Petit, Julie; Bourgeois, Emmanuelle; Stenger, Wilfried; Bès, Martine; Droc, Gaétan; Meynard, Donaldo; Courtois, Brigitte; Ghesquière, Alain; Sabot, François; Panaud, Olivier; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel
Retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements, ubiquitous in Eukaryotic genomes, which have proven to be major genetic tools in determining phylogeny and structuring genetic diversity, notably in plants. We investigate here the diversity of the Ty1-copia retrotransposon Tos17 in the cultivated rice of Asian origin (Oryza sativa L.) and related AA genome species of the Oryza genus, to contribute understanding of the complex evolutionary history in this group of species through that of the element in the lineages. In that aim, we used a combination of Southern hybridization with a reverse transcriptase (RT) probe and an adapter-PCR mediated amplification, which allowed the sequencing of the genomic regions flanking Tos17 insertions. This analysis was carried out in a collection of 47 A-genome Oryza species accessions and 202 accessions of a core collection of Oryza sativa L. representative of the diversity of the species. Our Southern hybridization results show that Tos17 is present in all the accessions of the A-genome Oryza species, except for the South American species O. glumaepatula and the African species O. glaberrima and O. breviligulata. In O. sativa, the number of putative copies of Tos17 per accession ranged from 1 to 11 and multivariate analysis based on presence/absence of putative copies yielded a varietal clustering which is consistent with the isozyme classification of rice. Adapter PCR amplification and sequencing of flanking regions of Tos17 insertions in A-genome species other than O. sativa, followed by anchoring on the Nipponbare genome sequence, revealed 13 insertion sites of Tos17 in the surveyed O. rufipogon and O. longistaminata accessions, including one shared by both species. In O. sativa, the same approach revealed 25 insertions in the 6 varietal groups. Four insertion sites located on chromosomes 1, 2, 10, and 11 were found orthologous in O. rufipogon and O. sativa. The chromosome 1 insertion was also shared between O. rufipogon and O
Voytas, D F; Cummings, M P; Koniczny, A; Ausubel, F M; Rodermel, S R
Transposable genetic elements are assumed to be a feature of all eukaryotic genomes. Their identification, however, has largely been haphazard, limited principally to organisms subjected to molecular or genetic scrutiny. We assessed the phylogenetic distribution of copia-like retrotransposons, a class of transposable element that proliferates by reverse transcription, using a polymerase chain reaction assay designed to detect copia-like element reverse transcriptase sequences. copia-like retrotransposons were identified in 64 plant species as well as the photosynthetic protist Volvox carteri. The plant species included representatives from 9 of 10 plant divisions, including bryophytes, lycopods, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. DNA sequence analysis of 29 cloned PCR products and of a maize retrotransposon cDNA confirmed the identity of these sequences as copia-like reverse transcriptase sequences, thereby demonstrating that this class of retrotransposons is a ubiquitous component of plant genomes. Images PMID:1379734
Nuzhdin, S V; Pasyukova, E G; Morozova, E A; Flavell, A J
The rates of transcription and transposition of retrotransposons vary between lines of Drosophila melanogaster. We have studied the genetics of differences in copia retrotransposon activity by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. Ninety-eight recombinant inbred lines were constructed from two parental lines exhibiting a 10-fold difference in copia transcript level and a 100-fold difference in transposition rate. The lines were scored for 126 molecular markers, copia transcript level, and rate of copia transposition. Transcript level correlated with copia copy number, and the difference in copia copy number between parental lines accounted for 45.1% of copia transcript-level difference. Most of the remaining difference was accounted for by two transcript-level QTL mapping to cytological positions 27B-30D and 50F-57C on the second chromosome, which accounted for 11.5 and 30.4%, respectively. copia transposition rate was controlled by interacting QTL mapping to the region 27B-48D on the second and 61A-65A and 97D-100A on the third chromosome. The genes controlling copia transcript level are thus not necessarily those involved in controlling copia transposition rate. Segregation of modifying genes, rather than mutations, might explain the variability in copia retrotransposon activity between lines. PMID:9755206
Dias, Elaine Silva; Hatt, Clémence; Hamon, Serge; Hamon, Perla; Rigoreau, Michel; Crouzillat, Dominique; Carareto, Claudia Marcia Aparecida; de Kochko, Alexandre; Guyot, Romain
Retrotransposons are the main component of plant genomes. Recent studies have revealed the complexity of their evolutionary dynamics. Here, we have identified Copia25 in Coffea canephora, a new plant retrotransposon belonging to the Ty1-Copia superfamily. In the Coffea genomes analyzed, Copia25 is present in relatively low copy numbers and transcribed. Similarity sequence searches and PCR analyses show that this retrotransposon with LTRs (Long Terminal Repeats) is widely distributed among the Rubiaceae family and that it is also present in other distantly related species belonging to Asterids, Rosids and monocots. A particular situation is the high sequence identity found between the Copia25 sequences of Musa, a monocot, and Ixora, a dicot species (Rubiaceae). Our results reveal the complexity of the evolutionary dynamics of the ancient element Copia25 in angiosperm, involving several processes including sequence conservation, rapid turnover, stochastic losses and horizontal transfer.
Flavell, A J; Jackson, V; Iqbal, M P; Riach, I; Waddell, S
We have isolated sequences belonging to Ty1-copia group retrotransposons from the genomes of an amphibian (Pyxicephalus adspersa) and three reptiles (Conolophus subscristatus, Amblyrynchus cristatus and Pytas mucosus). Two different sequences were found in the amphibian (Tpa1 and Tpa2). Each is present in several copies per genome and absent from the genomes of two other amphibian species. The C. subcristatus sequence Tcs1 is present in multiple copies in both its host genome (Galapagos land iguana) and the genome of the related Galapagos marine iguana (A. cristatus). There is little or no polymorphism in Tcs1 insertions between different individual animals, suggesting that this sequence is not transposing rapidly in either iguana genome. The P. mucosus sequence Tpm1 shows a discontinuous distribution in snake species, suggesting that it has either been lost from many lineages during vertical germline transmission or has been transferred horizontally in some snake species. Phylogenetic comparisons of all these sequences with each other and with other members of this retrotransposon group from other animals and plants show that sequences within a particular vertebrate species are most closely related to each other, consistent with a vertical transmission model for their evolution.
Pearce, Stephen R
SIRE-1 is a potential soybean retrovirus which has a gene order similar to Ty1-copia retrotransposons but also contains an envelope-like open reading frame (ORF), which is characteristic of retroviruses. PCR and Southern analysis reveals that SIRE-1 is closely related to a legume-wide family of envelope-lacking Ty1-copia group retrotransposons which suggests that SIRE-1 was formed by the recent acquisition of an envelope gene by a Ty1-copia retrotransposon.
Peddigari, Suresh; Zhang, Wenbo; Takechi, Katsuaki; Takano, Hiroyoshi; Takio, Susumu
A copia-like retrotransposon referred to as PyRE1G1 was isolated from the genome of the red alga Porphyra yezoensis. PyRE1G1 is 4807 bp in length, with 204 bp long terminal repeats (LTRs) at both ends. PyRE1G1 has an open reading frame of 1401 residues encoding gag, protease, integrase, reverse transcriptase (RT), and RNase H. From the order of gene arrangement of proteins, PyRE1G1 appears to be a copia-like retrotransposon. Genomic Southern blot analysis suggests that PyRE1G1 consists of a small gene family. From the phylogenetic tree of RT sequences, PyRE1G1 is grouped in the clade of usual copia elements and distinct from the previously isolated red algal copia-like gene PyRE10G in that the latter is closely related to a new clade of aquatic animal-specific copia-like retrotransposons.
Gbadegesin, Micheal A; Beeching, John R
Retrotransposons are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes and now proving to be useful genetic tools for genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses, especially in plants. In order to assess the diversity of Ty1/Copia-like retrotransposons of cassava, we used PCR primers anchored on the conserved domains of reverse transcriptases (RTs) to amplify cassava Ty1/Copia-like RT. The PCR product was cloned and sequenced. Sequences analysis of the clones revealed the presence of 69 families of Ty1/Copia-like retrotransposon in the genome of cassava. Comparative analyses of the predicted amino acid sequences of these clones with those of other plants showed that retroelements of this class are very heterogeneous in cassava. Cassava is widely grown for its edible roots in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Cassava roots, though poor in protein, are rich in starch (makes up about 80% of the dry matter), vitamin C, carotenes, calcium and potassium. It has a great commercial importance as a source of starch and starch based products. Realizing the importance of cassava, it stands out as a crop to benefit from biotechnology development. Heterogeneity of Mecops (Manihot esculenta copia-like Retrotransposons) showed that they may be useful for genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses of cassava germplasm.
Jiang, Biao; Liu, Wenrui; Peng, Qingwu; He, Xiaoming; Xie, Dasen
Wax gourd (2n=2x=24) is an important vegetable species in Cucurbitaceae. Because it can be stored for a very long period of time, it plays an important role in ensuring the annual supply and regulating off-season supply of the vegetables. However, the availability of genetic information about wax gourd is limited. This study aimed to identify the useful genetic information for wax gourd. The conserved domains of reverse transcriptase (RT) genes of Ty1-copia retrotransposons were isolated from the genome of wax gourd using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. A total of twenty eight RT sequences were obtained, which showed high heterogeneity with the similarity ranging from 47.5% to 94.3%. Sixteen (57.1%) of them were found to be defective, being disrupted by stop codons and/or frameshift mutations. These 28 sequences were divided into five subfamilies. The comparative phylogenetic analysis with other Cucurbitaceae species from GenBank database showed that most retrotransposons derived from the same genus tended to cluster together, although there were a few exceptions. These results indicate that both vertical transmission and horizontal transmission are the sources of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in wax gourd. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with Ty1-copia retrotransposon sequences as probes revealed that this kind of retrotransposons had a dispersed genomic organization, physically distributed among all the chromosomes of wax gourd, with clusters in the heterochromatin regions. This is the first report of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in wax gourd, which would be helpful for our understanding about the organization and evolutions of wax gourd genome and also provide valuable information for our utilization of wax gourd retrotransposons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Piffanelli, Pietro; Droc, Gaétan; Mieulet, Delphine; Lanau, Nadège; Bès, Martine; Bourgeois, Emmanuelle; Rouvière, Claire; Gavory, Fréderick; Cruaud, Corinne; Ghesquière, Alain; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel
We characterized the insertion sites of newly transposed copies of the tissue-culture-induced ty1-copia retrotransposon Tos17 in the Oryza Tag Line (OTL) T-DNA mutant library of rice cv. Nipponbare. While Nipponbare contains two native copies of Tos17 the number of additional copies, deduced from Southern blot analyses in a subset of 384 T-DNA lines and using a reverse transcriptase probe specific to the element, ranged from 1 to 8 and averaged 3.37. These copies were shown to be stably inherited and to segregate independently in the progenies of insertion lines. We took advantage of the absence of EcoRV restriction sites in the immediate vicinity of the 3' LTR of the native copies of Tos17 in the genome sequence of cv. Nipponbare, thereby preventing amplification of corresponding PCR fragments, to efficiently and selectively amplify and sequence flanking regions of newly transposed Tos17 inserts. From 25,286 T-DNA plants, we recovered 19,252 PCR products (76.1%), which were sequenced yielding 14,513 FSTs anchored on the rice pseudomolecules. Following elimination of redundant sequences due to the presence of T-DNA plants deriving from the same cell lineage, these FSTs corresponded to 11,689 unique insertion sites. These unique insertions exhibited higher densities in subtelomeric regions of the chromosomes and hot spots for integration, following a distribution that remarkably paralleled that of Tos17 sites in the National Institute for Agrobiological Sciences (NIAS) library. The insertion sites were mostly found in genic regions (77.5%) and preferably in coding sequences (68.8%) compared to unique T-DNA insertion sites in the same materials (49.1% and 28.3%, respectively). Predicted non- transposable element (TE) genes prone to a high frequency of Tos17 integration (i.e. from 5 to 121 inserts) in the OTL T-DNA collection were generally found to be also hot spots for integration in the NIAS library. The 9,060 Tos17 inserts inserted into non TE genes were found to
Cao, Yuefen; Jiang, Yurong; Ding, Mingquan; He, Shae; Zhang, Hua; Lin, Lifeng; Rong, Junkang
A transcriptionally active Ty1/copia -like retrotransposon was identified in the genome of Gossypium barbadense. The different heat activation of this element was observed in two tetraploid cotton species. Most retrotransposons from plants are transcriptionally silent, or activated under certain conditions. Only a small portion of elements are transcriptionally active under regular condition. A long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon was isolated from the cultivated Sea Island cotton (H7124) genome during the investigation of the function of a homeodomain leucine zipper gene (HD1) in trichome growth. Insertion of this element in HD1 gene of At sub-genome was related to the trichomeless stem in Gossypium barbadense. The element, named as GBRE-1, had all features of a typical Ty1/copia retrotransposon and possessed high similarity to the members of ONSEN retrotransposon family. It was 4997 bp long, comprising a single 4110 bp open reading frame, which encoded 1369 amino acids including the conserved domains of gag and pol. The expression of GBRE-1 was detected under regular condition in G. barbadense and G. hirsutum, and its expression level was increased under heat-stress condition in G. hirsutum. Besides, its expression pattern was similar to that of the ONSEN retrotransposon. Abundant cis-regulatory motifs related to stress-response and transcriptional regulation were found in the LTR sequence. These results suggested that GBRE-1 was a transcriptionally active retrotransposon in Gossypium. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of a complete Ty1/copia-type retrotransposon with present-day transcriptional activity in cotton.
Buti, M; Giordani, T; Vukich, M; Gentzbittel, L; Pistelli, L; Cattonaro, F; Morgante, M; Cavallini, A; Natali, L
In this paper we report on the isolation and characterization, for the first time, of a complete 6511 bp retrotransposon of sunflower. Considering its protein domain order and sequence similarity to other copia elements of dicotyledons, this retrotransposon was assigned to the copia retrotransposon superfamily and named HACRE1 (Helianthus annuus copia-like retroelement 1). HACRE1 carries 5' and 3' long terminal repeats (LTRs) flanking an internal region of 4661 bp. The LTRs are identical in their sequence except for two deletions of 7 and 5 nucleotides in the 5' LTR. Based on the sequence identity of the LTRs, HACRE1 was estimated to have inserted within the last approximately 84 000 years. The isolated sequence contains a complete open reading frame with only one complete reading frame. The absence of nonsense mutations agrees with the very high sequence identity between LTRs, confirming that HACRE1 insertion is recent. The haploid genome of sunflower (inbred line HCM) contains about 160 copies of HACRE1. This retrotransposon is expressed in leaflets from 7-day-old plantlets under different light conditions, probably in relation to the occurrence of many putative light-related regulatory cis-elements in the LTRs. However, sequenced cDNAs show less variability than HACRE1 genomic sequences, indicating that only a subset of this family is expressed under these conditions.
Kuipers, A G; Heslop-Harrison, J S; Jacobsen, E
The genus Alstroemeria contains species with large genomes (2C = 36.5-78.9 pg (17,600-38,000 Mb) in those species with 2n = 2x = 16). We investigated the diversity and genomic and chromosomal organisation of Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons in four Alstroemeria species. Analysis of 33 PCR-amplified sequences corresponding to a conserved domain of the Ty1-copia reverse transcriptase (rt) gene showed high heterogeneity among predicted amino acid sequences; no two sequences were identical, but most fell into one of five subgroups. Levels of inter- and intra-specific heterogeneity of sequences were similar. HaeIII-digested genomic DNA of various Alstroemeria species contained distinct bands upon hybridisation with individual rt gene fragments. Hybridisation with the heterogeneous PCR pool of rt fragments (retrotransposon pool) revealed additional bands; some minor bands were characteristic of either Brazilian or Chilean species. In situ hybridisation of the retrotransposon pool from three species to metaphase chromosomes from the same species showed a dispersed distribution of the retrotransposon pool with exclusion from rDNA and other chromosomal sites. Alstroemeria pelegrina, which is without major heterochromatic sites, showed some clustering and small negative bands. The retrotransposon pool was excluded from major DAPI-staining bands in Alstroemeria aurea, but in contrast, the sites of the major tandemly repeated sequences in Alstroemeria inodora showed a hybridisation signal similar to that in the rest of the chromosomes. The data are discussed in the context of the contribution of Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons to plant genome size, their evolution, and their value for phylogenetic and biodiversity studies.
White, S E; Habera, L F; Wessler, S R
The wx-K mutation results from the insertion of a copia-like retrotransposon into exon 12 of the maize waxy gene. This retrotransposon, named Hopscotch, has one long open reading frame encoding all of the domains required for transposition. Computer-assisted database searches using Hopscotch and other plant copia-like retroelements as query sequences have revealed that ancient, degenerate retrotransposon insertions are found in close proximity to 21 previously sequenced plant genes. The data suggest that these elements may be involved in gene duplication and the regulation of gene expression. Similar searches using the Drosophila retrotransposon copia did not reveal any retrotransposon-like sequences in the flanking regions of animal genes. These results, together with the recent finding that reverse-transcriptase sequences characteristic of copia-like elements are ubiquitous and diverse in plants, suggest that copia-like retrotransposons are an ancient component of plant genomes. Images PMID:7991537
Moisy, Cédric; Garrison, Keith E; Meredith, Carole P; Pelsy, Frédérique
Background Retrotransposons make a significant contribution to the size, organization and genetic diversity of their host genomes. To characterize retrotransposon families in the grapevine genome (the fourth crop plant genome sequenced) we have combined two approaches: a PCR-based method for the isolation of RnaseH-LTR sequences with a computer-based sequence similarity search in the whole-genome sequence of PN40024. Results Supported by a phylogenic analysis, ten novel Ty1/copia families were distinguished in this study. To select a canonical reference element sequence from amongst the various insertions in the genome belonging to each retroelement family, the following screening criteria were adopted to identify the element sequence with: (1) perfect 5 bp-duplication of target sites, (2) the highest level of identity between 5' and 3'-LTR within a single insertion sequence, and (3) longest, un-interrupted coding capacity within the gag-pol ORF. One to eight copies encoding a single putatively functional gag-pol polyprotein were found for three families, indicating that these families could be still autonomous and active. For the others, no autonomous copies were identified. However, a subset of copies within the presumably non-autonomous families had perfect identity between their 5' and 3' LTRs, indicating a recent insertion event. A phylogenic study based on the sequence alignment of the region located between reverse transcriptase domains I and VII distinguished these 10 families from other plant retrotransposons. Including the previously characterized Ty1/copia-like grapevine retrotransposons Tvv1 and Vine 1 and the Ty3/gypsy-like Gret1 in this assessment, a total of 1709 copies were identified for the 13 retrotransposon families, representing 1.24% of the sequenced genome. The copy number per family ranged from 91–212 copies. We performed insertion site profiling for 8 out of the 13 retrotransposon families and confirmed multiple insertions of these
De Almeida, Luciane M; Carareto, Claudia MA
Although the retrotransposon copia has been studied in the melanogaster group of Drosophila species, very little is known about copia dynamism and evolution in other groups. We analyzed the occurrence and heterogeneity of the copia 5'LTR-ULR partial sequence and their phylogenetic relationships in 24 species of the repleta group of Drosophila. PCR showed that copia occurs in 18 out of the 24 species evaluated. Sequencing was possible in only eight species. The sequences showed a low nucleotide diversity, which suggests selective constraints maintaining this regulatory region over evolutionary time. On the contrary, the low nucleotide divergence and the phylogenetic relationships between the D. willistoni/Zaprionus tuberculatus/melanogaster species subgroup suggest horizontal transfer. Sixteen transcription factor binding sites were identified in the LTR-ULR repleta and melanogaster consensus sequences. However, these motifs are not homologous, neither according to their position in the LTR-ULR sequences, nor according to their sequences. Taken together, the low motif homologies, the phylogenetic relationship and the great nucleotide divergence between the melanogaster and repleta copia sequences reinforce the hypothesis that there are two copia families. PMID:16954045
Price, Z.; Dumortier, F.; MacDonald, W.; Mayes, S.
The work aimed to isolate and characterise copia-like sequences from Elaeis guineensis. Thirty-two different RT (reverse transcriptase) sequences were isolated from a single oil palm genome using degenerate primers. Extreme sequence heterogeneity was observed. The DNA and protein sequences were assigned to three different classes (A, B, C) on the basis of bootstrapping. We estimated the copy number of the three different classes by using a dot-blot analysis. The comparative results suggest that class-B RT sequences occur at a higher copy number in Cocos nucifera than in Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera. Class-C RT sequences, which comprise the bulk of isolated sequences, occur in much higher copy number in Elaeis guineensis than in Cocos nucifera, and E. oleifera. Class-A sequences, which have low copy number in Elaeis guineensis and Cocos nucifera, are not present in E. oleifera. Our preliminary results suggest that class-C sequences represent about 5% of the E. guineensis genome, class B, 1% and class A, 0.1%. The methylation status of genomic domains specified by the RT probes was analysed using two pairs of restriction enzymes, each pair having the same recognition sites but different methylation sensitivities ( MspI, HpaII and Sau3AI, MboI). Results from these experiments showed clearly that the genomic domains specified by the RT probes are methylated. These also suggest that a higher copy number appears to correlate to a higher degree of methylation. Our preliminary results suggest that copia-like retrotransposons, because of their ubiquity and diversity, have great potential as genetic markers for plant genome and biodiversity analysis in E. guineensis.
Li, Qian; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Zhengsheng; Li, Xianbi; Yao, Dan; Wang, Yi; Ouyang, Xufen; Li, Yaohua; Song, Wu; Xiao, Yuehua
Retrotransposons comprise of a major fraction of higher plant genomes, and their proliferation and elimination have profound effects on genome evolution and gene functions as well. Previously we found a D-genome-originated Ty1/Copia-type LTR (DOCL) retrotransposon in the chromosome A08 of upland cotton. To further characterize the DOCL retrotransposon family, a total of 342 DOCL retrotransposons were identified in the sequenced cotton genomes, including 73, 157, and 112 from Gossypium raimondii, G. hirsutum, and G. barbadense, respectively. According to phylogenetic analysis, the DOCL family was divided into nine groups (G1-G9), among which five groups (G1-G4 and G9, including 292 members) were proliferated after the formation of tetraploid cottons. It was found that the majority of DOCL retrotransposons (especially those in G2, G3 and G9) inserted in non-allelic loci in G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, suggesting that their proliferations were relatively independent in different tetraploid cottons. Furthermore, DOCL retrotransposons inserted in coding regions largely eliminated expression of the targeted genes in G. hirsutum or G. barbadense. Our data suggested that recent proliferation of retrotransposon families like DOCL was one of important evolutionary forces driving diversification and evolution of tetraploid cottons.
Esnault, Caroline; Graça, Paula; Higuet, Dominique; Bonnivard, Eric
Transposable elements are major constituents of eukaryote genomes and have a great impact on genome structure and stability. They can contribute to the genetic diversity and evolution of organisms. Knowledge of their distribution among several genomes is an essential condition to study their dynamics and to better understand their role in species evolution. LTR-retrotransposons have been reported in many diverse eukaryote species, describing a ubiquitous distribution. Given their abundance, diversity and their extended ranges in C-values, environment and life styles, crustaceans are a great taxon to investigate the genomic component of adaptation and its possible relationships with TEs. However, crustaceans have been greatly underrepresented in transposable element studies. Using both degenerate PCR and in silico approaches, we have identified 35 Copia and 46 Gypsy families in 15 and 18 crustacean species, respectively. In particular, we characterized several full-length elements from the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata that is listed as a model organism from hydrothermal vents. Phylogenic analyses show that Copia and Gypsy retrotransposons likely present two opposite dynamics within crustaceans. The Gypsy elements appear relatively frequent and diverse whereas Copia are much more homogeneous, as 29 of them belong to the single GalEa clade, and species- or lineage-dependent. Our results also support the hypothesis of the Copia retrotransposon scarcity in metazoans compared to Gypsy elements. In such a context, the GalEa-like elements present an outstanding wide distribution among eukaryotes, from fishes to red algae, and can be even highly predominant within a large taxon, such as Malacostraca. Their distribution among crustaceans suggests a dynamics that follows a “domino days spreading” branching process in which successive amplifications may interact positively. PMID:23469217
Piednoël, Mathieu; Donnart, Tifenn; Esnault, Caroline; Graça, Paula; Higuet, Dominique; Bonnivard, Eric
Transposable elements are major constituents of eukaryote genomes and have a great impact on genome structure and stability. They can contribute to the genetic diversity and evolution of organisms. Knowledge of their distribution among several genomes is an essential condition to study their dynamics and to better understand their role in species evolution. LTR-retrotransposons have been reported in many diverse eukaryote species, describing a ubiquitous distribution. Given their abundance, diversity and their extended ranges in C-values, environment and life styles, crustaceans are a great taxon to investigate the genomic component of adaptation and its possible relationships with TEs. However, crustaceans have been greatly underrepresented in transposable element studies. Using both degenerate PCR and in silico approaches, we have identified 35 Copia and 46 Gypsy families in 15 and 18 crustacean species, respectively. In particular, we characterized several full-length elements from the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata that is listed as a model organism from hydrothermal vents. Phylogenic analyses show that Copia and Gypsy retrotransposons likely present two opposite dynamics within crustaceans. The Gypsy elements appear relatively frequent and diverse whereas Copia are much more homogeneous, as 29 of them belong to the single GalEa clade, and species- or lineage-dependent. Our results also support the hypothesis of the Copia retrotransposon scarcity in metazoans compared to Gypsy elements. In such a context, the GalEa-like elements present an outstanding wide distribution among eukaryotes, from fishes to red algae, and can be even highly predominant within a large taxon, such as Malacostraca. Their distribution among crustaceans suggests a dynamics that follows a "domino days spreading" branching process in which successive amplifications may interact positively.
Di Giovanni, Michela; Cenci, Alberto; Janni, Michela; D'Ovidio, Renato
Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins involved in plant defence. Wheat pgip genes have been isolated from the B (Tapgip1) and D (Tapgip2) genomes, and now we report the identification of pgip genes from the A genomes of wild and cultivated wheats. By Southern blots and sequence analysis of BAC clones we demonstrated that wheat contains a single copy pgip gene per genome and the one from the A genome, pgip3, is inactivated by the insertion of a long terminal repeat copia retrotranspon within the fourth LRR. We demonstrated also that this retrotransposon insertion is present in Triticum urartu and all the polyploidy wheats assayed, but is absent in T. monococcum (Tmpgip3), suggesting that this insertion took place after the divergence between T. monococcum and T. urartu, but before the formation of the polyploid wheats. We identified also two independent insertion events of new Class II transposable elements, Vacuna, belonging to the Mutator superfamily, that interrupted the Tdipgip1 gene of T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides. The occurrence of these transposons within the coding region of Tdipgip1 facilitated the mapping of the Pgip locus in the pericentric region of the short arm of chromosome group 7. We speculate that the inactivation of pgip genes are tolerated because of redundancy of PGIP activities in the wheat genome.
Background Recently, Jatropha curcas L. has attracted worldwide attention for its potential as a source of biodiesel. However, most DNA markers have demonstrated high levels of genetic similarity among and within jatropha populations around the globe. Despite promising features of copia-type retrotransposons as ideal genetic tools for gene tagging, mutagenesis, and marker-assisted selection, they have not been characterized in the jatropha genome yet. Here, we examined the diversity, evolution, and genome-wide organization of copia-type retrotransposons in the Asian, African, and Mesoamerican accessions of jatropha, then introduced a retrotransposon-based marker for this biofuel crop. Results In total, 157 PCR fragments that were amplified using the degenerate primers for the reverse transcriptase (RT) domain of copia-type retroelements were sequenced and aligned to construct the neighbor-joining tree. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that isolated copia RT sequences were classified into ten families, which were then grouped into three lineages. An in-depth study of the jatropha genome for the RT sequences of each family led to the characterization of full consensus sequences of the jatropha copia-type families. Estimated copy numbers of target sequences were largely different among families, as was presence of genes within 5 kb flanking regions for each family. Five copia-type families were as appealing candidates for the development of DNA marker systems. A candidate marker from family Jc7 was particularly capable of detecting genetic variation among different jatropha accessions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to metaphase chromosomes reveals that copia-type retrotransposons are scattered across chromosomes mainly located in the distal part regions. Conclusion This is the first report on genome-wide analysis and the cytogenetic mapping of copia-type retrotransposons of jatropha, leading to the discovery of families bearing high potential as DNA
Woodrow, Pasqualina; Pontecorvo, Giovanni; Ciarmiello, Loredana F
Long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements that are ubiquitous in plants and constitute a major portion of their nuclear genomes. LTR- retrotransposons possess unique properties that make them appropriate for investigating relationships between populations, varieties and closely related species. Myrtus communis L. is an evergreen shrub growing spontaneously throughout the Mediterranean area. Accessions show significant variations for agriculturally important traits, so the development of specific molecular markers for conservation and characterization of myrtle germplasm is desirable to conserve biodiversity. In this study, we isolated the first retrotransposon Ty1-copia-like element (Tmc1) in Myrtus communis L. genome and used this as a molecular marker. We successfully employed the S-SAP marker system to specifically characterize four myrtle accessions belonging to different areas in the province of Caserta (Italy). The high level of polymorphism detected in isolated LTRs, make Tmc1 a good molecular marker for this species. Our findings confirm that retrotransposon-based molecular markers are particularly valuable tools for plant molecular characterization studies.
Paz, R C; Rendina González, A P; Ferrer, M S; Masuelli, R W
Interspecific hybridisation in tuber-bearing species of Solanum is a common phenomenon and represents an important source of variability, crucial for adaptation and speciation of potato species. In this regard, the effects of interspecific hybridisation on retrotransposon families present in the genomes, and their consequent effects on generation of genetic variability in wild tuber-bearing Solanum species, are poorly characterised. The aim of this study was to analyse the activity of retrotransposons in inter- and intraspecific hybrids between S. kurtzianum and S. microdontum, obtained by controlled crosses, and the effects on morphological, genetic and epigenetic variability. For genetic and epigenetic analysis, S-SAP (sequence-specific amplification polymorphism) and TMD (transposon methylation display) techniques were used, respectively, with specific primers for Tnt1 and Tto1 retrotransposon families (Order LTR, Superfamily Copia). The results indicate that at morphological level, interspecific hybrid genotypes differ from their parental species, whereas derived intraspecific hybrids do not. In both cases, we observed significant reductions in pollen grain viability, and a negative correlation with Tnt1 mobility. Both retrotransposons, Tto1 and Tnt1, were mobilised in the genotypes analysed, with mobility ranging from 0 to 7.8%. Furthermore, at the epigenetic level, demethylation was detected in the vicinity of Tnt1 and Tto1 in the hybrids compared with the parental genotypes. These patterns were positively correlated with the activity of the retrotransposons. The results suggest a possible mechanism through which hybridisation events generate genetic variability in tuber-bearing species of Solanum through retrotranposon activation.
Huang, Jianhua; Wang, Yushuai; Liu, Wenwen; Shen, Xu; Fan, Qiang; Jian, Shuguang; Tang, Tian
Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons constitute the majority of the content of angiosperm genomes, but their evolutionary dynamics remain poorly understood. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a putative full-length (~9550 bp) Ty1/copia-like retrotransposon in Excoecaria agallocha and its evolution in Euphorbiaceae. The so-called EARE-1 is phylogenetically closely related to RIRE-1 from Oryza australiensis, and has proliferated recently (~7.19 Mya) in the E. agallocha genome. An RT-PCR analysis revealed substantial transcription of EARE-1 in all examined organs (leaves, staminate flowers, pistillate flowers, seeds, and roots) in unstressed E. agallocha plants and indications of elevated expression under stress. We conducted sequence analyses of 256 RT-RH fragments (~860 bp) of EARE-1 from 34 species representing four subfamilies of Euphorbiaceae that exist in China. EARE-1 copies from two Excoecaria species and Phyllanthus urinaria showed incongruent phylogeny with the host species and exhibited high sequence similarity to the host genes, suggesting a horizontal transfer from P. urinaria to the common ancestor of Excoecaria. However, SSAP analysis detected no new insertions of EARE-1 among full-sibling progeny plants of E. agallocha, despite considerable SSAP polymorphisms among half-siblings. EARE-1 is the first transcriptionally active Ty1/copia-like retrotransposon isolated from E. agallocha. Our results provide empirical evidence of the horizontal transfer of LTR retrotransposons in plants, and may suggest a significant role of post-transcriptional host control in the life cycles of transposable elements. PMID:28174588
Cheng, Xudong; Zhang, Dongfeng; Cheng, Zhukuan; Keller, Beat; Ling, Hong-Qing
Rider is a novel and recently active Ty1-copia-like retrotransposon isolated from the T3238fer mutant of tomato. Structurally, it is delimited by a duplication of target sites and contains two long terminal direct repeats and an internal open reading frame, which encodes a Ty1-copia-type polyprotein with characteristic protein domains required for retrotransposition. The family of Rider elements has an intermediate copy number and is scattered in the chromosomes of tomato. Rider family members in the tomato genome share high sequence similarity, but different structural groups were identified (full-size elements, deletion derivatives, and solo LTRs). Southern blot analysis in Solanaceae species showed that Rider was a Lycopersicon-specific element. Sequence analysis revealed that among other plants, two Arabidopsis elements (named as Rider-like 1 and Rider-like 2) are most similar to Rider in both the coding and noncoding regions. RT–PCR analysis indicates that Rider is constitutively expressed in tomato plants. The phylogeny-based parsimony analysis and the sequence substitution analyses of these data suggest that these Rider-like elements originated from a recent introgression of Rider into the tomato genome by horizontal transfer 1–6 million years ago. Considering its transcriptional activity and the recent insertion of the element into at least two genes, Rider is a recently active retrotransposon in the tomato genome. PMID:19153256
Ding, Mingquan; Ye, Wuwei; Lin, Lifeng; He, Shae; Du, Xiongming; Chen, Aiqun; Cao, Yuefen; Qin, Yuan; Yang, Fen; Jiang, Yurong; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiyin; Paterson, Andrew H.; Rong, Junkang
Cotton (Gossypium) stem trichomes are mostly single cells that arise from stem epidermal cells. In this study, a homeodomain-leucine zipper gene (HD1) was found to cosegregate with the dominant trichome locus previously designated as T1 and mapped to chromosome 6. Characterization of HD1 orthologs revealed that the absence of stem trichomes in modern Gossypium barbadense varieties is linked to a large retrotransposon insertion in the ninth exon, 2565 bp downstream from the initial codon in the At subgenome HD1 gene (At-GbHD1). In both the At and Dt subgenomes, reduced transcription of GbHD1 genes is caused by this insertion. The disruption of At-HD1 further affects the expression of downstream GbMYB25 and GbHOX3 genes. Analyses of primitive cultivated accessions identified another retrotransposon insertion event in the sixth exon of At-GbHD1 that might predate the previously identified retrotransposon in modern varieties. Although both retrotransposon insertions results in similar phenotypic changes, the timing of these two retrotransposon insertion events fits well with our current understanding of the history of cotton speciation and dispersal. Taken together, the results of genetics mapping, gene expression and association analyses suggest that GbHD1 is an important component that controls stem trichome development and is a promising candidate gene for the T1 locus. The interspecific phenotypic difference in stem trichome traits also may be attributable to HD1 inactivation associated with retrotransposon insertion. PMID:26133897
Ding, Mingquan; Ye, Wuwei; Lin, Lifeng; He, Shae; Du, Xiongming; Chen, Aiqun; Cao, Yuefen; Qin, Yuan; Yang, Fen; Jiang, Yurong; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiyin; Paterson, Andrew H; Rong, Junkang
Cotton (Gossypium) stem trichomes are mostly single cells that arise from stem epidermal cells. In this study, a homeodomain-leucine zipper gene (HD1) was found to cosegregate with the dominant trichome locus previously designated as T1 and mapped to chromosome 6. Characterization of HD1 orthologs revealed that the absence of stem trichomes in modern Gossypium barbadense varieties is linked to a large retrotransposon insertion in the ninth exon, 2565 bp downstream from the initial codon in the At subgenome HD1 gene (At-GbHD1). In both the At and Dt subgenomes, reduced transcription of GbHD1 genes is caused by this insertion. The disruption of At-HD1 further affects the expression of downstream GbMYB25 and GbHOX3 genes. Analyses of primitive cultivated accessions identified another retrotransposon insertion event in the sixth exon of At-GbHD1 that might predate the previously identified retrotransposon in modern varieties. Although both retrotransposon insertions results in similar phenotypic changes, the timing of these two retrotransposon insertion events fits well with our current understanding of the history of cotton speciation and dispersal. Taken together, the results of genetics mapping, gene expression and association analyses suggest that GbHD1 is an important component that controls stem trichome development and is a promising candidate gene for the T1 locus. The interspecific phenotypic difference in stem trichome traits also may be attributable to HD1 inactivation associated with retrotransposon insertion.
Vu, W; Nuzhdin, S
Transposable elements (TEs) are genomic parasites that propagate by exploiting its host reproductive machinery. However, some hosts have evolved the ability to silence TE activity, whereas others have not. We are investigating the population dynamics of TE host-silencing pathways, particularly copia long terminal repeat retrotransposon in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we identify large effect genes involved in copia suppression by using a semi-quantitative analysis to assay levels of copia plasmids (believed to be an intermediate of transposition) in 98 recombinant inbred lines constructed from a line exhibiting high copia transpositions and a line exhibiting no transpositions. The results revealed that the influence of copia copy number and transcription level on copia plasmid concentrations are weak and that genomic factors, presumably encoded by the host, have stronger effects on transposition rates. We mapped a QTL affecting copia plasmid concentration within the 33A–43E cytological region of the second chromosome and applied a quantitative deficiency complementation analysis on this chromosomal region. One out of the two large effect deficiencies on copia plasmid concentrations corresponded to the vasa gene, an important component of the nuage-piwi RNA TE-silencing machinery. We hypothesize that copia suppression occurs by the joint action of several post-transcriptional mechanisms with at least one of the blocks taking place in the nuage. PMID:20606692
McCarthy, Eugene M; Liu, Jingdong; Lizhi, Gao; McDonald, John F
Background Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons constitute a major fraction of the genomes of higher plants. For example, retrotransposons comprise more than 50% of the maize genome and more than 90% of the wheat genome. LTR retrotransposons are believed to have contributed significantly to the evolution of genome structure and function. The genome sequencing of selected experimental and agriculturally important species is providing an unprecedented opportunity to view the patterns of variation existing among the entire complement of retrotransposons in complete genomes. Results Using a new data-mining program, LTR_STRUC, (LTR retrotransposon structure program), we have mined the GenBank rice (Oryza sativa) database as well as the more extensive (259 Mb) Monsanto rice dataset for LTR retrotransposons. Almost two-thirds (37) of the 59 families identified consist of copia-like elements, but gypsy-like elements outnumber copia-like elements by a ratio of approximately 2:1. At least 17% of the rice genome consists of LTR retrotransposons. In addition to the ubiquitous gypsy- and copia-like classes of LTR retrotransposons, the rice genome contains at least two novel families of unusually small, non-coding (non-autonomous) LTR retrotransposons. Conclusions Each of the major clades of rice LTR retrotransposons is more closely related to elements present in other species than to the other clades of rice elements, suggesting that horizontal transfer may have occurred over the evolutionary history of rice LTR retrotransposons. Like LTR retrotransposons in other species with relatively small genomes, many rice LTR retrotransposons are relatively young, indicating a high rate of turnover. PMID:12372141
J.S. (Pat) Heslop-Harrison; Andrea Brandes; Shin Taketa; Thomas Schmidt; Alexander V. Vershinin; Elena G. Alkhimova; Anette Kamm; Robert L. Doudrick; . [and others
Retrotransposons make up a major fraction - sometimes more than 40% - of all plant genomes investigated so far. We have isolated the reverse transcriptase domains of theTyl-copia group elements from several species, ranging in genome size from some 100 Mbp to 23,000 Mbp, and determined the distribution patterns of these retrotransposons on metaphase chromosomes and...
Cook, J M; Martin, J; Lewin, A; Sinden, R E; Tristem, M
We developed a degenerate PCR procedure to simultaneously amplify products from divergent retrotransposon families within the genomes of Anopheles mosquitoes. The procedure required cloning of multiple PCR products, but more than half of the clones subsequently sequenced were of retrotransposon origin. These included Copia-like and LINE retrotransposons, as well as the first Gypsy-like retrotransposons reported from mosquitoes. Furthermore, some Anopheles retrotransposon sequences showed similarity to the divergent Pao element from the silkmoth Bombyx mori. Phylogenetic analyses provided consistently strong bootstrap support (> 95%) for a major clade of Pao-like retrotransposons, which includes five mosquito sequences and the recently discovered Drosophila retrotransposons BEL and ninja. This appears to represent a new family of Pao-like LTR-retrotransposons distinct from the Copia and Gypsy families.
Ahmed, Salim; Shafiuddin, Md; Azam, Muhammad Shafiul; Islam, Md Shahidul; Ghosh, Ajit; Khan, Haseena
Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) retrotransposons constitute a significant part of eukaryotic genomes and play an important role in genome evolution especially in plants. Jute is an important fiber crop with a large genome of 1,250 Mbps. This genome is still mostly unexplored. In this study we aimed at identifying and characterizing the LTR retrotransposons of jute with a view to understanding the jute genome better. In this study, the Reverse Transcriptase domain of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy LTR retrotransposons of jute were amplified by degenerate primers and their expressions were examined by reverse transcription PCR. Copy numbers of reverse transcriptase (RT) genes of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy elements were determined by dot blot analysis. Sequence analysis revealed higher heterogeneity among Ty1-copia retrotransposons than Ty3-gypsy and clustered each of them in three groups. Copy number of RT genes in Ty1-copia was found to be higher than that of Ty3-gypsy elements from dot blot hybridization. Cumulatively Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy may constitute around 19% of the jute genome where two groups of Ty1-copia were found to be transcriptionally active. Since the LTR retrotransposons constitute a large portion of jute genome, these findings imply the importance of these elements in the evolution of jute genome.
Zhang, Lulu; Yan, Lan; Jiang, Jingchen; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Yuanying; Yan, Tianhua; Cao, Yongbing
Retrotransposons constitute a major part of the genome in a number of eukaryotes. Long-terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are one type of the retrotransposons. Candida albicans have 34 distinct LTR-retrotransposon families. They respectively belong to the Ty1/copia and Ty3/gypsy groups which have been extensively studied in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. LTR-retrotransposons carry two LTRs flanking a long internal protein-coding domain, open reading frames. LTR-retrotransposons use RNA as intermediate to synthesize double-stranded DNA copies. In this article, we describe the structure feature, retrotransposition mechanism and the influence on organism diversity of LTR retrotransposons in C. albicans. We also discuss the relationship between pathogenicity and LTR retrotransposons in C. albicans.
Oliver, Matthew J; Schofield, Oscar; Bidle, Kay
Retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements that encode for their own replication. Many studies have linked their expression to stress caused by environmental factors. Genome sequencing and EST libraries of the coastal diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum indicate that this organism has an active copia-like retrotransposon (Blackbeard), which is variably expressed under different culture conditions. In this study, we induce physiologic stress in P. tricornutum and measure Blackbeard expression over time. However, we find the dominant pattern of Blackbeard expression is related to cell culture density, not short-term physiologic stress. Density dependent expression of a retrotransposon in a diatom provides significant insight into the biogeography of diatom genome mutation. We suggest the shallow coastal ocean, where diatom densities are high, may be the geographic locus for generating genomic diversity in diatom lineages.
Carvalho, M; Ribeiro, T; Viegas, W; Morais-Cecilio, L; Rocheta, M
The main difference between LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses is the presence of the envelope (env) gene in the latter, downstream of the pol gene. The env gene is involved in their infectious capacity. Here we report the presence of env-like sequences in the genome of Quercus suber (cork oak), one of the most economically important Portuguese species. These gene sequences were isolated through DNA amplification between RNaseH conserved motifs and 3' LTR, based on the structure of copia retrotransposons. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that almost all the clones isolated are clustered with Cyclops-2, a Ty3-gypsy element identified in Pisum sativum, except one clustered with gypsy and copia retroelements found in different species. This suggests the existence of a potential ancestral sequence of the env gene, prior to the separation of Ty3-gypsy and Ty1-copia retrotransposons. Additionally, the isolated env-like sequences showed 26-39% of homology with env-like sequences characterized in viruses. The origin of env-like sequences in retrotransposons from host plant taxa is discussed.
Vicient, Carlos M.; Jääskeläinen, Marko J.; Kalendar, Ruslan; Schulman, Alan H.
A large fraction of the genomes of grasses, members of the family Graminae, is composed of retrotransposons. These elements resemble animal retroviruses in their structure and possess a life cycle similar to theirs that includes transcription, translation, and integration of daughter copies. We have investigated if retrotransposons are generally transcribed in the grasses and other plants, and whether the various families of elements are translationally and integrationally active in multiple grass species. A systematic search of 7.8 × 105 publicly available expressed sequence tags from plants revealed widespread retrotransposon transcripts at a frequency of one in 1,000. Monocot retrotransposons found relatively more expressed sequence tags from non-source species than did those of dicots. Antibodies were raised to the capsid protein, GAG, of BARE-1, a transcribed and translated copia-like retrotransposon of barley (Hordeum vulgare). These detected immunoreactive proteins of sizes identical to those of the BARE-1 GAG and polyprotein, respectively, in other species of the tribe Triticeae as well as in oats (Avena sativa) and rice (Oryza sativa). Retrotransposon-based markers showed integrational polymorphisms for BARE-1 in different subfamilies of the Graminae. The results suggest that grasses share families of transcriptionally, translationally, and integrationally active retrotransposons, enabling a comparative and integrative approach to understanding the life cycle of retrotransposons and their impact on the genome. PMID:11244109
Zachar, Zuzana; Davison, Dan; Garza, Dan; Bingham, Paul M.
allele, which carries an insertion of copia in the opposite transcriptional orientation and in a different position than the wa copia insertion. In contrast to the wa copia insertion allele, the whd81b11 allele produces polyadenylated white transcript levels very similar to the w+ case at the stages examined. Moreover, the whd81b11 copia element apparently produced polyadenylated terminus formation in white transcripts and we observe no effect of the allelic state of su(wa) on apparent readthrough of this stop site. We discuss some possible implications of our results for the properties of retrotransposons as developmentally complex insertional mutagens and for the functional organization of the copia transcription unit. PMID:2414153
Cakmak, B; Marakli, S; Gozukirmizi, N
Sireviruses are genera of copia LTR retrotransposons with a unique genome structure among retrotransposons. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an economically important plant. In this study, we used mature barley embryos, 10-day-old roots and 10-day-old leaves derived from the same barley plant to investigate SIRE) retrotransposon movements by Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) technique. We found polymorphism rates between 0-64% among embryos, roots and leaves. Polymorphism rates were detected to be 0-27% among embryos, 8-60% among roots, and 11-50% among leaves. Polymorphisms were observed not only among the parts of different individuals, but also on the parts of the same plant (23-64%). The internal domains of SIRE1 (GAG, ENV and RT) were also analyzed in the embryos, roots and leaves. Analysis of band profiles showed no polymorphism for GAG, however, different band patterns were observed among samples for RT and ENV. The sequencing of SIRE1 GAG, ENV and RT domains revealed 79% similarity for GAG, 96% for ENV and 83% for RT to copia retrotransposons. Comparison between barley retrotransposons and SIRE1 in barley indicated that SIRE1-GAG, ENV and RT might be diverge earlier from barley retrotransposons. SIRE1 sequences were compared with SIRE1 in barley, results showed the closest homologues were SIRE1-ENVand SIRE1-RTsequences, and SIRE1-GAG sequences was a sister group to sequences of Glycine max. This study is the first detailed investigation of SIRE1 in barley genome. The obtained findings are expected to contribute to the comprehension of SIRE1 retrotransposon and its role in barley genome.
Ma, Yue; Sun, Haiyue; Zhao, Guiling; Dai, Hongyan; Gao, Xiuyan; Li, He; Zhang, Zhihong
Strawberry (Fragaria spp.) is a kind of herbaceous perennial plant that propagates vegetatively. The conserved domains of reverse transcriptase (RT) genes of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy groups of LTR retrotransposons were amplified from the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.). Sequence analysis of clones demonstrated that 5 of 19 Ty1-copia group unique sequences and 2 of 10 Ty3-gypsy unique sequences in F. x ananassa genome possessed either stop codon or frameshift. Ty1-copia group sequences are highly heterogeneous (divergence ranged from 1 to 69.8%), but the Ty3-gypsy group sequences are less (divergence ranged from 1 to 10%). Southern dot blot hybridization result suggested that both of the LTR retrotransposons are present in the genome of cultivated strawberry with high copy number (Ty1-copia group 2,875 Ty3-gypsy group 348). RT-PCR amplification from total RNA, which was extracted from leaves of micropropagated strawberry plants, did not yield either of the RT fragments. This is the first report on the presence of RT sequences of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy group retrotransposons in F. x ananassa genome.
Singh, Alka; Nirala, N K; Narula, Alka; Das, Sandip; Srivastava, Prem S
Retrotransposons (RT) constitute a major fraction of plant genome. They are implicated in evolution and sequence organization. These elements have been proposed to have major role in evolution and variation in genome size. The sequence information of these RT regions in terms of divergence and conservation could be utilized for determining the interrelationship among various copia retrotransposons within the genome. In order to assess the diversity of Ty1-copia group of retroelements, reverse transcriptase (RT) sequence was amplified from genomes of three medicinally important Datura species: D. innoxia, D. stramonium and D. metel using the primers derived from two conserved domains of RT region. A total of twenty one independent amplicons from RT regions were cloned, sequenced and compared. The intra-family divergence at amino acid level ranged from 4 to 52 %. Though intra-family RT sequences are conserved, no two sequences are identical. Southern blot hybridization suggested that Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons are dispersed throughout the Datura genome. The results indicate a high degree of heterogeneity among the Ty1-copia group of retroelements in Datura species.
Kolano, Bozena; Bednara, Edyta; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna
High heterogeneity was observed among conserved domains of reverse transcriptase ( rt ) isolated from quinoa. Only one Ty1- copia rt was highly amplified. Reverse transcriptase sequences were located predominantly in pericentromeric region of quinoa chromosomes. The heterogeneity, genomic abundance, and chromosomal distribution of reverse transcriptase (rt)-coding fragments of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy long terminal repeat retrotransposons were analyzed in the Chenopodium quinoa genome. Conserved domains of the rt gene were amplified and characterized using degenerate oligonucleotide primer pairs. Sequence analyses indicated that half of Ty1-copia rt (51 %) and 39 % of Ty3-gypsy rt fragments contained intact reading frames. High heterogeneity among rt sequences was observed for both Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy rt amplicons, with Ty1-copia more heterogeneous than Ty3-gypsy. Most of the isolated rt fragments were present in quinoa genome in low copy numbers, with only one highly amplified Ty1-copia rt sequence family. The gypsy-like RNase H fragments co-amplified with Ty1-copia-degenerate primers were shown to be highly amplified in the quinoa genome indicating either higher abundance of some gypsy families of which rt domains could not be amplified, or independent evolution of this gypsy-region in quinoa. Both Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons were preferentially located in pericentromeric heterochromatin of quinoa chromosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of newly amplified rt fragments together with well-characterized retrotransposon families from other organisms allowed identification of major lineages of retroelements in the genome of quinoa and provided preliminary insight into their evolutionary dynamics.
Paz, Rosalía Cristina; Kozaczek, Melisa Eliana; Rosli, Hernán Guillermo; Andino, Natalia Pilar; Sanchez-Puerta, Maria Virginia
Transposable elements are the most abundant components of plant genomes and can dramatically induce genetic changes and impact genome evolution. In the recently sequenced genome of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), the estimated fraction of elements corresponding to retrotransposons is nearly 62%. Given that tomato is one of the most important vegetable crop cultivated and consumed worldwide, understanding retrotransposon dynamics can provide insight into its evolution and domestication processes. In this study, we performed a genome-wide in silico search of full-length LTR retroelements in the tomato nuclear genome and annotated 736 full-length Gypsy and Copia retroelements. The dispersion level across the 12 chromosomes, the diversity and tissue-specific expression of those elements were estimated. Phylogenetic analysis based on the retrotranscriptase region revealed the presence of 12 major lineages of LTR retroelements in the tomato genome. We identified 97 families, of which 77 and 20 belong to the superfamilies Copia and Gypsy, respectively. Each retroelement family was characterized according to their element size, relative frequencies and insertion time. These analyses represent a valuable resource for comparative genomics within the Solanaceae, transposon-tagging and for the design of cultivar-specific molecular markers in tomato.
Zedek, František; Smerda, Jakub; Smarda, Petr; Bureš, Petr
Transposable elements (TEs) are considered to be an important source of genome size variation and genetic and phenotypic plasticity in eukaryotes. Most of our knowledge about TEs comes from large genomic projects and studies focused on model organisms. However, TE dynamics among related taxa from natural populations and the role of TEs at the species or supra-species level, where genome size and karyotype evolution are modulated in concert with polyploidy and chromosomal rearrangements, remain poorly understood. We focused on the holokinetic genus Eleocharis (Cyperaceae), which displays large variation in genome size and the occurrence of polyploidy and agmatoploidy/symploidy. We analyzed and quantified the long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy in relation to changes in both genome size and karyotype in Eleocharis. We also examined how this relationship is reflected in the phylogeny of Eleocharis. Using flow cytometry, we measured the genome sizes of members of the genus Eleocharis (Cyperaceae). We found positive correlation between the independent phylogenetic contrasts of genome size and chromosome number in Eleocharis. We analyzed PCR-amplified sequences of various reverse transcriptases of the LTR retrotransposons Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy (762 sequences in total). Using real-time PCR and dot blot approaches, we quantified the densities of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy within the genomes of the analyzed species. We detected an increasing density of Ty1-copia elements in evolutionarily younger Eleocharis species and found a positive correlation between Ty1-copia densities and C/n-values (an alternative measure of monoploid genome size) in the genus phylogeny. In addition, our analysis of Ty1-copia sequences identified a novel retrotransposon family named Helos1, which is responsible for the increasing density of Ty1-copia. The transition:transversion ratio of Helos1 sequences suggests that Helos1 recently transposed in later
Marcon, Helena Sanches; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Silva, Juliana Costa; Borges, Rafael Junqueira; Matioli, Fábio Filippi; Fontes, Marcos Roberto de Mattos; Marino, Celso Luis
In Eucalyptus genus, studies on genome composition and transposable elements (TEs) are particularly scarce. Nearly half of the recently released Eucalyptus grandis genome is composed by retrotransposons and this data provides an important opportunity to understand TE dynamics in Eucalyptus genome and transcriptome. We characterized nine families of transcriptionally active LTR retrotransposons from Copia and Gypsy superfamilies in Eucalyptus grandis genome and we depicted genomic distribution and copy number in two Eucalyptus species. We also evaluated genomic polymorphism and transcriptional profile in three organs of five Eucalyptus species. We observed contrasting genomic and transcriptional behavior in the same family among different species. RLC_egMax_1 was the most prevalent family and RLC_egAngela_1 was the family with the lowest copy number. Most families of both superfamilies have their insertions occurring <3 million years, except one Copia family, RLC_egBianca_1. Protein theoretical models suggest different properties between Copia and Gypsy domains. IRAP and REMAP markers suggested genomic polymorphisms among Eucalyptus species. Using EST analysis and qRT-PCRs, we observed transcriptional activity in several tissues and in all evaluated species. In some families, osmotic stress increases transcript values. Our strategy was successful in isolating transcriptionally active retrotransposons in Eucalyptus, and each family has a particular genomic and transcriptional pattern. Overall, our results show that retrotransposon activity have differentially affected genome and transcriptome among Eucalyptus species.
Galindo-González, Leonardo; Mhiri, Corinne; Grandbastien, Marie-Angèle; Deyholos, Michael K
Initial characterization of the flax genome showed that Ty1-copia retrotransposons are abundant, with several members being recently inserted, and in close association with genes. Recent insertions indicate a potential for ongoing transpositional activity that can create genomic diversity among accessions, cultivars or varieties. The polymorphisms generated constitute a good source of molecular markers that may be associated with phenotype if the insertions alter gene activity. Flax, where accessions are bred mainly for seed nutritional properties or for fibers, constitutes a good model for studying the relationship of transpositional activity with diversification and breeding. In this study, we estimated copy number and used a type of transposon display known as Sequence-Specific Amplification Polymorphisms (SSAPs), to characterize six families of Ty1-copia elements across 14 flax accessions. Polymorphic insertion sites were sequenced to find insertions that could potentially alter gene expression, and a preliminary test was performed with selected genes bearing transposable element (TE) insertions. Quantification of six families of Ty1-copia elements indicated different abundances among TE families and between flax accessions, which suggested diverse transpositional histories. SSAPs showed a high level of polymorphism in most of the evaluated retrotransposon families, with a trend towards higher levels of polymorphism in low-copy number families. Ty1-copia insertion polymorphisms among cultivars allowed a general distinction between oil and fiber types, and between spring and winter types, demonstrating their utility in diversity studies. Characterization of polymorphic insertions revealed an overwhelming association with genes, with insertions disrupting exons, introns or within 1 kb of coding regions. A preliminary test on the potential transcriptional disruption by TEs of four selected genes evaluated in three different tissues, showed one case of significant
Csink, A. K.; McDonald, J. F.
