our K isotope result is inconsistent with the low-energy disk equilibration model, but supports the high-energy, high-angular-momentum giant impact model for the origin of the Moon. High-precision potassium isotope data can also be used as a 'palaeo-barometer' to reveal the physical conditions during the Moon-forming event.

  1. Asian dust input in the western Philippine Sea: Evidence from radiogenic Sr and Nd isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Fuqing; Frank, Martin; Li, Tiegang; Chen, Tian-Yu; Xu, Zhaokai; Li, Anchun

    2013-05-01

    The radiogenic strontium (Sr) and neodymium (Nd) isotope compositions of the detrital fraction of surface and subsurface sediments have been determined to trace sediment provenance and contributions from Asian dust off the east coast of Luzon Islands in the western Philippine Sea. The Sr and Nd isotope compositions have been very homogenous near the east coast of the Luzon Islands during the latest Quaternary yielding relatively least radiogenic Sr (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70453 to 0.70491) and more radiogenic Nd isotope compositions (ɛNd(0) = +5.3 to +5.5). These isotope compositions are similar to Luzon rocks and show that these sediments were mainly derived from the Luzon Islands. In contrast, the Sr and Nd isotope compositions of sediments on the Benham Rise and in the Philippine Basin are markedly different in that they are characterized by overall more variable and more radiogenic Sr isotope compositions (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70452 to 0.70723) and less radiogenic Nd isotope compositions (ɛNd(0) = -5.3 to +2.4). The Sr isotope composition in the Huatung Basin is intermediate between those of the east coast of Luzon and Benham Rise, but shows the least radiogenic Nd isotope compositions. The data are consistent with a two end-member mixing relationship between Luzon volcanic rocks and eolian dust from the Asian continent, which is characterized by highly radiogenic Sr and unradiogenic Nd isotope compositions. The results show that Asian continental dust contributes about 10-50% of the detrital fraction of the sediments on Benham Rise in the western Philippine Sea, which offers the potentials to reconstruct the climatic evolution of eastern Asia from these sediments and compare this information to the records from the central and northern Pacific.

  2. Re-Os isotopic evidence for Archean lithospheric mantle beneath the Kimberley block, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Stuart; Lambert, David D.; Shee, Simon R.; Smith, Chris B.; Reeves, Shane

    1999-05-01

    We report Sm-Nd and the first Re-Os isotopic data as well as platinum-group element concentrations for two of the highest-grade diamond deposits in the Kimberley block of Western Australia. Whole-rock Sm-Nd isotopic data for the 1200 Ma Argyle olivine lamproite and an Argyle peridotite xenolith yield unradiogenic initial isotopic compositions (ɛNd = -3.2 to -6.0) and depleted mantle model ages of 1750 to 2000 Ma. These data indicate that shallow-mantle light rare earth element enrichment of the Argyle lamproite source probably occurred during the Proterozoic Hooper orogeny. Sm-Nd isotopic data for the 800 Ma Seppelt kimberlite yield a radiogenic initial isotopic composition (ɛNd = +1.8) and a TDM model age of 1200 Ma, isotopic features consistent with worldwide group I kimberlite occurrences. Re-Os isotopic data yield unradiogenic initial isotopic compositions for the Argyle lamproite and peridotite xenoliths (γOs = -2 to -6) and Seppelt kimberlite and kimberlitic chromites (γOs = -7 to -8), whereas data for a picroilmenite megacryst from the 800 Ma Maude Creek kimberlite yield a radiogenic initial Os isotopic composition (γOs = +27). Our modeling suggests that the Os isotopic composition of the Argyle lamproite and peridotites may be explained as mixtures of a ca. 3000 Ma refractory mantle component (as represented by the kimberlitic chromites) and a ca. 1500 Ma enriched-mantle component (as represented by the picroilmenite megacryst). The xenoliths and chromites yield an imprecise Re-Os isochron age of 3400 Ma, giving a strong indication that the Kimberley block is underlain by Archean continental lithospheric mantle and that this mantle was largely unaffected during Early Proterozoic orogenesis.

  3. Potassium isotopic evidence for a high-energy giant impact origin of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    2016-10-01

    The Earth-Moon system has unique chemical and isotopic signatures compared with other planetary bodies; any successful model for the origin of this system therefore has to satisfy these chemical and isotopic constraints. The Moon is substantially depleted in volatile elements such as potassium compared with the Earth and the bulk solar composition, and it has long been thought to be the result of a catastrophic Moon-forming giant impact event. Volatile-element-depleted bodies such as the Moon were expected to be enriched in heavy potassium isotopes during the loss of volatiles; however such enrichment was never found. Here we report new high-precision potassium isotope data for the Earth, the Moon and chondritic meteorites. We found that the lunar rocks are significantly (>2σ) enriched in the heavy isotopes of potassium compared to the Earth and chondrites (by around 0.4 parts per thousand). The enrichment of the heavy isotope of potassium in lunar rocks compared with those of the Earth and chondrites can be best explained as the result of the incomplete condensation of a bulk silicate Earth vapour at an ambient pressure that is higher than 10 bar. We used these coupled constraints of the chemical loss and isotopic fractionation of K to compare two recent dynamic models that were used to explain the identical non-mass-dependent isotope composition of the Earth and the Moon. Our K isotope result is inconsistent with the low-energy disk equilibration model, but supports the high-energy, high-angular-momentum giant impact model for the origin of the Moon. High-precision potassium isotope data can also be used as a ‘palaeo-barometer’ to reveal the physical conditions during the Moon-forming event.

  4. Gallium isotopic evidence for extensive volatile loss from the Moon during its formation

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Chizu; Moynier, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    The distribution and isotopic composition of volatile elements in planetary materials holds a key to the characterization of the early solar system and the Moon’s formation. The Moon and Earth are chemically and isotopically very similar. However, the Moon is highly depleted in volatile elements and the origin of this depletion is still debated. We present gallium isotopic and elemental measurements in a large set of lunar samples to constrain the origin of this volatile depletion. We show that while Ga has a geochemical behavior different from zinc, both elements show a systematic enrichment in the heavier isotopes in lunar mare basalts and Mg-suite rocks compared to the silicate Earth, pointing to a global-scale depletion event. On the other hand, the ferroan anorthosites are isotopically heterogeneous, suggesting a secondary distribution of Ga at the surface of the Moon by volatilization and condensation. The isotopic difference of Ga between Earth and the Moon and the isotopic heterogeneity of the crustal ferroan anorthosites suggest that the volatile depletion occurred following the giant impact and during the lunar magma ocean phase. These results point toward a Moon that has lost its volatile elements during a whole-scale evaporation event and that is now relatively dry compared to Earth. PMID:28782027

  5. Stable Isotopic Evidence for Latest Pleistocene and Holocene Climatic Change in North-Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, John D.; Ferring, C. Reid

    1994-03-01

    A paleoclimatic record for a southern Great Plains locality (the Aubrey Clovis site in north-central Texas) has been established using stable carbon and oxygen isotopes. Detailed composite stratigraphic sections, constrained by 14 C ages, place the age of these deposits between 14,200 and 1600 yr B.P. Calcium carbonate samples of lacustrine and pedogenic origin were analyzed. Oxygen isotopic compositions of most of these in situ carbonates reflect equilibrium precipitation from local meteoric waters. Oxygen isotope values reflect changes in the composition of meteoric waters tied to changes in the isotopic composition of moisture derived from the Gulf of Mexico. Oxygen isotopic variability at the Aubrey site is coincident with marine isotopic records from the gulf that vary due to changes in Laurentide ice sheet volume and meltwater influx. The stable carbon isotopic record, reflecting changing biomass through time, corroborates humid versus arid interpretations based on sedimentology and rates of alluviation. A middle Holocene arid period was in contrast to moist early and late Holocene climate, affirming interpretations of other workers studying southern Great Plains Holocene climate history.

  6. Gallium isotopic evidence for extensive volatile loss from the Moon during its formation.

    PubMed

    Kato, Chizu; Moynier, Frédéric

    2017-07-01

    The distribution and isotopic composition of volatile elements in planetary materials holds a key to the characterization of the early solar system and the Moon's formation. The Moon and Earth are chemically and isotopically very similar. However, the Moon is highly depleted in volatile elements and the origin of this depletion is still debated. We present gallium isotopic and elemental measurements in a large set of lunar samples to constrain the origin of this volatile depletion. We show that while Ga has a geochemical behavior different from zinc, both elements show a systematic enrichment in the heavier isotopes in lunar mare basalts and Mg-suite rocks compared to the silicate Earth, pointing to a global-scale depletion event. On the other hand, the ferroan anorthosites are isotopically heterogeneous, suggesting a secondary distribution of Ga at the surface of the Moon by volatilization and condensation. The isotopic difference of Ga between Earth and the Moon and the isotopic heterogeneity of the crustal ferroan anorthosites suggest that the volatile depletion occurred following the giant impact and during the lunar magma ocean phase. These results point toward a Moon that has lost its volatile elements during a whole-scale evaporation event and that is now relatively dry compared to Earth.

  7. He, NE and Ar Isotope Evidence For An Unambiguous Plume Component In Co2 Gas From The Eifel, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesshaber, E.; Niedermann, S.

    Isotopic compositions of He, NE and Ar have been measured in CO2 gas emanations discharging at the Earth's surface from the West-, the East- and the Hocheifel districts. The obtained rare gas isotope data provide clear evidence for the presence of a plume type noble gas component in CO2 gases from the southern section of the West-Eifel, as their NE isotopic signature is indistinguishable from that of the Hawaiian plume. In contrast to this, in the East- and the Hocheifel MORB-like noble gas signatures have been detected. This distribution pattern of rare gas isotopes is in extremely good agreement with the teleseismic tomography results of Ritter et al. (2001). Furthermore, it confirms most of the chemical abundance and isotope data obtained on volcanic rocks as well as on mantle-derived and crustal xenoliths. The Eifel districts are dominated by a very high abundance of CO2 gas discharges, with gas fluxes within the West-Eifel comparable to those in the East-Eifel. However, rare gas isotopes in these CO2 gases indicate two distinct mantle source regions: 1. a MORB/lower crustal source for the East-Eifel and 2. a plume source for the West-Eifel. The measurements presented in this study are the first to identify a plume type rare gas component in CO2 gases discharging at the Earth's surface. Ritter, J.R.R., Jordan, M., Christensen, U.R. and Achauer, U. (2001): Earth Planet.Sci.Lett., 186, 7-14, 2001.

  8. Spatial subsidies in spider diets vary with shoreline structure: Complementary evidence from molecular diet analysis and stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Hambäck, Peter A; Weingartner, Elisabeth; Dalén, Love; Wirta, Helena; Roslin, Tomas

    2016-12-01

    Inflow of matter and organisms may strongly affect the local density and diversity of organisms. This effect is particularly evident on shores where organisms with aquatic larval stages enter the terrestrial food web. The identities of such trophic links are not easily estimated as spiders, a dominant group of shoreline predator, have external digestion. We compared trophic links and the prey diversity of spiders on different shore types along the Baltic Sea: on open shores and on shores with a reed belt bordering the water. A priori, we hypothesized that the physical structure of the shoreline reduces the flow between ecosystem and the subsidies across the sea-land interface. To circumvent the lack of morphologically detectable remains of spider prey, we used a combination of stable isotope and molecular gut content analyses. The two tools used for diet analysis revealed complementary information on spider diets. The stable isotope analysis indicated that spiders on open shores had a marine signal of carbon isotopes, while spiders on reedy shores had a terrestrial signal. The molecular analysis revealed a diverse array of dipteran and lepidopteran prey, where spiders on open and reedy shores shared a similar diet with a comparable proportion of chironomids, the larvae of which live in the marine system. Comparing the methods suggests that differences in isotope composition of the two spider groups occurred because of differences in the chironomid diets: as larvae, chironomids of reedy shores likely fed on terrestrial detritus and acquired a terrestrial isotope signature, while chironomids of open shores utilized an algal diet and acquired a marine isotope signature. Our results illustrate how different methods of diet reconstruction may shed light on complementary aspects of nutrient transfer. Overall, they reveal that reed belts can reduce connectivity between habitats, but also function as a source of food for predators.

  9. Evidence of a connection between the Atlantic and Mediterranean during the Messinian Salinity Crisis from Pb and Nd isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modestou, Sevasti; Gutjahr, Marcus; Fietzke, Jan; Rodés, Ángel; Frank, Martin; Bolhão Muiños, Susana; Ellam, Rob; Flecker, Rachel

    2014-05-01

    Prior to the opening of the Gibraltar Strait at 5.33 Ma, the Betic (southern Spain) and Rifian (northern Morocco) marine palaeocorridors linked the Mediterranean to the Atlantic. Although the central regions of these corridors have been heavily eroded due to uplift, evidence published to date indicates that both closed before the onset of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC; 5.97 to 5.33 Ma [1, 2]). However, pre-MSC corridor closure presents a paradox, as the volume of halite deposited within the Mediterranean basin requires several times the volume of seawater contained in the basin itself. In this regard, radiogenic isotopes such as Sr, Pb, and Nd can provide key information about the timing of exchange through the Betic and Rifian palaeogateways. Due to the resolvable isotopic difference in Nd isotope signatures of outgoing Mediterranean and incoming Atlantic water masses, demonstrated both for the present day as well as the past environment, this isotope system can be used to identify exchange between these two water bodies. Although less well constrained to date, the Pb isotope system can be used in a similar manner due to its short residence time in seawater and interbasin variability. A high resolution Pb isotope record extracted using laser ablation from ferromanganese crust 3514-6 (recovered from the Lion Seamount, NE Atlantic, water depth 690-940 m) indicates a relatively constant Pb isotope signature before, during and after the MSC period. The previously published [3] Nd isotope record of crust 3514-6 corroborates that the crust was deposited in a current distinct from NE Atlantic Deep water or Antarctic Intermediate Water, the principal currents in the region of the Lion Seamount. The combined Pb and Nd isotope evolution suggests that Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) was continuously advected into the NE Atlantic during and after the MSC. Furthermore, preliminary Nd isotope records from Late Miocene sediments collected in the Sorbas Basin, Spain

  10. Metasomatism-induced magnesium isotope fractionation in ultramafic rocks: Evidence from the Franciscan Complex, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W. Y.; Teng, F. Z.; Xiao, Y.

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the behaviour of Mg isotopes during metasomatic reactions between peridotites and infiltrating fluids along the slab-mantle interface, we analyzed Mg isotopic compositions of a set of well-characterized samples from the ultramafic blocks in the Franciscan Complex of California [1]. The Group 1 and Group 2 samples that were defined by the initial serpentinization and complete serpentinization of peridotites at temperatures of 450-500 ºC, respectively [1], have δ26Mg values (from -0.26 to -0.14‰) clustered around the mantle value. This suggests that Mg isotope fractionation during serpentinization by slab-derived fluids, if any, is small. By contrast, the Group 3 samples that were defined by the replacement of serpentine by talc [1], are enriched in heavy Mg isotopes (δ26Mg of -0.13 to -0.01‰). This may reflect the loss of light Mg isotopes into fluids during the dehydration reaction that produced talc from serpentine, which is consistent with previous observations that secondary clay minerals preferentially incorporate heavy Mg isotopes during water-rock interactions [2, 3]. The Group 4 samples that were defined by the further replacement of talc by tremolite [1], however, have light Mg isotopic compositions (δ26Mg of -0.50 to -0.41‰). Such a shift towards light Mg isotopic compositions likely results from metasomatism by fluids that derived from isotopically light carbonates, which is supported by the remarkably higher CaO content of Group 4 samples (from 6.9 to 9.2 wt%) than Group 3 ones (from 1.1 to 1.4 wt%). Collectively, significant Mg isotopic variations occur during metasomatism of peridotites in the mantle wedge, which would potentially lead to heterogeneous Mg isotopic compositions in arc lavas [4]. Therefore, Mg isotopes can be used as a powerful tracer of crust-mantle interaction at subduction zones. [1] King et al. (2003) Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 115, 1097-1109. [2] Teng et al. (2010) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 300, 63-71. [3] Wimpenny

  11. Iron isotopes in ancient and modern komatiites: Evidence in support of an oxidised mantle from Archean to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbert, K. E. J.; Williams, H. M.; Kerr, A. C.; Puchtel, I. S.

    2012-03-01

    The mantle of the modern Earth is relatively oxidised compared to the initially reducing conditions inferred for core formation. The timing of the oxidation of the mantle is not conclusively resolved but has important implications for the timing of the development of the hydrosphere and atmosphere. In order to examine the timing of this oxidation event, we present iron isotope data from three exceptionally well preserved komatiite localities, Belingwe (2.7 Ga), Vetreny (2.4 Ga) and Gorgona (0.089 Ga). Measurements of Fe isotope compositions of whole-rock samples are complemented by the analysis of olivine, spinel and pyroxene separates. Bulk-rock and olivine Fe isotope compositions (δ57Fe) define clear linear correlations with indicators of magmatic differentiation (Mg#, Cr#). The mean Fe isotope compositions of the 2.7-2.4 Ga and 0.089 Ga samples are statistically distinct and this difference can be explained by greater extent of partial melting represented by the older samples and higher mantle ambient temperatures in the Archean and early Proterozoic relative to the present day. Significantly, samples of all ages define continuous positive linear correlations between bulk rock δ57Fe and V/Sc and δ57Fe and V, and between V/Sc and V with TiO2, providing evidence for the incompatible behaviour of V (relative to Sc) and of isotopically heavy Fe. Partial melting models calculated using partition coefficients for V at oxygen fugacities (fO2s) of 0 and + 1 relative to the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer (FMQ) best match the data arrays, which are defined by all samples, from late Archean to Tertiary. These data, therefore, provide evidence for komatiite generation under moderately oxidising conditions since the late Archean, and argue against a change in mantle fO2 concomitant with atmospheric oxygenation at ~ 2.4 Ga.

  12. Orbital forcing and the spread of C4 grasses in the late Neogene: stable isotope evidence from South African speleothems.

    PubMed

    Hopley, Philip J; Marshall, Jim D; Weedon, Graham P; Latham, Alf G; Herries, Andy I R; Kuykendall, Kevin L

    2007-11-01

    Reconstructing Plio-Pleistocene African paleoenvironments is important for models of early hominin evolution, but is often hampered by low-resolution or discontinuous climatic data. Here, we present high-resolution stable oxygen and carbon isotope time series data from two flowstones (secondary cave deposits) from the South African hominin-bearing Makapansgat Valley. The age of the older of the two flowstones (Collapsed Cone) is constrained by magnetostratigraphy to approximately 4-5 Ma; the younger flowstone (Buffalo Cave) grew between 2.0-1.5 Ma, as determined by magnetostratigraphy and orbital tuning of the isotopic data. The carbon isotope data is used as a proxy for the proportion of C(4) grasses in the local environment and the oxygen isotope data reflects monsoon rainfall intensity. The carbon isotope evidence indicates that in the late Miocene/early Pliocene, the local environment was dominated by C(3) vegetation, whereas, in the Plio-Pleistocene, it was composed of a mixture of C(3) and C(4) vegetation. This suggests that C(4) grasses became a significant part of the Makapansgat Valley ecosystem at approximately 4-5 Ma, towards the end of the late Neogene global expansion of C(4) grasses. After this initial expansion, South Africa experienced further fluctuations in the proportion of C(3) and C(4) vegetation during the Plio-Pleistocene, in response to regional and global climatic changes. Most notably, the Buffalo Cave flowstone provides evidence for C(4) grass expansion at ca. 1.7 Ma that we suggest was a response to African aridity caused by the onset of the Walker Circulation in the Pacific Ocean at this time.

  13. Pb isotope variations among Bandelier Tuff feldspars: No evidence for a long-lived silicic magma chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, J. A.; Ramos, F. C.

    2003-06-01

    We report, for the first time, high-precision Pb isotope data from a high-silica rhyolite. Prior work on Sr isotopes in the 1.6 Ma Otowi Member of the Bandelier Tuff (Valles caldera, New Mexico) established that large 87Sr/86Sr variations exist among Otowi glasses and sanidine phenocrysts. While the glasses display unequivocal evidence for wall-rock contamination of the Otowi magma following sanidine growth, a positive correlation between 87Sr/86Sri and 87Rb/86Sr among the feldspars could be interpreted as either a mixing line or an in situ magmatic isochron dating a differentiation event ˜270 k.y. prior to eruption. The 206Pb/204Pb and 87Sr/86Sr ranges for Otowi sanidines are 17.790 ± 0.002 to 17.831 ± 0.002 and 0.7074 0.7052, respectively. This Pb isotope range cannot be produced by radiogenic ingrowth at the U/Pb ratios of the host magma on any geologically reasonable time scale, and hence is unequivocal evidence for open-system behavior of the Otowi magma prior to and/or concurrent with feldspar growth. Open-system behavior is predicted to control Sr isotope variations due to much higher concentrations of Sr, relative to Pb, in the country rock than in the magma. These observations therefore undermine any age significance of the Rb-Sr isotope variations. In the absence of supporting data, Rb-Sr relations alone do not impart any information about residence times of high-silica rhyolite magmas with subchondritic concentrations of Sr.

  14. Isotopic evidence for primordial molecular cloud material in metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites.

    PubMed

    Van Kooten, Elishevah M M E; Wielandt, Daniel; Schiller, Martin; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Thomen, Aurélien; Larsen, Kirsten K; Olsen, Mia B; Nordlund, Åke; Krot, Alexander N; Bizzarro, Martin

    2016-02-23

    The short-lived (26)Al radionuclide is thought to have been admixed into the initially (26)Al-poor protosolar molecular cloud before or contemporaneously with its collapse. Bulk inner Solar System reservoirs record positively correlated variability in mass-independent (54)Cr and (26)Mg*, the decay product of (26)Al. This correlation is interpreted as reflecting progressive thermal processing of in-falling (26)Al-rich molecular cloud material in the inner Solar System. The thermally unprocessed molecular cloud matter reflecting the nucleosynthetic makeup of the molecular cloud before the last addition of stellar-derived (26)Al has not been identified yet but may be preserved in planetesimals that accreted in the outer Solar System. We show that metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites and their components have a unique isotopic signature extending from an inner Solar System composition toward a (26)Mg*-depleted and (54)Cr-enriched component. This composition is consistent with that expected for thermally unprocessed primordial molecular cloud material before its pollution by stellar-derived (26)Al. The (26)Mg* and (54)Cr compositions of bulk metal-rich chondrites require significant amounts (25-50%) of primordial molecular cloud matter in their precursor material. Given that such high fractions of primordial molecular cloud material are expected to survive only in the outer Solar System, we infer that, similarly to cometary bodies, metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites are samples of planetesimals that accreted beyond the orbits of the gas giants. The lack of evidence for this material in other chondrite groups requires isolation from the outer Solar System, possibly by the opening of disk gaps from the early formation of gas giants.

  15. Gardening by the psychomyiid caddisfly Tinodes waeneri: evidence from stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Ings, Nicola L; Hildrew, Alan G; Grey, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    Sedentary species face a trade-off between the benefits of exploiting food close to their homes and the cost of defending it. In aquatic systems, it has been suggested that some sedentary grazers can increase the range of circumstances under which they are at an advantage over mobile grazers by enhancing food resources within their feeding territories through 'gardening'. We examined this for the retreat-building sedentary larvae of the caddis Tinodes waeneri, which are often dominant in the littoral of lakes. We hypothesised that T. waeneri gardens by fertilising its retreat (a fixed 'gallery' on which algae and other microorganisms grow), and that gardening would be more important in lower productivity lakes. We tested this by analysing the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of larvae, their galleries and the general background epilithon, collected from rocks in the littoral zones of six lakes spread across a natural nutrient gradient. We found evidence of nutrient recycling within the Tinodes gallery community in all lakes. Galleries were (15)N-depleted compared to the epilithon, suggesting that algae on galleries preferentially assimilated (14)N from larval excretions that were themselves (15)N-depleted relative to the larval food source. Mixing model results indicate that galleries formed an important larval carbon and nitrogen source, with mean gallery dietary contributions of over 40% in at least one sample period in all lakes studied. Gallery contributions were greater between April and October than in January and, contrary to our initial hypothesis, greater in the more productive lakes of those surveyed. Nevertheless, T. waeneri galleries do act as a fertilised garden. 'Gardening' appears to be widespread in this species, and may affect productivity and patterns of nitrogen retention within the stony littoral of lakes.

  16. Isotopic evidence for primordial molecular cloud material in metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites

    PubMed Central

    Van Kooten, Elishevah M. M. E.; Wielandt, Daniel; Schiller, Martin; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Thomen, Aurélien; Olsen, Mia B.; Nordlund, Åke; Krot, Alexander N.; Bizzarro, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The short-lived 26Al radionuclide is thought to have been admixed into the initially 26Al-poor protosolar molecular cloud before or contemporaneously with its collapse. Bulk inner Solar System reservoirs record positively correlated variability in mass-independent 54Cr and 26Mg*, the decay product of 26Al. This correlation is interpreted as reflecting progressive thermal processing of in-falling 26Al-rich molecular cloud material in the inner Solar System. The thermally unprocessed molecular cloud matter reflecting the nucleosynthetic makeup of the molecular cloud before the last addition of stellar-derived 26Al has not been identified yet but may be preserved in planetesimals that accreted in the outer Solar System. We show that metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites and their components have a unique isotopic signature extending from an inner Solar System composition toward a 26Mg*-depleted and 54Cr-enriched component. This composition is consistent with that expected for thermally unprocessed primordial molecular cloud material before its pollution by stellar-derived 26Al. The 26Mg* and 54Cr compositions of bulk metal-rich chondrites require significant amounts (25–50%) of primordial molecular cloud matter in their precursor material. Given that such high fractions of primordial molecular cloud material are expected to survive only in the outer Solar System, we infer that, similarly to cometary bodies, metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites are samples of planetesimals that accreted beyond the orbits of the gas giants. The lack of evidence for this material in other chondrite groups requires isolation from the outer Solar System, possibly by the opening of disk gaps from the early formation of gas giants. PMID:26858438

  17. Isotopic evidence of nitrogen sources and nitrogen transformation in arsenic-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Weng, Tsung-Nan; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Kao, Yu-Hsuan; Hsiao, Silver Sung-Yun

    2017-02-01

    High concentrations of naturally occurring arsenic (As) are typically found in young alluvial and deltaic deposits, and high concentrations of ammonium (NH4(+)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) are often present in groundwater affected by anthropogenic activities. In this study, on the basis of physicochemical characteristics of groundwater and the nitrogen and oxygen isotope composition of NO3(-), it was inferred that the main sources of NO3(-) in the proximal fan of the Choushui River alluvial fan are likely to be ammonium fertilizers, manure, and septic waste; that in the mid-fan and the distal fan, the possible sources are nitrate fertilizers and marine nitrate. In the proximal fan, the oxidative state obviously promotes microbial nitrification. Denitrification occurs from the upstream region to the downstream region of the Choushui River, and therefore, the decrease in NO3(-) concentration along streams connecting the Choushui River to the ocean appears plausible. High DO concentrations and relatively low values of δ(18)ONO3 in the deeper aquifer of the proximal fan may be attributed to unconfined granular nature and groundwater pumping by agricultural activities. In the mid-fan, NO3(-) assimilation is the dominant response to NO3(-) attenuation, and denitrification is insignificant; however, high concentrations of As, NH4(+) and Fe and depletion of δ(15)NNO3 imply the occurrence of feammox process. By contrast, denitrification evidently occurs in the distal fan, through assimilation, mineralization, and dissimilatory NO3(-) reduction to NH4(+), resulting in depletion of NO3(-) and increase in NH4(+) in groundwater. Feammox in the mid-fan and denitrification in the distal fan may be the main processes leading to the release of As from As-bearing Fe oxyhydroxides into groundwater.

  18. Barium isotopes in Allende meteorite - Evidence against an extinct superheavy element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.; Shimamura, T.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon and chromite fractions from the Allende meteorite that contain isotopically anomalous xenon-131 to xenon-136 (carbonaceous chondrite fission or CCF xenon) at up to 5 x 10 to the 11th atoms per gram show no detectable isotopic anomalies in barium-130 to barium-138. This rules out the possibility that the CCF xenon was formed by in situ fission of an extinct superheavy element. Apparently the CCF xenon and its carbonaceous carrier are relics from stellar nucleosynthesis.

  19. Mercury isotopic evidence for multiple mercury sources in coal from the Illinois basin.

    PubMed

    Lefticariu, Liliana; Blum, Joel D; Gleason, James D

    2011-02-15

    Coal combustion is the largest source of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emissions to the atmosphere and, thus, has vast environmental implications. Recent developments in Hg stable isotope geochemistry offer a new tool for tracing sources and chemical transformations of anthropogenic Hg in the environment. We present here the first isotopic study of mercury in organic and inorganic constituents of four Pennsylvanian-age coal seams in the Illinois Basin, one of the main coal-producing areas in the USA. We report mass dependent isotopic variations relative to the NIST 3133 standard as δ(202)Hg and mass independent fractionation as Δ(199)Hg and Δ(201)Hg values. The data for Illinois coals show a wide range of δ(202)Hg (-0.75 to -2.68‰), Δ(201)Hg (0.04 to -0.22‰), and Δ(199)Hg (0.02 to -0.23‰). In contrast, vein pyrite from two coal seams is isotopically unfractionated relative to NIST 3133. Collectively, these data suggest that isotopically distinct Hg sources contributed to the organic and inorganic fractions of Illinois coals. The Δ(201)Hg/ Δ(199)Hg ratio of Illinois coals is 1:1, consistent with isotopic fractionation by photochemical reduction of Hg(2+) prior to deposition in coal-forming environments. The isotopic composition of Hg in pyrite is more likely derived from hydrothermal fluids that precipitated reduced sulfur in Illinois coal seams. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the potential of Hg isotopes to discriminate between syngenetic (depositional) and epigenetic (hydrothermal) sources of Hg in coal. Our findings may be useful in distinguishing among various geological processes controlling the distribution of Hg in coal and monitoring the fractions of Hg in emissions associated with organic versus inorganic components of coal.

  20. Ruthenium isotopic evidence for an inner Solar System origin of the late veneer.

    PubMed

    Fischer-Gödde, Mario; Kleine, Thorsten

    2017-01-25

    The excess of highly siderophile elements in the Earth's mantle is thought to reflect the addition of primitive meteoritic material after core formation ceased. This 'late veneer' either comprises material remaining in the terrestrial planet region after the main stages of the Earth's accretion, or derives from more distant asteroidal or cometary sources. Distinguishing between these disparate origins is important because a late veneer consisting of carbonaceous chondrite-like asteroids or comets could be the principal source of the Earth's volatiles and water. Until now, however, a 'genetic' link between the late veneer and such volatile-rich materials has not been established or ruled out. Such genetic links can be determined using ruthenium (Ru) isotopes, because the Ru in the Earth's mantle predominantly derives from the late veneer, and because meteorites exhibit Ru isotope variations arising from the heterogeneous distribution of stellar-derived dust. Although Ru isotopic data and the correlation of Ru and molybdenum (Mo) isotope anomalies in meteorites were previously used to argue that the late veneer derives from the same type of inner Solar System material as do Earth's main building blocks, the Ru isotopic composition of carbonaceous chondrites has not been determined sufficiently well to rule them out as a source of the late veneer. Here we show that all chondrites, including carbonaceous chondrites, have Ru isotopic compositions distinct from that of the Earth's mantle. The Ru isotope anomalies increase from enstatite to ordinary to carbonaceous chondrites, demonstrating that material formed at greater heliocentric distance contains larger Ru isotope anomalies. Therefore, these data refute an outer Solar System origin for the late veneer and imply that the late veneer was not the primary source of volatiles and water on the Earth.

  1. Ruthenium isotopic evidence for an inner Solar System origin of the late veneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer-Gödde, Mario; Kleine, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    The excess of highly siderophile elements in the Earth’s mantle is thought to reflect the addition of primitive meteoritic material after core formation ceased. This ‘late veneer’ either comprises material remaining in the terrestrial planet region after the main stages of the Earth’s accretion, or derives from more distant asteroidal or cometary sources. Distinguishing between these disparate origins is important because a late veneer consisting of carbonaceous chondrite-like asteroids or comets could be the principal source of the Earth’s volatiles and water. Until now, however, a ‘genetic’ link between the late veneer and such volatile-rich materials has not been established or ruled out. Such genetic links can be determined using ruthenium (Ru) isotopes, because the Ru in the Earth’s mantle predominantly derives from the late veneer, and because meteorites exhibit Ru isotope variations arising from the heterogeneous distribution of stellar-derived dust. Although Ru isotopic data and the correlation of Ru and molybdenum (Mo) isotope anomalies in meteorites were previously used to argue that the late veneer derives from the same type of inner Solar System material as do Earth’s main building blocks, the Ru isotopic composition of carbonaceous chondrites has not been determined sufficiently well to rule them out as a source of the late veneer. Here we show that all chondrites, including carbonaceous chondrites, have Ru isotopic compositions distinct from that of the Earth’s mantle. The Ru isotope anomalies increase from enstatite to ordinary to carbonaceous chondrites, demonstrating that material formed at greater heliocentric distance contains larger Ru isotope anomalies. Therefore, these data refute an outer Solar System origin for the late veneer and imply that the late veneer was not the primary source of volatiles and water on the Earth.

  2. Neodymium and strontium isotope evidence for crustal contamination of continental volcanics.

    PubMed

    Carter, S R; Evensen, N M; Hamilton, P J; O'nions, R K

    1978-11-17

    Combined neodymium and strontium isotope studies on Tertiary volcanics from northwest Scotland indicate that their parental mantle isotopic compositions have been substantially modified in many instances by contamination with the Precambrian continental crust through which they were erupted. The occurrence of samarium-neodymium and rubidium-strontium "pseudoisochrons" of different ages in these contaminated continental volcanics indicates that they are artifacts of the contamination processes and have no temporal significance with respect to mantle fractionation events.

  3. Evidence for life in the isotopic analysis of surface sulphates in the Haughton impact structure, and potential application on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnell, John; Boyce, Adrian J.; Osinski, Gordon R.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Banerjee, Neil; Flemming, Roberta; Lee, Pascal

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of sulphur isotopic compositions in three sets of surface sulphate samples from the soil zone in the Haughton impact structure shows that they are distinct. They include surface gypsum crusts remobilized from the pre-impact gypsum bedrock (mean δ34S +31‰), efflorescent copiapite and fibroferrite associated with hydrothermal marcasite (mean δ34S -37‰), and gypsum-iron oxide crusts representing weathering of pyritic crater-fill sediments (mean δ34S +7‰). Their different compositions reflect different histories of sulphur cycling. Two of the three sulphates have isotopically light (low δ34S) compositions compared with the gypsum bedrock (mean δ34S +31‰), reflecting derivation by weathering of sulphides (three sets of pyrite/marcasite samples with mean δ34S of -41, -20 and -8‰), which had in turn been precipitated by microbial sulphate reduction. Thus, even in the absence of the parent sulphides due to surface oxidation, evidence of life would be preserved. This indicates that on Mars, where surface oxidation may rule out sampling of sulphides during robotic exploration, but where sulphates are widespread, sulphur isotope analysis is a valuable tool that could be sensitive to any near-surface microbial activity. Other causes of sulphur isotopic fractionation on the surface of Mars are feasible, but any anomalous fractionation would indicate the desirability of further analysis.

  4. Lithium isotope evidence for subduction-enriched mantle in the source of mid-ocean-ridge basalts.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Tim; Thomas, Alex; Jeffcoate, Alistair; Niu, Yaoling

    2006-10-05

    'Recycled' crustal materials, returned from the Earth's surface to the mantle by subduction, have long been invoked to explain compositional heterogeneity in the upper mantle. Yet increasingly, problems have been noted with this model. The debate can be definitively addressed using stable isotope ratios, which should only significantly vary in primitive, mantle-derived materials as a consequence of recycling. Here we present data showing a notable range in lithium isotope ratios in basalts from the East Pacific Rise, which correlate with traditional indices of mantle heterogeneity (for example, 143Nd/144Nd ratios). Such co-variations of stable and radiogenic isotopes in melts from a normal ridge segment provide critical evidence for the importance of recycled material in generating chemical heterogeneity in the upper mantle. Contrary to many models, however, the elevated lithium isotope ratios of the 'enriched' East Pacific Rise lavas imply that subducted ocean crust is not the agent of enrichment. Instead, we suggest that fluid-modified mantle, which is enriched during residency in a subduction zone, is mixed back into the upper mantle to cause compositional variability.

  5. Genetic relations among basic lavas and ultramafic nodules: Evidence from oxygen isotope compositions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kyser, T.K.; O'Neil, J.R.; Carmichael, I.S.E.

    1982-01-01

    ??18O values of unaltered basic lavas range from 4.9 to 8.3 but different types of basalts are usually restricted to narrow and distinct ranges of isotopic composition. The average ??18O values for Hawaiian tholeiites, mid-ocean ridge tholeiites, and alkali basalts are 5.4, 5.7, and 6.2 permil, respectively. Potassic lavas and andesites tend to be more 18O rich with ??18O values between 6.0 and 8.0 permil. The differences among the oxygen isotopic compositions of most of these lavas can be attributed to partial melting of isotopically distinct sources. The oxygen isotope compositions of the sources may be a function of prior melting events which produce 18O-depleted partial melts and 18O-enriched residues as a consequence of relatively large isotopic fractionations that exist at high temperatures. It is proposed that lavas with relatively low ??18O values are derived from primitive, 18O-depleted sources whereas 18O-rich basalts are produced from refractory sources that have already produced partial melts. High temperature fractionations among silicate liquids and coexisting minerals can be used in conjunction with the oxygen isotope compositions of ultramafic nodules to place constraints on the genetic relations between some nodules and different types of basic lavas. ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Paleoclimatological change in the Late Neoproterozoic: Evidence from oxygen isotopes of phosphorite in Yangtze Platform, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, H.-F.; Jiang, S.-Y.; Feng, H.-Z.; Chen, J.-H.; Chen, Y.-Q.; Yang, J.-H.