A survey of copia (retroviral-like element) expression in flies representing 37 populations worldwide of Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila simulans and Drosophila mauritiana demonstrates that, although copia elements are present in all three species, copia-encoded transcripts are detectable only in D. melanogaster. Levels of copia transcripts vary nearly 100-fold among flies representing geographically diverse populations of D. melanogaster and this variation is not correlated with variability in copia copy number. Analysis of transcript levels in interpopulation hybrids demonstrates that much of this variability may be attributable to the action of trans-acting controls. The geographic and phylogenetic pattern of copia expression suggests that moderate to high levels of copia expression may be a relatively recent evolutionary acquisition. The potential evolutionary significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:1700962
Fourcade-Peronnet, F; d'Auriol, L; Becker, J; Galibert, F; Best-Belpomme, M
We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the Drosophila retrotransposon 1731. 1731 is 4648 bp long and is flanked by 336 bp terminal repeats (LTRs) previously described as being reminiscent of provirus LTRs. The 1731 genome consists of two long open reading frames (ORFs 1 and 2) which slightly overlap each other. The ORF 1 and 2 present similarities with retroviral gag and pol genes respectively as shown by computer analysis. The pol gene exhibits several enzymatic activities in the following order: protease, endonuclease and reverse transcriptase. It is possible that 1731 also encompasses a ribonuclease H activity located between the endonuclease and reverse transcriptase domains. Moreover, comparison of the 1731 pol gene with the pol region of copia shows similarities extending over the protease, endonuclease and reverse transcriptase domains. We show that codon usage in the two retrotransposons is different. Finally, no ORF able to encode an env gene is detected in 1731. Images PMID:2456522
LTR_STRUC and LTR FINDER analyses of a sugar beet BAC, with the NPR1 disease resistance priming gene, identified two distinct LTR (long terminal repeats) retrotransposons. BvRTR1 has two ORFs: one encoding a Ty1/copia-like integrase and the other a hypothetical gene. RTR1 is 10,833 bp in length inc...
Jiang, Shuang; Zong, Yu; Yue, Xiaoyan; Postman, Joseph; Teng, Yuanwen; Cai, Danying
Interspecific hybridization has been considered the major mode of evolution in Pyrus (pear), and thus, the genetic relationships within this genus have not been well documented. Retrotransposons are ubiquitous components of plant genomes and 42.4 % of the pear genome was reported to be long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, implying that retrotransposons might be significant in the evolution of Pyrus. In this study, 1,836 putative full-length LTR retrotransposons were isolated and 196 retrotransposon-based insertion polymorphism (RBIP) primers were developed, of which 24 pairs to the Ppcr1 subfamily of copia retrotransposons were used to analyze genetic diversity among 110 Pyrus accessions from Eurasia. Our results showed that Ppcr1 replicated many times in the development of cultivated Asian pears. The genetic structure analysis and the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram indicated that all accessions could be divided into Oriental and Occidental groups. In Oriental pears, wild pea pears clustered separately into independent groups in accordance with their morphological classifications. Cultivars of P. ussuriensis Maxim, P. pyrifolia Nakai, and P. pyrifolia Chinese white pear were mingled together, which inferred that hybridization events occurred during the development of the cultivated Asian pears. In Occidental pears, two clades were obtained in the UPGMA dendrogram in accordance with their geographical distribution; one contained the European species and the other included species from North Africa and West Asia. New findings in this study will be important to further understand the phylogeny of Pyrus and origins of cultivated pears.
Galindo-González, Leonardo; Mhiri, Corinne; Deyholos, Michael K; Grandbastien, Marie-Angèle
LTR retrotransposons are the most abundant group of transposable elements (TEs) in plants. These elements can fall inside or close to genes, and therefore influence their expression and evolution. This review aims to examine how LTR retrotransposons, especially Ty1-copia elements, mediate gene regulation and evolution. Various stimuli, including polyploidization and biotic and abiotic elicitors, result in the transcription and movement of these retrotransposons, and can facilitate adaptation. The presence of cis-regulatory motifs in the LTRs are central to their stress-mediated responses and are shared with host stress-responsive genes, showing a complex evolutionary history in which TEs provide new regulatory units to genes. The presence of retrotransposon remnants in genes that are necessary for normal gene function, demonstrates the importance of exaptation and co-option, and is also a consequence of the abundance of these elements in plant genomes. Furthermore, insertions of LTR retrotransposons in and around genes provide potential for alternative splicing, epigenetic control, transduction, duplication and recombination. These characteristics can become an active part of the evolution of gene families as in the case of resistance genes (R-genes). The character of TEs as exclusively selfish is now being re-evaluated. Since genome-wide reprogramming via TEs is a long evolutionary process, the changes we can examine are case-specific and their fitness advantage may not be evident until TE-derived motifs and domains have been completely co-opted and fixed. Nevertheless, the presence of LTR retrotransposons inside genes and as part of gene promoter regions is consistent with their roles as engines of plant genome evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Abe, H; Ohbayashi, F; Sugasaki, T; Kanehara, M; Terada, T; Shimada, T; Kawai, S; Mita, K; Kanamori, Y; Yamamoto, M T; Oshiki, T
To characterize the structural features common to Pao-like retrotransposons, we analyzed two lambda phage clones which contain the Pao-like elements from the silkworm species Bombyx mori and B. mandarinia, and copies of Pao itself and ninja of Drosophila simulans, amplified by PCR. We previously identified two randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs), W-Kamikaze and W-Yamato, from B. mori and B. mandarina, which are part of two novel Pao-like retrotransposons, Kamikaze and Yamato, respectively. Complete characterization of these and other elements of this group reported here shows that Pao-like elements have common features that distinguish them from the other groups of LTR-retrotransposons. While the elements of the Ty1-copia group encode only one cysteine and histidine (Cys) motif in their gag-like region, the Pao-like elements specify three Cys motifs. The highly conserved D(35)E motif in the integrase domain of the retrotransposon polyprotein seems to be conserved in Pao-like elements, but the number of amino acid residues between D and E varies and is greater than 35. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the reverse transcriptase domain revealed the Pao-like elements are members of neither the Ty1-copia nor the gypsy-Ty3 groups. Therefore, we confirmed that the long-terminal-repeat (LTR) retrotransposons should be divided into three major groups (or families), namely the Ty1-copia, gypsy-Ty3, and Pao-like groups.
Tetreault, Hannah M.; Ungerer, Mark C.
The most abundant transposable elements (TEs) in plant genomes are Class I long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons represented by superfamilies gypsy and copia. Amplification of these superfamilies directly impacts genome structure and contributes to differential patterns of genome size evolution among plant lineages. Utilizing short-read Illumina data and sequence information from a panel of Helianthus annuus (sunflower) full-length gypsy and copia elements, we explore the contribution of these sequences to genome size variation among eight diploid Helianthus species and an outgroup taxon, Phoebanthus tenuifolius. We also explore transcriptional dynamics of these elements in both leaf and bud tissue via RT-PCR. We demonstrate that most LTR retrotransposon sublineages (i.e., families) display patterns of similar genomic abundance across species. A small number of LTR retrotransposon sublineages exhibit lineage-specific amplification, particularly in the genomes of species with larger estimated nuclear DNA content. RT-PCR assays reveal that some LTR retrotransposon sublineages are transcriptionally active across all species and tissue types, whereas others display species-specific and tissue-specific expression. The species with the largest estimated genome size, H. agrestis, has experienced amplification of LTR retrotransposon sublineages, some of which have proliferated independently in other lineages in the Helianthus phylogeny. PMID:27233667
Konovalov, Fedor A; Goncharov, Nikolay P; Goryunova, Svetlana; Shaturova, Aleksandra; Proshlyakova, Tatyana; Kudryavtsev, Alexander
Molecular markers based on retrotransposon insertions are widely used for various applications including phylogenetic analysis. Multiple cases were described where retrotransposon-based markers, namely sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP), were superior to other marker types in resolving the phylogenetic relationships due to their higher variability and informativeness. However, the patterns of evolutionary relationships revealed by SSAP may be dependent on the underlying retrotransposon activity in different periods of time. Hence, the proper choice of retrotransposon family is essential for obtaining significant results. We compared the phylogenetic trees for a diverse set of diploid A-genome wheat species (Triticum boeoticum, T. urartu and T. monococcum) based on two unrelated retrotransposon families, BARE-1 and Jeli. BARE-1 belongs to Copia class and has a uniform distribution between common wheat (T. aestivum) genomes of different origin (A, B and D), indicating similar activity in the respective diploid genome donors. Gypsy-class family Jeli was found by us to be an A-genome retrotransposon with >70% copies residing in A genome of hexaploid common wheat, suggesting a burst of transposition in the history of A-genome progenitors. The results indicate that a higher Jeli transpositional activity was associated with T. urartu versus T. boeoticum speciation, while BARE-1 produced more polymorphic insertions during subsequent intraspecific diversification; as an outcome, each retrotransposon provides more informative markers at the corresponding level of phylogenetic relationships. We conclude that multiple retroelement families should be analyzed for an image of evolutionary relationships to be solid and comprehensive.
Barghini, Elena; Natali, Lucia; Giordani, Tommaso; Cossu, Rosa Maria; Scalabrin, Simone; Cattonaro, Federica; Šimková, Hana; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Morgante, Michele; Cavallini, Andrea
Improved knowledge of genome composition, especially of its repetitive component, generates important information for both theoretical and applied research. The olive repetitive component is made up of two main classes of sequences: tandem repeats and retrotransposons (REs). In this study, we provide characterization of a sample of 254 unique full-length long terminal repeat (LTR) REs. In the sample, Ty1-Copia elements were more numerous than Ty3-Gypsy elements. Mapping a large set of Illumina whole-genome shotgun reads onto the identified retroelement set revealed that Gypsy elements are more redundant than Copia elements. The insertion time of intact retroelements was estimated based on sister LTR's divergence. Although some elements inserted relatively recently, the mean insertion age of the isolated retroelements is around 18 million yrs. Gypsy and Copia retroelements showed different waves of transposition, with Gypsy elements especially active between 10 and 25 million yrs ago and nearly inactive in the last 7 million yrs. The occurrence of numerous solo-LTRs related to isolated full-length retroelements was ascertained for two Gypsy elements and one Copia element. Overall, the results reported in this study show that RE activity (both retrotransposition and DNA loss) has impacted the olive genome structure in more ancient times than in other angiosperms. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.
Background Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are a widespread kind of transposable element present in eukaryotic genomes. They are a major factor in genome evolution due to their ability to create large scale mutations and genome rearrangements. Compared to other transposable elements, little attention has been paid to elements belonging to the metazoan BEL/Pao subclass of LTR retrotransposons. No comprehensive characterization of these elements is available so far. The aim of this study was to describe all BEL/Pao elements in a set of 62 sequenced metazoan genomes, and to analyze their phylogenetic relationship. Results We identified a total of 7,861 BEL/Pao elements in 53 of our 62 study genomes. We identified BEL/Pao elements in 20 genomes where such elements had not been found so far. Our analysis shows that BEL/Pao elements are the second-most abundant class of LTR retrotransposons in the genomes we study, more abundant than Ty1/Copia elements, and second only to Ty3/Gypsy elements. They occur in multiple phyla, including basal metazoan phyla, suggesting that BEL/Pao elements arose early in animal evolution. We confirm findings from previous studies that BEL/Pao elements do not occur in mammals. The elements we found can be grouped into more than 1725 families, 1623 of which are new, previously unknown families. These families fall into seven superfamilies, only five of which have been characterized so far. One new superfamily is a major subdivision of the Pao superfamily which we propose to call Dan, because it is restricted to the genome of the zebrafish Danio rerio. The other new superfamily comprises 83 elements and is restricted to lower aquatic eumetazoans. We propose to call this superfamily Flow. BEL/Pao elements do not show any signs of recent horizontal gene transfer between distantly related species. Conclusions In sum, our analysis identifies thousands of new BEL/Pao elements and provides new insights into their distribution, abundance
Gbadegesin, Michael A; Wills, Matthew A; Beeching, John R
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), though a major world crop with enormous potential, is very under studied. Little is known about its genome structure and organisation. Transposable elements have a key role in the evolution of genome structure, and can be used as important tools in applied genetics. This paper sets out to survey the diversity of members of three major classes of transposable element within the cassava genome and in relation to similar elements in other plants. Members of two classes of LTR-retrotransposons, Ty1/copia-like and Ty3/gypsy-like, and of Enhancer/Suppressor Mutator (En/Spm)-like transposons were isolated and characterised. Analyses revealed 59 families of Ty1/copia, 26 families of Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons, and 40 families of En/Spm in the cassava genome. In the comparative analyses, the predicted amino acid sequences for these transposon classes were compared with those of related elements from other plant species. These revealed that there were multiple lineages of Ty1/copia-like retrotransposons in the genome of cassava and suggested that vertical and horizontal transmission as the source of cassava Mecops may not be mutually exclusive. For the Ty3/gypsy elements network, two groups of cassava Megyps were evident including the Arabidopsis Athila lineage. However, cassava En/Spm-like elements (Meens) constituted a single group within a network of plant En/Spm-like elements. Hybridisation analysis supported the presence of transposons in the genome of cassava in medium (Ty3/gypsy and En/Spm) to high (Ty1/copia) copy numbers. Thus the cassava genome was shown to contain diverse members of three major classes of transposable element; however, the different classes exhibited contrasting evolutionary histories.
Butelli, Eugenio; Licciardello, Concetta; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Jianjun; Mackay, Steve; Bailey, Paul; Reforgiato-Recupero, Giuseppe; Martin, Cathie
Traditionally, Sicilian blood oranges (Citrus sinensis) have been associated with cardiovascular health, and consumption has been shown to prevent obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet. Despite increasing consumer interest in these health-promoting attributes, production of blood oranges remains unreliable due largely to a dependency on cold for full color formation. We show that Sicilian blood orange arose by insertion of a Copia-like retrotransposon adjacent to a gene encoding Ruby, a MYB transcriptional activator of anthocyanin production. The retrotransposon controls Ruby expression, and cold dependency reflects the induction of the retroelement by stress. A blood orange of Chinese origin results from an independent insertion of a similar retrotransposon, and color formation in its fruit is also cold dependent. Our results suggest that transposition and recombination of retroelements are likely important sources of variation in Citrus. PMID:22427337
Neuvéglise, Cécile; Feldmann, Horst; Bon, Elisabeth; Gaillardin, Claude; Casaregola, and Serge
We identified putative long terminal repeat- (LTR) retrotransposon sequences among the 50,000 random sequence tags (RSTs) obtained by the Génolevures project from genomic libraries of 13 Hemiascomycetes species. In most cases additional sequencing enabled us to assemble the whole sequences of these retrotransposons. These approaches identified 17 distinct families, 10 of which are defined by full-length elements. We also identified five families of solo LTRs that were not associated with retrotransposons. Ty1-like retrotransposons were found in four of five species that are phylogenetically related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. uvarum, S. exiguus, S. servazzii, and S. kluyveri but not Zygosaccharomyces rouxii), and in two of three Kluyveromyces species (K. lactis and K. marxianus but not K. thermotolerans). Only multiply crippled elements could be identified in the K. lactis and S. servazzii strains analyzed, and only solo LTRs could be identified in S. uvarum. Ty4-like elements were only detected in S. uvarum, indicating that these elements appeared recently before speciation of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto species. Ty5-like elements were detected in S. exiguus, Pichia angusta, and Debaryomyces hansenii. A retrotransposon homologous with Tca2 from Candida albicans, an element absent from S. cerevisiae, was detected in the closely related species D. hansenii. A complete Ty3/gypsy element was present in S. exiguus, whereas only partial, often degenerate, sequences resembling this element were found in S. servazzii, Z. rouxii, S. kluyveri, C. tropicalis, and Yarrowica lipolytica. P. farinosa (syn. P. sorbitophila) is currently the only yeast species in which no LTR retrotransposons or remnants have been found. Thorough analysis of protein sequences, structural characteristics of the elements, and phylogenetic relationships deduced from these data allowed us to propose a classification for the Ty1/copia elements of hemiascomycetous yeasts and a model of LTR-retrotransposon
Harkess, Alex; Mercati, Francesco; Abbate, Loredana; McKain, Michael; Pires, J. Chris; Sala, Tea; Sunseri, Francesco; Falavigna, Agostino; Leebens-Mack, Jim
Current phylogenetic sampling reveals that dioecy and an XY sex chromosome pair evolved once, or possibly twice, in the genus Asparagus. Although there appear to be some lineage-specific polyploidization events, the base chromosome number of 2n = 2× = 20 is relatively conserved across the Asparagus genus. Regardless, dioecious species tend to have larger genomes than hermaphroditic species. Here, we test whether this genome size expansion in dioecious species is related to a polyploidization and subsequent chromosome fusion, or to retrotransposon proliferation in dioecious species. We first estimate genome sizes, or use published values, for four hermaphrodites and four dioecious species distributed across the phylogeny, and show that dioecious species typically have larger genomes than hermaphroditic species. Utilizing a phylogenomic approach, we find no evidence for ancient polyploidization contributing to increased genome sizes of sampled dioecious species. We do find support for an ancient whole genome duplication (WGD) event predating the diversification of the Asparagus genus. Repetitive DNA content of the four hermaphroditic and four dioecious species was characterized based on randomly sampled whole genome shotgun sequencing, and common elements were annotated. Across our broad phylogenetic sampling, Ty-1 Copia retroelements, in particular, have undergone a marked proliferation in dioecious species. In the absence of a detectable WGD event, retrotransposon proliferation is the most likely explanation for the precipitous increase in genome size in dioecious Asparagus species. PMID:27342737
Discusses the Renaissance idea of "copia," a rhetorical and literary term indicating enthralling richness in terms of detail, variation, and figures of speech, which might now be termed "copias thinking." Offers examples from Erasmus, Rabelais, Montaigne, and Shakespeare. Discusses the uses for copias thinking. (SR)
Discusses the Renaissance idea of "copia," a rhetorical and literary term indicating enthralling richness in terms of detail, variation, and figures of speech, which might now be termed "copias thinking." Offers examples from Erasmus, Rabelais, Montaigne, and Shakespeare. Discusses the uses for copias thinking. (SR)
Vukich, M; Schulman, A H; Giordani, T; Natali, L; Kalendar, R; Cavallini, A
The inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) protocol was applied for the first time within the genus Helianthus to assess intraspecific variability based on retrotransposon sequences among 36 wild accessions and 26 cultivars of Helianthus annuus L., and interspecific variability among 39 species of Helianthus. Two groups of LTRs, one belonging to a Copia-like retroelement and the other to a putative retrotransposon of unknown nature (SURE) have been isolated, sequenced and primers were designed to obtain IRAP fingerprints. The number of polymorphic bands in H. annuus wild accessions is as high as in Helianthus species. If we assume that a polymorphic band can be related to a retrotransposon insertion, this result suggests that retrotransposon activity continued after Helianthus speciation. Calculation of similarity indices from binary matrices (Shannon's and Jaccard's indices) show that variability is reduced among domesticated H. annuus. On the contrary, similarity indices among Helianthus species were as large as those observed among wild H. annuus accessions, probably related to their scattered geographic distribution. Principal component analysis of IRAP fingerprints allows the distinction between perennial and annual Helianthus species especially when the SURE element is concerned.
Kuykendall, David; Shao, Jonathan; Trimmer, Kenneth
A nest of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons (RTRs), discovered by LTR_STRUC analysis, is near core genes encoding the NPR1 disease resistance-activating factor and a heat-shock-factor-(HSF-) like protein in sugarbeet hybrid US H20. SCHULTE, a 10 833 bp LTR retrotransposon, with 1372 bp LTRs that are 0.7% divergent, has two ORFs with unexpected introns but encoding a reverse transcriptase with rve and Rvt2 domains similar to Ty1/copia-type retrotransposons and a hypothetical protein. SCHULTE produced significant nucleotide BLAST alignments with repeat DNA elements from all four families of plants represented in the TIGR plant repeat database (PRD); the best nucleotide sequence alignment was to ToRTL1 in Lycopersicon esculentum. A second sugarbeet LTR retrotransposon, SCHMIDT, 11 565 bp in length, has 2561 bp LTRs that share 100% identity with each other and share 98-99% nucleotide sequence identity over 10% of their length with DRVs, a family of highly repetitive, relatively small DNA sequences that are widely dispersed over the sugarbeet genome. SCHMIDT encodes a complete gypsy-like polyprotein in a single ORF. Analysis using LTR_STRUC of an in silico deletion of both of the above two LTR retrotransposons found that SCHULTE and SCHMIDT had inserted within an older LTR retrotransposon, resulting in a nest that is only about 10 Kb upstream of NPR1 in sugarbeet hybrid US H20. PMID:19390694
Chaparro, Cristian; Gayraud, Thomas; de Souza, Rogerio Fernandes; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Akaffou, Sélastique; Laforga Vanzela, Andre Luis; Kochko, Alexandre de; Rigoreau, Michel; Crouzillat, Dominique; Hamon, Serge; Hamon, Perla; Guyot, Romain
A novel structure of nonautonomous long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons called terminal repeat with GAG domain (TR-GAG) has been described in plants, both in monocotyledonous, dicotyledonous and basal angiosperm genomes. TR-GAGs are relatively short elements in length (<4 kb) showing the typical features of LTR-retrotransposons. However, they carry only one open reading frame coding for the GAG precursor protein involved for instance in transposition, the assembly, and the packaging of the element into the virus-like particle. GAG precursors show similarities with both Copia and Gypsy GAG proteins, suggesting evolutionary relationships of TR-GAG elements with both families. Despite the lack of the enzymatic machinery required for their mobility, strong evidences suggest that TR-GAGs are still active. TR-GAGs represent ubiquitous nonautonomous structures that could be involved in the molecular diversities of plant genomes.
Mita, Paolo; Boeke, Jef D.
Retrotransposons are mutagenic units able to move within the genome. Despite many defenses deployed by the host to suppress potentially harmful activities of retrotransposons, these genetic units have found ways to meld with normal cellular functions through processes of exaptation and domestication. The same host mechanisms targeting transposon mobility allow for expansion and rewiring of gene regulatory networks on an evolutionary time scale. Recent works demonstrating retrotransposon activity during development, cell differentiation and neurogenesis shed new light on unexpected activities of transposable elements. Moreover, new technological advances illuminated subtler nuances of the complex relationship between retrotransposons and the host genome, clarifying the role of retroelements in evolution, development and impact on human disease. PMID:26855260
Athauda, Senarath B. P.; Yoshioka, Katsuji; Shiba, Tadayoshi; Takahashi, Kenji
The wild type Copia Gag precursor protein of Drosophila melanogaster expressed in Escherichia coli was shown to be processed autocatalytically to generate two daughter proteins with molecular masses of 33 and 23 kDa on SDS/PAGE. The active-site motif of aspartic proteinases, Asp-Ser-Gly, was present in the 23 kDa protein corresponding to the C-terminal half of the precursor protein. The coding region of this daughter protein (152 residues) in the copia gag gene was expressed in E. coli to produce the recombinant enzyme protein as inclusion bodies, which was then purified and refolded to create the active enzyme. Using the peptide substrate His-Gly-Ile-Ala-Phe-Met-Val-Lys-Glu-Val-Asn (cleavage site: Phe–Met) designed on the basis of the sequence of the cleavage-site region of the precursor protein, the enzymatic properties of the proteinase were investigated. The optimum pH and temperature of the proteinase toward the synthetic peptide were 4.0 and 70 °C respectively. The proteolytic activity was increased with increasing NaCl concentration in the reaction mixture, the optimum concentration being 2 M. Pepstatin A strongly inhibited the enzyme, with a Ki value of 15 nM at pH 4.0. On the other hand, the active-site residue mutant, in which the putative catalytic aspartic acid residue was mutated to an alanine residue, had no activity. These results show that the Copia proteinase belongs to the family of aspartic proteinases including HIV proteinase. The B-chain of oxidized bovine insulin was hydrolysed at the Leu15−–Tyr16 bond fairly selectively. Thus the recombinant Copia proteinase partially resembles HIV proteinase, but is significantly different from it in certain aspects. PMID:16813567
Wang, Hao; Liu, Jin-Song
Background Long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR elements) are ubiquitous Eukaryotic TEs that transpose through RNA intermediates. Accounting for significant proportion of many plant genomes, LTR elements have been well established as one of the major forces underlying the evolution of plant genome size, structure and function. The accessibility of more than 40% of genomic sequences of the model legume Medicago truncatula (Mt) has made the comprehensive study of its LTR elements possible. Results We use a newly developed tool LTR_FINDER to identify LTR retrotransposons in the Mt genome and detect 526 full-length elements as well as a great number of copies related to them. These elements constitute about 9.6% of currently available genomic sequences. They are classified into 85 families of which 64 are reported for the first time. The majority of the LTR retrotransposons belong to either Copia or Gypsy superfamily and the others are categorized as TRIMs or LARDs by their length. We find that the copy-number of Copia-like families is 3 times more than that of Gypsy-like ones but the latter contribute more to the genome. The analysis of PBS and protein-coding domain structure of the LTR families reveals that they tend to use only 4–5 types of tRNAs and many families have quite conservative ORFs besides known TE domains. For several important families, we describe in detail their abundance, conservation, insertion time and structure. We investigate the amplification-deletion pattern of the elements and find that the detectable full-length elements are relatively young and most of them were inserted within the last 0.52 MY. We also estimate that more than ten million bp of the Mt genomic sequences have been removed by the deletion of LTR elements and the removal of the full-length structures in Mt has been more rapid than in rice. Conclusion This report is the first comprehensive description and analysis of LTR retrotransposons in the Mt genome. Many important
Poulter, Russell T M; Butler, Margi I
Retrotransposons carrying tyrosine recombinases (YR) are widespread in eukaryotes. The first described tyrosine recombinase mobile element, DIRS1, is a retroelement from the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The YR elements are bordered by terminal repeats related to their replication via free circular dsDNA intermediates. Site-specific recombination is believed to integrate the circle without creating duplications of the target sites. Recently a large number of YR retrotransposons have been described, including elements from fungi (mucorales and basidiomycetes), plants (green algae) and a wide range of animals including nematodes, insects, sea urchins, fish, amphibia and reptiles. YR retrotransposons can be divided into three major groups: the DIRS elements, PAT-like and the Ngaro elements. The three groups form distinct clades on phylogenetic trees based on alignments of reverse transcriptase/ribonuclease H (RT/RH) and YR sequences, and also having some structural distinctions. A group of eukaryote DNA transposons, cryptons, also carry tyrosine recombinases. These DNA transposons do not encode a reverse transcriptase. They have been detected in several pathogenic fungi and oomycetes. Sequence comparisons suggest that the crypton YRs are related to those of the YR retrotransposons. We suggest that the YR retrotransposons arose from the combination of a crypton-like YR DNA transposon and the RT/RH encoding sequence of a retrotransposon. This acquisition must have occurred at a very early point in the evolution of eukaryotes.
Vershinin, Alexander V; Druka, Arnis; Alkhimova, Alena G; Kleinhofs, Andris; Heslop-Harrison, John S
LINE and gypsy-like retroelements were studied in the genome of Hordeum vulgare, and compared with the representatives of the major sections of the genus Hordeum. We isolated reverse transcriptase (RT) genes from four gypsy-like and three LINE families using PCR primers specific for the corresponding conserved domains. A full-length barley LINE of 6295 bp, named BLIN, was isolated from a BAC genomic library. BLIN looks alien in the barley genome because its G+C content is 62% compared to an average of 45%. The BLIN nucleotide sequence showed it was structurally intact with the features typical of non-LTR retrotransposons, including 16 bp target site duplications, two short cysteine motifs, and two degenerate open reading frames (ORFs). The high degeneracy was also found in RT domain of both gypsy-like and, particularly, LINE families. The copy numbers of the gypsy-like families were relatively low compared to well-characterized copia-like element BARE-1. Each gypsy-like family gave unique RFLP patterns when hybridized to genomic DNA from each of the four basic Hordeum genomes. H. vulgare (I genome) had accumulated more copies than the wild Hordeum species (H, X, Y genomes), with the other I genome species, H. bulbosum, being intermediate. Analysis of the BAC library and in situ hybridization with LINE RT domains showed the low copy number of the LINE families, but there was little correlation between hybridization patterns and the division of the genus into four basic genomes. The distribution and content of gypsy retrotransposons in the BAC library indicated that a few copies are nested, although most are present as single, distinct, copies. Our results suggest that the major groups of retroelements make individual contributions to the shape of the plant genome; the factors involved in their amplification and distribution are independent, also varying among species.
Beulé, Thierry; Agbessi, Mawussé Dt; Dussert, Stephane; Jaligot, Estelle; Guyot, Romain
The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is a major cultivated crop and the world's largest source of edible vegetable oil. The genus Elaeis comprises two species E. guineensis, the commercial African oil palm and E. oleifera, which is used in oil palm genetic breeding. The recent publication of both the African oil palm genome assembly and the first draft sequence of its Latin American relative now allows us to tackle the challenge of understanding the genome composition, structure and evolution of these palm genomes through the annotation of their repeated sequences. In this study, we identified, annotated and compared Transposable Elements (TE) from the African and Latin American oil palms. In a first step, Transposable Element databases were built through de novo detection in both genome sequences then the TE content of both genomes was estimated. Then putative full-length retrotransposons with Long Terminal Repeats (LTRs) were further identified in the E. guineensis genome for characterization of their structural diversity, copy number and chromosomal distribution. Finally, their relative expression in several tissues was determined through in silico analysis of publicly available transcriptome data. Our results reveal a congruence in the transpositional history of LTR retrotransposons between E. oleifera and E. guineensis, especially the Sto-4 family. Also, we have identified and described 583 full-length LTR-retrotransposons in the Elaeis guineensis genome. Our work shows that these elements are most likely no longer mobile and that no recent insertion event has occurred. Moreover, the analysis of chromosomal distribution suggests a preferential insertion of Copia elements in gene-rich regions, whereas Gypsy elements appear to be evenly distributed throughout the genome. Considering the high proportion of LTR retrotransposon in the oil palm genome, our work will contribute to a greater understanding of their impact on genome organization and evolution
Background In eukaryotes, long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons such as Copia, BEL and Gypsy integrate their DNA copies into the host genome using a particular type of DDE transposase called integrase (INT). The Gypsy INT-like transposase is also conserved in the Polinton/Maverick self-synthesizing DNA transposons and in the 'cut and paste' DNA transposons known as TDD-4 and TDD-5. Moreover, it is known that INT is similar to bacterial transposases that belong to the IS3, IS481, IS30 and IS630 families. It has been suggested that LTR retrotransposons evolved from a non-LTR retrotransposon fused with a DNA transposon in early eukaryotes. In this paper we analyze a diverse superfamily of eukaryotic cut and paste DNA transposons coding for INT-like transposase and discuss their evolutionary relationship to LTR retrotransposons. Results A new diverse eukaryotic superfamily of DNA transposons, named Ginger (for 'Gypsy INteGrasE Related') DNA transposons is defined and analyzed. Analogously to the IS3 and IS481 bacterial transposons, the Ginger termini resemble those of the Gypsy LTR retrotransposons. Currently, Ginger transposons can be divided into two distinct groups named Ginger1 and Ginger2/Tdd. Elements from the Ginger1 group are characterized by approximately 40 to 270 base pair (bp) terminal inverted repeats (TIRs), and are flanked by CCGG-specific or CCGT-specific target site duplication (TSD) sequences. The Ginger1-encoded transposases contain an approximate 400 amino acid N-terminal portion sharing high amino acid identity to the entire Gypsy-encoded integrases, including the YPYY motif, zinc finger, DDE domain, and, importantly, the GPY/F motif, a hallmark of Gypsy and endogenous retrovirus (ERV) integrases. Ginger1 transposases also contain additional C-terminal domains: ovarian tumor (OTU)-like protease domain or Ulp1 protease domain. In vertebrate genomes, at least two host genes, which were previously thought to be derived from the Gypsy integrases
Kojima, Kenji K.; Fujiwara, Haruhiko
Retrotransposons commonly encode a reverse transcriptase (RT), but other functional domains are variable. The acquisition of new domains is the dominant evolutionary force that brings structural variety to retrotransposons. Non-long-terminal-repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons are classified into two groups by their structure. Early branched non-LTR retrotransposons encode a restriction-like endonuclease (RLE), and recently branched non-LTR retrotransposons encode an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-like endonuclease (APE). In this study, we report a novel non-LTR retrotransposon family Dualen, identified from the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome. Dualen encodes two endonucleases, RLE and APE, with RT, ribonuclease H, and cysteine protease. Phylogenetic analyses of the RT domains revealed that Dualen is positioned at the midpoint between the early-branched and the recently branched groups. In the APE tree, Dualen was branched earlier than the I group and the Jockey group. The ribonuclease H domains among the Dualen family and other non-LTR retrotransposons are monophyletic. Phylogenies of three domains revealed the monophyly of the Dualen family members. The domain structure and the phylogeny of each domain imply that Dualen is a retrotransposon conserving the domain structure just after the acquisition of APE. From these observations, we discuss the evolution of domain structure of non-LTR retrotransposons. PMID:16077010
Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Chung, Leeyup; Park, In-Hyun
Retrotransposons, which constitute approximately 40% of the human genome, have the capacity to 'jump' across the genome. Their mobility contributes to oncogenesis, evolution, and genomic plasticity of the host genome. Induced pluripotent stem cells as well as embryonic stem cells are more susceptible than differentiated cells to genomic aberrations including insertion, deletion and duplication. Recent studies have revealed specific behaviors of retrotransposons in pluripotent cells. Here, we review recent progress in understanding retrotransposons and provide a perspective on the relationship between retrotransposons and genomic variation in pluripotent stem cells.
Rey-Baños, Rita; Sáenz de Miera, Luis E; García, Pedro; Pérez de la Vega, Marcelino
Retrotransposons with long terminal repeats (LTR-RTs) are widespread mobile elements in eukaryotic genomes. We obtained a total of 81 partial LTR-RT sequences from lentil corresponding to internal retrotransposon components and LTRs. Sequences were obtained by PCR from genomic DNA. Approximately 37% of the LTR-RT internal sequences presented premature stop codons, pointing out that these elements must be non-autonomous. LTR sequences were obtained using the iPBS technique which amplifies sequences between LTR-RTs. A total of 193 retrotransposon-derived genetic markers, mainly iPBS, were used to obtain a genetic linkage map from 94 F7 inbred recombinant lines derived from the cross between the cultivar Lupa and the wild ancestor L. culinaris subsp. orientalis. The genetic map included 136 markers located in eight linkage groups. Clusters of tightly linked retrotransposon-derived markers were detected in linkage groups LG1, LG2, and LG6, hence denoting a non-random genomic distribution. Phylogenetic analyses identified the LTR-RT families in which internal and LTR sequences are included. Ty3-gypsy elements were more frequent than Ty1-copia, mainly due to the high Ogre element frequency in lentil, as also occurs in other species of the tribe Vicieae. LTR and internal sequences were used to analyze in silico their distribution among the contigs of the lentil draft genome. Up to 8.8% of the lentil contigs evidenced the presence of at least one LTR-RT similar sequence. A statistical analysis suggested a non-random distribution of these elements within of the lentil genome. In most cases (between 97% and 72%, depending on the LTR-RT type) none of the internal sequences flanked by the LTR sequence pair was detected, suggesting that defective and non-autonomous LTR-RTs are very frequent in lentil. Results support that LTR-RTs are abundant and widespread throughout of the lentil genome and that they are a suitable source of genetic markers useful to carry out further genetic
Du, Jianchang; Tian, Zhixi; Hans, Christian S; Laten, Howard M; Cannon, Steven B; Jackson, Scott A; Shoemaker, Randy C; Ma, Jianxin
The availability of complete or nearly complete genome sequences from several plant species permits detailed discovery and cross-species comparison of transposable elements (TEs) at the whole genome level. We initially investigated 510 long terminal repeat-retrotransposon (LTR-RT) families comprising 32370 elements in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Approximately 87% of these elements were located in recombination-suppressed pericentromeric regions, where the ratio (1.26) of solo LTRs to intact elements (S/I) is significantly lower than that of chromosome arms (1.62). Further analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between S/I and LTR sizes, indicating that larger LTRs facilitate solo LTR formation. Phylogenetic analysis revealed seven Copia and five Gypsy evolutionary lineages that were present before the divergence of eudicot and monocot species, but the scales and timeframes within which they proliferated vary dramatically across families, lineages and species, and notably, a Copia lineage has been lost in soybean. Analysis of the physical association of LTR-RTs with centromere satellite repeats identified two putative centromere retrotransposon (CR) families of soybean, which were grouped into the CR (e.g. CRR and CRM) lineage found in grasses, indicating that the 'functional specification' of CR pre-dates the bifurcation of eudicots and monocots. However, a number of families of the CR lineage are not concentrated in centromeres, suggesting that their CR roles may now be defunct. Our data also suggest that the envelope-like genes in the putative Copia retrovirus-like family are probably derived from the Gypsy retrovirus-like lineage, and thus we propose the hypothesis of a single ancient origin of envelope-like genes in flowering plants.
Mascagni, Flavia; Giordani, Tommaso; Ceccarelli, Marilena; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia
Genome divergence by mobile elements activity and recombination is a continuous process that plays a key role in the evolution of species. Nevertheless, knowledge on retrotransposon-related variability among species belonging to the same genus is still limited. Considering the importance of the genus Helianthus, a model system for studying the ecological genetics of speciation and adaptation, we performed a comparative analysis of the repetitive genome fraction across ten species and one subspecies of sunflower, focusing on long terminal repeat retrotransposons at superfamily, lineage and sublineage levels. After determining the relative genome size of each species, genomic DNA was isolated and subjected to Illumina sequencing. Then, different assembling and clustering approaches allowed exploring the repetitive component of all genomes. On average, repetitive DNA in Helianthus species represented more than 75% of the genome, being composed mostly by long terminal repeat retrotransposons. Also, the prevalence of Gypsy over Copia superfamily was observed and, among lineages, Chromovirus was by far the most represented. Although nearly all the same sublineages are present in all species, we found considerable variability in the abundance of diverse retrotransposon lineages and sublineages, especially between annual and perennial species. This large variability should indicate that different events of amplification or loss related to these elements occurred following species separation and should have been involved in species differentiation. Our data allowed us inferring on the extent of interspecific repetitive DNA variation related to LTR-RE abundance, investigating the relationship between changes of LTR-RE abundance and the evolution of the genus, and determining the degree of coevolution of different LTR-RE lineages or sublineages between and within species. Moreover, the data suggested that LTR-RE abundance in a species was affected by the annual or perennial
Sequences of at least three new families of retrotransposons (Tto1-Tto3) were amplified by PCR from cDNA prepared from protoplasts of an established tobacco cell line, based on the fact that certain amino acids are highly conserved in the reverse transcriptases encoded by retrotransposons. Structural analysis indicates that Tto1 is 5.5 kb long and has features typical of retrotransposons. Transcription of Tto1 starting in the long terminal repeat was active only in cultured cells. Protoplast formation enhanced the transcription. The copy number of Tto1 increased 10-fold in established cell lines; it also increased in plants regenerated from tissue cultures and in transgenic plants. These results indicate that Tto1 is activated during tissue culture. This is the first demonstration of activation of a plant retrotransposon by tissue culture. The copy number of Tto2 and a previously isolated transposon, Tnt1, also increased in established cell lines, indicating that these two retrotransposons may also be activated by tissue culture. These three retrotransposons are cryptic in normally propagated plants: no difference in the copy number was observed between individuals of the same cultivars or even between different cultivars. Images PMID:8389699
Sharma, Vishakha; Nandineni, Madhusudan R
Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important non-cereal crop throughout the world and is highly recommended for ensuring global food security. Owing to the complexities in genetics and inheritance pattern of potato, the conventional method of cross breeding for developing improved varieties has been difficult. Identification and tagging of desirable traits with informative molecular markers would aid in the development of improved varieties. Insertional polymorphism of copia-like and gypsy-like long terminal repeat retrotransposons (RTN) were investigated among 47 potato varieties from India using Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) and Retrotransposon Microsatellite Amplified Polymorphism (REMAP) marker techniques and were compared with the DNA profiles obtained with simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The genetic polymorphism, efficiency of polymorphism and effectiveness of marker systems were evaluated to assess the extent of genetic diversity among Indian potato varieties. A total of 139 polymorphic SSR alleles, 270 IRAP and 98 REMAP polymorphic bands, showing polymorphism of 100%, 87.9% and 68.5%, respectively, were used for detailed characterization of the genetic relationships among potato varieties by using cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). IRAP analysis resulted in the highest number of polymorphic bands with an average of 15 polymorphic bands per assay unit when compared to the other two marker systems. Based on pair-wise comparison, the genetic similarity was calculated using Dice similarity coefficient. The SSRs showed a wide range in genetic similarity values (0.485-0.971) as compared to IRAP (0.69-0.911) and REMAP (0.713-0.947). A Mantel's matrix correspondence test showed a high positive correlation (r=0.6) between IRAP and REMAP, an intermediate value (r=0.58) for IRAP and SSR and the lowest value (r=0.17) for SSR and REMAP. Statistically significant cophenetic correlation coefficient values, of 0.961, 0.941 and 0
Volkov, D A; Savvateeva, L V; Dergousova, N I; Rumsh, L D
Retrotransposones are mobile genetic elements occurring in genomes of bacteria, plants or animals. Retrotransposones were found to contain nucleotide sequences encoding proteins which are homological to retroviral aspartic proteinases. Our research has been focused on Ulysses which is mobile genetic element found in Drosophila virilis. We suggested a primary structure of Ulysses proteinase using comparative analysis of amino acid sequences of retroviral proteinases and proteinases from retrotransposones. The appropriate cDNA fragment has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purification of recombinant protein (12 kD) has been carried out by affinity chromatography using pepstatine-agarose. The obtained protein has proteolytic activity at optimum pH 5.5 like the majority of aspartic proteinases.
Leng, P; Klatte, D H; Schumann, G; Boeke, J D; Steck, T L
The complete sequence of a retrotransposon from Dictyostelium discoideum , named skipper , was obtained from cDNA and genomic clones. The sequence of a nearly full-length skipper cDNA was similar to that of three other partially sequenced cDNAs. The corresponding retrotransposon is represented in approximately 15-20 copies and is abundantly transcribed. Skipper contains three open reading frames (ORFs) with an unusual sequence organization, aspects of which resemble certain mammalian retroviruses. ORFs 1 and 3 correspond to gag and pol genes; the second ORF, pro, corresponding to protease, was separated from gag by a single stop codon followed shortly thereafter by a potential pseudoknot. ORF3 (pol) was separated from pro by a +1 frameshift. ORFs 2 and 3 overlapped by 32 bp. The computed amino acid sequences of the skipper ORFs contain regions resembling retrotransposon polyprotein domains, including a nucleic acid binding protein, aspartyl protease, reverse transcriptase and integrase. Skipper is the first example of a retrotransposon with a separate pro gene. Skipper is also novel in that it appears to use stop codon suppression rather than frameshifting to modulate pro expression. Finally, skipper and its components may provide useful tools for the genetic characterization of Dictyostelium. PMID:9518497
Madej, Monika J.; Taggart, Mary; Gautier, Philippe; Garcia-Perez, Jose Luis; Meehan, Richard R.; Adams, Ian R.
Retrotransposons are highly prevalent in mammalian genomes due to their ability to amplify in pluripotent cells or developing germ cells. Host mechanisms that silence retrotransposons in germ cells and pluripotent cells are important for limiting the accumulation of the repetitive elements in the genome during evolution. However, although silencing of selected individual retrotransposons can be relatively well-studied, many mammalian retrotransposons are seldom analysed and their silencing in germ cells, pluripotent cells or somatic cells remains poorly understood. Here we show, and experimentally verify, that cryptic repetitive element probes present in Illumina and Affymetrix gene expression microarray platforms can accurately and sensitively monitor repetitive element expression data. This computational approach to genome-wide retrotransposon expression has allowed us to identify the histone deacetylase Hdac1 as a component of the retrotransposon silencing machinery in mouse embryonic stem cells, and to determine the retrotransposon targets of Hdac1 in these cells. We also identify retrotransposons that are targets of other retrotransposon silencing mechanisms such as DNA methylation, Eset-mediated histone modification, and Ring1B/Eed-containing polycomb repressive complexes in mouse embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, our computational analysis of retrotransposon silencing suggests that multiple silencing mechanisms are independently targeted to retrotransposons in embryonic stem cells, that different genomic copies of the same retrotransposon can be differentially sensitive to these silencing mechanisms, and helps define retrotransposon sequence elements that are targeted by silencing machineries. Thus repeat annotation of gene expression microarray data suggests that a complex interplay between silencing mechanisms represses retrotransposon loci in germ cells and embryonic stem cells. PMID:22570599
Although most of non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons are incorporated in the host genome almost randomly, some non-LTR retrotransposons are incorporated into specific sequences within a target site. On the basis of structural and phylogenetic features, non-LTR retrotransposons are classified into two large groups, restriction enzyme-like endonuclease (RLE)-encoding elements and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE)-encoding elements. All clades of RLE-encoding non-LTR retrotransposons include site-specific elements. However, only two of more than 20 APE-encoding clades, Tx1 and R1, contain site-specific non-LTR elements. Site-specific non-LTR retrotransposons usually target within multi-copy RNA genes, such as rRNA gene (rDNA) clusters, or repetitive genomic sequences, such as telomeric repeats; this behavior may be a symbiotic strategy to reduce the damage to the host genome. Site- and sequence-specificity are variable even among closely related non-LTR elements and appeared to have changed during evolution. In the APE-encoding elements, the primary determinant of the sequence- specific integration is APE itself, which nicks one strand of the target DNA during the initiation of target primed reverse transcription (TPRT). However, other factors, such as interaction between mRNA and the target DNA, and access to the target region in the nuclei also affect the sequence-specificity. In contrast, in the RLE-encoding elements, DNA-binding motifs appear to affect their sequence-specificity, rather than the RLE domain itself. Highly specific integration properties of these site-specific non-LTR elements make them ideal alternative tools for sequence-specific gene delivery, particularly for therapeutic purposes in human diseases.
Buckley, Reuben M.; Kortschak, R. Daniel; Raison, Joy M.
Abstract The factors guiding retrotransposon insertion site preference are not well understood. Different types of retrotransposons share common replication machinery and yet occupy distinct genomic domains. Autonomous long interspersed elements accumulate in gene-poor domains and their nonautonomous short interspersed elements accumulate in gene-rich domains. To determine genomic factors that contribute to this discrepancy we analyzed the distribution of retrotransposons within the framework of chromosomal domains and regulatory elements. Using comparative genomics, we identified large-scale conserved patterns of retrotransposon accumulation across several mammalian genomes. Importantly, retrotransposons that were active after our sample-species diverged accumulated in orthologous regions. This suggested a similar evolutionary interaction between retrotransposon activity and conserved genome architecture across our species. In addition, we found that retrotransposons accumulated at regulatory element boundaries in open chromatin, where accumulation of particular retrotransposon types depended on insertion size and local regulatory element density. From our results, we propose a model where density and distribution of genes and regulatory elements canalize retrotransposon accumulation. Through conservation of synteny, gene regulation and nuclear organization, mammalian genomes with dissimilar retrotransposons follow similar evolutionary trajectories. PMID:28945883
Krom, Nicholas; Recla, Jill; Ramakrishna, Wusirika
Retrotransposons comprise a significant fraction of the rice genome. Despite their prevalence, the effects of retrotransposon insertions are not well understood, especially with regard to how they affect the expression of genes. In this study, we identified one-sixth of rice genes as being associated with retrotransposons, with insertions either in the gene itself or within its putative promoter region. Among genes with insertions in the promoter region, the likelihood of the gene being expressed was shown to be directly proportional to the distance of the retrotransposon from the translation start site. In addition, retrotransposon insertions in the transcribed region of the gene were found to be positively correlated with the presence of alternative splicing forms. Furthermore, preferential association of retrotransposon insertions with genes in several functional classes was identified. Some of the retrotransposons that are part of full-length cDNA (fl-cDNA) contribute splice sites and give rise to novel exons. Several interesting trends concerning the effects of retrotransposon insertions on gene expression were identified. Taken together, our data suggests that retrotransposon association with genes have a role in gene regulation. The data presented in this study provides a foundation for experimental studies to determine the role of retrotransposons in gene regulation.
Rothnie, H M; McCurrach, K J; Glover, L A; Hardman, N
The repetitive fraction of the genome of the eukaryotic slime mould Physarum polycephalum is dominated by the Tp1 family of highly repetitive retrotransposon-like sequences. Tp1 elements consist of two terminal direct repeats of 277bp which flank an internal domain of 8.3kb. They are the major sequence component in the hypermethylated (M+) fraction of the genome where they have been found exclusively in scrambled clusters of up to 50kb long. Scrambling is thought to have arisen by insertion of Tp1 into further copies of the same sequence. In the present study, sequence analysis of cloned Tp1 elements has revealed striking homologies of the predicted amino acid sequence to several highly conserved domains characteristic of retrotransposons. The relative order of the predicted coding regions indicates that Tp1 elements are more closely related to copia and Ty than to retroviruses. Self-integration and methylation of Tp1 elements may function to limit transposition frequency. Such mechanisms provide a possible explanation for the origin and organisation of M + DNA in the Physarum genome.
Rothnie, H M; McCurrach, K J; Glover, L A; Hardman, N
The repetitive fraction of the genome of the eukaryotic slime mould Physarum polycephalum is dominated by the Tp1 family of highly repetitive retrotransposon-like sequences. Tp1 elements consist of two terminal direct repeats of 277bp which flank an internal domain of 8.3kb. They are the major sequence component in the hypermethylated (M+) fraction of the genome where they have been found exclusively in scrambled clusters of up to 50kb long. Scrambling is thought to have arisen by insertion of Tp1 into further copies of the same sequence. In the present study, sequence analysis of cloned Tp1 elements has revealed striking homologies of the predicted amino acid sequence to several highly conserved domains characteristic of retrotransposons. The relative order of the predicted coding regions indicates that Tp1 elements are more closely related to copia and Ty than to retroviruses. Self-integration and methylation of Tp1 elements may function to limit transposition frequency. Such mechanisms provide a possible explanation for the origin and organisation of M + DNA in the Physarum genome. PMID:1707520
Sharma, Anupma; Presting, Gernot G.
Centromeric retrotransposons (CRs) constitute a family of plant retroelements, some of which have the ability to target their insertion almost exclusively to the functional centromeres. Our exhaustive analysis of CR family members in four grass genomes revealed not only horizontal transfer (HT) of CR elements between the oryzoid and panicoid grass lineages but also their subsequent recombination with endogenous elements that in some cases created prolific recombinants in foxtail millet and sorghum. HT events are easily identifiable only in cases where host genome divergence significantly predates HT, thus documented HT events likely represent only a fraction of the total. If the more difficult to detect ancient HT events occurred at frequencies similar to those observable in present day grasses, the extant long terminal repeat retrotransposons represent the mosaic products of HT and recombination that are optimized for retrotransposition in their host genomes. This complicates not only phylogenetic analysis but also the establishment of a meaningful retrotransposon nomenclature, which we have nevertheless attempted to implement here. In contrast to the plant-centric naming convention used currently for CR elements, we classify elements primarily based on their phylogenetic relationships regardless of host plant, using the exhaustively studied maize elements assigned to six different subfamilies as a standard. The CR2 subfamily is the most widely distributed of the six CR subfamilies discovered in grass genomes to date and thus the most likely to play a functional role at grass centromeres. PMID:24814286
Background The development of sugarcane as a sustainable crop has unlimited applications. The crop is one of the most economically viable for renewable energy production, and CO2 balance. Linkage maps are valuable tools for understanding genetic and genomic organization, particularly in sugarcane due to its complex polyploid genome of multispecific origins. The overall objective of our study was to construct a novel sugarcane linkage map, compiling AFLP and EST-SSR markers, and to generate data on the distribution of markers anchored to sequences of scIvana_1, a complete sugarcane transposable element, and member of the Copia superfamily. Results The mapping population parents (‘IAC66-6’ and ‘TUC71-7’) contributed equally to polymorphisms, independent of marker type, and generated markers that were distributed into nearly the same number of co-segregation groups (or CGs). Bi-parentally inherited alleles provided the integration of 19 CGs. The marker number per CG ranged from two to 39. The total map length was 4,843.19 cM, with a marker density of 8.87 cM. Markers were assembled into 92 CGs that ranged in length from 1.14 to 404.72 cM, with an estimated average length of 52.64 cM. The greatest distance between two adjacent markers was 48.25 cM. The scIvana_1-based markers (56) were positioned on 21 CGs, but were not regularly distributed. Interestingly, the distance between adjacent scIvana_1-based markers was less than 5 cM, and was observed on five CGs, suggesting a clustered organization. Conclusions Results indicated the use of a NBS-profiling technique was efficient to develop retrotransposon-based markers in sugarcane. The simultaneous maximum-likelihood estimates of linkage and linkage phase based strategies confirmed the suitability of its approach to estimate linkage, and construct the linkage map. Interestingly, using our genetic data it was possible to calculate the number of retrotransposon scIvana_1 (~60) copies in the sugarcane
Ustyantsev, Kirill; Novikova, Olga; Blinov, Alexander; Smyshlyaev, Georgy
Ty3/Gypsy long terminals repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are structurally and phylogenetically close to retroviruses. Two notable structural differences between these groups of genetic elements are 1) the presence in retroviruses of an additional envelope gene, env, which mediates infection, and 2) a specific dual ribonuclease H (RNH) domain encoded by the retroviral pol gene. However, similar to retroviruses, many Ty3/Gypsy LTR retrotransposons harbor additional env-like genes, promoting concepts of the infective mode of these retrotransposons. Here, we provide a further line of evidence of similarity between retroviruses and some Ty3/Gypsy LTR retrotransposons. We identify that, together with their additional genes, plant Ty3/Gypsy LTR retrotransposons of the Tat group have a second RNH, as do retroviruses. Most importantly, we show that the resulting dual RNHs of Tat LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses emerged independently, providing strong evidence for their convergent evolution. The convergent resemblance of Tat LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses may indicate similar selection pressures acting on these diverse groups of elements and reveal potential evolutionary constraints on their structure. We speculate that dual RNH is required to accelerate retrotransposon evolution through increased rates of strand transfer events and subsequent recombination events. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Ustyantsev, Kirill; Novikova, Olga; Blinov, Alexander; Smyshlyaev, Georgy
Ty3/Gypsy long terminals repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are structurally and phylogenetically close to retroviruses. Two notable structural differences between these groups of genetic elements are 1) the presence in retroviruses of an additional envelope gene, env, which mediates infection, and 2) a specific dual ribonuclease H (RNH) domain encoded by the retroviral pol gene. However, similar to retroviruses, many Ty3/Gypsy LTR retrotransposons harbor additional env-like genes, promoting concepts of the infective mode of these retrotransposons. Here, we provide a further line of evidence of similarity between retroviruses and some Ty3/Gypsy LTR retrotransposons. We identify that, together with their additional genes, plant Ty3/Gypsy LTR retrotransposons of the Tat group have a second RNH, as do retroviruses. Most importantly, we show that the resulting dual RNHs of Tat LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses emerged independently, providing strong evidence for their convergent evolution. The convergent resemblance of Tat LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses may indicate similar selection pressures acting on these diverse groups of elements and reveal potential evolutionary constraints on their structure. We speculate that dual RNH is required to accelerate retrotransposon evolution through increased rates of strand transfer events and subsequent recombination events. PMID:25605791
Cheng, Xu-Dong; Ling, Hong-Qing
Retrotransposons are one of the drivers of genome evolution. They include LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposons, which widespread in Eukaryotagenomes, show structural similarity to retroviruses. Non-LTR retrotransposons were first discovered in animal genomes and then identified as ubiquitous components of nuclear genomes in many species across the plant kingdom. They constitute a large fraction of the repetitive DNA. Non-LTR retrotransposons are divided into LINEs (long interspersed nuclear elements) and SINEs (short interspersed nuclear elements). Transposition of non-LTR retrotransposons is rarely observed in plants indicating that most of them are inactive and/or under regulation of the host genome. Transposition is poorly understood, but experimental evidence from other genetic systems shows that LINEs are able to transpose autonomously while non-autonomous SINEs depend on the reverse transcription machinery of other retrotransposons. Phylogenic analysis shows LINEs are probably the most ancient class of retrotransposons in plant genomes, while the origin of SINEs is unknown. This review sums up the above data and wants to show readers a clear picture of non-LTR retrotransposons.
Llauro, Christel; Jobet, Edouard; Robakowska-Hyzorek, Dagmara; Lasserre, Eric; Ghesquière, Alain; Panaud, Olivier
Retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements abundant in plant and animal genomes. While efficiently silenced by the epigenetic machinery, they can be reactivated upon stress or during development. Their level of transcription not reflecting their transposition ability, it is thus difficult to evaluate their contribution to the active mobilome. Here we applied a simple methodology based on the high throughput sequencing of extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA) forms of active retrotransposons to characterize the repertoire of mobile retrotransposons in plants. This method successfully identified known active retrotransposons in both Arabidopsis and rice material where the epigenome is destabilized. When applying mobilome-seq to developmental stages in wild type rice, we identified PopRice as a highly active retrotransposon producing eccDNA forms in the wild type endosperm. The mobilome-seq strategy opens new routes for the characterization of a yet unexplored fraction of plant genomes. PMID:28212378
Di Franco, C; Pisano, C; Dimitri, P; Gigliotti, S; Junakovic, N
The genomic distribution of elements of the copia, 412, B 104, mdg 1, mdg 4 and 1731 transposon families was compared by the Southern technique in DNA preparations extracted from brains, salivary glands and adult flies of two related Drosophila lines. The copia, 412 and mdg 1 sequences were also probed in DNA from sperm, embryos, and 1st and 2nd instar larvae. The homogeneity of the patterns observed shows that somatic transposition is unlikely to occur frequently. A correlation between mobility and the euchromatic or heterochromatic location of transposable elements is discussed. In addition, an explanation of the variable band intensities of transposable elements in Southern autoradiographs is proposed.