    2003-04-01

    section. It is suggested that the phosphorite studied preserved primary oxygen isotopes, whereas d18Odolo values of the dolomite were altered by diagenesis. Potential causes for the overall increase trend of d18Ophos include increase in seawater d18O values and decrease in temperature. During the time span of about 10 ~ 30 Ma for the section deposition when no glaciation occurred, it seems not completely in reality to attribute the variation of more than 4‰ of d18O values to seawater change alone. To cause ~4.3‰ variation of d18Ophos, temperature would decrease about 15-20˚C, which is possible to happen in the Earth history (Lecuyer and Allemand, 2002). The following lines of evidence also support this view. The studied phosphorites were deposited after thaw of the Snowball Earth. During the Snowball Earth period, continental weathering was in minimum due to little precipitation. This, together with existence of volcanic CO2 emitting through the snowball, CO2 accumulated in the atmosphere up to very high level and thus the temperature would be very high soon after thaw of the Snowball Earth. This, combined with more precipitation, would cause progressive weathering. Enhanced weathering of continental rocks would draw down the CO2 of atmosphere and in turn cause cooling, which is consistent with temperature lowering of the period. Increase trend of Pb/Th ratio during the period is in good agreement with enhanced weathering. Pb and Th are both highly particle reactive elements in the ocean. However, their geochemical behaviors in weathering processes are potentially different. Pb is mainly contained in feldspar while Th is mainly hosted in accessory minerals such as monazite. During enhanced weathering processes feldspar can be altered and release Pb whereas monazite would usually survive. Therefore Pb/Th ratio in hydrogenic sediments would be an indicator of weathering intensity. Enhanced weathering would also provide more nutrition elements to ocean, resulting in

  7. Soil, the orphan hydrological compartment: evidence from O and H stable isotopes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hissler, Christophe; Legout, Arnaud; Barnich, François; Pfister, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    O and H stable isotopes have been successfully used for decades for studying the exchange of waters between the hydrosphere, the pedosphere and the biosphere. They greatly contribute to improve our understanding of soil-water-plant interactions. In particular, the recent hydrological concept of "two water worlds" (separation of meteoric water that infiltrates the soil as (i) mobile water, which can reach the groundwater and can enter the stream, and as (ii) tightly bound water, which is trapped in the soil microporosity and used by plants) calls for a substantial revision of our perceptual models of runoff generation. Nevertheless, there is a need for testing the applicability of this concept over a large range of ecosystemic contexts (i.e.soil and vegetation types). To date, many investigations have focused on the relationship between the various processes triggering isotope fractionation within soils. So far, the dominating perception is that the isotope profile of water observed in soils is solely due to evaporative fractionation and its shape is dependent on climate and soil parameters. However, as of today the influence of biogeochemical processes on the spatio-temporal variability of δ18O and δD of the soil solutions has been rarely quantified. O and H exchanges between soil water and other soil compartments (living organisms, minerals, exchange capacity, organic matter) remain poorly known and require deeper investigations. Eventually, we need to better understand the distribution of O and H isotopes throughout the soil matrix. In order to address these issues, we have designed and carried out two complementary isotope experiments that use one liter soil columns of a 2mm-sieved and air-dried soil. Our objectives were (1) to observe the temporal evolution of the water O and H isotopic composition starting from the field capacity to the complete drying of the soil and (2) to determine the impact of soil biogeochemical properties on the isotopic composition

  8. Evidence for equilibrium iron isotope fractionation by nitrate-reducing iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kappler, A.; Johnson, C.M.; Crosby, H.A.; Beard, B.L.; Newman, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    Iron isotope fractionations produced during chemical and biological Fe(II) oxidation are sensitive to the proportions and nature of dissolved and solid-phase Fe species present, as well as the extent of isotopic exchange between precipitates and aqueous Fe. Iron isotopes therefore potentially constrain the mechanisms and pathways of Fe redox transformations in modern and ancient environments. In the present study, we followed in batch experiments Fe isotope fractionations between Fe(II)aq and Fe(III) oxide/hydroxide precipitates produced by the Fe(III) mineral encrusting, nitrate-reducing, Fe(II)-oxidizing Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1. Isotopic fractionation in 56Fe/54Fe approached that expected for equilibrium conditions, assuming an equilibrium Δ56FeFe(OH)3 – Fe(II)aq fractionation factor of +3.0 ‰. Previous studies have shown that Fe(II) oxidation by this Acidovorax strain occurs in the periplasm, and we propose that Fe isotope equilibrium is maintained through redox cycling via coupled electron and atom exchange between Fe(II)aq and Fe(III) precipitates in the contained environment of the periplasm. In addition to the apparent equilibrium isotopic fractionation, these experiments also record the kinetic effects of initial rapid oxidation, and possible phase transformations of the Fe(III) precipitates. Attainment of Fe isotope equilibrium between Fe(III) oxide/hydroxide precipitates and Fe(II)aq by neutrophilic, Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria or through abiologic Fe(II)aq oxidation is generally not expected or observed, because the poor solubility of their metabolic product, i.e. Fe(III), usually leads to rapid precipitation of Fe(III) minerals, and hence expression of a kinetic fractionation upon precipitation; in the absence of redox cycling between Fe(II)aq and precipitate, kinetic isotope fractionations are likely to be retained. These results highlight the distinct Fe isotope fractionations that are produced by different pathways of biological and

  9. Hafnium isotope evidence for a transition in the dynamics of continental growth 3.2 Gyr ago.

    PubMed

    Næraa, T; Scherstén, A; Rosing, M T; Kemp, A I S; Hoffmann, J E; Kokfelt, T F; Whitehouse, M J

    2012-05-30

    Earth's lithosphere probably experienced an evolution towards the modern plate tectonic regime, owing to secular changes in mantle temperature. Radiogenic isotope variations are interpreted as evidence for the declining rates of continental crustal growth over time, with some estimates suggesting that over 70% of the present continental crustal reservoir was extracted by the end of the Archaean eon. Patterns of crustal growth and reworking in rocks younger than three billion years (Gyr) are thought to reflect the assembly and break-up of supercontinents by Wilson cycle processes and mark an important change in lithosphere dynamics. In southern West Greenland numerous studies have, however, argued for subduction settings and crust growth by arc accretion back to 3.8 Gyr ago, suggesting that modern-day tectonic regimes operated during the formation of the earliest crustal rock record. Here we report in situ uranium-lead, hafnium and oxygen isotope data from zircons of basement rocks in southern West Greenland across the critical time period during which modern-like tectonic regimes could have initiated. Our data show pronounced differences in the hafnium isotope-time patterns across this interval, requiring changes in the characteristics of the magmatic protolith. The observations suggest that 3.9-3.5-Gyr-old rocks differentiated from a >3.9-Gyr-old source reservoir with a chondritic to slightly depleted hafnium isotope composition. In contrast, rocks formed after 3.2 Gyr ago register the first additions of juvenile depleted material (that is, new mantle-derived crust) since 3.9 Gyr ago, and are characterized by striking shifts in hafnium isotope ratios similar to those shown by Phanerozoic subduction-related orogens. These data suggest a transitional period 3.5-3.2 Gyr ago from an ancient (3.9-3.5 Gyr old) crustal evolutionary regime unlike that of modern plate tectonics to a geodynamic setting after 3.2 Gyr ago that involved juvenile crust generation by plate

  10. Three Gorges Dam alters the Changjiang (Yangtze) river water cycle in the dry seasons: Evidence from H-O isotopes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kai; Yang, Shouye; Lian, Ergang; Li, Chao; Yang, Chengfan; Wei, Hailun

    2016-08-15

    As the largest hydropower project in the world, the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) has attracted great concerns in terms of its impact on the Changjiang (Yangtze) River and coastal marine environments. In this study, we measured or collected the H-O isotopic data of river water, groundwater and precipitation in the mid-lower Changjiang catchment during the dry seasons of recent years. The aim was to investigate the changes of river water cycle in response to the impoundment of the TGD. Isotopic evidences suggested that the mid-lower Changjiang river water was ultimately derived from precipitation, but dominated by the mixing of different water masses with variable sources and isotopic signals as well. The isotopic parameter "deuterium excess" (d-excess) yielded large fluctuations along the mid-lower mainstream during the initial stage of the TGD impoundment, which was inherited from the upstream water with inhomogeneous isotopic signals. However, as the reservoir water level rising to the present stage, small variability of d-excess was observed along the mid-lower mainstream. This discrepancy could be explained that the TGD impoundment had significantly altered the water cycle downstream the dam, with the rising water level increasing the residence time and enhancing the mixing of reservoir water derived from upstream. This eventually resulted in the homogenization of reservoir water, and thus small fluctuations of d-excess downstream the dam after the quasi-normal stage (2008 to present). We infer that the retention effect of large reservoirs has greatly buffered the d-excess natural variability of water cycle in large river systems. Nevertheless, more research attention has to be paid to the damming effect on the water cycle in the river, estuarine and coastal areas, especially during the dry seasons.

  11. Sulfur and lead isotopic evidence of relic Archean sediments in the Pitcairn mantle plume

    PubMed Central

    Delavault, Hélène; Thomassot, Emilie; Devey, Colin W.; Dazas, Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    The isotopic diversity of oceanic island basalts (OIB) is usually attributed to the influence, in their sources, of ancient material recycled into the mantle, although the nature, age, and quantities of this material remain controversial. The unradiogenic Pb isotope signature of the enriched mantle I (EM I) source of basalts from, for example, Pitcairn or Walvis Ridge has been variously attributed to recycled pelagic sediments, lower continental crust, or recycled subcontinental lithosphere. Our study helps resolve this debate by showing that Pitcairn lavas contain sulfides whose sulfur isotopic compositions are affected by mass-independent fractionation (S-MIF down to Δ33S = −0.8), something which is thought to have occurred on Earth only before 2.45 Ga, constraining the youngest possible age of the EM I source component. With this independent age constraint and a Monte Carlo refinement modeling of lead isotopes, we place the likely Pitcairn source age at 2.5 Ga to 2.6 Ga. The Pb, Sr, Nd, and Hf isotopic mixing arrays show that the Archean EM I material was poor in trace elements, resembling Archean sediment. After subduction, this Archean sediment apparently remained stored in the deep Earth for billions of years before returning to the surface as Pitcairn´s characteristic EM I signature. The presence of negative S-MIF in the deep mantle may also help resolve the problem of an apparent deficit of negative Δ33S anomalies so far found in surface reservoirs. PMID:27791057

  12. Sulfur and lead isotopic evidence of relic Archean sediments in the Pitcairn mantle plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delavault, Hélène; Chauvel, Catherine; Thomassot, Emilie; Devey, Colin W.; Dazas, Baptiste

    2016-11-01

    The isotopic diversity of oceanic island basalts (OIB) is usually attributed to the influence, in their sources, of ancient material recycled into the mantle, although the nature, age, and quantities of this material remain controversial. The unradiogenic Pb isotope signature of the enriched mantle I (EM I) source of basalts from, for example, Pitcairn or Walvis Ridge has been variously attributed to recycled pelagic sediments, lower continental crust, or recycled subcontinental lithosphere. Our study helps resolve this debate by showing that Pitcairn lavas contain sulfides whose sulfur isotopic compositions are affected by mass-independent fractionation (S-MIF down to Δ33S = -0.8), something which is thought to have occurred on Earth only before 2.45 Ga, constraining the youngest possible age of the EM I source component. With this independent age constraint and a Monte Carlo refinement modeling of lead isotopes, we place the likely Pitcairn source age at 2.5 Ga to 2.6 Ga. The Pb, Sr, Nd, and Hf isotopic mixing arrays show that the Archean EM I material was poor in trace elements, resembling Archean sediment. After subduction, this Archean sediment apparently remained stored in the deep Earth for billions of years before returning to the surface as Pitcairńs characteristic EM I signature. The presence of negative S-MIF in the deep mantle may also help resolve the problem of an apparent deficit of negative Δ33S anomalies so far found in surface reservoirs.

  13. Osmium Isotope Evidence for an S-Process Carrier in Primitive Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, A. D.; Puchtel, I. S.; Humayun, M.; Zolensky, M.

    2005-01-01

    The degree of isotopic mixing in the solar nebula and the nature of pre-solar components that have contributed to our solar system remain subjects of vigorous debate. Isotopic anomalies have been identified in Ca-Al inclusions in chondrites [1-4]. This indicates that refractory pre-solar components were not completely homogenized or processed away at the high temperatures experienced by CAIs. Pre-solar grains (SiC, C, etc.) are prevalent in primitive chondrites, and preserve isotopic heterogeneity resulting from the nucleosynthetic processes occurring in the stars from which these grains formed [2,4]. Several recent studies employing precise techniques for measuring Ru, Mo and Zr isotopes in bulk meteorites, have come up with varying conclusions on the degree of effectiveness of nebular mixing on the scale of bulk meteorite material. Some of these studies have reported isotopic anomalies in Mo and Ru [3,5-7], while others have not observed anomalies in Mo, Ru, or Zr [8-10]. Debate over the quality of the data, the normalization techniques employed, the absence or presence of isobaric interferences during the measurements on different types of instruments (e.g. TIMS versus ICP-MS), and other factors, has ensued [11,12].

  14. Zircon Hf isotope evidence for an enriched mantle source for the Bushveld Igneous Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alex Zirakparvar, N.; Mathez, Edmond. A.; Scoates, James S.; Wall, Corey J.

    2014-09-01

    We use the Hf isotope composition of zircon from the Bushveld Complex to better understand the source of its parent magmas. The data set, which consists of 141 individual LA-ICP-MS analyses from 11 samples encompassing the entire cumulate stratigraphy, shows that the parent magmas had a Hf isotope composition unlike that of the depleted mantle at 2.06 Ga. Specifically, sample average ɛHf(present) values range from -55.3 to -52.5 (ɛHf(2.06 Ga) = -9.0 to -6.8) and are surprisingly homogeneous. This homogeneity is difficult to reconcile with direct assimilation of crustal material by Bushveld parent magmas because it would require that each batch of magma had assimilated just the right amount of material to all acquire the same Hf isotopic composition. Also, calculations suggest that simple mixing of regional crust into a primitive, mantle-derived liquid cannot account for both the presumed Hf and major elemental concentrations and the 176Hf/177Hf ratio of the Bushveld magmas. Rather, the Hf data are consistent with generation of these magmas by partial melting in a sub-continental mantle lithospheric source with an unradiogenic Hf isotopic composition equal to that of the Bushveld parent magmas. Several possibilities for the development of such a source are explored using the new Hf isotope data.

  15. Stable Carbon Isotope Evidence for Neolithic and Bronze Age Crop Water Management in the Eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Michael P; Jones, Glynis; Charles, Michael; Fraser, Rebecca; Heaton, Tim H E; Bogaard, Amy

    2015-01-01

    In a large study on early crop water management, stable carbon isotope discrimination was determined for 275 charred grain samples from nine archaeological sites, dating primarily to the Neolithic and Bronze Age, from the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Asia. This has revealed that wheat (Triticum spp.) was regularly grown in wetter conditions than barley (Hordeum sp.), indicating systematic preferential treatment of wheat that may reflect a cultural preference for wheat over barley. Isotopic analysis of pulse crops (Lens culinaris, Pisum sativum and Vicia ervilia) indicates cultivation in highly varied water conditions at some sites, possibly as a result of opportunistic watering practices. The results have also provided evidence for local land-use and changing agricultural practices.

  16. Stable Carbon Isotope Evidence for Neolithic and Bronze Age Crop Water Management in the Eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Michael P.; Jones, Glynis; Charles, Michael; Fraser, Rebecca; Heaton, Tim H. E.; Bogaard, Amy

    2015-01-01

    In a large study on early crop water management, stable carbon isotope discrimination was determined for 275 charred grain samples from nine archaeological sites, dating primarily to the Neolithic and Bronze Age, from the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Asia. This has revealed that wheat (Triticum spp.) was regularly grown in wetter conditions than barley (Hordeum sp.), indicating systematic preferential treatment of wheat that may reflect a cultural preference for wheat over barley. Isotopic analysis of pulse crops (Lens culinaris, Pisum sativum and Vicia ervilia) indicates cultivation in highly varied water conditions at some sites, possibly as a result of opportunistic watering practices. The results have also provided evidence for local land-use and changing agricultural practices. PMID:26061494

  17. Hf Isotope Evidence for Subducted Basalt and Sediment Contributions to the Eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Y.; Tuena, A. G.; Capra, L.; Straub, S. M.; Goldstein, S. L.; Langmuir, C. H.

    2005-12-01

    Magmas generated at thick crust continental arcs often have enriched continental crust-like trace element patterns and Pb-Sr-Nd isotope ratios that are intermediate to both upper mantle and crustal compositions. Thus it is difficult to distinguish between contributions from (a) the subducted basalt and the upper mantle wedge, and (b) subducted sediment and the continental crust. These issues have been the focus of major controversy. Here we show evidence for subduction contributions to lavas in a classic thick crust environment. In Eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, the upper continental crust is 30 km to 45 km thick. However, primitive mafic lavas erupt on many sites across the arc. We have analyzed the subducting sediments as represented by DSDP 487, located seaward of the trench, where the lower third of the sediment column has strongly hydrothermal pelagic features and the upper two-thirds is composed of terrigenous sediments. The pelagic sediments have distinctive features that could be used to identify a subduction component in the volcanics, including high REE/Hf, negative Ce anomalies, and Nd-Hf isotopes that lie on the "seawater array" and offset from the "mantle-crust" array. We have focused on a unique series of lavas from volcano Nevado de Toluca, located southwest of Mexico City. These lavas show negative Ce anomalies coupled with low REE/Hf and Zr/Nd ratios. Hf-Nd isotope ratios show a shallow trend compared to the mantle-crust array, consistent with a pelagic component. In addition, Hf isotopes show a striking positive correlation with Ce anomalies that trend toward the pelagic sediment compositions. These and other observations provide clear evidence for a component from subducted sediment in the lavas. In addition, there is a negative correlation of Lu/Hf and Hf isotopes that requires a mixing endmember with MORB-like Hf isotope ratios but with lower than MORB Lu/Hf. This indicates a melt from eclogitic subducted basalt. Compared to other

  18. Noble Gas Isotopic Evidence for Primordial Evolution of the Earth's Atmosphere in Three Distinct Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, C. L., Jr.; Jacobsen, S. B.

    1995-09-01

    The deep Earth is the key to understanding the primordial evolution of the Earth's atmosphere. However the atmosphere was not derived by degassing of the Earth, as widely held. Isotopic characterization of mantle noble gases and modeling based on this information [1] suggests the atmosphere experienced a 3-stage early history. This follows from 5 basic observations: (i) Ne in the mantle is solar-like, with light (high) 20Ne/22Ne relative to the atmosphere [2]; (ii) mantle Xe has higher 128Xe/130Xe than the atmosphere [3], which carries an extreme heavy isotope enriched mass fractionation signature of >3%/amu (iii) most of the radiogenic Xe from l29I and 244Pu decay in the Earth is not present either in the mantle or in the atmosphere; (iv) the inferred abundances of noble gases in the deep Earth "plume source" are insufficient to generate the present atmospheric abundances, even for whole mantle degassing; and (v) mantle noble gases indicate a 2 component structure, with solar light gases (He and Ne) and planetary heavy gases [4]. The present day noble gas budgets (and likely also N2) must derive from late accretion of a volatile-rich "veneer." This is stage III. Stage II is a naked (no atmosphere) epoch indicated by evidence for Hadean degassing of 244Pu (T1/2 = 80 Ma) fission Xe from the whole mantle, which was not retained in the present atmosphere. The naked stage must have lasted for more than ~200 Ma, and was supported by the early intense solar EUV luminosity. Stage I, a massive solar-composition protoatmosphere, occurred during the Earth's early accretion phase. Its existence is indicated by the presence of the solar gas component in the Earth. This is not attributable to subduction of solar wind rich cosmic dust, or solar wind irradiation of coagulating objects. It is best explained by accretion of a solar composition atmosphere from the nebula. This provided a thermal blanket supporting a magma ocean in which solar gases dissolved. Under these conditions

  19. The Leadville Mine Drainage Tunnel Catastrophe: A Case Study of How Isotope Geochemistry Provided Forensic Evidence to Inform Policy Decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. W.; Wireman, M.; Liu, F.; Gertson, J.

    2008-12-01

    A state of emergency was declared in February 2008 because of fears that a blocked drainage tunnel in the Leadville mining district of Colorado could cause a catastrophic flood. An estimated 1 billion gallons of metals-laden water poses an eminent threat to the city of Leadville and the headwaters of the Arkansas river. Within days of the declaration of a state of emergency, Governor Ritter and Senator Salazer of Colorado, along with a host of other local and statewide politicians, visited the site and emphasized the need to develop a fast yet safe mitigation plan. Here we provide information from a case study that illustrates how a suite of isotopic and hydrologic tools enables identification of critical, site-specific variables essential in developing a science plan to guide targeted remediation of the Leadville drainage tunnel. The isotopic tools, including both stable and radiogenic isotopes, provided clear and compelling evidence of water sources and flowpaths in an area that has undergone extensive perturbations, including the drilling of more than 2,000 mine shafts. This forensic evidence was the key information in developing a plan to plug the drainage tunnel several hundred feet underground, divert a major source of polluted water from reaching the collapsed tunnel and piping it to an existing treatment plant, and guidance on where to place pumps in additional mine shafts, and the drilling of new wells to pump water in case the plugging of the tunnel caused water to pool up and raise the water table to dangerous heights. This particular case of forensic hydrology using isotopic tools not only provides the scientific basis for an operational plan to defuse a life- and property-threatening situation, it also provides the basis for decommissioning an existing water treatment plant, which will result in savings of over 1 million annually in operational costs. Decommissioning the existing water treatment plant will pay for the tunnel mitigation within several

  20. Evolution of continental crust and mantle heterogeneity: Evidence from Hf isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonathan, Patchett P.; Kouvo, O.; Hedge, C.E.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1982-01-01

    We present initial 176Hf/177 Hf ratios for many samples of continental crust 3.7-0.3 Gy old. Results are based chiefly on zircons (1% Hf) and whole rocks: zircons are shown to be reliable carriers of essentially the initial Hf itself when properly chosen on the basis of U-Pb studies. Pre-3.0 Gy gneisses were apparently derived from an unfractionated mantle, but both depleted and undepleted mantle are evident as magma sources from 2.9 Gy to present. This mantle was sampled mainly from major crustal growth episodes 2.8, 1.8 and 0.7 Gy ago, all of which show gross heterogeneity of 176Hf/177Hf in magma sources from ??Hf=0 to +14, or about 60% of the variability of the present mantle. The approximate ??Hf=2??Nd relationship in ancient and modern igneous rocks shows that 176Lu/177Hf fractionates in general twice as much as 147Sm/144Nd in mantle melting processes. This allows an estimation of the relative value of the unknown bulk solid/liquid distribution coefficient for Hf. DLu/DHf=??? 2.3 holds for most mantle source regions. For garnet to be an important residual mantle phase, it must hold Hf strongly in order to preserve Hf-Nd isotopic relationships. The ancient Hf initials are consistent with only a small proportion of recycled older cratons in new continental crust, and with quasi-continuous, episodic growth of the continental crust with time. However, recycling of crust less than 150 My old cannot realistically be detected using Hf initials. The mantle shows clearly the general positive ??Hf resulting from a residual geochemical state at least back to 2.9 Gy ago, and seems to have repeatedly possessed a similar degree of heterogeneity, rather than a continuously-developing depletion. This is consistent with a complex dynamic disequilibrium model for the creation, maintenance and destruction of heterogeneity in the mantle. ?? 1981 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Terrestrial-aquatic linkage in stream food webs along a forest chronosequence: multi-isotopic evidence.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Naoto F; Togashi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yoshiyazu; Yoshimura, Mayumi; Kohmatsu, Yukihiro; Yoshimizu, Chikage; Ogawa, Nanako O; Ohte, Nobuhito; Tokuchi, Naoko; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Tayasu, Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    Long-term monitoring of ecosystem succession provides baseline data for conservation and management, as well as for understanding the dynamics of underlying biogeochemical processes. We examined the effects of deforestation and subsequent afforestation of a riparian forest of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) on stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ¹³C) and nitrogen (δ¹⁵N) and natural abundances of radiocarbon (Δ¹⁴C) in stream biota in the Mt. Gomadan Experimental Forest and the Wakayama Forest Research Station, Kyoto University, central Japan. Macroinvertebrates, periphytic algae attached to rock surfaces (periphyton), and leaf litter of terrestrial plants were collected from six headwater streams with similar climate, topography, and bedrock geology, except for the stand ages of riparian forests (from 3 to 49 yr old in five stands and > 90 yr old in one reference stand). Light intensity and δ¹³C values of both periphyton and macroinvertebrates decreased synchronously with forest age in winter. A Bayesian mixing model indicates that periphyton contributions to the stream food webs are maximized in 23-yr-old forests. Except for grazers, most macroinvertebrates showed Δ¹⁴C values similar to those of terrestrial leaf litter, reflecting the influence of modern atmospheric CO₂ Δ¹⁴C values. On the other hand, the Δ¹⁴C values of both periphyton and grazers (i.e., aquatic primary consumers) were significantly lower than that of modern atmospheric CO₂, and were lowest in 23-yr-old forest stands. Previous studies show that root biomass of C. japonica peaks at 15-30 yr after planting. These evidences suggest that soil CO₂ released by root respiration and dispersed by groundwater weathers carbonate substrata, and that dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with low Δ¹⁴C is incorporated into stream periphyton and some macroinvertebrates. The ecological response in the studied streams to clear-cutting and replanting of Japanese cedar is much

  2. Fiskenaesset Anorthosite Complex: Stable isotope evidence for shallow emplacement into Archean ocean crust

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, W.H.; Valley, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios indicate that unusual rocks at the upper contact of the Archean Fiskenaesset Anorthosite Complex at Fiskenaesset Harbor (southwest Greenland) are the products of hydrothermal alteration by seawater at the time of anorthosite intrusion. Subsequent granulite-facies metamorphism of these Ca-poor and Al- and Mg-rich rocks produced sapphirine- and kornerupine-bearing assemblages. Because large amounts of surface waters cannot penetrate to depths of 30 km during granulite-facies metamorphism, the isotopic signature of the contact rocks must have been obtained prior to regional metamorphism. The stable isotope and geochemical characteristics of the contact rocks support a model of shallow emplacement into Archean ocean crust for the Fiskenaesset Anorthosite Complex. 45 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Multiple taxon multiple locality approach to providing oxygen isotope evidence for warm-blooded theropod dinosaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Henry C.; Rogers, Raymond R.

    2000-09-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios of fossil remains of coexisting taxa from several different localities can be used to help investigate dinosaur thermoregulation. Focusing on the Late Cretaceous, oxygen isotope ratios of crocodile tooth enamel from four separate localities exhibit less of a decrease with latitude than do ratios of tooth enamel from coexisting theropod dinosaurs. A shallower latitudinal gradient for crocodiles is consistent with how oxygen isotope ratios should vary for heterothermic animals having body temperatures coupled with their environments (“cold blooded”), while a steeper gradient for theropods is consistent with how these ratios should vary for homeothermic animals having constant body temperatures independent of their environments (“warm blooded”). This inferred homoethermy in theropods is likely due to higher rates of metabolic heat production relative to crocodiles and is not an artifact of body size.

  4. Continental weathering following a Cryogenian glaciation: Evidence from calcium and magnesium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasemann, Simone A.; Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Prave, Anthony R.; Fallick, Anthony E.; Elliott, Tim; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz

    2014-06-01

    A marked ocean acidification event and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations following the extreme environmental conditions of the younger Cryogenian glaciation have been inferred from boron isotope measurements. Calcium and magnesium isotope analyses offer additional insights into the processes occurring during this time. Data from Neoproterozoic sections in Namibia indicate that following the end of glaciation the continental weathering flux transitioned from being of mixed carbonate and silicate character to a silicate-dominated one. Combined with the effects of primary dolomite formation in the cap dolostones, this caused the ocean to depart from a state of acidification and return to higher pH after climatic amelioration. Differences in the magnitude of stratigraphic isotopic changes across the continental margin of the southern Congo craton shelf point to local influences modifying and amplifying the global signal, which need to be considered in order to avoid overestimation of the worldwide chemical weathering flux.

  5. New osmium isotope evidence for intracrustal recycling of crustal domains with discrete ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, G.L.; Johnson, C.M.; Hildreth, W.; Shirey, S.B.

    2003-01-01

    New 187Os/188Os ratios of Quaternary Mount Adams volcanic rocks from the Cascade arc in southern Washington vary by >300% (187Os/188Os = 0.165-0.564) and fall into high (>0.319) and low (0.166 to 0.281) groups of 187Os/188Os ratios that are substantially more radiogenic than mantle values. These Os isotope compositions and groupings are interpreted to reflect recycling of discrete intracrustal domains with high 187Os/188Os ratios but differing ages, thus recording the process of crustal hybridization and homogenization. Os isotope compositions provide new constraints on amounts of intracrustal recycling in young subduction-zone environments that reflect the magmatic history of the arc. Sr, Nd, Hf, and Pb isotope variations in this young, mafic are complex are too small to allow such constraints.

  6. Computational and Experimental Evidence of Emergent Equilibrium Isotope Effects in Anion Receptor Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The measurement of a deuterium equilibrium isotope effect (EIE) for the aryl CH···Cl– interaction of anion receptor 1H/1D is reported. Computations corroborate the results of solution measurements for a small, normal EIE in the full complex (KaH/KaD = 1.019 ± 0.010). Interestingly, isotope effects involving fragments of the anion receptor (urea, aryl ring, etc.) are predicted to produce an inverse effect. This points to an unusual and subtle structural organization effect of the anion receptor complex that changes the nature of the combined interactions to a normal isotope effect. The reversal of EIE values suggests that overall architecture of the anion receptor can dramatically impact the nature of bonding in these complexes. PMID:28282134

  7. Evidence for depletion of heavy silicon isotopes at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, M.; Altwegg, K.; Balsiger, H.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Bieler, A.; Calmonte, U.; Combi, M.; De Keyser, J.; Engrand, C.; Fiethe, B.; Fuselier, S. A.; Gasc, S.; Gombosi, T. I.; Hansen, K. C.; Hässig, M.; Le Roy, L.; Mezger, K.; Tzou, C.-Y.; Wampfler, S. F.; Wurz, P.

    2017-05-01

    Context. The Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) was designed to measure the composition of the gas in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the target of the European Space Agency's Rosetta mission. In addition to the volatiles, ROSINA measured refractories sputtered off the comet by the interaction of solar wind protons with the surface of the comet. Aims: The origin of different solar system materials is still heavily debated. Isotopic ratios can be used to distinguish between different reservoirs and investigate processes occurring during the formation of the solar system. Methods: ROSINA consisted of two mass spectrometers and a pressure sensor. In the ROSINA Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer (DFMS), the neutral gas of cometary origin was ionized and then deflected in an electric and a magnetic field that separated the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio. The DFMS had a high mass resolution, dynamic range, and sensitivity that allowed detection of rare species and the known major volatiles. Results: We measured the relative abundance of all three stable silicon isotopes with the ROSINA instrument on board the Rosetta spacecraft. Furthermore, we measured 13C/12C in C2H4, C2H5, and CO. The DFMS in situ measurements indicate that the average silicon isotopic composition shows depletion in the heavy isotopes 29Si and 30Si with respect to 28Si and solar abundances, while 13C to 12C is analytically indistinguishable from bulk planetary and meteorite compositions. Although the origin of the deficiency of the heavy silicon isotopes cannot be explained unambiguously, we discuss mechanisms that could have contributed to the measured depletion of the isotopes 29Si and 30Si.

  8. Chronology of chrondrule and CAI formation: Mg-Al isotopic evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, G. J.; Davis, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Details of the chondrule and Ca-Al-rich inclusion (CAI) formation during the earliest history of the solar system are imperfectly known. Because CAI's are more 'refractory' than ferromagnesian chondrules and have the lowest recorded initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios of any solar system materials, the expectation is that CAI's formed earlier than chondrules. But it is not known, for example, if CAI formation had stopped by the time chondrule formation began. Conventional (absolute) age-dating techniques cannot adequately resolve small age differences (less than 10(exp 6) years) between objects of such antiquity. One approach has been to look at systematic differences in the daughter products of short-lived radionuclides such as Al-26 and I-129. Unfortunately, neither system appears to be 'well-behaved.' One possible reason for this circumstance is that later secondary events have partially reset the isotopic systems, but a viable alternative continues to be large-scale (nebular) heterogeneity in initial isotopic abundances, which would of course render the systems nearly useless as chronometers. In the past two years the nature of this problem has been redefined somewhat. Examination of the Al-Mg isotopic database for all CAI's suggests that the vast majority of inclusions originally had the same initial Al-26/Al-27 abundance ratio, and that the ill-behaved isotopic systematics now observed are the results of later partial reequilibration due to thermal processing. Isotopic heterogeneities did exist in the nebula, as demonstrated by the existence of so-called FUN inclusions in CV3 chondrites and isotopically anomalous hibonite grains in CM2 chondrites, which had little or no live Al-26 at the time of their formation. But, among the population of CV3 inclusions at least, FUN inclusions appear to have been a relatively minor nebular component.

  9. Isotopic evidence for biogenic molecular hydrogen production in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, S.; Kock, A.; Steinhoff, T.; Fiedler, B.; Fietzek, P.; Kaiser, J.; Krol, M.; Popa, M. E.; Chen, Q.; Tanhua, T.; Röckmann, T.

    2016-01-01

    Oceans are a net source of molecular hydrogen (H2) to the atmosphere. The production of marine H2 is assumed to be mainly biological by N2 fixation, but photochemical pathways are also discussed. We present measurements of mole fraction and isotopic composition of dissolved and atmospheric H2 from the southern and northern Atlantic between 2008 and 2010. In total almost 400 samples were taken during 5 cruises along a transect between Punta Arenas (Chile) and Bremerhaven (Germany), as well as at the coast of Mauritania.

    The isotopic source signatures of dissolved H2 extracted from surface water are highly deuterium-depleted and correlate negatively with temperature, showing δD values of (-629 ± 54) ‰ for water temperatures at (27 ± 3) °C and (-249 ± 88) ‰ below (19 ± 1) °C. The results for warmer water masses are consistent with the biological production of H2. This is the first time that marine H2 excess has been directly attributed to biological production by isotope measurements. However, the isotope values obtained in the colder water masses indicate that beside possible biological production, a significant different source should be considered.

    The atmospheric measurements show distinct differences between both hemispheres as well as between seasons. Results from the global chemistry transport model TM5 reproduce the measured H2 mole fractions and isotopic composition well. The climatological global oceanic emissions from the GEMS database are in line with our data and previously published flux calculations. The good agreement between measurements and model results demonstrates that both the magnitude and the isotopic signature of the main components of the marine H2 cycle are in general adequately represented in current atmospheric models despite a proposed source different from biological production or a substantial underestimation of nitrogen fixation by several authors.

  10. Isotopic evidence for biogenic molecular hydrogen production in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Sylvia; Kock, Annette; Steinhoff, Tobias; Fiedler, Björn; Fietzek, Peer; Kaiser, Jan; Krol, Maarten; Popa, Elena; Chen, Qianjie; Tanhua, Toste; Röckmann, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Oceans are a net source of molecular hydrogen (H2) to the atmosphere. The production of marine H2 is assumed to be mainly biological by N2 fixation, but photochemical pathways are also discussed. We present measurements of mole fraction and isotopic composition of dissolved and atmospheric H2 from the southern and northern Atlantic between 2008 and 2010. In total almost 400 samples were taken during five cruises along a transect between Punta Arenas (Chile) and Bremerhaven (Germany), as well as at the coast of Mauritania. The isotopic source signatures of dissolved H2 extracted from surface water are highly deuterium-depleted and correlate negatively with temperature, showing δD values of (-629±54) ‰ for water temperatures at (27±3) ˚ C and (-249±88) ‰ below (19±1) ˚ C. The results for warmer water masses are consistent with biological production of H2. This is the first time that marine H2 excess has been directly attributed to biological production by isotope measurements. However, the isotope values obtained in the colder water masses indicate that beside possible biological production a significant different source should be considered. The atmospheric measurements show distinct differences between both hemispheres as well as between seasons. Results from the global chemistry transport model TM5 reproduce the measured H2 mole fractions and isotopic composition well. The climatological global oceanic emissions from the GEMS database are in line with our data and previously published flux calculations. The good agreement between measurements and model results demonstrates that both the magnitude and the isotopic signature of the main components of the marine H2 cycle are in general adequately represented in current atmospheric models despite a proposed source different from biological production or a substantial underestimation of nitrogen fixation by several authors.

  11. Isotopic evidence for biogenic molecular hydrogen production in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, S.; Kock, A.; Steinhoff, T.; Fiedler, B.; Fietzek, P.; Kaiser, J.; Krol, M. C.; Popa, M. E.; Chen, Q.; Tanhua, T.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-10-01

    Oceans are a net source of molecular hydrogen (H2) to the atmosphere. The production of marine H2 is assumed to be mainly biological by N2 fixation, but photochemical pathways are also discussed. We present measurements of mole fraction and isotopic composition of dissolved and atmospheric H2 from the southern and northern Atlantic between 2008 and 2010. In total almost 400 samples were taken during five cruises along a transect between Punta Arenas (Chile) and Bremerhaven (Germany), as well as at the coast of Mauretania. The isotopic source signatures of dissolved H2 extracted from surface water are highly deuterium-depleted and correlate negatively with temperature, showing δD values of (-629 ± 54) ‰ for water temperatures at (27 ± 3) °C and (-249 ± 88) ‰ below (19 ± 1) °C. The results for warmer water masses are consistent with biological production of H2. This is the first time that marine H2 excess has been directly attributed to biological production by isotope measurements. However, the isotope values obtained in the colder water masses indicate that beside possible biological production a significant different source should be considered. The atmospheric measurements show distinct differences between both hemispheres as well as between seasons. Results from the global chemistry transport model TM5 reproduce the measured H2 mole fractions and isotopic composition well. The climatological global oceanic emissions from the GEMS database are in line with our data and previously published flux calculations. The good agreement between measurements and model results demonstrates that both the magnitude and the isotopic signature of the main components of the marine H2 cycle are in general adequately represented in current atmospheric models despite a proposed source different from biological production or a substantial underestimation of nitrogen fixation by several authors.

  12. Chronology of chrondrule and CAI formation: Mg-Al isotopic evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, G. J.; Davis, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Details of the chondrule and Ca-Al-rich inclusion (CAI) formation during the earliest history of the solar system are imperfectly known. Because CAI's are more 'refractory' than ferromagnesian chondrules and have the lowest recorded initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios of any solar system materials, the expectation is that CAI's formed earlier than chondrules. But it is not known, for example, if CAI formation had stopped by the time chondrule formation began. Conventional (absolute) age-dating techniques cannot adequately resolve small age differences (less than 10(exp 6) years) between objects of such antiquity. One approach has been to look at systematic differences in the daughter products of short-lived radionuclides such as Al-26 and I-129. Unfortunately, neither system appears to be 'well-behaved.' One possible reason for this circumstance is that later secondary events have partially reset the isotopic systems, but a viable alternative continues to be large-scale (nebular) heterogeneity in initial isotopic abundances, which would of course render the systems nearly useless as chronometers. In the past two years the nature of this problem has been redefined somewhat. Examination of the Al-Mg isotopic database for all CAI's suggests that the vast majority of inclusions originally had the same initial Al-26/Al-27 abundance ratio, and that the ill-behaved isotopic systematics now observed are the results of later partial reequilibration due to thermal processing. Isotopic heterogeneities did exist in the nebula, as demonstrated by the existence of so-called FUN inclusions in CV3 chondrites and isotopically anomalous hibonite grains in CM2 chondrites, which had little or no live Al-26 at the time of their formation. But, among the population of CV3 inclusions at least, FUN inclusions appear to have been a relatively minor nebular component.

  13. Isotopic evidence for variations in the marine calcium cycle over the Cenozoic.

    PubMed

    De La Rocha, C L; DePaolo, D J

    2000-08-18

    Significant variations in the isotopic composition of marine calcium have occurred over the last 80 million years. These variations reflect deviations in the balance between inputs of calcium to the ocean from weathering and outputs due to carbonate sedimentation, processes that are important in controlling the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and, hence, global climate. The calcium isotopic ratio of paleo-seawater is an indicator of past changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide when coupled with determinations of paleo-pH.

  14. Experimental Evidence for Hydrogen Tunneling when the Isotopic Arrhenius Prefactor (AH/AD) is Unity

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sudhir C.; Klinman, Judith P.

    2009-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) is one of the major tools used for the investigation of hydrogen tunneling in condensed phase. Hydrogen transfer reactions displaying isotopic Arrhenius prefactor ratios (AH/AD) of unity are generally ascribed to a semi-classical mechanism. Here, we have identified a double mutant of soybean lipoxygenase (SLO-1, an enzyme previously shown to follow quantum mechanical hydrogen tunneling), that displays an AH/AD of unity and highly elevated (non-classical) KIEs. This observation highlights the shortcoming of assigning a hydrogen transfer reaction to a semi-classical model based solely on an Arrhenius prefactor ratio. PMID:19061319

  15. Origin of the Sudbury Complex by meteoritic impact: Neodymium isotopic evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faggart, B.E.; Basu, A.R.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1985-01-01

    Samarium-neodymium isotopic data on whole rocks and minerals of the Sudbury Complex in Canada gave an igneous crystallization age of 1840 ?? 21 ?? 106 years. The initial epsilon neodymium values for 15 whole rocks are similar to those for average upper continental crust, falling on the crustal trend of neodymium isotopic evolution as defined by shales. The rare earth element concentration patterns of Sudbury rocks are also similar to upper crustal averages. These data suggest that the Sudbury Complex formed from melts generated in the upper crust and are consistent with a meteoritic impact.

  16. Isotopic evidence of natural uranium and spent fuel uranium releases into the environment.

    PubMed

    Pourcelot, L; Boulet, B; Le Corre, C; Loyen, J; Fayolle, C; Tournieux, D; Van Hecke, W; Martinez, B; Petit, J

    2011-02-01

    Uranium and plutonium isotopes were measured in soils, sediments and waters in an area subject to the past and present discharges from the uranium conversion plant of Malvési (France). The isotopes (236)U and (239)Pu are well known activation products of uranium and they prove to be powerful tracers of spent fuel releases in soils and sediments. On the other hand (234)U and (238)U activities measured in waters can be used to distinguish between releases and background uranium sources. Such findings contribute to improve the monitoring of the actinides releases by nuclear fuel facilities (mining sites, conversion, enrichment and fuel plants, reprocessing plants).

  17. Origin of Mesoproterozoic A-type granites in Laurentia: Hf isotope evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodge, John W.; Vervoort, Jeffrey D.

    2006-03-01

    Granitic rocks are commonly used as a means to study chemical evolution of continental crust. In particular, their isotopic compositions reflect the relative contributions of mantle and crustal sources in their genesis. In Laurentia, a distinctive belt of Mesoproterozoic A-type or "anorogenic" granites of ˜ 1.4 Ga age was emplaced within composite, heterogeneous Proterozoic crust. Zircons are an ideal mineral to constrain the granite petrogenetic history because they are repositories of both age (U-Pb geochronology) and tracer (Lu-Hf isotopic) information. We measured the Hf isotope composition of zircons from 31 previously dated A-type granites intruding Proterozoic basement provinces from the southwest U.S. to the upper mid-continent. Isotopic compositions for all granites are broadly similar, with average 176Hf/ 177Hf(i) ratios of 0.281871-0.282153. Averages for granites within different crustal provinces yield present-day ɛHf values between - 31.9 and - 21.9. Initial ɛHf values discriminate the granites by age of the 2.0-1.6 Ga crust which they intrude, but are independent of intrusion age, as follows (basement formation ages in parentheses): southern Granite-Rhyolite (1.5-1.3 Ga), + 7.0 ± 0.9; central Yavapai (1.8-1.7 Ga), + 5.4 ± 0.9; western Yavapai (1.8-1.7 Ga), + 3.3 ± 1.1; Granite-Rhyolite (1.5-1.3 Ga), + 1.4 ± 0.6; Mojave (1.8-1.7 Ga), + 0.2 ± 0.8; and Penokean (1.9-1.8 Ga), - 0.1 ± n/d. The narrow ranges of Hf isotopic signatures within these regional groupings of granites reflect the age and isotopic composition of the basement provinces they intrude. Granites in the southern Granite-Rhyolite and central Yavapai provinces have the highest initial ɛHf, reflecting their more juvenile sources, whereas Mojave and Penokean granites show contributions from more evolved crustal sources. Simple calculations indicate that all the granites represent dominantly crustal melts; although a mantle contribution cannot be ruled out, if present it must be

  18. Iron isotope evidence for the origin of the Moon through partial vaporisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poitrasson, F.; Halliday, A. N.; Lee, D. C.; Levasseur, S.; Teutsch, N.