Hancks, Dustin C.; Kazazian, Haig H.
Mobile DNAs, also known as transposons or “jumping genes”, are widespread in nature and comprise an estimated 45% of the human genome. Transposons are divided into two general classes based on their transposition intermediate (DNA or RNA). Only one subclass, non-LTR retrotransposons, is currently active in humans as indicated by 96 disease-causing insertions. These autonomous Long INterspersed Element-1s (LINE-1s or L1s) are capable of retrotransposing not only a copy of their own RNA but also other RNAs (Alu, SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA), U6) in trans to new genomic locations through an element encoded reverse transcriptase. L1 can also retrotranspose cellular mRNAs, resulting in processed pseudogene formation. Here, we highlight recent reports that update our understanding of human L1 retrotransposition and their role in disease. Finally we discuss studies that provide insights into the past and current activity of these retrotransposons, and shed light on not just when, but where, retrotransposition occurs and its part in genetic variation. PMID:22406018
Glukhov, I A; Kotnova, A P; Stefanov, Y E; Ilyin, Y V
A retrotransposon of the Mag family was found in the Drosophila simulans genome for the first time. We also identified novel transposable elements representing the Mag family in seven Drosophila species. The high similarity between the 3' and 5' long terminal repeats in the found copies of transposable elements indicates that their retrotransposition has occurred relatively recently. Thus, the Mag family of retrotransposons is quite common for the genus Drosophila.
Elbarbary, Reyad A; Lucas, Bronwyn A; Maquat, Lynne E
Transposable elements (TEs) are both a boon and a bane to eukaryotic organisms, depending on where they integrate into the genome and how their sequences function once integrated. We focus on two types of TEs: long interspersed elements (LINEs) and short interspersed elements (SINEs). LINEs and SINEs are retrotransposons; that is, they transpose via an RNA intermediate. We discuss how LINEs and SINEs have expanded in eukaryotic genomes and contribute to genome evolution. An emerging body of evidence indicates that LINEs and SINEs function to regulate gene expression by affecting chromatin structure, gene transcription, pre-mRNA processing, or aspects of mRNA metabolism. We also describe how adenosine-to-inosine editing influences SINE function and how ongoing retrotransposition is countered by the body's defense mechanisms. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Elbarbary, Reyad A.; Lucas, Bronwyn A.; Maquat, Lynne E.
Transposable elements (TEs) are both a boon and a bane to eukaryotic organisms, depending on where they integrate into the genome and how their sequences function once integrated. We focus on two types of TEs: long interspersed elements (LINEs) and short interspersed elements (SINEs). LINEs and SINEs are retrotransposons; that is, they transpose via an RNA intermediate. We discuss how LINEs and SINEs have expanded in eukaryotic genomes and contribute to genome evolution. An emerging body of evidence indicates that LINEs and SINEs function to regulate gene expression by affecting chromatin structure, gene transcription, pre-mRNA processing, or aspects of mRNA metabolism. We also describe how adenosine-to-inosine editing influences SINE function and how ongoing retrotransposition is countered by the body’s defense mechanisms. PMID:26912865
Jiang, Yi Wei
Cosuppression, the silencing of dispersed homologous genes triggered by high copy number, may have evolved in eukaryotic organisms to control molecular parasites such as viruses and transposons. Ty1 retrotransposons are dispersed gene repeats in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where no cosuppression has been previously observed. Ty1 elements are seemingly expressed undeterred to a level as high as 10% of total mRNA. Using Ty1–URA3 reporters and negative selection with 5-fluoroorotic acid, it is shown that Ty1 genes can undergo transcriptional cosuppression that is independent of DNA methylation and polycomb-mediated repression. Expression of Ty1-related genes was shown to be in one of two states, the coexpressed state with all Ty1-related genes transcribed or the cosuppressed state with all Ty1-related genes shut off, without uncoordinated or mosaic expression in any individual cell. Rapid switches between the two states were observed. A high copy number of Ty1 elements was shown to be required for the initiation of Ty1 homology-dependent gene silencing, implying that Ty1 gene expression is under negative feedback control. Ty1 transcriptional repressors facilitated the onset of Ty1 cosuppression, and the native Ty1 promoters were required for Ty1 cosuppression, indicating that Ty1 cosuppression occurs at the transcriptional level. PMID:11850409
Hughes, Stephen H
The enzyme reverse transcriptase (RT) was discovered in retroviruses almost 50 years ago. The demonstration that other types of viruses, and what are now called retrotransposons, also replicated using an enzyme that could copy RNA into DNA came a few years later. The intensity of the research in both the process of reverse transcription and the enzyme RT was greatly stimulated by the recognition, in the mid-1980s, that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was a retrovirus and by the fact that the first successful anti-HIV drug, azidothymidine (AZT), is a substrate for RT. Although AZT monotherapy is a thing of the past, the most commonly prescribed, and most successful, combination therapies still involve one or both of the two major classes of anti-RT drugs. Although the basic mechanics of reverse transcription were worked out many years ago, and the first high-resolution structures of HIV RT are now more than 20 years old, we still have much to learn, particularly about the roles played by the host and viral factors that make the process of reverse transcription much more efficient in the cell than in the test tube. Moreover, we are only now beginning to understand how various host factors that are part of the innate immunity system interact with the process of reverse transcription to protect the host-cell genome, the host cell, and the whole host, from retroviral infection, and from unwanted retrotransposition.
Yin, Hao; Du, Jianchang; Wu, Jun; Wei, Shuwei; Xu, Yingxiu; Tao, Shutian; Wu, Juyou; Zhang, Shaoling
Recent sequencing of the Oriental pear (P. bretschneideri Rehd.) genome and the availability of the draft genome sequence of Occidental pear (P. communis L.), has provided a good opportunity to characterize the abundance, distribution, timing, and evolution of long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) in these two important fruit plants. Here, a total of 7247 LTR-RTs, which can be classified into 148 families, have been identified in the assembled Oriental pear genome. Unlike in other plant genomes, approximately 90% of these elements were found to be randomly distributed along the pear chromosomes. Further analysis revealed that the amplification timeframe of elements varies dramatically in different families, super-families and lineages, and the Copia-like elements have highest activity in the recent 0.5 million years (Mys). The data also showed that two genomes evolved with similar evolutionary rates after their split from the common ancestor ~0.77–1.66 million years ago (Mya). Overall, the data provided here will be a valuable resource for further investigating the impact of transposable elements on gene structure, expression, and epigenetic modification in the pear genomes. PMID:26631625
Faulkner, Geoffrey J
Mobile genetic elements feature prominently in mammalian genome evolution. Several transposition-competent retrotransposon families (L1, Alu, SVA) remain active in the human germ line, leading to pathogenesis as well as genome structural variation across the global population. High-throughput screening approaches have recently been developed to detect retrotransposon insertion polymorphisms. Evidence produced by these and other genome-scale technologies indicates an expanded role for retrotransposition in human biology, including somatic mobilisation in the developing embryo and in neural cells. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cordaux, Richard; Batzer, Mark A.
Non-LTR retrotransposons – including LINE-1 (or L1), Alu and SVA elements – have proliferated during the past 80 million years of primate evolution and now account for approximately one third of the human genome. These transposable elements are now known to affect the human genome in many different ways: generating insertion mutations, genomic instability, alterations in gene expression and also contributing to genetic innovation. As the sequences of human and other primate genomes are analyzed in increasing detail, we are begining to understand the scale and complexity of the past and current contribution of non-LTR retrotransposons to genomic change in the human lineage. PMID:19763152
Du, X Y; Hu, Q N; Zhang, Q L; Wang, Y B; Luo, Z R
Retrotransposon-based molecular markers are powerful molecular tools. However, these markers are not readily available due to the difficulty in obtaining species-specific retrotransposon primers. Although recent techniques enabling the rapid isolation of retrotransposon sequences have facilitated primer development, this process nonetheless remains time-consuming and costly. Therefore, research into the transferability of retrotransposon primers developed from one plant species onto others would be of great value. The present study investigated the transferability of retrotransposon primers derived from 'Luotian-tianshi' persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) across other fruit crops, as well as within the genus using inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism molecular marker. Fourteen of the 26 retrotransposon primers tested (53.85%) produced robust and reproducible amplification products across all fruit crops tested, indicating their applicability across plant species. Four of the 13 fruit crops showed the best transferability performances: persimmon, grape, citrus, and peach. Furthermore, similarity coefficients and UPGMA clustering indicated that these primers could further offer a potential tool for germplasm differentiation, parentage identification, genetic diversity assessment, classification, and phylogenetic studies across a variety of plant species. Transferability was further confirmed by examining published primers derived from Rosaceae, Gramineae, and Solanaceae. This study is one of the few currently available studies concerning the transferability of retrotransposon primers across plant species in general, and is the first successful study of the transferability of retrotransposon primers derived from persimmon. The primers presented here will help reduce costs for future retrotransposon primer development and therefore contribute to the popularization of retrotransposon molecular markers.
Scholes, Derek T; Kenny, Alison E; Gamache, Eric R; Mou, Zhongming; Curcio, M Joan
Retrotransposons can facilitate repair of broken chromosomes, and therefore an important question is whether the host can activate retrotransposons in response to chromosomal lesions. Here we show that Ty1 elements, which are LTR-retrotransposons in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are mobilized when DNA lesions are created by the loss of telomere function. Inactivation of telomerase in yeast results in progressive shortening of telomeric DNA, eventually triggering a DNA-damage checkpoint that arrests cells in G2/M. A fraction of cells, termed survivors, recover from arrest by forming alternative telomere structures. When telomerase is inactivated, Ty1 retrotransposition increases substantially in parallel with telomere erosion and then partially declines when survivors emerge. Retrotransposition is stimulated at the level of Ty1 cDNA synthesis, causing cDNA levels to increase 20-fold or more before survivors form. This response is elicited through a signaling pathway that includes Rad24, Rad17, and Rad9, three components of the DNA-damage checkpoint. Our findings indicate that Ty1 retrotransposons are activated as part of the cellular response to telomere dysfunction.
Chang, Wei; Jääskeläinen, Marko; Li, Song-ping; Schulman, Alan H.
The replication of Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, which can constitute over 80% of higher plant genomes, resembles that of retroviruses. A major question for retrotransposons and retroviruses is how the two conflicting roles of their transcripts, in translation and reverse transcription, are balanced. Here, we show that the BARE retrotransposon, despite its organization into just one open reading frame, produces three distinct classes of transcripts. One is capped, polyadenylated, and translated, but cannot be copied into cDNA. The second is not capped or polyadenylated, but is destined for packaging and ultimate reverse transcription. The third class is capped, polyadenylated, and spliced to favor production of a subgenomic RNA encoding only Gag, the protein forming virus-like particles. Moreover, the BARE2 subfamily, which cannot synthesize Gag and is parasitic on BARE1, does not produce the spliced sub-genomic RNA for translation but does make the replication competent transcripts, which are packaged into BARE1 particles. To our knowledge, this is first demonstration of distinct RNA pools for translation and transcription for any retrotransposon. PMID:23940808
Fetal oocytes in mammals undergo extensive apoptosis during development. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Malki et al. (2014) provide insight into how and why such massive oocyte loss occurs through the demonstration that the expression level of LINE-1 retrotransposon defines the survival threshold and thus viability of fetal oocytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kalyanaraman, A; Aluru, S; Schnable, P S
The abundance of repeat elements in the maize genome complicates its assembly. Retrotransposons alone are estimated to constitute at least 50% of the genome. In this paper, we introduce a problem called retroscaffolding, which is a new variant of the well known problem of scaffolding that orders and orients a set of assembled contigs in a genome assembly project. The key feature of this new formulation is that it takes advantage of the structural characteristics and abundance of a particular type of retrotransposons called the Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. This approach is not meant to supplant but rather to complement other scaffolding approaches. The advantages of retroscaffolding are twofold: (i) it allows detection of regions containing LTR retrotransposons within the unfinished portions of a genome and can therefore guide the process of finishing, and (ii) it provides a mechanism to lower sequencing coverage without impacting the quality of the final assembled genic portions. Sequencing and finishing costs dominate the expenditures in whole genome projects, and it is often desired in the interest of saving cost to reduce such efforts spent on repetitive regions of a genome. The retroscaffolding technique provides a viable mechanism to this effect. Results of preliminary studies on maize genomic data validate the utility of our approach. We also report on the on-going development of an algorithmic framework to perform retroscaffolding.
Allopolyploidization is considered an essential evolutionary process in plants that could trigger genomic shock in allopolyploid genome through activation of transcription of retrotransposons, which may be important in plant evolution. Two retrotransposon-based markers, inter-retrotransposon amplifi...
Poulter, R T M; Goodwin, T J D
DIRS-1 is a retroelement from the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Until recently only two related retrotransposons had been described: PAT from the nematode Panagrellus redivivus and Prt1 from the zygomycete fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Analyses of the reverse transcriptase sequences encoded by these three elements suggested that they were closely related to each other and more distantly related to the Ty3/gypsy Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) retroelements. They have several unusual structural features that distinguish them from typical LTR elements. For instance, they each encode a tyrosine recombinase (YR), but not a DDE-type integrase or an aspartic protease. Although the DIRS-1-related elements are bordered by terminal repeats these differ from typical LTRs in a number of ways. In DIRS-1, for example, the terminal repeats are inverted (complementary), non-identical in sequence, and the outer edges of the terminal sequences are repeated (adjacent to each other) in the internal region. PAT has so-called "split" direct repeats in which the unrelated terminal sequences appear as direct repeats adjacent to each other in the internal region. The only repetition displayed by Prt1 is the presence of short inverted terminal repeats, but the sequenced copy of this element is believed to be a truncated version of an element with a structure resembling DIRS-1. The unusual structure of the terminal repeats of the DIRS1-like elements appears to be related to their replication via free circular intermediates. Site-specific recombination is believed to integrate the circle without creating duplications of the target sites. In recognition of these important distinctions it is proposed that the retrotransposons that encode tyrosine recombinases be called the tyrosine recombinase (or YR) retrotransposons. Recently a large number of additional YR retrotransposons have been described, including elements from fungi (zygomycetes and basidiomycetes), plants (green algae) and a
To gain information on retrotransposons in the genome of Paragonimus westermani, PCR was carried out with degenerate primers, specific to protease and reverse transcriptase (rt) genes of long-terminal-repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced, after which 12 different retrotransposon-related sequences were isolated from the trematode genome. These showed various degrees of identity to the polyprotein of divergent retrotransposon families. A phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that these sequences could be classified into three different families of LTR retrotransposons, namely, Xena, Bel, and Gypsy families. Of these, two mRNA transcripts were detected by reverse transcriptase-PCR, showing that these two elements preserved their mobile activities. The genomic distributions of these two sequences were found to be highly repetitive. These results suggest that there are diverse retrotransposons including the ancient Xena family in the genome of P. westermani, which may have been involved in the evolution of the host genome. PMID:14699263
Schuster, Andrew T.; Sarvepalli, Kavitha; Murphy, Eain A.; Longworth, Michelle S.
Retrotransposon sequences are positioned throughout the genome of almost every eukaryote that has been sequenced. As mobilization of these elements can have detrimental effects on the transcriptional regulation and stability of an organism's genome, most organisms have evolved mechanisms to repress their movement. Here, we identify a novel role for the Drosophila melanogaster Condensin II subunit, dCAP-D3 in preventing the mobilization of retrotransposons located in somatic cell euchromatin. dCAP-D3 regulates transcription of euchromatic gene clusters which contain or are proximal to retrotransposon sequence. ChIP experiments demonstrate that dCAP-D3 binds to these loci and is important for maintaining a repressed chromatin structure within the boundaries of the retrotransposon and for repressing retrotransposon transcription. We show that dCAP-D3 prevents accumulation of double stranded DNA breaks within retrotransposon sequence, and decreased dCAP-D3 levels leads to a precise loss of retrotransposon sequence at some dCAP-D3 regulated gene clusters and a gain of sequence elsewhere in the genome. Homologous chromosomes exhibit high levels of pairing in Drosophila somatic cells, and our FISH analyses demonstrate that retrotransposon-containing euchromatic loci are regions which are actually less paired than euchromatic regions devoid of retrotransposon sequences. Decreased dCAP-D3 expression increases pairing of homologous retrotransposon-containing loci in tissue culture cells. We propose that the combined effects of dCAP-D3 deficiency on double strand break levels, chromatin structure, transcription and pairing at retrotransposon-containing loci may lead to 1) higher levels of homologous recombination between repeats flanking retrotransposons in dCAP-D3 deficient cells and 2) increased retrotransposition. These findings identify a novel role for the anti-pairing activities of dCAP-D3/Condensin II and uncover a new way in which dCAP-D3/Condensin II influences local
Schuster, Andrew T; Sarvepalli, Kavitha; Murphy, Eain A; Longworth, Michelle S
Retrotransposon sequences are positioned throughout the genome of almost every eukaryote that has been sequenced. As mobilization of these elements can have detrimental effects on the transcriptional regulation and stability of an organism's genome, most organisms have evolved mechanisms to repress their movement. Here, we identify a novel role for the Drosophila melanogaster Condensin II subunit, dCAP-D3 in preventing the mobilization of retrotransposons located in somatic cell euchromatin. dCAP-D3 regulates transcription of euchromatic gene clusters which contain or are proximal to retrotransposon sequence. ChIP experiments demonstrate that dCAP-D3 binds to these loci and is important for maintaining a repressed chromatin structure within the boundaries of the retrotransposon and for repressing retrotransposon transcription. We show that dCAP-D3 prevents accumulation of double stranded DNA breaks within retrotransposon sequence, and decreased dCAP-D3 levels leads to a precise loss of retrotransposon sequence at some dCAP-D3 regulated gene clusters and a gain of sequence elsewhere in the genome. Homologous chromosomes exhibit high levels of pairing in Drosophila somatic cells, and our FISH analyses demonstrate that retrotransposon-containing euchromatic loci are regions which are actually less paired than euchromatic regions devoid of retrotransposon sequences. Decreased dCAP-D3 expression increases pairing of homologous retrotransposon-containing loci in tissue culture cells. We propose that the combined effects of dCAP-D3 deficiency on double strand break levels, chromatin structure, transcription and pairing at retrotransposon-containing loci may lead to 1) higher levels of homologous recombination between repeats flanking retrotransposons in dCAP-D3 deficient cells and 2) increased retrotransposition. These findings identify a novel role for the anti-pairing activities of dCAP-D3/Condensin II and uncover a new way in which dCAP-D3/Condensin II influences local
Schneider, Anna M.; Duffield, Amy S.; Symer, David E.; Burns, Kathleen H.
Nearly half of our genomes are repetitive sequences derived from retrotransposons. These repeats have accumulated by a ‘copy-and-paste’ mechanism whereby: (i.) a genomic template sequence is transcribed to RNA, (ii.) the RNA is reverse-transcribed, and (iii.) the DNA copy is inserted at a new location in the host genome. As we remain susceptible to new retrotransposition events, many of these insertions are highly polymorphic. Transposons are of interest since insertions into both coding and non-coding gene regions have been associated with a wide variety of functional sequelae and because transposable elements can be involved in genomic rearrangements in transformed cells. In this review, we highlight how expression of retrotransposons, de novo and polymorphic transposon insertions, and genomic rearrangements that these repeats potentiate contribute to both benign and neoplastic hematopoietic diseases. PMID:20200603
Balaj, Leonora; Lessard, Ryan; Dai, Lixin; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Pomeroy, Scott L.; Breakefield, Xandra O.; Skog, Johan
Tumour cells release an abundance of microvesicles containing a selected set of proteins and RNAs. Here, we show that tumour microvesicles also carry DNA, which reflects the genetic status of the tumour, including amplification of the oncogene c-Myc. We also find amplified c-Myc in serum microvesicles from tumour-bearing mice. Further, we find remarkably high levels of retrotransposon RNA transcripts, especially for some human endogenous retroviruses, such as LINE-1 and Alu retrotransposon elements, in tumour microvesicles and these transposable elements could be transferred to normal cells. These findings expand the nucleic acid content of tumour microvesicles to include: elevated levels of specific coding and non-coding RNA and DNA, mutated and amplified oncogene sequences and transposable elements. Thus, tumour microvesicles contain a repertoire of genetic information available for horizontal gene transfer and potential use as blood biomarkers for cancer. PMID:21285958
Shang, Yi; Yang, Fei; Schulman, Alan H.; Zhu, Jinghuan; Jia, Yong; Wang, Junmei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Jia, Qiaojun; Hua, Wei; Yang, Jianming; Li, Chengdao
A poly-row branched spike (prbs) barley mutant was obtained from soaking a two-rowed barley inflorescence in a solution of maize genomic DNA. Positional cloning and sequencing demonstrated that the prbs mutant resulted from a 28 kb deletion including the inflorescence architecture gene HvRA2. Sequence annotation revealed that the HvRA2 gene is flanked by two LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposons (BARE) sharing 89% sequence identity. A recombination between the integrase (IN) gene regions of the two BARE copies resulted in the formation of an intact BARE and loss of HvRA2. No maize DNA was detected in the recombination region although the flanking sequences of HvRA2 gene showed over 73% of sequence identity with repetitive sequences on 10 maize chromosomes. It is still unknown whether the interaction of retrotransposons between barley and maize has resulted in the recombination observed in the present study. PMID:28252053
Heras, Sara R; Macias, Sara; Plass, Mireya; Fernandez, Noemí; Cano, David; Eyras, Eduardo; Garcia-Perez, José L; Cáceres, Javier F
More than half of the human genome is made of transposable elements whose ongoing mobilization is a driving force in genetic diversity; however, little is known about how the host regulates their activity. Here, we show that the Microprocessor (Drosha-DGCR8), which is required for microRNA biogenesis, also recognizes and binds RNAs derived from human long interspersed element 1 (LINE-1), Alu and SVA retrotransposons. Expression analyses demonstrate that cells lacking a functional Microprocessor accumulate LINE-1 mRNA and encoded proteins. Furthermore, we show that structured regions of the LINE-1 mRNA can be cleaved in vitro by Drosha. Additionally, we used a cell culture-based assay to show that the Microprocessor negatively regulates LINE-1 and Alu retrotransposition in vivo. Altogether, these data reveal a new role for the Microprocessor as a post-transcriptional repressor of mammalian retrotransposons and a defender of human genome integrity.
Xu, Yunmin; Jiang, Ning; Zou, Ziliang; Tu, Zhijian; Chen, Anli; Zhao, Qiaoling; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia
Transposable elements constitute a large fraction of the eukaryotic genomes. They have the potential to alter genome structure and play a major role in genome evolution. Here, we report a segmental duplication mediated by a novel long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon as the cause of an egg-shell recessive lethal mutant (l-em mutant) in silkworm (Bombyx mori). The segmental duplication resulted in the duplication of six genes and the disruption of two genes. Disruption of BmEP80 (B. mori egg protein 80), a gene encoding a major egg-shell structure protein, is likely responsible for the lethal water-loss phenotype in the l-em/l-em mutant. Our data revealed that BmEP80 is present in the inner egg-shell layer and plays important roles in resistance to water efflux form eggs. A novel LTR retrotransposon (named as "Qian") was identified and the model for the Qian-mediated chromosomal segmental duplication was proposed. Detail biochemical and genomic analyses on the l-em mutant offer an opportunity to demonstrate that an LTR retrotransposon could trigger duplication of a chromosomal segment (∼96.3 kb) and confer novel phenotype.
Ollinger, Rupert; Reichmann, Judith; Adams, Ian R
In mammals, germ cells derive from the pluripotent cells that are present early in embryogenesis, and then differentiate into male sperm or female eggs as development proceeds. Fusion between an egg and a sperm at fertilization allows genetic information from both parents to be transmitted to the next generation, and produces a pluripotent zygote to initiate the next round of embryogenesis. Meiosis is a central event in this self-perpetuating cycle that creates genetic diversity by generating new combinations of existing genetic alleles, and halves the number of chromosomes in the developing male and female germ cells to allow chromosome number to be maintained through successive generations. The developing germ cells also help to maintain genetic and chromosomal stability through the generations by protecting the genome from excessive de novo mutation. Several mouse mutants have recently been characterised whose germ cells exhibit defects in silencing the potentially mutagenic endogenous retroviruses and other retrotransposons that are prevalent in mammalian genomes, and these germ cells also exhibit defects in progression through meiosis. Here we review how mouse germ cells develop and proceed through meiosis, how mouse germ cells silence endogenous retroviruses and other retrotransposons, and discuss why silencing of endogenous retroviruses and other retrotransposons may be required for meiotic progression in mice.
John H. Werren; Thomas O' Dell
Retrotransposon screen: Gypsy moth families containing straggling and nonstraggling individuals were divided into categories of straggling, medium, and nonstraggling individuals, from which DNA was extracted. Four families were tested by southern hybridization and probing with ribosomal sequences designed to detect R1 and R2 retrotransposon insertions. Results showed...
Cao, Liping; Yin, Guojun; Cao, Zheming; Bing, Xuwen; Ding, Weidong
A Ty3/gypsy-retrotransposon-type transposon was found in the genome of the Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in a previous study (unpublished), and was designated a JRE retrotransposon (Jian retrotransposon). The full-length JRE retrotransposon is 5126 bp, which includes two long terminal repeats of 470 bp at the 5' end and 453 bp at the 3' end, and two open reading frames between them: 4203 bp encoding the group-specific antigen (GAG) and polyprotein (POL). The pol gene has a typical Ty3/gypsy retrotransposon structure, and the gene order is protease, reverse transcriptase, RNase H, and integrase (PR-RT-RH-IN). A phylogenetic analysis of the pol gene showed that it has similarities of 40.7, 40, and 32.8 %, to retrotransposons of Azumapecten farreri, Mizuhopecten yessoensis, and Xiphophorus maculatus, respectively. Therefore, JRE might belong to the JULE retrotransposon family. The copy number of the JRE transposon in the genome of the Jian carp is 124, determined with real-time quantitative PCR. The mRNA of the JRE retrotransposon is expressed in five Jian carp tissues, the liver, kidney, blood, muscle, and gonad, and slightly higher in the kidney and liver than in the other tissues.
Russo, Joseph; Harrington, Andrew W.; Steiniger, Mindy
Movement of transposons causes insertions, deletions, and chromosomal rearrangements potentially leading to premature lethality in Drosophila melanogaster. To repress these elements and combat genomic instability, eukaryotes have evolved several small RNA-mediated defense mechanisms. Specifically, in Drosophila somatic cells, endogenous small interfering (esi)RNAs suppress retrotransposon mobility. EsiRNAs are produced by Dicer-2 processing of double-stranded RNA precursors, yet the origins of these precursors are unknown. We show that most transposon families are transcribed in both the sense (S) and antisense (AS) direction in Dmel-2 cells. LTR retrotransposons Dm297, mdg1, and blood, and non-LTR retrotransposons juan and jockey transcripts, are generated from intraelement transcription start sites with canonical RNA polymerase II promoters. We also determined that retrotransposon antisense transcripts are less polyadenylated than sense. RNA-seq and small RNA-seq revealed that Dicer-2 RNA interference (RNAi) depletion causes a decrease in the number of esiRNAs mapping to retrotransposons and an increase in expression of both S and AS retrotransposon transcripts. These data support a model in which double-stranded RNA precursors are derived from convergent transcription and processed by Dicer-2 into esiRNAs that silence both sense and antisense retrotransposon transcripts. Reduction of sense retrotransposon transcripts potentially lowers element-specific protein levels to prevent transposition. This mechanism preserves genomic integrity and is especially important for Drosophila fitness because mobile genetic elements are highly active. PMID:26534950
Jaligot, Estelle; Hooi, Wei Yeng; Debladis, Emilie; Richaud, Frédérique; Beulé, Thierry; Collin, Myriam; Agbessi, Mawussé D T; Sabot, François; Garsmeur, Olivier; D'Hont, Angélique; Alwee, Sharifah Shahrul Rabiah Syed; Rival, Alain
The mantled floral phenotype of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) affects somatic embryogenesis-derived individuals and is morphologically similar to mutants defective in the B-class MADS-box genes. This somaclonal variation has been previously demonstrated to be associated to a significant deficit in genome-wide DNA methylation. In order to elucidate the possible role of DNA methylation in the transcriptional regulation of EgDEF1, the APETALA3 ortholog of oil palm, we studied this epigenetic mark within the gene in parallel with transcript accumulation in both normal and mantled developing inflorescences. We also examined the methylation and expression of two neighboring retrotransposons that might interfere with EgDEF1 regulation. We show that the EgDEF1 gene is essentially unmethylated and that its methylation pattern does not change with the floral phenotype whereas expression is dramatically different, ruling out a direct implication of DNA methylation in the regulation of this gene. Also, we find that both the gypsy element inserted within an intron of the EgDEF1 gene and the copia element located upstream from the promoter are heavily methylated and show little or no expression. Interestingly, we identify a shorter, alternative transcript produced by EgDEF1 and characterize its accumulation with respect to its full-length counterpart. We demonstrate that, depending on the floral phenotype, the respective proportions of these two transcripts change differently during inflorescence development. We discuss the possible phenotypical consequences of this alternative splicing and the new questions it raises in the search for the molecular mechanisms underlying the mantled phenotype in the oil palm.
Novikova, Olga; Mayorov, Vladimir; Smyshlyaev, Georgiy; Fursov, Michail; Adkison, Linda; Pisarenko, Olga; Blinov, Alexander
Retrotransposons are the major component of plant genomes. Chromodomain-containing Gypsy long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are widely distributed in eukaryotes. Four distinct clades of chromodomain-containing Gypsy retroelements are known from the vascular plants: Reina, CRM, Galadriel and Tekay. At the same time, almost nothing is known about the repertoire of LTR retrotransposons in bryophyte genomes. We have combined a search of chromodomain-containing Gypsy retroelements in Physcomitrella genomic sequences and an experimental investigation of diverse moss species. The computer-based mining of the chromodomain-containing LTR retrotransposons allowed us to describe four different elements from Physcomitrella. Four novel clades were identified that are evolutionarily distinct from the chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons of other plants.
Mashanov, Vladimir S; Zueva, Olga R; García-Arrarás, José E
Research on the involvement of retroelements in developmental processes has been gaining momentum recently; however, most of the studies published so far have been focused on embryonic development. This commentary presents two recent papers, which document significant changes in transcriptional activity of retroelements in two different model systems, salamander limb regeneration and regeneration of radial organs in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima. We hypothesize that transcriptional activity of the retrotransposons can be specifically controlled by the host and may play some hitherto unrecognized role in regeneration.
Ishiuchi, Takashi; Torres-Padilla, Maria-Elena
Almost half of our genome is occupied by transposable elements. Although most of them are inactive, one type of non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon, long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE1), is capable of retrotransposition. Two studies in this issue, Pezic and colleagues (pp. 1410-1428) and Castro-Diaz and colleagues (pp. 1397-1409), provide novel insight into the regulation of LINE1s in human embryonic stem cells and mouse germ cells and shed new light on the conservation of complex mechanisms to ensure silencing of transposable elements in mammals.
Marsano, Renè Massimiliano; Leronni, Daniela; D'Addabbo, Pietro; Viggiano, Luigi; Tarasco, Eustachio; Caizzi, Ruggiero
A set of 67 novel LTR-retrotransposon has been identified by in silico analyses of the Culex quinquefasciatus genome using the LTR_STRUC program. The phylogenetic analysis shows that 29 novel and putatively functional LTR-retrotransposons detected belong to the Ty3/gypsy group. Our results demonstrate that, by considering only families containing potentially autonomous LTR-retrotransposons, they account for about 1% of the genome of C. quinquefasciatus. In previous studies it has been estimated that 29% of the genome of C. quinquefasciatus is occupied by mobile genetic elements. The potential role of retrotransposon insertions strictly associated with host genes is described and discussed along with the possible origin of a retrotransposon with peculiar Primer Binding Site region. Finally, we report the presence of a group of 38 retrotransposons, carrying tandem repeated sequences but lacking coding potential, and apparently lacking “master copy” elements from which they could have originated. The features of the repetitive sequences found in these non-autonomous LTR retrotransposons are described, and their possible role discussed. These results integrate the existing data on the genomics of an important virus-borne disease vector. PMID:22383973
Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Ludwig, Adriana; Loreto, Elgion Lucio Silva
LTR retrotransposons are the most abundant transposable elements in Drosophila and are believed to have contributed significantly to genome evolution. Different reports have shown that many LTR retrotransposon families in Drosophila melanogaster emerged from recent evolutionary episodes of transpositional activity. To contribute to the knowledge of the evolutionary history of Drosophila LTR retrotransposons and the mechanisms that control their abundance, distribution and diversity, we conducted analyses of four related families of LTR retrotransposons, 297, 17.6, rover and Tom. Our results show that these elements seem to be restricted to species from the D. melanogaster group, except for 17.6, which is also present in D. virilis and D. mojavensis. Genetic divergences and phylogenetic analyses of a 1-kb fragment region of the pol gene illustrate that the evolutionary dynamics of Tom, 297, 17.6 and rover retrotransposons are similar in several aspects, such as low codon bias, the action of purifying selection and phylogenies that are incongruent with those of the host species. We found an extremely complex association among the retrotransposon sequences, indicating that different processes shaped the evolutionary history of these elements, and we detected a very high number of possible horizontal transfer events, corroborating the importance of lateral transmission in the evolution and maintenance of LTR retrotransposons.
Minervini, Crescenzio Francesco; Viggiano, Luigi; Caizzi, Ruggiero; Marsano, Renè Massimiliano
We have detected seventy-six novel LTR retrotransposons in the genome of the mosquito Aedes aegypti by a genome wide analysis using the LTR_STRUC program. We have performed a phylogenetic classification of these novel elements and a distribution analysis in the genome of A. aegypti. These mobile elements belong either to the Ty3/gypsy or to the Bel family of retrotransposons and were not annotated in the mosquito LTR retrotransposon database (TEfam). We have found that approximately 1.8% of the genome is occupied by these newly detected retrotransposons that are distributed predominantly in intergenic genomic sequences and introns. The potential role of retrotransposon insertions linked to host genes is described and discussed. We show that a retrotransposon family belonging to the Osvaldo lineage has peculiar structural features, and its presence is likely to be restricted to the A. aegypti and to the Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus genomes. Furthermore we show that the ninja-like group of elements lacks the Primer Binding Site (PBS) sequence necessary for the replication of retrotransposons. These results integrate the knowledge on the complicate genomic structure of an important disease vector.
Sun, Cheng; Shepard, Donald B; Chong, Rebecca A; López Arriaza, José; Hall, Kathryn; Castoe, Todd A; Feschotte, Cédric; Pollock, David D; Mueller, Rachel Lockridge
Among vertebrates, most of the largest genomes are found within the salamanders, a clade of amphibians that includes 613 species. Salamander genome sizes range from ~14 to ~120 Gb. Because genome size is correlated with nucleus and cell sizes, as well as other traits, morphological evolution in salamanders has been profoundly affected by genomic gigantism. However, the molecular mechanisms driving genomic expansion in this clade remain largely unknown. Here, we present the first comparative analysis of transposable element (TE) content in salamanders. Using high-throughput sequencing, we generated genomic shotgun data for six species from the Plethodontidae, the largest family of salamanders. We then developed a pipeline to mine TE sequences from shotgun data in taxa with limited genomic resources, such as salamanders. Our summaries of overall TE abundance and diversity for each species demonstrate that TEs make up a substantial portion of salamander genomes, and that all of the major known types of TEs are represented in salamanders. The most abundant TE superfamilies found in the genomes of our six focal species are similar, despite substantial variation in genome size. However, our results demonstrate a major difference between salamanders and other vertebrates: salamander genomes contain much larger amounts of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, primarily Ty3/gypsy elements. Thus, the extreme increase in genome size that occurred in salamanders was likely accompanied by a shift in TE landscape. These results suggest that increased proliferation of LTR retrotransposons was a major molecular mechanism contributing to genomic expansion in salamanders.
Macia, Angela; Muñoz-Lopez, Martin; Cortes, Jose Luis; Hastings, Robert K.; Morell, Santiago; Lucena-Aguilar, Gema; Marchal, Juan Antonio; Badge, Richard M.; Garcia-Perez, Jose Luis
Long interspersed element 1s (LINE-1s or L1s) are a family of non-long-terminal-repeat retrotransposons that predominate in the human genome. Active LINE-1 elements encode proteins required for their mobilization. L1-encoded proteins also act in trans to mobilize short interspersed elements (SINEs), such as Alu elements. L1 and Alu insertions have been implicated in many human diseases, and their retrotransposition provides an ongoing source of human genetic diversity. L1/Alu elements are expected to ensure their transmission to subsequent generations by retrotransposing in germ cells or during early embryonic development. Here, we determined that several subfamilies of Alu elements are expressed in undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and that most expressed Alu elements are active elements. We also exploited expression from the L1 antisense promoter to map expressed elements in hESCs. Remarkably, we found that expressed Alu elements are enriched in the youngest subfamily, Y, and that expressed L1s are mostly located within genes, suggesting an epigenetic control of retrotransposon expression in hESCs. Together, these data suggest that distinct subsets of active L1/Alu elements are expressed in hESCs and that the degree of somatic mosaicism attributable to L1 insertions during early development may be higher than previously anticipated. PMID:21041477
Macia, Angela; Muñoz-Lopez, Martin; Cortes, Jose Luis; Hastings, Robert K; Morell, Santiago; Lucena-Aguilar, Gema; Marchal, Juan Antonio; Badge, Richard M; Garcia-Perez, Jose Luis
Long interspersed element 1s (LINE-1s or L1s) are a family of non-long-terminal-repeat retrotransposons that predominate in the human genome. Active LINE-1 elements encode proteins required for their mobilization. L1-encoded proteins also act in trans to mobilize short interspersed elements (SINEs), such as Alu elements. L1 and Alu insertions have been implicated in many human diseases, and their retrotransposition provides an ongoing source of human genetic diversity. L1/Alu elements are expected to ensure their transmission to subsequent generations by retrotransposing in germ cells or during early embryonic development. Here, we determined that several subfamilies of Alu elements are expressed in undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and that most expressed Alu elements are active elements. We also exploited expression from the L1 antisense promoter to map expressed elements in hESCs. Remarkably, we found that expressed Alu elements are enriched in the youngest subfamily, Y, and that expressed L1s are mostly located within genes, suggesting an epigenetic control of retrotransposon expression in hESCs. Together, these data suggest that distinct subsets of active L1/Alu elements are expressed in hESCs and that the degree of somatic mosaicism attributable to L1 insertions during early development may be higher than previously anticipated.
Zuccolo, Andrea; Scofield, Douglas G; De Paoli, Emanuele; Morgante, Michele
Long Terminal Repeat retroelements (LTR-RTs) are a major component of many plant genomes. Although well studied and described in angiosperms, their features and dynamics are poorly understood in gymnosperms. Representative complete copies of a Ty1-copia element isolate in Picea abies and named PARTC were identified in six other conifer species (Picea glauca, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus taeda, Abies sibirica, Taxus baccata and Juniperus communis) covering more than 200 million years of evolution. Here we characterized the structure of this element, assessed its abundance across conifers, studied the modes and timing of its amplification, and evaluated the degree of conservation of its extant copies at nucleotide level over distant species. We demonstrated that the element is ancient, abundant, widespread and its paralogous copies are present in the genera Picea, Pinus and Abies as an LTR-RT family. The amplification leading to the extant copies of PARTC occurred over long evolutionary times spanning 10s of MY and mostly took place after the speciation of the conifers analyzed. The level of conservation of PARTC is striking and may be explained by low substitution rates and limited removal mechanisms for LTR-RTs. These PARTC features and dynamics are representative of a more general scenario for LTR-RTs in gymnosperms quite different from that characterizing the vast majority of LTR-RT elements in angiosperms.
Crichton, James H; Dunican, Donncha S; Maclennan, Marie; Meehan, Richard R; Adams, Ian R
The viability of any species requires that the genome is kept stable as it is transmitted from generation to generation by the germ cells. One of the challenges to transgenerational genome stability is the potential mutagenic activity of transposable genetic elements, particularly retrotransposons. There are many different types of retrotransposon in mammalian genomes, and these target different points in germline development to amplify and integrate into new genomic locations. Germ cells, and their pluripotent developmental precursors, have evolved a variety of genome defence mechanisms that suppress retrotransposon activity and maintain genome stability across the generations. Here, we review recent advances in understanding how retrotransposon activity is suppressed in the mammalian germline, how genes involved in germline genome defence mechanisms are regulated, and the consequences of mutating these genome defence genes for the developing germline.
Volkov, D A; Dergousova, N I; Rumsh, L D
This work is focused on the investigation of a proteinase of Ulysses mobile genetic element from Drosophila virilis. The primary structure of this proteinase is suggested based on comparative analysis of amino acid sequences of aspartic proteinases from retroviruses and retrotransposons. The corresponding cDNA fragment has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. The protein accumulated in inclusion bodies. The recombinant protein (12 kD) was subjected to refolding and purified by affinity chromatography on pepstatin-agarose. Proteolytic activity of the protein was determined using oligopeptide substrates melittin and insulin B-chain. It was found that the maximum of the proteolytic activity is displayed at pH 5.5 as for the majority of aspartic proteinases. We observed that hydrolysis of B-chain of insulin was totally inhibited by pepstatin A in the micromolar concentration range. The molecular weight of the monomer of the Ulysses proteinase was determined by MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry.
Singer, Tatjana; McConnell, Michael J.; Marchetto, Maria C.N.; Coufal, Nicole G.; Gage, Fred H.
LINE-1 (L1) elements are retrotransposons that insert extra copies of themselves throughout the genome using a “copy and paste” mechanism. L1s have contributed ~20% to total human genome content and are able to influence chromosome integrity and gene expression upon reinsertion. Recent studies show that L1 elements are active and “jumping” during neuronal differentiation. New somatic L1 insertions may generate “genomic plasticity” in neurons by causing variation in genomic DNA sequences and by altering the transcriptome of individual cells. Thus, L1-induced variation may affect neuronal plasticity and behavior. Here, we discuss potential consequences of L1-induced neuronal diversity and propose that a mechanism generating diversity in the brain could broaden the spectrum of behavioral phenotypes that can originate from any single genome. PMID:20471112
Estécio, Marcos R H; Gallegos, Juan; Dekmezian, Mhair; Lu, Yue; Liang, Shoudan; Issa, Jean-Pierre J
Almost half of the human genome and as much as 40% of the mouse genome is composed of repetitive DNA sequences. The majority of these repeats are retrotransposons of the SINE and LINE families, and such repeats are generally repressed by epigenetic mechanisms. It has been proposed that these elements can act as methylation centers from which DNA methylation spreads into gene promoters in cancer. Contradictory to a methylation center function, we have found that retrotransposons are enriched near promoter CpG islands that stay methylation-free in cancer. Clearly, it is important to determine which influence, if any, these repetitive elements have on nearby gene promoters. Using an in vitro system, we confirm here that SINE B1 elements can influence the activity of downstream gene promoters, with acquisition of DNA methylation and loss of activating histone marks, thus resulting in a repressed state. SINE sequences themselves did not immediately acquire DNA methylation but were marked by H3K9me2 and H3K27me3. Moreover, our bisulfite sequencing data did not support that gain of DNA methylation in gene promoters occurred by methylation spreading from SINE B1 repeats. Genome-wide analysis of SINE repeats distribution showed that their enrichment is directly correlated with the presence of USF1, USF2, and CTCF binding, proteins with insulator function. In summary, our work supports the concept that SINE repeats interfere negatively with gene expression and that their presence near gene promoters is counter-selected, except when the promoter is protected by an insulator element.
Leigh, F; Kalendar, R; Lea, V; Lee, D; Donini, P; Schulman, A H
The Sequence-Specific Amplification Polymorphism (S-SAP) method, and the related molecular marker techniques IRAP (inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism) and REMAP (retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism), are based on retrotransposon activity, and are increasingly widely used. However, there have been no systematic analyses of the parameters of these methods or of the utility of different retrotransposon families in producing polymorphic, scorable fingerprints. We have generated S-SAP, IRAP, and REMAP data for three barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties using primers based on sequences from six retrotransposon families (BARE-1, BAGY-1, BAGY-2, Sabrina, Nikita and Sukkula). The effect of the number of selective bases on the S-SAP profiles has been examined and the profiles obtained with eight MseI+3 selective primers compared for all the elements. Polymorphisms detected in the insertion pattern of all the families show that each can be used for S-SAP. The uniqueness of each transposition event and differences in the historic activity of each family suggest that the use of multiple retrotransposon families for genetic analysis will find applications in mapping, fingerprinting, and marker-assisted selection and evolutionary studies, not only in barley and other Hordeum species and related taxa, but also more generally.
Steinbiss, Sascha; Willhoeft, Ute; Gremme, Gordon; Kurtz, Stefan
Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons and endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are transposable elements in eukaryotic genomes well suited for computational identification. De novo identification tools determine the position of potential LTR retrotransposon or ERV insertions in genomic sequences. For further analysis, it is desirable to obtain an annotation of the internal structure of such candidates. This article presents LTRdigest, a novel software tool for automated annotation of internal features of putative LTR retrotransposons. It uses local alignment and hidden Markov model-based algorithms to detect retrotransposon-associated protein domains as well as primer binding sites and polypurine tracts. As an example, we used LTRdigest results to identify 88 (near) full-length ERVs in the chromosome 4 sequence of Mus musculus, separating them from truncated insertions and other repeats. Furthermore, we propose a work flow for the use of LTRdigest in de novo LTR retrotransposon classification and perform an exemplary de novo analysis on the Drosophila melanogaster genome as a proof of concept. Using a new method solely based on the annotations generated by LTRdigest, 518 potential LTR retrotransposons were automatically assigned to 62 candidate groups. Representative sequences from 41 of these 62 groups were matched to reference sequences with >80% global sequence similarity. PMID:19786494
Inoue, Kota; Fukuda, Kei; Sasaki, Hiroyuki
Mammalian genomes harbor millions of retrotransposon copies, some of which are transpositionally active. In mouse prospermatogonia, PIWI-interacting small RNAs (piRNAs) combat retrotransposon activity to maintain the genomic integrity. The piRNA system destroys retrotransposon-derived RNAs and guides de novo DNA methylation at some retrotransposon promoters. However, it remains unclear whether DNA methylation contributes to retrotransposon silencing in prospermatogonia. We have performed comprehensive studies of DNA methylation and polyA(+) RNAs (transcriptome) in developing male germ cells from Pld6/Mitopld and Dnmt3l knockout mice, which are defective in piRNA biogenesis and de novo DNA methylation, respectively. The Dnmt3l mutation greatly reduced DNA methylation levels at most retrotransposons, but its impact on their RNA abundance was limited in prospermatogonia. In Pld6 mutant germ cells, although only a few retrotransposons exhibited reduced DNA methylation, many showed increased expression at the RNA level. More detailed analysis of RNA sequencing, nascent RNA quantification, profiling of cleaved RNA ends, and the results obtained from double knockout mice suggest that PLD6 works mainly at the posttranscriptional level. The increase in retrotransposon expression was larger in Pld6 mutants than it was in Dnmt3l mutants, suggesting that RNA degradation by the piRNA system plays a more important role than does DNA methylation in prospermatogonia. However, DNA methylation had a long-term effect: hypomethylation caused by the Pld6 or Dnmt3l mutation resulted in increased retrotransposon expression in meiotic spermatocytes. Thus, posttranscriptional silencing plays an important role in the early stage of germ cell development, then transcriptional silencing becomes important in later stages. In addition, intergenic and intronic retrotransposon sequences, in particular those containing the antisense L1 promoters, drove ectopic expression of nearby genes in both
Mason, Andrew S; Fulton, Janet E; Hocking, Paul M; Burt, David W
LTR retrotransposons contribute approximately 10 % of the mammalian genome, but it has been previously reported that there is a deficit of these elements in the chicken relative to both mammals and other birds. A novel LTR retrotransposon classification pipeline, LocaTR, was developed and subsequently utilised to re-examine the chicken LTR retrotransposon annotation, and determine if the proposed chicken deficit is biologically accurate or simply a technical artefact. Using LocaTR 3.01 % of the chicken galGal4 genome assembly was annotated as LTR retrotransposon-derived elements (nearly double the previous annotation), including 1,073 that were structurally intact. Element distribution is significantly correlated with chromosome size and is non-random within each chromosome. Elements are significantly depleted within coding regions and enriched in gene sparse areas of the genome. Over 40 % of intact elements are found in clusters, unrelated by age or genera, generally in poorly recombining regions. The transcription of most LTR retrotransposons were suppressed or incomplete, but individual domain and full length retroviral transcripts were produced in some cases, although mostly with regularly interspersed stop codons in all reading frames. Furthermore, RNAseq data from 23 diverse tissues enabled greater characterisation of the co-opted endogenous retrovirus Ovex1. This gene was shown to be expressed ubiquitously but at variable levels across different tissues. LTR retrotransposon content was found to be very variable across the avian lineage and did not correlate with either genome size or phylogenetic position. However, the extent of previous, species-specific LTR retrotransposon annotation appears to be a confounding factor. Use of the novel LocaTR pipeline has nearly doubled the annotated LTR retrotransposon content of the chicken genome compared to previous estimates. Further analysis has described element distribution, clustering patterns and degree of
Rocheta, Margarida; Cordeiro, Jorge; Oliveira, M; Miguel, Célia
We have isolated and characterized a complete retrotransposon sequence, named PpRT1, from the genome of Pinus pinaster. PpRT1 is 5,966 bp long and is closely related to IFG7 gypsy retrotransposon from Pinus radiata. The long terminal repeats (LTRs) have 333 bp each and show a 5.4% sequence divergence between them. In addition to the characteristic polypurine tract (PPT) and the primer binding site (PBS), PpRT1 carries internal regions with homology to retroviral genes gag and pol. The pol region contains sequence motifs related to the enzymes protease, reverse transcriptase, RNAseH and integrase in the same typical order known for Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons. PpRT1 was extended from an EST database sequence indicating that its transcription is occurring in pine tissues. Southern blot analyses indicate however, that PpRT1 is present in a unique or a low number of copies in the P. pinaster genome. The differences in nucleotide sequence found between PpRT1 and IFG7 may explain the strikingly different copy number in the two pine species genome. Based on the homologies observed when comparing LTR region among different gypsy elements we propose that the highly conserved LTR regions may be useful to amplify other retrotransposon sequences of the same or close retrotransposon family.
Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ishino, Fumitoshi
The acquisition of multiple genes from long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons occurred in mammals. Genes belonging to a sushi-ichi-related retrotransposon homologs (SIRH) family emerged around the time of the establishment of two viviparous mammalian groups, marsupials and eutherians. These genes encode proteins that are homologous to a retrotransposon Gag capsid protein and sometimes also have a Pol-like region. We previously demonstrated that PEG10 (SIRH1) and PEG11/RTL1 (SIRH2) play essential but different roles in placental development. PEG10 is conserved in both the marsupials and the eutherians, while PEG11/RTL1 is a eutherian-specific gene, suggesting that these two domesticated genes were deeply involved in the evolution of mammals via the establishment of the viviparous reproduction system. In this review, we introduce the roles of PEG10 and PEG11/RTL1 in mammalian development and evolution, and summarize the other genes domesticated from LTR retrotransposons and endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) in mammals. We also point out the importance of DNA methylation in inactivating and neutralizing the integrated retrotransposons and ERVs in the process of domestication. PMID:22866050
Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ishino, Fumitoshi
The acquisition of multiple genes from long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons occurred in mammals. Genes belonging to a sushi-ichi-related retrotransposon homologs (SIRH) family emerged around the time of the establishment of two viviparous mammalian groups, marsupials and eutherians. These genes encode proteins that are homologous to a retrotransposon Gag capsid protein and sometimes also have a Pol-like region. We previously demonstrated that PEG10 (SIRH1) and PEG11/RTL1 (SIRH2) play essential but different roles in placental development. PEG10 is conserved in both the marsupials and the eutherians, while PEG11/RTL1 is a eutherian-specific gene, suggesting that these two domesticated genes were deeply involved in the evolution of mammals via the establishment of the viviparous reproduction system. In this review, we introduce the roles of PEG10 and PEG11/RTL1 in mammalian development and evolution, and summarize the other genes domesticated from LTR retrotransposons and endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) in mammals. We also point out the importance of DNA methylation in inactivating and neutralizing the integrated retrotransposons and ERVs in the process of domestication.
Iwata, Aiko; Gill, Navdeep; Jackson, Scott A.
Retrotransposons with long terminal repeats (LTRs) more than 3 kb are not frequent in most eukaryotic genomes. Rice LTR retrotransposon, Retrosat2, has LTRs greater than 3.2 kb and two open reading frames (ORF): ORF1 encodes enzymes for retrotransposition whereas no function can be assigned to ORF0 as it is not found in any other organism. A variety of experimental and in silico approaches were used to determine the origin of Retrosat2 and putative function of ORF0. Our data show that not only is Retrosat2 highly abundant in the Oryza genus, it may yet be active in rice. Homologs of Retrosat2 were identified in maize, sorghum, Arabidopsis and other plant genomes suggesting that the Retrosat2 family is of ancient origin. Several putatively cis-acting elements, some multicopy, that regulate retrotransposon replication or responsiveness to environmental factors were found in the LTRs of Retrosat2. Unlike the ORF1, the ORF0 sequences from Retrosat2 and homologs are divergent at the sequence level, 3D-structures and predicted biological functions. In contrast to other retrotransposon families, Retrosat2 and its homologs are dispersed throughout genomes and not concentrated in the specific chromosomal regions, such as centromeres. The genomic distribution of Retrosat2 homologs varies across species which likely reflects the differing evolutionary trajectories of this retrotransposon family across diverse species. PMID:23119066
Thomson, K G; Thomas, J E; Dietzgen, R G
Retrotransposon-like sequences have been serendipitously detected in the genome of commercial pineapple, Ananas comosus. The sequence from a 2.6 kb cloned fragment of this element had greatest similarity to the del1 Lilium henryi retrotransposon and the gypsy/Ty3 group of retroelements. The order of the genes from 5' to 3' was reverse transcriptase, ribonuclease H and integrase. The integrase domain contained the amino acid sequence motifs which have been associated with recognition of the long terminal repeats and with the cutting/joining reactions required for integration of similar retroelements into the host genome. The retrotransposon existed as a population of variable sequences which were dispersed throughout the genome of pineapple. Southern hybridisation showed that the retrotransposon had integrated repeatedly into the pineapple genome. The reading frame of the element was not interrupted by stop codons, suggesting that it is still potentially capable of transposing. This is the first report of a retrotransposon in pineapple, which we have called deal (for dispersed element of Ananas).
Zhang, Ao; Dong, Beihua; Doucet, Aurélien J.; Moldovan, John B.; Moran, John V.; Silverman, Robert H.
Retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements, and their mobility can lead to genomic instability. Retrotransposon insertions are associated with a diverse range of sporadic diseases, including cancer. Thus, it is not a surprise that multiple host defense mechanisms suppress retrotransposition. The 2′,5′-oligoadenylate (2-5A) synthetase (OAS)-RNase L system is a mechanism for restricting viral infections during the interferon antiviral response. Here, we investigated a potential role for the OAS-RNase L system in the restriction of retrotransposons. Expression of wild type (WT) and a constitutively active form of RNase L (NΔ385), but not a catalytically inactive RNase L mutant (R667A), impaired the mobility of engineered human LINE-1 (L1) and mouse intracisternal A-type particle retrotransposons in cultured human cells. Furthermore, WT RNase L, but not an inactive RNase L mutant (R667A), reduced L1 RNA levels and subsequent expression of the L1-encoded proteins (ORF1p and ORF2p). Consistently, confocal immunofluorescent microscopy demonstrated that WT RNase L, but not RNase L R667A, prevented formation of L1 cytoplasmic foci. Finally, siRNA-mediated depletion of endogenous RNase L in a human ovarian cancer cell line (Hey1b) increased the levels of L1 retrotransposition by ∼2-fold. Together, these data suggest that RNase L might function as a suppressor of structurally distinct retrotransposons. PMID:24371271
Lee, Jungnam; Han, Kyudong; Meyer, Thomas J.; Kim, Heui-Soo; Batzer, Mark A.
The long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) and Alu elements are the most abundant mobile elements comprising 21% and 11% of the human genome, respectively. Since the divergence of human and chimpanzee lineages, these elements have vigorously created chromosomal rearrangements causing genomic difference between humans and chimpanzees by either increasing or decreasing the size of genome. Here, we report an exotic mechanism, retrotransposon recombination-mediated inversion (RRMI), that usually does not alter the amount of genomic material present. Through the comparison of the human and chimpanzee draft genome sequences, we identified 252 inversions whose respective inversion junctions can clearly be characterized. Our results suggest that L1 and Alu elements cause chromosomal inversions by either forming a secondary structure or providing a fragile site for double-strand breaks. The detailed analysis of the inversion breakpoints showed that L1 and Alu elements are responsible for at least 44% of the 252 inversion loci between human and chimpanzee lineages, including 49 RRMI loci. Among them, three RRMI loci inverted exonic regions in known genes, which implicates this mechanism in generating the genomic and phenotypic differences between human and chimpanzee lineages. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of mobile element bases inversion breakpoints between human and chimpanzee lineages, and highlights their role in primate genome evolution. PMID:19112500
Rodić, Nemanja; Steranka, Jared P; Makohon-Moore, Alvin; Moyer, Allison; Shen, Peilin; Sharma, Reema; Kohutek, Zachary A; Huang, Cheng Ran; Ahn, Daniel; Mita, Paolo; Taylor, Martin S; Barker, Norman J; Hruban, Ralph H; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Boeke, Jef D; Burns, Kathleen H
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is typically diagnosed after the disease has metastasized; it is among the most lethal forms of cancer. We recently described aberrant expression of an open reading frame 1 protein, ORF1p, encoded by long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1; L1) retrotransposon, in PDAC. To test whether LINE-1 expression leads to somatic insertions of this mobile DNA, we used a targeted method to sequence LINE-1 insertion sites in matched PDAC and normal samples. We found evidence of 465 somatic LINE-1 insertions in 20 PDAC genomes, which were absent from corresponding normal samples. In cases in which matched normal tissue, primary PDAC and metastatic disease sites were available, insertions were found in primary and metastatic tissues in differing proportions. Two adenocarcinomas secondarily involving the pancreas, but originating in the stomach and duodenum, acquired insertions with a similar discordance between primary and metastatic sites. Together, our findings show that LINE-1 contributes to the genetic evolution of PDAC and suggest that somatic insertions are acquired discontinuously in gastrointestinal neoplasms.