    2003-04-01

    The currently favoured scenario of the origin of the Moon through a Giant Impact, in which a body approaching the size of Mars hit the proto-Earth and yielded ejecta leading to the Moon remains hypothetical. This theory predicts extremely high temperatures, sufficient to induce planetary-scale vaporisation. We have thus measured the Fe isotope composition of the Earth, Moon and meteorites thought to come from Mars and asteroid Vesta to see if this highly energetic process left an imprint. Our analytical method involves Fe purification through anionic exchange chromatography and iron isotope measurement by MC-ICP-MS. Repeat analyses of standards define 57Fe/54Fe reproducibility of 0.09 per mil (2SD). Meteorites from Mars and Vesta, give δ57Fe/54Fe values indistinguishable to the international IRMM-14 Fe isotopic standard. In contrast, ten lunar samples, spanning a large range in composition give a mean 0.2 per mil heavier than IRMM-14. Mantle-derived terrestrial samples yield a mean δ57Fe/54Fe intermediate between the Moon and Mars. Student's t-tests show that the terrestrial mean is significantly different from the averages of Mars, Vesta and the Moon at a confidence level of more than 99%. These new Fe isotope measurements, combined with previous oxygen isotope data rule out alternative theories of the origin of the Moon through co-accretion, capture or fission from the proto-Earth. In contrast, vaporisation of bodies in space can generate kinetic isotope fractionation, leaving residues with a relatively heavier isotope signature. Hence, the Earth, and especially the Moon, can represent such heavy residues having lost part of their light iron through vaporisation. Only the Giant Impact can account for the energy required to partially melt and vaporise major portion of the Earth and the impactor. Rayleigh kinetic isotope calculations suggest that the Moon lost up to 1% of its iron, whereas the Earth lost up to 0.5% during partial vaporisation.

  19. Oxygen isotopic evidence for vigorous mixing during the Moon-forming giant impact.

    PubMed

    Young, Edward D; Kohl, Issaku E; Warren, Paul H; Rubie, David C; Jacobson, Seth A; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-29

    Earth and the Moon are shown here to have indistinguishable oxygen isotope ratios, with a difference in Δ'(17)O of -1 ± 5 parts per million (2 standard error). On the basis of these data and our new planet formation simulations that include a realistic model for primordial oxygen isotopic reservoirs, our results favor vigorous mixing during the giant impact and therefore a high-energy, high-angular-momentum impact. The results indicate that the late veneer impactors had an average Δ'(17)O within approximately 1 per mil of the terrestrial value, limiting possible sources for this late addition of mass to the Earth-Moon system.

  20. Isotopic evidence from the eastern Canadian shield for geochemical discontinuity in the Proterozoic mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Wooden, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    The Nd and Sr isotopic compositions presently reported for anorthosites and related rocks from the Grenville and Nain Provinces of the eastern Canadian shield indicate that the massifs were delivered from at least two distinct mantle source regions which were established before 1650 Myr ago. These regions were episodically involved in magmatism over about 500 Myr. One reservoir was isotopically similar to the depleted, modern midocean ridge basalt source. The other reservoir was chondritic-to-moderately-enriched, and is most easily identified in the Nain Province, but may have occurred scattered throughout Superior Province, as well.

  1. U and sr isotopes in ground water and calcite, yucca mountain, nevada: evidence against upwelling water.

    PubMed

    Stuckless, J S; Peterman, Z E; Muhs, D R

    1991-10-25

    Hydrogenic calcite and opaline silica deposits in fault zones at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have created considerable public and scientific controversy because of the possible development of a high-level nuclear waste repository at this location. Strontium and uranium isotopic compositions of hydrogenic materials were used to test whether the veins could have formed by upwelling of deep-seated waters. The vein deposits are isotopically distinct from ground water in the two aquifers that underlie Yucca Mountain, indicating that the calcite could not have precipitated from ground water. The data are consistent with a surficial origin for the hydrogenic deposits.

  2. U and Sr Isotopes in ground water and calcite, Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Evidence against upwelling water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, J.S.; Peterman, Z.E.; Muhs, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogenic calcite and opaline silica deposits in fault zones at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have created considerable public and scientific controversy because of the possible development of a high-level nuclear waste repository at this location. Strontium and uranium isotopic compositions of hydrogenic materials were used to test whether the veins could have formed by upwelling of deep-seated waters. The vein deposits are isotopically distinct from ground water in the two aquifers that underlie Yucca Mountain, indicating that the calcite could not have precipitated from ground water. The data are consistent with a surficial origin for the hydrogenic deposits.

  3. Recoupling the Nd-Hf isotope record of the early Earth? Evidence from the Pilbara craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, T.; Vervoort, J. D.; Smithies, H.; Hickman, A.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Geochemical evidence has long been used to argue for mass exchange between the earliest terrestrial crust and mantle, yet the apparently decoupled Nd-Hf isotope record preserved by the oldest rocks implicates differentiation processes unlike those associated with modern plate tectonics. This debate has, however, been staged in areas of great geological complexity, where the veracity of whole rock radiogenic isotope data is questionable, or involved inferences from ancient detrital zircons whose provenance is enigmatic. Here, we report the Nd and Hf isotope compositions of samples from the Paleoarchaean to Neoarchaean Pilbara craton, a superbly preserved, archetypal granite-greenstone belt in Western Australia. We have analyzed Nd-Hf isotopes in mafic rocks and Hf isotopes in zircons of interleaved felsic units to monitor the effects of whole-rock isotope disturbance and to track the evolution of crust and mantle reservoirs. Mafic samples range from ~3.52 Ga komatiites and basalts of the Warrawoona Group, whose eruption is attributed to mantle plume activity, through to younger (3.12-2.95 Ga) basalts, calc-alkaline basalts and boninites similar to those of intra-oceanic volcanic arcs. Felsic rocks (3.48-2.85 Ga) include dacite and rhyolite units from the greenstone belts and their coeval plutonic counterparts in the granitic complexes. Additionally, the Hf isotope composition of the oldest (3.65-3.73 Ga) detrital zircons from intra-cratonic basins were measured to explore the pre-3.5 Ga history of the craton and to test whether this developed on an older, but unexposed, continental substrate. Results are summarized as follows. Collectively, the Pilbara samples exhibit greater variability in initial 143Nd/144Nd than in 176Hf/177Hf, as has been observed in other ancient Archaean terranes (J. Vervoort et al. Nature 379,1996). Epsilon Hf values of the mafic samples increase from +1.1 at 3.53 Ga to +3.0 at 3.2 Ga, before falling sharply to -3.3 by 2.95 Ga. Epsilon Nd

  4. Lead isotope evidence for a young formation age of the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, J. N.; Bizzarro, M.

    2016-10-01

    A model of a giant impact between two planetary bodies is widely accepted to account for the Earth-Moon system. Despite the importance of this event for understanding early Earth evolution and the inventory of Earth's volatiles critical to life, the timing of the impact is poorly constrained. We explore a data-based, two-stage Pb isotope evolution model in which the timing of the loss of volatile Pb relative to refractory U in the aftermath of the giant impact is faithfully recorded in the Pb isotopes of bulk silicate Earth. Constraining the first stage Pb isotopic evolution permits calculating an age range of 4.426-4.417 Ga for the inflection in the U/Pb ratio related to the giant impact. This model is supported by Pb isotope data for angrite meteorites that we use to demonstrate volatility-driven, planetary-scale Pb loss was an efficient process during the early Solar System. The revised age is ∼100 Myr younger than most current estimates for the age of the Moon but fully consistent with recent ages for lunar ferroan anorthosite and the timing of Earth's first crust inferred from the terrestrial zircon record. The estimated loss of ∼98% of terrestrial Pb relative to the Solar System bulk composition by the end of the Moon-forming process implies that the current inventory of Earth's most volatile elements, including water, arrived during post-impact veneering by volatile-rich bodies.

  5. Evidence of isotopic fractionation of natural uranium in cultured human cells

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Eduardo; Avazeri, Emilie; Malard, Véronique; Vidaud, Claude; Reiller, Pascal E.; Ortega, Richard; Nonell, Anthony; Isnard, Hélène; Chartier, Frédéric; Bresson, Carole

    2016-01-01

    The study of the isotopic fractionation of endogen elements and toxic heavy metals in living organisms for biomedical applications, and for metabolic and toxicological studies, is a cutting-edge research topic. This paper shows that human neuroblastoma cells incorporated small amounts of uranium (U) after exposure to 10 µM natural U, with preferential uptake of the 235U isotope with regard to 238U. Efforts were made to develop and then validate a procedure for highly accurate n(238U)/n(235U) determinations in microsamples of cells. We found that intracellular U is enriched in 235U by 0.38 ± 0.13‰ (2σ, n = 7) relative to the exposure solutions. These in vitro experiments provide clues for the identification of biological processes responsible for uranium isotopic fractionation and link them to potential U incorporation pathways into neuronal cells. Suggested incorporation processes are a kinetically controlled process, such as facilitated transmembrane diffusion, and the uptake through a high-affinity uranium transport protein involving the modification of the uranyl (UO22+) coordination sphere. These findings open perspectives on the use of isotopic fractionation of metals in cellular models, offering a probe to track uptake/transport pathways and to help decipher associated cellular metabolic processes. PMID:27872304

  6. Evidence of isotopic fractionation of natural uranium in cultured human cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes, Eduardo; Avazeri, Emilie; Malard, Véronique; Vidaud, Claude; Reiller, Pascal E.; Ortega, Richard; Nonell, Anthony; Isnard, Hélène; Chartier, Frédéric; Bresson, Carole

    2016-12-01

    The study of the isotopic fractionation of endogen elements and toxic heavy metals in living organisms for biomedical applications, and for metabolic and toxicological studies, is a cutting-edge research topic. This paper shows that human neuroblastoma cells incorporated small amounts of uranium (U) after exposure to 10 µM natural U, with preferential uptake of the 235U isotope with regard to 238U. Efforts were made to develop and then validate a procedure for highly accurate n(238U)/n(235U) determinations in microsamples of cells. We found that intracellular U is enriched in 235U by 0.38 ± 0.13‰ (2σ, n = 7) relative to the exposure solutions. These in vitro experiments provide clues for the identification of biological processes responsible for uranium isotopic fractionation and link them to potential U incorporation pathways into neuronal cells. Suggested incorporation processes are a kinetically controlled process, such as facilitated transmembrane diffusion, and the uptake through a high-affinity uranium transport protein involving the modification of the uranyl (UO22+) coordination sphere. These findings open perspectives on the use of isotopic fractionation of metals in cellular models, offering a probe to track uptake/transport pathways and to help decipher associated cellular metabolic processes.

  7. Carbon isotope fractionation by thermophilic phototrophic sulfur bacteria: evidence for autotrophic growth in natural populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madigan, M. T.; Takigiku, R.; Lee, R. G.; Gest, H.; Hayes, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Purple phototrophic bacteria of the genus Chromatium can grow as either photoautotrophs or photoheterotrophs. To determine the growth mode of the thermophilic Chromatium species, Chromatium tepidum, under in situ conditions, we have examined the carbon isotope fractionation patterns in laboratory cultures of this organism and in mats of C. tepidum which develop in sulfide thermal springs in Yellowstone National Park. Isotopic analysis (13C/12C) of total carbon, carotenoid pigments, and bacteriochlorophyll from photoautotrophically grown cultures of C. tepidum yielded 13C fractionation factors near -20%. Cells of C. tepidum grown on excess acetate, wherein synthesis of the Calvin cycle enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase) was greatly repressed, were isotopically heavier, fractionation factors of ca. -7% being observed. Fractionation factors determined by isotopic analyses of cells and pigment fractions of natural populations of C. tepidum growing in three different sulfide thermal springs in Yellowstone National Park were approximately -20%, indicating that this purple sulfur bacterium grows as a photoautotroph in nature.

  8. Carbon isotope fractionation by thermophilic phototrophic sulfur bacteria: evidence for autotrophic growth in natural populations.

    PubMed Central

    Madigan, M T; Takigiku, R; Lee, R G; Gest, H; Hayes, J M

    1989-01-01

    Purple phototrophic bacteria of the genus Chromatium can grow as either photoautotrophs or photoheterotrophs. To determine the growth mode of the thermophilic Chromatium species, Chromatium tepidum, under in situ conditions, we have examined the carbon isotope fractionation patterns in laboratory cultures of this organism and in mats of C. tepidum which develop in sulfide thermal springs in Yellowstone National Park. Isotopic analysis (13C/12C) of total carbon, carotenoid pigments, and bacteriochlorophyll from photoautotrophically grown cultures of C. tepidum yielded 13C fractionation factors near -20%. Cells of C. tepidum grown on excess acetate, wherein synthesis of the Calvin cycle enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase) was greatly repressed, were isotopically heavier, fractionation factors of ca. -7% being observed. Fractionation factors determined by isotopic analyses of cells and pigment fractions of natural populations of C. tepidum growing in three different sulfide thermal springs in Yellowstone National Park were approximately -20%, indicating that this purple sulfur bacterium grows as a photoautotroph in nature. PMID:11536609

  9. Fluid inclusion and sulphur isotope evidence for syntectonic mineralisation at the Elura mine, southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seccombe, P. K.

    1990-10-01

    Fluid inclusion and sulphur isotope data for the discordant, metasediment-hosted massive sulphide deposit at Elura are consistent with a syntectonic origin of the orebodies. Thermometric and laser Raman microprobe analyses indicate that two-phase, primary fluid inclusions are low salinity and H2O-CO2-CH4 types. Inclusion fluids from quartz in ore yield homogenisation temperatures (Th) ranging from 298 ° to 354 °C (mean 320 °C). They are likely to have been trapped close to the solvus of the H2O-CO2-(CH4-NaCl) system and thus should give temperatures of the mineralising fluid. An additional, low Th population of later fluid inclusions is recognised in quartz from ore and syntectonic extension veins in the adjacent wallrock. Th's for these low CO2bearing inclusions range from 150 to 231 °C (mean 190 °C), and should be considerably lower than true trapping temperatures. Sulphur isotopic composition (δ34S) of pyrite, sphalerite, pyrrhotite and galena ranges from 4.7 to 12.6% and indicates a sulphur source from underlying Cobar Supergroup metasediments. An average temperature of 275 °C from the sphalerite-galena sulphur isotopic thermometer suggests isotopic re-equilibration below peak metamorphic temperatures.

  10. Ultrahigh-Temperature Metamorphism in Madurai Granulites, Southern India: Evidence from Carbon Isotope Thermometry.

    PubMed

    Satish-Kumar

    2000-07-01

    Ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism in the Madurai Block of the southern Indian granulite terrain has been verified using the calcite-graphite isotope exchange thermometer. Carbon isotope thermometry has been applied to marbles from a locality near the reported occurrence of sapphirine granulites that have yielded temperature estimates of around 1000 degrees C. The delta(13)C and delta(18)O values of calcite are homogenous, implying equilibration of the isotopes during metamorphism. However, the delta(13)C values of single graphite crystals show variations in the order of 1 per thousand within a hand specimen. Detailed isotopic zonation studies indicate that graphite preserves either the time-integrated crystal growth history or reequilibrium fractionation during its cooling history. The graphite cores preserve higher delta(13)C values than the rims. The fractionation between calcite and graphite cores gives the highest metamorphic temperature of about 1060 degrees C, which matches the petrologically inferred temperature estimates in the high-magnesian pelites. The fractionation between graphite rims and calcite suggests a temperature of around 750 degrees C, which is interpreted to reflect retrograde cooling. This event is also observed in the sapphirine granulites. Calcite-graphite thermometry thus provides a useful tool to define UHT metamorphism in granulite terrains.

  11. Isotopic evidence indicates saprotrophy in post-fire Morchella in Oregon and Alaska

    Treesearch

    Erik A. Hobbie; Samuel F. Rice; Nancy S. Weber; Jane E. Smith

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the nutritional strategy of true morels (genus Morchella) collected in 2003 and 2004 in Oregon and Alaska, 1 or 2 y after forest fires. We hypothesized that the patterns of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) in the sporocarps would match those of saprotrophic fungi and that radiocarbon (Δ

  12. Isotopic evidence for climatic influence on alluvial-fan development in Death Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, R.I.; DeNiro, M.J.; Ajie, H.O.

    1987-02-01

    At least three semiarid to arid cycles are recorded by ..delta../sup 13/C values of organic matter in layers of rock varnishes on surfaces of Hanaupah Canyon and Johnson Canyon alluvial fans, Death Valley, California. These isotopic paleoenvironmental signals are interpreted as indicating major periods of fan aggradation during relatively more humid periods and fan entrenchment during subsequent lengthy arid periods.

  13. Tungsten isotope evidence that mantle plumes contain no contribution from the Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherstén, Anders; Elliott, Tim; Hawkesworth, Chris; Norman, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Osmium isotope ratios provide important constraints on the sources of ocean-island basalts, but two very different models have been put forward to explain such data. One model interprets 187Os-enrichments in terms of a component of recycled oceanic crust within the source material. The other model infers that interaction of the mantle with the Earth's outer core produces the isotope anomalies and, as a result of coupled 186Os-187Os anomalies, put time constraints on inner-core formation. Like osmium, tungsten is a siderophile (`iron-loving') element that preferentially partitioned into the Earth's core during core formation but is also `incompatible' during mantle melting (it preferentially enters the melt phase), which makes it further depleted in the mantle. Tungsten should therefore be a sensitive tracer of core contributions in the source of mantle melts. Here we present high-precision tungsten isotope data from the same set of Hawaiian rocks used to establish the previously interpreted 186Os-187Os anomalies and on selected South African rocks, which have also been proposed to contain a core contribution. None of the samples that we have analysed have a negative tungsten isotope value, as predicted from the core-contribution model. This rules out a simple core-mantle mixing scenario and suggests that the radiogenic osmium in ocean-island basalts can better be explained by the source of such basalts containing a component of recycled crust.

  14. Anthropogenic Pb input into Bohai Bay, China: Evidence from stable Pb isotopic compositions in sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning-jing, Hu; Peng, Huang; Hui, Zhang; Ai-mei, Zhu; Ji-hua, Liu; Jun, Zhang; Lian-hua, He

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the source of Pb within Bohai Bay, Pb concentrations and Pb isotopic compositions (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, and 208Pb) of surface sediments in this area were determined. The Pb concentration in this bay varied widely from 6.9 to 39.2 μg/g (average: 21.8±7.8 μg/g), and the Pb isotopic compositions ranged from 0.8338 to 0.8864 (average: 2.0997±0.0180) for 208Pb/206Pb and from 2.0797 to 2.1531 (average: 0.8477±0.0135) for 207Pb/206Pb, presenting in three distinct clusters. The Pb isotopic ratios of sediments from the northeastern (NE zone) and northwestern (NW zone) coastal areas were significantly influenced by anthropogenic sources such as coal combustion and automobile emission. In sediments from the central and southern Bohai Bay (C-S zone); however, Pb mainly originated from the Yellow River catchment, as a result of lithogenic sediment (from rock weathering) accumulation. The Pb isotopic ratios further indicate that, apart from riverine inputs, the neighboring large-scale ports and aerosols significantly contributed to the anthropogenic Pb contained in these sediments. Pb contamination in the Haihe and Luanhe river mouths as well as in the regions near ports is also suggested from anthropogenic enrichment factors. As cities and ports continue to develop around Bohai Bay, a long-term extensive sewage monitoring program is highly recommended.

  15. Migratory connectivity in the Rusty Blackbird: Isotopic evidence from feathers of historical and contemporary specimens

    Treesearch

    Keith A. Hobson; Russell Greenberg; Steven L. Van Wilgenburg; Claudia. Mettke-Hofmann

    2010-01-01

    The Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) has declined dramatically across its range in North America since at least the 1960s, but the causes for this decline are unknown. We measured ratios of stable hydrogen isotopes (δD) in feathers collected from Rusty Blackbirds wintering in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (n = 255 birds) and the coastal plain of South Carolina...

  16. Carbon isotope fractionation by thermophilic phototrophic sulfur bacteria: evidence for autotrophic growth in natural populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madigan, M. T.; Takigiku, R.; Lee, R. G.; Gest, H.; Hayes, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Purple phototrophic bacteria of the genus Chromatium can grow as either photoautotrophs or photoheterotrophs. To determine the growth mode of the thermophilic Chromatium species, Chromatium tepidum, under in situ conditions, we have examined the carbon isotope fractionation patterns in laboratory cultures of this organism and in mats of C. tepidum which develop in sulfide thermal springs in Yellowstone National Park. Isotopic analysis (13C/12C) of total carbon, carotenoid pigments, and bacteriochlorophyll from photoautotrophically grown cultures of C. tepidum yielded 13C fractionation factors near -20%. Cells of C. tepidum grown on excess acetate, wherein synthesis of the Calvin cycle enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase) was greatly repressed, were isotopically heavier, fractionation factors of ca. -7% being observed. Fractionation factors determined by isotopic analyses of cells and pigment fractions of natural populations of C. tepidum growing in three different sulfide thermal springs in Yellowstone National Park were approximately -20%, indicating that this purple sulfur bacterium grows as a photoautotroph in nature.

  17. Nucleosynthetic molybdenum isotope anomalies in iron meteorites - new evidence for thermal processing of solar nebula material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, Graeme M.; Rehkämper, Mark; Coles, Barry J.; Goldberg, Tatiana; Smith, Caroline L.

    2017-09-01

    We have investigated nucleosynthetic Mo isotope anomalies in 38 different bulk iron meteorites from 11 groups, to produce by far the largest and most precise dataset available to date for such samples. All magmatic iron groups were found to display deficits in s-process Mo isotopes, with essentially constant anomalies within but significant variations between groups. Only meteorites of the non-magmatic IAB/IIICD complex revealed terrestrial Mo isotopic compositions. The improved analytical precision achieved in this study enables two isotopically distinct suites of iron meteorites to be identified. Of these, the r=p suite encompasses the IC, IIAB, IIE, IIIAB, IIIE and IVA groups and exhibits relatively modest but 'pure' s-process deficits, relative to Earth. The second r>p suite includes groups IIC, IIIF and IVB. These iron meteorites show larger s-process deficits than the r=p suite, coupled with an excess of r-process relative to p-process components. Comparison of the results with data for other elements (e.g., Cr, Ni, Ru, Ti, Zr) suggests that the Mo isotope variability is most likely produced by thermal processing and selective destruction of unstable presolar phases. An updated model is proposed, which relates the iron meteorite suites to different extents of thermal processing in the solar nebula, as governed by heliocentric distance. In detail, the r=p suite of iron meteorite parent bodies is inferred to have formed closer to the Sun, where the extent of thermal processing was similar to that experienced by terrestrial material, so that the meteorites exhibit only small s-process deficits relative to Earth. In contrast, the r>p suite formed at greater heliocentric distance, where more subtle thermal processing removed a smaller proportion of r- and p-process host phases, thereby generating larger s-process deficits relative to the terrestrial composition. In addition, the thermal conditions enabled selective destruction of p- versus r-isotope carrier phases

  18. Isotopic evidence for the source and fate of P in the Everglades wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Wang, Y.

    2007-12-01

    High phosphorus (P) influx into wetland ecosystems in the Florida Everglades continues to be a problem. The increased P loading has been linked to changes in flora and fauna and the degradation of water quality in the wetlands. The number and species of animals have dramatically declined due to the agricultural and urban development since 1900. The plant community has also shifted from P-limited sawgrass (Cladium) to P-adapted cattail (Typha) in areas impacted by agricultural runoff. Although the effects of P loading on ecosystem have been recognized, little is known about how those changes affect the biogeochemical processes regulating P availability and cycling in freshwater ecosystems. The P-O bond in phosphate is resistant to hydrolysis in inorganic systems. However, the P-O bond can be easily broken in enzyme-mediated biochemical reactions, resulting in rapid oxygen isotope exchange with surrounding water within organisms. Thus, oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate should indicate the environment and processes of its formation. Oxygen isotopes in phosphate may provide a useful tool for tracing the source and recycling of phosphorus in aquatic systems. Here, I present the results of an oxygen isotopic study of phosphate in a constructed wetland (Storm water Treatment Area STA-1W) in northern Everglades as well as in a relatively pristine wetland in the Everglades National Park (ENP). Oxygen isotopic compositions of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) in water and of total phosphate in sediment were determined using a High Temperature Conversion Elemental Analyzer (TC/EA) interfaced to a Finnigan MAT Delta Plus XP stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) at NHMFL. The data show: 1) there is no clear relationship between the d18O of DIP and P concentration in the water; 2) the d18O value of DIP is correlated with hydrological data (what kind?); 3) d18O value of DIP is not in equilibrium with water. The DIP samples collected in July are closer to isotopic

  19. Isotopic evidence for the diversity of late Quaternary loess in Nebraska: Glaciogenic and nonglaciogenic sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, John N.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Bettis, E. Arthur; Johnson, William C.; Fanning, C. Mark; Benton, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Pb isotope compositions of detrital K-feldspars and U-Pb ages of detrital zircons are used as indicators for determining the sources of Peoria Loess deposited during the last glacial period (late Wisconsin, ca. 25–14 ka) in Nebraska and western Iowa. Our new data indicate that only loess adjacent to the Platte River has Pb isotopic characteristics suggesting derivation from this river. Most Peoria Loess in central Nebraska (up to 20 m thick) is non-glaciogenic, on the basis of Pb isotope ratios in K-feldspars and the presence of 34-Ma detrital zircons. These isotopic characteristics suggest derivation primarily from the Oligocene White River Group in southern South Dakota, western Nebraska, southeastern Wyoming, and northeastern Colorado. The occurrence of 10–25 Ma detrital zircons suggests additional minor contributions of silt from the Oligocene-Miocene Arikaree Group and Miocene Ogallala Group. Isotopic data from detrital K-feldspar and zircon grains from Peoria Loess deposits in eastern Nebraska and western Iowa suggest that the immediate source of this loess was alluvium of the Missouri River. We conclude that this silt probably is of glaciogenic origin, primarily derived from outwash from the western margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Identification of the White River Group as the main provenance of Peoria Loess of central Nebraska and the Missouri River valley as the immediate source of western Iowa Peoria Loess indicates that paleowind directions during the late Wisconsin were primarily from the northwest and west, in agreement with earlier studies of particle size and loess thickness variation. In addition, the results are in agreement with recent simulations of non-glaciogenic dust sources from linked climate-vegetation modeling, suggesting dry, windy, and minimally vegetated areas in parts of the Great Plains during the last glacial period.

  20. Lithium Isotope Evidence for Cryogenian Post-Glaciation Enhanced Weathering and CO2 Drawdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogge von Strandmann, P.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Kasemann, S.; Elliott, T.

    2014-12-01

    The growth of continental ice sheets at equatorial sealevel during the Neoproterozoic Marinoan are of considerable interest, because they may have served as a filter for animal evolution and atmospheric oxygenation. Further, the hypothesised post-glacial extreme greenhouse state provides the opportunity to test climate system responses to rapid warming. In particular, the debate focuses on whether the ubiquitous post-glacial deposition of cap carbonates and associated negative δ13C excursion was caused by an enhanced weathering-driven delivery of atmospheric CO2 to the oceans, or by the thermal destabilisation of marine methane hydrates. Lithium isotopes are a relatively novel tracer of continental weathering. Li is almost entirely situated in silicates, rather than carbonates, and its isotopic fractionation in rivers is demonstrably due to the intensity of silicate weathering. In addition, Li isotope fractionation remains constant in marine carbonates, regardless of changes in temperature or type of skeletal calcite. Determination of Li isotope ratios through several well-characterised sections of the Otavi Group, NW Namibia, indicates similar trends, with δ7Li decreasing sharply by ~13‰, with the isotopic minimum occurring within the cap carbonates, and before the δ13C minimum. The δ7Li values are the lowest ever recorded in carbonate. These trends strongly suggest a significant increase in the intensity of silicate weathering during the deglaciation. Combining these data with a series of Earth system models coupled to δ13C allows a comprehensive interpretation of the changes in continental weathering and atmospheric pCO2, and the link between the two, during the deposition of the cap carbonates. Together, this data-model approach helps elucidate climate system behaviour during this period of rapid and extreme climate warming.

  1. Trans-Atlantic slavery: isotopic evidence for forced migration to Barbados.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Hannes; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Evans, Jane A; Shuler, Kristrina A; Hedges, Robert E M

    2009-08-01

    The question of the ultimate origin of African slaves is one of the most perplexing in the history of trans-Atlantic slavery. Here we present the results of a small, preliminary isotopic study that was conducted in order to determine the geographical origin of 25 enslaved Africans who were buried at the Newton plantation, Barbados, sometime between the late 17th and early 19th century. In order to gain a more nuanced understanding of the slaves' origin, we used a combination of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and strontium isotope analyses. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were determined in bone and dentinal collagen; oxygen and strontium isotopes were measured in tooth enamel. Results suggest that the majority of individuals were born on the island, if not the estate itself. Seven individuals, however, yielded enamel oxygen and strontium ratios that are inconsistent with a Barbadian origin, which strongly suggests that we are dealing with first-generation captives who were brought to the island with the slave trade. This idea is also supported by the fact that their carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values differ markedly between their teeth and bones. These intra-skeletal shifts reflect major dietary changes that probably coincided with their enslavement and forced migration to Barbados. While it is impossible to determine their exact origins, the results clearly demonstrate that the slaves did not all grow up in the same part of Africa. Instead, the data seem to suggest that they originated from at least three different areas, possibly including the Gold Coast and the Senegambia.

  2. Isotopic evidence for Last Glacial climatic impacts on Neanderthal gazelle hunting territories at Amud Cave, Israel.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Gideon; Hovers, Erella; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Richards, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The Middle Paleolithic site of Amud Cave, Israel, was occupied by Neanderthals at two different time periods, evidenced by two chronologically and stratigraphically distinct depositional sub-units (B4 and B2/B1) during MIS 4 and MIS 3, respectively. The composition of both hunted large fauna and naturally-deposited micromammalian taxa is stable at the site over time, despite a ∼ 10 ky gap between the two occupation phases. However, while gazelle is the most ubiquitous hunted species throughout the occupation, isotopic analysis showed that there is a marked change in Neanderthal hunting ranges between the early (B4) and late (B2/B1) phases. Hunting ranges were reconstructed by comparing oxygen, carbon, and strontium isotopes from gazelle tooth enamel with modern isotope data from the Amud Cave region. This region is characterized by extensive topographic, lithological, and pedological heterogeneity. During the early occupation phase negative oxygen isotope values, low radiogenic (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, and low Sr concentrations reveal restricted gazelle hunting in the high elevations west of Amud Cave. In the late occupation phase, hunting ranges became more diverse, but concentrate at low elevations closer to the site. Climatic proxies indicate that conditions were drier in the early occupation phase, which may have pushed gazelle populations into higher, more productive foraging areas. This study showed that Neanderthals adjusted their hunting territories considerably in relation to varying environmental conditions over the course of occupation in Amud Cave. It highlights the utility of multiple isotope analysis in enhancing the resolution of behavioral interpretations based on faunal remains and in reconstructing past hunting behaviors of Paleolithic hominins.

  3. The Robustness of Clumped Isotope Temperatures to Bond Reordering: Evidence from Deeply Buried Carbonate Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, J.; John, C. M.; Girard, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown that clumped isotope thermometry records the temperature of precipitation for carbonate minerals in surface and near-surface environments. However, the ability of a mineral to retain its clumped isotope signature at deeper, hotter burial conditions is still debated. Dolomite has been shown to be more robust to clumped isotope bond reordering than calcite. In this contribution we measure clumped isotopes in calcite veins from Southern Europe that have been buried to up to 7 km to test the robustness of calcite and dolomite to bond reordering. First, we analysed finely crystalline dolostone matrix samples collected in industry wells from Southwest France and buried to between 2 and 5.5 km, Results indicated a temperatures of ~40-60 °C, interpreted to represent formation in an early burial environment. By contrast, coarser dolomite crystals that are petrographically distinct from the fine-grained dolomite record higher temperatures and are interpreted to reflect a deeper, hotter phase of dolomite formation. Preliminary analysis of a calcite vein from a Cretaceous dolostone in Southern Europe buried to 6.3 km records a temperature of 41±3 °C; the calcite matrix around this records a similarly low temperature. This is well below the present-day well temperature of 130-140 °C. Our results indicate that both calcite and dolomite are not affected by bond reordering at the range of depths and temperatures investigated here. Furthermore, this suggests that clumped isotope thermometry can be applied to deeply-buried samples (i.e. >5km).

  4. Hf isotope evidence for effective impact melt homogenisation at the Sudbury impact crater, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenny, Gavin G.; Petrus, Joseph A.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Daly, J. Stephen; Kamber, Balz S.

    2017-10-01

    We report on the first zircon hafnium-oxygen isotope and trace element study of a transect through one of the largest terrestrial impact melt sheets. The differentiated melt sheet at the 1.85 Ga, originally ca. 200 km in diameter Sudbury impact crater, Ontario, Canada, yields a tight range of uniform zircon Hf isotope compositions (εHf(1850) of ca. -9 to -12). This is consistent with its well-established crustal origin and indicates differentiation from a single melt that was initially efficiently homogenised. We propose that the heterogeneity in other isotopic systems, such as Pb, in early-emplaced impact melt at Sudbury is associated with volatility-related depletion during the impact cratering process. This depletion leaves the isotopic systems of more volatile elements more susceptible to contamination during post-impact assimilation of country rock, whereas the systems of more refractory elements preserve initial homogeneities. Zircon oxygen isotope compositions in the melt sheet are also restricted in range relative to those in the impacted target rocks. However, they display a marked offset approximately one-third up the melt sheet stratigraphy that is interpreted to be a result of post-impact assimilation of 18O-enirched rocks into the base of the cooling impact melt. Given that impact cratering was a more dominant process in the early history of the inner Solar System than it is today, and the possibility that impact melt sheets were sources of ex situ Hadean zircon grains, these findings may have significance for the interpretation of the early zircon Hf record. We speculate that apparent εHf-time arrays observed in the oldest terrestrial and lunar zircon datasets may be related to impact melting homogenising previously more diverse crust. We also show that spatially restricted partial melting of rocks buried beneath the superheated impact melt at Sudbury provided a zircon crystallising environment distinct to the impact melt sheet itself.

  5. “Recycled” volatiles in mantle-derived diamonds— Evidence from nitrogen and noble gas isotopic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Ratan K.; Honda, Masahiko

    2006-11-01

    Noble gas isotopic data from diamonds are commonly interpreted as a two component mixture of gases from the mantle source of mid oceanic ridge basalt (MORB) and air. The air-like component in diamonds is generally considered to have been acquired secondarily through atmospheric contamination. In a recent study [C. Gautheron, P. Cartigny, M. Moreira, J.W. Harris, C.J. Allègre, Evidence for a mantle component shown by rare gases, C and N isotopes in polycrystalline diamonds from Orapa (Botswana), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 240(2005) 559-572.] that involved analyses of noble gases, carbon and nitrogen, such interpretation based on noble gases is used to constrain the sources of carbon and nitrogen in diamond to be solely from the mantle. With the help of heavy noble gas and nitrogen isotopic data from diamonds, we show here that the air-like noble gas component in diamonds is actually a mixture of contributions derived from recycled materials and (minor) air contamination. This, in turn, suggests that some of the carbon in diamonds may also have a recycled origin.

  6. Pyrite multiple-sulfur isotope evidence for rapid expansion and contraction of the early Paleoproterozoic seawater sulfate reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Clint; Wing, Boswell A.; Bekker, Andrey; Planavsky, Noah J.; Medvedev, Pavel; Bates, Steven M.; Yun, Misuk; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2014-03-01

    Earth's oxygenation is often described in terms of two unidirectional steps at the beginning and end of the Proterozoic Eon, separated by a long-lived intermediate redox state. Recent work defines a more complicated path to oxygenation, exemplified by an apparent drop in oxidation state following the early Paleoproterozoic Lomagundi carbon isotope excursion. The timing of this proposed drop in oxidation state is not well constrained, and it is not clear how it relates to redox conditions during the remainder of the Proterozoic. Here we present a study of pyrite multiple-sulfur isotopes, supported by Fe speciation and organic carbon isotopes, from early Paleoproterozoic black shales. We find evidence for the rapid expansion of the seawater sulfate reservoir during the Great Oxidation Event at ca. 2.3 Ga followed by a subsequent contraction in the size of the seawater sulfate reservoir at ca. 2.05 Ga. This scenario is consistent with the emerging view of a rise and fall in surface oxidation state during the early Paleoproterozoic. Comparison of our new data to other records of the seawater sulfate reservoir suggests that the elevated sulfate concentrations that characterize the early Paleoproterozoic did not return until the late Neoproterozoic.

  7. Ancient feeding ecology inferred from stable isotopic evidence from fossil horses in South America over the past 3 Ma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Stable isotope ratios (13C/12C and 18O/16O) in fossil teeth and bone provide key archives for understanding the ecology of extinct horses during the Plio-Pleistocene in South America; however, what happened in areas of sympatry between Equus (Amerhippus) and Hippidion is less understood. Results Here, we use stable carbon and oxygen isotopes preserved in 67 fossil tooth and bone samples for seven species of horses from 25 different localities to document the magnitude of the dietary shifts of horses and ancient floral change during the Plio-Pleistocene. Dietary reconstructions inferred from stable isotopes of both genera of horses present in South America document dietary separation and environmental changes in ancient ecosystems, including C3/C4 transitions. Stable isotope data demonstrate changes in C4 grass consumption, inter-species dietary partitioning and variation in isotopic niche breadth of mixed feeders with latitudinal gradient. Conclusions The data for Hippidion indicate a preference varying from C3 plants to mixed C3-C4 plants in their diet. Equus (Amerhippus) shows three different patterns of dietary partitioning Equus (A.) neogeus from the province of Buenos Aires indicate a preference for C3 plants in the diet. Equus (A.) andium from Ecuador and Equus (A.) insulatus from Bolivia show a preference for to a diet of mixed C3-C4 plants, while Equus (A.) santaeelenae from La Carolina (sea level of Ecuador) and Brazil are mostly C4 feeders. These results confirm that ancient feeding ecology cannot always be inferred from dental morphology. While the carbon isotope composition of horses skeletal material decreased as latitude increased, we found evidence of boundary between a mixed C3/C4 diet signal and a pure C4 signal around 32° S and a change from a mixed diet signal to an exclusively C3 signal around 35°S. We found that the horses living at high altitudes and at low to middle latitude still have a C4 component in their diet, except the

  8. Isotopic Variations in the Post-Shield Lavas of Mauna Kea, Hualalai and Kohala: Evidence for a Koolau Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aciego, S.; Depaolo, D. J.; Eiler, J. M.; Hanano, D.; Weis, D.

    2005-12-01

    We have measured O, He, Pb, Sr, and Nd isotope ratios in olivine separates and whole rock powders from post-shield lavas of the island of Hawaii. These small-volume eruptions, which presumably correspond to small-volume source regions in the mantle, serve as high resolution probes of geochemical heterogeneity to complement data available from shield-stage tholeiites that originate in the primary melting region. He, Sr, and Nd ratios show small amplitude variations, well within the range of previously published data indicating little evidence for isotopically anomalous material in the melting region - either recycled sediments or oceanic crust. These data suggest that the plume does not contain large-amplitude isotopic variations at the scale of the source volume of post-shield lavas, which is likely to be about 100 times smaller than the volume averaged during main stage tholeiite production. However, the oxygen and lead isotope data indicate consistent, large amplitude differences between Hualalai and the other volcanoes. Samples from Hualalai have high δ18O (+5.5) and low 206Pb/204Pb (17.888-18.028). The only other volcanoes in the Hawaiian chain with such correlated extreme values are Koolau and Lanai, which have enriched radiogenic isotopic Sr and Nd compositions not seen in the data from Hualalai. Furthermore, correlated low helium values (8-10R/Ra)- high δ18O from Hualalai are consistent with a Koolau component in the source region for this volcano. The high δ18O contra-indicates a significant lithospheric interaction that would probably decrease δ18O rather than increase it to the values we measure. Samples from Mauna Kea and Kohala are consistently lower in δ18O (+4.8-5.12) than those from Hualalai, and fall within the range of previously measured values for late shield-stage lavas. The multiple isotope systems measured on the same post-shield samples indicate that simple models for Kea and Loa trends based on main stage tholeiitic lavas do not capture

  9. Provenance of sedimentary kaolin deposits in Egypt: Evidences from the Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioumy, Hassan

    2014-12-01

    This work reports, for the first time, the Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes of the clay fractions (<2 μm) from sedimentary kaolin deposits in Egypt of different ages (Carboniferous and lower Cretaceous), localities (Sinai, Red Sea and Aswan), lithologies (flint and plastic) and clay minerals composition (pure kaolinite and mixture of kaolinite, illite and chlorite) to determine their source area compositions and examine the effect of provenance on their isotopic compositions. Measured (present day) and age-corrected Pb isotopes data (100 and 300 My for the Cretaceous and Carboniferous deposits, respectively) are more or less homogeneous in all deposits regardless of their ages, localities, and compositions. This, therefore, suggests that the Pb isotopes cannot be used as a tracer for source area compositions of these kaolin deposits. On the other hand, the studied kaolin deposits show variations in their measured and age-corrected Sr and Nd isotopes regarding to their ages and compositions. The Carboniferous illite-rich kaolin deposits in the Khaboba and Hasbar areas, Sinai have higher measured and age-corrected 87Sr/86Sr ratios (average of 0.715742 and 0.711156 for measured and age-corrected, respectively) compared to the non-illitic Carboniferous deposit at Abu Natash area (average of 0.70772 and 0.70769 for measured and age-corrected, respectively) and the lower Cretaceous deposits in all areas (average of 0.70827 and 0.70821 for measured and age-corrected, respectively). The Carboniferous kaolin deposits in the Khaboba and Hasbar areas also have lower 143Nd/144Nd ratios (average of 0.51206 and 0.51180 for measured and age-corrected, respectively) compared to the Carboniferous Abu Natash deposit (average of 0.51253 and 0.51231 for measured and age-corrected, respectively) as well as the lower Cretaceous deposits in all areas (average of 0.51248 and 0.51239 for measured and age-corrected, respectively). Initial εNd values are negative in the Carboniferous kaolin deposits

  10. Atacama perchlorate as an agricultural contaminant in groundwater: Isotopic and chronologic evidence from Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.; Hatzinger, P.B.; Sturchio, N.C.; Gu, B.; Abbene, I.; Mroczkowski, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) is a common groundwater constituent with both synthetic and natural sources. A potentially important source of ClO4- is past agricultural application of ClO4--bearing natural NO3- fertilizer imported from the Atacama Desert, Chile, but evidence for this hasbeenlargely circumstantial. Here we report ClO4- stable isotope data (??37Cl, ??18O, and ??17O), along with other supporting chemical and isotopic environmental tracer data, to document groundwater ClO4- contamination sources and history in parts of Long Island, New York. Sampled groundwaters were oxic and ClO4- apparently was not affected by biodegradation within the aquifers. Synthetic ClO4- was indicated by the isotopic method in groundwater near a fireworks disposal site at a former missile base. Atacama ClO4- was indicated in agricultural and urbanizing areas in groundwaters with apparent ages >20 years. In an agricultural area, ClO4- concentrations and ClO4-/NO3- ratios increased withgroundwaterage, possiblybecauseof decreasing application rates of Atacama NO3- fertilizers and/or decreasing ClO4- concentrations in Atacama NO 3- fertilizers in recent years. Because ClO 4-/NO3- ratios of Atacama NO 3- fertilizers imported in the past (???2 ?? 10-3 mol mol-1) were much higher than the ClO 4-/NO3- ratio of recommended drinking-water limits (7 ?? 10-5 mol mol-1 in New York), ClO4- could exceed drinkingwater limits even where NO3- does not, and where Atacama NO3- was only a minor source of N. Groundwater ClO4- with distinctive isotopic composition was a sensitive indicator of past Atacama NO3- fertilizer use on Long Island and may be common in other areas that received NO3- fertilizers from the late 19th century through the 20th century. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  11. Lithium isotopes and light lithophile element abundances in shergottites: Evidence for both magmatic degassing and subsolidus diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udry, Arya; McSween, Harry Y.; Hervig, Richard L.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2016-01-01

    Degassed magmatic water was potentially the major source of surficial water on Mars. We measured Li, B, and Be abundances and Li isotope profiles in pyroxenes, olivines, and maskelynite from four compositionally different shergottites—Shergotty, QUE 94201, LAR 06319, and Tissint—using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). All three light lithophile elements (LLE) are incompatible: Li and B are soluble in H2O-rich fluids, whereas Be is insoluble. In the analyzed shergottites, Li concentration decreases and Be concentration increases from cores to rims in pyroxenes. However, B concentrations do not vary consistently with Li and Be abundances, except in QUE 94201 pyroxenes. Additionally, abundances of these three elements in olivines show a normal igneous-fractionation trend consistent with the crystallization of olivine before magma ascent and degassing. We expect that kinetic effects would lead to fractionation of 6Li in the vapor phase compared to 7Li during degassing. The Li isotope profiles, with increasing δ7Li from cores to rims, as well as Li and B profiles indicate possible degassing of hydrous fluids only for the depleted shergottite QUE 94201, as also supported by degassing models. Conversely, Shergotty, LAR 06319, and Tissint appear to have been affected by postcrystallization diffusion, based on their LLE and Li isotope profiles, accompanied by diffusion models. This process may represent an overlay on a degassing pattern. The LLE profiles and isotope profiles in QUE 94201 support the hypothesis that degassing of some basaltic shergottite magmas provided water to the Martian surface, although evidence may be obscured by subsolidus diffusion processes.

  12. Nd isotopic gradients in upper crustal magma chambers: Evidence for in situ magma-wall-rock interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, G.L.; Tegtmeyer, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    Multiple Nd isotopic analyses were obtained for one metaluminous and two peralkaline Tertiary rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs in the Great Basin to determine whether upper crustal silici magmas chemically evolve under closed- or open-system conditions. All the ash-flow tuffs analyzed show significant internal Nd isotopic variations. The largest variations occur within the peralkaline Double-H Mountains Tuff ({epsilon}{sub Nd} = +2.0 to +6.4) at the McDermitt volcanic field in north-central Nevada, and the smallest within the metaluminous Topopah Spring Tuff ({epsilon}{sub Nd} = {minus}10.6 to {minus}11.7) at the southwestern Nevada volcanic field. In all cases the isotopic variation are correlated with magmatic Nd contents, even though the Nd concentrations decreased roofward for the metaluminous rhyolite and increased for the peralkaline rhyolites. The consistent positive correlation between [Nd] and {epsilon}{sub Nd} provides strong evidence for in situ open-system addition of low {epsilon}{sub Nd} wall-rock material to the silicic magmas during their residence in the upper crust. The proportion of wall-rock Nd required to produce the isotopic zonations is small (1 to 15 mol%) for both the peralkaline and metaluminous rhyolites. All levels of the parental magmas sampled by the ash-flow tuffs, and not just magma occupying the roof zone, were open to wall-rock interaction. These results suggest that upper crustal silicic magma bodies evolve under open-system conditions and the effects of such processes should be addressed in models for their chemical differentiation.

  13. Post-eruptive alteration of silicic ignimbrites and lavas, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands: Strontium, neodymium, lead, and oxygen isotopic evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Cousens, B.L. ); Spera, F.J. ); Dobson, P.F. )

    1993-02-01

    Isotopic analyses of Miocene comenditic, pantelleritic, and trachyphonolitic ignimbrites and lavas from Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, provide evidence for posteruptive mobility of Rb, Sr, and O. Calculated initial [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios in whole-rock samples from basaltic lavas and feldspar mineral separates from ignimbrites define a magmatic trend in the stratigraphic section, from ratios of 0.70340 at the base of the Mogan Formation to 0.70305 in the lower Fataga Formation. However, calculated apparent initial [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios in hydrated vitrophyre and devitrified matrix separates range from 0.7035 to 0.7090. [delta][sup 18]O ratios in basalts and feldspars vary little, from +5.7 to +6.1, yet range from +6.5 to +15.0 in the ignimbrite matrices. In contrast to the Sr and O isotope ratios, Pb and Nd isotope ratios are identical within analytical error in feldspars and their silicic ignimbrite matrices. Sequential leaching experiments and the oxygen data suggest that low-temperature, posteruptive interaction with meteoric water, perhaps containing a small seawater component, has modified Rb and Sr concentrations in the matrices, such that calculated apparent initial [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios are not those of the magmas when they were erupted. Mobilization of Rb and Sr must occur significantly after eurption. Nd and Pb isotope systems appear to be unaffected by this process. Therefore, [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios determined by whole rock analysis of silicic rocks from hotspot-type oceanic islands are suspect and should not be incorporated into mantle tracer studies, although analysis of phenocrysts may produce useful data. 40 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Martian carbonates in ALH 84001: Textural, elemental, and stable isotopic compositional evidence on their formation. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanek, C. S.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Socki, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Martian orthopyroxenite ALH 84001 is unusual compared to other martian meteorites in its abundance of Mg-Fe-Ca carbonites. Becasue textural evidence indicates that these carbonates are undoubtedly of martian origin, we have undertaken stable isotopic studies to elucidate their origin by evaluating whether they represent primordial martian C that was outgassing from the mantle of Mars, or volatile additions to the ALH 84001 protolith that equilibrated with the martian atmosphere. If precipitation occurred in a closed system then the isotopic results are compatible with the observed chemical zonation. A unique temperature of formation can be calculated using the difference in C-13 and O-18 between the Fe and Mg carbonates, assuming that precipitation occurred at a constant temperature. Precipitation of approximately one-half of the CO2 reservoir at 320 C can account for the observed values, with the original CO2 reservoir having a delta C-13 of approximately 45% and delta O-18 of approximately 22%. If carbonate precipitated in equilibrium with a large isotopically homogeneous CO2 reservoir (open system), isotopic differences must be attributed to a change in temperature of at least several hundreds of degrees. This temperature change is compatible with a calculated range of temperatures based on carbonate geothermometry. Clearly, carbonate in ALH 84001 is in delta O-18 disequilibrium with orthopyroxene groundmass. Most likely, the carbonate precipitated from a fluid that equilibrated with the martian atmosphere. The deposits or fluids in equilibrium with these deposits were remobilized in the crust producing the carbonate in ALH 84001. This observation establishes a link for the first time between the atmospheric and lithospheric C and O pools that reside on Mars.

  15. Osmium Isotope Evidence for Episodic Continental Lithosphere Growth and Stabilization over Earth History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, A. D.

    2002-12-01

    The production of continental crust and mantle lithosphere over Earth history is vigorously debated. Three different models prevail. In one model, the present volume of continental crust is thought to have been produced within the earliest Archean, and younger crustal formation has been balanced by crustal recycling into the mantle. In other models, the volume of continental crust increases over time at a relative uniform rate, or has been episodic. These models have been developed using crustal formation isotopic ages and systematics. Because the Earth's continental crust is continuously reworked and to some poorly constrained extent, recycled back into the mantle, this approach has resulted in a stalemate with respect to resolving the net continental lithospheric production rate over time. Another approach that may aid in addressing this issue is to assess the melt depletion ages of the subcontinental mantle lithosphere (SCLM), which mark the timing of juvenile crust formation. Osmium isotope melt depletion ages obtained for mantle xenoliths found in erupted lavas from Dish Hill and Cima (CA), Vulcan's Throne and San Carlos (AZ), and Kilbourne Hole (NM), result from partial melting of the convecting upper mantle over a narrow time range from about 2.35 to 2.65 Ga. (Lee et al. Nature 411, 2001; this study). The SCLM represented by these spinel peridotite xenoliths underlie crustal provinces with Nd isotopic ages ranging from 1.0 to 2.3 Ga. These data show that juvenile crustal production/SCLM stabilization over a region of the North American continent, spanning over 1200 kilometers, occurred within a narrow time frame. Also, the overlying crust is not presenting an unbiased record of continental growth. Osmium isotopic ages on mantle xenoliths from other regions also show narrow SCLM formation times over large continental areas. These Os isotopic relationships are consistent with a model where SCLM is produced in an episodic fashion, likely resulting from cyclic

  16. Soil water migration in the unsaturated zone of semiarid region in China from isotope evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yonggang; Fu, Bojie

    2017-03-01

    Soil water is an important driving force of the ecosystems, especially in the semiarid hill and gully region of the northwestern Loess Plateau in China. The mechanism of soil water migration in the reconstruction and restoration of Loess Plateau is a key scientific problem that must be solved. Isotopic tracers can provide valuable information associated with complex hydrological problems, difficult to obtain using other methods. In this study, the oxygen and hydrogen isotopes are used as tracers to investigate the migration processes of soil water in the unsaturated zone in an arid region of China's Loess Plateau. Samples of precipitation, soil water, plant xylems and plant roots are collected and analysed. The conservative elements deuterium (D) and oxygen (18O) are used as tracers to identify variable source and mixing processes. The mixing model is used to quantify the contribution of each end member and calculate mixing amounts. The results show that the isotopic composition of precipitation in the Anjiagou River basin is affected by isotopic fractionation due to evaporation. The isotopic compositions of soil waters are plotted between or near the local meteoric water lines, indicating that soil waters are recharged by precipitation. The soil water migration is dominated by piston-type flow in the study area and rarely preferential flow. Water migration exhibited a transformation pathway from precipitation to soil water to plant water. δ18O and δD are enriched in the shallow (< 20 cm depth) soil water in most soil profiles due to evaporation. The isotopic composition of xylem water is close to that of soil water at the depth of 40-60 cm. These values reflect soil water signatures associated with Caragana korshinskii Kom. uptake at the depth of 40-60 cm. Soil water from the surface soil layer (20-40 cm) comprised 6-12 % of plant xylem water, while soil water at the depth of 40-60 cm is the largest component of plant xylem water (ranging from 60 to 66

  17. Helium isotopes in lithospheric mantle: Evidence from Tertiary basalts of the western USA

    SciTech Connect

    Dodson, A.; DePaolo, D.J.; Kennedy, B.M. |

    1998-12-01

    The isotopic compositions of He, Sr, and Nd were measured in Tertiary-age basalts from the Basin and Range province of the western USA to evaluate models for the He isotopic character of subcontinental mantle lithosphere (SCML) and assess the role of recycled SCML in models of mantle evolution. Previous isotopic and trace element measurements suggested that most of these basalts were formed by melting of SCML. {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios, measured by in-vacuo crushing of olivine phenocrysts, vary from 2.9 to 7.8 times the atmospheric value (2.9 to 7.8 Ra) consistently below the MORB value of 8.7 {+-} 0.5 Ra. The lowest R/Ra values, associated with low {epsilon}{sub Nd}, high {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr, and high La/Nb, are attributable to lithosphere mantle, and indicate that SCML is not dominated by MORB-type He, nor by high R/Ra, plume-type He. Consideration of geographic variability indicates there are two, and possibly three, distinct regions of SCML with differing He isotopic characteristics. SCML beneath the eastern Sierra Nevada is inferred to have {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He of {approximately}5.5 Ra and a He/Nd ratio slightly less than MORB-type mantle; SCML beneath the central Basin and Range has {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He of {approximately}4 Ra and a higher He/Nd ratio than MORB-type mantle. The SCML under southwestern Utah shows less systematic correlation of He isotopes with other geochemical parameters, but also has a lower bound R/Ra value of about 4 Ra. The inferred SCML helium ratios are consistent with retention of radiogenic {sup 4}He over 800 Ma for the eastern Sierra Nevada and 1700 Ma for the other two regions. The results are not consistent with models of He infiltration from the underlying asthenosphere and suggest the lithosphere of the Basin and Range region was not delaminated during the early Tertiary. The He, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions inferred for the SCML of the southwestern USA are a reasonably good match to the characteristics of the EMII

  18. Isotopic equilibrium between precipitation and water vapor: evidence from continental rains in central Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderberg, K.; Gerlein, C.; Kemeny, P. C.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    An accurate understanding of the relationships between the isotopic composition of liquid water and that of water vapor in the environment can help describe hydrologic processes across many scales. One such relationship is the isotopic equilibrium between falling raindrops and the surrounding vapor. The degree of equilibration is used to model the isotopic composition of precipitation in isotope-enable general circulation models and land-atmosphere exchange models. Although this equilibrium has been a topic of isotope hydrology research for more than four decades, few studies have included vapor measurements to validate modeling efforts. Recent advances in laser technology have allowed for in situ vapor measurements at high temporal resolution (e.g., >1 Hz). Here we present concomitant rain and vapor measurements for a series of 17 rain events during the 'Continental' rainy season (June through August) at Mpala Research Center in central Kenya. Rain samples (n=218) were collected at intervals of 2 to 35 minutes (median of 3 minutes) depending on the rain rate (0.4 to 10.5 mm/hr). The volume-weighted mean rain values for δ18O, δ2H and D-excess (δ2H - 8* δ18O) were 0.1 ‰, 10.7 ‰, and 10.1 ‰. These values are more enriched than the annual weighted means reported for the area (-2.2 ‰, -7.6 ‰, and 11.0 ‰, respectively). Vapor was measured continuously at ~2Hz (DLT-100, Los Gatos Research), with an inverted funnel intake 4m above the ground surface. The mean vapor isotopic composition during the rain events was -10.0 +/- 1.2 ‰ (1 σ) for δ18O and -73.9 +/- 7.0 ‰ for δ2H. The difference between the rain sample isotopic composition and that of liquid in isotopic equilibrium with the corresponding vapor at the ambient temperature was 0.8 +/- 2.2 ‰ for δ18O and 6.2 +/- 7.0 ‰ for δ2H. This disequilibrium was found to correlate with the natural log of rain rate (R2 of 0.26 for δ18O and 0.46 for δ2H), with lower rain rates having larger

  19. Detrital zircon evidence for Hf isotopic evolution of granitoid crust and continental growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Tsuyoshi; Komiya, Tsuyoshi; Rino, Shuji; Maruyama, Shigenori; Hirata, Takafumi

    2010-04-01

    We have determined U-Pb ages, trace element abundances and Hf isotopic compositions of approximately 1000 detrital zircon grains from the Mississippi, Congo, Yangtze and Amazon Rivers. The U-Pb isotopic data reveal the lack of >3.3 Ga zircons in the river sands, and distinct peaks at 2.7-2.5, 2.2-1.9, 1.7-1.6, 1.2-1.0, 0.9-0.4, and <0.3 Ga in the accumulated age distribution. These peaks correspond well with the timing of supercontinent assembly. The Hf isotopic data indicate that many zircons, even those having Archean U-Pb ages, crystallized from magmas involving an older crustal component, suggesting that granitoid magmatism has been the primary agent of differentiation of the continental crust since the Archean era. We calculated Hf isotopic model ages for the zircons to estimate the mean mantle-extraction ages of their source materials. The oldest zircon Hf model ages of about 3.7 Ga for the river sands suggest that some crust generation had taken place by 3.7 Ga, and that it was subsequently reworked into <3.3 Ga granitoid continental crust. The accumulated model age distribution shows peaks at 3.3-3.0, 2.9-2.4, and 2.0-0.9 Ga. The striking attribute of our new data set is the non-uniformitarian secular change in Hf isotopes of granitoid crusts; Hf isotopic compositions of granitoid crusts deviate from the mantle evolution line from about 3.3 to 2.0 Ga, the deviation declines between 2.0 and 1.3 Ga and again increases afterwards. Consideration of mantle-crust mixing models for granitoid genesis suggests that the noted isotopic trends are best explained if the rate of crust generation globally increased in two stages at around (or before) 3.3 and 1.3 Ga, whereas crustal differentiation was important in the evolution of the continental crust at 2.3-2.2 Ga and after 0.6 Ga. Reconciling the isotopic secular change in granitoid crust with that in sedimentary rocks suggests that sedimentary recycling has essentially taken place in continental settings rather than

  20. Isotopic Evidence for Massive Oxidation of Organic Matter Following the Great Oxidation Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kump, Lee R.; Junium, Christopher; Arthur, Michael A.; Brasier, Alex; Fallick, Anthony; Melezhik, Victor; Lepland, Aivo; CČrne, Alenka E.; Luo, Genming

    2011-12-01

    The stable isotope record of marine carbon indicates that the Proterozoic Eon began and ended with extreme fluctuations in the carbon cycle. In both the Paleoproterozoic [2500 to 1600 million years ago (Ma)] and Neoproterozoic (1000 to 542 Ma), extended intervals of anomalously high carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) indicate high rates of organic matter burial and release of oxygen to the atmosphere; in the Neoproterozoic, the high δ13C interval was punctuated by abrupt swings to low δ13C, indicating massive oxidation of organic matter. We report a Paleoproterozoic negative δ13C excursion that is similar in magnitude and apparent duration to the Neoproterozoic anomaly. This Shunga-Francevillian anomaly may reflect intense oxidative weathering of rocks as the result of the initial establishment of an oxygen-rich atmosphere.

  1. Multiple S-isotopic evidence for episodic shoaling of anoxic water during Late Permian mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanan; Farquhar, James; Zhang, Hua; Masterson, Andrew; Zhang, Tonggang; Wing, Boswell A

    2011-02-22

    Global fossil data show that profound biodiversity loss preceded the final catastrophe that killed nearly 90% marine species on a global scale at the end of the Permian. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this extinction and yet still remain greatly debated. Here, we report analyses of all four sulphur isotopes ((32)S, (33)S, (34)S and (36)S) for pyrites in sedimentary rocks from the Meishan section in South China. We observe a sulphur isotope signal (negative δ(34)S with negative Δ(33)S) that may have resulted from limitation of sulphate supply, which may be linked to a near shutdown of bioturbation during shoaling of anoxic water. These results indicate that episodic shoaling of anoxic water may have contributed to the profound biodiversity crisis before the final catastrophe. Our data suggest a prolonged deterioration of oceanic environments during the Late Permian mass extinction.

  2. Titanium isotopic evidence for felsic crust and plate tectonics 3.5 billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Greber, Nicolas D; Dauphas, Nicolas; Bekker, Andrey; Ptáček, Matouš P; Bindeman, Ilya N; Hofmann, Axel

    2017-09-22

    Earth exhibits a dichotomy in elevation and chemical composition between the continents and ocean floor. Reconstructing when this dichotomy arose is important for understanding when plate tectonics started and how the supply of nutrients to the oceans changed through time. We measured the titanium isotopic composition of shales to constrain the chemical composition of the continental crust exposed to weathering and found that shales of all ages have a uniform isotopic composition. This can only be explained if the emerged crust was predominantly felsic (silica-rich) since 3.5 billion years ago, requiring an early initiation of plate tectonics. We also observed a change in the abundance of biologically important nutrients phosphorus and nickel across the Archean-Proterozoic boundary, which might have helped trigger the rise in atmospheric oxygen. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  3. Isotopic evidences of groundwater circulation in the Kaidu River, South Tianshan Mountains, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FAN, Yuting; Métivier, François; Chen, Yaning; He, Qing; Wang, Yun

    2015-04-01

    Water demand always exceeds supply in many parts of the world, especially in the arid and semi-arid regions. Groundwater is the primary input to hydrological systems like surface water bodies in polar and high mountain regions. A reasonable application of water isotopes requires a good understanding of the isotopic fractionation in processes controlling the isotopic composition of surface water and groundwater. Through the review of published papers, we find there is still scope for improving the understanding of groundwater isotopes: (1) quite few studies on groundwater circulation via kinetic fractionation of stable isotopes in the arid region of Central Asia; (2) several shortcomings on the quantitative assessment of water recycling for mountain-plain area. Tianshan Mountains, located in Xinjiang Province, is always called water tower in Central Asia and play an important role in the water cycle. In this paper, we implemented hydro-chemical index and Stable isotope mass balance method to study transformation of groundwater with surface water and to quantify recharge proportion between water bodies of typical regions. As a first step towards quantifying the contribution of groundwater, three-component mixing model of Kaidu River Basin into its constituent components has been done. Chemistry type of headstreams in this basin is mainly Ca-Mg-HCO3, while major ions and salinity of surface water show an increasing trend with the water rising time, which could be attributable to significant features of surface water evaporation and concentration. After that chemistry type of oasis-plain area in the basin is mainly Ca-HCO3-CO4. Groundwater recharge ratio was processed via spatial scale, it is only about 15% in upstream areas, while it accounted for 45% or more in the middle and lower reaches. Two groundwater recharge districts were divided according to the distribution characteristics of surface water. The first recharge district is from mountain area with spring

  4. Atmospheric mercury inputs in montane soils increase with elevation: evidence from mercury isotope signatures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Yin, Run-sheng; Feng, Xin-bin; Sommar, Jonas; Anderson, Christopher W. N.; Sapkota, Atindra; Fu, Xue-wu; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2013-01-01

    The influence of topography on the biogeochemical cycle of mercury (Hg) has received relatively little attention. Here, we report the measurement of Hg species and their corresponding isotope composition in soil sampled along an elevational gradient transect on Mt. Leigong in subtropical southwestern China. The data are used to explain orography-related effects on the fate and behaviour of Hg species in montane environments. The total- and methyl-Hg concentrations in topsoil samples show a positive correlation with elevation. However, a negative elevation dependence was observed in the mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) signatures of Hg isotopes. Both a MIF (Δ199Hg) binary mixing approach and the traditional inert element method indicate that the content of Hg derived from the atmosphere distinctly increases with altitude. PMID:24270081

  5. Deformed intruder band in [sup 112]Te: First evidence for rotational behavior in the tellurium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.S.; Beausang, C.W.; Forbes, S.A.; Gale, S.J.; James, A.N.; Jones, P.M.; Joyce, M.J. ); Andrews, H.R.; Janzen, V.P.; Radford, D.C.; Ward, D. ); Clark, R.M.; Hauschild, K.; Hibbert, I.M.; Wadsworth, R. ); Cunningham, R.A.; Simpson, J. ); Davinson, T.; Page, R.D.; Sellin, P.J.; Woods, P.J. ); Fossan, D.B.; LaFosse, D.R.; Schnare, H.; Waring, M.P. ); Gizon, A.; Gizon, J. ); Dr

    1994-08-01

    States in the neutron-deficient [sup 110,112]Te isotopes have been populated following [sup 58]Ni+[sup 58,60]Ni reactions. Gamma-ray coincidence data were acquired with the Eurogam spectrometer in conjunction with the Daresbury recoil separator and with the Chalk River 8[pi] spectrometer. Although the low lying yrast states are not collective in these nuclei, a long regular cascade of transitions, indicating collective behavior, was found in [sup 112]Te extending to high spin. This structure is interpreted in terms of a deformed 4-particle 2-hole 0[sub 2][sup +] state coupled to rotationally aligned quasiparticles, and represents the first example of a rotational intruder'' band in the tellurium isotopes.

  6. Oxygen isotopic evidence for vigorous mixing during the Moon-forming giant impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Edward D.; Kohl, Issaku E.; Warren, Paul H.; Rubie, David C.; Jacobson, Seth A.; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Earth and the Moon are shown here to have indistinguishable oxygen isotope ratios, with a difference in Δ‧17O of -1 ± 5 parts per million (2 standard error). On the basis of these data and our new planet formation simulations that include a realistic model for primordial oxygen isotopic reservoirs, our results favor vigorous mixing during the giant impact and therefore a high-energy, high-angular-momentum impact. The results indicate that the late veneer impactors had an average Δ‧17O within approximately 1 per mil of the terrestrial value, limiting possible sources for this late addition of mass to the Earth-Moon system.

  7. Chromium isotope evidence in ejecta deposits for the nature of Paleoproterozoic impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mougel, Bérengère; Moynier, Frédéric; Göpel, Christa; Koeberl, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Non-mass dependent chromium isotopic signatures have been successfully used to determine the presence and identification of extra-terrestrial materials in terrestrial impact rocks. Paleoproterozoic spherule layers from Greenland (Grænsesø) and Russia (Zaonega), as well as some distal ejecta deposits (Lake Superior region) from the Sudbury impact (1849 ± 0.3 Ma) event, have been analyzed for their Cr isotope compositions. Our results suggest that 1) these distal ejecta deposits are all of impact origin, 2) the Grænsesø and Zaonega spherule layers contain a distinct carbonaceous chondrite component, and are possibly related to the same impact event, which could be Vredefort (2023 ± 4 Ma) or another not yet identified large impact event from that of similar age, and 3) the Sudbury ejecta record a complex meteoritic signature, which is different from the Grænsesø and Zaonega spherule layers, and could indicate the impact of a heterogeneous chondritic body.

  8. Stable Isotopic Evidence for a Pedogenic Origin of Carbonates in Trench 14 near Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Quade, J; Cerling, T E

    1990-12-14

    Layered carbonate and silica encrust fault fractures exposed in Trench 14 near Yucca Mountain, site of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository in southern Nevada. Comparison of the stable carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of the fracture carbonates with those of modern soil carbonates in the area shows that the fracture carbonates are pedogenic in origin and that they likely formed in the presence of vegetation and rainfall typical of a glacial climate. Their isotopic composition differs markedly from that of carbonate associated with nearby springs. The regional water table therefore remained below the level of Trench 14 during the time that the carbonates and silica precipitated, a period probably covering parts of at least the last 300,000 years.

  9. Hydrogen-isotope evidence for extrusion mechanisms of the Mount St Helens lava dome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Steven W.; Fink, Jonathan H.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope analyses were used to determine water content and deuterium content for 18 samples of the Mount St Helens dome dacite in an attempt to identify the triggering mechanisms for periodic dome-building eruptions of lava. These isotope data, the first ever collected from an active lava dome, suggest a steady-state process of magma evolution combining crystallization-induced volatile production in the chamber with three different degassing mechanisms: closed-system volatile loss in the magma chamber, open-system volatile release during ascent, and kinetically controlled degassing upon eruption at the surface. The data suggest the future dome-building eruptions may require a new influx of volatile-rich magma into the chamber.

  10. Multiple S-isotopic evidence for episodic shoaling of anoxic water during Late Permian mass extinction

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yanan; Farquhar, James; Zhang, Hua; Masterson, Andrew; Zhang, Tonggang; Wing, Boswell A.

    2011-01-01

    Global fossil data show that profound biodiversity loss preceded the final catastrophe that killed nearly 90% marine species on a global scale at the end of the Permian. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this extinction and yet still remain greatly debated. Here, we report analyses of all four sulphur isotopes (32S, 33S, 34S and 36S) for pyrites in sedimentary rocks from the Meishan section in South China. We observe a sulphur isotope signal (negative δ34S with negative Δ33S) that may have resulted from limitation of sulphate supply, which may be linked to a near shutdown of bioturbation during shoaling of anoxic water. These results indicate that episodic shoaling of anoxic water may have contributed to the profound biodiversity crisis before the final catastrophe. Our data suggest a prolonged deterioration of oceanic environments during the Late Permian mass extinction. PMID:21343928

  11. Garnet effect on Nd-Hf isotope decoupling: Evidence from the Jinfosi batholith, Northern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hui; Niu, Yaoling; Mo, Xuanxue

    2017-03-01

    The initial Nd and Hf isotope ratios of a 420 Ma post-collisional dioritic-granitic batholith from the Northern Tibetan plateau define a negative trend above and orthogonal to the ԐHf(t)-ԐNd(t) terrestrial array. This uncommon trend offers an insight into the origin of the puzzling Nd-Hf isotope decoupling in the crustal rocks. On this trend, samples depleted in heavy rare earth elements (HREEs, i.e., [Dy/Yb]N ≫ 1) deviate most from the terrestrial array whereas samples with flat HREEs (i.e., [Dy/Yb]N ≥ 1) deviate less or plot within the terrestrial array, pointing to the controlling effect of garnet in the magma source. Ancient garnet-bearing residues after melt extraction will have elevated Lu/Hf ratios and can evolve with time to produce high ԐHf(t) at a low ԐNd(t) value. Mixing of melts derived from such source lithologies (high Lu/Hf) with melts possessing a within-terrestrial array Nd-Hf isotopic composition (low Lu/Hf) best explains the observed trend orthogonal to the terrestrial array. The samples from the Jinfosi batholith with the most decoupled Nd-Hf isotope compositions require a larger degree (> 40%) and ancient (i.e., ≥ 1.8 Gyr) previous melt extraction from their source. It follows that the ancient melts with depleted HREEs complementary to those garnet-bearing residues should have low ԐHf values and plot below the terrestrial array, which is indeed shown by some Archean/Paleoproterozic TTGs.

  12. MAGNESIUM ISOTOPE EVIDENCE FOR SINGLE STAGE FORMATION OF CB CHONDRULES BY COLLIDING PLANETESIMALS

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Mia B.; Schiller, Martin; Krot, Alexander N.; Bizzarro, Martin

    2013-10-10

    Chondrules are igneous spherical objects preserved in chondritic meteorites and believed to have formed during transient heating events in the solar protoplanetary disk. Chondrules present in the metal-rich CB chondrites show unusual chemical and petrologic features not observed in other chondrite groups, implying a markedly distinct formation mechanism. Here, we report high-precision Mg-isotope data for 10 skeletal olivine chondrules from the Hammadah al Hamra 237 (HH237) chondrite to probe the formation history of CB chondrules. The {sup 27}Al/{sup 24}Mg ratios of individual chondrules are positively correlated to their stable Mg-isotope composition (μ{sup 25}Mg), indicating that the correlated variability was imparted by a volatility-controlled process (evaporation/condensation). The mass-independent {sup 26}Mg composition (μ{sup 26}Mg*) of chondrules is consistent with single stage formation from an initially homogeneous magnesium reservoir if the observed μ{sup 25}Mg variability was generated by non-ideal Rayleigh-type evaporative fractionation characterized by a β value of 0.5142, in agreement with experimental work. The magnitude of the mass-dependent fractionation (∼300 ppm) is significantly lower than that suggested by the increase in {sup 27}Al/{sup 24}Mg values, indicating substantial suppression of isotopic fractionation during evaporative loss of Mg, possibly due to evaporation at high Mg partial pressure. Thus, the Mg-isotope data of skeletal chondrules from HH237 are consistent with their origin as melts produced in the impact-generated plume of colliding planetesimals. The inferred μ{sup 26}Mg* value of –3.87 ± 0.93 ppm for the CB parent body is significantly lower than the bulk solar system value of 4.5 ± 1.1 ppm inferred from CI chondrites, suggesting that CB chondrites accreted material comprising an early formed {sup 26}Al-free component.

  13. Manganese oxide shuttling in pre-GOE oceans - evidence from molybdenum and iron isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzweil, Florian; Wille, Martin; Gantert, Niklas; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Schoenberg, Ronny

    2016-10-01

    The local occurrence of oxygen-rich shallow marine water environments has been suggested to significantly predate atmospheric oxygenation, which occurred during the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) ca. 2.4 billion years ago. However, the potential influence of such 'oxygen oases' on the mobility, distribution and isotopic composition of redox sensitive elements remains poorly understood. Here, we provide new molybdenum and iron isotopic data from shallow marine carbonate and silicate iron formations of the Koegas Subgroup, South Africa, that confirm local ocean redox stratification prior to the GOE. Mn concentrations correlate negatively with both δ98 Mo and δ56 Fe values, which highlights the substantial role of particulate manganese for the cycling of Mo and Fe in the Paleoproterozoic oceans. Based on these trends we propose that pore water molybdate was recharged (1) by the diffusional transport of seawater molybdate with high δ98 Mo and (2) by the re-liberation of adsorbed molybdate with low δ98 Mo during Mn oxide dissolution within the sediment. The relative contribution of isotopically light Mo is highest close to a Mn chemocline, where the flux of Mn oxides is largest, causing the negative correlation of Mn concentrations and δ98 Mo values in the Koegas sediments. The negative correlation between δ56 Fe values and Mn concentrations is likely related to Fe isotope fractionation during Fe(II) oxidation by Mn oxides, resulting in lower δ56 Fe values in the uppermost water column close to a Mn chemocline. We argue that the preservation of these signals within Paleoproterozoic sediments implies the existence of vertically extended chemoclines with a smoother gradient, probably as a result of low atmospheric oxygen concentrations. Furthermore, we suggest that abiotic oxidation of Fe(II) by a Mn oxide particle shuttle might have promoted the deposition of the Koegas iron formations.

  14. Speleothem isotopic evidence for rapid human-induced expansion of grasslands in Madagascar at 890 CE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, S. J.; Godfrey, L.; Faina, P.; McGee, D.; Hardt, B. F.; Ranivoharimanana, L.; Randrianasy, J.

    2015-12-01

    The degree to which human activity impacted the landscape, vegetation and fauna of Madagascar remains under debate. Since the early 1920's, the prevailing hypothesis has been that the savannah grasslands that now cover 70% of Madagascar were the result of deforestation, which has also been tied to the disappearance of much of the island's endemic megafauna. Other studies suggest that Madagascar's grasslands are largely natural and that megafaunal extinctions may be climatically induced, leading some authors to question the entire narrative of extensive alteration of the landscape by early human activity. We collected two stalagmites, M14-AB2 and M14-AB3, from Anjohibe Cave in northwestern Madagascar (15.55°S, 46.89°E, 100 masl). Age models were constructed using 8 U/Th age determinations from AB2 and 10 from AB3. The samples began to grow at ~500 CE and were active at the time of collection. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios were measured on 266 samples from AB2 and 173 samples from AB3, yielding sub-decadal temporal resolution. A rapid, more than 10 per mil increase in stalagmite carbon stable isotope ratios documents an almost complete transformation of the landscape from one with a flora dominated by C3 plants to a C4 grassland system. This transformation, well replicated in both stalagmites, occurred at approximately 890 +/- 20 CE and was complete in 100 years. Further, relatively constant oxygen isotope ratios across the carbon isotope transition demonstrate that landscape alteration was not related to changes in climate. We hypothesize that the transformation was caused primarily by expansion of the use of fire by early inhabitants of Madagascar to promote agriculture and the growth of grass as fodder for cattle. The resulting loss of forest habitat very likely increased environmental pressures on Madagascar's megafauna and accelerated their disappearance.

  15. Isotopic Evidence for Microbial Activity in Crystalline Bedrock Fractures - a Case Study from Olkiluoto, SW Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahlstedt, E. K.; Karhu, J.; Pitkänen, P.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in the geochemical environment in crystalline bedrock fractures were investigated using the stable isotopes of C, O and S in fracture filling minerals as tracers. Of special interest were the possible changes which may occur in the subsurface at low temperatures. Especially, the influence of microbial activity was recognized as a catalyst for inducing changes in the geochemical environment. The study site is the Olkiluoto island located on the western coast of Finland, planned to host a geological repository for nuclear waste. Fracture surfaces were investigated to recognize the latest mineralizations at the site. These fillings were comprised of thin plates or small euhedral crystals of calcite and pyrite. The carbon and sulfur isotope compositions of calcite and pyrite were measured from bulk material by conventional IRMS, and in situ by secondary ion mass spectrometry. A notable feature of the late-stage fillings was high variabilities in the δ13C values of calcite and the δ34S values of pyrite, which ranged from -53.8 ‰ to +31.6 ‰ and from -50.4 ‰ to +77.7 ‰, respectively. Based on the isotopic compositions of the fillings, several features in the past hydrogeochemical environment could be recognized. The isotopic composition of the fracture fillings indicate an environment which was stratified with respect to depth. Characteristic features include bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) occurring at depths <111 m (bsl), and a methanogenetic environment at depths >50 m. It appears that methanic conditions were replaced by sulfate reduction at depths >50 m likely due to infiltration of SO42--rich brackish waters. Sulfate reducing bacteria used mainly surface derived organic carbon as electron donors. Some indication of minor methanotrophic activity was recognized in anomalously low δ13C values of calcite, down to -53.8 ‰, at the depth range of 34-54 m. This methanotrophic activity may have been related to bacteria using CH4 as an electron donor in

  16. Lead sources and transfer in the coastal Mediterranean: evidence from stable lead isotopes in marine particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alleman, L. Y.; Hamelin, B.; Véron, A. J.; Miquel, J.-C.; Heussner, S.

    Time series of settling and suspended particles have been collected by sediment traps and in situ pumps respectively, under contrasted hydrographic conditions in the Gulf of Lions and the Ligurian Sea, northwestern Mediterranean. Lead concentrations measured in sediment trap samples vary from 41±7 ppm in the Ligurian Sea to 58±10 ppm in the Gulf of Lions. These concentrations, 2-10 times lower than those measured previously in the Gulf of Lions, reflect the reduction of lead fallout from gasoline during the last decade. While atmospheric lead still originates mainly from anthropogenic emissions (automotive and industrial exhausts), stable lead isotopes demonstrate that anthropogenic and lithogenic lead are in similar proportions in the marine particles from the northwestern Mediterranean. Sequential extraction analyses performed on trap samples suggest that the isotopic variations can be explained by a three-component mixing between anthropogenic, natural soluble, and natural refractory sources. In the suspended particulate matter from the Gulf of Lions, lead concentrations range from 0.2 to 30 ng/ l, with isotopic compositions comparable to those of the settling particles ( 206Pb/ 207Pb from 1.165 to 1.178). This indicates a common origin in these two types of particles, probably mainly controlled by the Rhône River discharge and by resuspension processes on the continental shelf. By contrast, lead concentrations are lower in the suspended matter samples from the Ligurian Sea (0.5 to 1.7 ng/ l). In this case, the isotopic signature (1.165±0.002) is in equilibrium with the dissolved fraction, as previously found in other oligotrophic sites in the open ocean, where the suspended particles are mainly of biological origin and lead essentially authigenic in these particles.