Lee, Jungnam; Han, Kyudong; Meyer, Thomas J; Kim, Heui-Soo; Batzer, Mark A
The long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) and Alu elements are the most abundant mobile elements comprising 21% and 11% of the human genome, respectively. Since the divergence of human and chimpanzee lineages, these elements have vigorously created chromosomal rearrangements causing genomic difference between humans and chimpanzees by either increasing or decreasing the size of genome. Here, we report an exotic mechanism, retrotransposon recombination-mediated inversion (RRMI), that usually does not alter the amount of genomic material present. Through the comparison of the human and chimpanzee draft genome sequences, we identified 252 inversions whose respective inversion junctions can clearly be characterized. Our results suggest that L1 and Alu elements cause chromosomal inversions by either forming a secondary structure or providing a fragile site for double-strand breaks. The detailed analysis of the inversion breakpoints showed that L1 and Alu elements are responsible for at least 44% of the 252 inversion loci between human and chimpanzee lineages, including 49 RRMI loci. Among them, three RRMI loci inverted exonic regions in known genes, which implicates this mechanism in generating the genomic and phenotypic differences between human and chimpanzee lineages. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of mobile element bases inversion breakpoints between human and chimpanzee lineages, and highlights their role in primate genome evolution.
Casacuberta, J M; Vernhettes, S; Grandbastien, M A
Retroviruses consist of populations of different but closely related genomes referred to as quasispecies. A high mutation rate coupled with extremely rapid replication cycles allows these sequences to be highly interconnected in a rapid equilibrium. It is not known if other retroelements can show a similar population structure. We show here that when the tobacco Tnt1 retrotransposon is expressed, its RNA is not a unique sequence but a population of different but closely related sequences. Nevertheless, this highly variable population is not in a rapid equilibrium and could not be considered as a quasispecies. We have thus named the structure presented by Tnt1 RNA quasispecies-like. We show that the expression of Tnt1 in different situations gives rise to different populations of Tnt1 RNA sequences, suggesting an adaptive capacity for this element. The analysis of the variability within the total genomic population of Tnt1 elements shows that mutations frequently occur in important regulatory elements and that defective elements are often produced. We discuss the implications that this population structure could have for Tnt1 regulation and evolution. Images PMID:7781619
Horns, Felix; Petit, Elsa
Transposable elements (TEs) are selfish, autonomously replicating DNA sequences that constitute a major component of eukaryotic genomes and contribute to genome evolution through their movement and amplification. Many fungal genomes, including the anther-smut fungi in the basidiomycete genus Microbotryum, have genome defense mechanisms, such as repeat-induced point mutation (RIP), which hypermutate repetitive DNA and limit TE activity. Little is known about how hypermutation affects the tempo of TE activity and their sequence evolution. Here we report the identification of a massive burst-like expansion of Gypsy-like retrotransposons in a strain of Microbotryum. This TE expansion evidently occurred in the face of RIP-like hypermutation activity. By examining the fitness of individual TE insertion variants, we found that RIP-like mutations impair TE fitness and limit proliferation. Our results provide evidence for a punctuated pattern of TE expansion in a fungal genome, similar to that observed in animals and plants. While targeted hypermutation is often thought of as an effective protection against mobile element activity, our findings suggest that active TEs can persist and undergo selection while they proliferate in genomes that have RIP-like defenses. PMID:28164239
Paço, Ana; Adega, Filomena; Chaves, Raquel
Long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (LINE-1) are the most abundant and active retrotransposons in the mammalian genomes. Traditionally, the occurrence of LINE-1 sequences in the genome of mammals has been explained by the selfish DNA hypothesis. Nevertheless, recently, it has also been argued that these sequences could play important roles in these genomes, as in the regulation of gene expression, genome modelling and X-chromosome inactivation. The non-random chromosomal distribution is a striking feature of these retroelements that somehow reflects its functionality. In the present study, we have isolated and analysed a fraction of the open reading frame 2 (ORF2) LINE-1 sequence from three rodent species, Cricetus cricetus, Peromyscus eremicus and Praomys tullbergi. Physical mapping of the isolated sequences revealed an interspersed longitudinal AT pattern of distribution along all the chromosomes of the complement in the three genomes. A detailed analysis shows that these sequences are preferentially located in the euchromatic regions, although some signals could be detected in the heterochromatin. In addition, a coincidence between the location of imprinted gene regions (as Xist and Tsix gene regions) and the LINE-1 retroelements was also observed. According to these results, we propose an involvement of LINE-1 sequences in different genomic events as gene imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation and evolution of repetitive sequences located at the heterochromatic regions (e.g. satellite DNA sequences) of the rodents' genomes analysed.
The proliferation of retrotransposons within a genome can contribute to increased sizes and affect the function of eukaryotic genes. BEL/Pao-like long-terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons were annotated from the highly adaptable insect species Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, the western corn root...
Oliveira-Silva, A M; Silva, G F; Dias, M C; Clement, C R; Sousa, N R
Manioc, Manihot esculenta, is economically important in many tropical and subtropical countries. The genetic variability of the species has not been fully explored, and new information may help expand its use. Molecular markers based on retrotransposons have good potential for analysis of genetic diversity given their abundance in the genome. Eight long terminal repeat retrotransposons were selected for the development of inter-retrotransposon-amplified polymorphism markers. To test these primers, we analyzed 32 varieties from Anori, 30 from Manicoré and 10 Mandiocabas from the Manioc Germplasm Bank at Embrapa Western Amazonia. The six informative primer pairs yielded 20- 60 polymorphic bands, averaging 92% polymorphism (51.7-98.4) and 0.37 heterozygosity (0.17 to 0.40), with a Shannon information index of 0.54 (0.26-0.59). These markers can be used to explore the genetic diversity of manioc.
Servant, Geraldine; Deininger, Prescott L.
The telomerase complex is a specialized reverse transcriptase (RT) that inserts tandem DNA arrays at the linear chromosome ends and contributes to the protection of the genetic information in eukaryotic genomes. Telomerases are phylogenetically related to retrotransposons, encoding also the RT activity required for the amplification of their sequences throughout the genome. Intriguingly the telomerase gene is lost from the Drosophila genome and tandem retrotransposons replace telomeric sequences at the chromosome extremities. This observation suggests the versatility of RT activity in counteracting the chromosome shortening associated with genome replication and that retrotransposons can provide this activity in case of a dysfunctional telomerase. In this review paper, we describe the major classes of retroelements present in eukaryotic genomes in order to point out the differences and similarities with the telomerase complex. In a second part, we discuss the insertion of retroelements at the ends of chromosomes as an adaptive response for dysfunctional telomeres. PMID:26779254
Background Chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons or chromoviruses are widely distributed among eukaryotes and have been found in plants, fungi and vertebrates. The previous comprehensive survey of chromoviruses from mosses (Bryophyta) suggested that genomes of non-seed plants contain the clade which is closely related to the retrotransposons from fungi. The origin, distribution and evolutionary history of this clade remained unclear mainly due to the absence of information concerning the diversity and distribution of LTR retrotransposons in other groups of non-seed plants as well as in fungal genomes. Results In present study we preformed in silico analysis of chromodomain-containing LTR retrotransposons in 25 diverse fungi and a number of plant species including spikemoss Selaginella moellendorffii (Lycopodiophyta) coupled with an experimental survey of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons from diverse non-seed vascular plants (lycophytes, ferns, and horsetails). Our mining of Gypsy LTR retrotransposons in genomic sequences allowed identification of numerous families which have not been described previously in fungi. Two new well-supported clades, Galahad and Mordred, as well as several other previously unknown lineages of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons were described based on the results of PCR-mediated survey of LTR retrotransposon fragments from ferns, horsetails and lycophytes. It appeared that one of the clades, namely Tcn1 clade, was present in basidiomycetes and non-seed plants including mosses (Bryophyta) and lycophytes (genus Selaginella). Conclusions The interkingdom distribution is not typical for chromodomain-containing LTR retrotransposons clades which are usually very specific for a particular taxonomic group. Tcn1-like LTR retrotransposons from fungi and non-seed plants demonstrated high similarity to each other which can be explained by strong selective constraints and the 'retained' genes theory or by
Lee, Sung-Hun; Eldi, Preethi; Cho, Soo-Young; Rangasamy, Danny
Background Dicer is an RNase III-ribonuclease that initiates the formation of small interfering RNAs as a defence against genomic parasites such as retrotransposons. Despite intensive characterization in mammalian species, the biological functions of Dicer in controlling retrotransposable elements of the non-mammalian vertebrate are poorly understood. In this report, we examine the role of chicken Dicer in controlling the activity of chicken CR1 retrotransposable elements in a chicken-human hybrid DT40 cell line employing a conditional loss-of-Dicer function. Results Retrotransposition is detrimental to host genome stability and thus eukaryotic cells have developed mechanisms to limit the expansion of retrotransposons by Dicer-mediated RNAi silencing pathways. However, the mechanisms that control the activity and copy numbers of transposable elements in chicken remain unclear. Here, we describe how the loss of Dicer in chicken cells does not reactivate endogenous chicken CR1 retrotransposons with impaired RNAi machinery, suggesting that the control of chicken CR1 is independent of Dicer-induced RNAi silencing. In contrast, upon introduction of a functionally active human L1 retrotransposable element that contains an active 5' UTR promoter, the Dicer-deficient chicken cells show a strong increase in the accumulation of human L1 transcripts and retrotransposition activity, highlighting a major difference between chicken CR1 and other mammalian L1 retrotransposons. Conclusion Our data provide evidence that chicken CR1 retrotransposons, unlike their mammalian L1 counterparts, do not undergo retrotransposition because most CR1 retrotransposons are truncated or mutated at their 5'UTR promoters and thus are not subjected to Dicer-mediated RNAi-silencing control. PMID:19691826
Knisbacher, Binyamin A.; Levanon, Erez Y.
Long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR) are widespread in vertebrates and their dynamism facilitates genome evolution. However, these endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) must be restricted to maintain genomic stability. The APOBECs, a protein family that can edit C-to-U in DNA, do so by interfering with reverse transcription and hypermutating retrotransposon DNA. In some cases, a retrotransposon may integrate into the genome despite being hypermutated. Such an event introduces a unique sequence into the genome, increasing retrotransposon diversity and the probability of developing new function at the locus of insertion. The prevalence of this phenomenon and its effects on vertebrate genomes are still unclear. In this study, we screened ERV sequences in the genomes of 123 diverse species and identified hundreds of thousands of edited sites in multiple vertebrate lineages, including placental mammals, marsupials, and birds. Numerous edited ERVs carry high mutation loads, some with greater than 350 edited sites, profoundly damaging their open-reading frames. For many of the species studied, this is the first evidence that APOBECs are active players in their innate immune system. Unexpectedly, some birds and especially zebra finch and medium ground-finch (one of Darwin’s finches) are exceptionally enriched in DNA editing. We demonstrate that edited retrotransposons may be preferentially retained in active genomic regions, as reflected from their enrichment in genes, exons, promoters, and transcription start sites, thereby raising the probability of their exaptation for novel function. In conclusion, DNA editing of retrotransposons by APOBECs has a substantial role in vertebrate innate immunity and may boost genome evolution. PMID:26541172
Monat, Cecile; Tando, Ndomassi; Tranchant-Dubreuil, Christine; Sabot, Francois
Automatic classification of LTR retrotransposons is a big challenge in the area of massive genomics. Many tools were developed to detect them but automatic classification is somehow challenging. Here we propose a simple approach, LTRclassifier, based on HMM recognition followed by BLAST analyses (i) to classify plant LTR retrotransposons in their respective superfamily, and (ii) to provide automatically a basic functional annotation of these elements. The method was tested on various TE databases, and shown to be robust and fast. This tool is available as a web service implemented at IRD bioinformatics facility, http://LTRclassifier.ird.fr/.
Mascagni, Flavia; Barghini, Elena; Giordani, Tommaso; Rieseberg, Loren H; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia
The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) genome contains a very large proportion of transposable elements, especially long terminal repeat retrotransposons. However, knowledge on the retrotransposon-related variability within this species is still limited. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to perform a quantitative and qualitative survey of intraspecific variation of the retrotransposon fraction of the genome across 15 genotypes--7 wild accessions and 8 cultivars--of H. annuus. By mapping the Illumina reads of the 15 genotypes onto a library of sunflower long terminal repeat retrotransposons, we observed considerable variability in redundancy among genotypes, at both superfamily and family levels. In another analysis, we mapped Illumina paired reads to two sets of sequences, that is, long terminal repeat retrotransposons and protein-encoding sequences, and evaluated the extent of retrotransposon proximity to genes in the sunflower genome by counting the number of paired reads in which one read mapped to a retrotransposon and the other to a gene. Large variability among genotypes was also ascertained for retrotransposon proximity to genes. Both long terminal repeat retrotransposon redundancy and proximity to genes varied among retrotransposon families and also between cultivated and wild genotypes. Such differences are discussed in relation to the possible role of long terminal repeat retrotransposons in the domestication of sunflower.
Mascagni, Flavia; Barghini, Elena; Giordani, Tommaso; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia
The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) genome contains a very large proportion of transposable elements, especially long terminal repeat retrotransposons. However, knowledge on the retrotransposon-related variability within this species is still limited. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to perform a quantitative and qualitative survey of intraspecific variation of the retrotransposon fraction of the genome across 15 genotypes—7 wild accessions and 8 cultivars—of H. annuus. By mapping the Illumina reads of the 15 genotypes onto a library of sunflower long terminal repeat retrotransposons, we observed considerable variability in redundancy among genotypes, at both superfamily and family levels. In another analysis, we mapped Illumina paired reads to two sets of sequences, that is, long terminal repeat retrotransposons and protein-encoding sequences, and evaluated the extent of retrotransposon proximity to genes in the sunflower genome by counting the number of paired reads in which one read mapped to a retrotransposon and the other to a gene. Large variability among genotypes was also ascertained for retrotransposon proximity to genes. Both long terminal repeat retrotransposon redundancy and proximity to genes varied among retrotransposon families and also between cultivated and wild genotypes. Such differences are discussed in relation to the possible role of long terminal repeat retrotransposons in the domestication of sunflower. PMID:26608057
Wang, Xianzong; Liu, Xiaolin
Horizontal transfer (HT) of genetic materials is increasingly being found in both animals and plants and mainly concerns transposable elements (TEs). Many crustaceans have big genome sizes and are thus likely to harbor high TE contents. Their habitat might offer them ample opportunities to exchange genetic materials with organisms that are ecologically close but taxonomically distant to them. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), an important economic crustacean, to explore traces of HT events. From a collection of newly assembled transcripts, we identified 395 high reliable TE transcripts, most of which were retrotransposon transcripts. One hundred fifty-seven of those transcripts showed highest similarity to sequences from non-arthropod organisms, including ray-finned fishes, mollusks and putative parasites. In total, 16 already known L. vannamei TE families are likely to be involved in horizontal transfer events. Phylogenetic analyses of 10 L. vannamei TE families and their homologues (protein sequences) revealed that L. vannamei TE families were generally more close to sequences from aquatic species. Furthermore, TEs from other aquatic species also tend to group together, although they are often distantly related in taxonomy. Sequences from parasites and microorganisms were also widely present, indicating their possible important roles in HT events. Expression profile analyses of transcripts in two NCBI BioProjects revealed that transcripts involved in HT events are likely to play important roles in antiviral immunity. More specifically, those transcripts might act as inhibitors of antiviral immunity. Close ecological relationship, especially predation, might greatly facilitate HT events among aquatic species. This could be achieved through exchange of parasites and microorganisms, or through direct DNA flow. The occurrence of HT events may be largely incidental, but the effects could be beneficial for
Wright, Robert O; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Rosalind J; Bollati, Valentina; Tarantini, Letizia; Park, Sung Kyun; Hu, Howard; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Baccarelli, Andrea
DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark that regulates gene expression. Changes in DNA methylation within white blood cells may result from cumulative exposure to environmental metals such as lead. Bone lead, a marker of cumulative exposure, may therefore better predict DNA methylation than does blood lead. In this study we compared associations between lead biomarkers and DNA methylation. We measured global methylation in participants of the Normative Aging Study (all men) who had archived DNA samples. We measured patella and tibia lead levels by K-X-Ray fluorescence and blood lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. DNA samples from blood were used to determine global methylation averages within CpG islands of long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (LINE-1) and Alu retrotransposons. A mixed-effects model using repeated measures of Alu or LINE-1 as the dependent variable and blood/bone lead (tibia or patella in separate models) as the primary exposure marker was fit to the data. Overall mean global methylation (+/- SD) was 26.3 +/- 1.0 as measured by Alu and 76.8 +/- 1.9 as measured by LINE-1. In the mixed-effects model, patella lead levels were inversely associated with LINE-1 (beta = -0.25; p < 0.01) but not Alu (beta = -0.03; p = 0.4). Tibia lead and blood lead did not predict global methylation for either Alu or LINE-1. Patella lead levels predicted reduced global DNA methylation within LINE-1 elements. The association between lead exposure and LINE-1 DNA methylation may have implications for the mechanisms of action of lead on health outcomes, and also suggests that changes in DNA methylation may represent a biomarker of past lead exposure.
Miguel, Célia; Simões, Marta; Oliveira, Maria Margarida; Rocheta, Margarida
Retroviruses differ from retrotransposons due to their infective capacity, which depends critically on the encoded envelope. Some plant retroelements contain domains reminiscent of the env of animal retroviruses but the number of such elements described to date is restricted to angiosperms. We show here the first evidence of the presence of putative env-like gene sequences in a gymnosperm species, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine). Using a degenerate primer approach for conserved domains of RNaseH gene, three clones from putative envelope-like retrotransposons (PpRT2, PpRT3, and PpRT4) were identified. The env-like sequences of P. pinaster clones are predicted to encode proteins with transmembrane domains. These sequences showed identity scores of up to 30% with env-like sequences belonging to different organisms. A phylogenetic analysis based on protein alignment of deduced aminoacid sequences revealed that these clones clustered with env-containing plant retrotransposons, as well as with retrotransposons from invertebrate organisms. The differences found among the sequences of maritime pine clones isolated here suggest the existence of different putative classes of env-like retroelements. The identification for the first time of env-like genes in a gymnosperm species may support the ancestrality of retroviruses among plants shedding light on their role in plant evolution.
Although non-autonomous LTR-retrotransposons lacking significant protein coding domains have been identified in eukaryotes, how they interact with their autonomous partners to maintain transpositional activity during host genome evolution is poorly understood. We performed a comprehensive analysis o...
Rowley, Paul A
Viruses are a major focus of current research efforts because of their detrimental impact on humanity and their ubiquity within the environment. Bacteriophages have long been used to study host-virus interactions within microbes, but it is often forgotten that the single-celled eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae and related species are infected with double-stranded RNA viruses, single-stranded RNA viruses, LTR-retrotransposons and double-stranded DNA plasmids. These intracellular nucleic acid elements have some similarities to higher eukaryotic viruses, i.e. yeast retrotransposons have an analogous lifecycle to retroviruses, the particle structure of yeast totiviruses resembles the capsid of reoviruses and segregation of yeast plasmids is analogous to segregation strategies used by viral episomes. The powerful experimental tools available to study the genetics, cell biology and evolution of S. cerevisiae are well suited to further our understanding of how cellular processes are hijacked by eukaryotic viruses, retrotransposons and plasmids. This article has been written to briefly introduce viruses, retrotransposons and plasmids that infect Saccharomyces yeasts, emphasize some important cellular proteins and machineries with which they interact, and suggest the evolutionary consequences of these interactions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Robin, Stéphanie; Chambeyron, Séverine; Bucheton, Alain; Busseau, Isabelle
Several studies have recently shown that the activity of some eukaryotic transposable elements is sensitive to the presence of homologous transgenes, suggesting the involvement of homology-dependent gene-silencing mechanisms in their regulation. Here we provide data indicating that two non-LTR retrotransposons of Drosophila melanogaster are themselves natural triggers of homology-dependent gene silencing. We show that, in the female germline of D. melanogaster, fragments from the R1 or from the I retrotransposons can mediate silencing of chimeric transcription units into which they are inserted. This silencing is probably mediated by sequence identity with endogenous copies of the retrotransposons because it does not occur with a fragment from the divergent R1 elements of Bombyx mori, and, when a fragment of I is used, it occurs only in females containing functional copies of the I element. This silencing is not accompanied by cosuppression of the endogenous gene homologous to the chimeric transcription unit, which contrasts to some other silencing mechanisms in Drosophila. These observations suggest that in the female germline of D. melanogaster the R1 and I retrotransposons may self-regulate their own activity and their copy number by triggering homology-dependent gene silencing. PMID:12807773
Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ishino, Fumitoshi
In the human genome, there are approximately 30 LTR retrotransposon-derived genes, such as the sushi-ichi retrotransposon homologues (SIRH) and the paraneoplastic Ma antigen (PNMA) family genes. They are derivatives from the original LTR retrotransposons and each gene seems to have its own unique function. PEG10/SIRH1 as well as PEG11/RTL1/SIRH2 and SIRH7/LDOC1 play essential roles in placenta formation, maintenance of fetal capillaries and the differentiation/maturation of a variety of placental cells, respectively. All of this evidence provides strong support for their contribution to the evolution of viviparity in mammals via their eutherian-specific functions. SIRH11/ZCCHC16 is an X-linked gene that encodes a CCHC type of zinc-finger protein that exhibits high sequence identity to the LTR retrotransposon Gag protein and its deletion causes abnormal behavior related to cognition, including attention, impulsivity and working memory, possibly via the locus coeruleus noradrenaergic system in mice. Therefore, we have suggested that the acquisition of SIRH11/ZCCHC16 was involved in eutherian brain evolution. Interestingly, SIRH11/ZCCHC16 displays lineage-specific structural and putative species-specific functional variations in eutherians, suggesting that it contributed to the diversification of eutherians via increasing evolutionary fitness by these changes.
K.J. Garner; J.M. Slavicek
A family of highly repetitive elements, named LDT1, has been identified in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. The complete element is 5.4 kb in length and lacks long-terminal repeats, The element contains two open reading frames with a significant amino acid sequence similarity to several non-LTR retrotransposons. The first open reading frame contains...
Shpiz, Sergey; Olovnikov, Ivan; Sergeeva, Anna; Lavrov, Sergey; Abramov, Yuri; Savitsky, Mikhail; Kalmykova, Alla
In the Drosophila germline, retrotransposons are silenced by the PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway. Telomeric retroelements HeT-A, TART and TAHRE, which are involved in telomere maintenance in Drosophila, are also the targets of piRNA-mediated silencing. We have demonstrated that expression of reporter genes driven by the HeT-A promoter is under the control of the piRNA silencing pathway independent of the transgene location. In order to test directly whether piRNAs affect the transcriptional state of retrotransposons we performed a nuclear run-on (NRO) assay and revealed increased density of the active RNA polymerase complexes at the sequences of endogenous HeT-A and TART telomeric retroelements as well as HeT-A-containing constructs in the ovaries of spn-E mutants and in flies with piwi knockdown. This strongly correlates with enrichment of two histone H3 modifications (dimethylation of lysine 79 and dimethylation of lysine 4), which mark transcriptionally active chromatin, on the same sequences in the piRNA pathway mutants. spn-E mutation and piwi knockdown results in transcriptional activation of some other non-telomeric retrotransposons in the ovaries, such as I-element and HMS Beagle. Therefore piRNA-mediated transcriptional mode of silencing is involved in the control of retrotransposon expression in the Drosophila germline. PMID:21764773
Shpiz, Sergey; Olovnikov, Ivan; Sergeeva, Anna; Lavrov, Sergey; Abramov, Yuri; Savitsky, Mikhail; Kalmykova, Alla
In the Drosophila germline, retrotransposons are silenced by the PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway. Telomeric retroelements HeT-A, TART and TAHRE, which are involved in telomere maintenance in Drosophila, are also the targets of piRNA-mediated silencing. We have demonstrated that expression of reporter genes driven by the HeT-A promoter is under the control of the piRNA silencing pathway independent of the transgene location. In order to test directly whether piRNAs affect the transcriptional state of retrotransposons we performed a nuclear run-on (NRO) assay and revealed increased density of the active RNA polymerase complexes at the sequences of endogenous HeT-A and TART telomeric retroelements as well as HeT-A-containing constructs in the ovaries of spn-E mutants and in flies with piwi knockdown. This strongly correlates with enrichment of two histone H3 modifications (dimethylation of lysine 79 and dimethylation of lysine 4), which mark transcriptionally active chromatin, on the same sequences in the piRNA pathway mutants. spn-E mutation and piwi knockdown results in transcriptional activation of some other non-telomeric retrotransposons in the ovaries, such as I-element and HMS Beagle. Therefore piRNA-mediated transcriptional mode of silencing is involved in the control of retrotransposon expression in the Drosophila germline.
Estep, M C; DeBarry, J D; Bennetzen, J L
Sample sequence analysis was employed to investigate the repetitive DNAs that were most responsible for the evolved variation in genome content across seven panicoid grasses with >5-fold variation in genome size and different histories of polyploidy. In all cases, the most abundant repeats were LTR retrotransposons, but the particular families that had become dominant were found to be different in the Pennisetum, Saccharum, Sorghum and Zea lineages. One element family, Huck, has been very active in all of the studied species over the last few million years. This suggests the transmittal of an active or quiescent autonomous set of Huck elements to this lineage at the founding of the panicoids. Similarly, independent recent activity of Ji and Opie elements in Zea and of Leviathan elements in Sorghum and Saccharum species suggests that members of these families with exceptional activation potential were present in the genome(s) of the founders of these lineages. In a detailed analysis of the Zea lineage, the combined action of several families of LTR retrotransposons were observed to have approximately doubled the genome size of Zea luxurians relative to Zea mays and Zea diploperennis in just the last few million years. One of the LTR retrotransposon amplification bursts in Zea may have been initiated by polyploidy, but the great majority of transposable element activations are not. Instead, the results suggest random activation of a few or many LTR retrotransposons families in particular lineages over evolutionary time, with some families especially prone to future activation and hyper-amplification. PMID:23321774
Estécio, Marcos R.H.; Gallegos, Juan; Vallot, Céline; Castoro, Ryan J.; Chung, Woonbok; Maegawa, Shinji; Oki, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Yutaka; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Shen, Lanlan; Hartung, Helge; Aplan, Peter D.; Czerniak, Bogdan A.; Liang, Shoudan; Issa, Jean-Pierre J.
Epigenetic silencing plays an important role in cancer development. An attractive hypothesis is that local DNA features may participate in differential predisposition to gene hypermethylation. We found that, compared with methylation-resistant genes, methylation-prone genes have a lower frequency of SINE and LINE retrotransposons near their transcription start site. In several large testing sets, this distribution was highly predictive of promoter methylation. Genome-wide analysis showed that 22% of human genes were predicted to be methylation-prone in cancer; these tended to be genes that are down-regulated in cancer and that function in developmental processes. Moreover, retrotransposon distribution marks a larger fraction of methylation-prone genes compared to Polycomb group protein (PcG) marking in embryonic stem cells; indeed, PcG marking and our predictive model based on retrotransposon frequency appear to be correlated but also complementary. In summary, our data indicate that retrotransposon elements, which are widespread in our genome, are strongly associated with gene promoter DNA methylation in cancer and may in fact play a role in influencing epigenetic regulation in normal and abnormal physiological states. PMID:20716667
Mashanov, Vladimir S; Zueva, Olga R; García-Arrarás, José E
Retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements that constitute a sizable proportion of eukaryote genomes. Although retroelements are known to play significant roles in embryogenesis, stress reactions, and disease progression, they have never been studied in the context of animal regeneration. In this study, high-throughput transcriptome analysis revealed unexpectedly large-scale changes in transcriptional activity of retrotransposons in regenerating radial organs of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima. In particular, we identified 36 long terminal repeat (LTR) retroelements, of which 20 showed significant changes in their expression during regeneration (11 up-regulated, 8 down-regulated, and one was initially up-regulated, but later down-regulated). We then studied in detail the most significantly up-regulated element, Gypsy-1_Hg. This transposon showed a drastic (>50-fold) increase in expression in regeneration and started to return to the normal levels only after the anatomical organization of the injured tissues was restored. All cells expressing Gypsy-1_Hg were located in the vicinity of the wound and included glia and neurons of the radial nerve. The retrotransposon-expressing cells survived programmed cell death and contributed to regeneration. Our findings demonstrate considerable changes in transcriptional activity of retrotransposons (both over-expression and down-regulation) associated with posttraumatic regeneration in an echinoderm. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Comparative genome analyses have described the extent of gene level macro and microsynteny among closely related legume species. Yet the organization of the intergenic regions within syntenic blocks and the involvement of retrotransposons in the evolution of these regions have not been studied in d...
Curcio, M. Joan; Lutz, Sheila; Lesage, Pascale
Summary Long-terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposons generate a copy of their DNA (cDNA) by reverse transcription of their RNA genome in cytoplasmic nucleocapsids. They are widespread in the eukaryotic kingdom and are the evolutionary progenitors of retroviruses . The Ty1 element of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first LTR-retrotransposon demonstrated to mobilize through an RNA intermediate, and not surprisingly, is the best studied. The depth of our knowledge of Ty1 biology stems not only from the predominance of active Ty1 elements in the S. cerevisiae genome but also the ease and breadth of genomic, biochemical and cell biology approaches available to study cellular processes in yeast. This review describes the basic structure of Ty1 and its gene products, the replication cycle, the rapidly expanding compendium of host co-factors known to influence retrotransposition and the nature of Ty1's elaborate symbiosis with its host. Our goal is to illuminate the value of Ty1 as a paradigm to explore the biology of LTR-retrotransposons in multicellular organisms, where the low frequency of retrotransposition events presents a formidable barrier to investigations of retrotransposon biology. PMID:25893143
Lorenz, David R.; Mikheyeva, Irina V.; Johansen, Peter; Meyer, Lauren; Berg, Anastasia; Grewal, Shiv I. S.
Regulation of transposable elements (TEs) is critical to the integrity of the host genome. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe homologs of mammalian CENP-B perform a host genome surveillance role by controlling Tf2 long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. However, the mechanisms by which CENP-Bs effect their functions are ill defined. Here, we show that the multifaceted roles of Abp1, the prominent member of fission yeast CENP-Bs, are mediated in part via recognition of a 10-bp AT-rich motif present in most LTRs and require the DNA-binding, transposase, and dimerization domains of Abp1 to maintain transcriptional repression and genome organization. Expression profiling analyses indicated that Abp1 recruits class I/II histone deacetylases (HDACs) to repress Tf2 retrotransposons and genes activated in response to stresses. We demonstrate that class I/II HDACs and sirtuins mediate the clustering of dispersed Tf2 retrotransposons into Tf bodies. Intriguingly, we uncovered an unexpected cooperation between Abp1 and the histone H3K4 methyltransferase Set1 in regulating sense and antisense transcriptional silencing of Tf2 retrotransposons and Tf body integrity. Moreover, Set1-mediated regulation of Tf2 expression and nuclear organization appears to be largely independent of H3K4 methylation. Our study illuminates a molecular pathway involving a transposase-containing transcription factor that cooperates with chromatin modifiers to regulate TE activities. PMID:22907751
García Guerreiro, M P; Fontdevila, A
A new transposable element, Isis, is identified as a LTR retrotransposon in Drosophila buzzatii. DNA sequence analysis shows that Isis contains three long ORFs similar to gag, pol and env genes of retroviruses. The ORF1 exhibits sequence homology to matrix, capsid and nucleocapsid gag proteins and ORF2 encodes a putative protease (PR), a reverse transcriptase (RT), an Rnase H (RH) and an integrase (IN) region. The analysis of a putative env product, encoded by the env ORF3, shows a degenerated protein containing several stop codons. The molecular study of the putative proteins coded by this new element shows striking similarities to both Ulysses and Osvaldo elements, two LTR retrotransposons, present in D. virilis and D. buzzatii, respectively. Comparisons of the predicted Isis RT to several known retrotransposons show strong phylogenetic relationships to gypsy-like elements, particulary to Ulysses retrotransposon. Studies of Isis chromosomal distribution show a strong hybridization signal in centromeric and pericentromeric regions, and a scattered distribution along all chromosomal arms. The existence of insertional polymorphisms between different strains and high molecular weight bands by Southern blot suggests the existence of full-sized copies that have been active recently. The presence of euchromatic insertion sites coincident between Isis and Osvaldo could indicate preferential insertion sites of Osvaldo element into Isis sequence or vice versa. Moreover, the presence of Isis in different species of the buzzatii complex indicates the ancient origin of this element.
Floor, Stephen N; Doudna, Jennifer A
In this issue, Ahl et al. (2015) and Doucet et al. (2015) illuminate structural and functional features of substrates that promote integration of RNA molecules into the human genome by LINE retrotransposons, contributing to the ∼ 50% of the human genome that has been colonized by mobile genetic elements.
Liubomirskaia, N V; Kim, A I; Il'in, Iu V
This article summarizes the results of a ten-year study of genetic instability of a mutator strain of Drosophila melanogaster caused by transposition of the gypsy retrotransposon. The results of other authors working with an analogous system are analyzed. Possible mechanisms are suggested for the interaction of gypsy with the cell gene flamenco that participates in transposition control of this mobile element.
Martin, Sandra L.; Bushman, Frederic D.
Non-LTR retrotransposons such as L1 elements are major components of the mammalian genome, but their mechanism of replication is incompletely understood. Like retroviruses and LTR-containing retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons replicate by reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. The details of cDNA priming and integration, however, differ between these two classes. In retroviruses, the nucleocapsid (NC) protein has been shown to assist reverse transcription by acting as a “nucleic acid chaperone,” promoting the formation of the most stable duplexes between nucleic acid molecules. A protein-coding region with an NC-like sequence is present in most non-LTR retrotransposons, but no such sequence is evident in mammalian L1 elements or other members of its class. Here we investigated the ORF1 protein from mouse L1 and found that it does in fact display nucleic acid chaperone activities in vitro. L1 ORF1p (i) promoted annealing of complementary DNA strands, (ii) facilitated strand exchange to form the most stable hybrids in competitive displacement assays, and (iii) facilitated melting of an imperfect duplex but stabilized perfect duplexes. These findings suggest a role for L1 ORF1p in mediating nucleic acid strand transfer steps during L1 reverse transcription. PMID:11134335
Papasotiriou, Ioannis; Pantopikou, Katerina; Apostolou, Panagiotis
Long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1 or L1) belongs to the non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposon family, which has been implicated in carcinogenesis and disease progression. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are also known to be involved in cancer progression. The present study aimed to compare the L1 expression between circulating tumor cells and non-cancerous samples. Blood samples were collected from 10 healthy individuals and 22 patients with different types of cancer. The whole blood cells were isolated using enrichment protocols and the DNA and RNA were extracted. RT-qPCR was performed for L1-ORF1 (open reading frame 1) and L1-ORF2, using 18S rRNA as the reference gene. The data were analyzed with the Livak method and statistical analyses were carried out with the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. In parallel with the above molecular biology experiments, FISH experiments were performed on the interphase nuclei of the cells for the detection of ORF2 RNA. DNA analysis revealed the presence of both ORF1 and ORF2 in all samples. RNA expression experiments demonstrated that ORF1 was not expressed in all samples, while ORF2 was expressed at varying levels in the non-cancer samples and the samples representing the different cancer types. A significant difference in ORF2 expression was observed between the CTCs and non-cancer samples (p = 0,00043), and significant differences were also observed between normal and lung (p = 0,034), pancreatic (p = 0,022), prostate (p = 0,014), and unknown primary of origin (p = 0,0039) cancer samples. Cytogenetic analysis revealed higher levels of ORF2 in the nuclei of CTCs than in normal samples. This study highlights the significant difference in L1-ORF2 expression between CTCs and normal samples. The increased expression levels observed for CTCs may be correlated with the characteristic features of these cells. PMID:28166262
Aristizabal, Maria J.; Negri, Gian Luca; Kobor, Michael S.
RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) contains a unique C-terminal domain that is composed of heptapeptide repeats and which plays important regulatory roles during gene expression. RNAPII is responsible for the transcription of most protein-coding genes, a subset of non-coding genes, and retrotransposons. Retrotransposon transcription is the first step in their multiplication cycle, given that the RNA intermediate is required for the synthesis of cDNA, the material that is ultimately incorporated into a new genomic location. Retrotransposition can have grave consequences to genome integrity, as integration events can change the gene expression landscape or lead to alteration or loss of genetic information. Given that RNAPII transcribes retrotransposons, we sought to investigate if the RNAPII-CTD played a role in the regulation of retrotransposon gene expression. Importantly, we found that the RNAPII-CTD functioned to maintaining genome integrity through inhibition of retrotransposon gene expression, as reducing CTD length significantly increased expression and transposition rates of Ty1 elements. Mechanistically, the increased Ty1 mRNA levels in the rpb1-CTD11 mutant were partly due to Cdk8-dependent alterations to the RNAPII-CTD phosphorylation status. In addition, Cdk8 alone contributed to Ty1 gene expression regulation by altering the occupancy of the gene-specific transcription factor Ste12. Loss of STE12 and TEC1 suppressed growth phenotypes of the RNAPII-CTD truncation mutant. Collectively, our results implicate Ste12 and Tec1 as general and important contributors to the Cdk8, RNAPII-CTD regulatory circuitry as it relates to the maintenance of genome integrity. PMID:26496706
Thieme, Michael; Lanciano, Sophie; Balzergue, Sandrine; Daccord, Nicolas; Mirouze, Marie; Bucher, Etienne
Retrotransposons play a central role in plant evolution and could be a powerful endogenous source of genetic and epigenetic variability for crop breeding. To ensure genome integrity several silencing mechanisms have evolved to repress retrotransposon mobility. Even though retrotransposons fully depend on transcriptional activity of the host RNA polymerase II (Pol II) for their mobility, it was so far unclear whether Pol II is directly involved in repressing their activity. Here we show that plants defective in Pol II activity lose DNA methylation at repeat sequences and produce more extrachromosomal retrotransposon DNA upon stress in Arabidopsis and rice. We demonstrate that combined inhibition of both DNA methylation and Pol II activity leads to a strong stress-dependent mobilization of the heat responsive ONSEN retrotransposon in Arabidopsis seedlings. The progenies of these treated plants contain up to 75 new ONSEN insertions in their genome which are stably inherited over three generations of selfing. Repeated application of heat stress in progeny plants containing increased numbers of ONSEN copies does not result in increased activation of this transposon compared to control lines. Progenies with additional ONSEN copies show a broad panel of environment-dependent phenotypic diversity. We demonstrate that Pol II acts at the root of transposon silencing. This is important because it suggests that Pol II can regulate the speed of plant evolution by fine-tuning the amplitude of transposon mobility. Our findings show that it is now possible to study induced transposon bursts in plants and unlock their use to induce epigenetic and genetic diversity for crop breeding.
Kojima, Kenji K; Kuma, Kei-ichi; Toh, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Haruhiko
Ribosomal RNA genes are abundant repetitive sequences in most eukaryotes. Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) contains many insertions derived from mobile elements including non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons. R2 is the well-characterized 28S rDNA-specific non-LTR retrotransposon family that is distributed over at least 4 bilaterian phyla. R2 is a large family sharing the same insertion specificity and classified into 4 clades (R2-A, -B, -C, and -D) based on the N-terminal domain structure and the phylogeny. There is no observation of horizontal transfer of R2; therefore, the origin of R2 dates back to before the split between protostomes and deuterostomes. Here, we in silico identified 1 R2 element from the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis and 2 R2-like retrotransposons from the hydrozoan Hydra magnipapillata. R2 from N. vectensis was inserted into the 28S rDNA like other R2, but the R2-like elements from H. magnipapillata were inserted into the specific sequence in the highly conserved region of the 18S rDNA. We designated the Hydra R2-like elements R8. R8 is inserted at 37 bp upstream from R7, another 18S rDNA-specific retrotransposon family. There is no obvious sequence similarity between targets of R2 and R8, probably because they recognize long DNA sequences. Domain structure and phylogeny indicate that R2 from N. vectensis is the member of the R2-D clade, and R8 from H. magnipapillata belongs to the R2-A clade despite its different sequence specificity. These results suggest that R2 had been generated before the split between cnidarians and bilaterians and that R8 is a retrotransposon family that changed its target from the 28S rDNA to the 18S rDNA.
Zakrzewski, Falk; Schmidt, Martin; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Schmidt, Thomas
The methylation of cytosines shapes the epigenetic landscape of plant genomes, coordinates transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, represses activity of transposable elements (TEs), affects gene expression, and, hence, can influence the phenotype. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris), an important crop that accounts for 30% of the worldwide sugar needs, has a relatively small genome size (758 Mbp) consisting of approximately 485 Mbp repetitive DNA (64%) in particular, satellite DNA, retrotransposons, and DNA transposons. Genome-wide cytosine methylation in the sugar beet genome was studied in leaves and leaf-derived callus with a focus on repetitive sequences, including retrotransposons and DNA transposons, the major groups of repetitive DNA sequences and compared with gene methylation. Genes showed a specific methylation pattern for CG, CHG (H=A, C, and T), and CHH sites, whereas the TE pattern differed, depending on the classes 1 (retrotransposons) and 2 (DNA transposons), respectively. Along genes and TEs, the CG and CHG methylation was higher than that of adjacent genomic regions. In contrast to the relatively low CHH methylation in retrotransposons and genes, the level of CHH methylation in DNA transposons was strongly increased, pointing toward a functional role of asymmetric methylation in DNA transposon silencing. Comparison of genome-wide DNA methylation between sugar beet leaves and callus revealed a differential methylation upon tissue culture. Potential epialleles were hypomethylated (lower methylation) at CG and CHG sites in retrotransposons and genes and hypermethylated (higher methylation) at CHH sites in DNA transposons of callus when compared to leaves. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Ellinghaus, David; Kurtz, Stefan; Willhoeft, Ute
Background Transposable elements are abundant in eukaryotic genomes and it is believed that they have a significant impact on the evolution of gene and chromosome structure. While there are several completed eukaryotic genome projects, there are only few high quality genome wide annotations of transposable elements. Therefore, there is a considerable demand for computational identification of transposable elements. LTR retrotransposons, an important subclass of transposable elements, are well suited for computational identification, as they contain long terminal repeats (LTRs). Results We have developed a software tool LTRharvest for the de novo detection of full length LTR retrotransposons in large sequence sets. LTRharvest efficiently delivers high quality annotations based on known LTR transposon features like length, distance, and sequence motifs. A quality validation of LTRharvest against a gold standard annotation for Saccharomyces cerevisae and Drosophila melanogaster shows a sensitivity of up to 90% and 97% and specificity of 100% and 72%, respectively. This is comparable or slightly better than annotations for previous software tools. The main advantage of LTRharvest over previous tools is (a) its ability to efficiently handle large datasets from finished or unfinished genome projects, (b) its flexibility in incorporating known sequence features into the prediction, and (c) its availability as an open source software. Conclusion LTRharvest is an efficient software tool delivering high quality annotation of LTR retrotransposons. It can, for example, process the largest human chromosome in approx. 8 minutes on a Linux PC with 4 GB of memory. Its flexibility and small space and run-time requirements makes LTRharvest a very competitive candidate for future LTR retrotransposon annotation projects. Moreover, the structured design and implementation and the availability as open source provides an excellent base for incorporating novel concepts to further improve
Laha, Thewarach; Kewgrai, Nonglack; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J
Members of the retrotransposable element (RTE) clade of non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon are widely distributed among eukaryote taxa, with representatives known from Caenorhabditis elegans, mammals, mosquitoes, schistosomes, and other taxa. An RTE retrotransposon has not, however, been characterized in detail from a parasitic nematode. Here, we characterize two discrete copies of an RTE-like non-LTR retrotransposon from the genome of the dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum. The elements were named dingo-1 and dingo-2. The full-length dingo-1 and dingo-2 elements were 3421 and 3171bp in length, respectively. They exhibited 54% nucleotide sequence identity to one another across their entire length and 40%/58% amino-acid sequence identity/similarity across their open reading frames. dingo-1 and dingo-2 exhibited hallmark structures and sequences of non-LTR retrotransposons of the RTE family including a single open reading frame encoding apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease (EN) and reverse transcriptase (RT), in that order. Phylogenetic analyses targeting the RT and the EN domains both confirmed that dingo-1 and dingo-2 were members of the RTE clade and that they were closely related to RTE-1 from C. elegans, to BDDF from Bos taurus and to SR2 from Schistosoma mansoni. Dot blot hybridization indicated that as many as 100-1000 copies of dingo-1 reside within the genome of A. caninum, while detection by RT-PCR of transcripts encoding dingo-like elements suggested that dingo-1 and -2 may be retrotranspositionally active within the genome of A. caninum. The dingo elements are the first retrotransposons to be characterized from a hookworm genome.
Ungerer, Mark C; Strakosh, Suzanne C; Stimpson, Kaitlin M
Background Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are a class of mobile genetic element capable of autonomous transposition via an RNA intermediate. Their large size and proliferative ability make them important contributors to genome size evolution, especially in plants, where they can reach exceptionally high copy numbers and contribute substantially to variation in genome size even among closely related taxa. Using a phylogenetic approach, we characterize dynamics of proliferation events of Ty3/gypsy-like LTR retrotransposons that led to massive genomic expansion in three Helianthus (sunflower) species of ancient hybrid origin. The three hybrid species are independently derived from the same two parental species, offering a unique opportunity to explore patterns of retrotransposon proliferation in light of reticulate evolutionary events in this species group. Results We demonstrate that Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons exist as multiple well supported sublineages in both the parental and hybrid derivative species and that the same element sublineage served as the source lineage of proliferation in each hybrid species' genome. This inference is based on patterns of species-specific element numerical abundance within different phylogenetic sublineages as well as through signals of proliferation events present in the distributions of element divergence values. Employing methods to date paralogous sequences within a genome, proliferation events in the hybrid species' genomes are estimated to have occurred approximately 0.5 to 1 million years ago. Conclusion Proliferation of the same retrotransposon major sublineage in each hybrid species indicates that similar dynamics of element derepression and amplification likely occurred in each hybrid taxon during their formation. Temporal estimates of these proliferation events suggest an earlier origin for these hybrid species than previously supposed. PMID:19594956
Suoniemi, A; Anamthawat-Jónsson, K; Arna, T; Schulman, A H
The barley BARE-1 is a transcribed, copia-like retroelement with well-conserved functional domains, an active promoter, and a copy number of at least 3 x 10(4). We examined its chromosomal localization by in situ hybridization. The long terminal repeat (LTR) probe displayed a uniform hybridization pattern over the whole of all chromosomes, excepting paracentromeric regions, telomeres, and nucleolar organizer (NOR) regions. The integrase probe showed a similar pattern. The 5'-untranslated leader (UTL) probe, expected to be the most rapidly evolving component, labeled chromosomes in a dispersed and non-uniform manner, concentrated in the distal regions, possibly indicating a targe site preference.
Erturk, Filiz Aygun; Aydin, Murat; Sigmaz, Burcu; Taspinar, M Sinan; Arslan, Esra; Agar, Guleray; Yagci, Semra
Arsenic is a well-known toxic substance on the living organisms. However, limited efforts have been made to study its DNA methylation, genomic instability, and long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon polymorphism causing properties in different crops. In the present study, effects of As2O3 (arsenic trioxide) on LTR retrotransposon polymorphism and DNA methylation as well as DNA damage in Zea mays seedlings were investigated. The results showed that all of arsenic doses caused a decreasing genomic template stability (GTS) and an increasing Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) profile changes (DNA damage). In addition, increasing DNA methylation and LTR retrotransposon polymorphism characterized a model to explain the epigenetically changes in the gene expression were also found. The results of this experiment have clearly shown that arsenic has epigenetic effect as well as its genotoxic effect. Especially, the increasing of polymorphism of some LTR retrotransposon under arsenic stress may be a part of the defense system against the stress.
The long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons and the non-LTR retrotransposons (LINE-1 or L1) make up more than one-third of the mouse genome. Because of their abundance, the retrotransposons are the major players in genomic structure and function. While much attention has been focused on the biology of retrotransposons, little is known about the chromatin structure of these elements or the potential role of epigenetic marks on the regulation of retrotransposon expression. Using sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, we analyzed the cohabitation of several post-translational histone modifications in the promoter regions of mouse L1 and LTR retrotransposons. We show here that the variant histone H2A.Z selectively present in L1 promoters. Notably, H2A.Z and trimethylated histone H3 (H3K9me3) co-localize in the same genomic location of the L1 promoter along with heterochromatin-binding protein HP1α. In contrast, MmERV and intracisternal A-particle (IAP) classes of LTR promoters are enriched with core histone H2A and heterochromatic trimethylated histone H4 (H4K20me3). These distinctive patterns of chromatin modifications are relatively consistent irrespective of cell type. Chromatin structure regulates the expression of retrotransposons. LINE-1 elements are associated with H2A.Z and HP1α-containing constitutive heterochromatin, while the LTR elements are enriched with H2A and the H4K20me3-type of facultative heterochromatin. Our findings demonstrate that different epigenetic mechanisms operate in the mouse genome to silence different classes of retrotransposons.
Lazaros, Leandros; Kitsou, Chrysoula; Kostoulas, Charilaos; Bellou, Sofia; Hatzi, Elissavet; Ladias, Paris; Stefos, Theodoros; Markoula, Sofia; Galani, Vasiliki; Vartholomatos, Georgios; Tzavaras, Theodore; Georgiou, Ioannis
To investigate the expression of long interspersed element (LINE) 1, human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) K10, and short interspersed element-VNTR-Alu element (SVA) retrotransposons in ejaculated human spermatozoa by means of reverse-transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis as well as the potential incorporation of cloned human and mouse active retroelements in human sperm cell genome. Laboratory study. University research laboratories and academic hospital. Normozoospermic and oligozoospermic white men. RT-PCR analysis was performed to confirm the retrotransposon expression in human spermatozoa. Exogenous retroelements were tagged with a plasmid containing a green fluorescence (EGFP) retrotransposition cassette, and the de novo retrotransposition events were tested with the use of PCR, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, and confocal microscopy. Retroelement expression in human spermatozoa, incorporation of cloned human and mouse active retroelements in human sperm genome, and de novo retrotransposition events in human spermatozoa. RT-PCR products of expressed human LINE-1, HERV-K10, and SVA retrotransposons were observed in ejaculated human sperm samples. The incubation of human spermatozoa with either retrotransposition-active human LINE-1 and HERV-K10 or mouse reverse transcriptase-deficient VL30 retrotransposons tagged with an EGFP-based retrotransposition cassette led to EGFP-positive spermatozo; 16.67% of the samples were positive for retrotransposition. The respective retrotransposition frequencies for the LINE-1, HERV-K10, and VL30 retrotransposons in the positive samples were 0.34 ± 0.13%, 0.37 ± 0.17%, and 0.30 ± 0.14% per sample of 10,000 spermatozoa. Our results show that: 1) LINE-1, HERV-K10, and SVA retrotransposons are transcriptionally expressed in human spermatozoa; 2) cloned active retroelements of human and mammalian origin can be incorporated in human sperm genome; 3) active reverse transcriptases exist in human
Starnes, John H.; Thornbury, David W.; Novikova, Olga S.; Rehmeyer, Cathryn J.; Farman, Mark L.
The fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a serious pathogen of rice and other grasses. Telomeric restriction fragments in Magnaporthe isolates that infect perennial ryegrass (prg) are hotspots for genomic rearrangement and undergo frequent, spontaneous alterations during fungal culture. The telomeres of rice-infecting isolates are very stable by comparison. Sequencing of chromosome ends from a number of prg-infecting isolates revealed two related non-LTR retrotransposons (M. oryzae Telomeric Retrotransposons or MoTeRs) inserted in the telomere repeats. This contrasts with rice pathogen telomeres that are uninterrupted by other sequences. Genetic evidence indicates that the MoTeR elements are responsible for the observed instability. MoTeRs represent a new family of telomere-targeted transposons whose members are found exclusively in fungi. PMID:22446319
Cleavage of tRNA within the mature tRNA sequence by the catalytic RNA of RNase P: implication for the formation of the primer tRNA fragment for reverse transcription in copia retrovirus-like particles.
Kikuchi, Y; Sasaki, N; Ando-Yamagami, Y
The retrovirus-like particles of Drosophila are intermediates of retrotransposition of the transposable element copia. In these particles, a 39-nucleotide-long fragment from the 5' region of Drosophila initiator methionine tRNA (tRNA(iMet) is used as the primer for copia minus-strand reverse transcription. To function as primer for this reverse transcription, the Drosophila tRNA(iMet) must be cleaved in vivo at the site between nucleotides 39 and 40. When a synthetic Drosophila tRNA(iMet) precursor was incubated with M1RNA, the catalytic RNA of Escherichia coli RNase P, other cleavages within the mature tRNA sequence were detected in addition to the efficient removal of the 5' leader sequence of this tRNA precursor. One of these cleavage sites is between nucleotides 39 and 40 of Drosophila tRNA(iMet). Based on this result, we propose a model for formation of the primer tRNA fragment for reverse transcription in copia retrovirus-like particles. Images PMID:1700426
Sant'Ana, G C; Ferreira, J L; Rocha, H S; Borém, A; Pasqual, M; Cançado, G M A
Identification and knowledge concerning genetic diversity are fundamental for efficient management and use of grapevine germplasm. Recently, new types of molecular markers have been developed, such as retrotransposon-based markers. Because of their multilocus pattern, retrotransposon-based markers might be able to differentiate grapevine accessions with just one pair of primers. In order to evaluate the efficiency of this type of marker, we compared retrotransposon marker Tvv1 with seven microsatellite markers frequently used for genotyping of the genus Vitis (VVMD7, VVMD25, VVMD5, VVMD27, VVMD31, VVS2, and VZAG62). The reference population that we used consisted of 26 accessions of Vitis, including seven European varieties of Vitis vinifera, four North American varieties and hybrids of Vitis labrusca, and 15 rootstock hybrids obtained from crosses of several Vitis species. Individually, the Tvv1 and the group of seven SSR markers were capable of distinguishing all accessions except 'White Niagara' compared to 'Red Niagara'. Using the Structure software, the retrotransposon marker Tvv1 generated two clusters: one with V. vinifera plus North American varieties and the other comprising rootstocks. The seven SSR markers generated five clusters: V. vinifera, the North American varieties, and three groups of rootstock hybrids. The percentages of variation explained by the first two components in the principal coordinate analysis were 65.21 (Tvv1) and 50.42 (SSR markers) while the Mantel correlation between the distance matrixes generated by the two types of markers was 42.5%. We conclude that the Tvv1 marker is useful for DNA fingerprinting, but it lacks efficiency for discrimination of structured groups.
Alves, G; Kawamura, M T; Nascimento, P; Maciel, C; Oliveira, J A; Teixeira, A; Carvalho, M da G
We have verified the presence of line-1 retrotransposon (L1) in plasma DNA in 15/17 brain tumor (glioma) patients and in 6/6 healthy people by applying PCR amplification of part of the L1 5' end. The same samples were separately amplified for K-ras. Results suggested that L1 sequences are circulating throughout the body. We hypothesized the participation of transposable elements such as L1 in a putative DNA release mechanism.
Olarte, Alexandra; Mantri, Nitin; Nugent, Gregory; Pang, Edwin C. K.