  17. Cadmium-isotopic evidence for increasing primary productivity during the Late Permian anoxic event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Svetoslav V.; Horner, Tristan J.; Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.; Bingen, Bernard; Rehkämper, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Earth's most extreme extinction event near the end of the Late Permian decimated more than 90% of all extant marine species. Widespread and intensive oceanic anoxia almost certainly contributed to the catastrophe, though the driving mechanisms that sustained such conditions are still debated. Of particular interest is whether water column anoxia was a consequence of a 'stagnant ocean', or if it was controlled by increases in nutrient supply, primary productivity, and subsequent heterotrophic respiration. Testing these competing hypotheses requires deconvolving sedimentary/bottom water redox conditions from changes in surface water productivity in marine sediments. We address this issue by studying marine shales from East Greenland and the mid-Norwegian shelf and combining sedimentary redox proxies with cadmium-isotopic analyses. Sedimentary nitrogen-isotopic data, pyrite framboid analyses, and organic and inorganic shale geochemistry reveal sulfidic conditions with vigorous upwelling, and increasingly anoxic conditions with a strengthening upwelling in the Greenland and Norwegian sections, respectively. Detailed analysis of sedimentary metal budgets illustrates that Cd is primarily associated with organic carbon and records primary geochemical signatures, thus enabling reconstruction of surface water nutrient utilization. Cadmium-isotopic analyses of the authigenic shale fraction released by inverse aqua regia digestion yield an average δ114Cd110 of + 0.15 ± 0.01 ‰ (2 SE, n = 12; rel. NIST SRM 3108), indicative of incomplete surface water nutrient utilization up-section. The constant degree of nutrient utilization combined with strong upwelling requires increasing primary productivity - and not oceanic stagnation - to balance the larger nutrient fluxes to both study sites during the development of the Late Permian water column anoxia. Overall, our data illustrate that if bottom water redox and upwelling can be adequately constrained, Cd-isotopic analyses of

  18. Isotopic evidence for quick freshening of magmatic chlorine in the Lesser Antilles arc volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Jendrzejewski, N.; Aubaud, C. P.; Bonifacie, M.; Crispi, O.; Dessert, C.; Agrinier, P.

    2012-12-01

    Despite numerous geophysical and geochemical monitoring techniques developed over the last 50 years to detect magma activities in volcanoes, it is still challenging to evaluate the state of magmatic activity during its decreasing phase (transitory quiet stage and/or final stage of the magma intrusion which may last for decades) for those infrequent, slow developing, and dangerous explosive eruptive arc volcanoes, attributed to the interaction between the magma and hydrothermal cells at shallow depths to produce complex phreato-magmatic events. Recent studies have implied that chloride in intrusion-induced thermal springs could be a potential sensitive indicator of shallow magma degassing. However, possible contamination from surface chlorine reservoirs, such as seawater, may overprint the magmatic signature and complicate the interpretation of field observation. Here, based on chlorine isotope examination of various water samples from two recently erupted volcanoes in the Lesser Antilles arc (Soufrière in Guadeloupe: phreatic eruption in1976-1977; Montagne Pelée in Martinique: pelean eruption in 1929-1932), we show that magmatic chlorine is isotopically distinct from surface chlorine (seawater, meteoric water, and ground water). A chlorine isotopic survey on thermal springs in Guadeloupe and Martinique indicate that the magmatic chlorine signature is still present in some of the thermal springs in Guadeloupe but completely disappeared in Martinique. This suggests that magmatic chlorine be rapidly flushed from hydrothermal system within < 30 to 80 years after the magmatic eruption. This enables chlorine isotopes to be a sensitive proxy to monitor shallow magmatic activities, particularly practicable at centennial scale.

  19. Phosphate oxygen isotopic evidence for a temperate and biologically active Archaean ocean.

    PubMed

    Blake, Ruth E; Chang, Sae Jung; Lepland, Aivo

    2010-04-15

    Oxygen and silicon isotope compositions of cherts and studies of protein evolution have been interpreted to reflect ocean temperatures of 55-85 degrees C during the early Palaeoarchaean era ( approximately 3.5 billion years ago). A recent study combining oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of cherts, however, makes a case for Archaean ocean temperatures being no greater than 40 degrees C (ref. 5). Ocean temperature can also be assessed using the oxygen isotope composition of phosphate. Recent studies show that (18)O:(16)O ratios of dissolved inorganic phosphate (delta(18)O(P)) reflect ambient seawater temperature as well as biological processing that dominates marine phosphorus cycling at low temperature. All forms of life require and concentrate phosphorus, and as a result of biological processing, modern marine phosphates have delta(18)O(P) values typically between 19-26 per thousand (VSMOW), highly evolved from presumed source values of approximately 6-8 per thousand that are characteristic of apatite in igneous rocks and meteorites. Here we report oxygen isotope compositions of phosphates in sediments from the 3.2-3.5-billion-year-old Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa. We find that delta(18)O(P) values range from 9.3 per thousand to 19.9 per thousand and include the highest values reported for Archaean rocks. The temperatures calculated from our highest delta(18)O(P) values and assuming equilibrium with sea water with delta(18)O = 0 per thousand (ref. 12) range from 26 degrees C to 35 degrees C. The higher delta(18)O(P) values are similar to those of modern marine phosphate and suggest a well-developed phosphorus cycle and evolved biologic activity on the Archaean Earth.

  20. Isotopic evidence indicates saprotrophy in post-fire Morchella in Oregon and Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hobbie, Erik A; Rice, Samuel F; Weber, Nancy S; Smith, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the nutritional strategy of true morels (genus Morchella) collected in 2003 and 2004 in Oregon and Alaska, 1 or 2 y after forest fires. We hypothesized that the patterns of stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) in the sporocarps would match those of saprotrophic fungi and that radiocarbon (Δ(14)C) analyses would indicate that Morchella was assimilating old carbon not current-year photosynthate. We compared radiocarbon and stable isotopes in Morchella with values from concurrently collected foliage, the ectomycorrhizal Geopyxis carbonaria (Alb. & Schwein.) Sacc., the saprotrophic Plicaria endocarpoides (Berk.) Rifai, and with literature to determine isotopic values for ectomycorrhizal or saprotrophic fungi. Geopyxis, Plicaria and Morchella, respectively, were 3‰, 5‰ and 6‰ higher in 13C than foliage and 5‰, 7‰ and 7‰ higher in (15)N. High (15)N enrichment in Morchella indicated that recent litter was not the primary source for Morchella nitrogen, and similar (13)C and (15)N enrichments to Plicaria suggest that Morchella assimilates its carbon and nitrogen from the same source pool as this saprotrophic fungus. From radiocarbon analyses Morchella averaged 11 ± 6 y old (n = 19), Plicaria averaged 17 ± 5 y old (n = 3), foliage averaged 1 ± 2 y old (n = 8) and Geopyxis (n = 1) resembled foliage in Δ(14)C. We conclude that morels fruiting in post-fire environments in our study assimilated old carbon and were saprotrophic.

  1. Ca Isotope Evidence for Changes in the Carbonate Geochemistry of Seawater Across OAE 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehn, G. O.; Jacobson, A. D.; Du Vivier, A.; Selby, D. S.; Hurtgen, M.; Sageman, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    We used a new high-precision MC-TIMS method to generate Ca isotope records (δ44/40Ca; 2SD = ± 0.04‰) for three sections spanning OAE 2: central Colorado, USA (Portland #1 core), southeastern France (Pont d'Issole), and Eastbourne, England (Eastbourne Chalk). The Eastbourne Chalk δ44/40Ca values are higher than previously reported but define a similar trend, where δ44/40Ca values increase prior to OAE 2 and then decrease at the onset. The Portland core and the Pont d'Issole section display comparable δ44/40Ca values, which increase by ~0.10 - 0.15‰ immediately at the onset of OAE 2 and then decrease to near-initial values across the event. According to a numerical model of the marine Ca cycle, reasonable changes to the riverine and hydrothermal input fluxes cannot explain the rate and magnitude of the positive isotope excursion. A decrease in the magnitude of the carbonate fractionation factor provides the best explanation for the data. Because a decrease in the fractionation factor corresponds to an increase in the Ca/CO3 ratio of seawater, we tentatively attribute the positive Ca isotope excursion to transient ocean acidification, i.e., a reduction in the concentration of CO3 during CO2 uptake. Other studies implicate eruption of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province as the most likely source of CO2.

  2. Strontium isotope evidence for a highly mobile population on the Pamir Plateau 2500 years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueye; Tang, Zihua; Wu, Jing; Wu, Xinhua; Wu, Yiqun; Zhou, Xinying

    2016-10-01

    Archeological researches have proposed arguments for human mobility and long-distance trading over the Eurasia before the Silk Roads. Here we utilize biologically available strontium isotope analysis to assess the extent of pre-Silk Road population movements and cultural communications across the Asian interior. From an early Iron Age cemetery (ca. 2500 yr B.P.) on the eastern Pamir Plateau, mean 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 34 individuals display considerable isotopic variability, and 10 individuals are distinguished as migrants based on the local strontium isotope range of 0.710296–0.710572 defined by 12 ovicaprine bones. Comparison of the proportion (10/34) with the regional census data completed in 1909 A.D. (3% non-locals) suggests a highly migratory behavior on the plateau 2500 years ago. Furthermore, exotic mortuary objects, such as silk fabrics from eastern China and angular harp originated from the Near East, clearly demonstrate an interaction between different cultures on the plateau before the establishment of the Silk Road.

  3. Multiple sulfur isotope evidence for massive oceanic sulfate depletion in the aftermath of Snowball Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansjofre, Pierre; Cartigny, Pierre; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Agrinier, Pierre; Ader, Magali

    2016-07-01

    The terminal Neoproterozoic Era (850-542 Ma) is characterized by the most pronounced positive sulfur isotope (34S/32S) excursions in Earth's history, with strong variability and maximum values averaging δ34S~+38‰. These excursions have been mostly interpreted in the framework of steady-state models, in which ocean sulfate concentrations do not fluctuate (that is, sulfate input equals sulfate output). Such models imply a large pyrite burial increase together with a dramatic fluctuation in the isotope composition of marine sulfate inputs, and/or a change in microbial sulfur metabolisms. Here, using multiple sulfur isotopes (33S/32S, 34S/32S and 36S/32S ratios) of carbonate-associated sulfate, we demonstrate that the steady-state assumption does not hold in the aftermath of the Marinoan Snowball Earth glaciation. The data attest instead to the most impressive event of oceanic sulfate drawdown in Earth's history, driven by an increased pyrite burial, which may have contributed to the Neoproterozoic oxygenation of the oceans and atmosphere.

  4. Integrated climate model-oxygen isotope evidence for a North American monsoon during the Late Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Henry C.; Foreman, Brady Z.; Sewall, Jacob O.

    2010-01-01

    During the Late Cretaceous, western North America was characterized by a close geographic association between the Sevier highlands and the Western Interior Seaway. In this paper, an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) is used to simulate the impact of this geographic association on surface pressure, wind direction, and precipitation, and it is predicted that seasonal changes in these variables resulted in a strong monsoon along the eastern flank of the Sevier Highlands. Confirmation that these model simulations are accurate is provided by isotopic data from foreland basin sediments. In particular oxygen isotope records from different environments (large rivers, small streams and ponds) and proxies (unionid bivalve shells and paleosol carbonates) indicate that foreland basin streams were recharged by local precipitation with high oxygen isotope ratios while large trunk rivers were recharged by high-elevation precipitation. This hydrologic pattern is observed from Alberta to Utah and is consistent with east to west monsoonal air mass movements and associated seasonal rainfall. Recognition of a highland-driven monsoon has implication in regard to studies of fossil taphonomy, of water vapor transport, and of links between climate and mountain uplift and exhumation in this region.

  5. New isotopic evidence of lead contamination in wheat grain from atmospheric fallout.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Chen, Tongbin; Lei, Mei; Zhou, Xiaoyong; Huang, Qifei; Ma, Chuang; Gu, Runyao; Guo, Guanghui

    2015-10-01

    Crops could accumulate trace metals by soil-root transfer and foliar uptake from atmospheric fallout, and an accurate assessment of pollution sources is a prerequisite for preventing heavy metal pollution in agricultural products. In this study, we examined Pb isotope rates to trace the sources of Pb in wheat grain grown in suburbs. Results showed that, even in zones with scarcely any air pollution spots, atmospheric fallout was still a considerable source of Pb accumulation in wheat. The concentration of Pb in wheat grain has poor correlation with that in farm soil. The Pb concentration in wheat grains with dust in bran coat was significantly higher than that in wheat grains, which indicates that Pb may accumulate by foliar uptake. The Pb isotope rate has obvious differences between the soil and atmospheric fallout, and scatter ratio is significantly closer between the wheat grain and atmospheric fallout. Atmospheric fallout is a more significant source of Pb concentration in wheat grains than in soil. As far as we know, this is the first study on the main sources of lead in grain crop (wheat) samples with isotope. This study aims to improve our understanding of the translocation of foliar-absorbed metals to nonexposed parts of plants.

  6. Strontium isotope evidence for a highly mobile population on the Pamir Plateau 2500 years ago

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xueye; Tang, Zihua; Wu, Jing; Wu, Xinhua; Wu, Yiqun; Zhou, Xinying

    2016-01-01

    Archeological researches have proposed arguments for human mobility and long-distance trading over the Eurasia before the Silk Roads. Here we utilize biologically available strontium isotope analysis to assess the extent of pre-Silk Road population movements and cultural communications across the Asian interior. From an early Iron Age cemetery (ca. 2500 yr B.P.) on the eastern Pamir Plateau, mean 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 34 individuals display considerable isotopic variability, and 10 individuals are distinguished as migrants based on the local strontium isotope range of 0.710296–0.710572 defined by 12 ovicaprine bones. Comparison of the proportion (10/34) with the regional census data completed in 1909 A.D. (3% non-locals) suggests a highly migratory behavior on the plateau 2500 years ago. Furthermore, exotic mortuary objects, such as silk fabrics from eastern China and angular harp originated from the Near East, clearly demonstrate an interaction between different cultures on the plateau before the establishment of the Silk Road. PMID:27762330

  7. Late Eocene-Middle Miocene paleoclimates of the south-west Pacific: oxygen isotopic evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Kennett, J.P.; Murphy, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    High resolution oxygen isotopic stratigraphy is presented for Late Eocene-Middle Miocene sequences in a traverse of 6 DSDP sites from the southwest Pacific at water depths ranging from 1300 to 2000 m and from the warm subtropics to the cool temperature water masses. The data record the progressive increase of latitudinal temperature gradients from the late Eocene. A pattern of increasing isotopic offset between the latitudinally distributed sites is linked to the establishment and strengthening of the circum-Antarctic Current. The intensification of this current system progressively decoupled the warm subtropical gyres from cool polar circulation, in turn leading to Antarctic glaciation. Enriched oxygen isotopic values clustering in the middle Oligocene, are interpreted to represent accumulations of Antarctic ice, although this must have been temporary and of relatively low volume. This Antarctic ice must have disappeared by the Early Miocene when delta/sup 18/O values were relatively depleted, reaching minimum values during the late Early Miocene (19.5 to 16.5), the climax of Neogene warmth. This climatic optimum was immediately followed by a major enrichment in benthic delta/sup 18/O values between approx. 16.5 and 13.5 Ma, which is interpreted to represent major, permanent accumulation of the East Antarctic ice sheet and cooling of bottom waters.

  8. Source of arsenic-bearing pyrite in southwestern Vermont, USA: sulfur isotope evidence.

    PubMed

    Mango, Helen; Ryan, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Arsenic-bearing pyrite is the source of arsenic in groundwater produced in late Cambrian and Ordovician gray and black slates and phyllites in the Taconic region of southwestern Vermont, USA. The aim of this study is to analyze the sulfur isotopic composition of this pyrite and determine if a relationship exists between pyrite δ(34)S and arsenic content. Pyrite occurs in both sedimentary/diagenetic (bedding-parallel layers and framboids) and low-grade metamorphic (porphyroblast) forms, and contains up to >2000 ppm As. The sulfur isotopic composition of arsenic-bearing pyrite ranges from -5.2‰ to 63‰. In the marine environment, the sulfur in sedimentary pyrite becomes increasingly enriched in (34)S as the geochemical environment becomes increasingly anoxic. There is a positive correlation between δ(34)S and arsenic content in the Taconic pyrite, suggesting that uptake of arsenic by pyrite increased as the environment became more reducing. This increased anoxia may have been due to a rise in sea level and/or tectonic activity during the late Cambrian and Ordovician. Low-grade metamorphism appears to have little effect on sulfur isotope composition, but does correlate with lower arsenic content in pyrite. New groundwater wells drilled in this region should therefore avoid gray and black slates and phyllites that contain sedimentary/diagenetic pyrite with heavy δ(34)S values.

  9. Multiple sulfur isotope evidence for massive oceanic sulfate depletion in the aftermath of Snowball Earth.

    PubMed

    Sansjofre, Pierre; Cartigny, Pierre; Trindade, Ricardo I F; Nogueira, Afonso C R; Agrinier, Pierre; Ader, Magali

    2016-07-22

    The terminal Neoproterozoic Era (850-542 Ma) is characterized by the most pronounced positive sulfur isotope ((34)S/(32)S) excursions in Earth's history, with strong variability and maximum values averaging δ(34)S∼+38‰. These excursions have been mostly interpreted in the framework of steady-state models, in which ocean sulfate concentrations do not fluctuate (that is, sulfate input equals sulfate output). Such models imply a large pyrite burial increase together with a dramatic fluctuation in the isotope composition of marine sulfate inputs, and/or a change in microbial sulfur metabolisms. Here, using multiple sulfur isotopes ((33)S/(32)S, (34)S/(32)S and (36)S/(32)S ratios) of carbonate-associated sulfate, we demonstrate that the steady-state assumption does not hold in the aftermath of the Marinoan Snowball Earth glaciation. The data attest instead to the most impressive event of oceanic sulfate drawdown in Earth's history, driven by an increased pyrite burial, which may have contributed to the Neoproterozoic oxygenation of the oceans and atmosphere.

  10. Multiple sulfur isotope evidence for massive oceanic sulfate depletion in the aftermath of Snowball Earth

    PubMed Central

    Sansjofre, Pierre; Cartigny, Pierre; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Agrinier, Pierre; Ader, Magali

    2016-01-01

    The terminal Neoproterozoic Era (850–542 Ma) is characterized by the most pronounced positive sulfur isotope (34S/32S) excursions in Earth's history, with strong variability and maximum values averaging δ34S∼+38‰. These excursions have been mostly interpreted in the framework of steady-state models, in which ocean sulfate concentrations do not fluctuate (that is, sulfate input equals sulfate output). Such models imply a large pyrite burial increase together with a dramatic fluctuation in the isotope composition of marine sulfate inputs, and/or a change in microbial sulfur metabolisms. Here, using multiple sulfur isotopes (33S/32S, 34S/32S and 36S/32S ratios) of carbonate-associated sulfate, we demonstrate that the steady-state assumption does not hold in the aftermath of the Marinoan Snowball Earth glaciation. The data attest instead to the most impressive event of oceanic sulfate drawdown in Earth's history, driven by an increased pyrite burial, which may have contributed to the Neoproterozoic oxygenation of the oceans and atmosphere. PMID:27447895

  11. Differential host use in two highly specialized ant-plant associations: evidence from stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Trimble, S T; Sagers, C L

    2004-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were used to examine variation in ant use of plant resources in the Cecropia obtusifolia / Azteca spp. association in Costa Rica. Tissue of ants, host plants and symbiotic pseudococcids were collected along three elevation transects on the Pacific slope of Costa Rica's Cordillera Central, and were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition. Worker carbon and nitrogen signatures were found to vary with elevation and ant colony size, and between Azteca species groups. Ants in the A. constructor species group appear to be opportunistic foragers at low elevations, but rely more heavily on their host plants at high elevations, whereas ants in the A. alfari species group consume a more consistent diet across their distribution. Further, isotope values indicate that both ant species groups acquire more nitrogen from higher trophic levels at low elevation and when ant colonies are small. Provisioning by the host is a substantial ecological cost to the interaction, and it may vary, even in a highly specialized association. Nonetheless, not all specialized interactions are equivalent; where interaction with one ant species group appears conditional upon the environment, the other is not. Differential host use within the Cecropia-Azteca association suggests that the ecological and evolutionary benefits and costs of association may vary among species pairs.

  12. Oxygen Isotope Evidence for the Relationship between CM and CO Chondrites: Could they Both Coexist on a Single Asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, R. C.; Howard, K. T.; Franchi, I. A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Buchanan, P. C.; Gibson, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Water played a critical role in the early evolution of asteroids and planets, as well as being an essential ingredient for life on Earth. However, despite its importance, the source of water in the inner solar system remains controversial. Delivery of water to Earth via comets is inconsistent with their relatively elevated D/H ratios, whereas carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) have more terrestrial-like D/H ratios [1]. Of the eight groups into which the CCs are divided, only three (CI, CM, CR) show evidence of extensive aqueous alteration. Of these, the CMs form the single most important group, representing 34% of all CC falls and a similar percentage of finds (Met. Bull. Database). CM material also dominates the population of CC clasts in extraterrestrial samples [2, 3]. The Antarctic micrometeorites population is also dominated by CM and CI-like material and similar particles may have transported water and volatiles to the early Earth [4]. CCs, and CMs in particular, offer the best opportunity for investigating the evolution of water reservoirs in the early solar system. An important aspect of this problem involves identifying the anhydrous silicate component which co-accreted with ice in the CM parent body. A genetic relationship between the essentially anhydrous CO group and the CMs was proposed on the basis of oxygen isotope evidence [5]. However, previous CM whole-rock oxygen isotope data scattered about a line of approximately 0.5 that did not intersect the field of CO chondrites [5]. Here we discuss new oxygen isotope data which provides additional constraints on the relationship between CO and CM chondrites.

  13. Melting mud in Earth's mantle, evidence from sub-Moho S-type granites with extreme oxygen isotope signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, C. J.; Cavosie, A. J.; Raub, T. D.; Rollinson, H. R.; Searle, M. P.; Miller, J. A.; Jeon, H.; Evans, N.; McDonald, B.

    2016-12-01

    The role of sediment melting in Earth's mantle and its subsequent incorporation into volcanic arc magmas remains controversial, as direct observation of melt generation in the mantle is not possible. Geochemical fingerprints of sediment provide strong indirect evidence for subduction delivery of surface materials to the mantle, however sediment abundance in mantle-derived melt such as basalt is generally low (0-2%), and difficult to detect. Here, we provide compelling evidence for bulk melting of subducted marine sediment in the mantle through analysis of granite preserved within an exhumed mantle section. Peraluminous granite dykes intruding peridotite below the petrologic Moho in the Oman-UAE ophiolite have unusually high oxygen isotope (δ18O) values for whole rock and quartz, and host magmatic zircon with the highest δ18O values ever reported, up to 27‰ (relative to VSMOW). The extremely high oxygen isotope ratios uniquely restrict the source to high δ18O siliceous marine sediment (i.e. mud; includes shale and chert or siliceous ooze), as no other source rock could produce granite with such anomalously high δ18O. Elemental composition, mineralogy, and zircon Hf identifies the granite suite as S-type, having formed by melting of supracrustal material. Zircon U-Pb ages of 100 Ma confirms a pre-obduction age of the dykes. The formation of high δ18O S-type granite within mantle peridotite has not been documented previously, and requires delivery of high δ18O marine sediment to the asthenosphere by subduction, where it melted and intruded overlying mantle wedge. The S-type granite suite intrusive to the mantle in the Oman-UAE ophiolite contains the most evolved oxygen isotope ratios reported for igneous rocks. Quantifying the extent of sediment melting within the mantle has important consequences for understanding crustal recycling and mantle heterogeneity over time.

  14. Geochronologic and isotopic evidence for involvement of pre-Pan-African crust in the Nubian shield, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Sultan, M.; Chamberlain, K.R.; Bowring, S.A.; Arvidson, R.E. ); Abuzied, H. ); El Kaliouby, B. )

    1990-08-01

    Two Late Proterozoic granitic bodies from the Eastern Desert of Egypt, the ca. 578 Ma Nakhil and the ca. 595 Ma Aswan granites, provide insights into processes of crust formation in the Arabian-Nubian shield. Evidence for involvement of an older crustal component in the formation of the Nakhil granite includes (1) U/Pb zircon data that establish a crystallization age of 578 {plus minus} 15 Ma and indicate the presence of inherited zircons possibly as old as 1.6 Ga; (2) an elevated model initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr (0.7136); and (3) an elevated initial {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb (15.561) relative to model mantle compositions at 578 Ma. Evidence for involvement of an older crustal component in the Aswan granite comes from the elevated initial {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb (15.611). In contrast, extensive crustal contamination is not reflected in the high initial {epsilon}{sub Nd} (+5.7) for the Nakhil and the low initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr (0.7029) for the Aswan granite. The contrasting inferences from the different isotopic systems can be explained by the high whole-rock Nd and Sr concentration for the the Nakhil (87 ppm Nd) and the Aswan (173 ppm Sr) granites, respectively, that suggest that the Nd and Sr isotopic composition of the older component has been overshadowed by the more primitive material. Similar contrasts in Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic data from the eastern and western shield margins can be interpreted in the same manner and might suggest widespread involvement of older crustal components in the formation of the Late Proterozoic Arabian-Nubian shield.

  15. Evidence for high-temperature fractionation of lithium isotopes during differentiation of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James M. D.; Qiu, Lin; Ash, Richard D.; McDonough, William F.; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Rudnick, Roberta L.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2016-06-01

    Lithium isotope and abundance data are reported for Apollo 15 and 17 mare basalts and the LaPaz low-Ti mare basalt meteorites, along with lithium isotope data for carbonaceous, ordinary, and enstatite chondrites, and chondrules from the Allende CV3 meteorite. Apollo 15 low-Ti mare basalts have lower Li contents and lower δ7Li (3.8 ± 1.2‰; all uncertainties are 2 standard deviations) than Apollo 17 high-Ti mare basalts (δ7Li = 5.2 ± 1.2‰), with evolved LaPaz mare basalts having high Li contents, but similar low δ7Li (3.7 ± 0.5‰) to Apollo 15 mare basalts. In low-Ti mare basalt 15555, the highest concentrations of Li occur in late-stage tridymite (>20 ppm) and plagioclase (11 ± 3 ppm), with olivine (6.1 ± 3.8 ppm), pyroxene (4.2 ± 1.6 ppm), and ilmenite (0.8 ± 0.7 ppm) having lower Li concentrations. Values of δ7Li in low- and high-Ti mare basalt sources broadly correlate negatively with 18O/16O and positively with 56Fe/54Fe (low-Ti: δ7Li ≤4‰; δ56Fe ≤0.04‰; δ18O ≥5.7‰; high-Ti: δ7Li >6‰ δ56Fe >0.18‰ δ18O <5.4‰). Lithium does not appear to have acted as a volatile element during planetary formation, with subequal Li contents in mare basalts compared with terrestrial, martian, or vestan basaltic rocks. Observed Li isotopic fractionations in mare basalts can potentially be explained through large-degree, high-temperature igneous differentiation of their source regions. Progressive magma ocean crystallization led to enrichment in Li and δ7Li in late-stage liquids, probably as a consequence of preferential retention of 7Li and Li in the melt relative to crystallizing solids. Lithium isotopic fractionation has not been observed during extensive differentiation in terrestrial magmatic systems and may only be recognizable during extensive planetary magmatic differentiation under volatile-poor conditions, as expected for the lunar magma ocean. Our new analyses of chondrites show that they have δ7Li ranging between -2.5‰ and 4

  16. Re-Os and S isotope evidence for the origin of Platreef mineralization (Bushveld Complex)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudovskaya, M.; Belousova, E.; Kinnaird, J.; Dubinina, E.; Grobler, D. F.; Pearson, N.

    2017-10-01

    The Bushveld Complex contains the largest platinum-group element (PGE) deposits of the world that are represented by persistent stratiform reefs highly enriched with PGE with respect to underlying and overlying rocks. New Re-Os isotope and elemental LA MC-ICPMS data on platinum-group minerals (PGM) from the mineralized reefs are presented with implications to correlation between the different segments of the Bushveld Complex and a role of superimposed processes at the reef formation. We analyzed laurite (RuS2), hollingworthite (RhAsS), sperrylite (PtAs2) and Pt-Fe alloys from the Merensky Reef, Pseudoreef and the PGE reef of the Platreef. The measured 187Os/188Os value for Platreef laurite is 0.1751 ± 0.0004 whereas the ratios for sperrylite and hollingworthite range to slightly higher values (0.1713-0.1818 and 0.1744-0.1835 respectively). The observed textures of the analyzed PGM, such as Pt-Fe symplectites in base metal sulfides (BMS), laurite inclusions in chromite and sperrylite rims around sulfide-silicate aggregates, are interpreted as features of primary magmatic crystallization whereas hollingworthite overgrowths and exsolutions in sperrylite are likely to have originated from later solid state transformation or metasomatic processes. The Platreef is a composite sill-like body in the northern limb correlative to the Critical Zone in terms of stratigraphic position, whole-rock geochemistry and isotope characteristics. The pristine magmatic character of sulfides and PGM in the stratiform reefs at the top of the Platreef strongly resembles the style of Merensky Reef mineralization. However, the basal part of the Platreef pyroxenitic sequence is variably contaminated and mineralized with a significant hydrothermal overprint. Sulfides from underlying Lower Zone peridotite yield δ34S values varying from +9‰ to +14.2‰ that are much higher than the values for the overlying Platreef and are a consequence of sulfur assimilation from sedimentary sulfates. The

  17. Mantle CO2 degassing through the Icelandic crust: Evidence from carbon isotopes in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefánsson, Andri; Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Árný E.; Heinemeier, Jan; Arnórsson, Stefán; Kjartansdóttir, Ríkey; Kristmannsdóttir, Hrefna

    2016-10-01

    Carbon isotopes of groundwater in Iceland were studied in order to determine the source and reactions of carbon at divergent plate boundaries not associated with active volcanic systems. All the waters were of meteoric origin, with temperatures of 1-130 °C, pH of ∼4.5-10.5 and dissolved inorganic carbon (∑CO2) between 1.8 and 4100 ppm. The measured range of δ13CO2 and 14CO2 in these waters was large, -27.4 to +2.0‰ and 0.6-118 pMC, respectively. The sources and reactions of dissolved inorganic carbon were studied by comparing the measured chemical and isotope composition with those simulated using isotope geochemical models. Three major sources of CO2 were identified: (1) dissolution of partially degassed basaltic rocks formed at the surface or shallow depths, (2) atmospheric CO2 through air-water exchange at surface, and (3) input of gas at depth into the groundwater systems that has similar carbon and isotope composition as the pre-erupted melt of the upper mantle and lower crust beneath Iceland. In the groundwater systems the CO2 chemistry and isotope content are modified due to carbonate mineral precipitation and changes in aqueous species distribution upon progressive water-rock interaction; these changes needed to be quantified in order to reveal the various CO2 sources. The CO2 flux of the Icelandic crust was estimated to be ∼5-10 · 1010 mol/yr with as high as 50% of the flux not associated with active volcanic centers but placed off-axis where a significant proportion of the CO2 may originate from the mantle. The mantle input of the groundwater off-axis corresponds to CO2 partial pressures of ∼10-6-1 bar and to a mantle CO2 flux of <5 · 105 mol/km2/yr for most areas and up to 125 · 105 and 1600 · 105 for the Southern Lowlands and Snæfellsnes Peninsula, respectively. The CO2 flux from active volcanic geothermal systems in Iceland was estimated to be ∼500-3000 · 105 mol CO2/km2/yr, considerably greater than the highest values observed off-axis.

  18. Zn and C isotopic evidence of climatic change during the Marinoan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemens, M. M.; Moynier, F.; Koeberl, C.; Thiemens, M. H.; Shaheen, R.; Gyollai, I.; Popp, F.; Chong, K.

    2011-12-01

    The "Snowball Earth" events of the Cryogenian period are renowned for their remarkable chemical and isotopic signatures left in the geological record. Through analysis of post Marinoan glaciation cap carbonates from Namibia, specifically from Fransfontein, the Khowarib Valley, and Naraachamspos, a multi isotopic study was undertaken. We analyzed the δ 13C of chemically isolated calcite and dolomite. A moderate depletion of 13C in calcite (δ 13C<0% V-PDB) associated with global glaciations was observed, confirming the event. Associated dolomites also show a 13C depletion, but at a much lower magnitude. Zinc is a trace element that is necessary for all forms of life. Zn does not undergo redox cycling under normal environmental conditions, and biological uptake is one of the few processes that produces isotopic fractionation. This fractionation is in the range of 0.1 permil for the 66Zn/64Zn ratio (δ 66Zn in permil deviation), however with the advent of multi-collection inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) such variations have become resolvable. We also have measured the Zinc composition of multiple species of lab cultured archaea, and found that the cells are enriched in the light isotopes of Zn compared to the culture medium. By measuring Zn levels in the Cap Carbonates, we seek corroboration for the carbon depletion we find during the glaciation. Zinc should undergo a similarly significant alteration at the mass extinction from climatic shifts inherent to a worldwide glaciation. We find the samples to be relatively consistent, with a δ 66Zn of approximately 0.30 to 0.40 in most places, with a δ 68Zn of double that, values typical of terrestrial rocks. Several sites have a much larger fractionation, with δ 66Zn of up to 0.90 in the Khowarib Valley, and up to 1.06 in the clays at the entrance to the South Valley. These isotopic compositions may be indicative of the massive climatic event leading to the formation of the cap carbonates.

  19. Isotopic evidence for a link between agricultural irrigation and high arsenic concentrations in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Wang, Y.; Shock, E.

    2011-12-01

    An isotope-based survey was carried out in the Datong Basin, northern China to investigate the hydrogeology of groundwater with high arsenic concentrations. Oxygen isotope (δ18O), hydrogen isotope (δD) and radioactive hydrogen isotope (3H) measurements were conducted with the aim of characterizing the groundwater origins and flow dynamics in this arsenic-contaminated groundwater system. Groundwater dating results from 3H measurements show that groundwaters from 20m ~ 70m have a wide range of ages (10a~ 191a), indicating diverse groundwater sources. In contrast, deeper groundwaters (70m ~90m) display a narrower age range (35a ~ 47a). In addition, the shallow-aquifer (<70m), groundwaters exhibit wide variations in δ18O and δD, from -12.7% to -6.96% and -97.1% to -49.8%, respectively. Deep groundwaters (>70m) possess relatively narrower isotopic ranges and mostly lighter isotopic ratios, from -12.8% to -8.88% and -97.6% to -71.7%, respectively. Comparison with the local meteoric water line shows that groundwater δ18O and δD values plot with a shallower slope, consistent with the arid-semiarid climate of the Datong Basin, as well as a meteoric origin of the groundwater, and points to precipitation as the dominant source of recharge to the deeper aquifers in the study area. Groundwaters with high arsenic concentrations (100μg/L ~ 309μg/L) mainly occur in aquifers at depths between 20m and 70m, while shallower (<20m) and deeper (>70m) groundwaters carry relatively lower arsenic concentrations (<50μg/L). This result differs from previous studies[1] [2], which documented that groundwaters with high arsenic concentrations occur primarily in the upper aquifers (<50m). It is striking that the groundwaters with elevated arsenic concentrations are also those with the greatest diversity of tritium ages and dispersion of δ18O and δD values, suggesting that a single process may explain all three data sets. One explanation is that extensive irrigation with groundwaters

  20. Triple oxygen isotope evidence for elevated CO2 levels after a Neoproterozoic glaciation.

    PubMed

    Bao, Huiming; Lyons, J R; Zhou, Chuanming

    2008-05-22

    Understanding the composition of the atmosphere over geological time is critical to understanding the history of the Earth system, as the atmosphere is closely linked to the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Although much of the history of the lithosphere and hydrosphere is contained in rock and mineral records, corresponding information about the atmosphere is scarce and elusive owing to the lack of direct records. Geologists have used sedimentary minerals, fossils and geochemical models to place constraints on the concentrations of carbon dioxide, oxygen or methane in the past. Here we show that the triple oxygen isotope composition of sulphate from ancient evaporites and barites shows variable negative oxygen-17 isotope anomalies over the past 750 million years. We propose that these anomalies track those of atmospheric oxygen and in turn reflect the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (P(CO2)) in the past through a photochemical reaction network linking stratospheric ozone to carbon dioxide and to oxygen. Our results suggest that P(CO2) was much higher in the early Cambrian than in younger eras, agreeing with previous modelling results. We also find that the (17)O isotope anomalies of barites from Marinoan (approximately 635 million years ago) cap carbonates display a distinct negative spike (around -0.70 per thousand), suggesting that by the time barite was precipitating in the immediate aftermath of a Neoproterozoic global glaciation, the P(CO2) was at its highest level in the past 750 million years. Our finding is consistent with the 'snowball Earth' hypothesis and/or a massive methane release after the Marinoan glaciation.

  1. Novel insights into Fukushima nuclear accident from isotopic evidence of plutonium spread along coastal rivers.

    PubMed

    Evrard, Olivier; Pointurier, Fabien; Onda, Yuichi; Chartin, Caroline; Hubert, Amélie; Lepage, Hugo; Pottin, Anne-Claire; Lefèvre, Irène; Bonté, Philippe; Laceby, J Patrick; Ayrault, Sophie

    2014-08-19

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident led to important releases of radionuclides into the environment, and trace levels of plutonium (Pu) were detected in northeastern Japan. However, measurements of Pu isotopic atom and activity ratios are required to differentiate between the contributions of global nuclear test fallout and FDNPP emissions. In this study, we used a double-focusing sector field ICP-MS to measure Pu atom and activity ratios in recently deposited sediment along rivers draining the most contaminated part of the inland radioactive plume. Results showed that plutonium isotopes (i.e., (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu, and (242)Pu) were detected in all samples, although in extremely low concentrations. The (241)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios measured in sediment deposits (0.0017-0.0884) were significantly higher than the corresponding values attributed to the global fallout (0.00113 ± 0.00008 on average for the Northern Hemisphere between 31°-71° N: Kelley, J. M.; Bond, L. A.; Beasley, T. M. Global distribution of Pu isotopes and (237)Np. Sci. Total. Env. 1999, 237/238, 483-500). The results indicated the presence of Pu from FDNPP, in slight excess compared to the Pu background from global fallout that represented up to ca. 60% of Pu in the analyzed samples. These results demonstrate that this radionuclide has been transported relatively long distances (∼45 km) from FDNPP and been deposited in rivers representing a potential source of Pu to the ocean. In future, the high (241)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio of the Fukushima accident sourced-Pu should be measured to quantify the supply of continental-originating material from Fukushima Prefecture to the Pacific Ocean.

  2. Evidence from chlorin nitrogen isotopes for alternating nutrient regimes in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Meytal B.; Robinson, Rebecca S.; Carter, Susan J.; Pearson, Ann

    2010-02-01

    Nitrogen isotopes of chlorins, degradation products of chlorophyll, reflect the isotopic composition of nutrient N utilized by marine phytoplankton communities. Here we show that in sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Pleistocene and Holocene, values of δ15N for chlorins and total nitrogen vary in concert, with a consistent offset of ˜ 5‰ reflecting the fractionation imparted during chlorophyll biosynthesis. Samples from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Sites 964 and 969 were analyzed at a sampling resolution of ˜ 4-10 cm, clustered around sapropel events 2, 3, 4 and 5 (˜ 100-170 ka). In low organic content sediments, chlorin values of ˜ 0‰ coincident with total nitrogen values of ˜+ 5‰ indicate that the latter reflects the original biomass and is not a consequence of diagenetic isotope enrichment. In sapropel horizons, the chlorin and total nitrogen values are 5‰ more negative (˜-5‰ and ˜ 0‰, respectively), resembling previously-reported, modern-day water-column particulates (˜ 0‰). We suggest that nutrient conditions in the Eastern Mediterranean correspond to three scenarios and that the similarity between sapropel and modern-day bulk δ15N is coincidental. Organic-poor marl sediments formed under oligotrophic conditions where surface productivity resulted from upwelling of Atlantic-sourced nitrate. Sapropels were characterized by enhanced diazotrophy that was likely fueled by increased riverine P fluxes to surface waters. Present-day conditions are dominated by anthropogenic N sources. These scenarios agree with a model of sapropel formation in which stratification caused by increased fresh-water inputs led to N fixation due to P:N nutrient imbalance. Enhanced production combined with stratification promoted and maintained anoxic deep waters, consequently increasing organic matter preservation. Such a model may be relevant to interpreting other episodes of intense organic matter deposition in past oceans.