Echinacea, native to the Canadian prairies and the prairie states of the United States, has a long tradition as a folk medicine for the Native Americans. Currently, Echinacea are among the top 10 selling herbal medicines in the U.S. and Europe, due to increasing popularity for the treatment of common cold and ability to stimulate the immune system. However, the genetic relationship within the species of this genus is unclear, making the authentication of the species used for the medicinal industry more difficult. We report the construction of a novel Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA) for Echinacea species and demonstrate the potential of this array for isolating highly polymorphic sequences. In order to selectively isolate Echinacea-specific sequences, a Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) was performed between a pool of twenty-four Echinacea genotypes and a pool of other angiosperms and non-angiosperms. A total of 283 subtracted genomic DNA (gDNA) fragments were amplified and arrayed. Twenty-seven Echinacea genotypes including four that were not used in the array construction could be successfully discriminated. Interestingly, unknown samples of E. paradoxa and E. purpurea could be unambiguously identified from the cluster analysis. Furthermore, this Echinacea-specific SDA was also able to isolate highly polymorphic retrotransposon sequences. Five out of the eleven most discriminatory features matched to known retrotransposons. This is the first time retrotransposon sequences have been used to fingerprint Echinacea, highlighting the potential of retrotransposons as based molecular markers useful for fingerprinting and studying diversity patterns in Echinacea. PMID:23940565
Richardson, Sandra R; Doucet, Aurélien J; Kopera, Huira C; Moldovan, John B; Garcia-Perez, José Luis; Moran, John V
Transposable elements have had a profound impact on the structure and function of mammalian genomes. The retrotransposon Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1), by virtue of its replicative mobilization mechanism, comprises ∼17% of the human genome. Although the vast majority of human LINE-1 sequences are inactive molecular fossils, an estimated 80-100 copies per individual retain the ability to mobilize by a process termed retrotransposition. Indeed, LINE-1 is the only active, autonomous retrotransposon in humans and its retrotransposition continues to generate both intra-individual and inter-individual genetic diversity. Here, we briefly review the types of transposable elements that reside in mammalian genomes. We will focus our discussion on LINE-1 retrotransposons and the non-autonomous Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) that rely on the proteins encoded by LINE-1 for their mobilization. We review cases where LINE-1-mediated retrotransposition events have resulted in genetic disease and discuss how the characterization of these mutagenic insertions led to the identification of retrotransposition-competent LINE-1s in the human and mouse genomes. We then discuss how the integration of molecular genetic, biochemical, and modern genomic technologies have yielded insight into the mechanism of LINE-1 retrotransposition, the impact of LINE-1-mediated retrotransposition events on mammalian genomes, and the host cellular mechanisms that protect the genome from unabated LINE-1-mediated retrotransposition events. Throughout this review, we highlight unanswered questions in LINE-1 biology that provide exciting opportunities for future research. Clearly, much has been learned about LINE-1 and SINE biology since the publication of Mobile DNA II thirteen years ago. Future studies should continue to yield exciting discoveries about how these retrotransposons contribute to genetic diversity in mammalian genomes.
Senerchia, Natacha; Wicker, Thomas; Felber, François; Parisod, Christian
Transposable elements (TEs) represent a major fraction of plant genomes and drive their evolution. An improved understanding of genome evolution requires the dynamics of a large number of TE families to be considered. We put forward an approach bypassing the required step of a complete reference genome to assess the evolutionary trajectories of high copy number TE families from genome snapshot with high-throughput sequencing. Low coverage sequencing of the complex genomes of Aegilops cylindrica and Ae. geniculata using 454 identified more than 70% of the sequences as known TEs, mainly long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. Comparing the abundance of reads as well as patterns of sequence diversity and divergence within and among genomes assessed the dynamics of 44 major LTR retrotransposon families of the 165 identified. In particular, molecular population genetics on individual TE copies distinguished recently active from quiescent families and highlighted different evolutionary trajectories of retrotransposons among related species. This work presents a suite of tools suitable for current sequencing data, allowing to address the genome-wide evolutionary dynamics of TEs at the family level and advancing our understanding of the evolution of nonmodel genomes. PMID:23595021
Mir, Ashfaq A.; Philippe, Claude; Cristofari, Gaël
Retrotransposons account for almost half of our genome. They are mobile genetics elements—also known as jumping genes—but only the L1HS subfamily of Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs) has retained the ability to jump autonomously in modern humans. Their mobilization in germline—but also some somatic tissues—contributes to human genetic diversity and to diseases, such as cancer. Here, we present euL1db, the European database of L1HS retrotransposon insertions in humans (available at http://euL1db.unice.fr). euL1db provides a curated and comprehensive summary of L1HS insertion polymorphisms identified in healthy or pathological human samples and published in peer-reviewed journals. A key feature of euL1db is its sample-wise organization. Hence L1HS insertion polymorphisms are connected to samples, individuals, families and clinical conditions. The current version of euL1db centralizes results obtained in 32 studies. It contains >900 samples, >140 000 sample-wise insertions and almost 9000 distinct merged insertions. euL1db will help understanding the link between L1 retrotransposon insertion polymorphisms and phenotype or disease. PMID:25352549
Rausch, Jason W; Miller, Jennifer T; Le Grice, Stuart F J
Converting the single-stranded retroviral RNA into integration-competent double-stranded DNA is achieved through a multi-step process mediated by the virus-coded reverse transcriptase (RT). With the exception that it is restricted to an intracellular life cycle, replication of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposon Ty3 genome is guided by equivalent events that, while generally similar, show many unique and subtle differences relative to the retroviral counterparts. Until only recently, our knowledge of RT structure and function was guided by a vast body of literature on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enzyme. Although the recently-solved structure of Ty3 RT in the presence of an RNA/DNA hybrid adds little in terms of novelty to the mechanistic basis underlying DNA polymerase and ribonuclease H activity, it highlights quite remarkable topological differences between retroviral and LTR-retrotransposon RTs. The theme of overall similarity but distinct differences extends to the priming mechanisms used by Ty3 RT to initiate (-) and (+) strand DNA synthesis. The unique structural organization of the retrotransposon enzyme and interaction with its nucleic acid substrates, with emphasis on polypurine tract (PPT)-primed initiation of (+) strand synthesis, is the subject of this review.
Rausch, Jason W.; Miller, Jennifer T.; Le Grice, Stuart F. J.
Converting the single-stranded retroviral RNA into integration-competent double-stranded DNA is achieved through a multi-step process mediated by the virus-coded reverse transcriptase (RT). With the exception that it is restricted to an intracellular life cycle, replication of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposon Ty3 genome is guided by equivalent events that, while generally similar, show many unique and subtle differences relative to the retroviral counterparts. Until only recently, our knowledge of RT structure and function was guided by a vast body of literature on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enzyme. Although the recently-solved structure of Ty3 RT in the presence of an RNA/DNA hybrid adds little in terms of novelty to the mechanistic basis underlying DNA polymerase and ribonuclease H activity, it highlights quite remarkable topological differences between retroviral and LTR-retrotransposon RTs. The theme of overall similarity but distinct differences extends to the priming mechanisms used by Ty3 RT to initiate (−) and (+) strand DNA synthesis. The unique structural organization of the retrotransposon enzyme and interaction with its nucleic acid substrates, with emphasis on polypurine tract (PPT)-primed initiation of (+) strand synthesis, is the subject of this review. PMID:28294975
Cyclophyllidean cestodes including Echinococcus granulosus have a smaller genome and show characteristics such as loss of the gut, a segmented body plan, and accelerated growth rate in hosts compared with other tissue-invading helminths. In an effort to address the molecular mechanism relevant to genome shrinkage, the evolutionary status of long-terminal-repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, which are known as the most potent genomic modulators, was investigated in the E. granulosus draft genome. A majority of the E. granulosus LTR retrotransposons were classified into a novel characteristic clade, named Saci-2, of the Ty3/gypsy family, while the remaining elements belonged to the CsRn1 clade of identical family. Their nucleotide sequences were heavily corrupted by frequent base substitutions and segmental losses. The ceased mobile activity of the major retrotransposons and the following intrinsic DNA loss in their inactive progenies might have contributed to decrease in genome size. Apart from the degenerate copies, a gag gene originating from a CsRn1-like element exhibited substantial evidences suggesting its domestication including a preserved coding profile and transcriptional activity, the presence of syntenic orthologues in cestodes, and selective pressure acting on the gene. To my knowledge, the endogenized gag gene is reported for the first time in invertebrates, though its biological function remains elusive.
Gladyshev, Eugene A.; Meselson, Matthew; Arkhipova, Irina R.
Rotifers of class Bdelloidea, a group of aquatic invertebrates in which males and meiosis have never been documented, are also unusual in their lack of multicopy LINE-like and gypsy-like retrotransposons, groups inhabiting the genomes of nearly all other metazoans. Bdelloids do contain numerous DNA transposons, both intact and decayed, and domesticated Penelope-like retroelements Athena, concentrated at telomeric regions. Here we describe two LTR retrotransposons, each found at low copy number in a different bdelloid species, which define a clade different from previously known clades of LTR retrotransposons. Like bdelloid DNA transposons and Athena, these elements have been found preferentially in telomeric regions. Unlike bdelloid DNA transposons, many of which are decayed, the newly described elements, named Vesta and Juno, inhabiting the genomes of Philodina roseola and Adineta vaga, respectively, appear to be intact and to represent recent insertions, possibly from an exogenous source. We describe the retrovirus-like structure of the new elements, containing gag, pol, and env-like open reading frames, and discuss their possible origins, transmission, and behavior in bdelloid genomes. PMID:17129685
Staton, S Evan; Ungerer, Mark C; Moore, Richard C
The origin of new diploid, or homoploid, hybrid species is associated with rapid genomic restructuring in the hybrid neospecies. This mode of speciation has been best characterized in wild sunflower species in the genus Helianthus, where three homoploid hybrid species (H. anomalus, H. deserticola, and H. paradoxus) have independently arisen via ancient hybridization events between the same two parental species (H. annuus and H. petiolaris). Most previous work examining genomic restructuring in these sunflower hybrid species has focused on chromosomal rearrangements. However, the origin of all three homoploid hybrid sunflower species also is associated with massive proliferation events of Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons in the hybrid species' genomes. We compared the genomic organization of these elements in the parent species and two of the homoploid hybrid species using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We found a significant expansion of Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons confined to the pericentromeric regions of two hybrid sunflower species, H. deserticola and H. paradoxus. In contrast, we detected no significant increase in the frequency or extent of dispersed retrotransposon populations in the hybrid species within the resolution limits of our assay. We discuss the potential role that transposable element proliferation and localization plays in the evolution of homoploid hybrid species.
Glushkov, Sergei; Novikova, Olga; Blinov, Alexander; Fet, Victor
We screened across the taxonomic diversity of order Scorpiones (22 species belonging to 21 genera and 10 families) for the presence of seven different clades of non-LTR retrotransposons in their genomes using PCR with newly designed clade-specific consensus-degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primers. Scorpion genomes were found to contain four known non-LTR retrotransposon clades: R1, I, Jockey, and CR1. In total, 35 fragments of reverse transcriptase genes of new elements from 22 scorpion species were obtained and analyzed for three clades, Jockey, I, and CR1. Phylogenies of different clades of elements were built using amino acid sequences inferred from 33 non-LTR retrotransposon clones. Distinct evolutionary lineages, with several major groups of the non-LTR retroelements were identified, showing significant variation. Four lineages were revealed in Jockey clade. The phylogeny of I clade showed strong support for the monophyletic origin of such group of elements in scorpions. Three separate lineages can be distinguished in the phylogenetic tree of CR1 clade. The large fraction of the isolated elements appeared to be defective.
Senerchia, Natacha; Wicker, Thomas; Felber, François; Parisod, Christian
Transposable elements (TEs) represent a major fraction of plant genomes and drive their evolution. An improved understanding of genome evolution requires the dynamics of a large number of TE families to be considered. We put forward an approach bypassing the required step of a complete reference genome to assess the evolutionary trajectories of high copy number TE families from genome snapshot with high-throughput sequencing. Low coverage sequencing of the complex genomes of Aegilops cylindrica and Ae. geniculata using 454 identified more than 70% of the sequences as known TEs, mainly long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. Comparing the abundance of reads as well as patterns of sequence diversity and divergence within and among genomes assessed the dynamics of 44 major LTR retrotransposon families of the 165 identified. In particular, molecular population genetics on individual TE copies distinguished recently active from quiescent families and highlighted different evolutionary trajectories of retrotransposons among related species. This work presents a suite of tools suitable for current sequencing data, allowing to address the genome-wide evolutionary dynamics of TEs at the family level and advancing our understanding of the evolution of nonmodel genomes.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for approximately 80% of liver cancers, the third most frequent cause of cancer mortality. The most prevalent risk factors for HCC are infections by hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus. Findings suggest that hepatitis virus-related HCC might be a cancer in which LINE-1 retrotransposons, often termed L1, activity plays a potential role. Firstly, hepatitis viruses can suppress host defense factors that also control L1 mobilization. Secondly, many recent studies also have indicated that hypomethylation of L1 affects the prognosis of HCC patients. Thirdly, endogenous L1 retrotransposition was demonstrated to activate oncogenic pathways in HCC. Fourthly, several L1 chimeric transcripts with host or viral genes are found in hepatitis virus-related HCC. Such lines of evidence suggest a linkage between L1 retrotransposons and hepatitis virus-related HCC. Here, I briefly summarize current understandings of the association between hepatitis virus-related HCC and L1. Then, I discuss potential mechanisms of how hepatitis viruses drive the development of HCC via L1 retrotransposons. An increased understanding of the contribution of L1 to hepatitis virus-related HCC may provide unique insights related to the development of novel therapeutics for this disease.
Rodriguez, Fernando; Kenefick, Aubrey W; Arkhipova, Irina R
Rotifers of the class Bdelloidea, microscopic freshwater invertebrates, possess a highlydiversified repertoire of transposon families, which, however, occupy less than 4% of genomic DNA in the sequenced representative Adineta vaga. We performed a comprehensive analysis of A. vaga retroelements, and found that bdelloid long terminal repeat (LTR)retrotransposons, in addition to conserved open reading frame (ORF) 1 and ORF2 corresponding to gag and pol genes, code for an unusually high variety of ORF3 sequences. Retrovirus-like LTR families in A. vaga belong to four major lineages, three of which are rotiferspecific and encode a dUTPase domain. However only one lineage contains a canonical envlike fusion glycoprotein acquired from paramyxoviruses (non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses), although smaller ORFs with transmembrane domains may perform similar roles. A different ORF3 type encodes a GDSL esterase/lipase, which was previously identified as ORF1 in several clades of non-LTR retrotransposons, and implicated in membrane targeting. Yet another ORF3 type appears in unrelated LTR-retrotransposon lineages, and displays strong homology to DEDDy-type exonucleases involved in 3'-end processing of RNA and single-stranded DNA. Unexpectedly, each of the enzymatic ORF3s is also associated with different subsets of Penelope-like Athena retroelement families. The unusual association of the same ORF types with retroelements from different classes reflects their modular structure with a high degree of flexibility, and points to gene sharing between different groups of retroelements.
Melnikova, Nataliya V.; Kudryavtseva, Anna V.; Zelenin, Alexander V.; Lakunina, Valentina A.; Yurkevich, Olga Yu.; Speranskaya, Anna S.; Dmitriev, Alexey A.; Krinitsina, Anastasia A.; Belenikin, Maxim S.; Uroshlev, Leonid A.; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V.; Sadritdinova, Asiya F.; Koroban, Nadezda V.; Amosova, Alexandra V.; Samatadze, Tatiana E.; Guzenko, Elena V.; Lemesh, Valentina A.; Savilova, Anastasya M.; Rachinskaia, Olga A.; Kishlyan, Natalya V.; Rozhmina, Tatiana A.; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L.; Muravenko, Olga V.
SSAP method was used to study the genetic diversity of 22 Linum species from sections Linum, Adenolinum, Dasylinum, Stellerolinum, and 46 flax cultivars. All the studied flax varieties were distinguished using SSAP for retrotransposons FL9 and FL11. Thus, the validity of SSAP method was demonstrated for flax marking, identification of accessions in genebank collections, and control during propagation of flax varieties. Polymorphism of Fl1a, Fl1b, and Cassandra insertions were very low in flax varieties, but these retrotransposons were successfully used for the investigation of Linum species. Species clusterization based on SSAP markers was in concordance with their taxonomic division into sections Dasylinum, Stellerolinum, Adenolinum, and Linum. All species of sect. Adenolinum clustered apart from species of sect. Linum. The data confirmed the accuracy of the separation in these sections. Members of section Linum are not as closely related as members of other sections, so taxonomic revision of this section is desirable. L. usitatissimum accessions genetically distant from modern flax cultivars were revealed in our work. These accessions are of utmost interest for flax breeding and introduction of new useful traits into flax cultivars. The chromosome localization of Cassandra retrotransposon in Linum species was determined. PMID:25243121
Kuhn, B C; Mangolin, C A; Souto, E R; Vicient, C M; Machado, M F P S
Retrotransposons are abundant in the genomes of plants. In the present study, inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) and retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) markers were developed for the cassava genome (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Four cassava cultivars (Fécula Branca, IPR-União, Olho Junto, and Tamboara, two samples per cultivar) were used to obtain IRAP and REMAP fingerprints. Twelve designed primers were amplified alone and in combinations. The 42 IRAP/REMAP primer combinations amplified 431 DNA segments (bands; markers) of which 36 (8.36%) were polymorphic. The largest number of informative markers (16) was detected using the primers AYF2 and AYF2xAYF4. The number of bands for each primer varied from 3 to 16, with an average of 10.26 amplified segments per primer. The size of the amplified products ranged between 100 and 7000 bp. The AYF2 primer generated the highest number of amplified segments and showed the highest number of polymorphic bands (68.75%). Two samples of each cassava cultivar were used to illustrate the usefulness and the polymorphism of IRAP/REMAP markers. IRAP and REMAP markers produced a high number of reproducible bands, and might be informative and reliable for investigation of genetic diversity and relationships among cassava cultivars.
Yıldız, M; Koçak, M; Baloch, F S
Lack of requisite genetic variation in Turkish okra has necessitated the use of different types of markers for estimating the genetic diversity and identifying the source of variation. Transposable elements, present abundantly in plant genomes, generate genomic diversity through their replication and are thus an excellent source of molecular markers. We hypothesized that inter-primer binding site (iPBS)-retrotransposons could be the source of variation because of their genome plasticity nature. In the present study, genetic diversity of 66 okra landraces was analyzed using iPBS-retrotransposon markers. iPBS-retrotransposons detected 88 bands with 40.2% polymorphism and an average of 6.8 bands per primer. Gene diversity and Shannon's information index ranged from 0.01 to 0.13 and 0.02 to 0.21 for iPBS-retrotransposons and from 0.06 to 0.46 and 0.14 to 0.65 for simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, respectively. Polymorphism information content value for retrotransposons varied between 0.12 and 0.99, while that for SSR was from 0.52 to 0.81. Neighbor joining analysis based on retrotransposons and SSRs divided all the accessions into four clusters; however, SSR markers were more efficient in clustering the landraces based on their origin. Using the STRUCTURE software for determining population structure, and two populations (at the number of hypothetical subpopulations, K = 2) were identified among the landraces. Low genetic diversity in Turkish okra highlights the need for the introduction of plants from countries with greater genetic diversity for these crops. This study also demonstrates the utility and role of iPBS-retrotransposons, a dominant and ubiquitous part of eukaryotic genomes, for diversity studies in okra.
Duncan, Leonard; Bouckaert, Kristine; Yeh, Fay; Kirk, David L
Retrotransposons play an important role in the evolution of genomic structure and function. Here we report on the characterization of a novel retrotransposon called kangaroo from the multicellular green alga, Volvox carteri. kangaroo elements are highly mobile and their expression is developmentally regulated. They probably integrate via double-stranded, closed-circle DNA intermediates through the action of an encoded recombinase related to the lambda-site-specific integrase. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that kangaroo elements are closely related to other unorthodox retrotransposons including PAT (from a nematode), DIRS-1 (from Dictyostelium), and DrDIRS1 (from zebrafish). PAT and kangaroo both contain split direct repeat (SDR) termini, and here we show that DIRS-1 and DrDIRS1 elements contain terminal features structurally related to SDRs. Thus, these mobile elements appear to define a third class of retrotransposons (the DIRS1 group) that are unified by common structural features, genes, and integration mechanisms, all of which differ from those of LTR and conventional non-LTR retrotransposons. PMID:12524337
Payen, Thibaut; Murat, Claude; Martin, Francis
Truffles are ascomycete fungi belonging to genus Tuber, and they form ectomycorrhizal associations with trees and shrubs. Transposable elements constitute more than 50 % of the black Périgord truffle (Tuber melanosporum) genome, which are mainly class 1 gypsy retrotransposons, but their impact on its genome is unknown. The aims of this study are to investigate the diversity of gypsy retrotransposons in this species and their evolutionary history by analysing the reference genome and six resequenced genomes of different geographic accessions. Using the reverse transcriptase sequences, six different gypsy retrotransposon clades were identified. Tmt1 and Tmt6 are the most abundant transposable elements, representing 14 and 13 % of the T. melanosporum genome, respectively. Tmt6 showed a major burst of proliferation between 1 and 4 million years ago, but evidence of more recent transposition was observed. Except for Tmt2, the other clades tend to aggregate, and their mode of transposition excluded the master copy model. This suggests that each new copy has the same probability of transposing as other copies. This study provides a better view of the diversity and dynamic nature of gypsy retrotransposons in T. melanosporum. Even if the major gypsy retrotransposon bursts are old, some elements seem to have transposed recently, suggesting that they may continue to model the truffle genomes.
Pachulska-Wieczorek, Katarzyna; Le Grice, Stuart F.J.; Purzycka, Katarzyna J.
Long-terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are transposable genetic elements that replicate intracellularly, and can be considered progenitors of retroviruses. Ty1 and Ty3 are the most extensively characterized LTR retrotransposons whose RNA genomes provide the template for both protein translation and genomic RNA that is packaged into virus-like particles (VLPs) and reverse transcribed. Genomic RNAs are not divided into separate pools of translated and packaged RNAs, therefore their trafficking and packaging into VLPs requires an equilibrium between competing events. In this review, we focus on Ty1 and Ty3 genomic RNA trafficking and packaging as essential steps of retrotransposon propagation. We summarize the existing knowledge on genomic RNA sequences and structures essential to these processes, the role of Gag proteins in repression of genomic RNA translation, delivery to VLP assembly sites, and encapsidation. PMID:27428991
DeMarco, Ricardo; Kowaltowski, Andre T.; Machado, Abimael A.; Soares, M. Bento; Gargioni, Cybele; Kawano, Toshie; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Madeira, Alda M. B. N.; Wilson, R. Alan; Menck, Carlos F. M.; Setubal, João C.; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Leite, Luciana C. C.; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio
Using the data set of 180,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni generated recently by our group, we identified three novel long-terminal-repeat (LTR)- and one novel non-LTR-expressed retrotransposon, named Saci-1, -2, and -3 and Perere, respectively. Full-length sequences were reconstructed from ESTs and have deduced open reading frames (ORFs) with several uncorrupted features, characterizing them as possible active retrotransposons of different known transposon families. Alignment of reconstructed sequences to available preliminary genome sequence data confirmed the overall structure of the transposons. The frequency of sequenced transposon transcripts in cercariae was 14% of all transcripts from that stage, twofold higher than that in schistosomula and three- to fourfold higher than that in adults, eggs, miracidia, and germ balls. We show by Southern blot analysis, by EST annotation and tallying, and by counting transposon tags from a Social Analysis of Gene Expression library, that the four novel retrotransposons exhibit a 10- to 30-fold lower copy number in the genome and a 4- to 200-fold-higher transcriptional rate per copy than the four previously described S. mansoni retrotransposons. Such differences lead us to hypothesize that there are two different populations of retrotransposons in S. mansoni genome, occupying different niches in its ecology. Examples of retrotransposon fragment inserts were found into the 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of four different S. mansoni target gene transcripts. The data presented here suggest a role for these elements in the dynamics of this complex human parasite genome. PMID:14990715
Rho, Mina; Tang, Haixu
Computational methods for genome-wide identification of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) have become increasingly necessary for both genome annotation and evolutionary studies. Non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons are a class of MGEs that have been found in most eukaryotic genomes, sometimes in extremely high numbers. In this article, we present a computational tool, MGEScan-non-LTR, for the identification of non-LTR retrotransposons in genomic sequences, following a computational approach inspired by a generalized hidden Markov model (GHMM). Three different states represent two different protein domains and inter-domain linker regions encoded in the non-LTR retrotransposons, and their scores are evaluated by using profile hidden Markov models (for protein domains) and Gaussian Bayes classifiers (for linker regions), respectively. In order to classify the non-LTR retrotransposons into one of the 12 previously characterized clades using the same model, we defined separate states for different clades. MGEScan-non-LTR was tested on the genome sequences of four eukaryotic organisms, Drosophila melanogaster, Daphnia pulex, Ciona intestinalis and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. For the D. melanogaster genome, MGEScan-non-LTR found all known ‘full-length’ elements and simultaneously classified them into the clades CR1, I, Jockey, LOA and R1. Notably, for the D. pulex genome, in which no non-LTR retrotransposon has been annotated, MGEScan-non-LTR found a significantly larger number of elements than did RepeatMasker, using the current version of the RepBase Update library. We also identified novel elements in the other two genomes, which have only been partially studied for non-LTR retrotransposons. PMID:19762481
VanHoute, David; Maxwell, Patrick H.
Retrotransposons are mobile DNA elements present throughout eukaryotic genomes that can cause mutations and genome rearrangements when they replicate through reverse transcription. Increased expression and/or mobility of retrotransposons has been correlated with aging in yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and mammals. The many copies of retrotransposons in humans and various model organisms complicate further pursuit of this relationship. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ty1 retrotransposon was introduced into a strain of S. paradoxus that completely lacks retrotransposons to compare chronological lifespans (CLSs) of yeast strains with zero, low, or high Ty1 copy number. Yeast chronological lifespan reflects the progressive loss of cell viability in a nondividing state. Chronological lifespans for the strains were not different in rich medium, but were extended in high Ty1 copy-number strains in synthetic medium and in rich medium containing a low dose of hydroxyurea (HU), an agent that depletes deoxynucleoside triphosphates. Lifespan extension was not strongly correlated with Ty1 mobility or mutation rates for a representative gene. Buffering deoxynucleoside triphosphate levels with threonine supplementation did not substantially affect this lifespan extension, and no substantial differences in cell cycle arrest in the nondividing cells were observed. Lifespan extension was correlated with reduced reactive oxygen species during early stationary phase in high Ty1 copy strains, and antioxidant treatment allowed the zero Ty1 copy strain to live as long as high Ty1 copy-number strains in rich medium with hydroxyurea. This exceptional yeast system has identified an unexpected longevity-promoting role for retrotransposons that may yield novel insights into mechanisms regulating lifespan. PMID:25106655
Rodriguez, Fernando; Kenefick, Aubrey W.; Arkhipova, Irina R.
Rotifers of the class Bdelloidea, microscopic freshwater invertebrates, possess a highly-diversified repertoire of transposon families, which, however, occupy less than 4% of genomic DNA in the sequenced representative Adineta vaga. We performed a comprehensive analysis of A. vaga retroelements, and found that bdelloid long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposons, in addition to conserved open reading frame (ORF) 1 and ORF2 corresponding to gag and pol genes, code for an unusually high variety of ORF3 sequences. Retrovirus-like LTR families in A. vaga belong to four major lineages, three of which are rotifer-specific and encode a dUTPase domain. However only one lineage contains a canonical env-like fusion glycoprotein acquired from paramyxoviruses (non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses), although smaller ORFs with transmembrane domains may perform similar roles. A different ORF3 type encodes a GDSL esterase/lipase, which was previously identified as ORF1 in several clades of non-LTR retrotransposons, and implicated in membrane targeting. Yet another ORF3 type appears in unrelated LTR-retrotransposon lineages, and displays strong homology to DEDDy-type exonucleases involved in 3′-end processing of RNA and single-stranded DNA. Unexpectedly, each of the enzymatic ORF3s is also associated with different subsets of Penelope-like Athena retroelement families. The unusual association of the same ORF types with retroelements from different classes reflects their modular structure with a high degree of flexibility, and points to gene sharing between different groups of retroelements. PMID:28398238
Background Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA sequences present in the genomes of most organisms. They have been extensively studied in animals, fungi, and plants, and have been shown to have important functions in genome dynamics and species evolution. Recent genomic data can now enlarge the identification and study of TEs to other branches of the eukaryotic tree of life. Diatoms, which belong to the heterokont group, are unicellular eukaryotic algae responsible for around 40% of marine primary productivity. The genomes of a centric diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana, and a pennate diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, that likely diverged around 90 Mya, have recently become available. Results In the present work, we establish that LTR retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) are the most abundant TEs inhabiting these genomes, with a much higher presence in the P. tricornutum genome. We show that the LTR-RTs found in diatoms form two new phylogenetic lineages that appear to be diatom specific and are also found in environmental samples taken from different oceans. Comparative expression analysis in P. tricornutum cells cultured under 16 different conditions demonstrate high levels of transcriptional activity of LTR retrotransposons in response to nitrate limitation and upon exposure to diatom-derived reactive aldehydes, which are known to induce stress responses and cell death. Regulatory aspects of P. tricornutum retrotransposon transcription also include the occurrence of nitrate limitation sensitive cis-regulatory components within LTR elements and cytosine methylation dynamics. Differential insertion patterns in different P. tricornutum accessions isolated from around the world infer the role of LTR-RTs in generating intraspecific genetic variability. Conclusion Based on these findings we propose that LTR-RTs may have been important for promoting genome rearrangements in diatoms. PMID:20028555
Frahry, Matthew Blake; Sun, Cheng; Chong, Rebecca A; Mueller, Rachel Lockridge
Across the tree of life, species vary dramatically in nuclear genome size. Mutations that add or remove sequences from genomes-insertions or deletions, or indels-are the ultimate source of this variation. Differences in the tempo and mode of insertion and deletion across taxa have been proposed to contribute to evolutionary diversity in genome size. Among vertebrates, most of the largest genomes are found within the salamanders, an amphibian clade with genome sizes ranging from ~14 to ~120 Gb. Salamander genomes have been shown to experience slower rates of DNA loss through small (i.e., <30 bp) deletions than do other vertebrate genomes. However, no studies have addressed DNA loss from salamander genomes resulting from larger deletions. Here, we focus on one type of large deletion-ectopic-recombination-mediated removal of LTR retrotransposon sequences. In ectopic recombination, double-strand breaks are repaired using a "wrong" (i.e., ectopic, or non-allelic) template sequence-typically another locus of similar sequence. When breaks occur within the LTR portions of LTR retrotransposons, ectopic-recombination-mediated repair can produce deletions that remove the internal transposon sequence and the equivalent of one of the two LTR sequences. These deletions leave a signature in the genome-a solo LTR sequence. We compared levels of solo LTRs in the genomes of four salamander species with levels present in five vertebrates with smaller genomes. Our results demonstrate that salamanders have low levels of solo LTRs, suggesting that ectopic-recombination-mediated deletion of LTR retrotransposons occurs more slowly than in other vertebrates with smaller genomes.
Babii, A; Kovalchuk, S; Glazko, T; Kosovsky, G; Glazko, V
DNA transposons helitrons are mobile genetic elements responsible for major movements of the genetic material within and across different genomes. This ability makes helitrons suitable candidate elements for the development of new approaches of multilocus genotyping of live-stock animals, along with the well-known microsatellite loci. We aimed to estimate the informativeness of helitron and microsatellite markers in assessing the consolidation and the "gene pool" standards of two commercial dairy cattle breeds (Ayrshire breed and holsteinized Black-and-White cattle) and one local breed of Kalmyk cattle, and to reveal any inter-breed difference in the organization of genomic regions flanked by helitrons in the studied cattle breeds. We used the combination of two highly-polymorphic genomic elements - helitrons and trinu-cleotide microsatellites (AGC)6G and (GAG)6C, respectively - for genome scanning of the sampled groups of cattle. Also, we pyrosequenced the genomic regions flanked by the inverted repeats of 3'-end of Heligloria family of helitron fragments. Generally, the both combinations of markers generated polymorphic spectra, based on which certain interbreed differentiation could be observed. The analysis of the identified interspersed repeats suggests that in factory and local cattle the genomic regions flanked by helitron fragments are shaped differently and contain different superfamilies of transposable elements, especially retrotransposons. Despite the well-known fact of retrotransposon-dependent microsatellite expansion, our data suggest that, in the cattle genome, the DNA transposons and microsatellites can also be found in close neighbourhood, and that helitrons and retrotransposons may form domains of increased variability - targets for factors of artificial selection.
Casaregola, Serge; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Bon, Elisabeth; Gaillardin, Claude
During the course of a random sequencing project of the genome of the dimorphic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, we have identified sequences that were repeated in the genome and that matched the reverse transcriptase (RT) sequence of non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons. Extension of sequencing on each side of this zone of homology allowed the definition of an element over 6 kb long. The conceptual translation of this sequence revealed two open reading frames (ORFs) that displayed several characteristics of non-LTR retrotransposons: a Cys-rich motif in the ORF1, an N-terminal endonuclease, a central RT, and a C-terminal zinc finger domain in the ORF2. We called this element Ylli (for Y. lipolytica LINE). A total of 19 distinct repeats carrying the 3' untranslated region (UTR) and all ending with a poly-A tail were detected. Most of them were very short, 17 being 134 bp long or less. The number of copies of Ylli was estimated to be around 100 if these short repeats are 5' truncations. No 5' UTR was clearly identified, indicating that entire and therefore active elements might be very rare in the Y. lipolytica strain tested. Ylli does not seem to have any insertion specificity. Phylogenetic analysis of the RT domain unambiguously placed Ylli within the L1 clade. It forms a monophyletic group with the Zorro non-LTR retrotransposons discovered in another dimorphic yeast Candida albicans. BLAST comparisons showed that ORF2 of Ylli is closely related to that of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum L1 family, TRE.
Nandi, Sayan; Chandramohan, Dhruva; Fioriti, Luana; Melnick, Ari M; Hébert, Jean M; Mason, Christopher E; Rajasethupathy, Priyamvada; Kandel, Eric R
Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), long thought to be restricted to germline, have recently been discovered in neurons of Aplysia, with a role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression underlying long-term memory. We here ask whether piwi/piRNAs are also expressed and have functional roles in the mammalian brain. Large-scale RNA sequencing and subsequent analysis of protein expression revealed the presence in brain of several piRNA biogenesis factors including a mouse piwi (Mili), as well as small RNAs, albeit at low levels, resembling conserved piRNAs in mouse testes [primarily LINE1 (long interspersed nuclear element1) retrotransposon-derived]. Despite the seeming low expression of these putative piRNAs, single-base pair CpG methylation analyses across the genome of Mili/piRNA-deficient (Mili(-/-)) mice demonstrate that brain genomic DNA is preferentially hypomethylated within intergenic areas and LINE1 promoter areas of the genome. Furthermore, Mili mutant mice exhibit behavioral deficits such as hyperactivity and reduced anxiety. These results suggest that putative piRNAs exist in mammalian brain, and similar to the role of piRNAs in testes, they may be involved in the silencing of retrotransposons, which in brain have critical roles in contributing to genomic heterogeneity underlying adaptation, stress response, and brain pathology. We also describe the presence of another class of small RNAs in the brain, with features of endogenous siRNAs, which may have taken over the role of invertebrate piRNAs in their capacity to target both transposons, as well as protein-coding genes. Thus, RNA interference through gene and retrotransposon silencing previously encountered in Aplysia may also have potential roles in the mammalian brain.
Vitte, C; Estep, M C; Leebens-Mack, J; Bennetzen, J L
Although monocotyledonous plants comprise one of the two major groups of angiosperms and include >65 000 species, comprehensive genome analysis has been focused mainly on the Poaceae (grass) family. Due to this bias, most of the conclusions that have been drawn for monocot genome evolution are based on grasses. It is not known whether these conclusions apply to many other monocots. To extend our understanding of genome evolution in the monocots, Asparagales genomic sequence data were acquired and the structural properties of asparagus and onion genomes were analysed. Specifically, several available onion and asparagus bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) with contig sizes >35 kb were annotated and analysed, with a particular focus on the characterization of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. The results reveal that LTR retrotransposons are the major components of the onion and garden asparagus genomes. These elements are mostly intact (i.e. with two LTRs), have mainly inserted within the past 6 million years and are piled up into nested structures. Analysis of shotgun genomic sequence data and the observation of two copies for some transposable elements (TEs) in annotated BACs indicates that some families have become particularly abundant, as high as 4-5 % (asparagus) or 3-4 % (onion) of the genome for the most abundant families, as also seen in large grass genomes such as wheat and maize. Although previous annotations of contiguous genomic sequences have suggested that LTR retrotransposons were highly fragmented in these two Asparagales genomes, the results presented here show that this was largely due to the methodology used. In contrast, this current work indicates an ensemble of genomic features similar to those observed in the Poaceae.
Vitte, C.; Estep, M. C.; Leebens-Mack, J.; Bennetzen, J. L.
Background and Aims Although monocotyledonous plants comprise one of the two major groups of angiosperms and include >65 000 species, comprehensive genome analysis has been focused mainly on the Poaceae (grass) family. Due to this bias, most of the conclusions that have been drawn for monocot genome evolution are based on grasses. It is not known whether these conclusions apply to many other monocots. Methods To extend our understanding of genome evolution in the monocots, Asparagales genomic sequence data were acquired and the structural properties of asparagus and onion genomes were analysed. Specifically, several available onion and asparagus bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) with contig sizes >35 kb were annotated and analysed, with a particular focus on the characterization of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. Key Results The results reveal that LTR retrotransposons are the major components of the onion and garden asparagus genomes. These elements are mostly intact (i.e. with two LTRs), have mainly inserted within the past 6 million years and are piled up into nested structures. Analysis of shotgun genomic sequence data and the observation of two copies for some transposable elements (TEs) in annotated BACs indicates that some families have become particularly abundant, as high as 4–5 % (asparagus) or 3–4 % (onion) of the genome for the most abundant families, as also seen in large grass genomes such as wheat and maize. Conclusions Although previous annotations of contiguous genomic sequences have suggested that LTR retrotransposons were highly fragmented in these two Asparagales genomes, the results presented here show that this was largely due to the methodology used. In contrast, this current work indicates an ensemble of genomic features similar to those observed in the Poaceae. PMID:23887091
Heyman, T; Wilhelm, M; Wilhelm, F-X
The yeast retrotransposon Ty1 has structural and functional similarities to retroviruses. We report here that, as in retroviruses, the plus-strand DNA of Ty1 is synthesized as two segments. A central DNA flap is formed during reverse transcription consecutive to elongation (with strand displacement) of the upstream segment beyond the central polypurine tract (cPPT) until the replication machinery is stopped at the central termination sequence. Comparison of wild-type and cPPT-mutant Ty1 elements shows that the mutant element lacking the central DNA flap is only twofold defective in transposition.
Palmer, K J; Tichelaar, W; Myers, N; Burns, N R; Butcher, S J; Kingsman, A J; Fuller, S D; Saibil, H R
The virus-like particles (VLPs) produced by the yeast retrotransposon Ty1 are functionally related to retroviral cores. These particles are unusual in that they have variable radif. A paired mass-radius analysis of VLPs by scanning transmission electron microscopy showed that many of these particles form an icosahedral T-number series. Three-dimensional reconstruction to 38-A resolution from cryo-electron micrographs of T = 3 and T = 4 shells revealed that the single structural protein encoded by the TYA gene assembles into spiky shells from trimeric units. PMID:9261411
Akkouche, Abdou; Grentzinger, Thomas; Fablet, Marie; Armenise, Claudia; Burlet, Nelly; Braman, Virginie; Chambeyron, Séverine; Vieira, Cristina
Transposable elements (TEs), whose propagation can result in severe damage to the host genome, are silenced in the animal gonad by Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). piRNAs produced in the ovaries are deposited in the embryonic germline and initiate TE repression in the germline progeny. Whether the maternally transmitted piRNAs play a role in the silencing of somatic TEs is however unknown. Here we show that maternally transmitted piRNAs from the tirant retrotransposon in Drosophila are required for the somatic silencing of the TE and correlate with an increase in histone H3K9 trimethylation an active tirant copy. PMID:23559065
Reichmann, Judith; Reddington, James P; Best, Diana; Read, David; Ollinger, Rupert; Meehan, Richard R; Adams, Ian R
DNA methylation plays an important role in suppressing retrotransposon activity in mammalian genomes, yet there are stages of mammalian development where global hypomethylation puts the genome at risk of retrotransposition-mediated genetic instability. Hypomethylated primordial germ cells appear to limit this risk by expressing a cohort of retrotransposon-suppressing genome-defence genes whose silencing depends on promoter DNA methylation. Here, we investigate whether similar mechanisms operate in hypomethylated trophectoderm-derived components of the mammalian placenta to couple expression of genome-defence genes to the potential for retrotransposon activity. We show that the hypomethylated state of the mouse placenta results in activation of only one of the hypomethylation-sensitive germline genome-defence genes: Tex19.1. Tex19.1 appears to play an important role in placenta function as Tex19.1(-/-) mouse embryos exhibit intra-uterine growth retardation and have small placentas due to a reduction in the number of spongiotrophoblast, glycogen trophoblast and sinusoidal trophoblast giant cells. Furthermore, we show that retrotransposon mRNAs are derepressed in Tex19.1(-/-) placentas and that protein encoded by the LINE-1 retrotransposon is upregulated in hypomethylated trophectoderm-derived cells that normally express Tex19.1. This study suggests that post-transcriptional genome-defence mechanisms are operating in the placenta to protect the hypomethylated cells in this tissue from retrotransposons and suggests that imbalances between retrotransposon activity and genome-defence mechanisms could contribute to placenta dysfunction and disease.
Møller, Henrik D; Larsen, Camilla E; Parsons, Lance; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Regenberg, Birgitte; Mourier, Tobias
Extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA) derived from chromosomal Ty retrotransposons in yeast can be generated in multiple ways. Ty eccDNA can arise from the circularization of extrachromosomal linear DNA during the transpositional life cycle of retrotransposons, or from circularization of genomic Ty DNA. Circularization may happen through nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) of long terminal repeats (LTRs) flanking Ty elements, by Ty autointegration, or by LTR-LTR recombination. By performing an in-depth investigation of sequence reads stemming from Ty eccDNAs obtained from populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c, we find that eccDNAs predominantly correspond to full-length Ty1 elements. Analyses of sequence junctions reveal no signs of NHEJ or autointegration events. We detect recombination junctions that are consistent with yeast Ty eccDNAs being generated through recombination events within the genome. This opens the possibility that retrotransposable elements could move around in the genome without an RNA intermediate directly through DNA circularization.
Sacristán, Soledad; Vigouroux, Marielle; Pedersen, Carsten; Skamnioti, Pari; Thordal-Christensen, Hans; Micali, Cristina; Brown, James K M; Ridout, Christopher J
Parasites are able to evolve rapidly and overcome host defense mechanisms, but the molecular basis of this adaptation is poorly understood. Powdery mildew fungi (Erysiphales, Ascomycota) are obligate biotrophic parasites infecting nearly 10,000 plant genera. They obtain their nutrients from host plants through specialized feeding structures known as haustoria. We previously identified the AVR(k1) powdery mildew-specific gene family encoding effectors that contribute to the successful establishment of haustoria. Here, we report the extensive proliferation of the AVR(k1) gene family throughout the genome of B. graminis, with sequences diverging in formae speciales adapted to infect different hosts. Also, importantly, we have discovered that the effectors have coevolved with a particular family of LINE-1 retrotransposons, named TE1a. The coevolution of these two entities indicates a mutual benefit to the association, which could ultimately contribute to parasite adaptation and success. We propose that the association would benefit 1) the powdery mildew fungus, by providing a mechanism for amplifying and diversifying effectors and 2) the associated retrotransposons, by providing a basis for their maintenance through selection in the fungal genome.
Rahrmann, Eric P.; Largaespada, David A.
LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements comprising ~17% of the human genome. New L1 insertions can profoundly alter gene function and cause disease, though their significance in cancer remains unclear. Here, we applied enhanced retrotransposon capture sequencing (RC-seq) to 19 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) genomes and elucidated two archetypal L1-mediated mechanisms enabling tumorigenesis. In the first example, 4/19 (21.1%) donors presented germline retrotransposition events in the tumor suppressor mutated in colorectal cancers (MCC). MCC expression was ablated in each case, enabling oncogenic β-catenin/Wnt signaling. In the second example, suppression of tumorigenicity 18 (ST18) was activated by a tumor-specific L1 insertion. Experimental assays confirmed that the L1 interrupted a negative feedback loop by blocking ST18 repression of its enhancer. ST18 was also frequently amplified in HCC nodules from Mdr2(−/−) mice, supporting its assignment as a candidate liver oncogene. These proof-of-principle results substantiate L1-mediated retrotransposition as an important etiological factor in HCC. PMID:23665280
Ochogavía, Ana Claudia; Seijo, José Guillermo; González, Ana María; Podio, Maricel; Duarte Silveira, Erica; Machado Lacerda, Ana Luiza; Tavares de Campos Carneiro, Vera; Ortiz, Juan Pablo A; Pessino, Silvina Claudia
Apomixis, an asexual mode of reproduction through seeds, holds much promise for agricultural advances. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this trait are still poorly understood. We previously isolated several transcripts representing novel sequences differentially expressed in reproductive tissues of sexual and apomictic plants. Here, we report the characterization of two of these unknown RNA transcripts (experimental codes N17 and N22). Since original fragments showed no significant homologies to sequences at databases, preliminary genomic PCR experiments were carried out to discard possible contaminations. RACE extension on flanking regions provided longer sequences for the candidates and additional related transcripts, which revealed similarity to LTR retrotransposons carrying short transduplicated segments of protein-coding genes. Interestingly, some transduplicated segments corresponded to genes previously associated with apomictic development. Gene copy number estimations revealed a moderate representation of the elements in the genome, with significantly increased numbers in a sexual genotype with respect to an apomictic one. Genetic mapping of N17 showed that a copy of this particular element was located onto Paspalum notatum linkage group F3c, at a central non-recombinant region resembling a centromere. Expression analysis showed an increased activity of N17 and N22 sense strands in ovules of the sexual genotypes. A retrotransposon-specific differential display analysis aimed at detecting related sequences allowed the identification of a complex family, with the majority of its members represented in the sexual genotype. Our results suggest that these elements could be participating in regulatory pathways related to apomixis and sexuality.
Purzycka, Katarzyna J.; Legiewicz, Michal; Matsuda, Emiko; Eizentstat, Linda D.; Lusvarghi, Sabrina; Saha, Agniva; Grice, Stuart F. J. Le; Garfinkel, David J.
Ty1, a long terminal repeat retrotransposon of Saccharomyces, is structurally and functionally related to retroviruses. However, a differentiating aspect between these retroelements is the diversity of the replication strategies used by long terminal repeat retrotransposons. To understand the structural organization of cis-acting elements present on Ty1 genomic RNA from the GAG region that control reverse transcription, we applied chemoenzymatic probing to RNA/tRNA complexes assembled in vitro and to the RNA in virus-like particles. By comparing different RNA states, our analyses provide a comprehensive structure of the primer-binding site, a novel pseudoknot adjacent to the primer-binding sites, three regions containing palindromic sequences that may be involved in RNA dimerization or packaging and candidate protein interaction sites. In addition, we determined the impact of a novel form of transposon control based on Ty1 antisense transcripts that associate with virus-like particles. Our results support the idea that antisense RNAs inhibit retrotransposition by targeting Ty1 protein function rather than annealing with the RNA genome. PMID:23093595
Kiseleva, A V; Kirov, I V; Khrustaleva, L I
This is the first report on the presence of Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons in the centromeric region of Allium cepa and Allium fistulosum. The paper identifies the putative Ty3/gypsy centromeric retrotransposons (CR) among the DNA sequences of A. cepa present in the NCBI database and evaluates their copy number in the genomes of Allium cepa and Allium fistulosum. The putative copy number of Ty3/gypsy CR constituted about 26000 for A. cepa and about 7000 for A. fistulosum. The chromosomal organization of Ty3/gypsy CR was analyzed with the help of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The 300-bp PCR products synthesized with genomic DNA of Allium cepa and Allium fistulosum and primers designed for the sequence ET645811 of A. cepa (Genome Survey Sequence database), displaying similarity to the reverse transcriptase of the CR Ty3/gypsy family, served as FISH hybridization probes. On the chromosomes of A. cepa, hybridization signals were mainly localized in the centromeric region. On the chromosomes of A. fistulosum the signals were less expressed in the centromeric regions, though they were abundant in other chromosomal regions. The pathways of evolution in these closely related species are discussed.
Klenov, Mikhail S.; Lavrov, Sergey A.; Stolyarenko, Anastasia D.; Ryazansky, Sergey S.; Aravin, Alexei A.; Tuschl, Thomas; Gvozdev, Vladimir A.
Silencing of genomic repeats, including transposable elements, in Drosophila melanogaster is mediated by repeat-associated short interfering RNAs (rasiRNAs) interacting with proteins of the Piwi subfamily. rasiRNA-based silencing is thought to be mechanistically distinct from both the RNA interference and microRNA pathways. We show that the amount of rasiRNAs of a wide range of retroelements is drastically reduced in ovaries and testes of flies carrying a mutation in the spn-E gene. To address the mechanism of rasiRNA-dependent silencing of retrotransposons, we monitored their chromatin state in ovaries and somatic tissues. This revealed that the spn-E mutation causes chromatin opening of retroelements in ovaries, resulting in an increase in histone H3 K4 dimethylation and a decrease in histone H3 K9 di/trimethylation. The strongest chromatin changes have been detected for telomeric HeT-A elements that correlates with the most dramatic increase of their transcript level, compared to other mobile elements. The spn-E mutation also causes depletion of HP1 content in the chromatin of transposable elements, especially along HeT-A arrays. We also show that mutations in the genes controlling the rasiRNA pathway cause no derepression of the same retrotransposons in somatic tissues. Our results provide evidence that germinal Piwi-associated short RNAs induce chromatin modifications of their targets. PMID:17702759
Gallus, Susanne; Janke, Axel; Kumar, Vikas; Nilsson, Maria A
The ancestors to the Australian marsupials entered Australia around 60 (54-72) Ma from Antarctica, and radiated into the four living orders Peramelemorphia, Dasyuromorphia, Diprotodontia, and Notoryctemorphia. The relationship between the four Australian marsupial orders has been a long-standing question, because different phylogenetic studies have not been able to consistently reconstruct the same topology. Initial in silico analysis of the Tasmanian devil genome and experimental screening in the seven marsupial orders revealed 20 informative transposable element insertions for resolving the inter- and intraordinal relationships of Australian and South American orders. However, the retrotransposon insertions support three conflicting topologies regarding Peramelemorphia, Dasyuromorphia, and Notoryctemorphia, indicating that the split between the three orders may be best understood as a network. This finding is supported by a phylogenetic reanalysis of nuclear gene sequences, using a consensus network approach that allows depicting hidden phylogenetic conflict, otherwise lost when forcing the data into a bifurcating tree. The consensus network analysis agrees with the transposable element analysis in that all possible topologies regarding Peramelemorphia, Dasyuromorphia, and Notoryctemorphia in a rooted four-taxon topology are equally well supported. In addition, retrotransposon insertion data support the South American order Didelphimorphia being the sistergroup to all other living marsupial orders. The four Australian orders originated within 3 Myr at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. The rapid divergences left conflicting phylogenetic information in the genome possibly generated by incomplete lineage sorting or introgressive hybridization, leaving the relationship among Australian marsupial orders unresolvable as a bifurcating process millions of years later.
Paynter, Ashley N; Metzger, Michael J; Sessa, Jocelyn A; Siddall, Mark E
Bivalve specimens from legacy frozen tissue collections, and others freshly obtained, were surveyed for the presence of the Steamer long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposon associated with disseminated hemic neoplasia of the soft-shelled clam Mya areneria. Of 22 species investigated using primers for the pol region, only Atlantic M. arenaria, Atlantic and North Sea razor clams Ensis directus, and Baltic clams Macoma balthica from the North Sea were found to possess copies of Steamer in their genomes. Notably, close relatives like Mya truncata and Siliqua patula did not exhibit evidence of Steamer. Amplified Steamer sequences were uniformly identical in all M. areneria specimens, and were highly variable across specimens of E. directus. Variation in the latter included nucleotide polymorphisms among and within individuals as well as length variation in 2 specimens corresponding to the deletion of a predicted stable hairpin structure. Results implicate Atlantic razor clams as the proximal source for horizontal transmission of Steamer among ecologically similar yet markedly distantly related bivalves. The consequences of cross-species transmission of the Steamer retrotransposon are unknown, and the finding of Steamer in 3 bivalve species suggests that further spread is possible.
Morales-Hernández, Antonio; González-Rico, Francisco J; Román, Angel C; Rico-Leo, Eva; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Sánchez, Laura; Macia, Ángela; Heras, Sara R; García-Pérez, José L; Merino, Jaime M; Fernández-Salguero, Pedro M
Cell differentiation is a central process in development and in cancer growth and dissemination. OCT4 (POU5F1) and NANOG are essential for cell stemness and pluripotency; yet, the mechanisms that regulate their expression remain largely unknown. Repetitive elements account for almost half of the Human Genome; still, their role in gene regulation is poorly understood. Here, we show that the dioxin receptor (AHR) leads to differentiation of human carcinoma cells through the transcriptional upregulation of Alu retrotransposons, whose RNA transcripts can repress pluripotency genes. Despite the genome-wide presence of Alu elements, we provide evidences that those located at the NANOG and OCT4 promoters bind AHR, are transcribed by RNA polymerase-III and repress NANOG and OCT4 in differentiated cells. OCT4 and NANOG repression likely involves processing of Alu-derived transcripts through the miRNA machinery involving the Microprocessor and RISC. Consistently, stable AHR knockdown led to basal undifferentiation, impaired Alus transcription and blockade of OCT4 and NANOG repression. We suggest that transcripts produced from AHR-regulated Alu retrotransposons may control the expression of stemness genes OCT4 and NANOG during differentiation of carcinoma cells. The control of discrete Alu elements by specific transcription factors may have a dynamic role in genome regulation under physiological and diseased conditions. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Morales-Hernández, Antonio; González-Rico, Francisco J.; Román, Angel C.; Rico-Leo, Eva; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Sánchez, Laura; Macia, Ángela; Heras, Sara R.; García-Pérez, José L.; Merino, Jaime M.; Fernández-Salguero, Pedro M.
Abstract Cell differentiation is a central process in development and in cancer growth and dissemination. OCT4 (POU5F1) and NANOG are essential for cell stemness and pluripotency; yet, the mechanisms that regulate their expression remain largely unknown. Repetitive elements account for almost half of the Human Genome; still, their role in gene regulation is poorly understood. Here, we show that the dioxin receptor (AHR) leads to differentiation of human carcinoma cells through the transcriptional upregulation of Alu retrotransposons, whose RNA transcripts can repress pluripotency genes. Despite the genome-wide presence of Alu elements, we provide evidences that those located at the NANOG and OCT4 promoters bind AHR, are transcribed by RNA polymerase-III and repress NANOG and OCT4 in differentiated cells. OCT4 and NANOG repression likely involves processing of Alu-derived transcripts through the miRNA machinery involving the Microprocessor and RISC. Consistently, stable AHR knockdown led to basal undifferentiation, impaired Alus transcription and blockade of OCT4 and NANOG repression. We suggest that transcripts produced from AHR-regulated Alu retrotransposons may control the expression of stemness genes OCT4 and NANOG during differentiation of carcinoma cells. The control of discrete Alu elements by specific transcription factors may have a dynamic role in genome regulation under physiological and diseased conditions. PMID:26883630
Steinbauerová, Veronika; Neumann, Pavel; Macas, Jirí
Ogre elements are a distinct group of plant Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons characterized by several specific features, one of which is a separation of the gag-pol region into two non-overlapping open reading frames: ORF2 coding for Gag-Pro, and ORF3 coding for RT/RH-INT proteins. Previous characterization of Ogre elements from several plant species revealed that part of their transcripts lacks the region between ORF2 and ORF3, carrying one uninterrupted ORF instead. In this work, we investigated a hypothesis that this region represents an intron that is spliced out from part of the Ogre transcripts as a means for preferential production of ORF2-encoded proteins over those encoded by the complete ORF2-ORF3 region. The experiments involved analysis of transcription patterns of well-defined Ogre populations in a model plant Medicago truncatula and examination of transcripts carrying dissected pea Ogre intron expressed within a coding sequence of chimeric reporter gene. Both experimental approaches proved that the region between ORF2 and ORF3 is spliced from Ogre transcripts and showed that this process is only partial, probably due to weak splice signals. This is one of very few known cases of spliced LTR retrotransposons and the only one where splicing does not involve parts of the element's coding sequences, thus resembling intron splicing found in most cellular genes.
Shpiz, Sergey; Kwon, Dmitry; Rozovsky, Yakov; Kalmykova, Alla
Telomeres in Drosophila are maintained by the specialized telomeric retrotransposons HeT-A, TART and TAHRE. Sense transcripts of telomeric retroelements were shown to be the targets of a specialized RNA-interference mechanism, a repeat-associated short interfering (rasi)RNA-mediated system. Antisense rasiRNAs play a key role in this mechanism, highlighting the importance of antisense expression in retrotransposon silencing. Previously, bidirectional transcription was reported for the telomeric element TART. Here, we show that HeT-A is also bidirectionally transcribed, and HeT-A antisense transcription in ovaries is regulated by a promoter localized within its 3′ untranslated region. A remarkable feature of noncoding HeT-A antisense transcripts is the presence of multiple introns. We demonstrate that sense and antisense HeT-A-specific rasiRNAs are present in the same tissue, indicating that transcripts of both directions may be considered as natural targets of the rasiRNA pathway. We found that the expression of antisense transcripts of telomeric elements is regulated by the RNA silencing machinery, suggesting rasiRNA-mediated interplay between sense and antisense transcripts in the cell. Finally, this regulation occurs in the nucleus since disruption of the rasiRNA pathway leads to an accumulation of TART and HeT-A transcripts in germ cell nuclei. PMID:19036789
Le, Quy Vang; Won, Hyo-Kyung; Lee, Tae-Soo; Lee, Chang-Yun; Lee, Hyun-Sook
The retrotransposon marY1 is a gypsy family retroelement, which is detected ubiquitously within the fungal taxonomic groups in which mushrooms are included. To utilize marY1 as a molecular marker for the DNA fingerprinting of mushrooms, oligonucleotides marY1-LTR-L and marY1-LTR-R were designed on the basis of highly conserved regions from the multiple sequence alignment of 30 marY1 sequences retrieved from a nucleotide sequence database. In accordance with Retrotransposon Microsatellite Amplified Polymorphism (REMAP) fingerprinting methodology, the two oligonucleotides were utilized together with the short sequence repeat primers UBC807 and UBC818 for polymerase chain reaction using templates from different mushroom genomic DNAs. Among the tested oligonucleotides, the marY1-LTR-L and UBC807 primer set yielded the greatest amount of abundance and variation in terms of DNA band numbers and patterns. This method was successfully applied to 10 mushroom species, and the primer set successfully discriminated between different commercial mushroom cultivars of the same strains of 14 Pleurotus ostreatus and 16 P. eryngii. REMAP reproducibility was superior to other popular DNA fingerprinting methodologies including the random amplified polymorphic DNA method. PMID:23997618
Tsukahara, Sayuri; Kawabe, Akira; Kobayashi, Akie; Ito, Tasuku; Aizu, Tomoyuki; Shin-i, Tadasu; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Tarutani, Yoshiaki; Kakutani, Tetsuji
The plant genome evolves with rapid proliferation of LTR-type retrotransposons, which is associated with their clustered accumulation in gene-poor regions, such as centromeres. Despite their major role for plant genome evolution, no mobile LTR element with targeted integration into gene-poor regions has been identified in plants. Here, we report such targeted integrations de novo. We and others have previously shown that an ATCOPIA93 family retrotransposon in Arabidopsis thaliana is mobilized when the DNA methylation machinery is compromised. Although ATCOPIA93 family elements are low copy number in the wild-type A. thaliana genome, high-copy-number related elements are found in the wild-type Arabidopsis lyrata genome, and they show centromere-specific localization. To understand the mechanisms for the clustered accumulation of the A. lyrata elements directly, we introduced one of them, named Tal1 (Transposon of Arabidopsis lyrata 1), into A. thaliana by transformation. The introduced Tal1 was retrotransposed in A. thaliana, and most of the retrotransposed copies were found in centromeric repeats of A. thaliana, suggesting targeted integration. The targeted integration is especially surprising because the centromeric repeat sequences differ considerably between A. lyrata and A. thaliana. Our results revealed unexpectedly dynamic controls for evolution of the transposon-rich heterochromatic regions. PMID:22431508
Danilevskaya, O; Slot, F; Pavlova, M; Pardue, M L
Telomeres of Drosophila appear to be very different from those of other organisms. A transposable element, HeT-A, plays a major role in forming telomeres and may be the sole structural element, since telomerase-generated repeats are not found. HeT-A transposes only to chromosome ends. It appears to be a retrotransposon but has novel structural features, which may be related to its telomere functions. A consensus sequence from cloned HeT-A elements defines an element of approximately 6 kb. The coding region has retrotransposon-like overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) with a -1 frameshift in a sequence resembling the frameshift region of the mammalian HIV-1 retrovirus. Both the HeT-A ORFs contain motifs suggesting RNA binding. HeT-A-specific features include a long non-coding region, 3' of the ORFs, which makes up about half of the element. This region has a regular array of imperfect sequence repeats and ends with oligo(A), marking the end of the element and suggesting a polyadenylated RNA transposition intermediate. This 3' repeat region may have a structural role in heterochromatin. The most distal part of each complete HeT-A on the chromosome, the region 5' of the ORFs, has unusual conserved features, which might produce a terminal structure for the chromosome.
Higashiyama, T; Noutoshi, Y; Fujie, M; Yamada, T
Six copies of insertion elements accumulate in the subtelomeric region immediately proximal to the telomeric repeats on Chlorella chromosome I. The elements, designated Zepps, bear the characteristic features of non-viral (LINE-like) retrotransposons, including a poly(A) tail, 5'-truncations, a retroviral reverse transcriptase-like ORF and flanking target duplications. Detailed sequence analysis of the Chlorella subtelomeric region revealed a novel mechanism of Zepp transposition; successive insertions of each Zepp element into another Zepp as a target, leaving a tandem array of their 3'-regions with poly(A) tracts facing toward the centromere. Only the most distal Zepp copy was inverted to connect its poly(A) tail with the telomeric repeats. A similar Zepp cluster but without the telomeric repeats was also found at the terminus of another Chlorella chromosome. These structures contrast with that proposed for the addition of HeT-A and TART elements to Drosophila telomeres. Expression of Zepp elements is induced by heat shock treatment. Possible roles of the subtelomeric retrotransposons in formation and maintenance of telomeres are discussed. PMID:9218812
Rebollo, Rita; Karimi, Mohammad M.; Bilenky, Misha; Gagnier, Liane; Miceli-Royer, Katharine; Zhang, Ying; Goyal, Preeti; Keane, Thomas M.; Jones, Steven; Hirst, Martin; Lorincz, Matthew C.; Mager, Dixie L.
The “arms race” relationship between transposable elements (TEs) and their host has promoted a series of epigenetic silencing mechanisms directed against TEs. Retrotransposons, a class of TEs, are often located in repressed regions and are thought to induce heterochromatin formation and spreading. However, direct evidence for TE–induced local heterochromatin in mammals is surprisingly scarce. To examine this phenomenon, we chose two mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines that possess insertionally polymorphic retrotransposons (IAP, ETn/MusD, and LINE elements) at specific loci in one cell line but not the other. Employing ChIP-seq data for these cell lines, we show that IAP elements robustly induce H3K9me3 and H4K20me3 marks in flanking genomic DNA. In contrast, such heterochromatin is not induced by LINE copies and only by a minority of polymorphic ETn/MusD copies. DNA methylation is independent of the presence of IAP copies, since it is present in flanking regions of both full and empty sites. Finally, such spreading into genes appears to be rare, since the transcriptional start sites of very few genes are less than one Kb from an IAP. However, the B3galtl gene is subject to transcriptional silencing via IAP-induced heterochromatin. Hence, although rare, IAP-induced local heterochromatin spreading into nearby genes may influence expression and, in turn, host fitness. PMID:21980304
Ecco, Gabriela; Rowe, Helen M; Trono, Didier
Deposition of epigenetic marks is an important layer of the transcriptional control of retrotransposons, especially during early embryogenesis. Krüppel-associated box domain zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs) are one of the largest families of transcription factors, and collectively partake in this process by tethering to thousands of retroelement-containing genomic loci their cofactor KAP1, which acts as a scaffold for a heterochromatin-inducing machinery. However, while the sequence-specific DNA binding potential of the poly-zinc finger-containing KRAB-ZFPs is recognized, very few members of the family have been assigned specific targets. In this chapter, we describe a large-scale functional screen to identify the retroelements bound by individual murine KRAB-ZFPs. Our method is based on the automated transfection of a library of mouse KRAB-ZFP-containing vectors into 293T cells modified to express GFP from a PGK promoter harboring in its immediate vicinity a KAP1-recruiting retroelement-derived sequence. Analysis is then performed by plate reader and flow cytometry fluorescence readout. Such large-scale DNA-centered functional approach can not only help to identify the trans-acting factors responsible for silencing retrotransposons, but also serve as a model for dissecting the transcriptional networks influenced by retroelement-derived cis-acting sequences.
Background Transposable elements (TEs) make up a large part of eukaryotic genomes. Due to their repetitive nature and to the fact that they harbour regulatory signals, TEs can be responsible for chromosomal rearrangements, movement of gene sequences and evolution of gene regulation and function. Retrotransposon ubiquity raises the question about their function in genomes and most are transcriptionally inactive due to rearrangements that compromise their activity. However, the activity of TEs is currently considered to have been one of the major processes in genome evolution. Findings We report on the characterization of a transcriptionally active gypsy-like retrotransposon (named Corky) from Quercus suber, in a comparative and quantitative study of expression levels in different tissues and distinct developmental stages through RT-qPCR. We observed Corky’s differential transcription levels in all the tissues analysed. Conclusions These results document that Corky’s transcription levels are not constant. Nevertheless, they depend upon the developmental stage, the tissue analysed and the potential occurring events during an individuals’ life span. This modulation brought upon by different developmental and environmental influences suggests an involvement of Corky in stress response and during development. PMID:22888907
Denli, Ahmet M; Narvaiza, Iñigo; Kerman, Bilal E; Pena, Monique; Benner, Christopher; Marchetto, Maria C N; Diedrich, Jolene K; Aslanian, Aaron; Ma, Jiao; Moresco, James J; Moore, Lynne; Hunter, Tony; Saghatelian, Alan; Gage, Fred H
LINE-1 retrotransposons are fast-evolving mobile genetic entities that play roles in gene regulation, pathological conditions, and evolution. Here, we show that the primate LINE-1 5'UTR contains a primate-specific open reading frame (ORF) in the antisense orientation that we named ORF0. The gene product of this ORF localizes to promyelocytic leukemia-adjacent nuclear bodies. ORF0 is present in more than 3,000 loci across human and chimpanzee genomes and has a promoter and a conserved strong Kozak sequence that supports translation. By virtue of containing two splice donor sites, ORF0 can also form fusion proteins with proximal exons. ORF0 transcripts are readily detected in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from both primate species. Capped and polyadenylated ORF0 mRNAs are present in the cytoplasm, and endogenous ORF0 peptides are identified upon proteomic analysis. Finally, ORF0 enhances LINE-1 mobility. Taken together, these results suggest a role for ORF0 in retrotransposon-mediated diversity.
Tanaka, Atsushi; Nakatani, Youko; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Jinno-Oue, Atsushi; Shimizu, Nobuaki; Wada, Seiichi; Funayama, Tomoo; Mori, Takahisa; Islam, Salequl; Hoque, Sheikh Ariful; Shinagawa, Masahiko; Ohtsuki, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Hoshino, Hiroo
It is important to identify the mechanism by which ionising irradiation induces various genomic alterations in the progeny of surviving cells. Ionising irradiation activates mobile elements like retrotransposons, although the mechanism of its phenomena consisting of transcriptions and insertions of the products into new sites of the genome remains unclear. In this study, we analysed the effects of sparsely ionising X-rays and densely ionising carbon-ion beams on the activities of a family of active retrotransposons, long interspersed nuclear elements 1 (L1). We used the L1/reporter knock-in human glioma cell line, NP-2/L1RP-enhanced GFP (EGFP), that harbours full-length L1 tagged with EGFP retrotransposition detection cassette (L1RP-EGFP) in the chromosomal DNA. X-rays and carbon-ion beams similarly increased frequencies the transcription from L1RP-EGFP and its retrotransposition. Short-sized de novo L1RP-EGFP insertions with 5'-truncation were induced by X-rays, while full-length or long-sized insertions (>5 kb, containing ORF1 and ORF2) were found only in cell clones irradiated by the carbon-ion beams. These data suggest that X-rays and carbon-ion beams induce different length of de novo L1 insertions, respectively. Our findings thus highlight the necessity to investigate the mechanisms of mutations caused by transposable elements by ionising irradiation.
Kojima, Kenji K; Kapitonov, Vladimir V; Jurka, Jerzy
Autonomous non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons and their repetitive remnants are ubiquitous components of mammalian genomes. Recently, we identified non-LTR retrotransposon families, Ingi-1_AAl and Ingi-1_EE, in two hedgehog genomes. Here we rename them to Vingi-1_AAl and Vingi-1_EE and report a new clade "Vingi," which is a sister clade of Ingi that lacks the ribonuclease H domain. In the European hedgehog genome, there are 11 non-autonomous families of elements derived from Vingi-1_EE by internal deletions. No retrotransposons related to Vingi elements were found in any of the remaining 33 mammalian genomes nearly completely sequenced to date, but we identified several new families of Vingi and Ingi retrotransposons outside mammals. Our data suggest the horizontal transfer of Vingi elements to hedgehog, although the vertical transfer cannot be ruled out. The compact structure and trans-mobilization of nonautonomous derivatives of Vingi can make them useful for in vivo retrotransposition assay system.
Kojima, Kenji K.; Kapitonov, Vladimir V.; Jurka, Jerzy
Autonomous non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons and their repetitive remnants are ubiquitous components of mammalian genomes. Recently, we identified non-LTR retrotransposon families, Ingi-1_AAl and Ingi-1_EE, in two hedgehog genomes. Here we rename them to Vingi-1_AAl and Vingi-1_EE and report a new clade “Vingi,” which is a sister clade of Ingi that lacks the ribonuclease H domain. In the European hedgehog genome, there are 11 non-autonomous families of elements derived from Vingi-1_EE by internal deletions. No retrotransposons related to Vingi elements were found in any of the remaining 33 mammalian genomes nearly completely sequenced to date, but we identified several new families of Vingi and Ingi retrotransposons outside mammals. Our data suggest the horizontal transfer of Vingi elements to hedgehog, although the vertical transfer cannot be ruled out. The compact structure and trans-mobilization of nonautonomous derivatives of Vingi can make them useful for in vivo retrotransposition assay system. PMID:20716533
MacLennan, Marie; García-Cañadas, Marta; Reichmann, Judith; Khazina, Elena; Wagner, Gabriele; Playfoot, Christopher J; Salvador-Palomeque, Carmen; Mann, Abigail R; Peressini, Paula; Sanchez, Laura; Dobie, Karen; Read, David; Hung, Chao-Chun; Eskeland, Ragnhild; Meehan, Richard R; Weichenrieder, Oliver; García-Pérez, Jose Luis; Adams, Ian R
Mobilization of retrotransposons to new genomic locations is a significant driver of mammalian genome evolution, but these mutagenic events can also cause genetic disorders. In humans, retrotransposon mobilization is mediated primarily by proteins encoded by LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons, which mobilize in pluripotent cells early in development. Here we show that TEX19.1, which is induced by developmentally programmed DNA hypomethylation, can directly interact with the L1-encoded protein L1-ORF1p, stimulate its polyubiquitylation and degradation, and restrict L1 mobilization. We also show that TEX19.1 likely acts, at least in part, through promoting the activity of the E3 ubiquitin ligase UBR2 towards L1-ORF1p. Moreover, loss of Tex19.1 increases L1-ORF1p levels and L1 mobilization in pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells, implying that Tex19.1 prevents de novo retrotransposition in the pluripotent phase of the germline cycle. These data show that post-translational regulation of L1 retrotransposons plays a key role in maintaining trans-generational genome stability in mammals. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26152.001 PMID:28806172
Lenka, Nibedita; Krishnan, Shruthi; Board, Philip; Rangasamy, Danny
Identifying the genes or epigenetic factors that control the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells is critical to understanding the molecular basis of cell commitment. Although a number of insertional mutagenesis vectors have been developed for identifying gene functions in animal models, the L1 retrotransposition system offers additional advantages as a tool to disrupt genes in embryonic stem cells in order to identify their functions and the phenotypes associated with them. Recent advances in producing synthetic versions of L1 retrotransposon vector system and the optimization of techniques to accurately identify retrotransposon integration sites have increased their utility for gene discovery applications. We have developed a novel episomal, nonviral L1 retrotransposon vector using scaffold/matrix attachment regions that provides stable, sustained levels of retrotransposition in cell cultures without being affected by epigenetic silencing or from some of the common problems of vector integration. This modified vector contains a GFP marker whose expression occurs only after successful gene disruption events and thus the cells with disrupted genes can be easily picked for functional analysis. Here we present a method to disrupt gene function in embryonic stem cells that aid in the identification of genes involved in stem cell differentiation processes. The methods presented here can be easily adapted to the study of other types of cancer stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells using the L1 retrotransposon as an insertional mutagen.
Novikova, Olga; Śliwińska, Ewa; Fet, Victor; Settele, Josef; Blinov, Alexander; Woyciechowski, Michal
Background Non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements that propagate themselves by reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Non-LTR retrotransposons are known to evolve mainly via vertical transmission and random loss. Horizontal transmission is believed to be a very rare event in non-LTR retrotransposons. Our knowledge of distribution and diversity of insect non-LTR retrotransposons is limited to a few species – mainly model organisms such as dipteran genera Drosophila, Anopheles, and Aedes. However, diversity of non-LTR retroelements in arthropods seems to be much richer. The present study extends the analysis of non-LTR retroelements to CR1 clade from four butterfly species of genus Maculinea (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). The lycaenid genus Maculinea, the object of interest for evolutionary biologists and also a model group for European biodiversity studies, possesses a unique, specialized myrmecophilous lifestyle at larval stage. Their caterpillars, after three weeks of phytophagous life on specific food plants drop to the ground where they are adopted to the ant nest by Myrmica foraging workers. Results We found that the genome of Maculinea butterflies contains multiple CR1 lineages of non-LTR retrotransposons, including those from MacCR1A, MacCR1B and T1Q families. A comparative analysis of RT nucleotide sequences demonstrated an extremely high similarity among elements both in interspecific and intraspecific comparisons. CR1A-like elements were found only in family Lycaenidae. In contrast, MacCR1B lineage clones were extremely similar to CR1B non-LTR retrotransposons from Bombycidae moths: silkworm Bombyx mori and Oberthueria caeca. Conclusion The degree of coding sequence similarity of the studied elements, their discontinuous distribution, and results of divergence-versus-age analysis make it highly unlikely that these sequences diverged at the same time as their host taxa. The only reasonable alternative
Santos, Fabíola Carvalho; Guyot, Romain; do Valle, Cacilda Borges; Chiari, Lucimara; Techio, Vânia Helena; Heslop-Harrison, Pat; Vanzela, André Luís Laforga
Like other eukaryotes, the nuclear genome of plants consists of DNA with a small proportion of low-copy DNA (genes and regulatory sequences) and very abundant DNA sequence motifs that are repeated thousands up to millions of times in the genomes including transposable elements (TEs) and satellite DNA. Retrotransposons, one class of TEs, are sequences that amplify via an RNA intermediate and reinsert into the genome, are often the major fraction of a genome. Here, we put research on retrotransposons into the larger context of plant repetitive DNA and genome behaviour, showing features of genome evolution in a grass genus, Brachiaria, in relation to other plant species. We show the contrasting amplification of different retroelement fractions across the genome with characteristics for various families and domains. The genus Brachiaria includes both diploid and polyploid species, with similar chromosome types and chromosome basic numbers x = 6, 7, 8 and 9. The polyploids reproduce asexually and are apomictic, but there are also sexual species. Cytogenetic studies and flow cytometry indicate a large variation in DNA content (C-value), chromosome sizes and genome organization. In order to evaluate the role of transposable elements in the genome and karyotype organization of species of Brachiaria, we searched for sequences similar to conserved regions of TEs in RNAseq reads library produced in Brachiaria decumbens. Of the 9649 TE-like contigs, 4454 corresponded to LTR-retrotransposons, and of these, 79.5 % were similar to members of the gypsy superfamily. Sequences of conserved protein domains of gypsy were used to design primers for producing the probes. The probes were used in FISH against chromosomes of accesses of B. decumbens, Brachiaria brizantha, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Brachiaria humidicola. Probes showed hybridization signals predominantly in proximal regions, especially those for retrotransposons of the clades CRM and Athila, while elements of Del and Tat
Piednoël, Mathieu; Bonnivard, Eric
Background Transposable elements are major constituents of eukaryote genomes and have a great impact on genome structure and stability. Considering their mutational abilities, TEs can contribute to the genetic diversity and evolution of organisms. Knowledge of their distribution among several genomes is an essential condition to study their dynamics and to better understand their role in species evolution. DIRS1-like retrotransposons are a particular group of retrotransposons according to their mode of transposition that implies a tyrosine recombinase. To date, they have been described in a restricted number of species in comparison with the LTR retrotransposons. In this paper, we determine the distribution of DIRS1-like elements among 25 decapod species, 10 of them living in hydrothermal vents that correspond to particularly unstable environments. Results Using PCR approaches, we have identified 15 new DIRS1-like families in 15 diverse decapod species (shrimps, lobsters, crabs and galatheid crabs). Hydrothermal organisms show a particularly great diversity of DIRS1-like elements with 5 families characterized among Alvinocarididae shrimps and 3 in the galatheid crab Munidopsis recta. Phylogenic analyses show that these elements are divergent toward the DIRS1-like families previously described in other crustaceans and arthropods and form a new clade called AlDIRS1. At larger scale, the distribution of DIRS1-like retrotransposons appears more or less patchy depending on the taxa considered. Indeed, a scattered distribution can be observed in the infraorder Brachyura whereas all the species tested in infraorders Caridea and Astacidea harbor some DIRS1-like elements. Conclusion Our results lead to nearly double both the number of DIRS1-like elements described to date, and the number of species known to harbor these ones. In this study, we provide the first degenerate primers designed to look specifically for DIRS1-like retrotransposons. They allowed for revealing for
Amselem, Joelle; Vigouroux, Marielle; Oberhaensli, Simone; Brown, James K M; Bindschedler, Laurence V; Skamnioti, Pari; Wicker, Thomas; Spanu, Pietro D; Quesneville, Hadi; Sacristán, Soledad
The Avrk1 and Avra10 avirulence (AVR) genes encode effectors that increase the pathogenicity of the fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh), the powdery mildew pathogen, in susceptible barley plants. In resistant barley, MLK1 and MLA10 resistance proteins recognize the presence of AVRK1 and AVRA10, eliciting the hypersensitive response typical of gene for gene interactions. Avrk1 and Avra10 have more than 1350 homologues in Bgh genome, forming the EKA (Effectors homologous to Avr k 1 and Avr a 10) gene family. We tested the hypothesis that the EKA family originated from degenerate copies of Class I LINE retrotransposons by analysing the EKA family in the genome of Bgh isolate DH14 with bioinformatic tools specially developed for the analysis of Transposable Elements (TE) in genomes. The Class I LINE retrotransposon copies homologous to Avrk1 and Avra10 represent 6.5 % of the Bgh annotated genome and, among them, we identified 293 AVR/effector candidate genes. We also experimentally identified peptides that indicated the translation of several predicted proteins from EKA family members, which had higher relative abundance in haustoria than in hyphae. Our analyses indicate that Avrk1 and Avra10 have evolved from part of the ORF1 gene of Class I LINE retrotransposons. The co-option of Avra10 and Avrk1 as effectors from truncated copies of retrotransposons explains the huge number of homologues in Bgh genome that could act as dynamic reservoirs from which new effector genes may evolve. These data provide further evidence for recruitment of retrotransposons in the evolution of new biological functions.
Background Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are a class of eukaryotic mobile elements characterized by a distinctive sequence similarity-based structure. Hence they are well suited for computational identification. Current software allows for a comprehensive genome-wide de novo detection of such elements. The obvious next step is the classification of newly detected candidates resulting in (super-)families. Such a de novo classification approach based on sequence-based clustering of transposon features has been proposed before, resulting in a preliminary assignment of candidates to families as a basis for subsequent manual refinement. However, such a classification workflow is typically split across a heterogeneous set of glue scripts and generic software (for example, spreadsheets), making it tedious for a human expert to inspect, curate and export the putative families produced by the workflow. Results We have developed LTRsift, an interactive graphical software tool for semi-automatic postprocessing of de novo predicted LTR retrotransposon annotations. Its user-friendly interface offers customizable filtering and classification functionality, displaying the putative candidate groups, their members and their internal structure in a hierarchical fashion. To ease manual work, it also supports graphical user interface-driven reassignment, splitting and further annotation of candidates. Export of grouped candidate sets in standard formats is possible. In two case studies, we demonstrate how LTRsift can be employed in the context of a genome-wide LTR retrotransposon survey effort. Conclusions LTRsift is a useful and convenient tool for semi-automated classification of newly detected LTR retrotransposons based on their internal features. Its efficient implementation allows for convenient and seamless filtering and classification in an integrated environment. Developed for life scientists, it is helpful in postprocessing and refining the output of software
Sormacheva, Irina; Smyshlyaev, Georgiy; Mayorov, Vladimir; Blinov, Alexander; Novikov, Anton; Novikova, Olga
Horizontal transfer (HT) is a complex phenomenon usually used as an explanation of phylogenetic inconsistence, which cannot be interpreted in terms of vertical evolution. Most examples of HT of eukaryotic genes involve transposable elements. An intriguing feature of HT is that its frequency differs among transposable elements classes. Although HT is well known for DNA transposons and long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons rarely undergo HT, and their phylogenies are largely congruent to those of their hosts. Previously, we described HT of CR1-like non-LTR retrotransposons between butterflies (Maculinea) and moths (Bombyx), which occurred less than 5 million years ago (Novikova O, Sliwinska E, Fet V, Settele J, Blinov A, Woyciechowski M. 2007. CR1 clade of non-LTR retrotransposons from Maculinea butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): evidence for recent horizontal transmission. BMC Evol Biol. 7:93). In this study, we continued to explore the diversity of CR1 non-LTR retrotransposons among lepidopterans providing additional evidences to support HT hypothesis. We also hypothesized that DNA transposons could be involved in HT of non-LTR retrotransposons. Thus, we performed analysis of one of the groups of DNA transposons, mariner-like DNA elements, as potential vectors for HT of non-LTR retrotransposons. Our results demonstrate multiple HTs between Maculinea and Bombyx genera. Although we did not find strong evidence for our hypothesis of the involvement of DNA transposons in HT of non-LTR retrotransposons, we demonstrated that recurrent and/or simultaneous flow of TEs took place between distantly related moths and butterflies.
Gabriel, A; Yen, T J; Schwartz, D C; Smith, C L; Boeke, J D; Sollner-Webb, B; Cleveland, D W
The tandemly arrayed miniexon genes of the trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata are interrupted at specific sites by multiple copies of an inserted element. The element, termed Crithidia retrotransposable element 1 (CRE1), is flanked by 29-base-pair target site duplications and contains a long 3'-terminal poly(dA) stretch. A single 1,140-codon reading frame is similar in sequence to the integrase and reverse transcriptase regions of retroviral pol polyproteins. Cloned lines derived from a stock of C. fasciculata have unique arrangements of CRE1s. In different cloned lines, CRE1s, in association with miniexon genes, are located on multiple chromosomes. By examining the arrangement of CRE1s in subclones, we estimate that the element rearranges at a rate of ca. 1% per generation. These results indicate that the C. fasciculata miniexon locus is the target for a novel retrotransposon. Images PMID:2153919
Ghesini, Silvia; Luchetti, Andrea; Marini, Mario; Mantovani, Barbara
The full-length element of the non-LTR retrotransposon R2 is here characterized in three European isopteran species: the more primitive Kalotermes flavicollis (Kalotermitidae), including two highly divergent mitochondrial lineages, and the more derived Reticulitermes lucifugus and R. urbis (Rhinotermitidae). Partial 3' sequences for R. grassei and R. balkanensis were also analyzed. The essential structural features of R2 elements are conserved in termites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that termite elements belong to the same clade and that their phylogeny is fully compatible with the phylogeny of their host species. The study of the number and the frequency of R2 insertion variants in four R. urbis colonies suggests a greatly reduced, or completely absent, recent element activity.
Suh, Alexander; Witt, Christopher C.; Menger, Juliana; Sadanandan, Keren R.; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Gerth, Michael; Weigert, Anne; McGuire, Jimmy A.; Mudge, Joann; Edwards, Scott V.; Rheindt, Frank E.
Parasite host switches may trigger disease emergence, but prehistoric host ranges are often unknowable. Lymphatic filariasis and loiasis are major human diseases caused by the insect-borne filarial nematodes Brugia, Wuchereria and Loa. Here we show that the genomes of these nematodes and seven tropical bird lineages exclusively share a novel retrotransposon, AviRTE, resulting from horizontal transfer (HT). AviRTE subfamilies exhibit 83–99% nucleotide identity between genomes, and their phylogenetic distribution, paleobiogeography and invasion times suggest that HTs involved filarial nematodes. The HTs between bird and nematode genomes took place in two pantropical waves, >25–22 million years ago (Myr ago) involving the Brugia/Wuchereria lineage and >20–17 Myr ago involving the Loa lineage. Contrary to the expectation from the mammal-dominated host range of filarial nematodes, we hypothesize that these major human pathogens may have independently evolved from bird endoparasites that formerly infected the global breadth of avian biodiversity. PMID:27097561
Xu, Xuewen; Ectors, Fabien; Davis, Erica E.; Pirottin, Dimitri; Cheng, Huijun; Farnir, Frédéric; Hadfield, Tracy; Cockett, Noelle; Charlier, Carole; Georges, Michel; Takeda, Haruko
The callipyge phenotype is an ovine muscular hypertrophy characterized by polar overdominance: only heterozygous +Mat/CLPGPat animals receiving the CLPG mutation from their father express the phenotype. +Mat/CLPGPat animals are characterized by postnatal, ectopic expression of Delta-like 1 homologue (DLK1) and Paternally expressed gene 11/Retrotransposon-like 1 (PEG11/RTL1) proteins in skeletal muscle. We showed previously in transgenic mice that ectopic expression of DLK1 alone induces a muscular hypertrophy, hence demonstrating a role for DLK1 in determining the callipyge hypertrophy. We herein describe newly generated transgenic mice that ectopically express PEG11 in skeletal muscle, and show that they also exhibit a muscular hypertrophy phenotype. Our data suggest that both DLK1 and PEG11 act together in causing the muscular hypertrophy of callipyge sheep. PMID:26474044
Ziarczyk, P; Fourcade-Peronnet, F; Simonart, S; Maisonhaute, C; Best-Belpomme, M
1731 is a Drosophila retrotransposon whose transcripts decrease in Drosophila cells after treatment by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-OH). Several constructions have been made where the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene is put under the control of either the 5' or the 3' long terminal repeats (LTRs) of 1731. CAT activity assays in transfected Drosophila cells show that either the 5' or the 3'LTR constitutes a unidirectional promoter. Analysis of partially deleted LTR suggests the presence of so-called silencer and activator regions in these LTRs. Moreover, the first 260 bp of the LTR are sufficient to provoke 20-OH inhibition whereas the first 58 bp are necessary for hormonal responsiveness. These 58 bp contain sequences showing similarities with the targets of trans-acting factors such as Octal-c and NFkB. Images PMID:2555776
Lazareva, Ekaterina; Lezzhov, Alexander; Vassetzky, Nikita; Solovyev, Andrey; Morozov, Sergey
Recent metagenomic studies in insects identified many sequences unexpectedly closely related to plant virus genes. Here we describe a new example of this kind, insect R1 LINEs with an additional C-terminal domain in their open reading frame 2. This domain is similar to NTPase/helicase (SF1H) domains, which are found in replicative proteins encoded by plant viruses of the genus Tobamovirus. We hypothesize that the SF1H domain could be acquired by LINEs, directly or indirectly, upon insect feeding on virus-infected plants. Possible functions of this domain in LINE transposition and involvement in LINEs counteraction the silencing-based cell defense against retrotransposons are discussed. PMID:26733982
Malki, Safia; van der Heijden, Godfried W.; O'Donnell, Kathryn A.; Martin, Sandra L.; Bortvin, Alex
SUMMARY Fetal oocyte attrition (FOA) is a conserved but poorly understood process of elimination of over two-thirds of meiotic prophase I (MPI) oocytes before birth. We now implicate retrotransposons LINE-1 (L1), activated during epigenetic reprogramming of the embryonic germline, in FOA in mice. We show that wild-type fetal oocytes possess differential nuclear levels of L1ORF1p, a L1-encoded protein essential for L1 ribonucleoprotein particle (L1RNP) formation and L1 retrotransposition. We demonstrate that experimental elevation of L1 expression correlates with increased MPI defects, FOA, oocyte aneuploidy and embryonic lethality. Conversely, reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor AZT has a profound effect on the FOA dynamics and meiotic recombination, and implicates an RT-dependent trigger in oocyte elimination in early MPI. We propose that FOA serves to select oocytes with limited L1 activity and therefore best suited for the next generation. PMID:24882376
Higashino, Saneyuki; Ohno, Tomoyuki; Ishiguro, Koichi; Aizawa, Yasunori
L1 retrotransposons have been the major driver of structural variation of the human genome. L1 insertion polymorphism (LIP)-mediated genomic variation can alter the transcriptome and contribute to the divergence of human phenotypes. To assess this possibility, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) including LIPs is required. Toward this ultimate goal, the present study examined linkage disequilibrium between six LIPs and their neighboring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Genomic PCR and sequencing of L1-plus and -minus alleles from different donors revealed that all six LIPs were in strong linkage disequilibrium with at least one SNP. In addition, comparison of syntenic regions containing the identified SNP nucleotides was performed among modern humans (L1-plus and -minus alleles), archaic humans and non-human primates, revealing two different evolutionary schemes that might have resulted in the observed strong SNP-LIP linkage disequilibria. This study provides an experimental framework and guidance for a future SNP-LIP integrative GWAS.
Furano, Anthony V; Duvernell, David D; Boissinot, Stephane
L1 retrotransposons replicate (amplify) by copying (reverse transcribing) their RNA transcript into genomic DNA. The evolutionary history of L1 in mammals has been unique. In mice and humans approximately 80 million years of L1 evolution and replication produced a single evolutionary lineage of L1 elements while generating approximately 20% of the genomic mass in each species. By contrast, zebrafish contain >30 distinct L1 lineages that have generated approximately one-tenth as much DNA. We contend that, by becoming far more permissive of interspersed repeated DNA than other organisms, mammals are conducive to competition between L1 families for replicative dominance, and that this competition, perhaps for the host factors required for L1 replication, results in a single L1 lineage.
Kuramochi-Miyagawa, Satomi; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Gotoh, Kengo; Takamatsu, Kana; Chuma, Shinichiro; Kojima-Kita, Kanako; Shiromoto, Yusuke; Asada, Noriko; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Totoki, Yasushi; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Kimura, Tohru; Nakatsuji, Norio; Noce, Toshiaki; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Toru
VASA is an evolutionarily conserved RNA helicase essential for germ cell development. The mouse PIWI family proteins MILI and MIWI2 are involved in production of Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in fetal male germ cells through a ping-pong amplification cycle. Expression of retrotransposons is elevated in MILI- and MIWI2-deficient male germ cells due to defective de novo DNA methylation, which is presumably caused by impaired piRNA expression. Here, we report that essentially the same abnormalities are observed in MVH (mouse VASA homolog)-deficient mice. Comprehensive analysis of piRNAs in MVH-deficient fetal male germ cells showed that MVH plays crucial roles in the early phase of the ping-pong amplification cycle.
Arkhipova, I R; Rodriguez, F
Transposable elements (TEs) are discrete genetic units that have the ability to change their location within chromosomal DNA, and constitute a major and rapidly evolving component of eukaryotic genomes. They can be subdivided into 2 distinct types: retrotransposons, which use an RNA intermediate for transposition, and DNA transposons, which move only as DNA. Rapid advances in genome sequencing significantly improved our understanding of TE roles in genome shaping and restructuring, and studies of transcriptomes and epigenomes shed light on the previously unknown molecular mechanisms underlying genetic and epigenetic TE controls. Knowledge of these control systems may be important for better understanding of reticulate evolution and speciation in the context of bringing different genomes together by hybridization and perturbing the established regulatory balance by ploidy changes. See also sister article focusing on plants by Bento et al. in this themed issue.
Muñoz-Lopez, Martin; Macia, Angela; Garcia-Cañadas, Marta; Badge, Richard M; Garcia-Perez, Jose L
The ongoing activity of the human retrotransposon Long Interspersed Element 1 (LINE-1 or L1) continues to impact the human genome in various ways. Throughout evolution, mammalian and primate genomes have been under selection to generate strategies to reduce the activity of selfish DNA like L1. Similarly, selfish DNA has evolved to elude these containment systems. This intragenomic conflict has left many inactive versions of LINEs and other Transposable Elements (TEs) littering the human genome, which together account for roughly half of our DNA. Here, we survey the distinct mechanisms operating in the human genome that seem to reduce the mobility of L1s. In addition, we discuss recent findings that strongly suggest epigenetic mechanisms specifically regulate L1 activity in pluripotent human cells.
Lorenzi, Hernan A; Robledo, German; Levin, Mariano J
VIPER was initially characterized as a 2326bp LTR-like retroelement associated to SIRE, a short interspersed repetitive element specific of Trypanosoma cruzi. It carried a single ORF that coded for a putative reverse transcriptase-RNAse H protein, suggesting that it could be a truncated copy of a longer retroelement. Herein we report the identification and characterization of a complete 4480bp long VIPER in the T. cruzi genome. The complete VIPER harbored three non-overlapped domains encoding for a GAG-like, a tyrosine recombinase and a reverse transcriptase-RNAse H proteins. VIPER elements were also found in the genomes of Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma vivax, but not in Leishmania sp. On the basis of its reverse transcriptase phylogeny, VIPER was classified as an LTR retroelement. However, VIPER was structurally related to the tyrosine recombinase encoding retroelements, DIRS and Ngaro. Phylogenetic analysis showed that VIPER's tyrosine recombinase grouped with the transposases RCI1 of Escherichia coli and Ye24 and Ye72 of Haemophilus influenzae within a major branch of prokaryotic recombinases. Taken together, VIPER's structure, the nature of its tyrosine recombinase, the unique features of its reverse transcriptase catalytic consensus motif and the fact that it was found in Trypanosomes, an early branching eukaryote, suggest that VIPER may be the closest relative of the founder element of the tyrosine recombinase encoding retrotransposons known up to date. Our analysis revealed that tyrosine recombinase-encoding retroelements were originated as early in evolution as non-LTR retroelements and suggests that VIPER, Ngaro and DIRS elements may constitute a third group of retrotransposons, distinct from both LTR and non-LTR retroelements.
Fuller, Adelaide M.; Cook, Elizabeth G.; Kelley, Kerry J.; Pardue, Mary-Lou
TAHRE, the least abundant of the three retrotransposons forming telomeres in Drosophila melanogaster, has high sequence similarity to the gag gene and untranslated regions of HeT-A, the most abundant telomere-specific retrotransposon. Despite TAHRE's apparent evolutionary relationship to HeT-A, we find TAHRE Gag cannot locate to telomere-associated “Het dots” unless collaborating with HeT-A Gag. TAHRE Gag is carried into nuclei by HeT-A or TART Gag, but both TART and TAHRE Gags need HeT-A Gag to localize to Het dots. When coexpressed with the appropriate fragment of HeT-A and/or TART Gags, TAHRE Gag multimerizes with either protein. HeT-A and TART Gags form homo- and heteromultimers using a region containing major homology region (MHR) and zinc knuckle (CCHC) motifs, separated by a pre_C2HC motif (motifs common to other retroelements). This region's sequence is strongly conserved among the three telomeric Gags, with precise spacing of conserved residues. Nontelomeric Gags neither interact with the telomeric Gags nor have this conserved spacing. TAHRE Gag is much less able to enter the nucleus by itself than HeT-A or TART Gags. The overall telomeric localization efficiency for each of the three telomeric Gag proteins correlates with the relative abundance of that element in telomere arrays, suggesting an explanation for the relative rarity of TAHRE elements in telomere arrays and supporting the hypothesis that Gag targeting to telomeres is important for the telomere-specific transposition of these elements. PMID:20026680
Comparative genomic analysis reveals multiple long terminal repeats, lineage-specific amplification, and frequent interelement recombination for Cassandra retrotransposon in pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.).
Yin, Hao; Du, Jianchang; Li, Leiting; Jin, Cong; Fan, Lian; Li, Meng; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Shaoling
Cassandra transposable elements belong to a specific group of terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature (TRIM). Although Cassandra TRIM elements have been found in almost all vascular plants, detailed investigations on the nature, abundance, amplification timeframe, and evolution have not been performed in an individual genome. We therefore conducted a comprehensive analysis of Cassandra retrotransposons using the newly sequenced pear genome along with four other Rosaceae species, including apple, peach, mei, and woodland strawberry. Our data reveal several interesting findings for this particular retrotransposon family: 1) A large number of the intact copies contain three, four, or five long terminal repeats (LTRs) (∼20% in pear); 2) intact copies and solo LTRs with or without target site duplications are both common (∼80% vs. 20%) in each genome; 3) the elements exhibit an overall unbiased distribution among the chromosomes; 4) the elements are most successfully amplified in pear (5,032 copies); and 5) the evolutionary relationships of these elements vary among different lineages, species, and evolutionary time. These results indicate that Cassandra retrotransposons contain more complex structures (elements with multiple LTRs) than what we have known previously, and that frequent interelement unequal recombination followed by transposition may play a critical role in shaping and reshaping host genomes. Thus this study provides insights into the property, propensity, and molecular mechanisms governing the formation and amplification of Cassandra retrotransposons, and enhances our understanding of the structural variation, evolutionary history, and transposition process of LTR retrotransposons in plants.
Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals Multiple Long Terminal Repeats, Lineage-Specific Amplification, and Frequent Interelement Recombination for Cassandra Retrotransposon in Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.)
Yin, Hao; Du, Jianchang; Li, Leiting; Jin, Cong; Fan, Lian; Li, Meng; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Shaoling
Cassandra transposable elements belong to a specific group of terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature (TRIM). Although Cassandra TRIM elements have been found in almost all vascular plants, detailed investigations on the nature, abundance, amplification timeframe, and evolution have not been performed in an individual genome. We therefore conducted a comprehensive analysis of Cassandra retrotransposons using the newly sequenced pear genome along with four other Rosaceae species, including apple, peach, mei, and woodland strawberry. Our data reveal several interesting findings for this particular retrotransposon family: 1) A large number of the intact copies contain three, four, or five long terminal repeats (LTRs) (∼20% in pear); 2) intact copies and solo LTRs with or without target site duplications are both common (∼80% vs. 20%) in each genome; 3) the elements exhibit an overall unbiased distribution among the chromosomes; 4) the elements are most successfully amplified in pear (5,032 copies); and 5) the evolutionary relationships of these elements vary among different lineages, species, and evolutionary time. These results indicate that Cassandra retrotransposons contain more complex structures (elements with multiple LTRs) than what we have known previously, and that frequent interelement unequal recombination followed by transposition may play a critical role in shaping and reshaping host genomes. Thus this study provides insights into the property, propensity, and molecular mechanisms governing the formation and amplification of Cassandra retrotransposons, and enhances our understanding of the structural variation, evolutionary history, and transposition process of LTR retrotransposons in plants. PMID:24899073
Karijolich, John; Abernathy, Emma; Glaunsinger, Britt A.
Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are highly abundant, RNA polymerase III-transcribed noncoding retrotransposons that are silenced in somatic cells but activated during certain stresses including viral infection. How these induced SINE RNAs impact the host-pathogen interaction is unknown. Here we reveal that during murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) infection, rapidly induced SINE RNAs activate the antiviral NF-κB signaling pathway through both mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS)-dependent and independent mechanisms. However, SINE RNA-based signaling is hijacked by the virus to enhance viral gene expression and replication. B2 RNA expression stimulates IKKβ-dependent phosphorylation of the major viral lytic cycle transactivator protein RTA, thereby enhancing its activity and increasing progeny virion production. Collectively, these findings suggest that SINE RNAs participate in the innate pathogen response mechanism, but that herpesviruses have evolved to co-opt retrotransposon activation for viral benefit. PMID:26584434
Nefedova, L N; Urusov, F A; Romanova, N I; Shmel'kova, A O; Kim, A I
Transpositions of the gypsy retrotransposon in the Drosophila melanogaster genome are controlled by the flamenco locus, which is represented as an accumulation of defective copies of transposable elements. In the present work, genetic control by the flamenco locus of the transcriptional and transpositional activities of the Tirant retrotransposon from the gypsy group was studied. Tissue-specific expression of Tirant was detected in the tissues of ovaries in a strain mutant for the flamenco locus. Tirant was found to be transpositionally active in isogenic D. melanogaster strains mutant for the flamenco locus. The sites of two new insertions have been localized by the method of subtractive hybridization. It has been concluded from the results obtained that the flamenco locus is involved in the genetic control of Tirant transpositions.
Locati, Mauro D; Pagano, Johanna F B; Ensink, Wim A; van Olst, Marina; van Leeuwen, Selina; Nehrdich, Ulrike; Zhu, Kongju; Spaink, Herman P; Girard, Geneviève; Rauwerda, Han; Jonker, Martijs J; Dekker, Rob J; Breit, Timo M
5S rRNA is a ribosomal core component, transcribed from many gene copies organized in genomic repeats. Some eukaryotic species have two 5S rRNA types defined by their predominant expression in oogenesis or adult tissue. Our next-generation sequencing study on zebrafish egg, embryo, and adult tissue identified maternal-type 5S rRNA that is exclusively accumulated during oogenesis, replaced throughout the embryogenesis by a somatic-type, and thus virtually absent in adult somatic tissue. The maternal-type 5S rDNA contains several thousands of gene copies on chromosome 4 in tandem repeats with small intergenic regions, whereas the somatic-type is present in only 12 gene copies on chromosome 18 with large intergenic regions. The nine-nucleotide variation between the two 5S rRNA types likely affects TFIII binding and riboprotein L5 binding, probably leading to storage of maternal-type rRNA. Remarkably, these sequence differences are located exactly at the sequence-specific target site for genome integration by the 5S rRNA-specific Mutsu retrotransposon family. Thus, we could define maternal- and somatic-type MutsuDr subfamilies. Furthermore, we identified four additional maternal-type and two new somatic-type MutsuDr subfamilies, each with their own target sequence. This target-site specificity, frequently intact maternal-type retrotransposon elements, plus specific presence of Mutsu retrotransposon RNA and piRNA in egg and adult tissue, suggest an involvement of retrotransposons in achieving the differential copy number of the two types of 5S rDNA loci. © 2017 Locati et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.
Pagano, Johanna F.B.; Ensink, Wim A.; van Olst, Marina; van Leeuwen, Selina; Nehrdich, Ulrike; Zhu, Kongju; Spaink, Herman P.; Girard, Geneviève; Rauwerda, Han; Jonker, Martijs J.; Dekker, Rob J.
5S rRNA is a ribosomal core component, transcribed from many gene copies organized in genomic repeats. Some eukaryotic species have two 5S rRNA types defined by their predominant expression in oogenesis or adult tissue. Our next-generation sequencing study on zebrafish egg, embryo, and adult tissue identified maternal-type 5S rRNA that is exclusively accumulated during oogenesis, replaced throughout the embryogenesis by a somatic-type, and thus virtually absent in adult somatic tissue. The maternal-type 5S rDNA contains several thousands of gene copies on chromosome 4 in tandem repeats with small intergenic regions, whereas the somatic-type is present in only 12 gene copies on chromosome 18 with large intergenic regions. The nine-nucleotide variation between the two 5S rRNA types likely affects TFIII binding and riboprotein L5 binding, probably leading to storage of maternal-type rRNA. Remarkably, these sequence differences are located exactly at the sequence-specific target site for genome integration by the 5S rRNA-specific Mutsu retrotransposon family. Thus, we could define maternal- and somatic-type MutsuDr subfamilies. Furthermore, we identified four additional maternal-type and two new somatic-type MutsuDr subfamilies, each with their own target sequence. This target-site specificity, frequently intact maternal-type retrotransposon elements, plus specific presence of Mutsu retrotransposon RNA and piRNA in egg and adult tissue, suggest an involvement of retrotransposons in achieving the differential copy number of the two types of 5S rDNA loci. PMID:28003516
Thi Phung, Luyen; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J; Sripa, Banchob; Laha, Thewarach
Infections by the fish-borne liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis can lead to bile duct cancer. These neglected tropical disease pathogens occur in East Asia, with O. viverrini primarily in Thailand and Laos and C. sinensis in Cambodia, Vietnam, and China. Genomic information about these pathogens holds the potential to improve disease treatment and control. Transcriptome analysis indicates that mobile genetic elements are active in O. viverrini, including a novel non-Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) retrotransposon. A consensus sequence of this element, termed OV-RTE-1, was assembled from expressed sequence tags and PCR amplified genomic DNA. OV-RTE-1 was 3330 bp in length, encoded 1101 amino acid residues and exhibited hallmark structures and sequences of non-LTR retrotransposons including a single open reading frame encoding apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease (EN) and reverse transcriptase (RT). Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that OV-RTE-1 was member of the RTE clade of non-LTR retrotransposons. OV-RTE-1 is the first non-LTR retrotransposon characterized from the trematode family Opisthorchiidae. Sequences of OV-RTE-1 were targeted to develop a diagnostic tool for detection of infection by O. viverrini. PCR specific primers for detection of O. viverrini DNA showed 100% specificity and sensitivity for detection of as little as 5 fg of O. viverrini DNA whereas the PCR based approach showed 62% sensitivity and 100% specificity with clinical stool samples. The OV-RTE-1 specific PCR could be developed as a molecular diagnostic for Opisthorchis infection targeting parasite eggs in stool samples, especially in regions of mixed infection of O. viverrini and/or C. sinensis and minute intestinal flukes.
Jiang, Shu-Ye; Ramachandran, Srinivasan
Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are the major class I mobile elements in plants. They play crucial roles in gene expansion, diversification and evolution. However, their captured genes are yet to be genome-widely identified and characterized in most of plants although many genomes have been completely sequenced. In this study, we have identified 7,043 and 23,915 full-length LTR retrotransposons in the rice and sorghum genomes, respectively. High percentages of rice full-length LTR retrotransposons were distributed near centromeric region in each of the chromosomes. In contrast, sorghum full-length LTR retrotransposons were not enriched in centromere regions. This dissimilarity could be due to the discrepant retrotransposition during and after divergence from their common ancestor thus might be contributing to species divergence. A total of 672 and 1,343 genes have been captured by these elements in rice and sorghum, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that no over-represented GO term was identified in LTR captured rice genes. For LTR captured sorghum genes, GO terms with functions in DNA/RNA metabolism and chromatin organization were over-represented. Only 36% of LTR captured rice genes were expressed and expression divergence was estimated as 11.9%. Higher percentage of LTR captured rice genes have evolved into pseudogenes under neutral selection. On the contrary, higher percentage of LTR captured sorghum genes were under purifying selection and 72.4% of them were expressed. Thus, higher percentage of LTR captured sorghum genes was functional. Small RNA analysis suggested that some of LTR captured genes in rice and sorghum might have been involved in negative regulation. On the other hand, positive selection has been observed in both rice and sorghum LTR captured genes and some of them were still expressed and functional. The data suggest that some of these LTR captured genes might have evolved into new gene
Manetti, M E; Rossi, M; Nakabashi, M; Grandbastien, M A; Van Sluys, Marie Anne
Eukaryotic genome expansion/retraction caused by LTR-retrotransposon activity is dependent on the expression of full length copies to trigger efficient transposition and recombination-driven events. The Tnt1 family of retrotransposons has served as a model to evaluate the diversity among closely related elements within Solanaceae species and found that members of the family vary mainly in their U3 region of the long terminal repeats (LTRs). Recovery of a full length genomic copy of Retrosol was performed through a PCR-based approach from wild potato, Solanum oplocense. Further characterization focusing on both LTR sequences of the amplified copy allowed estimating an approximate insertion time at 2 million years ago thus supporting the occurrence of transposition cycles after genus divergence. Copy number of Tnt1-like elements in Solanum species were determined through genomic quantitative PCR whereby results sustain that Retrosol in Solanum species is a low copy number retrotransposon (1-4 copies) while Retrolyc1 has an intermediate copy number (38 copies) in S. peruvianum. Comparative analysis of retrotransposon content revealed no correlation between genome size or ploidy level and Retrosol copy number. The tetraploid cultivated potato with a cellular genome size of 1,715 Mbp harbours similar copy number per monoploid genome than other diploid Solanum species (613-884 Mbp). Conversely, S. peruvianum genome (1,125 Mbp) has a higher copy number. These results point towards a lineage specific dynamic flux regarding the history of amplification/activity of Tnt1-like elements in the genome of Solanum species.
Kojima, Kenji K; Jurka, Jerzy
Most non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons encoding a restriction-like endonuclease show target-specific integration into repetitive sequences such as ribosomal RNA genes and microsatellites. However, only a few target-specific lineages of non-LTR retrotransposons are distributed widely and no lineage is found across the eukaryotic kingdoms. Here we report the most widely distributed lineage of target sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons, designated Utopia. Utopia is found in three supergroups of eukaryotes: Amoebozoa, SAR, and Opisthokonta. Utopia is inserted into a specific site of U2 small nuclear RNA genes with different strength of specificity for each family. Utopia families from oomycetes and wasps show strong target specificity while only a small number of Utopia copies from reptiles are flanked with U2 snRNA genes. Oomycete Utopia families contain an "archaeal" RNase H domain upstream of reverse transcriptase (RT), which likely originated from a plant RNase H gene. Analysis of Utopia from oomycetes indicates that multiple lineages of Utopia have been maintained inside of U2 genes with few copy numbers. Phylogenetic analysis of RT suggests the monophyly of Utopia, and it likely dates back to the early evolution of eukaryotes.
Kojima, Kenji K.
Most non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons encoding a restriction-like endonuclease show target-specific integration into repetitive sequences such as ribosomal RNA genes and microsatellites. However, only a few target-specific lineages of non-LTR retrotransposons are distributed widely and no lineage is found across the eukaryotic kingdoms. Here we report the most widely distributed lineage of target sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons, designated Utopia. Utopia is found in three supergroups of eukaryotes: Amoebozoa, SAR, and Opisthokonta. Utopia is inserted into a specific site of U2 small nuclear RNA genes with different strength of specificity for each family. Utopia families from oomycetes and wasps show strong target specificity while only a small number of Utopia copies from reptiles are flanked with U2 snRNA genes. Oomycete Utopia families contain an “archaeal” RNase H domain upstream of reverse transcriptase (RT), which likely originated from a plant RNase H gene. Analysis of Utopia from oomycetes indicates that multiple lineages of Utopia have been maintained inside of U2 genes with few copy numbers. Phylogenetic analysis of RT suggests the monophyly of Utopia, and it likely dates back to the early evolution of eukaryotes. PMID:26556480
Siol, Oliver; Spaller, Thomas; Schiefner, Jana; Winckler, Thomas
Retrotransposons contribute significantly to the evolution of eukaryotic genomes. They replicate by producing DNA copies of their own RNA, which are integrated at new locations in the host cell genome. In the gene-dense genome of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, retrotransposon TRE5-A avoids insertional mutagenesis by targeting the transcription factor (TF) IIIC/IIIB complex and integrating ∼50 bp upstream of tRNA genes. We generated synthetic TRE5-A retrotransposons (TRE5-Absr) that were tagged with a selection marker that conferred resistance to blasticidin after a complete retrotransposition cycle. We found that the TRE5-Absr elements were efficiently mobilized in trans by proteins expressed from the endogenous TRE5-A population found in D. discoideum cells. ORF1 protein translated from TRE5-Absr elements significantly enhanced retrotransposition. We observed that the 5′ untranslated region of TRE5-A could be replaced by an unrelated promoter, whereas the 3′ untranslated region of TRE5-A was essential for retrotransposition. A predicted secondary structure in the RNA of the 3′ untranslated region of TRE5-A may be involved in the retrotransposition process. The TRE5-Absr elements were capable of identifying authentic integration targets in vivo, including formerly unnoticed, putative binding sites for TFIIIC on the extrachromosomal DNA element that carries the ribosomal RNA genes. PMID:21525131
Govindaraju, Aruna; Cortez, Jeremy D.; Reveal, Brad; Christensen, Shawn M.
Non-LTR retrotransposons are an important class of mobile elements that insert into host DNA by target-primed reverse transcription (TPRT). Non-LTR retrotransposons must bind to their mRNA, recognize and cleave their target DNA, and perform TPRT at the site of DNA cleavage. As DNA binding and cleavage are such central parts of the integration reaction, a better understanding of the endonuclease encoded by non-LTR retrotransposons is needed. This paper explores the R2 endonuclease domain from Bombyx mori using in vitro studies and in silico modeling. Mutations in conserved sequences located across the putative PD-(D/E)XK endonuclease domain reduced DNA cleavage, DNA binding and TPRT. A mutation at the beginning of the first α-helix of the modeled endonuclease obliterated DNA cleavage and greatly reduced DNA binding. It also reduced TPRT when tested on pre-cleaved DNA substrates. The catalytic K was located to a non-canonical position within the second α-helix. A mutation located after the fourth β-strand reduced DNA binding and cleavage. The motifs that showed impaired activity form an extensive basic region. The R2 biochemical and structural data are compared and contrasted with that of two other well characterized PD-(D/E)XK endonucleases, restriction endonucleases and archaeal Holliday junction resolvases. PMID:26961309
Monden, Yuki; Hara, Takuya; Okada, Yoshihiro; Jahana, Osamu; Kobayashi, Akira; Tabuchi, Hiroaki; Onaga, Shoko; Tahara, Makoto
Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is an outcrossing hexaploid species with a large number of chromosomes (2n = 6x = 90). Although sweetpotato is one of the world's most important crops, genetic analysis of the species has been hindered by its genetic complexity combined with the lack of a whole genome sequence. In the present study, we constructed a genetic linkage map based on retrotransposon insertion polymorphisms using a mapping population derived from a cross between 'Purple Sweet Lord' (PSL) and '90IDN-47' cultivars. High-throughput sequencing and subsequent data analyses identified many Rtsp-1 retrotransposon insertion sites, and their allele dosages (simplex, duplex, triplex, or double-simplex) were determined based on segregation ratios in the mapping population. Using a pseudo-testcross strategy, 43 and 47 linkage groups were generated for PSL and 90IDN-47, respectively. Interestingly, most of these insertions (~90%) were present in a simplex manner, indicating their utility for linkage map construction in polyploid species. Additionally, our approach led to savings of time and labor for genotyping. Although the number of markers herein was insufficient for map-based cloning, our trial analysis exhibited the utility of retrotransposon-based markers for linkage map construction in sweetpotato.
Beeman, R. W.; Thomson, M. S.; Clark, J. M.; DeCamillis, M. A.; Brown, S. J.; Denell, R. E.