  3. Lead Contamination in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Isotopic Evidence of Global Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Charley W.; Nriagu, Jerome O.; Aggarwal, Jugdeep K.; Arowolo, Toyin A.; Adebayo, Kola; Flegal, A. Russell

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present lead concentrations and isotopic compositions from analyses of cocoa beans, their shells, and soils from six Nigerian cocoa farms, and analyses of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products. The average lead concentration of cocoa beans was ≤ 0.5 ng/g, which is one of the lowest reported values for a natural food. In contrast, lead concentrations of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products were as high as 230 and 70 ng/g, respectively, which are consistent with market-basket surveys that have repeatedly listed lead concentrations in chocolate products among the highest reported for all foods. One source of contamination of the finished products is tentatively attributed to atmospheric emissions of leaded gasoline, which is still being used in Nigeria. Because of the high capacity of cocoa bean shells to adsorb lead, contamination from leaded gasoline emissions may occur during the fermentation and sun-drying of unshelled beans at cocoa farms. This mechanism is supported by similarities in lead isotopic compositions of cocoa bean shells from the different farms (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1548–1.1581; 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4344–2.4394) with those of finished cocoa products (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1475–1.1977; 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4234–2.4673). However, the much higher lead concentrations and larger variability in lead isotopic composition of finished cocoa products, which falls within the global range of industrial lead aerosols, indicate that most contamination occurs during shipping and/or processing of the cocoa beans and the manufacture of cocoa and chocolate products. PMID:16203244

  4. Patterns of mortality among South Florida Manatees: Evidence from oxygen, sulfur and deuterium stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAvoy, S. E.; Bacalan, V.; Kazantseva, M.; Rhodes, J.; Kim, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is an endangered marine mammal whose coastal habitat has been heavily altered by human development. Sources of mortality include anthropogenic and environmental causes. Necropsies were completed on 75 deceased individuals, and tissues, including bone samples, were collected for later analysis. This study investigates the utility of manatee bone stable oxygen (δ18O), sulfur (δ34S) and deuterium (δD) for determining where the animals lived (which may not be where they where their bodies were recovered), and the relative importance of marine versus freshwater for the individual animals. The isotopes can provide a "geochemical map" showing the distribution of mortality, aiding in the evaluation of geographical patterns in mortality. The δ18O signatures of the bones ranged from 14 to 18.5‰, with no significant difference between male and female mean values. δ18O significantly decreased with increasing latitude (p=.0016), a trend positively correlated with coastal Florida seawater δ18O literature values obtained from the NASA Global Seawater Oxygen-18 Database (http://data.giss.nasa.gov/o18data/) and the EAIA stable isotope database (http://www.univie.ac.at/cartography/project/wiser/). Bone δ34S indicated the influence of marine versus coastal freshwater dietary sources on the animals. Most individuals showed 34S-depleted signatures, which indicated a non-marine sulfur source; however some individuals clearly had taken up marine sulfate (mean 4.9 ± 3.7‰, range 0.8 to 13.8‰). Deuterium values were not available at the time this abstract was written, however we hypothesize that those values will co-vary with δ18O. We conclude that manatee diets are based on both marine and freshwater sources, but freshwater sources exert more influence. Marine water and manatee δ18O co-vary with latitude, suggesting that stable oxygen isotopes may be useful indicators of the latitude where manatees lived.

  5. Isotopic evidence for reductive immobilization of uranium across a roll-front mineral deposit

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Shaun T.; Basu, Anirban; Christensen, John N.; Reimus, Paul; Heikoop, Jeffrey; Simmons, Ardyth; Woldegabriel, Giday; Maher, Kate; Weaver, Karrie; Clay, James; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2016-05-20

    We use uranium (U) isotope ratios to detect and quantify the extent of natural U reduction in groundwater across a roll front redox gradient. Our study was conducted at the Smith Ranch-Highland in situ recovery (ISR) U mine in eastern Wyoming, USA, where economic U deposits occur in the Paleocene Fort Union formation. To evaluate the fate of aqueous U in and adjacent to the ore body, we investigated the chemical composition and isotope ratios of groundwater samples from the roll-front type ore body and surrounding monitoring wells of a previously mined area. The 238U/235U of groundwater varies by approximately 3‰ and is correlated with U concentrations. Fluid samples down-gradient of the ore zone are the most depleted in 238U and have the lowest U concentrations. Activity ratios of 234U/238U are ~5.5 up-gradient of the ore zone, ~1.0 in the ore zone, and between 2.3 and 3.7 in the down-gradient monitoring wells. High-precision measurements of 234U/238U and 238U/235U allow for development of a conceptual model that evaluates both the migration of U from the ore body and the extent of natural attenuation due to reduction. We find that the premining migration of U down-gradient of the delineated ore body is minimal along eight transects due to reduction in or adjacent to the ore body, whereas two other transects show little or no sign of reduction in the down-gradient region. Lastly, these results suggest that characterization of U isotopic ratios at the mine planning stage, in conjunction with routine geochemical analyses, can be used to identify where more or less postmining remediation will be necessary.

  6. Biodilution of heavy metals in a stream macroinvertebrate food web: evidence from stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kozo; Monaghan, Michael T; Takemon, Yasuhiro; Omura, Tatsuo

    2008-05-01

    Analysis of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N) stable isotopes provides an increasingly important means of understanding the complex trophic structure of macroinvertebrate communities in streams. We coupled a stable isotope approach with a contaminant analysis of six metals (Pb, Ag, Zn, Hg, Cu, As) to trace the accumulation and dilution of metals from an abandoned mine across trophic levels of the benthic community in Ginzan Creek, Japan. The delta15N signature increased with trophic level, with mean increases of 4.70 per thousand from producers to primary consumers and 3.06 per thousand from primary to secondary consumers. Tissue Pb and Ag concentrations were negatively correlated with delta15N, indicating biodilution of both metals through the food web. Although macroinvertebrate taxon body mass was negatively correlated with tissue metal concentration at several sites, it did not increase with trophic level (as delta15N) in any of the sites, suggesting that changes in body mass were not the cause of biodilution. Our findings suggest invertebrates at higher trophic levels may exhibit increasingly efficient excretion of metals. Autotrophic epilithon (mean delta13C= -21.3 per thousand) had a much higher concentration of mined metals than did riparian vegetation (mean delta13C= -29.3 per thousand); nonetheless, a carbon-mixing model indicated that taxa feeding on autochthonous carbon sources did not accumulate more metal than allochthonous feeders. It is likely that the notably high metal concentration of allochthonous FPOM plays an important role in the trophic transfer of metals. Our data suggest the strong potential for stable isotope analysis to enhance our understanding of metal transfer through stream macroinvertebrate food webs.

  7. Isotopic evidence for reductive immobilization of uranium across a roll-front mineral deposit

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Shaun T.; Basu, Anirban; Christensen, John N.; Reimus, Paul; Heikoop, Jeffrey; Simmons, Ardyth; Woldegabriel, Giday; Maher, Kate; Weaver, Karrie; Clay, James; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2016-05-20

    We use uranium (U) isotope ratios to detect and quantify the extent of natural U reduction in groundwater across a roll front redox gradient. Our study was conducted at the Smith Ranch-Highland in situ recovery (ISR) U mine in eastern Wyoming, USA, where economic U deposits occur in the Paleocene Fort Union formation. To evaluate the fate of aqueous U in and adjacent to the ore body, we investigated the chemical composition and isotope ratios of groundwater samples from the roll-front type ore body and surrounding monitoring wells of a previously mined area. The 238U/235U of groundwater varies by approximately 3‰ and is correlated with U concentrations. Fluid samples down-gradient of the ore zone are the most depleted in 238U and have the lowest U concentrations. Activity ratios of 234U/238U are ~5.5 up-gradient of the ore zone, ~1.0 in the ore zone, and between 2.3 and 3.7 in the down-gradient monitoring wells. High-precision measurements of 234U/238U and 238U/235U allow for development of a conceptual model that evaluates both the migration of U from the ore body and the extent of natural attenuation due to reduction. We find that the premining migration of U down-gradient of the delineated ore body is minimal along eight transects due to reduction in or adjacent to the ore body, whereas two other transects show little or no sign of reduction in the down-gradient region. Lastly, these results suggest that characterization of U isotopic ratios at the mine planning stage, in conjunction with routine geochemical analyses, can be used to identify where more or less postmining remediation will be necessary.

  8. Isotopic evidence for reductive immobilization of uranium across a roll-front mineral deposit

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Shaun T.; Basu, Anirban; Christensen, John N.; ...

    2016-05-20

    We use uranium (U) isotope ratios to detect and quantify the extent of natural U reduction in groundwater across a roll front redox gradient. Our study was conducted at the Smith Ranch-Highland in situ recovery (ISR) U mine in eastern Wyoming, USA, where economic U deposits occur in the Paleocene Fort Union formation. To evaluate the fate of aqueous U in and adjacent to the ore body, we investigated the chemical composition and isotope ratios of groundwater samples from the roll-front type ore body and surrounding monitoring wells of a previously mined area. The 238U/235U of groundwater varies by approximatelymore » 3‰ and is correlated with U concentrations. Fluid samples down-gradient of the ore zone are the most depleted in 238U and have the lowest U concentrations. Activity ratios of 234U/238U are ~5.5 up-gradient of the ore zone, ~1.0 in the ore zone, and between 2.3 and 3.7 in the down-gradient monitoring wells. High-precision measurements of 234U/238U and 238U/235U allow for development of a conceptual model that evaluates both the migration of U from the ore body and the extent of natural attenuation due to reduction. We find that the premining migration of U down-gradient of the delineated ore body is minimal along eight transects due to reduction in or adjacent to the ore body, whereas two other transects show little or no sign of reduction in the down-gradient region. Lastly, these results suggest that characterization of U isotopic ratios at the mine planning stage, in conjunction with routine geochemical analyses, can be used to identify where more or less postmining remediation will be necessary.« less

  9. Tungsten isotopic evidence for disproportional late accretion to the Earth and Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touboul, Mathieu; Puchtel, Igor S.; Walker, Richard J.

    2015-04-01

    Characterization of the hafnium-tungsten systematics (182Hf decaying to 182W and emitting two electrons with a half-life of 8.9 million years) of the lunar mantle will enable better constraints on the timescale and processes involved in the currently accepted giant-impact theory for the formation and evolution of the Moon, and for testing the late-accretion hypothesis. Uniform, terrestrial-mantle-like W isotopic compositions have been reported among crystallization products of the lunar magma ocean. These observations were interpreted to reflect formation of the Moon and crystallization of the lunar magma ocean after 182Hf was no longer extant--that is, more than about 60 million years after the Solar System formed. Here we present W isotope data for three lunar samples that are more precise by a factor of >=4 than those previously reported. The new data reveal that the lunar mantle has a well-resolved 182W excess of 20.6 +/- 5.1 parts per million (+/-2 standard deviations), relative to the modern terrestrial mantle. The offset between the mantles of the Moon and the modern Earth is best explained by assuming that the W isotopic compositions of the two bodies were identical immediately following formation of the Moon, and that they then diverged as a result of disproportional late accretion to the Earth and Moon. One implication of this model is that metal from the core of the Moon-forming impactor must have efficiently stripped the Earth's mantle of highly siderophile elements on its way to merge with the terrestrial core, requiring a substantial, but still poorly defined, level of metal-silicate equilibration.

  10. Evidence for hydrothermal venting in Fe isotope compositions of the deep Pacific Ocean through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, N.-C.; Johnson, C. M.; Beard, B. L.; German, C. R.; Nesbitt, R. W.; Frank, M.; Bohn, Marcel; Kubik, P. W.; Usui, A.; Graham, I.

    2006-05-01

    Temporal variations in Fe isotope compositions at three locations in the Pacific Ocean over the last 10 Ma are inferred from high-resolution analyses of three hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts. Iron pathways to the central deep Pacific Ocean appear to have remained constant over the past 10 Ma, reflected by a remarkably constant Fe isotope composition, despite large changes in the Fe delivery rates to the surface ocean via dust. These results suggest that the Fe cycle in the deep ocean is decoupled from that in surface waters. By contrast, one ferromanganese crust from the Izu-Bonin (IB) back-arc/marginal basin of the W. Pacific exhibits large δ 56Fe variations. In that crust, decreases in δ 56Fe values correlate with increases in Mn, Mg, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, and V contents, and consistent with periods of intense hydrothermal input and increased growth rates. A second crust located within 100 km of the first IB sample does not record any of these periods of enhanced hydrothermal input. This probably reflects the isolated pathways by which hydrothermally sourced Fe may have migrated in the back arc, highlighting the high degree of provinciality that Fe isotopes may have in the modern (oxic) oceans. Our results demonstrate that despite efficient removal at the source, hydrothermal Fe injected into the deep ocean could account for a significant fraction of the dissolved Fe pool in the deep ocean, and that hydrothermally sourced Fe fluxes to the open ocean may have lower δ 56Fe values than those measured so far in situ at hydrothermal vents. Correlation between δ 56Fe values and elements enriched in hydrothermal fluids may provide a means for distinguishing hydrothermal Fe from other low-δ 56Fe sources to the oceans such as dissolved riverine Fe or porewaters in continental shelf sediments.

  11. Os isotope evidence for a differentiated plume head reservoir for the Ontong Java Nui source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. F.; Hoernle, K.; Parkinson, I. J.; Golowin, R.; Portnyagin, M.; Turner, S.; Werner, R.

    2015-12-01

    Previous Os isotopic investigations of lavas from the Ontong Java Plateau1 observed that geographically widely dispersed samples of differing chemistries preserved an isochron of 123±8 Ma with an initial 187Os/188Os = 0.1289±0.0095. Samples from the Manihiki Plateau, itself a portion of the greater Ontong Java Nui (OJN) magmatic event, preserve a far greater range in Os isotopic signatures than previously reported for the OJP alone. In contrast to the OJP data which points towards a near-chondritic, primitive mantle source for both Kroenke and Kwambaita lavas, the low Ti Manihiki samples preserve 187Os/188Os(i) ranging from 0.1056-0.1714. High Ti Manihiki samples preserve 187Os/188Os(i) = 0.1094-0.1288. Such strongly subchondritic signatures require some component of recycled material in the mantle source, possibly SCLM (TRD low Ti samples ~3.1Ga; and ~2.3-2.6Ga for the high Ti samples). Higher initial Os isotope ratios could indicate the presence of metasomatised lithosphere and/or lower crust. The low Ti samples from Manihiki have been interpreted as the result of a two stage melting process, analogous to boninites2, the depleted source of which has itself been metasomatised by a HIMU component entrained within the plume head. Collectively the Ontong Java and Manihiki samples could conceivably contain mantle sourced from both an undifferentiated, near-chondritic source, as well as ancient, unradiogenic recycled sources. Thus the greater OJN province samples a heterogeneous source containing both primitive and recycled components. It is probable that greater degress of partial melting beneath Ontong Java homogenised these heterogeneities, whereas more complex, multi stage melting processes near the plume margin at Manihiki allowed sampling of the inherent heterogeneities within the plume head. 1: Parkinson et al., 2002, GCA 66(15A) A580. 2: Golowin et al., in prep.

  12. Oxygen isotope evidence for submarine hydrothermal alteration of the Del Puerto ophiolite, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiffman, P.; Williams, A.E.; Evarts, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The oxygen isotope compositions and metamorphic mineral assemblages of hydrothermally altered rocks from the Del Puerto ophiolite and overlying volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks at the base of the Great Valley sequence indicate that their alteration occurred in a submarine hydrothermal system. Whole rock ??18O compositions decrease progressively down section (with increasing metamorphic grade): +22.4??? (SMOW) to +13.8 for zeolite-bearing volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks overlying the ophiolite; +19.6 to +11.6 for pumpellyite-bearing metavolcanic rocks in the upper part of the ophiolite's volcanic member; +12.3 to +8.1 for epidote-bearing metavolcanic rocks in the lower part of the volcanic member; +8.5 to +5.7 for greenschist facies rocks from the ophiolite's plutonic member; +7.6 to +5.8 for amphibolite facies or unmetamorphosed rocks from the plutonic member. Modelling of fluid-rock interaction in the Del Puerto ophiolite indicates that the observed pattern of upward enrichment in whole rock ??18O can be best explained by isotopic exchange with discharging 18O-shifted seawater at fluid/rock mass ratios near 2 and temperatures below 500??C. 18O-depleted plutonic rocks necessarily produced during hydrothermal circulation were later removed as a result of tectonism. Submarine weathering and later burial metamorphism at the base of the Great Valley sequence cannot by itself have produced the zonation of hydrothermal minerals and the corresponding variations in oxygen isotope compositions. The pervasive zeolite and prehnite-pumpellyite facies mineral assemblages found in the Del Puerto ophiolite may reflect its origin near an island arc rather than deep ocean spreading center. ?? 1984.

  13. Lead contamination in cocoa and cocoa products: isotopic evidence of global contamination.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Charley W; Nriagu, Jerome O; Aggarwal, Jugdeep K; Arowolo, Toyin A; Adebayo, Kola; Flegal, A Russell

    2005-10-01

    In this article we present lead concentrations and isotopic compositions from analyses of cocoa beans, their shells, and soils from six Nigerian cocoa farms, and analyses of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products. The average lead concentration of cocoa beans was isotopic compositions of cocoa bean shells from the different farms (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1548-1.1581; 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4344-2.4394) with those of finished cocoa products (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1475-1.1977; 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4234-2.4673). However, the much higher lead concentrations and larger variability in lead isotopic composition of finished cocoa products, which falls within the global range of industrial lead aerosols, indicate that most contamination occurs during shipping and/or processing of the cocoa beans and the manufacture of cocoa and chocolate products.

  14. Iron isotopes in a soil chronosequence: evidence of fractionation due to biological lifting of iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, M. S.; Bullen, T. D.; White, A. F.; Fitzpatrick, J.

    2009-12-01

    The evolution of iron distribution with landform exposure time was studied in a marine terrace chronosequence northwest of Santa Cruz, California. The abundance of soil Fe increases with terrace age on the five terraces studied (65 to 226 Ka). Mass change calculations for Fe, indicate that not only is iron concentrated near the surface but, it is also depleted at depths >1.5m. The surficial Fe concentration cannot be fully accounted for by weathering and compaction of the soil profile or by the addition of iron content through eolian deposition to the soils. The terrace regoliths were generally unsaturated and aerobic, thus lateral movement of large amounts of dissolved reduced iron is unlikely. We propose that plant roots and symbiotic fungi (mycorrhizae) have transported iron from deep within the regolith to the shallow soil through the process of biolifting. Iron is a plant micronutrient; and unlike other mineral nutrients, it is relatively insoluble in aerobic soil solutions. Once Fe is released from decaying organic matter, the Fe-oxides are incorporated into the shallow soil. The Fe content of the current grassland vegetation was measured and yearly biomass Fe uptake calculated. The yearly cycling of plant-utilized Fe in above ground biomass multiplied by the age of the terrace is roughly equivalent to the shallow iron content of these soils. It has been shown that plants which use the strategy I Fe uptake process fractionate light Fe (Guelke and Von Blankenburg, ES&T, p1896; 2007). To test the biolifting hypothesis, Fe isotope ratios were determined for bulk soil samples from several soil depths of terraces 1 through 3 and terrace 5. The shallow soils generally have increasingly lighter δ56/54Fe with terrace age. The δ 56/54Fe values at 10cm soil depth are: 0.546, 0.628 0.381 and 0.182. The deep soil samples (>3 m) have a relatively constant isotopic composition ranging from 0.595 to 0.678 δ 56/54Fe. The deep sample ratios are between the values of the

  15. Osmium isotopic evidence for ancient subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath the kerguelen islands, southern indian ocean

    PubMed

    Hassler; Shimizu

    1998-04-17

    Upper mantle xenoliths found in ocean island basalts are an important window through which the oceanic mantle lithosphere may be viewed directly. Osmium isotopic data on peridotite xenoliths from the Kerguelen Islands, an archipelago that is located on the northern Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean, demonstrate that pieces of mantle of diverse provenance are present beneath the Islands. In particular, peridotites with unradiogenic osmium and ancient rhenium-depletion ages (to 1.36 x 10(9) years old) may be pieces of the Gondwanaland subcontinental lithosphere that were incorporated into the Indian Ocean lithosphere as a result of the rifting process.

  16. 3.4-Billion-year-old biogenic pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: sulfur isotope evidence.

    PubMed

    Ohmoto, H; Kakegawa, T; Lowe, D R

    1993-10-22

    Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (>10(-13) of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen.

  17. 3.4-Billion-year-old biogenic pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: sulfur isotope evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohmoto, H.; Kakegawa, T.; Lowe, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (>>10(-13) of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen.

  18. Investigation of Isotopic and Geochemical Evidence for an Active Planktonic Biota in the Precambrian

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kump, Lee R.

    1997-01-01

    The funded research was motivated by the earlier study of Burdett et al. (1990), who collected carbon and oxygen isotopic data from Paleoproterozoic rocks of the Northwest Territories from deep-and shallow-water facies of the Rocknest Platform. Their results displayed a possible decrease in (delta)C-13 with depth when arranged by increasing distance from the paleoshore. The most C-13-depleted samples were seafloor cements and fans from the underlying siliciclastic Odjick Formation, and slope carbonates of the Rocknest platform.

  19. Lithospheric evolution of the Northern Arabian Shield: Chemical and isotopic evidence from basalts, xenoliths and granites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, M.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of the upper-mantle and the lower-crust (the conteinental lithosphere), is the area of Israel and Sinai was studied, using the chemical composition and the Nd-Sr isotopic systematics from mantle and crustal nodules, their host basalts, and granites. The magmatism and the metasomatism making the lithosphere are related to uprise of mantle diapirs in the uppermost mantle of the area. These diapirs heated the base of the lithosphere, eroded, and replaced it with new hot material. It caused a domal uplift of the lithosphere (and the crust). The doming resulted in tensional stresses that in turn might develop transport channels for the basalt.

  20. Isotope-Geochmical Evidence For Uranium Retardation in Zeolitized Tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    SciTech Connect

    L.A. Neymark; J.B. Paces

    2007-02-14

    Retardation of radionuclides by sorption on minerals in the rocks along downgradient groundwater flow paths is a positive attribute of the natural barrier at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository. Alteration of volcanic glass in nonwelded tuffs beneath the proposed repository horizon produced thick, widespread zones of zeolite- and clay-rich rocks with high sorptive capacities. The high sorptive capacity of these rocks is enhanced by the large surface area of tabular to fibrous mineral forms, which is about 10 times larger in zeolitic tuffs than in devitrified tuffs and about 30 times larger than in vitric tuffs. The alteration of glass to zeolites, however, was accompanied by expansion that reduced the matrix porosity and permeability. Because water would then flow mainly through fractures, the overall effectiveness of radionuclide retardation in the zeolitized matrix actually may be decreased relative to unaltered vitric tuff. Isotope ratios in the decay chain of {sup 238}U are sensitive indicators of long-term water-rock interaction. In systems older than about 1 m.y. that remain closed to mass transfer, decay products of {sup 238}U are in secular radioactive equilibrium where {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios (AR) are unity. However, water-rock interaction along flow paths may result in radioactive disequilibrium in both the water and the rock, the degree of which depends on water flux, rock dissolution rates, {alpha}-recoil processes, adsorption and desorption, and the precipitation of secondary minerals. The effects of long-term water-rock interaction that may cause radionuclide retardation were measured in samples of Miocene-age subrepository zeolitized tuffs of the Calico Hills Formation (Tac) and the Prow Pass Tuff (Tcp) from borehole USW SD-9 near the northern part of the proposed repository area (sampled depth interval from 451.1 to 633.7 m; Engstrom and Rautman, 1996). Mineral abundances and whole

  1. Isotopic evidence for dietary variability in the early hominin Paranthropus robustus.

    PubMed

    Sponheimer, Matt; Passey, Benjamin H; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie; Cerling, Thure E; Lee-Thorp, Julia A

    2006-11-10

    Traditional methods of dietary reconstruction do not allow the investigation of dietary variability within the lifetimes of individual hominins. However, laser ablation stable isotope analysis reveals that the delta13C values of Paranthropus robustus individuals often changed seasonally and interannually. These data suggest that Paranthropus was not a dietary specialist and that by about 1.8 million years ago, savanna-based foods such as grasses or sedges or animals eating these foods made up an important but highly variable part of its diet.

  2. Carbon isotope evidence for the stepwise oxidation of the Proterozoic environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, David J.; Strauss, Harald; Summons, Roger E.; Hayes, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    The oxidation of the earth's crust and the increase in atmospheric oxygen early in earth history have been linked to the accumulation of reduced carbon in sedimentary rocks. Trends in the carbon isotope composition of sedimentary organic carbon and carbonate show that during the Proterozoic aeon (2.5-0.54 Gyr ago) the organic carbon reservoir grew in size, relative to the carbonate reservoir. This increase, and the concomitant release of oxidizing power in the environment, occurred mostly during episodes of global rifting and orogeny.

  3. Carbon Isotope Evidence for the Stepwise Oxidation of the Proterozoic Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.; Strauss, Harald; Summons, Roger E.; Hayes, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    The oxidation of the Earth's crust and the increase in atmospheric oxygen early in Earth history have been linked to the accumulation of reduced carbon in sedimentary rocks. Trends in the carbon isotope composition of sedimentary organic carbon and carbonate show that during the Proterozoic aeon (2.5-0.54 Gyr ago) the organic carbon reservoir grew in size, relative to the carbonate reservoir. This increase, and the concomitant release of oxidizing power in the environment, occurred mostly during episodes of global rifting and orogeny.

  4. Lithospheric evolution of the Northern Arabian Shield: Chemical and isotopic evidence from basalts, xenoliths and granites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, M.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of the upper-mantle and the lower-crust (the conteinental lithosphere), is the area of Israel and Sinai was studied, using the chemical composition and the Nd-Sr isotopic systematics from mantle and crustal nodules, their host basalts, and granites. The magmatism and the metasomatism making the lithosphere are related to uprise of mantle diapirs in the uppermost mantle of the area. These diapirs heated the base of the lithosphere, eroded, and replaced it with new hot material. It caused a domal uplift of the lithosphere (and the crust). The doming resulted in tensional stresses that in turn might develop transport channels for the basalt.

  5. Boron-isotope systematics of Halmahera arc (Indonesia) lava: Evidence for involvement of the subducted slab

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, M.R. )

    1991-03-01

    Dehydration of sediments and oceanic crust within the subducting slab at convergent plate margins is probably a ubiquitous feature. This leads to fractionation of elements between fluids and solids so that the slab-derived component of island-arc lavas is modified from the originally subducted material. Sediments and altered oceanic crust are enriched in boron and cesium relative to uncontaminated mantle products, and these elements are highly mobile during fluid-rock interaction. The combination of B-isotope systematics and Cs concentrations in lavas from the Halmahera arc (Indonesia) suggests that they have been influenced by fluids derived from dehydration and/or melting of the subducted slab.

  6. Boron-isotope systematics of Halmahera arc (Indonesia) lavas: Evidence for involvement of the subducted slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, M. R.

    1991-03-01

    Dehydration of sediments and oceanic crust within the subducting slab at convergent plate margins is probably a ubiquitous feature. This leads to fractionation of elements between fluids and solids so that the slab-derived component of island-arc lavas is modified from the originally subducted material. Sediments and altered oceanic crust are enriched in boron and cesium relative to uncontaminated mantle products, and these elements are highly mobile during fluid-rock interaction. The combination of B-isotope systematics and Cs concentrations in lavas from the Halmahera arc (Indonesia) suggests that they have been influenced by fluids derived from dehydration and/or melting of the subducted slab.

  7. Methane Production Pathways in a California Rice Paddy: Isotopic Evidence for Substantial CO2 Reduction as Cause for Isotopically Light Emitted CH4 Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, S. C.; McMillan, A. M.; Bearden, K.; Chidthaisong, A.; Macalady, J.

    2003-12-01

    We report measurements of δ 13C of emitted CH4 and sediment CH4 and CO2 during the 1999 rice-growing season near Maxwell, CA. Two treatments, one with rice straw incorporated from the previous season and one without rice straw were studied. The δ 13C value of emitted CH4 was consistently lighter isotopically (-67‰ to -83‰ throughout the season) in both straw incorporated and straw removed (burned) plots than in fields we have studied in Texas, Kenya, and Japan. Measured isotopic values of the production zone CH4 were compared to a two-point mixing curve representative of isotopic CH4 produced from either pure methyl-group fermentation or CO2 reduction pathways to partition the production pathways and to track seasonal changes in the production processes. Our sediment CH4 and CO2 isotope data indicate that fermentation was rarely the dominant methanogenic pathway - on the contrary CO2 reduction with H2 was more prevalent than fermentation methanogenesis throughout most of the season. The relatively isotopically light CH4 emitted by the paddy fields is also a product of oxidation and stem-transport processes which have isotopic effects of their own. These effects are discussed in context with the methanogenic isotope effects to provide a complete picture of the paddy field CH4 carbon isotope system.

  8. New isotopic evidence for the origin of groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer in the Negev, Israel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vengosh, A.; Hening, S.; Ganor, J.; Mayer, B.; Weyhenmeyer, C.E.; Bullen, T.D.; Paytan, A.

    2007-01-01

    SO4-rich groundwater from the underlying Jurassic aquifer contributes significantly to the salt budget of the Nubian Sandstone aquifer. The unique chemical and isotopic composition of the Jurassic groundwater (??34SSO4 ??? +14???; ??18OSO4 ??? 14???; 87Sr/86Sr ???0.70764) is interpreted as reflecting dissolution of Late Triassic marine gypsum deposits. In the southern Arava Valley the authors postulate that SO4-rich groundwater with distinctively high Br/Cl (3 ?? 10-3) low 87Sr/86Sr (0.70734), and high ??34SSO4 values (+15???) is derived from mixing with underlying brines from the Paleozoic units. The radiocarbon measurements reveal low 14C activities (0.2-5.8 pmc) in both the northeastern Negev and southern Arava Valley. Taking into account dissolution of carbonate rocks and bacterial SO4 reduction in the unconfined area, estimated mean residence times of groundwater in the confined zone in the northeastern Negev are on the order of 21-38 ka, which suggests recharge predominantly during the last glacial period. The 14C signal in groundwater from the southern Arava Valley is equally low but due to evidence for mixing with external water sources the residence time estimates are questionable. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Isotopic evidence from the eastern Canadian shield for geochemical discontinuity in the proterozoic mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashwal, L.D.; Wooden, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Most workers agree that Proterozoic anorthosite massifs represent the crystallization products of mantle-derived magmas1,2, although the composition of the parental melts is a major unsolved petrological problem 3. As mantle-derived rocks, the massifs can be used as geochemical probes of their late Precambrian upper mantle sources. We report here Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of anorthosites and related rocks from the Grenville and Nain Provinces of the eastern Canadian shield. Here 75% of the Earth's known anorthosite is found in a 1,600-km belt from the Adirondack Mountains of northern New York State to the eastern coast of Labrador4 (Fig. 1). The results indicate that the massifs were derived from at least two distinct mantle source regions which were established before 1,650 Myr ago, and were episodically involved in magmatism over ???500 Myr. One reservoir, below the Grenville Province, and probably below much of the eastern Superior Province, was isotopically similar to the depleted, modern-day mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) source. The other reservoir was chondritic to moderately enriched, and is most easily identified in the Nain Province, but may have occurred scattered throughout the Superior Province. ?? 1983 Nature Publishing Group.

  10. Paleosol Stable Isotope Evidence for Early Hominid Occupation of East Asian Temperate Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong; Ambrose, Stanley H.; Liu, Chao-Li Jack; Follmer, Leon R.

    1997-09-01

    Hominids left Africa and occupied mainland Asia by 1.8 myr ago. About 1.15 myr ago Homo erectusand an associated Stegodon-Ailuropodafauna migrated from subtropical China across the Qinling Mountains into the temperate Loess Plateau. This migration may be an evolutionary milestone in human adaptability because it may represent the first occupation of a nontropical environment. Loess-paleosol stable isotope ratios from the last interglacial-glacial cycle provide comparative data for reconstructing the hominid paleoenvironments. The climate during Gongwangling hominid occupation about 1.15 myr ago was influenced by both Siberian-Mongolian winter and Indian summer monsoon systems characterized as a cold/cool, dry winter and warm/mild, semihumid summer and fall. The Gongwangling hominids preyed mainly on warm-climate-adapted animals such as Stegodon-Ailuropodafauna, suggesting a warm season occupation. The stable isotope ratios also indicate that the Chenjiawo hominids occupied an environment similar to that of the Gongwangling about 650,000 yr ago. The associated fauna, with a mixture of forest and steppe, warm- and cold/cool-climate-adapted animal assemblage's, suggests a permanent occupation by this time. Thus, the reliable earliest and permanent occupation of temperate environments may have occurred 150,000 yr earlier in eastern Asia rather than in Europe.

  11. Paleosol stable isotope evidence for early hominid occupation of East Asian temperate environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Hongfang; Ambrose, S.H.; Liu, Chen; Follmer, L.R.

    1997-01-01

    Hominids left Africa and occupied mainland Asia by 1.8 myr ago. About 1.15 myr ago Homo erectus and an associated Stegodon-Ailuropoda fauna migrated from subtropical China across the Qinling Mountains into the temperate Loess Plateau. This migration may be an evolutionary milestone in human adaptability because it may represent the first occupation of a nontropical environment. Loess-paleosol stable isotope ratios from the last interglacial-glacial cycle provide comparative data for reconstructing the hominid paleoenvironments. The climate during Gongwangling hominid occupation about 1.15 myr ago was influenced by both Siberian-Mongolian winter and Indian summer monsoon systems characterized as a cold/cool, dry winter and warm/mild, semihumid summer and fall. The Gongwangling hominids preyed mainly on warm-climate-adapted animals such as Stegodon-Ailuropoda fauna, suggesting a warm season occupation. The stable isotope ratios also indicate that the Chenjiawo hominids occupied an environment similar to that of the Gongwangling about 650,000 yr ago. The associated fauna, with a mixture of forest and steppe, warm-and cold/cool-climate-adapted animal assemblage's, suggests a permanent occupation by this time. Thus, the reliable earliest and permanent occupation of temperate environments may have occurred 150,000 yr earlier in eastern Asia rather than in Europe. ?? 1997 University of Washington.

  12. Hf-Nd isotope evidence for a transient dynamic regime in the early terrestrial mantle

    PubMed

    Albarede; Blichert-Toft; Vervoort; Gleason; Rosing

    2000-03-30

    Modern basalts have seemingly lost all 'memory' of the primitive Earth's mantle except for an ambiguous isotopic signal observed in some rare gases. Although the Earth is expected to have reached a thermal steady state within several hundred million years of accretion, it is not known how and when the initial chemical fractionations left over from planetary accretion (and perhaps a stage involving a magma ocean) were overshadowed by fractionations imposed by modern-style geodynamics. Because of the lack of samples older than 4 Gyr, this early dynamic regime of the Earth is poorly understood. Here we compare published Hf-Nd isotope data on supracrustals from Isua, Greenland, with similar data on lunar rocks and the SNC (martian) meteorites, and show that, about 3.8 Gyr ago, the geochemical signature of the Archaean mantle was partly inherited from the initial differentiation of the Earth. The observed features seem to indicate that the planet at that time was still losing a substantial amount of primordial heat. The survival of remnants from an early layering in the modern deep mantle may account for some unexplained seismological, thermal and geochemical characteristics of the Earth as observed today.

  13. Isotopic Evidence of a Wide Spectrum of Feeding Strategies in Southern Hemisphere Humpback Whale Baleen Records

    PubMed Central

    Holyoake, Carly; Coughran, Douglas; Nicol, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Our current understanding of Southern hemisphere humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) ecology assumes high-fidelity feeding on Antarctic krill in Antarctic waters during summer, followed by fasting during their annual migration to and from equatorial breeding grounds. An increase in the number of reported departures from this feeding/fasting model suggests that the current model may be oversimplified or, alternatively, undergoing contemporary change. Information about the feeding and fasting cycles of the two Australian breeding populations of humpback whales were obtained through stable isotope analysis of baleen plates from stranded adult individuals. Comparison of isotope profiles showed that individuals from the West Australian breeding population strongly adhered to the classical feeding model. By contrast, East Australian population individuals demonstrated greater heterogeneity in their feeding. On a spectrum from exclusive Antarctic feeding to exclusive feeding in temperate waters, three different strategies were assigned and discussed: classical feeders, supplemental feeders, and temperate zone feeders. Diversity in the inter-annual feeding strategies of humpback whales demonstrates the feeding plasticity of the species, but could also be indicative of changing dynamics within the Antarctic sea-ice ecosystem. This study presents the first investigation of trophodynamics in Southern hemisphere humpback whales derived from baleen plates, and further provides the first estimates of baleen plate elongation rates in the species. PMID:27244081

  14. Sulfur isotopic evidence for sources of volatiles in Siberian Traps magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Benjamin A.; Hauri, Erik H.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.; Brown, Stephanie M.

    2014-05-01

    The Siberian Traps flood basalts transferred a large mass of volatiles from the Earth's mantle and crust to the atmosphere. The eruption of the large igneous province temporally overlapped with the end-Permian mass extinction. Constraints on the sources of Siberian Traps volatiles are critical for determining the overall volatile budget, the role of crustal assimilation, the genesis of Noril'sk ore deposits, and the environmental effects of magmatism. We measure sulfur isotopic ratios ranging from -10.8‰ to +25.3‰ Vienna Cañon Diablo Troilite (V-CDT) in melt inclusions from Siberian Traps basaltic rocks. Our measurements, which offer a snapshot of sulfur cycling far from mid-ocean ridge and arc settings, suggest the δ34S of the Siberian Traps mantle melt source was close to that of mid-ocean ridge basalts. In conjunction with previously published whole rock measurements from Noril'sk, our sulfur isotopic data indicate that crustal contamination was widespread and heterogeneous—though not universal—during the emplacement of the Siberian Traps. Incorporation of crustal materials likely increased the total volatile budget of the large igneous province, thereby contributing to Permian-Triassic environmental deterioration.

  15. Evidence for Benzylsuccinate Synthase Subtypes Obtained by Using Stable Isotope Tools

    PubMed Central

    Kümmel, Steffen; Kuntze, Kevin; Boll, Matthias; Heider, Johann; Richnow, Hans H.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the benzylsuccinate synthase (Bss) reaction mechanism with respect to the hydrogen-carbon bond cleavage at the methyl group of toluene by using different stable isotope tools. Λ values (slopes of linear regression curves for carbon and hydrogen discrimination) for two-dimensional compound-specific stable isotope analysis (2D-CSIA) of toluene activation by Bss-containing cell extracts (in vitro studies) were found to be similar to previously reported data from analogous experiments with whole cells (in vivo studies), proving that Λ values generated by whole cells are caused by Bss catalysis. The Bss enzymes of facultative anaerobic bacteria produced smaller Λ values than those of obligate anaerobes. In addition, a partial exchange of a single deuterium atom in benzylsuccinate with hydrogen was observed in experiments with deuterium-labeled toluene. In this study, the Bss enzymes of the tested facultative anaerobes showed 3- to 8-fold higher exchange probabilities than those for the enzymes of the tested obligate anaerobic bacteria. The phylogeny of the Bss variants, determined by sequence analyses of BssA, the gene product corresponding to the α subunit of Bss, correlated with the observed differences in Λ values and hydrogen exchange probabilities. In conclusion, our results suggest subtle differences in the reaction mechanisms of Bss isoenzymes of facultative and obligate anaerobes and show that the putative isoenzymes can be differentiated by 2D-CSIA. PMID:23935041

  16. Evidence of a kinetic isotope effect in nanoaluminum and water combustion.

    PubMed

    Tappan, Bryce C; Dirmyer, Matthew R; Risha, Grant A

    2014-08-25

    The normally innocuous combination of aluminum and water becomes violently reactive on the nanoscale. Research in the field of the combustion of nanoparticulate aluminum has important implications in the design of molecular aluminum clusters, hydrogen storage systems, as well as energetic formulations which could use extraterrestrial water for space propulsion. However, the mechanism that controls the reaction speed is poorly understood. While current models for micron-sized aluminum water combustion reactions place heavy emphasis on diffusional limitations, as reaction scales become commensurate with diffusion lengths (approaching the nanoscale) reaction rates have long been suspected to depend on chemical kinetics, but have never been definitely measured. The combustion analysis of nanoparticulate aluminum with H2O or D2O is presented. Different reaction rates resulting from the kinetic isotope effect are observed. The current study presents the first-ever observed kinetic isotope effect in a metal combustion reaction and verifies that chemical reaction kinetics play a major role in determining the global burning rate.

  17. Evidence for the mechanisms of zinc uptake by rice using isotope fractionation.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Tim; Kirk, Guy J D; Wissuwa, Matthias; Frei, Michael; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Mason, Thomas F D; Weiss, Dominik J

    2010-03-01

    In an earlier study, we found that rice (Oryza sativa) grown in nutrient solution well-supplied with Zn preferentially took up light (64)Zn over (66)Zn, probably as a result of kinetic fractionation in membrane transport processes. Here, we measure isotope fractionation by rice in a submerged Zn-deficient soil with and without Zn fertilizer. We grew the same genotype as in the nutrient solution study plus low-Zn tolerant and intolerant lines from a recombinant inbred population. In contrast to the nutrient solution, in soil with Zn fertilizer we found little or heavy isotopic enrichment in the plants relative to plant-available Zn in the soil, and in soil without Zn fertilizer we found consistently heavy enrichment, particularly in the low-Zn tolerant line. These observations are only explicable by complexation of Zn by a complexing agent released from the roots and uptake of the complexed Zn by specific root transporters. We show with a mathematical model that, for realistic rates of secretion of the phytosiderophore deoxymugineic acid (DMA) by rice, and realistic parameters for the Zn-solubilizing effect of DMA in soil, solubilization and uptake by this mechanism is necessary and sufficient to account for the measured Zn uptake and the differences between genotypes.

  18. Isotopic Evidence of a Wide Spectrum of Feeding Strategies in Southern Hemisphere Humpback Whale Baleen Records.

    PubMed

    Eisenmann, Pascale; Fry, Brian; Holyoake, Carly; Coughran, Douglas; Nicol, Steve; Bengtson Nash, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Our current understanding of Southern hemisphere humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) ecology assumes high-fidelity feeding on Antarctic krill in Antarctic waters during summer, followed by fasting during their annual migration to and from equatorial breeding grounds. An increase in the number of reported departures from this feeding/fasting model suggests that the current model may be oversimplified or, alternatively, undergoing contemporary change. Information about the feeding and fasting cycles of the two Australian breeding populations of humpback whales were obtained through stable isotope analysis of baleen plates from stranded adult individuals. Comparison of isotope profiles showed that individuals from the West Australian breeding population strongly adhered to the classical feeding model. By contrast, East Australian population individuals demonstrated greater heterogeneity in their feeding. On a spectrum from exclusive Antarctic feeding to exclusive feeding in temperate waters, three different strategies were assigned and discussed: classical feeders, supplemental feeders, and temperate zone feeders. Diversity in the inter-annual feeding strategies of humpback whales demonstrates the feeding plasticity of the species, but could also be indicative of changing dynamics within the Antarctic sea-ice ecosystem. This study presents the first investigation of trophodynamics in Southern hemisphere humpback whales derived from baleen plates, and further provides the first estimates of baleen plate elongation rates in the species.

  19. Stable carbon isotopic evidence for methane oxidation in plumes above Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia Oregon Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Nicholas J.; Whiticar, Michael J.

    2002-12-01

    The transport and consumption of methane in the water column in the vicinity of the cold seeps of Hydrate Ridge on the Cascadia Oregon Margin were characterized using measurements of the stable carbon isotope composition of methane. The δ13C-CH4 values measured in the water column ranged from approximately -65 to -16‰, PDB. The combination of measured methane concentration data and the stable carbon isotope values from the same depths support the hypothesis of biogenically produced methane which enters the water column from dissolving bubbles released from cold seepages, likely as a consequence of destabilized methane hydrate (δ13C-CH4 = -65‰, PDB). Kinetic fractionation factors, α, associated with aerobic bacterial methane oxidation in the water column were calculated using a Rayleigh distillation equation applied to a subset of the data. Fractionation factors ranged from 1.002 to 1.013 (mean = 1.008) and were in the lower end of the range of those reported in the literature, a result likely due to the influence of temperature and mixing in plume waters. The fraction of methane remaining after oxidation calculated using the same Rayleigh model approach suggests that the aerobic oxidation of methane in the water column over Hydrate Ridge is nearly quantitative.

  20. Isotopic Evidence for Oil Sands Petroleum Coke in the Peace-Athabasca Delta.

    PubMed

    Jautzy, Josué J; Ahad, Jason M E; Gobeil, Charles; Smirnoff, Anna; Barst, Benjamin D; Savard, Martine M

    2015-10-20

    The continued growth of mining and upgrading activities in Canada's Athabasca oil sands (AOS) region has led to concerns about emissions of contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Whereas a recent increase in PAH emissions has been demonstrated within around 50 km of the main center of surface mining and upgrading operations, the exact nature of the predominant source(s) and the geographical extent of the deposition are still under debate. Here, we report a century-long source apportionment of PAHs using dual (δ(2)H, δ(13)C) compound-specific isotope analysis on phenanthrene deposited in a lake from the Athabasca sector of the Peace-Athabasca Delta situated ∼150 km downstream (north) of the main center of mining operations. The isotopic signatures in the core were compared to those of the main potential sources in this region (i.e., unprocessed AOS bitumen, upgrader residual coke, forest fires, coal, gasoline and diesel soot). A significant concurrent increase (∼55.0‰) in δ(2)H and decrease (∼1.5‰) in δ(13)C of phenanthrene over the last three decades pointed to an increasingly greater component of petcoke-derived PAHs. This study is the first to quantify long-range (i.e., >100 km) transport of a previously under-considered anthropogenic PAH source in the AOS region.

  1. Evidence of atmospheric sulphur in the martian regolith from sulphur isotopes in meteorites.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, J; Savarino, J; Jackson, T L; Thiemens, M H

    2000-03-02

    Sulphur is abundant at the martian surface, yet its origin and evolution over time remain poorly constrained. This sulphur is likely to have originated in atmospheric chemical reactions, and so should provide records of the evolution of the martian atmosphere, the cycling of sulphur between the atmosphere and crust, and the mobility of sulphur in the martian regolith. Moreover, the atmospheric deposition of oxidized sulphur species could establish chemical potential gradients in the martian near-surface environment, and so provide a potential energy source for chemolithoautotrophic organisms. Here we present measurements of sulphur isotopes in oxidized and reduced phases from the SNC meteorites--the group of related achondrite meteorites believed to have originated on Mars--together with the results of laboratory photolysis studies of two important martian atmospheric sulphur species (SO2 and H2S). The photolysis experiments can account for the observed sulphur-isotope compositions in the SNC meteorites, and so identify a mechanism for producing large abiogenic 34S fractionations in the surface sulphur reservoirs. We conclude that the sulphur data from the SNC meteorites reflects deposition of oxidized sulphur species produced by atmospheric chemical reactions, followed by incorporation, reaction and mobilization of the sulphur within the regolith.

  2. Tungsten isotope evidence for post-giant impact equilibration of the Earth and Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruijer, T.; Kleine, T.; Fischer-Gödde, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Moon is thought to have formed by re-accretion of material ejected by a giant impact on Earth [e.g., 1]. This model, at least in its classical form, predicts an isotopic difference between the Earth and Moon, because the Moon would largely consist of impactor material. Yet Earth and Moon show an unexpected isotopic similarity for many elements [e.g., 2]. Here we use variations in 182W—the decay-product of short-lived 182Hf (t1/2~9 Myr)—between the Moon and the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) to shed new light on this issue. We precisely determined the lunar 182W value by analysing KREEP-rich samples with MC-ICPMS and a new approach for quantifying cosmogenic 182W variations using Hf isotopes [6]. We find that the Moon shows a 27±4 ppm 182W excess over the modern BSE, in excellent agreement with [7]. This excess agrees with the predicted 182W change resulting from disproportional late accretion to the Earth and Moon after Earth's core had fully formed [6,7]. Thus, the pre-late-veneer BSE and the Moon were indistinguishable in 182W. However, the giant impact itself should have caused a notable Earth-Moon 182W difference by (1) changing the ɛ182W of the proto-Earth mantle by adding impactor mantle and core material, both carrying distinct 182W anomalies, and (2) by supplying W-rich but 182W-depleted impactor core material into the lunar accretion disk [6]. Thus, the Earth-Moon 182W homogeneity is an unexpected outcome of the giant impact. Unlike for Ti and O isotopes, the 182W homogeneity cannot be explained by accretion of impactor and proto-Earth from a homogeneous inner disk reservoir [3] or by making the Moon fully from proto-Earth mantle [4,5]. Thus, the 182W results require an efficient post-impact isotopic equilibration of the BSE and the Moon, but the mechanism for this has yet to be explored. One option is that Earth's mantle and its vapour atmosphere remained connected with the lunar accretion disk just after the giant impact [8]. [1] Canup R

  3. Inland Aridification of NW China Since the Late Middle Eocene: Stable Isotope Evidence from Western Qaidam Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Garzione, C. N.; Pullen, A. T.; Chang, H.; Molnar, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    Cenozoic paleoclimate reconstructions of China, based on pollens, fossils and sedimentary deposits, show a change from planetary aridity to inland aridity of NW China by the early Miocene. However, the initiation of this paleoclimate transition is not well-documented and might be much earlier. The surface uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, the retreat of the Para-Tethys sea, and global cooling have all been suggested to influence the establishment of this inland aridity, although their relative significance remains obscure. This paper presents a stable isotope study of a 4435 m long sedimentary section from the western Qaidam Basin, northern Tibetan Plateau, that spans from the late middle Eocene to late Miocene. The lowermost and uppermost parts of the section are dominated by fluvial and alluvial fan deposits, while the majority of the middle of the section represents palustrine, lower fan delta and marginal to shallow lacustrine fine-grained sediments intercalated with coarse sandstone and conglomerate. Our isotope data show sporadic aridity events in the late middle Eocene to early Oligocene, which might mark the transition from planetary aridity to, or the initiation of, inland aridity in NW China, due to the retreat of the Para-Tethys sea, a process that might be significantly influenced by the early topographic growth of the south-central Tibetan Plateau. A negative shift in oxygen isotope values around 19 Ma is also in accordance with other geological evidence suggesting the Oligocene-early Miocene growth of the Kunlun mountains south of the Qaidam basin. Later intensification of aridity occurred at ~12 Ma that corresponds with a regional climate change event, which we attribute to the upward and outward growth of the northern Tibetan Plateau. The final establishment of extreme inland aridity that is comparable to present day was most likely established at ~3.1-2.6 Ma in the Qaidam basin, and therefore global cooling and northern hemisphere glaciation is a

  4. Evidence for free oxygen in the Neoarchean ocean based on coupled iron-molybdenum isotope fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaja, Andrew D.; Johnson, Clark M.; Roden, Eric E.; Beard, Brian L.; Voegelin, Andrea R.; Nägler, Thomas F.; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Wille, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Most geochemical proxies and models of atmospheric evolution suggest that the amount of free O2 in Earth’s atmosphere stayed below 10-5 present atmospheric level (PAL) until the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) that occurred between ∼2.2 and 2.4 Ga, at which time free O2 in the atmosphere increased to approximately 10-1 to 10-2 PAL. Although photosynthetically produced “O2 oases” have been proposed for the photic zone of the oceans prior to the GOE, it has been difficult to constrain absolute O2 concentrations and fluxes in such paleoenvironments. Here we constrain free O2 levels in the photic zone of a Late Archean marine basin by the combined use of Fe and Mo isotope systematics of Ca-Mg carbonates and shales from the 2.68 to 2.50 Ga Campbellrand-Malmani carbonate platform of the Kaapvaal Craton in South Africa. Correlated Fe and Mo isotope compositions require a key role for Fe oxide precipitation via oxidation of aqueous Fe(II) by photosynthetically-derived O2, followed by sorption of aqueous Mo to the newly formed Fe oxides. A dispersion/reaction model illustrates the effects of Fe oxide production and Mo sorption to Fe oxides, and suggests that a few to a few tens of μM free O2 was available in the photic zone of the Late Archean marine basin, consistent with some previous estimates. The coupling of Fe and Mo isotope systematics provides a unique view into the processes that occurred in the ancient shallow ocean after production of free O2 began, but prior to oxygenation of the deep ocean, or significant accumulation of free O2 in the atmosphere. These results require oxygenic photosynthesis to have evolved by at least 2.7 Ga and suggest that the Neoarchean ocean may have had a different oxygenation history than that of the atmosphere. The data also suggest that the extensive iron formation deposition that occurred during this time was unlikely to have been produced by anoxygenic photosynthetic Fe(II) oxidation. Finally, these data indicate that the ocean

  5. Lead isotopic evidence for mixed sources of Proterozoic granites and pegmatites, Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogstad, Eirik J.; Walker, Richard J.; Nabelek, Peter I.; Russ-Nabelek, Carol

    1993-10-01

    The lead isotopic compositions of K-feldspars separated from the ca. 1700 Ma Harney Peak Granite complex and spatially associated granitic pegmatites indicate that these rocks were derived from at least two sources. It has been reported previously that the core of the Harney Peak Granite complex is dominated by relatively lower/ gd18O (avg. 11.5 %.) granites, whereas higher / gd18O (avg. 13.2%.) granites occur around the periphery of the complex. The higher δ 18O granites and one simple pegmatite have low values of 207Pb /204Pb for their 206Pb /204Pb Thus, they likely were derived from a source with a short crustal residence time. This source may have been the pelitic schists into which the Harney Peak Granite complex and pegmatites were intruded. Feldspars from granites with lower / gd18O values have significantly higher 207Pb /204Pb for their 206Pb /204Pb . The data define a linear array with a slope equivalent to an age of ca. 2.6 Ga with t 2 defined to be 1.7 Ga. Such a slope could represent a mixing array or a secondary isochron for the source. These low δ18O granites could have been derived from a source with a high U/ Pb and with a crustal residence beginning before the Proterozoic. The source (s) of these granites may have been a sediment derived from late Archean continental crust. The highly evolved Tin Mountain pegmatite has lead isotopic systematics intermediate between those of the two granite groups, suggesting either a mixed source or contamination. Two late Archean granites, the Little Elk Granite and the Bear Mountain Granite, had precursors with high U/Pb and low Th/U histories. The Th/U history of the Bear Mountain Granite is too low for this rock to have been an important component of the source of the Proterozoic granites. However, crustal rocks with lead isotopic compositions similar to those of the Little Elk Granite were an important source of lead for some of the Proterozoic granitic rocks.

  6. Combined Nd and Hf isotope evidence for deep-seated source of Isua lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizo, Hanika; Boyet, Maud; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Rosing, Minik

    2011-12-01

    We present the first combined 146,147Sm- 142,143Nd and 176Lu- 176Hf study of mafic rocks (amphibolites) from the western part of the Isua Supracrustal Belt (ISB, SW Greenland). Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf whole-rock isochrons yield identical ages within error: 3.72 ± 0.08 and 3.67 ± 0.07 Ga, respectively. 142Nd measurements confirm and extend the database of 142Nd excesses in Isua samples (μ 142Nd = 7-16 ppm relative to the terrestrial Nd standard), indicating that early-differentiated reservoirs escaped complete homogenization by mantle convection until the Archean. Combined 146,147Sm- 142,143Nd systematics suggest differentiation of the Isua amphibolite reservoir at maximum ages of ~ 4.53, ~ 4.47, and ~ 4.32 Ga. These ages are relative to, respectively, ordinary-chondritic, enstatite-chondritic, and higher-than-chondritic mantle compositions. The intercept of the Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron is in accordance with 142Nd results and consistent with a superchondritic initial 143Nd/ 144Nd ratio (ɛ 143Nd 3.7Ga = + 1.41 ± 0.98). In contrast, the corresponding initial ɛ 176Hf 3.7Ga = - 1.41 ± 0.57 is subchondritic. Since Lu/Hf and Sm/Nd fractionate similarly during mantle processes, the Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope systems display incongruent relative parent-daughter behavior in the source of Isua amphibolites. Based on high-pressure and -temperature phase partition coefficients, we propose a model that satisfies 147Sm- 143Nd, 176Lu- 176Hf, and 142Nd results, as well as trace element characteristics. A deep-seated source composed largely of magnesium perovskite (98% MgPv) and containing 2% calcium perovskite satisfactorily explains the Nd and Hf isotopic discordance observed for Isua amphibolites. The negative HFSE anomalies characterizing Isua basalts likewise could have been inherited from such an early (4.53-4.32 Ga) deep mantle cumulate. Since the ~ 4 Ga old Acasta Gneisses (Northwest Territories, Canada) have radiogenic 176Hf/ 177Hf (Scherer et al., 2010), dissociation of the

  7. Nutrient variations and isotopic evidences of particulate organic matter provenance in fringing reefs, South China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Di; Cao, Wenzhi; Liang, Ying; Huang, Zheng

    2016-10-01

    Nutrient over-enrichment is considered to be one of the causes of coral decline. Increase in traditional fishing in the Xuwen National Coral Reefs Reserve tract (XW) and tourism around the Sanya National Coral Reefs Reserve tract (SY) are causing this coral decline. This study reviews the current state of knowledge of the nutrient status of coastal fringing reefs in South China and evaluates the primary sources of nutrients using stable isotope method. Surveys of seawater nutrients showed that the seawater remained clean in both the XW and SY coastal coral reef areas. Based on the isotopic differences between anthropogenic sewage and naturally occurring aquatic nutrients, the isotopic values of particulate organic matter (POM) and the C/N ratios were successfully used to identify the presence of anthropogenic nutrients in aquatic environments. The δ(13)C, δ(15)N and C/N compositions of POM from XW and SY (-21.18±2.11‰, 10.30±5.54‰, and 5.35±0.69 and -20.80±1.34‰, 7.06±3.95‰, and 5.77±2.15, respectively) showed statistically significant variations with the season. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of POM suggest marine and terrestrial-derived nutrient sources. Organic carbon is a mixture of marine phytoplankton, marine benthic algae and terrestrial-derived plants. The δ(15)N values suggest terrestrial-derived sewage and upwelling-dominated nitrogen sources. In the presence of natural upwelling and coastal currents, coastal coral reef areas are more vulnerable to the increasing anthropogenic nutrient inputs. Anthropogenic activities might lead to large increases in the nutrient concentrations and could trigger the shift from coral- to macroalgae-dominated ecosystems, which would ultimately result in the degradation of the coastal coral reef ecosystem. These results provide some understanding of the declining coral reef ecosystem and the importance of conservation areas and coastal coral reef resource management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  8. Mantle plume related Paleozoic riftogenic alkaline magmatism of Mongolia: isotope and geocemical evidence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarmolyuk, V.; Savatenkov, V.; Kozlovsky, A.

    2003-04-01

    Paleozoic alkaline magmatic activity in Mongolia associates with series of W-E trending rifts, ranged from south to north. The rifts system was evolved northward at three stages beginning from later Carboniferous-earlier Permian to later Permian. The isotopic-geochemical composition of the rocks from five volcano-plutonic bimodal complexes was studied. These complexes belong to the Gobi-Tien Shan Zone (GTZ) 310-290 Ma and the Gobi-Altai Zone (GAZ) 270 Ma of riftogenic alkaline magmatism. The studied volcano-plutonic complexes are formed by mafic rocks alkaline basalts and felsic rocks alkaline riolites (comendite and pantelerite) with subordinate rocks of intermedial composition (trachidacites, trachiandesites) and associated plutons of alkaline granites. Basaltic rocks of GTZ are characterized by positive eNd(T) values (+4.2 +7.0), 87Sr/86Sr(T) value ranged from 0.7036 to 0.7049, enrichment in Th, LREE, Sr, P, Zr, Hf, Ti and pronounced depletion in Nb and Ta. GTZ felsic rocks have general enrichment in most incompatible trace element (K, Rb, Th, Zr, Hf and REE) and depletion in Nb, Ta, Sr, P, Eu and Ti. The range of eNd(T) of alkaline riolites demonstrates general shift to more positive values (+5.8 +7.3) comparatively to that of basalts. Generally rocks of GAZ and GTZ volcano-plutonic complexes have similar geochemical features. However the GAZ alkaline riolites have more differentiated character (higher silica content, more strong depletion in Ti, Sr and Eu, enrichment in Rb and REE). Furthermore eNd(T) and 87Sr/86Sr(T) values of GAZ basalts demonstrate more wide scatter from +0.2 to +8.1 and from 0.7037 to 0.7054 respectively. Geochemical trends in the trace elements (REE, Y, Th, Nb, Ta) and in Sr-Nd isotope composition suggest that basaltic rocks were derived from OIB-like mantle sourse and underwent contamination during of fraction crystallization by material of subduced oceanic crust (Neoproterozoic ?). Felsic rocks were generated from OIB-like basaltic melt

  9. Isotopic evidence of contaminant lead in the South Atlantic troposphere and surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alleman, L. Y.; Church, T. M.; Véron, A. J.; Kim, G.; Hamelin, B.; Flegal, A. R.

    The third Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Baseline Contaminant cruise (May-June 1996) has established the first lead isotopic compositions in the surface water and the atmosphere of the Equatorial and South Atlantic Ocean. These ratios have evidenced both anthropogenic and natural origins of lead along the cruise transect (from 33°S to 10°N). The isotopic gradients tentatively have been, attributed to aeolian as well as surface-water advective inputs from a suite of rather local and remote sources to the Southern Hemisphere. Relatively low 206Pb/ 207Pb ratios (x±sd) were encountered within the South Equatorial Current between 17°S and 5°S (1.156±0.003). Those were bracketed by more radiogenic ratios at higher latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere (33°S to 23°S), within the Brazil Current and the Subtropical Gyre (1.163±0.003), and in the Northern Hemisphere (0° to 10°N) (1.165±0.005). The latter were comparable to ratios of surface water in the North Atlantic Equatorial Ocean (1.169±0.006), under a combined contaminant influence of both North American westerlies (1.19-1.20) and European easterlies (1.155-1.165). That predominance of contaminant lead contrasts with the measurable presence of natural lead in surface waters of the Equatorial Ocean, which are attributed to aeolian inputs of Saharan dust. The ratios of lead in surface waters at higher latitudes in the South Atlantic are characteristic of anthropogenic lead aerosols also detected in Antarctic ice, and could substantiate as well the hypothesized aerosol recycling of lead by sea-spray emission in the far Southern Hemisphere. The atmospheric lead isotopic compositions ( 206Pb/ 207Pb) in bulk depositions (1.171±0.006), precipitation (1.171±0.006) and aerosols (1.168±0.011) were, generally, more radiogenic than the surface waters (1.162±0.005). Beside a poor representation of a short term atmospheric sampling, this difference could reflect a recent evolution in atmospheric

  10. Evidence of silicic acid leakage to the tropical Atlantic via Antarctic Intermediate Water during Marine Isotope Stage 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, James D.; Barker, Stephen; Hendry, Katharine R.; Thornalley, David J. R.; van de Flierdt, Tina; Hall, Ian R.; Anderson, Robert F.

    2013-06-01

    Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) and Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) are the main conduits for the supply of dissolved silicon (silicic acid) from the deep Southern Ocean (SO) to the low-latitude surface ocean and therefore have an important control on low-latitude diatom productivity. Enhanced supply of silicic acid by AAIW (and SAMW) during glacial periods may have enabled tropical diatoms to outcompete carbonate-producing phytoplankton, decreasing the relative export of inorganic to organic carbon to the deep ocean and lowering atmospheric pCO2. This mechanism is known as the "silicic acid leakage hypothesis" (SALH). Here we present records of neodymium and silicon isotopes from the western tropical Atlantic that provide the first direct evidence of increased silicic acid leakage from the Southern Ocean to the tropical Atlantic within AAIW during glacial Marine Isotope Stage 4 ( 60-70 ka). This leakage was approximately coeval with enhanced diatom export in the NW Atlantic and across the eastern equatorial Atlantic and provides support for the SALH as a contributor to CO2 drawdown during full glacial development.

  11. Sex and species specific isotopic niche specialisation increases with trophic complexity: evidence from an ephemeral pond ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Dalu, Tatenda; Wasserman, Ryan J; Vink, Tim J F; Weyl, Olaf L F

    2017-02-24

    It is generally accepted that organisms that naturally exploit an ecosystem facilitate coexistence, at least partially, through resource partitioning. Resource availability is, however, highly variable in space and time and as such the extent of resource partitioning must be somewhat dependent on availability. Here we test aspects of resource partitioning at the inter- and intra-specific level, in relation to resource availability in an atypical aquatic environment using an isotope approach. Using closely related key organisms from an ephemeral pond, we test for differences in isotopic signatures between two species of copepod and between sexes within each species, in relation to heterogeneity of basal food resources over the course of the ponds hydroperiod. We show that basal food resource heterogeneity increases over time initially, and then decreases towards the end of the hydroperiod, reflective of the expected evolution of trophic complexity for these systems. Resource partitioning also varied between species and sexes, over the hydroperiod with intra- and inter-specific specialisation relating to resource availability. Intra-specific specialisation was particularly evident in the omnivorous copepod species. Our findings imply that trophic specialisation at both the intra- and inter-specific level is partly driven by basal food resource availability.

  12. Uranium isotope evidence for the abrupt onset of oceanic anoxia during the end-Guadalupian mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, H.; Algeo, T. J.; Romaniello, S. J.; Tong, J.; Du, Y.; Wei, H.; Shen, S.; Anbar, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    The end-Guadalupian (Middle/Late Permian) mass extinction was one of the major crises of the Phanerozoic, resulting in the disappearance of numerous shallow-marine taxa. Several hypotheses have been proposed for this catastrophe but are still under debate. Here, we undertook a high-resolution carbonate U isotopic (δ238/235U) study of the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary (GLB) at the Penglaitan section (Guadalupian/ Lopingian GSSP) to explore the causal relationship between ocean redox changes and the mass extinction event. The Penglaitan δ238U profile shows two abrupt negative excursions, one in the uppermost Guadalupian (Beds 6j-6k) and the other in the lowermost Lopingian (lower Bed 7). The first excursion (from ‒0.30 ‰ to ‒0.50 ‰) coincided with the main extinction event, suggesting that rapid expansion of oceanic anoxia may have been a contributor to the biotic crisis. The second, larger excursion (from ‒0.25 ‰ to ‒0.65 ‰) demonstrates that the crisis interval was marked by multiple phases of expanded oceanic anoxia. A U-isotope mass balance model shows that, during these excursions, the anoxic/euxinic sink flux increased to 40 % of the total sink flux of seawater U, which is three times of the modern ocean value of 13 %. This study thus provides circumstantial evidence for a causal relationship between expansion of oceanic anoxia and the end-Guadalupian biotic crisis.

  13. Dietary shift after 3600 cal yr BP and its influencing factors in northwestern China: Evidence from stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Minmin; Dong, Guanghui; Jia, Xin; Wang, Hui; Cui, Yifu; Chen, Fahu

    2017-04-01

    :Human diets rely on natural resource availability and can reflect social and cultural values. When environments, societies, and cultures change, diets may also shift. This study traced the extent of dietary change and the factors influencing such change. Through stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic analysis of late Neolithic and early Bronze Age human and animal bone collagen, we found that significant shifts in human diets were closely associated with intercontinental cultural exchanges in Eurasia and climate change in northwestern China. The isotopic evidence indicated that human diets mainly consisted of C4 foodstuffs (presumably millet and/or animals fed with C4 foods) around 4000 calibrated years before the present (cal yr BP), corresponding to the flourishing of millet agriculture in the context of the optimal climate conditions of the mid-Holocene. Subsequently, more C3 foods (probably wheat, barley, and animals fed with C3 foods) were added to human diets post-3600 cal yr BP when the climate became cooler and drier. Such dietary variation is also consistent with the increasing intensity of long-distance exchange after 4000 cal yr BP. While many factors can lead to human dietary shifts (e.g. climate change, population growth, cultural factors, and human migration), climate may have been a key factor in Gansu and Qinghai.

  14. Dietary shift after 3600 cal yr BP and its influencing factors in northwestern China: Evidence from stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Minmin; Dong, Guanghui; Jia, Xin; Wang, Hui; Cui, Yifu; Chen, Fahu

    2016-08-01

    Human diets rely on natural resource availability and can reflect social and cultural values. When environments, societies, and cultures change, diets may also shift. This study traced the extent of dietary change and the factors influencing such change. Through stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic analysis of late Neolithic and early Bronze Age human and animal bone collagen, we found that significant shifts in human diets were closely associated with intercontinental cultural exchanges in Eurasia and climate change in northwestern China. The isotopic evidence indicated that human diets mainly consisted of C4 foodstuffs (presumably millet and/or animals fed with C4 foods) around 4000 calibrated years before the present (cal yr BP), corresponding to the flourishing of millet agriculture in the context of the optimal climate conditions of the mid-Holocene. Subsequently, more C3 foods (probably wheat, barley, and animals fed with C3 foods) were added to human diets post-3600 cal yr BP when the climate became cooler and drier. Such dietary variation is also consistent with the increasing intensity of long-distance exchange after 4000 cal yr BP. While many factors can lead to human dietary shifts (e.g. climate change, population growth, cultural factors, and human migration), climate may have been a key factor in Gansu and Qinghai.

  15. Sex and species specific isotopic niche specialisation increases with trophic complexity: evidence from an ephemeral pond ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Dalu, Tatenda; Wasserman, Ryan J.; Vink, Tim J. F.; Weyl, Olaf L. F.

    2017-01-01

    It is generally accepted that organisms that naturally exploit an ecosystem facilitate coexistence, at least partially, through resource partitioning. Resource availability is, however, highly variable in space and time and as such the extent of resource partitioning must be somewhat dependent on availability. Here we test aspects of resource partitioning at the inter- and intra-specific level, in relation to resource availability in an atypical aquatic environment using an isotope approach. Using closely related key organisms from an ephemeral pond, we test for differences in isotopic signatures between two species of copepod and between sexes within each species, in relation to heterogeneity of basal food resources over the course of the ponds hydroperiod. We show that basal food resource heterogeneity increases over time initially, and then decreases towards the end of the hydroperiod, reflective of the expected evolution of trophic complexity for these systems. Resource partitioning also varied between species and sexes, over the hydroperiod with intra- and inter-specific specialisation relating to resource availability. Intra-specific specialisation was particularly evident in the omnivorous copepod species. Our findings imply that trophic specialisation at both the intra- and inter-specific level is partly driven by basal food resource availability. PMID:28233858

  16. Stable Isotopes in Pocket Gopher Teeth as Evidence of a Late Matuyama Climate Shift in the Southern Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Karel L.; Wang, Yang

    2002-03-01

    Previous work in the San Luis Valley of south-central Colorado and northern New Mexico at the Hansen Bluff and SAM Cave localities has allowed reconstruction of the paleoclimate in the region during the interval from ∼0.6 myr to ∼2.6 myr. Surface exposures at Hansen Bluff have been correlated to deep-sea oxygen isotope core stages 18-23 and one of the glacial periods contained therein to the oldest "Nebraskan" till in southwestern Iowa. Deposits in SAM Cave correlate to Hansen Bluff on the basis of paleomagnetics, climate interpretation, and microtine rodent biochronology. In this paper, carbon and oxygen stable isotope data of herbivorous rodent teeth are used as indicators of change in the predominance of C3, C4, and CAM plants and of changes in temperature and precipitation. Taken together with other previously analyzed data from these localities, the evidence indicates a shift in the severity of glacial events that is mainly related to the hydrologic characteristics of the climate. This shift may have been caused by broad regional uplift that may have been instrumental in shifting global climate cycles from the 41,000-yr Matuyama cycles to the Brunhes 100,000-yr-dominated cycles.

  17. Evidence for free oxygen in the Neoarchean ocean based on coupled iron-molybdenum isotope fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaja, A. D.; Johnson, C.; Roden, E. E.; Beard, B. L.; Voegelin, A. R.; Nagler, T. F.; Beukes, N. J.; Wille, M.

    2011-12-01

    Common estimates for the timing of surface oxidation and models of atmospheric evolution suggest that the amount of free oxygen in Earth's atmosphere stayed below 10-5 times present atmospheric level (PAL) until the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) that occurred between ~2.2 and 2.4 Ga, at which time free O2 in the atmosphere increased to approximately 10-1 to 10-2 times PAL. It is possible that the amount of photosynthetic O2 production was low to insignificant until the GOE, but some studies have suggested that photosynthetically-produced "oxygen oases", reflecting relatively high rates of O2 production, could have existed prior to this time. It has been difficult, however, to constrain absolute O2 concentrations and fluxes in such paleoenvironments. Here we show that free O2 levels in the photic zone of the Late Archean ocean can be constrained by the combined use of Fe and Mo isotope systematics of Ca-Mg carbonates from the 2.68 to 2.50 Ga Campbellrand-Malmani carbonate platform, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa, and that O2 production is most easily explained by oxygenic photosynthesis. Correlated Fe and Mo isotope compositions of seawater in the photic zone, as sequestered into Ca-Mg carbonates, require a key role for Fe oxide precipitation via oxidation of aqueous Fe(II) by photosynthetically-derived O2, followed by sorption of aqueous Mo to the newly formed Fe oxides. Simulation of this process by use of a dispersion/reaction model illustrates the effects of Fe oxide precipitation and subsequent Mo sorption, and suggests that the balance of O2 production and loss could result in a Late Archean ocean with an oxic photic zone (~30 μM of free O2, which is ~10% of the modern value), an anoxic deep ocean, and an atmosphere that had ≤10-5 times PAL O2. The similarity of the temporal trends in Fe isotope compositions of these Ca-Mg carbonates to those of contemporaneously deposited carbonates from the Pilbara Craton in Western Australia suggests that photic zone

  18. Neanderthals versus Modern Humans: Evidence for Resource Competition from Isotopic Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Virginie; Condemi, Silvana; Degioanni, Anna; Herrscher, Estelle

    2011-01-01

    During later MOIS3, in Europe two populations were present, autochthonous Neanderthals and modern humans. Ecological competition between these two populations has often been evoked but never demonstrated. Our aim is to establish whether resource competition occurred. In this paper, in order to examine the possibility of ecological competition between these two populations, 599 isotopic data were subjected to rigorous statistical treatment and analysis through mixing models. The aim of this paper was to compare dietary strategies of Neanderthals and modern humans over time. Our conclusions suggest that Neanderthals and modern humans shared dietary habits in the particular environmental context of MOIS3 characterised in Europe by climatic deterioration. In this environmental context, the resource competition between Neanderthals and modern humans may have accelerated the disappearance of the Neanderthal population. PMID:21941674

  19. Radiogenic and Radioactive Isotopic Evidence for a Dynamic Residence Time of the Athabasca Glacier Subglacial Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, C. A.; Aciego, S.; Sims, K. W.; Aarons, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about the time it takes precipitation, input of water from reservoirs, surface melt, and basal melt to migrate to the base of a glacier and discharge. Previous work on the residence time of subglacial water has proven to be either inconclusive or inconsistent. Our research will address the primary subglacial water questions; the flux of subglacial water correlates directly to the mass balance of a glacier but what role does subglacial water storage play in that mass balance? Can we determine residence time of subglacial water? And, how variable is residence time seasonally and on longer time scales? The regional focus of our research is the Athabasca Glacier, part of the Columbia Icefield located in Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada. Uranium-series (U-series) dating methods based on the ingrowth of daughter isotopes from parents (234U, 230Th and 222Rn from the primary parent 238U) have been used to study the residence time of aquifer systems. Here we show the feasibility of applying these techniques to subglacial water. Samples were collected over two 25-day field periods to account for hydrological and chemical fluctuations between the onset of melt and peak melt. Daily physical observations, 222Rn concentrations (from a Durridge RAD7), conductivity, total alkalinity, pH, maximum velocity, and discharge measurements were taken. Fifty daily 10-40L subglacial water and filtered sediment samples were collected and filtered at our collection site in the main channel at the toe of the Athabasca Glacier. The 238U /234U and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic compositions and U, Th, and Sr concentrations of the filtrate and captured sediments is pending. We will extrapolate the residence time of the water based on the accumulation of 234U and 230Th in our samples from alpha decay, which can be coupled to a radiometric timescale. Given that the 238U /234U and 234U/230Th isotopic composition of subglacial water is dependent on recoil and sediment dissolution processes

  20. Turnover of new soil carbon inputs under increased atmospheric CO2: synthesizing the isotopic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Osenberg, Craig W.; Terrer, César; Carrillo, Yolima; Dijkstra, Feike; Heath, James; Nie, Ming; Pendall, Elise; Phillips, Richard P.; Hungate, Bruce A.

    2017-04-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 often stimulate plant inputs to soil, but the effect of these changes on soil carbon (C) dynamics are poorly understood. Plant-derived inputs can accumulate in the soil and become part of the soil C pool ("new soil C"), or accelerate losses of pre-existing ("old") soil C. The dynamics of the new vs. old pools will likely differ and alter the long-term fate of soil C, but these separate pools, which can be distinguished through isotopic labeling, have not been considered in past syntheses. Using meta-analysis, we found that while elevated CO2 stimulates the accumulation of new soil C in the short term (< 1 year), these effects do not persist in the long term (> 1 year). Our results are inconsistent with predictions of conventional soil C models and suggest an increase in turnover rates of new soil C under elevated CO2.

  1. Hf isotopic evidence for a cogenetic magma source for the Bushveld Complex and associated felsic magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanTongeren, J. A.; Zirakparvar, N. A.; Mathez, E. A.

    2016-04-01

    Here, we test the hypothesis that the rhyolitic lavas of the Rooiberg Group and granophyres associated with the roof of the Bushveld Complex are differentiation products of Bushveld-age mafic liquids. We present Lu-Hf isotopic compositions in zircons from roof rocks that have been interpreted to represent thermally metamorphosed and remelted Rooiberg Group lavas and from granophyres interpreted to be differentiation products of the cumulate rocks that make up the Bushveld Complex. All of these rocks were found to possess εHf (2.06 Ga) statistically indistinguishable from the intrusion-wide average εHf (2.06 Ga) value of - 8.6 ± 1.2 of the Bushveld Complex. Our results, combined with chronologic and field relations, suggest that the felsic rocks were generated by fractional crystallization of Bushveld mafic liquids, including those that gave rise to the cumulate rocks of the Bushveld Complex.

  2. Chemical and isotopic evidence of the origins of natural gases in offshore Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic composition of natural gases from 55 fields in the offshore Gulf of Mexico province has been analyzed. The gases display a trend of more positive delta /sup 13/Cl values with increasing depth and age of producing reservoir. The mechanisms responsible for this fractionation are biogenic enrichment of /sup 12/Cl, thermal cracking, and mixing. Separate trends are present in Texas and Louisiana which suggest a higher geothermal gradient or different type of organic matter in offshore Texas. There is considerable scatter along the general trend because gases generated from deeper, thermally mature source rocks have commonly migrated to shallower immature reservoirs. Many gas fields in reservoirs of all ages are the result of separation-migration in which the gas phase was physically segregated from a petroleum accumulation. These gasses are similar in composition to gas associated with petroleum. 41 references.

  3. Ca, Sr, Mo and U isotopes evidence ocean acidification and deoxygenation during the Late Permian mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Tamayo, Juan Carlos; Payne, Jon; Wignall, Paul; Newton, Rob; Eisenhauer, Anton; Weyer, Stenfan; Neubert, Nadja; Lau, Kim; Maher, Kate; Paytan, Adina; Lehrmann, Dan; Altiner, Demir; Yu, Meiyi

    2014-05-01

    The most catastrophic extinction event in the history of animal life occurred at the end of the Permian Period, ca. 252 Mya. Ocean acidification and global oceanic euxinia have each been proposed as causes of this biotic crisis, but the magnitude and timing of change in global ocean chemistry remains poorly constrained. Here we use multiple isotope systems - Ca, Sr, Mo and U - measured from well dated Upper Permian- Lower Triassic sedimentary sections to better constrain the magnitude and timing of change in ocean chemistry and the effects of ocean acidification and de-oxygenation through this interval. All the investigated carbonate successions (Turkey, Italy and China) exhibit decreasing δ44/40Ca compositions, from ~-1.4‰ to -2.0‰ in the interval preceding the main extinction. These values remain low during most of the Griesbachian, to finally return to -1.4‰ in the middle Dienerian. The limestone succession from southern Turkey also displays a major decrease in the δ88/86Sr values from 0.45‰ to 0.3‰ before the extinction. These values remain low during the Griesbachian and finally increase to 0.55‰ by the middle Dienerian. The paired negative anomalies on the carbonate δ44/40Ca and δ88/86Sr suggest a decrease in the carbonate precipitation and thus an episode of ocean acidification coincident with the major biotic crisis. The Mo and U isotope records also exhibit significant rapid negative anomalies at the onset of the main extinction interval, suggesting rapid expansion of anoxic and euxinic marine bottom waters during the extinction interval. The rapidity of the isotope excursions in Mo and U suggests substantially reduced residence times of these elements in seawater relative to the modern, consistent with expectations for a time of widespread anoxia. The large C-isotope variability within Lower Triassic rocks, which is similar to that of the Lower-Middle Cambrian, may reflect biologically controlled perturbations of the oceanic carbon cycle

  4. Atacama perchlorate as an agricultural contaminant in groundwater: isotopic and chronologic evidence from Long Island, New York.

    PubMed

    Böhlke, John Karl; Hatzinger, Paul B; Sturchio, Neil C; Gu, Baohua; Abbene, Irene; Mroczkowski, Stanley J

    2009-08-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) is a common groundwater constituent with both synthetic and natural sources. A potentially important source of ClO4- is past agricultural application of ClO4(-)-bearing natural NO3- fertilizer imported from the Atacama Desert, Chile, but evidence for this has been largely circumstantial. Here we report ClO4- stable isotope data (delta37Cl, delta18O, and delta17O), along with other supporting chemical and isotopic environmental tracer data, to document groundwater ClO4 contamination sources and history in parts of Long Island, New York. Sampled groundwaters were oxic and ClO4- apparently was not affected by biodegradation within the aquifers. Synthetic ClO4- was indicated by the isotopic method in groundwater near a fireworks disposal site at a former missile base. Atacama ClO4- was indicated in agricultural and urbanizing areas in groundwaters with apparent ages > 20 years. In an agricultural area, ClO4- concentrations and ClO4-/NO3- ratios increased with groundwater age, possibly because of decreasing application rates of Atacama NO3- fertilizers and/or decreasing ClO4- concentrations in Atacama NO3- fertilizers in recent years. Because ClO4-/NO3- ratios of Atacama NO3- fertilizers imported in the past (approximately 2 x 10(-3) mol mol(-1)) were much higher than the CO4-/NO3- ratio of recommended drinking-water limits (7 x 10(-5) mol mol(-1) in New York), ClO4- could exceed drinking-water limits even where NO3- does not, and where Atacama NO3- was only a minor source of N. Groundwater ClO4- with distinctive isotopic composition was a sensitive indicator of past Atacama NO3- fertilizer use on Long Island and may be common in other areas that received NO3- fertilizers from the late 19th century through the 20th century.