A recently isolated, lethal mutation of the homeotic Abdominal gene of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is associated with an insertion of a novel retrotransposon into an intron. Sequence analysis indicates that this retrotransposon, named Woot, is a member of the gypsy family of mobile elements. Most strains of T. castaneum appear to harbor ~25-35 copies of Woot per genome. Woot is composed of long terminal repeats of unprecedented length (3.6 kb each), flanking an internal coding region 5.0 kb in length. For most copies of Woot, the internal region includes two open reading frames (ORFs) that correspond to the gag and pol genes of previously described retrotransposons and retroviruses. The copy of Woot inserted into Abdominal bears an apparent single frameshift mutation that separates the normal second ORF into two. Woot does not appear to generate infectious virions by the criterion that no envelop gene is discernible. The association of Woot with a recent mutation suggests that this retroelement is currently transpositionally active in at least some strains. PMID:8722793
Dufourt, J.; Brasset, E.; Desset, S.; Pouchin, P.; Vaury, C.
Somatic cells are equipped with different silencing mechanisms that protect the genome against retrotransposons. In Drosophila melanogaster, a silencing pathway implicating the argonaute protein PIWI represses retrotransposons in cells surrounding the oocyte, whereas a PIWI-independent pathway is involved in other somatic tissues. Here, we show that these two silencing mechanisms result in distinct chromatin structures. Using sensor transgenes, we found that, in somatic tissues outside of the ovaries, these transgenes adopt a heterochromatic configuration implicating hypermethylation of H3K9 and K27. We identified the Polycomb repressive complexes (PRC1 and 2), but not heterochromatin protein 1 to be necessary factors for silencing. Once established, the compact structure is stably maintained through cell divisions. By contrast, in cells where the silencing is PIWI-dependent, the transgenes display an open and labile chromatin structure. Our data suggest that a post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) mechanism is responsible for the repression in the ovarian somatic cells, whereas a mechanism that couples PTGS to transcriptional gene silencing operates to silence retrotransposons in the other somatic tissues. PMID:21908513
Ikeda, Terumasa; Abd El Galil, Khaled Hussein; Tokunaga, Kenzo; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Sata, Tetsutaro; Sakaguchi, Nobuo; Heidmann, Thierry; Koito, Atsushi
The ability of mammalian cytidine deaminases encoded by the APOBEC3 (A3) genes to restrict a broad number of endogenous retroelements and exogenous retroviruses, including murine leukemia virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, is now well established. The RNA editing family member apolipoprotein B (apo B)-editing catalytic subunit 1 (APOBEC1; A1) from a variety of mammalian species, a protein involved in lipid transport and which mediates C–U deamination of mRNA for apo B, has also been shown to modify a range of exogenous retroviruses, but its activity against endogenous retroelements remains unclear. Here, we show in cell culture-based retrotransposition assays that A1 family proteins from multiple mammalian species can also reduce the mobility and infectivity potential of LINE-1 (long interspersed nucleotide sequence-1, L1) and long-terminal repeats (LTRs) retrotransposons (or endogenous retroviruses), such as murine intracisternal A-particle (IAP) and MusD sequences. The anti-L1 activity of A1 was mainly mediated by a deamination-independent mechanism, and was not affected by subcellular localization of the proteins. In contrast, the inhibition of LTR-retrotransposons appeared to require the deaminase activity of A1 proteins. Thus, the AID/APOBEC family proteins including A1s employ multiple mechanisms to regulate the mobility of autonomous retrotransposons in several mammalian species. PMID:21398638
Bringaud, Frédéric; Biteau, Nicolas; Zuiderwijk, Eduard; Berriman, Matthew; El-Sayed, Najib M; Ghedin, Elodie; Melville, Sara E; Hall, Neil; Baltz, Théo
The ingi (long and autonomous) and RIME (short and nonautonomous) non--long-terminal repeat retrotransposons are the most abundant mobile elements characterized to date in the genome of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei. These retrotransposons were thought to be randomly distributed, but a detailed and comprehensive analysis of their genomic distribution had not been performed until now. To address this question, we analyzed the ingi/RIME sequences and flanking sequences from the ongoing T. brucei genome sequencing project (TREU927/4 strain). Among the 81 ingi/RIME elements analyzed, 60% are complete, and 7% of the ingi elements (approximately 15 copies per haploid genome) appear to encode for their own transposition. The size of the direct repeat flanking the ingi/RIME retrotransposons is conserved (i.e., 12-bp), and a strong 11-bp consensus pattern precedes the 5'-direct repeat. The presence of a consensus pattern upstream of the retroelements was confirmed by the analysis of the base occurrence in 294 GSS containing 5'-adjacent ingi/RIME sequences. The conserved sequence is present upstream of ingis and RIMEs, suggesting that ingi-encoded enzymatic activities are used for retrotransposition of RIMEs, which are short nonautonomous retroelements. In conclusion, the ingi and RIME retroelements are not randomly distributed in the genome of T. brucei and are preceded by a conserved sequence, which may be the recognition site of the ingi-encoded endonuclease.
Monden, Yuki; Hara, Takuya; Okada, Yoshihiro; Jahana, Osamu; Kobayashi, Akira; Tabuchi, Hiroaki; Onaga, Shoko; Tahara, Makoto
Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is an outcrossing hexaploid species with a large number of chromosomes (2n = 6x = 90). Although sweetpotato is one of the world’s most important crops, genetic analysis of the species has been hindered by its genetic complexity combined with the lack of a whole genome sequence. In the present study, we constructed a genetic linkage map based on retrotransposon insertion polymorphisms using a mapping population derived from a cross between ‘Purple Sweet Lord’ (PSL) and ‘90IDN-47’ cultivars. High-throughput sequencing and subsequent data analyses identified many Rtsp-1 retrotransposon insertion sites, and their allele dosages (simplex, duplex, triplex, or double-simplex) were determined based on segregation ratios in the mapping population. Using a pseudo-testcross strategy, 43 and 47 linkage groups were generated for PSL and 90IDN-47, respectively. Interestingly, most of these insertions (~90%) were present in a simplex manner, indicating their utility for linkage map construction in polyploid species. Additionally, our approach led to savings of time and labor for genotyping. Although the number of markers herein was insufficient for map-based cloning, our trial analysis exhibited the utility of retrotransposon-based markers for linkage map construction in sweetpotato. PMID:26069444
Kanamori, Y; Hayashi, H; Yamamoto, M T
How transposable elements evolve is a key facet in understanding of spontaneous mutation and genomic rearrangements in various organisms. One of the best ways to approach this question is to study a newly evolved transposable element whose presence is restricted to a specific population or strain. The retrotransposons ninja and aurora may provide insights into the process of their evolution, because of their contrasting characteristics, even though they show high sequence identity. The ninja retrotransposon was found in a Drosophila simulans strain in high copy number and is potent in transposition. On the other hand, aurora elements are distributed widely among the species belonging to the Drosophila melanogaster species complex, but are immobile at least in D. melanogaster. In order to distinguish the two closely resembled retrotransposons by molecular means, we determined and compared DNA sequence of the elements, and identified characteristic internal deletions and nucleotide substitutions in 5'-long terminal repeats (LTR). Analyses of the structure of ninja homologs and LTR sequences amplified from both genomic and cloned DNA revealed that the actively transposable ninja elements were present only in D. simulans strains, but inactive aurora elements exist in both D. melanogaster and D. simulans.
Reichmann, Judith; Reddington, James P.; Best, Diana; Read, David; Öllinger, Rupert; Meehan, Richard R.; Adams, Ian R.
DNA methylation plays an important role in suppressing retrotransposon activity in mammalian genomes, yet there are stages of mammalian development where global hypomethylation puts the genome at risk of retrotransposition-mediated genetic instability. Hypomethylated primordial germ cells appear to limit this risk by expressing a cohort of retrotransposon-suppressing genome-defence genes whose silencing depends on promoter DNA methylation. Here, we investigate whether similar mechanisms operate in hypomethylated trophectoderm-derived components of the mammalian placenta to couple expression of genome-defence genes to the potential for retrotransposon activity. We show that the hypomethylated state of the mouse placenta results in activation of only one of the hypomethylation-sensitive germline genome-defence genes: Tex19.1. Tex19.1 appears to play an important role in placenta function as Tex19.1−/− mouse embryos exhibit intra-uterine growth retardation and have small placentas due to a reduction in the number of spongiotrophoblast, glycogen trophoblast and sinusoidal trophoblast giant cells. Furthermore, we show that retrotransposon mRNAs are derepressed in Tex19.1−/− placentas and that protein encoded by the LINE-1 retrotransposon is upregulated in hypomethylated trophectoderm-derived cells that normally express Tex19.1. This study suggests that post-transcriptional genome-defence mechanisms are operating in the placenta to protect the hypomethylated cells in this tissue from retrotransposons and suggests that imbalances between retrotransposon activity and genome-defence mechanisms could contribute to placenta dysfunction and disease. PMID:23364048
Background Transposable elements (TEs) constitute an important source of genetic variability owing to their jumping and regulatory properties, and are considered to drive species evolution. Several factors that are able to induce TE transposition in genomes have been documented (for example environmental stress and inter- and intra-specific crosses) but in many instances the reasons for TE mobilisation have yet to be elucidated. Colonising populations constitute an ideal model for studying TE behaviour and distribution as they are exposed to different environmental and new demographic conditions. In this study, the distribution of two TEs, Osvaldo and Isis, was examined in two colonising populations of D. buzzatii from Australia. Comparing Osvaldo copy numbers between Australian and Old World (reported in previous studies) colonisations provides a valuable tool for elucidating the colonisation process and the effect of new conditions encountered by colonisers on TEs. Results The chromosomal distributions of Osvaldo and Isis retrotransposons in two colonising populations of D. buzzatii from Australia revealed sites of high insertion frequency (>10%) and low frequency sites. Comparisons between Osvaldo insertion profiles in colonising populations from the Old World and Australia demonstrate a tendency towards a higher number of highly occupied sites with higher insertion frequency in the Old World than in Australian populations. Tests concerning selection against deleterious TE insertions indicate that Isis is more controlled by purifying selection than Osvaldo. The distribution of both elements on chromosomal arms follows a Poisson distribution and there are non-significant positive correlations between highly occupied sites and chromosomal inversions. Conclusions The occupancy profile of Osvaldo and Isis retrotransposons is characterised by the existence of high and low insertion frequency sites in the populations. These results demonstrate that Australian D
Guerreiro, María Pilar García; Fontdevila, Antonio
Transposable elements (TEs) constitute an important source of genetic variability owing to their jumping and regulatory properties, and are considered to drive species evolution. Several factors that are able to induce TE transposition in genomes have been documented (for example environmental stress and inter- and intra-specific crosses) but in many instances the reasons for TE mobilisation have yet to be elucidated. Colonising populations constitute an ideal model for studying TE behaviour and distribution as they are exposed to different environmental and new demographic conditions. In this study, the distribution of two TEs, Osvaldo and Isis, was examined in two colonising populations of D. buzzatii from Australia. Comparing Osvaldo copy numbers between Australian and Old World (reported in previous studies) colonisations provides a valuable tool for elucidating the colonisation process and the effect of new conditions encountered by colonisers on TEs. The chromosomal distributions of Osvaldo and Isis retrotransposons in two colonising populations of D. buzzatii from Australia revealed sites of high insertion frequency (>10%) and low frequency sites. Comparisons between Osvaldo insertion profiles in colonising populations from the Old World and Australia demonstrate a tendency towards a higher number of highly occupied sites with higher insertion frequency in the Old World than in Australian populations. Tests concerning selection against deleterious TE insertions indicate that Isis is more controlled by purifying selection than Osvaldo. The distribution of both elements on chromosomal arms follows a Poisson distribution and there are non-significant positive correlations between highly occupied sites and chromosomal inversions. The occupancy profile of Osvaldo and Isis retrotransposons is characterised by the existence of high and low insertion frequency sites in the populations. These results demonstrate that Australian D. buzzatii populations were subjected
Zhu, Wei; Kuo, Dwight; Nathanson, Jason; Satoh, Akira; Pao, Gerald M; Yeo, Gene W; Bryant, Susan V; Voss, S Randal; Gardiner, David M; Hunter, Tony
Salamanders possess an extraordinary capacity for tissue and organ regeneration when compared to mammals. In our effort to characterize the unique transcriptional fingerprint emerging during the early phase of salamander limb regeneration, we identified transcriptional activation of some germline-specific genes within the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) that is indicative of cellular reprogramming of differentiated cells into a germline-like state. In this work, we focus on one of these genes, the long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposon, which is usually active in germ cells and silent in most of the somatic tissues in other organisms. LINE-1 was found to be dramatically upregulated during regeneration. In addition, higher genomic LINE-1 content was also detected in the limb regenerate when compared to that before amputation indicating that LINE-1 retrotransposition is indeed active during regeneration. Active LINE-1 retrotransposition has been suggested to have a potentially deleterious impact on genomic integrity. Silencing of activated LINE-1 by small RNAs has been reported to be part of the machinery aiming to maintain genomic integrity. Indeed, we were able to identify putative LINE-1-related piRNAs in the limb blastema. Transposable element-related piRNAs have been identified frequently in the germline in other organisms. Thus, we present here a scenario in which a unique germline-like state is established during axolotl limb regeneration, and the re-activation of LINE-1 may serve as a marker for cellular dedifferentiation in the early-stage of limb regeneration.
Lee, Hyungro; Lee, Minsu; Mohammed Ismail, Wazim; Rho, Mina; Fox, Geoffrey C; Oh, Sangyoon; Tang, Haixu
: MGEScan-long terminal repeat (LTR) and MGEScan-non-LTR are successfully used programs for identifying LTRs and non-LTR retrotransposons in eukaryotic genome sequences. However, these programs are not supported by easy-to-use interfaces nor well suited for data visualization in general data formats. Here, we present MGEScan, a user-friendly system that combines these two programs with a Galaxy workflow system accelerated with MPI and Python threading on compute clusters. MGEScan and Galaxy empower researchers to identify transposable elements in a graphical user interface with ready-to-use workflows. MGEScan also visualizes the custom annotation tracks for mobile genetic elements in public genome browsers. A maximum speed-up of 3.26× is attained for execution time using concurrent processing and MPI on four virtual cores. MGEScan provides four operational modes: as a command line tool, as a Galaxy Toolshed, on a Galaxy-based web server, and on a virtual cluster on the Amazon cloud. MGEScan tutorials and source code are available at http://mgescan.readthedocs.org/ firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Chatterjee, Atreyi Ghatak; Esnault, Caroline; Guo, Yabin; Hung, Stevephen; McQueen, Philip G; Levin, Henry L
Transposable elements (TE) have both negative and positive impact on the biology of their host. As a result, a balance is struck between the host and the TE that relies on directing integration to specific genome territories. The extraordinary capacity of DNA sequencing can create ultra dense maps of integration that are being used to study the mechanisms that position integration. Unfortunately, the great increase in the numbers of insertion sites detected comes with the cost of not knowing which positions are rare targets and which sustain high numbers of insertions. To address this problem we developed the serial number system, a TE tagging method that measures the frequency of integration at single nucleotide positions. We sequenced 1 million insertions of retrotransposon Tf1 in the genome of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and obtained the first profile of integration with frequencies for each individual position. Integration levels at individual nucleotides varied over two orders of magnitude and revealed that sequence recognition plays a key role in positioning integration. The serial number system is a general method that can be applied to determine precise integration maps for retroviruses and gene therapy vectors.
Philippe, Claude; Vargas-Landin, Dulce B; Doucet, Aurélien J; van Essen, Dominic; Vera-Otarola, Jorge; Kuciak, Monika; Corbin, Antoine; Nigumann, Pilvi; Cristofari, Gaël
LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons represent approximately one sixth of the human genome, but only the human-specific L1HS-Ta subfamily acts as an endogenous mutagen in modern humans, reshaping both somatic and germline genomes. Due to their high levels of sequence identity and the existence of many polymorphic insertions absent from the reference genome, the transcriptional activation of individual genomic L1HS-Ta copies remains poorly understood. Here we comprehensively mapped fixed and polymorphic L1HS-Ta copies in 12 commonly-used somatic cell lines, and identified transcriptional and epigenetic signatures allowing the unambiguous identification of active L1HS-Ta copies in their genomic context. Strikingly, only a very restricted subset of L1HS-Ta loci - some being polymorphic among individuals - significantly contributes to the bulk of L1 expression, and these loci are differentially regulated among distinct cell lines. Thus, our data support a local model of L1 transcriptional activation in somatic cells, governed by individual-, locus-, and cell-type-specific determinants. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13926.001 PMID:27016617
Masuta, Yukari; Nozawa, Kosuke; Takagi, Hiroki; Yaegashi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Keisuke; Ito, Tasuku; Saito, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Hisato; Matsunaga, Wataru; Masuda, Seiji; Kato, Atsushi; Ito, Hidetaka
A transposition of a heat-activated retrotransposon named ONSEN required compromise of a small RNA-mediated epigenetic regulation that includes RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) machinery after heat treatment. In the current study, we analyzed the transcriptional and transpositional activation of ONSEN to better understand the underlying molecular mechanism involved in the maintenance and/or induction of transposon activation in plant tissue culture. We found the transposition of heat-primed ONSEN during tissue culture independently of RdDM mutation. The heat activation of ONSEN transcripts was not significantly up-regulated in tissue culture compared with that in heat-stressed seedlings, indicating that the transposition of ONSEN was regulated independently of the transcript level. RdDM-related genes were up-regulated by heat stress in both tissue culture and seedlings. The level of DNA methylation of ONSEN did not show any change in tissue culture, and the amount of ONSEN-derived small RNAs was not affected by heat stress. The results indicated that the transposition of ONSEN was regulated by an alternative mechanism in addition to the RdDM-mediated epigenetic regulation in tissue culture. We applied the tissue culture-induced transposition of ONSEN to Japanese radish, an important breeding species of the family Brassicaceae. Several new insertions were detected in a regenerated plant derived from heat-stressed tissues and its self-fertilized progeny, revealing the possibility of molecular breeding without genetic modification.
Lacey, Derek; Hickey, Peter; Arhatari, Benedicta D; O'Reilly, Lorraine A; Rohrbeck, Leona; Kiriazis, Helen; Du, Xiao-Jun; Bouillet, Philippe
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are chronic inflammatory diseases that together affect 2-3% of the population. RA and AS predominantly involve joints, but heart disease is also a common feature in RA and AS patients. Here we have studied a new spontaneous mutation that causes severe polyarthritis in bone phenotype spontaneous mutation 1 (BPSM1) mice. In addition to joint destruction, mutant mice also develop aortic root aneurism and aorto-mitral valve disease that can be fatal depending on the genetic background. The cause of the disease is the spontaneous insertion of a retrotransposon into the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which triggers its strong overexpression in myeloid cells. We found that several members of a family of RNA-binding, CCCH-containing zinc-finger proteins control TNF expression through its 3'UTR, and we identified a previously unidentified regulatory element in the UTR. The disease in BPSM1 mice is independent of the adaptive immune system and does not appear to involve inflammatory cytokines other than TNF. To our knowledge, this is the first animal model showing both polyarthritis and heart disease as a direct result of TNF deregulation. These results emphasize the therapeutic potential of anti-TNF drugs for the treatment of heart valve disease and identify potential therapeutic targets to control TNF expression and inflammation.
Buckley, Peter T; Lee, Miler T; Sul, Jai-Yoon; Miyashiro, Kevin Y; Bell, Thomas J; Fisher, Stephen A; Kim, Junhyong; Eberwine, James
RNA precursors give rise to mRNA after splicing of intronic sequences traditionally thought to occur in the nucleus. Here, we show that intron sequences are retained in a number of dendritically-targeted mRNAs, by using microarray and Illumina sequencing of isolated dendritic mRNA as well as in situ hybridization. Many of the retained introns contain ID elements, a class of SINE retrotransposon. A portion of these SINEs confers dendritic targeting to exogenous and endogenous transcripts showing the necessity of ID-mediated mechanisms for the targeting of different transcripts to dendrites. ID elements are capable of selectively altering the distribution of endogenous proteins, providing a link between intronic SINEs and protein function. As such, the ID element represents a common dendritic targeting element found across multiple RNAs. Retention of intronic sequence is a more general phenomenon than previously thought and plays a functional role in the biology of the neuron, partly mediated by co-opted repetitive sequences.
Senerchia, Natacha; Felber, François; Parisod, Christian
Interspecific hybridization leads to new interactions among divergent genomes, revealing the nature of genetic incompatibilities having accumulated during and after the origin of species. Conflicts associated with misregulation of transposable elements (TEs) in hybrids expectedly result in their activation and genome-wide changes that may be key to species boundaries. Repetitive genomes of wild wheats have diverged under differential dynamics of specific long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs), offering unparalleled opportunities to address the underpinnings of plant genome reorganization by selfish sequences. Using reciprocal F1 hybrids between three Aegilops species, restructuring and epigenetic repatterning was assessed at random and LTR-RT sequences with amplified fragment length polymorphism and sequence-specific amplified polymorphisms as well as their methylation-sensitive counterparts, respectively. Asymmetrical reorganization of LTR-RT families predicted to cause conflicting interactions matched differential survival of F1 hybrids. Consistent with the genome shock model, increasing divergence of merged LTR-RTs yielded higher levels of changes in corresponding genome fractions and lead to repeated reorganization of LTR-RT sequences in F1 hybrids. Such non-random reorganization of hybrid genomes is coherent with the necessary repression of incompatible TE loci in support of hybrid viability and indicates that TE-driven genomic conflicts may represent an overlooked factor supporting reproductive isolation. PMID:25716787
Upadhyay, Udita; Srivastava, Suchita; Khatri, Indu; Nanda, Jagpreet Singh; Subramanian, Srikrishna; Arora, Amit; Singh, Jagmohan
Inactivation of retrotransposons is accompanied by the emergence of CENPB (centromere binding protein-B) in Schizosaccharomyces as well as in metazoans. The RNAi-induced Transcriptional Silencing (RITS) Complex, comprising Chp1 (chromodomain protein-1), Tas3 (protein with unknown function) and Ago1 (Argonaute), plays an important role in RNAi-mediated heterochromatinization. We find that while the Ago1 subunit of the RITS complex is highly conserved, Tas3 is lost and Chp1 is truncated in S. cryophilus and S. octosporus We show that truncated Chp1 has lost the property of heterochromatin localization and silencing when transformed in S. pombe Furthermore, multiple copies of CENPB, related to Tc1/mariner and Tc5 transposons, occur in all Schizosaccharomyces species as well as in humans, but with loss of transposase function (except S. japonicus). We propose that acquisition of Tc1/mariner and Tc5 elements by horizontal transfer in S. pombe (and humans), is accompanied by alteration of their function from a transposase/ endonuclease to a heterochromatin protein, designed to suppress transposon expression and recombination. The resulting redundancy of RITS may have eased the selection pressure resulting in progressive loss or truncation of tas3 and chp1 genes in S. octosporus and S. cryophilus and triggered similar evolutionary dynamics in the metazoan orthologs.
Ishida, Kentaro; Miyauchi, Kenjyo; Kimura, Yuko; Mito, Mari; Okada, Shunpei; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Nakagawa, Shinichi
Short interspersed elements (SINEs) comprise a significant portion of mammalian genomes and regulate gene expression through a variety of mechanisms. Here, we show that Myodonta clade-specific 4.5S RNAH (4.5SH), an abundant nuclear noncoding RNA that is highly homologous to the retrotransposon SINE B1, controls the expression of reporter gene that contains the antisense insertion of SINE B1 via nuclear retention. The depletion of endogenous 4.5SH with antisense oligonucleotides neutralizes the nuclear retention and changes the subcellular distribution of the reporter transcripts containing the antisense SINE B1 insertion. Importantly, endogenous transcripts with antisense SINE B1 were increased in the cytoplasm after knockdown of 4.5SH, leading to a decrease in cellular growth. We propose a tentative hypothesis that the amplification of the 4.5SH cluster in specific rodent species might delineate their evolutionary direction via the regulation of genes containing the antisense insertion of SINE B1.
Liu, Zhen; Li, Xinxin; Wang, Tingzhang; Messing, Joachim; Xu, Jian-Hong
TRIMs (terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature), which are characterized by their small size, have been discovered in all investigated vascular plants and even in animals. Here, we identified a highly conservative TRIM family referred to as Wukong elements in the maize genome. The Wukong family shows a distinct pattern of tandem arrangement in the maize genome suggesting a high rate of unequal crossing over. Estimation of insertion times implies a burst of retrotransposition activity of the Wukong family after the allotetraploidization of maize. Using next-generation sequencing data, we detected 87 new Wukong insertions in parents of the maize NAM population relative to the B73 reference genome and found abundant insertion polymorphism of Wukong elements in 75 re-sequenced maize lines, including teosinte, landraces, and improved lines. These results suggest that Wukong elements possessed a persistent retrotransposition activity throughout maize evolution. Moreover, the phylogenetic relationships among 76 maize inbreds and their relatives based on insertion polymorphisms of Wukong elements should provide us with reliable molecular markers for biodiversity and genetics studies.
Conte, Caroline; Dastugue, Bernard; Vaury, Chantal
Enhancers can function over great distances and interact with almost any kind of promoter, but insulators or promoter competition generally limit their effect to a single gene. We provide in vivo evidence that retroelements may establish promoter competition with their neighboring genes and restrict the range of action of an enhancer. We report that the retroelement Idefix from Drosophila melanogaster inhibits white gene expression in testes by a promoter competition mechanism that does not occur in the eyes. The sequence specificity of the two TATA-less promoters of white and Idefix is a prime determinant in the competition that takes place in tissues where both are transcriptionally active. This study brings to light a novel mechanism whereby transcriptional interference by an active retrotransposon may perturb expression of neighboring genes. This capacity to interfere with the transcriptional regulation of their host, together with the facts that retroelements preferentially move within the germline and do not excise to replicate, suggest that these elements are cis-regulatory sequences able to imprint specific and heritable controls essential for eukaryotic gene regulation.
Malki, Safia; van der Heijden, Godfried W; O'Donnell, Kathryn A; Martin, Sandra L; Bortvin, Alex
Fetal oocyte attrition (FOA) is a conserved but poorly understood process of elimination of more than two-thirds of meiotic prophase I (MPI) oocytes before birth. We now implicate retrotransposons LINE-1 (L1), activated during epigenetic reprogramming of the embryonic germline, in FOA in mice. We show that wild-type fetal oocytes possess differential nuclear levels of L1ORF1p, an L1-encoded protein essential for L1 ribonucleoprotein particle (L1RNP) formation and L1 retrotransposition. We demonstrate that experimental elevation of L1 expression correlates with increased MPI defects, FOA, oocyte aneuploidy, and embryonic lethality. Conversely, reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor AZT has a profound effect on the FOA dynamics and meiotic recombination, and it implicates an RT-dependent trigger in oocyte elimination in early MPI. We propose that FOA serves to select oocytes with limited L1 activity that are therefore best suited for the next generation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lacey, Derek; Hickey, Peter; Arhatari, Benedicta D.; O’Reilly, Lorraine A.; Rohrbeck, Leona; Kiriazis, Helen; Du, Xiao-Jun; Bouillet, Philippe
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are chronic inflammatory diseases that together affect 2–3% of the population. RA and AS predominantly involve joints, but heart disease is also a common feature in RA and AS patients. Here we have studied a new spontaneous mutation that causes severe polyarthritis in bone phenotype spontaneous mutation 1 (BPSM1) mice. In addition to joint destruction, mutant mice also develop aortic root aneurism and aorto-mitral valve disease that can be fatal depending on the genetic background. The cause of the disease is the spontaneous insertion of a retrotransposon into the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which triggers its strong overexpression in myeloid cells. We found that several members of a family of RNA-binding, CCCH-containing zinc-finger proteins control TNF expression through its 3′UTR, and we identified a previously unidentified regulatory element in the UTR. The disease in BPSM1 mice is independent of the adaptive immune system and does not appear to involve inflammatory cytokines other than TNF. To our knowledge, this is the first animal model showing both polyarthritis and heart disease as a direct result of TNF deregulation. These results emphasize the therapeutic potential of anti-TNF drugs for the treatment of heart valve disease and identify potential therapeutic targets to control TNF expression and inflammation. PMID:26195802
Liu, Zhen; Li, Xinxin; Wang, Tingzhang; Messing, Joachim; Xu, Jian-Hong
TRIMs (terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature), which are characterized by their small size, have been discovered in all investigated vascular plants and even in animals. Here, we identified a highly conservative TRIM family referred to as Wukong elements in the maize genome. The Wukong family shows a distinct pattern of tandem arrangement in the maize genome suggesting a high rate of unequal crossing over. Estimation of insertion times implies a burst of retrotransposition activity of the Wukong family after the allotetraploidization of maize. Using next-generation sequencing data, we detected 87 new Wukong insertions in parents of the maize NAM population relative to the B73 reference genome and found abundant insertion polymorphism of Wukong elements in 75 re-sequenced maize lines, including teosinte, landraces, and improved lines. These results suggest that Wukong elements possessed a persistent retrotransposition activity throughout maize evolution. Moreover, the phylogenetic relationships among 76 maize inbreds and their relatives based on insertion polymorphisms of Wukong elements should provide us with reliable molecular markers for biodiversity and genetics studies. PMID:26019188
Golubovsky, M D; Konev, A Y; Walter, M F; Biessmann, H; Mason, J M
Genetically marked P elements inserted into the subtelomeric satellites of Drosophila show repression and variegation of the reporter gene. One such white+ reporter, inserted between the subtelomeric satellite and the terminal HeT-A array in the left arm of chromosome 2 (2L), is sensitive to its context; changes in the structure of the telomere region can be identified by changes in eye color. Addition of HeT-A or TART elements to the 2L terminus increases w+ expression, and loss of sequence from the end decreases expression. This indicates that the telomeric retrotransposons in Drosophila have an activating influence on the repressed subterminal reporter gene. Changes in eye color due to altered expression of the transgene also allow the detection of interactions between homologous telomeres. The 2L arms that terminate in long HeT-A/TART arrays showed increased expression of the subterminal w+ transgene when the terminal repeats on the homologue are absent or markedly shorter. We propose that the chromatin structure of the terminal HeT-A/TART array and the activity of a putative promoter/enhancer element on HeT-A are affected by telomeric interactions. Such trans-activation may reflect control over HeT-A transcription and, thus, transposition activity. PMID:11454760
Zhang, Liang; Beaucher, Michelle; Cheng, Yan; Rong, Yikang S
In Drosophila, a group of retrotransposons is mobilized exclusively to telomeres in a sequence-independent manner. How they target chromosome ends is not understood. Here, we focused on the telomeric element HeT-A and characterized the cell cycle expression and cytological distribution of its protein and RNA products. We determined the timing of telomere replication by creating a single lacO-marked telomere and provide evidence suggesting that transposon expression and recruitment to telomeres is linked to telomere replication. The HeT-A-encoded ORF1p protein is expressed predominantly in S phase, particularly in early S phase. Orf1p binds HeT-A transcripts and forms spherical structures at telomeres undergoing DNA replication. HeT-A sphere formation requires Verrocchio, a putative homolog of the conserved Stn1 telomeric protein. Our results suggest that coupling of telomere elongation and telomere replication is a universal feature, and raise the possibility that transposon recruitment to Drosophila telomeres is mechanistically related to telomerase recruitment in other organisms. Our study also supports a co-adaptive relationship between the Drosophila host and HeT-A mobile elements. PMID:24733842
Liu, Shu; Du, Tingfu; Liu, Zeyue; Shen, Yan; Xiu, Jianbo; Xu, Qi
Long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is a type of retrotransposons comprising 17% of the human and mouse genome, and has been found to be associated with several types of neurological disorders. Previous post-mortem brain studies reveal increased L1 copy number in the prefrontal cortex from schizophrenia patients. However, whether L1 retrotransposition occurs similarly in major depressive disorder (MDD) is unknown. Here, L1 copy number was measured by quantitative PCR analysis in peripheral blood of MDD patients (n = 105) and healthy controls (n = 105). The results showed that L1 copy number was increased in MDD patients possibly due to its hypomethylation. Furthermore, L1 copy number in peripheral blood and five brain regions (prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus) was measured in the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model of depression in mice. Intriguingly, increased L1 copy number in blood and the decreased L1 copy number in the prefrontal cortex were observed in stressed mice, while no change was found in other brain regions. Our results suggest that the changes of L1 may be associated with the pathophysiology of MDD, but the biological mechanism behind dysfunction of L1 retrotransposition in MDD remains to be further investigated. PMID:27874048
Leem, Young-Eun; Ripmaster, Tracy; Kelly, Felice; Ebina, Hirotaka; Heincelman, Marc; Zhang, Ke; Grewal, Shiv I. S.; Hoffman, Charles S.; Levin, Henry L.
SUMMARY The LTR-retrotransposon Tf1 preserves the coding capacity of its host Schizosaccharomyces pombe by integrating upstream of open reading frames (ORFs). To determine which features of the target sites were recognized by the transposon, we introduced plasmids containing candidate insertion sites into S. pombe and mapped the positions of integration. We found that Tf1 was targeted specifically to the promoters of pol II transcribed genes. A detailed analysis of integration in plasmids that contained either ade6 or fbp1 revealed insertions occurred in the promoters at positions where transcription factors bound. Further experiments revealed that the activator Atf1p and its binding site were required for directing integration to the promoter of fbp1. An interaction between Tf1 integrase and Atf1p was observed indicating that integration at fbp1 was mediated by the activator bound to its promoter. Surprisingly we found Tf1 contained sequences that activated transcription and these substituted for elements of the ade6 promoter disrupted by integration. PMID:18406330
Tan, Huiping; Qurashi, Abrar; Poidevin, Mickael; Nelson, David L.; Li, He; Jin, Peng
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with fragile X premutation carriers. Previous studies have shown that fragile X rCGG repeats are sufficient to cause neurodegeneration and that the rCGG-repeat-binding proteins Pur α and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1 could modulate rCGG-mediated neuronal toxicity. Mobile genetic elements or their remnants populate the genomes, and the activities of these elements are tightly controlled for the fitness of host genomes in different organisms. Here we provide both biochemical and genetic evidence to show that the activation of a specific retrotransposon, gypsy, can modulate rCGG-mediated neurodegeneration in an FXTAS Drosophila model. We find that one of the rCGG-repeat-binding proteins, hnRNP A2/B1, is involved in this process via interaction with heterochromatin protein 1. Knockdown of gypsy RNA by RNAi could suppress the neuronal toxicity caused by rCGG repeats. These data together point to a surprisingly active role for retrotransposition in neurodegeneration. PMID:21940752
Bakshi, Arundhati; Ekram, Muhammad B; Kim, Joomyeong
DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mark associated with multiple aspects of retrotransposons within the mammalian genome. In order to study DNA methylation of a large number of retrotransposons on an individual-locus basis, we have developed a new protocol termed High-Throughput Targeted Repeat Element Bisulfite Sequencing (HT-TREBS) (Ekram and Kim, 2014 ). We have used this technique to characterize the locus-specific patterns of DNA methylation of 4799 members of the mouse IAP LTR (Intracisternal A Particle Long Terminal Repeat) retrotransposon family in embryonic stem, somatic and Neuro2A cells (Bakshi and Kim, 2014 ). Here we describe in detail the sample preparation and bioinformatics analyses used for these studies. The somatic cell data may be accessed under GEO accession number GSE49222. The ES and Neuro2A data are deposited under GEO accession number GSE60007.
Han, Mengxue; Sun, Qibao; Zhou, Junyong; Qiu, Huarong; Guo, Jing; Lu, Lijuan; Mu, Wenlei; Sun, Jun
Insertion of a solo LTR, which possesses strong bidirectional, stem-specific promoter activities, is associated with the evolution of a dwarfing apple spur mutation. Spur mutations in apple scions revolutionized global apple production. Since long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are tightly related to natural mutations, inter-retrotransposon-amplified polymorphism technique and genome walking were used to find sequences in the apple genome based on these LTRs. In 'Red Delicious' spur mutants, a novel, 2190-bp insertion was identified as a spur-specific, solo LTR (sLTR) located at the 1038th nucleotide of another sLTR, which was 1536 bp in length. This insertion-within-an-insertion was localized within a preexisting Gypsy-50 retrotransposon at position 3,762,767 on chromosome 4. The analysis of transcriptional activity of the two sLTRs (the 2190- and 1536-bp inserts) indicated that the 2190-bp sLTR is a promoter, capable of bidirectional transcription. GUS expression in the 2190-bp-sense and 2190-bp-antisense transgenic lines was prominent in stems. In contrast, no promoter activity from either the sense or the antisense strand of the 1536-bp sLTR was detected. From ~150 kb of DNA on each side of the 2190 bp, sLTR insertion site, corresponding to 300 kb of the 'Golden Delicious' genome, 23 genes were predicted. Ten genes had predicted functions that could affect shoot development. This first report, of a sLTR insertion associated with the evolution of apple spur mutation, will facilitate apple breeding, cloning of spur-related genes, and discovery of mechanisms behind dwarf habit.
Okazaki, S; Ishikawa, H; Fujiwara, H
We characterized TRAS1, a retrotransposable element which was inserted into the telomeric repetitive sequence (CCTAA)n of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The complete sequence of TRAS1, a stretch of 7.8 kb with a poly(A) tract at the 3' end, was determined. No long terminal repeat (LTR) was found at the termini of the element. TRAS1 contains gag- and pol-like open reading frames (ORFs) which are similar to those of non-LTR retrotransposons. The two ORFs overlap but are one nucleotide out of frame (+1 frameshift). Most of the approximately 250 copies of TRAS1 elements in the genome were highly conserved in the structure. Chromosomal in situ hybridization showed that TRAS1 elements are clustered at the telomeres of Bombyx chromosomes. A phylogenetic analysis using the amino acid sequence of the reverse transcriptase domain within the pol-like ORF revealed that TRAS1 falls into one lineage with R1, which is a family of non-LTR retrotransposons inserted into the same site within the 28S ribosomal DNA unit in most insects. TRAS1 may have been derived from R1 and changed the target specificity so that TRAS1 inserts into the telomeric repetitive sequence (CCTAA)n. Southern hybridization and Bal 31 exonuclease analyses showed that TRAS1 elements are clustered proximal to the terminal long tract of (CCTAA)n. TRAS1 is a novel family of non-LTR retrotransposons which are inserted into the telomeric repetitive sequences as target sites. PMID:7623845
Konkel, Miriam K.; Batzer, Mark A.
It is now commonly agreed that the human genome is not the stable entity originally presumed. Deletions, duplications, inversions, and insertions are common, and contribute significantly to genomic structural variations (SVs). Their collective impact generates much of the inter-individual genomic diversity observed among humans. Not only do these variations change the structure of the genome; they may also have functional implications, e.g. altered gene expression. Some SVs have been identified as the cause of genetic disorders, including cancer predisposition. Cancer cells are notorious for their genomic instability, and often show genomic rearrangements at the microscopic and submicroscopic level to which transposable elements (TEs) contribute. Here, we review the role of TEs in genome instability, with particular focus on non-LTR retrotransposons. Currently, three non-LTR retrotransposon families – long interspersed element 1 (L1), SVA (short interspersed element (SINE-R), variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), and Alu), and Alu (a SINE) elements – mobilize in the human genome, and cause genomic instability through both insertion- and post-insertion-based mutagenesis. Due to the abundance and high sequence identity of TEs, they frequently mislead the homologous recombination repair pathway into non-allelic homologous recombination, causing deletions, duplications, and inversions. While less comprehensively studied, non-LTR retrotransposon insertions and TE-mediated rearrangements are probably more common in cancer cells than in healthy tissue. This may be at least partially attributed to the commonly seen global hypomethylation as well as general epigenetic dysfunction of cancer cells. Where possible, we provide examples that impact cancer predisposition and/or development. PMID:20307669
Lyubomirskaya, N V; Avedisov, S N; Surkov, S A; Ilyin, Y V
Plasmid DNA constructs containing 5' end truncated retrotransposon gypsy were introduced into Drosophila cultured cells. Appearance of new complete DNA copies with reconstructed via reverse transcription 5'LTR were detected by PCR after transient expression and by Southern blot analysis of genome DNA of stably transformed cells. Two gypsy subfamilies supposed to be different in transpositional activity were analyzed in terms of their ability to produce new DNA copies via reverse transcription in D. hydei cultured cells. It was demonstrated that both gypsy variants undergo retrotransposition but with different efficiency. Images PMID:7688116
Kagramanova, A S; Kapelinskaia, T V; Korolev, A L; Mukha, D V
This is the first report providing results on identification, cloning, and sequencing of extended fragments (5'-truncated copies) of R1 and R2 retrotransposons integrated into Blattella germanica genome. Comparative structural analysis of the received clones revealed two distinct subfamilies of R1 elements. However, all B. germanica R1 clones have two common features: poly(T) tails and similar target site duplications. Nucleotide structure and organization of five sequenced R2 fragments was similar. Analysis of R2 nucleotide sequences revealed typical deletions at the 3'end of target sites and lack of homopolynucleotides tails.
Zhang, Jie; Jiang, Yun; Xuan, Pu; Guo, Yuanlin; Deng, Guangbing; Yu, Maoqun; Long, Hai
Dasypyrum villosum is a valuable genetic resource for wheat improvement. With the aim to efficiently monitor the D. villosum chromatin introduced into common wheat, two novel retrotransposon sequences were isolated by RAPD, and were successfully converted to D. villosum-specific SCAR markers. In addition, we constructed a chromosomal karyotype of D. villosum. Our results revealed that different accessions of D. villosum showed slightly different signal patterns, indicating that distribution of repeats did not diverge significantly among D. villosum accessions. The two SCAR markers and FISH karyotype of D. villosum could be used for efficient and precise identification of D. villosum chromatin in wheat breeding.
Francis, M.J.; Nesbit, M.A.; Theodosiou, A.M.
The mutation that underlies the autosomal recessive disorder spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is located on chromosome 5q13. Recent studies show that SMA patients frequently have deletions and rearrangements in this region compared to normal controls. During the isolation of candidate cDNAs for the disease, the authors identified a sequence that shows high homology to the THE-1 retrotransposon gene family. Using YAC fragmentation techniques, they have refined the localization of this sequence to the domain known to show instability in SMA patients. The implication of these results for the mechanism of the mutation in SMA is discussed. 20 refs., 1 fig.
Sacerdot, Christine; Mercier, Géraldine; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Dutreix, Marie; Springer, Mathias; Lesage, Pascale
Ty1 elements, LTR-retrotransposons of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are known to be activated by genetic and environmental stress. Several DNA-damaging agents have been shown to increase both Ty1 transcription and retrotransposition. To explore further the relationship between Ty1 mobility and DNA damage, we have studied the impact of ionizing radiation at different steps of the Ty1 life cycle. We have shown that Ty1 transposition is strongly activated by gamma-irradiation and we have analysed its effect on Ty1 transcription, TyA1 protein and Ty1 cDNA levels. The activation of transposition rises with increasing doses of gamma-rays and is stronger for Ty1 elements than for the related Ty2 elements. Ty1 RNA levels are markedly elevated upon irradiation; however, no significant increase of TyA1 protein was detected as measured by TYA1-lacZ fusions and by Western blot. A moderate increase in Ty1 cDNA levels was also observed, indicating that ionizing radiation can induce the synthesis of Ty1 cDNA. In diploid cells and ste12 mutants, where both Ty1 transcription and transposition are repressed, gamma-irradiation is able to activate Ty1 transposition and increases Ty1 RNA levels. These results suggest the existence of a specific regulatory pathway involved in Ty1 response to the gamma-irradiation that would be independent of Ste12 and mating-type factors. Our findings also indicate that ionizing radiation acts on several steps of the Ty1 life cycle.
Takenouchi, Toshiki; Kuchikata, Tomu; Yoshihashi, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Mineko; Uehara, Tomoko; Miyama, Sahoko; Yamada, Shiro; Kosaki, Kenjiro
Among more than 5,000 human monogenic disorders with known causative genes, transposable element insertion of a Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 (LINE1, L1) is known as the mechanistic basis in only 13 genetic conditions. Meckel-Gruber syndrome is a rare ciliopathy characterized by occipital encephalocele and cystic kidney disease. Here, we document a boy with occipital encephalocele, post-axial polydactyly, and multicystic renal disease. A medical exome analysis detected a heterozygous frameshift mutation, c.4582_4583delCG p.(Arg1528Serfs*17) in CC2D2A in the maternally derived allele. The further use of a dedicated bioinformatics algorithm for detecting retrotransposon insertions led to the detection of an L1 insertion affecting exon 7 in the paternally derived allele. The complete sequencing and sequence homology analysis of the inserted L1 element showed that the L1 element was classified as L1HS (L1 human specific) and that the element had intact open reading frames in the two L1-encoded proteins. This observation ranks Meckel-Gruber syndrome as only the 14th disorder to be caused by an L1 insertion among more than 5,000 known human genetic disorders. Although a transposable element detection algorithm is not included in the current best-practice next-generation sequencing analysis, the present observation illustrates the utility of such an algorithm, which would require modest computational time and resources. Whether the seemingly infrequent recognition of L1 insertion in the pathogenesis of human genetic diseases might simply reflect a lack of appropriate detection methods remains to be seen. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Background Unique structural characteristics of centromere chromatin enable it to support assembly of the kinetochore and its associated tensions. The histone H3 variant CENH3 (centromeric histone H3) is viewed as the key element of centromere chromatin and its interaction with centromere DNA is epigenetic in that its localization to centromeres is not sequence-dependent. Results In order to investigate what influence the DNA sequence exerts on CENH3 chromatin structure, we examined CENH3 nucleosome footprints on maize centromere DNA. We found a predominant average nucleosome spacing pattern of roughly 190-bp intervals, which was also the dominant arrangement for nucleosomes genome-wide. For CENH3-containing nucleosomes, distinct modes of nucleosome positioning were evident within that general spacing constraint. Over arrays of the major ~156-bp centromeric satellite sequence (tandem repeat) CentC, nucleosomes were not positioned in register with CentC monomers but in conformity with a striking ~10-bp periodicity of AA/TT dimers within the sequence. In contrast, nucleosomes on a class of centromeric retrotransposon (CRM2) lacked a detectable AA/TT periodicity but exhibited tightly phased positioning. Conclusions These data support a model in which general chromatin factors independent of both DNA sequence and CENH3 enforce roughly uniform centromeric nucleosome spacing while allowing flexibility in the mode in which nucleosomes are positioned. In the case of tandem repeat DNA, the natural bending effects related to AA/TT periodicity produce an energetically-favourable arrangement consistent with conformationally rigid nucleosomes and stable chromatin at centromeres. PMID:21352520
Brunmeir, Reinhard; Lagger, Sabine; Simboeck, Elisabeth; Sawicka, Anna; Egger, Gerda; Hagelkruys, Astrid; Zhang, Yu; Matthias, Patrick
Large fractions of eukaryotic genomes contain repetitive sequences of which the vast majority is derived from transposable elements (TEs). In order to inactivate those potentially harmful elements, host organisms silence TEs via methylation of transposon DNA and packaging into chromatin associated with repressive histone marks. The contribution of individual histone modifications in this process is not completely resolved. Therefore, we aimed to define the role of reversible histone acetylation, a modification commonly associated with transcriptional activity, in transcriptional regulation of murine TEs. We surveyed histone acetylation patterns and expression levels of ten different murine TEs in mouse fibroblasts with altered histone acetylation levels, which was achieved via chemical HDAC inhibition with trichostatin A (TSA), or genetic inactivation of the major deacetylase HDAC1. We found that one LTR retrotransposon family encompassing virus-like 30S elements (VL30) showed significant histone H3 hyperacetylation and strong transcriptional activation in response to TSA treatment. Analysis of VL30 transcripts revealed that increased VL30 transcription is due to enhanced expression of a limited number of genomic elements, with one locus being particularly responsive to HDAC inhibition. Importantly, transcriptional induction of VL30 was entirely dependent on the activation of MAP kinase pathways, resulting in serine 10 phosphorylation at histone H3. Stimulation of MAP kinase cascades together with HDAC inhibition led to simultaneous phosphorylation and acetylation (phosphoacetylation) of histone H3 at the VL30 regulatory region. The presence of the phosphoacetylation mark at VL30 LTRs was linked with full transcriptional activation of the mobile element. Our data indicate that the activity of different TEs is controlled by distinct chromatin modifications. We show that activation of a specific mobile element is linked to a dual epigenetic mark and propose a model
Ivancevic, Atma M.; Kortschak, R. Daniel; Bertozzi, Terry; Adelson, David L.
LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons are dynamic elements. They have the potential to cause great genomic change because of their ability to ‘jump’ around the genome and amplify themselves, resulting in the duplication and rearrangement of regulatory DNA. Active L1, in particular, are often thought of as tightly constrained, homologous and ubiquitous elements with well-characterized domain organization. For the past 30 years, model organisms have been used to define L1s as 6–8 kb sequences containing a 5′-UTR, two open reading frames working harmoniously in cis, and a 3′-UTR with a polyA tail. In this study, we demonstrate the remarkable and overlooked diversity of L1s via a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of elements from over 500 species from widely divergent branches of the tree of life. The rapid and recent growth of L1 elements in mammalian species is juxtaposed against the diverse lineages found in other metazoans and plants. In fact, some of these previously unexplored mammalian species (e.g. snub-nosed monkey, minke whale) exhibit L1 retrotranspositional ‘hyperactivity’ far surpassing that of human or mouse. In contrast, non-mammalian L1s have become so varied that the current classification system seems to inadequately capture their structural characteristics. Our findings illustrate how both long-term inherited evolutionary patterns and random bursts of activity in individual species can significantly alter genomes, highlighting the importance of L1 dynamics in eukaryotes. PMID:27702814
Ivancevic, Atma M; Kortschak, R Daniel; Bertozzi, Terry; Adelson, David L
LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons are dynamic elements. They have the potential to cause great genomic change because of their ability to 'jump' around the genome and amplify themselves, resulting in the duplication and rearrangement of regulatory DNA. Active L1, in particular, are often thought of as tightly constrained, homologous and ubiquitous elements with well-characterized domain organization. For the past 30 years, model organisms have been used to define L1s as 6-8 kb sequences containing a 5'-UTR, two open reading frames working harmoniously in cis, and a 3'-UTR with a polyA tail. In this study, we demonstrate the remarkable and overlooked diversity of L1s via a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of elements from over 500 species from widely divergent branches of the tree of life. The rapid and recent growth of L1 elements in mammalian species is juxtaposed against the diverse lineages found in other metazoans and plants. In fact, some of these previously unexplored mammalian species (e.g. snub-nosed monkey, minke whale) exhibit L1 retrotranspositional 'hyperactivity' far surpassing that of human or mouse. In contrast, non-mammalian L1s have become so varied that the current classification system seems to inadequately capture their structural characteristics. Our findings illustrate how both long-term inherited evolutionary patterns and random bursts of activity in individual species can significantly alter genomes, highlighting the importance of L1 dynamics in eukaryotes. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Zhu, Wei; Kuo, Dwight; Nathanson, Jason; Satoh, Akira; Pao, Gerald M.; Yeo, Gene W.; Bryant, Susan V.; Voss, S. Randal; Gardiner, David M.; Hunter, Tony
Salamanders possess an extraordinary capacity for tissue and organ regeneration when compared to mammals. In our effort to characterize the unique transcriptional fingerprint emerging during the early phase of salamander limb regeneration, we identified transcriptional activation of some germline-specific genes within the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) that is indicative of cellular reprogramming of differentiated cells into a germline-like state. In this work, we focus on one of these genes, the long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposon, which is usually active in germ cells and silent in most of the somatic tissues in other organisms. LINE-1 was found to be dramatically upregulated during regeneration. In addition, higher genomic LINE-1 content was also detected in the limb regenerate when compared to that before amputation indicating that LINE-1 retrotransposition is indeed active during regeneration. Active LINE-1 retrotransposition has been suggested to have a potentially deleterious impact on genomic integrity. Silencing of activated LINE-1 by small RNAs has been reported to be part of the machinery aiming to maintain genomic integrity. Indeed, we were able to identify putative LINE-1-related piRNAs in the limb blastema. Transposable element-related piRNAs have been identified frequently in the germline in other organisms. Thus, we present here a scenario in which a unique germline-like state is established during axolotl limb regeneration, and the re-activation of LINE-1 may serve as a marker for cellular dedifferentiation in the early-stage of limb regeneration. PMID:22913491
Hamilton, Russell S; Hartswood, Eve; Vendra, Georgia; Jones, Cheryl; Van De Bor, Veronique; Finnegan, David; Davis, Ilan
mRNA localization is a widespread mode of delivering proteins to their site of function. The embryonic axes in Drosophila are determined in the oocyte, through Dynein-dependent transport of gurken/TGF-alpha mRNA, containing a small localization signal that assigns its destination. A signal with a similar secondary structure, but lacking significant sequence similarity, is present in the I factor retrotransposon mRNA, also transported by Dynein. It is currently unclear whether other mRNAs exist that are localized to the same site using similar signals. Moreover, searches for other genes containing similar elements have not been possible due to a lack of suitable bioinformatics methods for searches of secondary structure elements and the difficulty of experimentally testing all the possible candidates. We have developed a bioinformatics approach for searching across the genome for small RNA elements that are similar to the secondary structures of particular localization signals. We have uncovered 48 candidates, of which we were able to test 22 for their localization potential using injection assays for Dynein mediated RNA localization. We found that G2 and Jockey transposons each contain a gurken/I factor-like RNA stem-loop required for Dynein-dependent localization to the anterior and dorso-anterior corner of the oocyte. We conclude that I factor, G2, and Jockey are members of a "family" of transposable elements sharing a gurken-like mRNA localization signal and Dynein-dependent mechanism of transport. The bioinformatics pipeline we have developed will have broader utility in fields where small RNA signals play important roles.
Damert, Annette; Raiz, Julija; Horn, Axel V.; Löwer, Johannes; Wang, Hui; Xing, Jinchuan; Batzer, Mark A.; Löwer, Roswitha; Schumann, Gerald G.
SVA elements represent the youngest family of hominid non-LTR retrotransposons, which alter the human genome continuously. They stand out due to their organization as composite repetitive elements. To draw conclusions on the assembly process that led to the current organization of SVA elements and on their transcriptional regulation, we initiated our study by assessing differences in structures of the 116 SVA elements located on human chromosome 19. We classified SVA elements into seven structural variants, including novel variants like 3′-truncated elements and elements with 5′-flanking sequence transductions. We established a genome-wide inventory of 5′-transduced SVA elements encompassing ∼8% of all human SVA elements. The diversity of 5′ transduction events found indicates transcriptional control of their SVA source elements by a multitude of external cellular promoters in germ cells in the course of their evolution and suggests that SVA elements might be capable of acquiring 5′ promoter sequences. Our data indicate that SVA-mediated 5′ transduction events involve alternative RNA splicing at cryptic splice sites. We analyzed one remarkably successful human-specific SVA 5′ transduction group in detail because it includes at least 32% of all SVA subfamily F members. An ancient retrotransposition event brought an SVA insertion under transcriptional control of the MAST2 gene promoter, giving rise to the primal source element of this group. Members of this group are currently transcribed. Here we show that SVA-mediated 5′ transduction events lead to structural diversity of SVA elements and represent a novel source of genomic rearrangements contributing to genomic diversity. PMID:19652014
Repanas, Kostas; Fuentes, Gloria; Cohen, Serge X; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Perrakis, Anastassis
The human LINE-1 endonuclease (L1-EN) contributes in defining the genomic integration sites of the abundant human L1 and Alu retrotransposons. LINEs have been considered as possible vehicles for gene delivery and understanding the mechanism of L1-EN could help engineering them as genetic tools. We tested the in vitro activity of point mutants in three L1-EN residues--Asp145, Arg155, Ile204--that are key for DNA cleavage, and determined their crystal structures. The L1-EN structure remains overall unaffected by the mutations, which change the enzyme activity but leave DNA cleavage sequence specificity mostly unaffected. To better understand the mechanism of L1-EN, we performed molecular dynamics simulations using as model the structures of wild type EN-L1, of two betaB6-betaB5 loop exchange mutants we have described previously to be important for DNA recognition, of the R155A mutant from this study, and of the homologous TRAS1 endonuclease: all confirm a rigid scaffold. The simulations crucially indicate that the betaB6-betaB5 loop shows an anticorrelated motion with the surface loops betaA6-betaA5 and betaB3-alphaB1. The latter loop harbors N118, a residue that alters DNA cleavage specificity in homologous endonucleases, and implies that the plasticity and correlated motion of these loops has a functional importance in DNA recognition and binding. To further explore how these loops are possibly involved in DNA binding, we docked computationally two DNA substrates to our structure, one involving a flipped-out nucleotide downstream the scissile phosphodiester; and one not. The models for both scenarios are feasible and agree with the hypotheses derived from the dynamic simulations. The reduced cleavage activity we have observed for the I204Y mutant above however, favors the flipped out nucleotide model.