  5. Atacama perchlorate as an agricultural contaminant in groundwater: Isotopic and chronologic evidence from Long Island, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlke, J. K.; Hatzinger, Paul B.; Sturchio, N. C.; Gu, Baohua; Abbene, I.; Mroczkowki, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) is a common groundwater constituent with both synthetic and natural sources. A potentially important source of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} is past agricultural application of ClO{sub 4}{sup -}-bearing natural NO{sub 3}{sup -} fertilizer imported from the Atacama Desert, Chile, but evidence for this has been largely circumstantial. Here we report ClO{sub 4}{sup -} stable isotope data ({delta}{sup 37}Cl, {delta}{sup 18}O, and {Delta}{sup 17}O), along with other supporting chemical and isotopic environmental tracer data, to document groundwater ClO{sub 4}{sup -} contamination sources and history in parts of Long Island, New York. Sampled groundwaters were oxic and ClO{sub 4}{sup -} apparently was not affected by biodegradation within the aquifers. Synthetic ClO{sub 4}{sup -} was indicated by the isotopic method in groundwater near a fireworks disposal site at a former missile base. Atacama ClO{sub 4}{sup -} was indicated in agricultural and urbanizing areas in groundwaters with apparent ages >20 years. In an agricultural area, ClO{sub 4}{sup -} concentrations and ClO{sub 4}{sup -}/NO{sub 3}{sup -} ratios increased with groundwater age, possibly because of decreasing application rates of Atacama NO{sub 3}{sup -} fertilizers and/or decreasing ClO{sub 4}{sup -} concentrations in Atacama NO{sub 3}{sup -} fertilizers in recent years. Because ClO{sub 4}{sup -}/NO{sub 3}{sup -} ratios of Atacama NO{sub 3}{sup -} fertilizers imported in the past (2 x 10{sup -3} mol mol{sup -1}) were much higher than the ClO{sub 4}{sup -}/NO{sub 3}{sup -} ratio of recommended drinking-water limits (7 x 10{sup -5} mol mol{sup -1} in New York), ClO{sub 4}{sup -} could exceed drinking-water limits even where NO{sub 3}{sup -} does not, and where Atacama NO{sub 3}{sup -} was only a minor source of N. Groundwater ClO{sub 4}{sup -} with distinctive isotopic composition was a sensitive indicator of past Atacama NO{sub 3}{sup -} fertilizer use on Long Island and may be common in

  6. Subduction of continental lithosphere in the Banda Sea region: Combining evidence from full waveform tomography and isotope ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, Andreas; De Wit, Maarten; van Bergen, Manfred

    2010-09-01

    We provide new insight into the subduction of old continental lithosphere to depths of more than 100 km beneath the Banda arc, based on a spatial correlation of full waveform tomographic images of its lithosphere with He, Pb, Nd and Sr isotope signatures in its arc volcanics. The thickness of the subducted lithosphere of around 200 km coincides with the thickness of Precambrian lithosphere as inferred from surface wave tomography. While the deep subduction of continental material in continent-continent collisions is widely recognised, the analogue process in the arc-continent collision of the Banda region is currently unique. The integrated data suggest that the late Jurassic ocean lithosphere north of the North Australian craton was capable of entraining large volumes of continental lithosphere. The Banda arc example demonstrates that continental lithosphere in arc-continent collisions is not generally preserved, thus increasing the complexity of tectonic reconstructions. In the particular case of Timor, the tomographic images indicate that this island is not located directly above the northern margin of the North Australian craton, and that decoupled oceanic lithosphere must be located at a considerable distance north of Timor, possibly as far north as the northern margin of the volcanically extinct arc sector. The tomographic images combined with isotope data suggest that subduction of the continental lithosphere did not lead to the delamination of its complete crust. A plausible explanation involves delamination within the continental crust, separating upper from lower crustal units. This interpretation is consistent with the existence of a massive accretionary complex on Timor island, with evidence from Pb isotope analysis for lower-crust involvement in arc volcanism; and with the approximate gravitational stability of the subducted lithosphere as inferred from the tomographic images. The subduction of continental lithosphere including crustal material beneath

  7. The origin of aubrites: Evidence from lithophile trace element abundances and oxygen isotope compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrat, J. A.; Greenwood, R. C.; Keil, K.; Rouget, M. L.; Boesenberg, J. S.; Zanda, B.; Franchi, I. A.

    2016-11-01

    We report the abundances of a selected set of ;lithophile; trace elements (including lanthanides, actinides and high field strength elements) and high-precision oxygen isotope analyses of a comprehensive suite of aubrites. Two distinct groups of aubrites can be distinguished: (a) the main-group aubrites display flat or light-REE depleted REE patterns with variable Eu and Y anomalies; their pyroxenes are light-REE depleted and show marked negative Eu anomalies; (b) the Mount Egerton enstatites and the silicate fraction from Larned display distinctive light-REE enrichments, and high Th/Sm ratios; Mount Egerton pyroxenes have much less pronounced negative Eu anomalies than pyroxenes from the main-group aubrites. Leaching experiments were undertaken to investigate the contribution of sulfides to the whole rock budget of the main-group aubrites. Sulfides contain in most cases at least 50% of the REEs and of the actinides. Among the elements we have analyzed, those displaying the strongest lithophile behaviors are Rb, Ba, Sr and Sc. The homogeneity of the Δ17O values obtained for main-group aubrite falls [Δ17O = +0.009 ± 0.010‰ (2σ)] suggests that they originated from a single parent body whose differentiation involved an early phase of large-scale melting that may have led to the development of a magma ocean. This interpretation is at first glance in agreement with the limited variability of the shapes of the REE patterns of these aubrites. However, the trace element concentrations of their phases cannot be used to discuss this hypothesis, because their igneous trace-element signatures have been modified by subsolidus exchange. Finally, despite similar O isotopic compositions, the marked light-REE enrichments displayed by Mount Egerton and Larned suggest that they are unrelated to the main-group aubrites and probably originated from a distinct parent body.

  8. Hydrochemical and Isotopic Evidence of Natural Attenuation at the Gas Station Contaminated with Fuel Hydrocarbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, K.; Oh, I.; Suk, H.; Lee, K.

    2005-12-01

    Groundwater flow, hydrochemistry and the carbon isotope composition (d13C) of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were measured to know the effect of natural attenuation which is induced by biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon at the abandoned gas station contaminated fuel hydrocarbons. The aquifer sediment consists of 4 to 5 m of unconsolidated and weathered soils overlying granite. The monitoring results of water level showed the immediate response of that to rainfall. This implies that the site is an unconfined aquifer or is located at the near of groundwater recharge area. The contaminant transport modeling using GMS showed that the contaminants, BTEX, transported to two main directions, south and southwest from UST and pipeline. These results were proved by the filed observation of the BTEX from the groundwater seepage at the streams of south and southwest area. The geochemical indicator of natural attenuation, red iron precipitate, was also observed at the groundwater seepage. The hydrochemical indicators, Fe(II), Mn(II), sufides, and methane, of terminal electron accepting processes represented the sulfate reducing and methanogenesis environment of the site. d13C values of DIC ranged from -20.2 to -9.3 permil and increased in the source zone by the microbial degradation of hydrocarbon under methanogenic condition. The enrichment of isotopically heavy C is caused by the production of light 12CH4 from microbial respiration. The molar ratio of Ca to HCO3 is about 2.5 and this indicates the contribution of microbial oxidation of fuel hydrocarbon to DIC in groundwater. The geochemical modeling using PHREEQC showed the oversaturation of siderite, rhodocrosite and goethite and the saturation index of calcite increased as the increase of bicarbonate, indicating the enhanced microbial degradation. From the research results, the mineralogical, hydrological and microbiological factors can exert influence on groundwater chemistry and d13C of DIC.

  9. Diffuse migratory connectivity in two species of shrubland birds: evidence from stable isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knick, Steven T.; Leu, Matthias; Rotenberry, John T.; Hanser, Steven E.; Fesenmyer, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Connecting seasonal ranges of migratory birds is important for understanding the annual template of stressors that influence their populations. Brewer’s sparrows (Spizella breweri) and sagebrush sparrows (Artemisiospiza nevadensis) share similar sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats for breeding but have different population trends that might be related to winter location. To link breeding and winter ranges, we created isoscapes of deuterium [stable isotope ratio (δ) of deuterium; δ2H] and nitrogen (δ15N) for each species modeled from isotope ratios measured in feathers of 264 Brewer’s and 82 sagebrush sparrows and environmental characteristics at capture locations across their breeding range. We then used feather δ2Hf and δ15Nf measured in 1,029 Brewer’s and 527 sagebrush sparrows captured on winter locations in southwestern United States to assign probable breeding ranges. Intraspecies population mixing from across the breeding range was strong for both Brewer’s and sagebrush sparrows on winter ranges. Brewer’s sparrows but not sagebrush sparrows were linked to more northerly breeding locations in the eastern part of their winter range. Winter location was not related to breeding population trends estimated from US Geological Survey Breeding Bird Survey routes for either Brewer’s or sagebrush sparrows. Primary drivers of population dynamics are likely independent for each species; Brewer’s and sagebrush sparrows captured at the same winter location did not share predicted breeding locations or population trends. The diffuse migratory connectivity displayed by Brewer’s and sagebrush sparrows measured at the coarse spatial resolution in our analysis also suggests that local environments rather than broad regional characteristics are primary drivers of annual population trends.

  10. Calcium Isotopic Evidence for Vulnerable Marine Ecosystem Structure Prior to the K/Pg Extinction.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeremy E; Vincent, Peggy; Tacail, Théo; Khaldoune, Fatima; Jourani, Essaid; Bardet, Nathalie; Balter, Vincent

    2017-06-05

    The collapse of marine ecosystems during the end-Cretaceous mass extinction involved the base of the food chain [1] up to ubiquitous vertebrate apex predators [2-5]. Large marine reptiles became suddenly extinct at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary, whereas other contemporaneous groups such as bothremydid turtles or dyrosaurid crocodylomorphs, although affected at the familial, genus, or species level, survived into post-crisis environments of the Paleocene [5-9] and could have found refuge in freshwater habitats [10-12]. A recent hypothesis proposes that the extinction of plesiosaurians and mosasaurids could have been caused by an important drop in sea level [13]. Mosasaurids are unusually diverse and locally abundant in the Maastrichtian phosphatic deposits of Morocco, and with large sharks and one species of elasmosaurid plesiosaurian recognized so far, contribute to an overabundance of apex predators [3, 7, 14, 15]. For this reason, high local diversity of marine reptiles exhibiting different body masses and a wealth of tooth morphologies hints at complex trophic interactions within this latest Cretaceous marine ecosystem. Using calcium isotopes, we investigated the trophic structure of this extinct assemblage. Our results are consistent with a calcium isotope pattern observed in modern marine ecosystems and show that plesiosaurians and mosasaurids indiscriminately fall in the tertiary piscivore group. This suggests that marine reptile apex predators relied onto a single dietary calcium source, compatible with the vulnerable wasp-waist food webs of the modern world [16]. This inferred peculiar ecosystem structure may help explain plesiosaurian and mosasaurid extinction following the end-Cretaceous biological crisis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Late quaternary paleoceanography of the Atlantic Ocean: foraminiferal faunal and stable-isotopic evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Mix, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    The timing, frequencies, and rates of change of tropical Atlantic climates are studied on a glacial/interglacial scale, using foraminferal faunal abundance and stable isotopic data to estimate temperatures, ice volumes, and water mass properties of the surface and deep ocean. Oxygen-isotope and radiocarbon data constrain the timing of the last deglacial transition (Termination 1) to between 14,000 and 6000 yr BP. Deglaciation was not a continuous process, but may have occurred in steps from 14,000 to 12,000 yr BP, 10,000 to 8000 yr BP, and 7000 to 6000 yr BP. Changes in the ..delta../sup 18/O of glacier ice may induce a lag of the marine ..delta../sup 18/O record behind ice volume of 1000 to 3000 years. Temperature changes estimated by foraminferal transfer functions were not detected in down-core planktonic foraminferal ..delta../sup 18/O data. Hemispheric symmetry of glacial cooling may reflect linkage to high latitude climate changes via trade wind intensities and/or directions. During deglaciation, the North Atlantic was relatively cold, the South Atlantic was relatively warm, and equatorial seasonal contrast was low. This may reflect reduction of northward cross-equatorial heat transport in the ocean, and possible monsoonal effects. Climate changes also extend to the deep ocean. At mid-depths of the tropical Atlantic, minimum Atlantic-Pacific ..delta../sup 13/C difference occurring on average during deglaciation (with a strong 23,000-yr precession cycle) suggests reduced formation of a warm component of NADW during deglaciation. A deeper sites in the North Atlantic, reduced ventilation of deep basins during glacial maxima is linked to surface-water variability of the subpolar North Atlantic.

  12. Chemical and isotopic evidence of nitrogen transformation in the Mississippi River, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, William A.; Kendall, Carol; Chang, Cecily C.Y.; Silva, Steven R.; Campbell, D.H.

    2001-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3) and other nutrients discharged by the Mississippi River are suspected of causing a zone of depleted dissolved oxygen (hypoxic zone) in the Gulf of Mexico each summer. The hypoxic zone may have an adverse affect on aquatic life and commercial fisheries. The amount of NO3 delivered by the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico is well documented, but the relative contributions of different sources of NO3, and the magnitude of subsequent in-stream transformations of NO3, are not well understood. Forty-two water samples collected in 1997 and 1998 at eight stations located either on the Mississippi River or its major tributaries were analysed for NO3, total nitrogen (N), atrazine, chloride concentrations and NO3 stable isotopes (δ15N and δ18O). These data are used to assess the magnitude and nature of in-stream N transformation and to determine if the δ15N and δ18O of NO3 provide information about NO3 sources and transformation processes in a large river system (drainage area 2 900 000 km2) that would otherwise be unavailable using concentration and discharge data alone. Results from 42 samples indicate that the δ15N and δ18O ratios between sites on the Mississippi River and its tributaries are somewhat distinctive, and vary with season and discharge rate. Of particular interest are two nearly Lagrangian sample sets, in which samples from the Mississippi River at St Francisville, LA, are compared with samples collected from the Ohio River at Grand Chain, II, and the Mississippi River at Thebes, IL. In both Lagrangian sets, mass-balance calculations indicate only a small amount of in-stream N loss. The stable isotope data from the samples suggest that in-stream N assimilation and not denitrification accounts for most of the N loss in the lower Mississippi River during the spring and early summer months.

  13. A silicon depleted North Atlantic since the Palaeogene: Evidence from sponge and radiolarian silicon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontorbe, Guillaume; Frings, Patrick J.; De La Rocha, Christina L.; Hendry, Katharine R.; Conley, Daniel J.

    2016-11-01

    Despite being one of Earth's major geochemical cycles, the evolution of the silicon cycle has received little attention and changes in oceanic dissolved silica (DSi) concentration through geologic time remain poorly constrained. Silicon isotope ratios (expressed as δ30Si) in marine microfossils are becoming increasingly recognised for their ability to provide insight into silicon cycling. In particular, the δ30Si of siliceous sponge spicules has been demonstrated to be a useful proxy for past DSi concentrations. We analysed δ30Si in radiolarian tests and sponge spicules from the Blake Nose Palaeoceanographic Transect (ODP Leg 171B) spanning the Palaeocene-Eocene (ca. 60-30 Ma). Our δ30Si results range from +0.32 to + 1.67 ‰ and -0.48 to + 0.63 ‰ for the radiolarian and sponge records, respectively. Using an established relationship between ambient dissolved Si (DSi) concentrations and the magnitude of silicon isotope fractionation in siliceous sponges, we demonstrate that the Western North Atlantic was DSi deplete during the Palaeocene-Eocene throughout the water column, a conclusion that is robust to a range of assumptions and uncertainties. These data can constitute constraints on reconstructions of past-ocean circulation. Previous work has suggested ocean DSi concentrations were higher than modern ocean concentrations prior to the Cenozoic and has posited a drawdown during the Early Palaeogene due to the evolutionary expansion of diatoms. Our results challenge such an interpretation. We suggest here that if such a global decrease in oceanic DSi concentrations occurred, it must predate 60 Ma.

  14. Evidence of a dynamic microbial community structure and predation through combined microbiological and stable isotope characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druhan, J. L.; Bill, M.; Lim, H. C.; Wu, C.; Conrad, M. E.; Williams, K. H.; DePaolo, D. J.; Brodie, E.

    2014-12-01

    The speciation, reactivity and mobility of carbon in the near surface environment is intimately linked to the prevalence, diversity and dynamics of native microbial populations. We utilize this relationship by introducing 13C-labeled acetate to sediments recovered from a shallow aquifer system to track both the cycling of carbon through multiple redox pathways and the associated spatial and temporal evolution of bacterial communities in response to this nutrient source. Results demonstrate a net loss of sediment organic carbon over the course of the amendment experiment. Furthermore, these data demonstrated a source of isotopically labeled inorganic carbon that was not attributable to primary metabolism by acetate-oxidizing microorganisms. Fluid samples analyzed weekly for microbial composition by pyrosequencing of ribosomal RNA genes showed a transient microbial community structure, with distinct occurrences of Azoarcus, Geobacter and multiple sulfate reducing species over the course of the experiment. In combination with DNA sequencing data, the anomalous carbon cycling process is shown to occur exclusively during the period of predominant Geobacter species growth. Pyrosequencing indicated, and targeted cloning and sequencing confirmed the presence of several bacteriovorous protozoa, including species of the Breviata, Planococcus and Euplotes genera. Cloning and qPCR analysis demonstrated that Euplotes species were most abundant and displayed a growth trajectory that closely followed that of the Geobacter population. These results suggest a previously undocumented secondary turnover of biomass carbon related to protozoan grazing that was not sufficiently prevalent to be observed in bulk concentrations of carbon species in the system, but was clearly identifiable in the partitioning of carbon isotopes. The impact of predator-prey relationships on subsurface microbial community dynamics and therefore the flux of carbon through a system via the microbial biomass

  15. Isotopic Evidence for C4 Grass Expansion During the Last Glacial Maximum and Younger Dryas in Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. J.; Wakeham, S.; Gelinas, Y.; Luly, J.; Miller, G.

    2004-12-01

    In northern and central Australia, late Quaternary records of terrestrial environmental change are rare due to generally poor preservation of pollen grains and a derth of long-term, continuous lacustrine sedimentary deposits. The Wombe mound spring in the Keep River National Park, Northern Territory, is an organic mound and isolated patch of monsoon vine thicket thought to have formed tens of thousands of years ago. In an effort to obtain a record of paleovegetation and fire history from northern Australia, a 3.4 m sediment core was recovered from the Wombe mound spring and subject to multiple types of analyses. The core represents a continuous depositional sequence with radiocarbon ages spanning the last 35 ka cal years (hereafter referred to as 35 ka). Paleovegetation was reconstructed using a combination of pollen and carbon isotopes in bulk sediment and higher plant leaf wax (HPLW) lipid biomarkers. The fire history was reconstructed from paired graphitic black carbon (GBC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analyses of the core sediments. Between 35 and 11 ka, the bulk organic carbon (OC) isotope data fluctuate between -22 and -15%, with the most isotopically enriched values measured at 11.4 ka. Between 12.3 and 6.8 ka, OC isotope values decrease by 13%, and remain steady from 6.8 ka to the present at -28%. There are two distinct peaks of isotopic enrichment in the higher plant leaf wax biomarkers. These two peaks coincide with the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 21 ka) and the Younger Dryas (YD; 11.4 ka) and represent maximum increases in C4 grasses relative to C3 plants. Relative increases in C4 grasses during the LGM in other parts of the tropics (i.e., Sacred Lake, Mt. Kenya) have been attributed to the competitive advantage of C4 plants relative to C3 plants under reduced atmospheric pCO2 and is likely the cause for C4 expansion in northern Australia. The increase in C4 grasses during the YD is reflected in the bulk sediment and HPLW isotope data and is

  16. Stable carbon isotope ratios in Astrangia danae : evidence for algal modification of carbon pools used in calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, C. E.; McCarty, H. B.

    1982-06-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios have been measured in skeletons of the temperature shallow water scleractinian coral, Astrangia danae. δ13C values ranging from -5.42 to -7.30%. revealed the expected depletion of 13C in skeletal carbonate relative to sea water bicarbonate. Differences among the ratios could not be attributed to collection site and were not correlated to skeletal morphology. Values of δ13C were directly related to zooxanthellae density for all colonies, so that as zooxanthellae concentration increased, δ13C valued increased. Colonies maintained under high temperature conditions were offset from the normal, exhibiting ratios less enriched in 13C than similar colonies from natural conditions. These trends supported the models of Weber and Goreau in which the carbon pools used in calcification are modified by algal photosynthesis. Direct evidence of physiological differences between symbiotic and asymbiotic colonies of A. danae has also been provided.

  17. Evidence for rapid climate change in North America during the latest Paleocene thermal maximum: oxygen isotope compositions of biogenic phosphate from the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Henry C.; Clyde, William C.; O'Neil, James R.; Gingerich, Philip D.

    1998-07-01

    Oxygen isotope records of Cenozoic sea water temperatures indicate that a rapid warming event known as the Latest Paleocene Thermal Maximum (LPTM) occurred during the otherwise gradual increase in world temperatures during the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene. Oxygen isotope analysis of the carbonate and phosphate components of hydroxyapatite found in mammalian tooth enamel and body scales of river-dwelling fish from the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming were made to investigate corresponding changes in the terrestrial climate. A comparison of carbonate and phosphate isotope data from modern and fossil material indicates that some diagenetic alteration of the fossil material has occurred, although systematically larger intra-tooth ranges in the oxygen isotope composition of carbonate indicate that it is more likely to have been affected than phosphate. Carbonate and phosphate from the ecologically diverse mammals and fishes both record a shift to higher oxygen isotope ratios at the same time and of the same duration as the LPTM. These shifts reflect a change in the isotopic composition of regional precipitation, which in turn provides the first evidence for continental climate change during the LPTM. Assuming the present-day relation between the oxygen isotope composition of precipitation and temperature applies to conditions in the past, and that animal physiology and behavior is relatively invariant over time, the isotopic shift is equivalent to an increase of surface temperature in western North America of several degrees. This result is consistent with the magnitude of high-latitude ocean warming, and provides a basis for relating marine and terrestrial oxygen isotope records to records of terrestrial biotic change.

  18. Nitrogen isotopes in the recent solar wind from the analysis of genesis targets: evidence for large scale isotope heterogeneity in the nascent solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger C; Marty, Bernard; Zimmermann, Laurent; Burnard, Peter G; Burnett, Donald L; Heber, Veronika S; Wieler, Rainer; Bochsler, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen, the fifth most abundant element in the universe, displays the largest stable isotope variations in the solar system reservoirs after hydrogen. Yet the value of isotopic composition of solar nitrogen, presumably the best proxy of the protosolar nebula composition, is not known. Nitrogen isotopes trapped in Genesis spacecraft target material indicate a 40 % depletion of {sup 15}N in solar wind N relative to inner planets and meteorites, and define a composition for the present-day Sun undistinguishable from that of Jupiter's atmosphere. These results indicate that the isotopic composition of of nitrogen in the outer convective zone of the Sun (OCZ) has not changed through time, and is representative of the protosolar nebula. Large {sup 15}N enrichments during e.g., irradiation, or contributions from {sup 15}N-rich presolar components, are required to account for planetary values.

  19. Subarctic Pacific stratification and seasonality changes upon Northern Hemisphere Glaciation - New evidence from diatom-bound nitrogen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studer, A. S.; Jaccard, S.; Martinez Garcia, A.; Girault, F. E.; Sigman, D. M.; Haug, G. H.

    2011-12-01

    Coincident with the intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG) around 2.73 million years (Ma) ago, sediment cores from both the open subarctic North Pacific and the Antarctic indicate a rapid decline in diatom opal accumulation flux to the seabed, representing one of the most abrupt and dramatic changes in the marine sediment record associated with the development of Pleistocene glacial cycles. In the North Pacific, bulk sediment nitrogen isotope data and alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST) estimates suggest that the productivity decline was driven by reduced exchange between surface and deep water ("stratification"), due to weaker wind-driven upwelling and/or a strengthening of the halocline. In this study of the 2.73 Ma transition at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 882 in the western subarctic North Pacific, we report measurements of diatom-bound nitrogen isotopes (δ15Ndb), alkenone mass accumulation rate, and alkenone- and TEXL86 based SST that support the stratification hypothesis. The data after the 2.73 Ma transition corroborate previous evidence for increased relative nitrate utilization and greater seasonal variation in SST. In agreement with diatom taxonomic data, measurements of the δ15Ndb of large and small size fractions of the diatom taxon Coscinodiscus spp. suggest that these diatoms grew mostly during the spring bloom during the late Pliocene, switching to their current fall-to-winter growth period at the 2.73 Ma transition. Such a change in seasonality provides further evidence for an increase in spring to summer stratification in the North Pacific after 2.73 Ma. The δ15Ndb data indicate that, at the 2.73 Ma transition, nitrate consumption did not immediately increase to late Pleistocene ice age levels. The mass accumulation rate and N isotope data suggest that this is due to relatively weak eolian dust inputs in the early post-2.73 Ma period. If deep water was being formed in North Pacific prior to 2.73 Ma, then the ice

  20. Evidence for a possible dietary effect on the isotopic composition of Zn in blood via isotopic analysis of food products by multi-collector ICP-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Costas-Rodríguez, Marta; Van Heghe, Lana; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the hypothesis of a possible dietary effect on the isotopic composition of Zn in blood from populations with different feeding habits, i.e. lacto-ovo vegetarians and omnivores, was investigated through isotopic analysis of Zn in common food products by multi-collector ICP - mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Several certified reference materials (CRMs) were also included in the sample set for comparison purposes. For these CRMs, the isotopic composition of Zn is expressed as δ-values, calculated with respect to both IRMM-3702 and JMC-ZnLyon, as isotopic standards. The range of δ(66)Zn values observed in food products was approximately 1.9‰. In general, vegetables, cereals and derived products showed an enrichment of the heavier Zn isotopes, whereas a depletion was observed in products of animal origin (meat, fish, egg and semi-skimmed milk), relative to human blood samples. Mussel, however, showed a significant enrichment of the heavier isotopes, which is hypothetically attributed to its accumulation behaviour. Thus, the lower δ(66)Zn values found in food products of animal origin appear to be reflected in the lower δ(66)Zn value observed in blood from an omnivorous population compared to that for a vegetarian population.

  1. Isotopic Evidence of Nitrate Sources and its Relationship to Algae in the San Joaquin River, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, S. R.; Kendall, C.; Young, M. B.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Borglin, S. E.; Kratzer, C. R.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Schmidt, C.; Rollog, M. E.

    2007-12-01

    Many competing demands have been placed on the San Joaquin River including deep water shipping, use as agricultural and drinking water, transport of agricultural and urban runoff, and recreation. These long-established demands limit the management options and increase the importance of understanding the river dynamics. The relationships among sources of water, nitrate, and algae in the San Joaquin River must be understood before management decisions can be made to optimize aquatic health. Isotopic analyses of water samples collected along the San Joaquin River in 2005-2007 have proven useful in assessing these relationships: sources of nitrate, the productivity of the San Joaquin River, and the relationship between nitrate and algae in the river. The San Joaquin River receives water locally from wetlands and agricultural return flow, and from three relatively large tributaries whose headwaters are in the Sierra Nevada. The lowest nitrate concentrations occur during periods of high flow when the proportion of water from the Sierra Nevada is relatively large, reflecting the effect of dilution from the big tributaries and indicating that a large fraction of the nitrate is of local origin. Nitrogen isotopes of nitrate in the San Joaquin River are relatively high (averaging about 12 per mil), suggesting a significant source from animal waste or sewage and/or the effects of denitrification. The d15N of nitrate varies inversely with concentration, indicating that these high isotopic values are also a local product. The d15N values of nitrate from most of the local tributaries is lower than that in the San Joaquin suggesting that nitrate from these tributaries does not account for a significant fraction of nitrate in the river. The source of the non-tributary nitrate must be either small unmeasured surface inputs or groundwater. To investigate whether groundwater might be a significant source of nitrate to the San Joaquin River, groundwater samples are being collected

  2. The trophic and metabolic pathways of foraminifera in the Arabian Sea: evidence from cellular stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffreys, R. M.; Fisher, E. H.; Gooday, A. J.; Larkin, K. E.; Billett, D. S. M.; Wolff, G. A.

    2015-03-01

    The Arabian Sea is a region of elevated productivity with the highest globally recorded fluxes of particulate organic matter (POM) to the deep ocean, providing an abundant food source for fauna at the seafloor. However, benthic communities are also strongly influenced by an intense oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which impinges on the continental slope from 100 to 1000 m water depth. We compared the trophic ecology of foraminifera on the Oman and Pakistan margins of the Arabian Sea (140-3185 m water depth). These two margins are contrasting both in terms of the abundance of sedimentary organic matter and the intensity of the OMZ. Organic carbon concentrations of surficial sediments were higher on the Oman margin (3.32 ± 1.4%) compared to the Pakistan margin (2.45 ± 1.1%) and sedimentary organic matter (SOM) quality estimated from the Hydrogen Index was also higher on the Oman margin (300-400 mg HC mg TOC-1) compared to the Pakistan margin (< 250 mg HC mg TOC-1). The δ13C and δ15N values of sediments were similar on both margins (-20 and 8‰, respectively). Stable isotope analysis (SIA) showed that foraminiferal cells had a wide range of δ13C values (-25.5 to -11.5‰), implying that they utilise multiple food sources; indeed δ13C values varied between depths, foraminiferal types and between the two margins. Foraminifera had broad ranges in δ15N values (-7.8 to 27.3‰). The enriched values suggest that some species may store nitrate to utilise in respiration; this was most notable on the Pakistan margin. Depleted foraminiferal δ15N values, particularly at the Oman margin, may reflect feeding on chemosynthetic bacteria. We suggest that differences in productivity regimes may be responsible for the differences observed in foraminiferal isotopic composition. In addition, at the time of sampling, whole jellyfish carcasses (Crambionella orsini) and a carpet of jelly detritus were observed across the Oman margin transect. Associated chemosynthetic bacteria may have

  3. The trophic and metabolic pathways of foraminifera in the Arabian Sea: evidence from cellular stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffreys, R. M.; Fisher, E. H.; Gooday, A. J.; Larkin, K. E.; Wolff, G. A.; Billett, D. S. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Arabian Sea is a region of elevated productivity with the highest globally recorded fluxes of particulate organic matter (POM) to the deep ocean, providing an abundant food source for fauna at the seafloor. However, benthic communities are also strongly influenced by an intense oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which impinges on the continental slope at bathyal depths. We compared the trophic ecology of foraminifera on the Oman and Pakistan margins of the Arabian Sea (140-3185 m water depth). Organic carbon concentrations of surficial sediments were higher on the Oman margin (3.32 ± 1.4%) compared to the Pakistan margin (2.45 ± 1.1%) and sedimentary organic matter (SOM) quality estimated from the Hydrogen Index was also higher on the Oman margin (300-400 mg HC (mg TOC)-1) compared to the Pakistan margin (<250 mg HC (mg TOC)-1). δ13C and δ15N values of sediments were similar on both margins (-20 and 8‰, respectively). Stable isotope analysis (SIA) showed that foraminiferal cells had a wide range of δ13C values (-25.5 to -11.5‰), implying that they utilise multiple food sources; indeed δ13C values varied between depths, foraminiferal types and between the two margins. Foraminifera had broad ranges in δ15N values (-7.8 to 27.3‰). The enriched values suggest that some species may store nitrate to utilise in respiration; this was most notable on the Pakistan margin. Depleted foraminiferal δ15N values were identified on both margins, particularly the Oman margin, and may reflect feeding on chemosynthetic bacteria. We suggest that differences in productivity regimes between the two margins may be responsible for the differences observed in foraminiferal isotopic composition. In addition, at the time of sampling, whole jellyfish carcasses (Crambionella orsini) and a carpet of jelly detritus were observed across the Oman margin transect. Associated chemosynthetic bacteria may have provided an organic-rich food source for foraminifera at these sites. Our data

  4. Chemical and isotopic evidence of nitrogen transformation in the Mississippi River, 1997-98

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglin, William A.; Kendall, Carol; Chang, Cecily C. Y.; Silva, Steven R.; Campbell, D. H.

    2001-05-01

    An Erratum has been published for this article in Hydrological Processes 16(5) 2002, 1129-1130.Nitrate (NO3) and other nutrients discharged by the Mississippi River are suspected of causing a zone of depleted dissolved oxygen (hypoxic zone) in the Gulf of Mexico each summer. The hypoxic zone may have an adverse affect on aquatic life and commercial fisheries. The amount of NO3 delivered by the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico is well documented, but the relative contributions of different sources of NO3, and the magnitude of subsequent in-stream transformations of NO3, are not well understood. Forty-two water samples collected in 1997 and 1998 at eight stations located either on the Mississippi River or its major tributaries were analysed for NO3, total nitrogen (N), atrazine, chloride concentrations and NO3 stable isotopes (15N and 18O). These data are used to assess the magnitude and nature of in-stream N transformation and to determine if the 15N and isotope data from the samples suggest that in-stream N assimilation and not denitrification accounts for most of the N loss in the lower Mississippi River during the spring and early summer

  5. Stable isotope evidence for the Bottom Convective Layer homogeneity in the Black Sea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Black Sea is the largest euxinic basin on the Earth. The anoxic zone consists of the upper part water mass stratified by density, and the lower water mass homogenized relative to density (depth >1750 m), named the Bottom Convective Layer. To assess homogeneity and possible exchange of matter across the upper and lower boundaries of the Bottom Convective Layer, new data on stable isotope composition of S, O and H were obtained. Samples were collected in August 2008 and March 2009 from two stations located in the eastern central part of the Black Sea. Distribution of δ18O and δD values of water for the entire water column did not vary seasonally. Appreciable differences were marked for δD value variation in the picnocline area (water depth 200-400 m) and in the BCL 5 m above the bottom that might be caused by penetration of intrusions with elevated portion of shelf modified Mediterranean Water. Observed linear relationship between δ18O (or δD) and salinity indicates that mixing water and salt occurs at the same time, and the deep water of the Black Sea has two end members: the high-salinity Mediterranean seawater and freshwater input. In the Bottom Convective Layer, the average δ34S (H2S) was -40.6 ± 0.5‰ and did not vary seasonally. At the bottom (depth > 2000 m), 34S depletion down to –41.0‰ was observed. Our δ34S (SO4) data are by 2-3‰ higher than those measured previously for the Bottom Convective Layer. Sulfate from the aerobic zone with δ34S (SO4) = +21‰ corresponds to ocean water sulfate and that has not been subjected to sulfate reduction. Average δ34S (SO4) values for depths > 1250 m were found to be +23.0 ± 0.2‰ (1σ). Sulfur isotope composition of sulfate does not change in the Bottom Convective Layer and on its upper and lower boundaries, and does not depend on the season of observation. PMID:24739078

  6. Stable isotope evidence for the Bottom Convective Layer homogeneity in the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Dubinin, Alexander V; Dubinina, Elena O; Demidova, Tatyana P; Kokryatskaya, Nataliya M; Rimskaya-Korsakova, Maria N; Kosova, Sofia A; Yakushev, Evgeniy V

    2014-01-01

    The Black Sea is the largest euxinic basin on the Earth. The anoxic zone consists of the upper part water mass stratified by density, and the lower water mass homogenized relative to density (depth >1750 m), named the Bottom Convective Layer. To assess homogeneity and possible exchange of matter across the upper and lower boundaries of the Bottom Convective Layer, new data on stable isotope composition of S, O and H were obtained. Samples were collected in August 2008 and March 2009 from two stations located in the eastern central part of the Black Sea. Distribution of δ(18)O and δD values of water for the entire water column did not vary seasonally. Appreciable differences were marked for δD value variation in the picnocline area (water depth 200-400 m) and in the BCL 5 m above the bottom that might be caused by penetration of intrusions with elevated portion of shelf modified Mediterranean Water. Observed linear relationship between δ(18)O (or δD) and salinity indicates that mixing water and salt occurs at the same time, and the deep water of the Black Sea has two end members: the high-salinity Mediterranean seawater and freshwater input. In the Bottom Convective Layer, the average δ(34)S (H2S) was -40.6 ± 0.5‰ and did not vary seasonally. At the bottom (depth > 2000 m), (34)S depletion down to -41.0‰ was observed. Our δ(34)S (SO4) data are by 2-3‰ higher than those measured previously for the Bottom Convective Layer. Sulfate from the aerobic zone with δ(34)S (SO4) = +21‰ corresponds to ocean water sulfate and that has not been subjected to sulfate reduction. Average δ(34)S (SO4) values for depths > 1250 m were found to be +23.0 ± 0.2‰ (1σ). Sulfur isotope composition of sulfate does not change in the Bottom Convective Layer and on its upper and lower boundaries, and does not depend on the season of observation.

  7. Isotopic Evidence for the Source and Fate of Phosphorus in Everglades Wetland Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xin; Wang, Yang; Stern, Jennifer; Gu, Binhe

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus has historically been a limiting nutrient in the Florida Everglades. Increased P loading to the Everglades over the past several decades has led to significant changes in water quality and plant communities. Stormwater runoff that drains agricultural lands and enters the Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) are known to contain elevated levels of P, but the exact source of this P has not been fully determined. Here the results of an O isotope study of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) in both polluted and relatively pristine (or reference) areas of the Everglades are reported. The data reveal spatial and temporal variations in the delta 18O signature of DIP, reflecting the source and the degree of cycling of P. The delta 18O values of DIP collected from the Everglades National Park were close or equal to the predicted delta 18O values of DIP formed in situ in equilibrium with ambient water, indicating that P is quickly cycled in the water column in oligotrophic ecosystems with very low P concentrations. However, most DIP samples collected from areas impacted by agricultural runoff yielded delta 18O values that deviated from the predicted equilibrium DIP delta 18O values based on the delta 18O of water and water temperature, suggesting that biological cycling of P was not rapid enough to remove the fertilizer ?18O signature in the DIP pool from areas receiving high P loading. The delta 18O signature of DIP in impacted areas reflects a mixing of fertilizer P and biologically cycled P, where the relative proportions of biologically cycled vs. fertilizer DIP are controlled by both biological (microbial activities and plant uptake) and hydrologic factors (loading rate and residence time). Using a two-end-member (i.e., fertilizer P and biologically cycled P) mixing model, fertilizers were estimated to contribute about 15 100% of the DIP pool in the highly impacted areas of the northern Everglades, whereas the DIP pool in the reference (i.e., relatively pristine

  8. Isotopic Evidence for the Source and Fate of Phosphorus in Everglades Wetland Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xin; Wang, Yang; Stern, Jennifer; Gu, Binhe

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus has historically been a limiting nutrient in the Florida Everglades. Increased P loading to the Everglades over the past several decades has led to significant changes in water quality and plant communities. Stormwater runoff that drains agricultural lands and enters the Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) are known to contain elevated levels of P, but the exact source of this P has not been fully determined. Here the results of an O isotope study of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) in both polluted and relatively pristine (or reference) areas of the Everglades are reported. The data reveal spatial and temporal variations in the delta 18O signature of DIP, reflecting the source and the degree of cycling of P. The delta 18O values of DIP collected from the Everglades National Park were close or equal to the predicted delta 18O values of DIP formed in situ in equilibrium with ambient water, indicating that P is quickly cycled in the water column in oligotrophic ecosystems with very low P concentrations. However, most DIP samples collected from areas impacted by agricultural runoff yielded delta 18O values that deviated from the predicted equilibrium DIP delta 18O values based on the delta 18O of water and water temperature, suggesting that biological cycling of P was not rapid enough to remove the fertilizer ?18O signature in the DIP pool from areas receiving high P loading. The delta 18O signature of DIP in impacted areas reflects a mixing of fertilizer P and biologically cycled P, where the relative proportions of biologically cycled vs. fertilizer DIP are controlled by both biological (microbial activities and plant uptake) and hydrologic factors (loading rate and residence time). Using a two-end-member (i.e., fertilizer P and biologically cycled P) mixing model, fertilizers were estimated to contribute about 15 100% of the DIP pool in the highly impacted areas of the northern Everglades, whereas the DIP pool in the reference (i.e., relatively pristine

  9. Isotopic evidence for residential mobility of farming communities during the transition to agriculture in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Neil, Samantha; Evans, Jane; Montgomery, Janet; Scarre, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Development of agriculture is often assumed to be accompanied by a decline in residential mobility, and sedentism is frequently proposed to provide the basis for economic intensification, population growth and increasing social complexity. In Britain, however, the nature of the agricultural transition (ca 4000 BC) and its effect on residence patterns has been intensely debated. Some authors attribute the transition to the arrival of populations who practised a system of sedentary intensive mixed farming similar to that of the very earliest agricultural regimes in central Europe, ca 5500 BC, with cultivation of crops in fixed plots and livestock keeping close to permanently occupied farmsteads. Others argue that local hunter–gatherers within Britain adopted selected elements of a farming economy and retained a mobile way of life. We use strontium and oxygen isotope analysis of tooth enamel from an Early Neolithic burial population in Gloucestershire, England, to evaluate the residence patterns of early farmers. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that early farming communities in Britain were residentially mobile and were not fully sedentary. Results highlight the diverse nature of settlement strategies associated with early farming in Europe and are of wider significance to understanding the effect of the transition to agriculture on residence patterns. PMID:26909177

  10. Atmospheric evidence for a global secular increase in carbon isotopic discrimination of land photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeling, Ralph F.; Graven, Heather D.; Welp, Lisa R.; Resplandy, Laure; Bi, Jian; Piper, Stephen C.; Sun, Ying; Bollenbacher, Alane; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2017-09-01

    A decrease in the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2 has been documented by direct observations since 1978 and from ice core measurements since the industrial revolution. This decrease, known as the 13C-Suess effect, is driven primarily by the input of fossil fuel-derived CO2 but is also sensitive to land and ocean carbon cycling and uptake. Using updated records, we show that no plausible combination of sources and sinks of CO2 from fossil fuel, land, and oceans can explain the observed 13C-Suess effect unless an increase has occurred in the 13C/