Ianc, Bianca; Ochis, Cornelia; Persch, Robert; Popescu, Octavian; Damert, Annette
SVA (SINE-R-VNTR-Alu) elements constitute the youngest family of composite non-LTR retrotransposons in hominoid primates. The sequence of their assembly, however, remains unclear. Recently, a second family of VNTR-containing composites, LAVA (L1-Alu-VNTR-Alu), has been identified in gibbons. We now report the existence of two additional VNTR composite families, PVA (PTGR2-VNTR-Alu) and FVA (FRAM-VNTR-Alu), in the genome of Nomascus leucogenys. Like LAVA, they share the 5'-Alu-like region and VNTR with SVA, but differ at their 3'-ends. The 3'-end of PVA comprises part of the PTGR2 gene, whereas FVA is characterized by the presence of a partial FRAM element in its 3'-domain. Splicing could be identified as the mechanism of acquisition of the variant 3'-ends in all four families of VNTR composites. SVAs have been shown to be mobilized by the L1 protein machinery in trans. A critical role in this process has been ascribed to their 5'-hexameric repeat/ Alu-like region. The Alu-like region displays specific features in each of the VNTR composite families/subfamilies with characteristic deletions found in the evolutionary younger subfamilies. Using reciprocal exchanges between SVA_E and PVA/FVA elements, we demonstrate that the structure, not the presence of the (CCCTCT)n/ Alu-like region determines mobilization capacity. Combination of LAVA and SVA_E domains does not yield any active elements-suggesting the use of different combinations of host factors for the two major groups of VNTR composites. Finally, we demonstrate that the LAVA 3'-L1ME5 fragment attenuates mobilization capacity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Kwon, Soo-Jin; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lim, Myung-Ho; Long, Yan; Meng, Jin-Ling; Lim, Ki-Byung; Kim, Jin-A; Kim, Jung Sun; Jin, Mina; Kim, Ho-Il; Ahn, Sang-Nag; Wessler, Susan R; Yang, Tae-Jin; Park, Beom-Seok
We have developed a display system using a unique sequence of terminal repeat retrotransposon in miniature (TRIM) elements, which were recently identified from gene-rich regions of Brassica rapa. The technique, named TRIM display, is based on modification of the AFLP technique using an adapter primer for the restriction fragments of BfaI and a primer derived from conserved terminal repeat sequences of TRIM elements, Br1 and Br2. TRIM display using genomic DNA produced 50-70 bands ranging from 100 to 700 bp in all the species of the family Brassicaceae. TRIM display using B. rapa cDNA produced about 20 bands. Sequences of 11 randomly selected bands, 7 from genomic DNA and 4 from cDNA, begin with about 104 bp of the terminal repeat sequences of TRIM elements Br1 or Br2 and end with unique sequences indicating that all bands are derived from unique insertion sites of TRIM elements. Furthermore, 7 of the 11 unique sequences showed significant similarity with expressed gene. Most of the TRIM display bands were polymorphic between genera and about 55% (132 of 239 bands) are polymorphic among 19 commercial F1 hybrid cultivars. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships shows clear-cut lineage among the 19 cultivars. Furthermore, a combination of 11 polymorphic bands derived from only one primer combination can clearly distinguish one cultivar from the others. TRIM display bands were reproducible and inheritable through successive generations that is revealed by genetic mapping of 6 out of 27 polymorphic TRIM markers on the genetic map of Brassica napus. Collective data provide evidence that TRIM display can provide useful DNA markers in Brassica relatives because these markers are distributed in gene-rich regions, and are sometimes involved in the restructuring of genes.
Jiang, Ning; Gao, Dongying; Xiao, Han; van der Knaap, Esther
DNA sequences provide useful insights into genome structure and organization as well as evolution of species. We report on a detailed analysis of the locus surrounding the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit-shape gene SUN to determine the driving force and genome environment that foster the appearance of novel phenotypes. The gene density at the sun locus is similar to that described in other euchromatic portions of the tomato genome despite the relatively high number of transposable elements. Genes at the sun locus include protein-coding as well as RNA genes, are small in size, and belong to families that were duplicated at the locus an estimated 5-74 million years ago. In general, the DNA transposons at the sun locus are older than the RNA transposons, and their insertion pre-dates the speciation of S. lycopersicum and S. pimpinellifolium. Gene redundancy and large intergenic regions may explain the tolerance of the sun locus to frequent rearrangements and transpositions. The most recent transposition event at the sun locus involved Rider, a recently discovered high-copy retrotransposon. Rider probably arose early during the speciation of tomato. The element inserts into or near to genes and may still be active, which are unusual features for a high-copy element. Rider full-length and read-through transcripts past the typical transcription termination stop are detected, and the latter are required for mobilizing nearby sequences. Rider activity has resulted in an altered phenotype in three known cases, and may therefore have played an important role in tomato evolution and domestication.
Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D; Chen, Elizabeth J; Quisenberry, Thomas J; Ko, Kevin; Braverman, John M; Giarla, Thomas C; Mortimer, Nathan T; Reed, Laura K; Smith, Sheryl T; Robic, Srebrenka; McCartha, Shannon R; Perry, Danielle R; Prescod, Lindsay M; Sheppard, Zenyth A; Saville, Ken J; McClish, Allison; Morlock, Emily A; Sochor, Victoria R; Stanton, Brittney; Veysey-White, Isaac C; Revie, Dennis; Jimenez, Luis A; Palomino, Jennifer J; Patao, Melissa D; Patao, Shane M; Himelblau, Edward T; Campbell, Jaclyn D; Hertz, Alexandra L; McEvilly, Maddison F; Wagner, Allison R; Youngblom, James; Bedi, Baljit; Bettincourt, Jeffery; Duso, Erin; Her, Maiye; Hilton, William; House, Samantha; Karimi, Masud; Kumimoto, Kevin; Lee, Rebekah; Lopez, Darryl; Odisho, George; Prasad, Ricky; Robbins, Holly Lyn; Sandhu, Tanveer; Selfridge, Tracy; Tsukashima, Kara; Yosif, Hani; Kokan, Nighat P; Britt, Latia; Zoellner, Alycia; Spana, Eric P; Chlebina, Ben T; Chong, Insun; Friedman, Harrison; Mammo, Danny A; Ng, Chun L; Nikam, Vinayak S; Schwartz, Nicholas U; Xu, Thomas Q; Burg, Martin G; Batten, Spencer M; Corbeill, Lindsay M; Enoch, Erica; Ensign, Jesse J; Franks, Mary E; Haiker, Breanna; Ingles, Judith A; Kirkland, Lyndsay D; Lorenz-Guertin, Joshua M; Matthews, Jordan; Mittig, Cody M; Monsma, Nicholaus; Olson, Katherine J; Perez-Aragon, Guillermo; Ramic, Alen; Ramirez, Jordan R; Scheiber, Christopher; Schneider, Patrick A; Schultz, Devon E; Simon, Matthew; Spencer, Eric; Wernette, Adam C; Wykle, Maxine E; Zavala-Arellano, Elizabeth; McDonald, Mitchell J; Ostby, Kristine; Wendland, Peter; DiAngelo, Justin R; Ceasrine, Alexis M; Cox, Amanda H; Docherty, James E B; Gingras, Robert M; Grieb, Stephanie M; Pavia, Michael J; Personius, Casey L; Polak, Grzegorz L; Beach, Dale L; Cerritos, Heaven L; Horansky, Edward A; Sharif, Karim A; Moran, Ryan; Parrish, Susan; Bickford, Kirsten; Bland, Jennifer; Broussard, Juliana; Campbell, Kerry; Deibel, Katelynn E; Forka, Richard; Lemke, Monika C; Nelson, Marlee B; O'Keeffe, Catherine; Ramey, S Mariel; Schmidt, Luke; Villegas, Paola; Jones, Christopher J; Christ, Stephanie L; Mamari, Sami; Rinaldi, Adam S; Stity, Ghazal; Hark, Amy T; Scheuerman, Mark; Silver Key, S Catherine; McRae, Briana D; Haberman, Adam S; Asinof, Sam; Carrington, Harriette; Drumm, Kelly; Embry, Terrance; McGuire, Richard; Miller-Foreman, Drew; Rosen, Stella; Safa, Nadia; Schultz, Darrin; Segal, Matt; Shevin, Yakov; Svoronos, Petros; Vuong, Tam; Skuse, Gary; Paetkau, Don W; Bridgman, Rachael K; Brown, Charlotte M; Carroll, Alicia R; Gifford, Francesca M; Gillespie, Julie Beth; Herman, Susan E; Holtcamp, Krystal L; Host, Misha A; Hussey, Gabrielle; Kramer, Danielle M; Lawrence, Joan Q; Martin, Madeline M; Niemiec, Ellen N; O'Reilly, Ashleigh P; Pahl, Olivia A; Quintana, Guadalupe; Rettie, Elizabeth A S; Richardson, Torie L; Rodriguez, Arianne E; Rodriguez, Mona O; Schiraldi, Laura; Smith, Joanna J; Sugrue, Kelsey F; Suriano, Lindsey J; Takach, Kaitlyn E; Vasquez, Arielle M; Velez, Ximena; Villafuerte, Elizabeth J; Vives, Laura T; Zellmer, Victoria R; Hauke, Jeanette; Hauser, Charles R; Barker, Karolyn; Cannon, Laurie; Parsamian, Perouza; Parsons, Samantha; Wichman, Zachariah; Bazinet, Christopher W; Johnson, Diana E; Bangura, Abubakarr; Black, Jordan A; Chevee, Victoria; Einsteen, Sarah A; Hilton, Sarah K; Kollmer, Max; Nadendla, Rahul; Stamm, Joyce; Fafara-Thompson, Antoinette E; Gygi, Amber M; Ogawa, Emmy E; Van Camp, Matt; Kocsisova, Zuzana; Leatherman, Judith L; Modahl, Cassie M; Rubin, Michael R; Apiz-Saab, Susana S; Arias-Mejias, Suzette M; Carrion-Ortiz, Carlos F; Claudio-Vazquez, Patricia N; Espada-Green, Debbie M; Feliciano-Camacho, Marium; Gonzalez-Bonilla, Karina M; Taboas-Arroyo, Mariela; Vargas-Franco, Dorianmarie; Montañez-Gonzalez, Raquel; Perez-Otero, Joseph; Rivera-Burgos, Myrielis; Rivera-Rosario, Francisco J; Eisler, Heather L; Alexander, Jackie; Begley, Samatha K; Gabbard, Deana; Allen, Robert J; Aung, Wint Yan; Barshop, William D; Boozalis, Amanda; Chu, Vanessa P; Davis, Jeremy S; Duggal, Ryan N; Franklin, Robert; Gavinski, Katherine; Gebreyesus, Heran; Gong, Henry Z; Greenstein, Rachel A; Guo, Averill D; Hanson, Casey; Homa, Kaitlin E; Hsu, Simon C; Huang, Yi; Huo, Lucy; Jacobs, Sarah; Jia, Sasha; Jung, Kyle L; Wai-Chee Kong, Sarah; Kroll, Matthew R; Lee, Brandon M; Lee, Paul F; Levine, Kevin M; Li, Amy S; Liu, Chengyu; Liu, Max Mian; Lousararian, Adam P; Lowery, Peter B; Mallya, Allyson P; Marcus, Joseph E; Ng, Patrick C; Nguyen, Hien P; Patel, Ruchik; Precht, Hashini; Rastogi, Suchita; Sarezky, Jonathan M; Schefkind, Adam; Schultz, Michael B; Shen, Delia; Skorupa, Tara; Spies, Nicholas C; Stancu, Gabriel; Vivian Tsang, Hiu Man; Turski, Alice L; Venkat, Rohit; Waldman, Leah E; Wang, Kaidi; Wang, Tracy; Wei, Jeffrey W; Wu, Dennis Y; Xiong, David D; Yu, Jack; Zhou, Karen; McNeil, Gerard P; Fernandez, Robert W; Menzies, Patrick Gomez; Gu, Tingting; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine R; Elgin, Sarah C R
The discordance between genome size and the complexity of eukaryotes can partly be attributed to differences in repeat density. The Muller F element (∼5.2 Mb) is the smallest chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster, but it is substantially larger (>18.7 Mb) in D. ananassae To identify the major contributors to the expansion of the F element and to assess their impact, we improved the genome sequence and annotated the genes in a 1.4-Mb region of the D. ananassae F element, and a 1.7-Mb region from the D element for comparison. We find that transposons (particularly LTR and LINE retrotransposons) are major contributors to this expansion (78.6%), while Wolbachia sequences integrated into the D. ananassae genome are minor contributors (0.02%). Both D. melanogaster and D. ananassae F-element genes exhibit distinct characteristics compared to D-element genes (e.g., larger coding spans, larger introns, more coding exons, and lower codon bias), but these differences are exaggerated in D. ananassae Compared to D. melanogaster, the codon bias observed in D. ananassae F-element genes can primarily be attributed to mutational biases instead of selection. The 5' ends of F-element genes in both species are enriched in dimethylation of lysine 4 on histone 3 (H3K4me2), while the coding spans are enriched in H3K9me2. Despite differences in repeat density and gene characteristics, D. ananassae F-element genes show a similar range of expression levels compared to genes in euchromatic domains. This study improves our understanding of how transposons can affect genome size and how genes can function within highly repetitive domains. Copyright © 2017 Leung et al.
Shaffer, Christopher D.; Chen, Elizabeth J.; Quisenberry, Thomas J.; Ko, Kevin; Braverman, John M.; Giarla, Thomas C.; Mortimer, Nathan T.; Reed, Laura K.; Smith, Sheryl T.; Robic, Srebrenka; McCartha, Shannon R.; Perry, Danielle R.; Prescod, Lindsay M.; Sheppard, Zenyth A.; Saville, Ken J.; McClish, Allison; Morlock, Emily A.; Sochor, Victoria R.; Stanton, Brittney; Veysey-White, Isaac C.; Revie, Dennis; Jimenez, Luis A.; Palomino, Jennifer J.; Patao, Melissa D.; Patao, Shane M.; Himelblau, Edward T.; Campbell, Jaclyn D.; Hertz, Alexandra L.; McEvilly, Maddison F.; Wagner, Allison R.; Youngblom, James; Bedi, Baljit; Bettincourt, Jeffery; Duso, Erin; Her, Maiye; Hilton, William; House, Samantha; Karimi, Masud; Kumimoto, Kevin; Lee, Rebekah; Lopez, Darryl; Odisho, George; Prasad, Ricky; Robbins, Holly Lyn; Sandhu, Tanveer; Selfridge, Tracy; Tsukashima, Kara; Yosif, Hani; Kokan, Nighat P.; Britt, Latia; Zoellner, Alycia; Spana, Eric P.; Chlebina, Ben T.; Chong, Insun; Friedman, Harrison; Mammo, Danny A.; Ng, Chun L.; Nikam, Vinayak S.; Schwartz, Nicholas U.; Xu, Thomas Q.; Burg, Martin G.; Batten, Spencer M.; Corbeill, Lindsay M.; Enoch, Erica; Ensign, Jesse J.; Franks, Mary E.; Haiker, Breanna; Ingles, Judith A.; Kirkland, Lyndsay D.; Lorenz-Guertin, Joshua M.; Matthews, Jordan; Mittig, Cody M.; Monsma, Nicholaus; Olson, Katherine J.; Perez-Aragon, Guillermo; Ramic, Alen; Ramirez, Jordan R.; Scheiber, Christopher; Schneider, Patrick A.; Schultz, Devon E.; Simon, Matthew; Spencer, Eric; Wernette, Adam C.; Wykle, Maxine E.; Zavala-Arellano, Elizabeth; McDonald, Mitchell J.; Ostby, Kristine; Wendland, Peter; DiAngelo, Justin R.; Ceasrine, Alexis M.; Cox, Amanda H.; Docherty, James E.B.; Gingras, Robert M.; Grieb, Stephanie M.; Pavia, Michael J.; Personius, Casey L.; Polak, Grzegorz L.; Beach, Dale L.; Cerritos, Heaven L.; Horansky, Edward A.; Sharif, Karim A.; Moran, Ryan; Parrish, Susan; Bickford, Kirsten; Bland, Jennifer; Broussard, Juliana; Campbell, Kerry; Deibel, Katelynn E.; Forka, Richard; Lemke, Monika C.; Nelson, Marlee B.; O'Keeffe, Catherine; Ramey, S. Mariel; Schmidt, Luke; Villegas, Paola; Jones, Christopher J.; Christ, Stephanie L.; Mamari, Sami; Rinaldi, Adam S.; Stity, Ghazal; Hark, Amy T.; Scheuerman, Mark; Silver Key, S. Catherine; McRae, Briana D.; Haberman, Adam S.; Asinof, Sam; Carrington, Harriette; Drumm, Kelly; Embry, Terrance; McGuire, Richard; Miller-Foreman, Drew; Rosen, Stella; Safa, Nadia; Schultz, Darrin; Segal, Matt; Shevin, Yakov; Svoronos, Petros; Vuong, Tam; Skuse, Gary; Paetkau, Don W.; Bridgman, Rachael K.; Brown, Charlotte M.; Carroll, Alicia R.; Gifford, Francesca M.; Gillespie, Julie Beth; Herman, Susan E.; Holtcamp, Krystal L.; Host, Misha A.; Hussey, Gabrielle; Kramer, Danielle M.; Lawrence, Joan Q.; Martin, Madeline M.; Niemiec, Ellen N.; O'Reilly, Ashleigh P.; Pahl, Olivia A.; Quintana, Guadalupe; Rettie, Elizabeth A.S.; Richardson, Torie L.; Rodriguez, Arianne E.; Rodriguez, Mona O.; Schiraldi, Laura; Smith, Joanna J.; Sugrue, Kelsey F.; Suriano, Lindsey J.; Takach, Kaitlyn E.; Vasquez, Arielle M.; Velez, Ximena; Villafuerte, Elizabeth J.; Vives, Laura T.; Zellmer, Victoria R.; Hauke, Jeanette; Hauser, Charles R.; Barker, Karolyn; Cannon, Laurie; Parsamian, Perouza; Parsons, Samantha; Wichman, Zachariah; Bazinet, Christopher W.; Johnson, Diana E.; Bangura, Abubakarr; Black, Jordan A.; Chevee, Victoria; Einsteen, Sarah A.; Hilton, Sarah K.; Kollmer, Max; Nadendla, Rahul; Stamm, Joyce; Fafara-Thompson, Antoinette E.; Gygi, Amber M.; Ogawa, Emmy E.; Van Camp, Matt; Kocsisova, Zuzana; Leatherman, Judith L.; Modahl, Cassie M.; Rubin, Michael R.; Apiz-Saab, Susana S.; Arias-Mejias, Suzette M.; Carrion-Ortiz, Carlos F.; Claudio-Vazquez, Patricia N.; Espada-Green, Debbie M.; Feliciano-Camacho, Marium; Gonzalez-Bonilla, Karina M.; Taboas-Arroyo, Mariela; Vargas-Franco, Dorianmarie; Montañez-Gonzalez, Raquel; Perez-Otero, Joseph; Rivera-Burgos, Myrielis; Rivera-Rosario, Francisco J.; Eisler, Heather L.; Alexander, Jackie; Begley, Samatha K.; Gabbard, Deana; Allen, Robert J.; Aung, Wint Yan; Barshop, William D.; Boozalis, Amanda; Chu, Vanessa P.; Davis, Jeremy S.; Duggal, Ryan N.; Franklin, Robert; Gavinski, Katherine; Gebreyesus, Heran; Gong, Henry Z.; Greenstein, Rachel A.; Guo, Averill D.; Hanson, Casey; Homa, Kaitlin E.; Hsu, Simon C.; Huang, Yi; Huo, Lucy; Jacobs, Sarah; Jia, Sasha; Jung, Kyle L.; Wai-Chee Kong, Sarah; Kroll, Matthew R.; Lee, Brandon M.; Lee, Paul F.; Levine, Kevin M.; Li, Amy S.; Liu, Chengyu; Liu, Max Mian; Lousararian, Adam P.; Lowery, Peter B.; Mallya, Allyson P.; Marcus, Joseph E.; Ng, Patrick C.; Nguyen, Hien P.; Patel, Ruchik; Precht, Hashini; Rastogi, Suchita; Sarezky, Jonathan M.; Schefkind, Adam; Schultz, Michael B.; Shen, Delia; Skorupa, Tara; Spies, Nicholas C.; Stancu, Gabriel; Vivian Tsang, Hiu Man; Turski, Alice L.; Venkat, Rohit; Waldman, Leah E.; Wang, Kaidi; Wang, Tracy; Wei, Jeffrey W.; Wu, Dennis Y.; Xiong, David D.; Yu, Jack; Zhou, Karen; McNeil, Gerard P.; Fernandez, Robert W.; Menzies, Patrick Gomez; Gu, Tingting; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine R.; Elgin, Sarah C.R.
The discordance between genome size and the complexity of eukaryotes can partly be attributed to differences in repeat density. The Muller F element (∼5.2 Mb) is the smallest chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster, but it is substantially larger (>18.7 Mb) in D. ananassae. To identify the major contributors to the expansion of the F element and to assess their impact, we improved the genome sequence and annotated the genes in a 1.4-Mb region of the D. ananassae F element, and a 1.7-Mb region from the D element for comparison. We find that transposons (particularly LTR and LINE retrotransposons) are major contributors to this expansion (78.6%), while Wolbachia sequences integrated into the D. ananassae genome are minor contributors (0.02%). Both D. melanogaster and D. ananassae F-element genes exhibit distinct characteristics compared to D-element genes (e.g., larger coding spans, larger introns, more coding exons, and lower codon bias), but these differences are exaggerated in D. ananassae. Compared to D. melanogaster, the codon bias observed in D. ananassae F-element genes can primarily be attributed to mutational biases instead of selection. The 5′ ends of F-element genes in both species are enriched in dimethylation of lysine 4 on histone 3 (H3K4me2), while the coding spans are enriched in H3K9me2. Despite differences in repeat density and gene characteristics, D. ananassae F-element genes show a similar range of expression levels compared to genes in euchromatic domains. This study improves our understanding of how transposons can affect genome size and how genes can function within highly repetitive domains. PMID:28667019
Romero-Soriano, Valèria; Garcia Guerreiro, Maria Pilar
Transposable elements (TEs), repeated mobile sequences, are ubiquitous in the eukaryotic kingdom. Their mobilizing capacity confers on them a high mutagenic potential, which must be strongly regulated to guarantee genome stability. In the Drosophila germline, a small RNA-mediated silencing system, the piRNA (Piwi-interacting RNA) pathway, is the main responsible TE regulating mechanism, but some stressful conditions can destabilize it. For instance, during interspecific hybridization, genomic stress caused by the shock of two different genomes can lead, in both animals and plants, to higher transposition rates. A recent study in D. buzatii—D. koepferae hybrids detected mobilization of 28 TEs, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms explaining this transposition release. We have characterized one of the mobilized TEs, the retrotransposon Helena, and used quantitative expression to assess whether its high transposition rates in hybrids are preceded by increased expression. We have also localized Helena expression in the gonads to see if cellular expression patterns have changed in the hybrids. To give more insight into changes in TE regulation in hybrids, we analysed Helena-specific piRNA populations of hybrids and parental species. Helena expression is not globally altered in somatic tissues, but male and female gonads have different patterns of deregulation. In testes, Helena is repressed in F1, increasing then its expression up to parental values. This is linked with a mislocation of Helena transcripts along with an increase of their specific piRNA levels. Ovaries have additive levels of Helena expression, but the ping-pong cycle efficiency seems to be reduced in F1 hybrids. This could be at the origin of new Helena insertions in hybrids, which would be transmitted to F1 hybrid female progeny. PMID:26812285
Forbes, Elaine M; Nieduszynska, Siân R; Brunton, Fiona K; Gibson, Joanne; Glover, L Anne; Stansfield, Ian
Background In the C. albicans retrotransposon Tca2, the gag and pol ORFs are separated by a UGA stop codon, 3' of which is a potential RNA pseudoknot. It is unclear how the Tca2 gag UGA codon is bypassed to allow pol expression. However, in other retroelements, translational readthrough of the gag stop codon can be directed by its flanking sequence, including a 3' pseudoknot. Results The hypothesis was tested that in Tca2, gag stop codon flanking sequences direct translational readthrough and synthesis of a gag-pol fusion protein. Sequence from the Tca2 gag-UGA-pol junction (300 nt) was inserted between fused lacZ and luciferase (luc) genes in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae dual reporter construct. Although downstream of UGA, luc was expressed, but its expression was unaffected by inserting additional stop codons at the 3' end of lacZ. Luc expression was instead being driven by a previously unknown minor promoter activity within the gag-pol junction region. Evidence together indicated that junction sequence alone cannot direct UGA readthrough. Using reporter genes in C. albicans, the activities of this gag-pol junction promoter and the Tca2 long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter were compared. Of the two promoters, only the LTR promoter was induced by heat-shock, which also triggers retrotransposition. Tca2 pol protein, epitope-tagged in C. albicans to allow detection, was also heat-shock induced, indicating that pol proteins were expressed from a gag-UGA-pol RNA. Conclusion This is the first demonstration that the LTR promoter directs Tca2 pol protein expression, and that pol proteins are translated from a gag-pol RNA, which thus requires a mechanism for stop codon bypass. However, in contrast to most other retroelement and viral readthrough signals, immediate gag UGA-flanking sequences were insufficient to direct stop readthrough in S. cerevisiae, indicating non-canonical mechanisms direct gag UGA bypass in Tca2. PMID:17961216
Gentles, Andrew J.; Kohany, Oleksiy; Jurka, Jerzy
Short interspersed elements (SINEs) make up a significant fraction of total DNA in mammalian genomes, providing a rich substrate for chromosomal rearrangements by SINE-SINE recombinations. Proliferation of mammalian SINEs is mediated primarily by LINE1 (L1) non-LTR retrotransposons that preferentially integrate at DNA sequence targets with average length ~15 bp and containing conserved endonucleolytic nicking signals at both ends. We report that sequence variations in the first of the two nicking signals, represented by a 5′TT-AAAA consensus sequence, affect the position of the second signal thus leading to target site duplications (TSDs) of different lengths. The length distribution of TSDs appears to be affected also by L1-encoded enzyme variants, since targets with the same 5′ nicking site can be of different average length in different mammalian species. Taking this into account, we re-analyzed the second nicking site and found that it is larger and includes more conserved sites than previously appreciated, with a consensus of 5′ANTNTN-AA. We also studied potential involvement of the nicking sites in stimulating recombinations between SINE elements. We determined that SINE elements retaining TSDs with perfect 5′TT-AAAA nicking sites appear to be lost relatively rapidly from the human and rat genomes, and less rapidly from dog. We speculate that the introduction of single-strand DNA breaks induced by recurring endonucleolytic attacks at these sites, combined with the ubiquitousness of SINEs, may significantly promote recombination between repetitive elements, leading to the observed losses. At the same time new L1 subfamilies may be selected for “incompatibility” with pre-existing targets. This provides a possible driving force for the continual emergence of new L1 subfamilies which, in turn, may affect selection of L1-dependent SINE subfamilies. PMID:15944437
Sciamanna, Ilaria; De Luca, Chiara; Spadafora, Corrado
In higher eukaryotic genomes, Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons represent a large family of repeated genomic elements. They transpose using a reverse transcriptase (RT), which they encode as part of the ORF2p product. RT inhibition in cancer cells, either via RNA interference-dependent silencing of active LINE-1 elements, or using RT inhibitory drugs, reduces cancer cell proliferation, promotes their differentiation and antagonizes tumor progression in animal models. Indeed, the non-nucleoside RT inhibitor efavirenz has recently been tested in a phase II clinical trial with metastatic prostate cancer patients. An in-depth analysis of ORF2p in a mouse model of breast cancer showed ORF2p to be precociously expressed in precancerous lesions and highly abundant in advanced cancer stages, while being barely detectable in normal breast tissue, providing a rationale for the finding that RT-expressing tumors are therapeutically sensitive to RT inhibitors. We summarize mechanistic and gene profiling studies indicating that abundant LINE-1-derived RT can “sequester” RNA substrates for reverse transcription in tumor cells, entailing the formation of RNA:DNA hybrid molecules and impairing the overall production of regulatory miRNAs, with a global impact on the cell transcriptome. Based on these data, LINE-1-ORF2 encoded RT has a tumor-promoting potential that is exerted at an epigenetic level. We propose a model whereby LINE1-RT drives a previously unrecognized global regulatory process, the deregulation of which drives cell transformation and tumorigenesis with possible implications for cancer cell heterogeneity. PMID:26904537
Eickbush, Danna G.; Burke, William D.; Eickbush, Thomas H.
R2 is a non-long terminal repeat retrotransposon that inserts site-specifically in the tandem 28S rRNA genes of many animals. Previously, R2 RNA from various species of Drosophila was shown to self-cleave from the 28S rRNA/R2 co-transcript by a hepatitis D virus (HDV)-like ribozyme encoded at its 5' end. RNA cleavage was at the precise 5' junction of the element with the 28S gene. Here we report that RNAs encompassing the 5' ends of R2 elements from throughout its species range fold into HDV-like ribozymes. In vitro assays of RNA self-cleavage conducted in many R2 lineages confirmed activity. For many R2s, RNA self-cleavage was not at the 5' end of the element but at 28S rRNA sequences up to 36 nucleotides upstream of the junction. The location of cleavage correlated well with the types of endogenous R2 5' junctions from different species. R2 5' junctions were uniform for most R2s in which RNA cleavage was upstream in the rRNA sequences. The 28S sequences remaining on the first DNA strand synthesized during retrotransposition are postulated to anneal to the target site and uniformly prime second strand DNA synthesis. In species where RNA cleavage occurred at the R2 5' end, the 5' junctions were variable. This junction variation is postulated to result from the priming of second strand DNA synthesis by chance microhomologies between the target site and the first DNA strand. Finally, features of R2 ribozyme evolution, especially changes in cleavage site and convergence on the same active site sequences, are discussed. PMID:24066021
Sciamanna, Ilaria; De Luca, Chiara; Spadafora, Corrado
In higher eukaryotic genomes, Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons represent a large family of repeated genomic elements. They transpose using a reverse transcriptase (RT), which they encode as part of the ORF2p product. RT inhibition in cancer cells, either via RNA interference-dependent silencing of active LINE-1 elements, or using RT inhibitory drugs, reduces cancer cell proliferation, promotes their differentiation and antagonizes tumor progression in animal models. Indeed, the nonnucleoside RT inhibitor efavirenz has recently been tested in a phase II clinical trial with metastatic prostate cancer patients. An in-depth analysis of ORF2p in a mouse model of breast cancer showed ORF2p to be precociously expressed in precancerous lesions and highly abundant in advanced cancer stages, while being barely detectable in normal breast tissue, providing a rationale for the finding that RT-expressing tumours are therapeutically sensitive to RT inhibitors. We summarise mechanistic and gene profiling studies indicating that highly abundant LINE-1-derived RT can “sequester” RNA substrates for reverse transcription in tumor cells, entailing the formation of RNA:DNA hybrid molecules and impairing the overall production of regulatory miRNAs, with a global impact on the cell transcriptome. Based on these data, LINE-1-ORF2 encoded RT has a tumor-promoting potential that is exerted at an epigenetic level. We propose a model whereby LINE1-RT drives a previously unrecognized global regulatory process, the deregulation of which drives cell transformation and tumorigenesis and possibly implicated in cancer cell heterogeneity.
KANEKO-ISHINO, Tomoko; ISHINO, Fumitoshi
Mammals, including human beings, have evolved a unique viviparous reproductive system and a highly developed central nervous system. How did these unique characteristics emerge in mammalian evolution, and what kinds of changes did occur in the mammalian genomes as evolution proceeded? A key conceptual term in approaching these issues is “mammalian-specific genomic functions”, a concept covering both mammalian-specific epigenetics and genetics. Genomic imprinting and LTR retrotransposon-derived genes are reviewed as the representative, mammalian-specific genomic functions that are essential not only for the current mammalian developmental system, but also mammalian evolution itself. First, the essential roles of genomic imprinting in mammalian development, especially related to viviparous reproduction via placental function, as well as the emergence of genomic imprinting in mammalian evolution, are discussed. Second, we introduce the novel concept of “mammalian-specific traits generated by mammalian-specific genes from LTR retrotransposons”, based on the finding that LTR retrotransposons served as a critical driving force in the mammalian evolution via generating mammalian-specific genes. PMID:26666304
Zhang, Xueli; Ge, Xianhong; Shao, Yujiao; Sun, Genlou; Li, Zaiyun
Hybridization and introgression represent important means for the transfer and/or de novo origination of traits and play an important role in facilitating speciation and plant breeding. Two sets of introgression lines in Brassica napus L. were previously established by its intertribal hybridizations with two wild species and long-term selection. In this study, the methods of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP), sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP) and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) were used to determine their genomic change, retrotransposon mobilization and cytosine methylation alteration in these lines. The genomic change revealed by the loss or gain of AFLP bands occurred for ∼10% of the total bands amplified in the two sets of introgressions, while no bands specific for wild species were detected. The new and absent SSAP bands appeared for 9 out of 11 retrotransposons analyzed, with low frequency of new bands and their total percentage of about 5% in both sets. MSAP analysis indicated that methylation changes were common in these lines (33.4–39.8%) and the hypermethylation was more frequent than hypomethylation. Our results suggested that certain extents of genetic and epigenetic alterations were induced by hybridization and alien DNA introgression. The cryptic mechanism of these changes and potential application of these lines in breeding were also discussed. PMID:23468861
Irie, Masahito; Yoshikawa, Masanobu; Ono, Ryuichi; Iwafune, Hirotaka; Furuse, Tamio; Yamada, Ikuko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yamashita, Yui; Abe, Takaya; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko
Gene targeting of mouse Sushi-ichi-related retrotransposon homologue 11/Zinc finger CCHC domain-containing 16 (Sirh11/Zcchc16) causes abnormal behaviors related to cognition, including attention, impulsivity and working memory. Sirh11/Zcchc16 encodes a CCHC type of zinc-finger protein that exhibits high homology to an LTR retrotransposon Gag protein. Upon microdialysis analysis of the prefrontal cortex region, the recovery rate of noradrenaline (NA) was reduced compared with dopamine (DA) after perfusion of high potassium-containing artificial cerebrospinal fluid in knockout (KO) mice. These data indicate that Sirh11/Zcchc16 is involved in cognitive function in the brain, possibly via the noradrenergic system, in the contemporary mouse developmental systems. Interestingly, it is highly conserved in three out of the four major groups of the eutherians, euarchontoglires, laurasiatheria and afrotheria, but is heavily mutated in xenarthran species such as the sloth and armadillo, suggesting that it has contributed to brain evolution in the three major eutherian lineages, including humans and mice. Sirh11/Zcchc16 is the first SIRH gene to be involved in brain function, instead of just the placenta, as seen in the case of Peg10, Peg11/Rtl1 and Sirh7/Ldoc1.
Koziol, Uriel; Radio, Santiago; Smircich, Pablo; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Fernández, Cecilia; Brehm, Klaus
Taeniid cestodes (including the human parasites Echinococcus spp. and Taenia solium) have very few mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in their genome, despite lacking a canonical PIWI pathway. The MGEs of these parasites are virtually unexplored, and nothing is known about their expression and silencing. In this work, we report the discovery of a novel family of small nonautonomous long terminal repeat retrotransposons (also known as terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature, TRIMs) which we have named ta-TRIM (taeniid TRIM). ta-TRIMs are only the second family of TRIM elements discovered in animals, and are likely the result of convergent reductive evolution in different taxonomic groups. These elements originated at the base of the taeniid tree and have expanded during taeniid diversification, including after the divergence of closely related species such as Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus. They are massively expressed in larval stages, from a small proportion of full-length copies and from isolated terminal repeats that show transcriptional read-through into downstream regions, generating novel noncoding RNAs and transcriptional fusions to coding genes. In E. multilocularis, ta-TRIMs are specifically expressed in the germinative cells (the somatic stem cells) during asexual reproduction of metacestode larvae. This would provide a developmental mechanism for insertion of ta-TRIMs into cells that will eventually generate the adult germ line. Future studies of active and inactive ta-TRIM elements could give the first clues on MGE silencing mechanisms in cestodes. PMID:26133390
Divashuk, Mikhail G.; Khuat, Thi Mai L.; Kroupin, Pavel Yu.; Kirov, Ilya V.; Romanov, Dmitry V.; Kiseleva, Anna V.; Khrustaleva, Ludmila I.; Alexeev, Dmitry G.; Zelenin, Alexandr S.; Klimushina, Marina V.; Razumova, Olga V.; Karlov, Gennady I.
Speciation and allopolyploidization in cereals may be accompanied by dramatic changes in abundance of centromeric repeated transposable elements. Here we demonstrate that the reverse transcriptase part of Ty3/gypsy centromeric retrotransposon (RT-CR) is highly conservative in the segmental hexaploid Thinopyrum intermedium (JrJvsSt) and its possible diploid progenitors Th. bessarabicum (Jb), Pseudoroegneria spicata (St) and Dasypyrum villosum (V) but the abundance of the repeats varied to a large extent. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed hybridization signals in centromeric region of all chromosomes in the studied species, although the intensity of the signals drastically differed. In Th. intermedium, the strongest signal of RT-CR probe was detected on the chromosomes of Jv, intermediate on Jr and faint on Js and St subgenome suggesting different abundance of RT-CR on the individual chromosomes rather than the sequence specificity of RT-CRs of the subgenomes. RT-CR quantification using real-time PCR revealed that its content per genome in Th. bessarabicum is ~ 2 times and P. spicata is ~ 1,5 times higher than in genome of D. villosum. The possible burst of Ty3/gypsy centromeric retrotransposon in Th. intermedium during allopolyploidization and its role in proper mitotic and meiotic chromosome behavior in a nascent allopolyploid is discussed. PMID:27119343
Koziol, Uriel; Radio, Santiago; Smircich, Pablo; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Fernández, Cecilia; Brehm, Klaus
Taeniid cestodes (including the human parasites Echinococcus spp. and Taenia solium) have very few mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in their genome, despite lacking a canonical PIWI pathway. The MGEs of these parasites are virtually unexplored, and nothing is known about their expression and silencing. In this work, we report the discovery of a novel family of small nonautonomous long terminal repeat retrotransposons (also known as terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature, TRIMs) which we have named ta-TRIM (taeniid TRIM). ta-TRIMs are only the second family of TRIM elements discovered in animals, and are likely the result of convergent reductive evolution in different taxonomic groups. These elements originated at the base of the taeniid tree and have expanded during taeniid diversification, including after the divergence of closely related species such as Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus. They are massively expressed in larval stages, from a small proportion of full-length copies and from isolated terminal repeats that show transcriptional read-through into downstream regions, generating novel noncoding RNAs and transcriptional fusions to coding genes. In E. multilocularis, ta-TRIMs are specifically expressed in the germinative cells (the somatic stem cells) during asexual reproduction of metacestode larvae. This would provide a developmental mechanism for insertion of ta-TRIMs into cells that will eventually generate the adult germ line. Future studies of active and inactive ta-TRIM elements could give the first clues on MGE silencing mechanisms in cestodes.
Ichiyanagi, Tomoko; Ichiyanagi, Kenji; Ogawa, Ayako; Kuramochi-Miyagawa, Satomi; Nakano, Toru; Chuma, Shinichiro; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Udono, Heiichiro
HSP90, found in all kingdoms of life, is a major chaperone protein regulating many client proteins. We demonstrated that HSP90α, one of two paralogs duplicated in vertebrates, plays an important role in the biogenesis of fetal PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNA), which act against the transposon activities, in mouse male germ cells. The knockout mutation of Hsp90α resulted in a large reduction in the expression of primary and secondary piRNAs and mislocalization of MIWI2, a PIWI homolog. Whereas the mutation in Fkbp6 encoding a co-chaperone reduced piRNAs of 28–32 nucleotides in length, the Hsp90α mutation reduced piRNAs of 24–32 nucleotides, suggesting the presence of both FKBP6-dependent and -independent actions of HSP90α. Although DNA methylation and mRNA levels of L1 retrotransposon were largely unchanged in the Hsp90α mutant testes, the L1-encoded protein was increased, suggesting the presence of post-transcriptional regulation. This study revealed the specialized function of the HSP90α isofom in the piRNA biogenesis and repression of retrotransposons during the development of male germ cells in mammals. PMID:25262350
Divashuk, Mikhail G; Khuat, Thi Mai L; Kroupin, Pavel Yu; Kirov, Ilya V; Romanov, Dmitry V; Kiseleva, Anna V; Khrustaleva, Ludmila I; Alexeev, Dmitry G; Zelenin, Alexandr S; Klimushina, Marina V; Razumova, Olga V; Karlov, Gennady I
Speciation and allopolyploidization in cereals may be accompanied by dramatic changes in abundance of centromeric repeated transposable elements. Here we demonstrate that the reverse transcriptase part of Ty3/gypsy centromeric retrotransposon (RT-CR) is highly conservative in the segmental hexaploid Thinopyrum intermedium (JrJvsSt) and its possible diploid progenitors Th. bessarabicum (Jb), Pseudoroegneria spicata (St) and Dasypyrum villosum (V) but the abundance of the repeats varied to a large extent. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed hybridization signals in centromeric region of all chromosomes in the studied species, although the intensity of the signals drastically differed. In Th. intermedium, the strongest signal of RT-CR probe was detected on the chromosomes of Jv, intermediate on Jr and faint on Js and St subgenome suggesting different abundance of RT-CR on the individual chromosomes rather than the sequence specificity of RT-CRs of the subgenomes. RT-CR quantification using real-time PCR revealed that its content per genome in Th. bessarabicum is ~ 2 times and P. spicata is ~ 1,5 times higher than in genome of D. villosum. The possible burst of Ty3/gypsy centromeric retrotransposon in Th. intermedium during allopolyploidization and its role in proper mitotic and meiotic chromosome behavior in a nascent allopolyploid is discussed.
Schneider, Anna M.; Schmidt, Steffen; Jonas, Stefanie; Vollmer, Benjamin; Khazina, Elena; Weichenrieder, Oliver
Non-LTR retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements and play a major role in eukaryotic genome evolution and disease. Similar to retroviruses they encode a reverse transcriptase, but their genomic integration mechanism is fundamentally different, and they lack homologs of the retroviral nucleocapsid-forming protein Gag. Instead, their first open reading frames encode distinct multi-domain proteins (ORF1ps) presumed to package the retrotransposon-encoded RNA into ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs). The mechanistic roles of ORF1ps are poorly understood, particularly of ORF1ps that appear to harbor an enzymatic function in the form of an SGNH-type lipolytic acetylesterase. We determined the crystal structures of the coiled coil and esterase domains of the ORF1p from the Danio rerio ZfL2-1 element. We demonstrate a dimerization of the coiled coil and a hydrolytic activity of the esterase. Furthermore, the esterase binds negatively charged phospholipids and liposomes, but not oligo-(A) RNA. Unexpectedly, the esterase can split into two dynamic half-domains, suited to engulf long fatty acid substrates extending from the active site. These properties indicate a role for lipids and membranes in non-LTR retrotransposition. We speculate that Gag-like membrane targeting properties of ORF1ps could play a role in RNP assembly and in membrane-dependent transport or localization processes. PMID:24003030
Legiewicz, Michal; Zolotukhin, Andrei S.; Pilkington, Guy R.; Purzycka, Katarzyna J.; Mitchell, Michelle; Uranishi, Hiroaki; Bear, Jenifer; Pavlakis, George N.; Le Grice, Stuart F. J.; Felber, Barbara K.
Retrovirus replication requires specialized transport mechanisms to export genomic mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of the infected cell. This regulation is mediated by a combination of viral and/or cellular factors that interact with cis-acting RNA export elements linking the viral RNA to the cellular CRM1 or NXF1 nuclear export pathways. Endogenous type D murine LTR retrotransposons (musD) were reported to contain an RNA export element located upstream of the 3′-LTR. Although functionally equivalent, the musD export element, termed the musD transport element, is distinct from the other retroviral RNA export elements, such as the constitutive transport element of simian/Mason-Pfizer monkey retroviruses and the RNA transport element found in rodent intracisternal A-particle LTR retrotransposons. We demonstrate here that the minimal RNA transport element (musD transport element) of musD comprises multiple secondary structure elements that presumably serve as recognition signals for the cellular export machinery. We identified two classes of tertiary interactions, namely kissing loops and a pseudoknot. This work constitutes the first example of an RNA transport element requiring such structural motifs to mediate nuclear export. PMID:20978285
Monden, Yuki; Fujii, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Ikeo, Kazuho; Nakazawa, Yoshiko; Waki, Takamitsu; Hirashima, Keita; Uchimura, Yosuke; Tahara, Makoto
Retrotransposons have been used frequently for the development of molecular markers by using their insertion polymorphisms among cultivars, because multiple copies of these elements are dispersed throughout the genome and inserted copies are inherited genetically. Although a large number of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon families exist in the higher eukaryotic genomes, the identification of families that show high insertion polymorphism has been challenging. Here, we performed an efficient screening of these retrotransposon families using an Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing platform with comprehensive LTR library construction based on the primer binding site (PBS), which is located adjacent to the 5' LTR and has a motif that is universal and conserved among LTR retrotransposon families. The paired-end sequencing library of the fragments containing a large number of LTR sequences and their insertion sites was sequenced for seven strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne) cultivars and one diploid wild species (Fragaria vesca L.). Among them, we screened 24 families with a "unique" insertion site that appeared only in one cultivar and not in any others, assuming that this type of insertion should have occurred quite recently. Finally, we confirmed experimentally the selected LTR families showed high insertion polymorphisms among closely related cultivars.
Villanueva, M S; Williams, S P; Beard, C B; Richards, F F; Aksoy, S
A new member of a family of site-specific retrotransposons is described in the New World trypanosome Trypanosoma cruzi. This element, CZAR (cruzi-associated retrotransposon), resembles two previously described retrotransposons found in the African trypanosome T. brucei gambiense and the mosquito trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata in specifically inserting between nucleotides 11 and 12 of the highly conserved 39-mer of the spliced leader RNA (SL-RNA) gene. CZAR is similar in overall organization to the other two SL-RNA-associated elements. It possesses two potential long open reading frames which resemble the gag and pol genes of retroviruses. In the pol open reading frame, all three elements contain similarly arranged endonuclease domains and share extensive amino acid homology in the reverse transcriptase region. All are associated with the SL-RNA gene locus and are present in low copy numbers. They do not appear to have 5' truncated versions. All three retrotransposons are otherwise quite distinct from one another, with no significant overall amino acid homology. The presence of such retroelements inserted into the identical site within SL-RNA gene sequences in at least three evolutionarily distant trypanosomatid species argues for a functional role. Because these elements appear to have a precise target site requirement for integration, we refer to them as SL siteposons. Images PMID:1719380
The availability of complete or nearly complete genome sequences from several plant species permits detailed discovery and cross-species comparison of transposable elements (TEs) at the whole genome level. We initially investigated 510 LTR-retrotransposon (LTR-RT) families that are comprised of 32,...
Copeland, Claudia S; Mann, Victoria H; Morales, Maria E; Kalinna, Bernd H; Brindley, Paul J
Of the major families of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, the Pao/BEL family is probably the least well studied. It is becoming apparent that numerous LTR retrotransposons and other mobile genetic elements have colonized the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni. A proviral form of Sinbad, a new LTR retrotransposon, was identified in the genome of S. mansoni. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Sinbad belongs to one of five discreet subfamilies of Pao/BEL like elements. BLAST searches of whole genomes and EST databases indicated that members of this clade occurred in species of the Insecta, Nematoda, Echinodermata and Chordata, as well as Platyhelminthes, but were absent from all plants, fungi and lower eukaryotes examined. Among the deuterostomes examined, only aquatic species harbored these types of elements. All four species of nematode examined were positive for Sinbad sequences, although among insect and vertebrate genomes, some were positive and some negative. The full length, consensus Sinbad retrotransposon was 6,287 bp long and was flanked at its 5'- and 3'-ends by identical LTRs of 386 bp. Sinbad displayed a triple Cys-His RNA binding motif characteristic of Gag of Pao/BEL-like elements, followed by the enzymatic domains of protease, reverse transcriptase (RT), RNAseH, and integrase, in that order. A phylogenetic tree of deduced RT sequences from 26 elements revealed that Sinbad was most closely related to an unnamed element from the zebrafish Danio rerio and to Saci-1, also from S. mansoni. It was also closely related to Pao from Bombyx mori and to Ninja of Drosophila simulans. Sinbad was only distantly related to the other schistosome LTR retrotransposons Boudicca, Gulliver, Saci-2, Saci-3, and Fugitive, which are gypsy-like. Southern hybridization and bioinformatics analyses indicated that there were about 50 copies of Sinbad in the S. mansoni genome. The presence of ESTs representing transcripts of Sinbad in numerous
Copeland, Claudia S; Mann, Victoria H; Morales, Maria E; Kalinna, Bernd H; Brindley, Paul J
Background Of the major families of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, the Pao/BEL family is probably the least well studied. It is becoming apparent that numerous LTR retrotransposons and other mobile genetic elements have colonized the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni. Results A proviral form of Sinbad, a new LTR retrotransposon, was identified in the genome of S. mansoni. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Sinbad belongs to one of five discreet subfamilies of Pao/BEL like elements. BLAST searches of whole genomes and EST databases indicated that members of this clade occurred in species of the Insecta, Nematoda, Echinodermata and Chordata, as well as Platyhelminthes, but were absent from all plants, fungi and lower eukaryotes examined. Among the deuterostomes examined, only aquatic species harbored these types of elements. All four species of nematode examined were positive for Sinbad sequences, although among insect and vertebrate genomes, some were positive and some negative. The full length, consensus Sinbad retrotransposon was 6,287 bp long and was flanked at its 5'- and 3'-ends by identical LTRs of 386 bp. Sinbad displayed a triple Cys-His RNA binding motif characteristic of Gag of Pao/BEL-like elements, followed by the enzymatic domains of protease, reverse transcriptase (RT), RNAseH, and integrase, in that order. A phylogenetic tree of deduced RT sequences from 26 elements revealed that Sinbad was most closely related to an unnamed element from the zebrafish Danio rerio and to Saci-1, also from S. mansoni. It was also closely related to Pao from Bombyx mori and to Ninja of Drosophila simulans. Sinbad was only distantly related to the other schistosome LTR retrotransposons Boudicca, Gulliver, Saci-2, Saci-3, and Fugitive, which are gypsy-like. Southern hybridization and bioinformatics analyses indicated that there were about 50 copies of Sinbad in the S. mansoni genome. The presence of ESTs representing transcripts of Sinbad
Lupan, Iulia; Bulzu, Paul; Popescu, Octavian; Damert, Annette
VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats) composite retrotransposons - SVA (SINE-R-VNTR-Alu), LAVA (LINE-1-Alu-VNTR-Alu), PVA (PTGR2-VNTR-Alu) and FVA (FRAM-VNTR-Alu) - are specific to hominoid primates. Their assembly, the evolution of their 5' and 3' domains, and the functional significance of the shared 5' Alu-like region are well understood. The central VNTR domain, by contrast, has long been assumed to represent a more or less random collection of 30-50 bp GC-rich repeats. It is only recently that it attracted attention in the context of regulation of SVA expression. Here we provide evidence that the organization of the VNTR is non-random, with conserved repeat unit (RU) arrays at both the 5' and 3' ends of the VNTRs of human, chimpanzee and orangutan SVA and gibbon LAVA. The younger SVA subfamilies harbour highly organized internal RU arrays. The composition of these arrays is specific to the human/chimpanzee and orangutan lineages, respectively. Tracing the development of the VNTR through evolution we show for the first time how tandem repeats evolve within the constraints set by a functional, non-autonomous non-LTR retrotransposon in two different families - LAVA and SVA - in different hominoid lineages. Our analysis revealed that a microhomology-driven mechanism mediates expansion/contraction of the VNTR domain at the DNA level. Elements of all four VNTR composite families have been shown to be mobilized by the autonomous LINE1 retrotransposon in trans. In case of SVA, key determinants of mobilization are found in the 5' hexameric repeat/Alu-like region. We now demonstrate that in LAVA, by contrast, the VNTR domain determines mobilization efficiency in the context of domain swaps between active and inactive elements. The central domain of VNTR composites evolves in a lineage-specific manner which gives rise to distinct structures in gibbon LAVA, orangutan SVA, and human/chimpanzee SVA. The differences observed between the families and lineages are likely to
Wiens, Matthias; Grebenjuk, Vladislav A; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Isabel M; Müller, Werner E G
Transposons are mobile genetic elements that are found in all major branches of life. Similarities to retroviruses concerning genome structure and transposition mechanism suggest a familial relationship. Transposons are important evolutionary drivers that trigger genetic changes such as genomic rearrangement, alteration of gene expression, and gene duplication. And, indeed, now more than ever the effect of transposons on genome evolution represents a dynamic field of research. Since sponges (phylum Porifera) are the phylogenetically oldest still extant metazoan taxon, the study of poriferan mobile elements contributes to the understanding of the generation of phenotypic diversity and speciation at the base of the metazoan tree of life. This work describes the analyses of the first poriferan mobile genetic element so far identified, the long terminal repeats- retrotransposon Baikalum-1 of Lubomirskia baicalensis (Demospongiae; Ceractinomorpha). Baikalum-1 embraces a continuous open reading frame, putatively coding for a polyprotein that consists of nucleo capsid, protease, reverse transcriptase, RNase H, and integrase, all proteins/ enzymes characteristic of retrotransposons. Baikalum-1 was discovered in all freshwater sponge species endemic to Lake Baikal, as well as in cosmopolitan sponge species that inhabit a Lake Baikal-feeding rivulet. However, the same cosmopolitan species sampled from lakes and rivers (Siberian and European) with no direct contact to Lake Baikal did not contain this particular mobile genetic element. Thus, Baikalum-1 is probably the result of an evolutionarily ancient retroviral infection that spread exclusively amongst Baikalian sponge species. In addition, the retro-transposon is found in the vicinity of the silicatein-A1 gene. Silicateins are cathepsin-like proteins that catalyze the synthesis of poriferan siliceous skeletal elements (spicules). In L. baicalensis, the silicatein-A1 gene is flanked by two palindroms, probably remnants of
Biedler, James K; Tu, Zhijian
Background In contrast to DNA-mediated transposable elements (TEs), retrotransposons, particularly non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons (non-LTRs), are generally considered to have a much lower propensity towards horizontal transfer. Detailed studies on site-specific non-LTR families have demonstrated strict vertical transmission. More studies are needed with non-site-specific non-LTR families to determine whether strict vertical transmission is a phenomenon related to site specificity or a more general characteristic of all non-LTRs. Juan is a Jockey clade non-LTR retrotransposon first discovered in mosquitoes that is widely distributed in the mosquito family Culicidae. Being a non-site specific non-LTR, Juan offers an opportunity to further investigate the hypothesis that non-LTRs are genomic elements that are primarily vertically transmitted. Results Systematic analysis of the ~1.3 Gbp Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) genome sequence suggests that Juan-A is the only Juan-type non-LTR in Aedes aegypti. Juan-A is highly reiterated and comprises approximately 3% of the genome. Using minimum cutoffs of 90% length and 70% nucleotide (nt) identity, 663 copies were found by BLAST using the published Juan-A sequence as the query. All 663 copies are at least 95% identical to Juan-A, while 378 of these copies are 99% identical to Juan-A, indicating that the Juan-A family has been transposing recently in evolutionary history. Using the 0.34 Kb 5' UTR as the query, over 2000 copies were identified that may contain internal promoters, leading to questions on the genomic impact of Juan-A. Juan sequences were obtained by PCR, library screening, and database searches for 18 mosquito species of six genera including Aedes, Ochlerotatus, Psorophora, Culex, Deinocerites, and Wyeomyia. Comparison of host and Juan phylogenies shows overall congruence with few exceptions. Conclusion Juan-A is a major genomic component in Ae. aegypti and it has been retrotransposing recently in
Lunyak, Victoria V.; Atallah, Michelle
A typical eukaryotic genome harbors a rich variety of repetitive elements. The most abundant are retrotransposons, mobile retroelements that utilize reverse transcriptase and an RNA intermediate to relocate to a new location within the cellular genomes. A vast majority of the repetitive mammalian genome content has originated from the retrotransposition of SINE (100–300 bp short interspersed nuclear elements that are derived from the structural 7SL RNA or tRNA), LINE (7kb long interspersed nuclear element), and LTR (2–3 kb long terminal repeats) transposable element superfamilies. Broadly labeled as “evolutionary junkyard” or “fossils”, this enigmatic “dark matter” of the genome possesses many yet to be discovered properties. PMID:21916613
Van Meter, Michael; Kashyap, Mehr; Rezazadeh, Sarallah; Geneva, Anthony J.; Morello, Timothy D.; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera
L1 retrotransposons are an abundant class of transposable elements which pose a threat to genome stability and may play a role in age-related pathologies such as cancer. Recent evidence indicates that L1s become more active in somatic tissues during the course of aging; the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unknown, however. Here we report that the longevity regulating protein, SIRT6, is a powerful repressor of L1 activity. Specifically, SIRT6 binds to the 5′UTR of L1 loci, where it mono-ADP ribosylates the nuclear corepressor protein, KAP1, and facilitates KAP1 interaction with the heterochromatin factor, HP1α, thereby contributing to the packaging of L1 elements into transcriptionally repressive heterochromatin. During the course of aging, and also in response to DNA damage, however, we find that SIRT6 is depleted from L1 loci, allowing for the activation of these previously silenced retroelements. PMID:25247314
Huang, Qing; Purzycka, Katarzyna J; Lusvarghi, Sabrina; Li, Donghui; Legrice, Stuart F J; Boeke, Jef D
Ty1 retrotransposon RNA has the potential to fold into a variety of distinct structures, mutation of which affects retrotransposition frequencies. We show here that one potential functional structure is located at the 5' end of the genome and can assume a pseudoknot conformation. Chemoenzymatic probing of wild-type and mutant mini-Ty1 RNAs supports the existence of such a structure, while molecular genetic analyses show that mutations disrupting pseudoknot formation interfere with retrotransposition, indicating that it provides a critical biological function. These defects are enhanced at higher temperatures. When these mutants are combined with compensatory changes, retrotransposition is restored, consistent with pseudoknot architecture. Analyses of mutants suggest a defect in Ty1 reverse transcription. Collectively, our data allow modeling of a three-dimensional structure for this novel critical cis-acting signal of the Ty1 genome.
Huang, Qing; Purzycka, Katarzyna J.; Lusvarghi, Sabrina; Li, Donghui; LeGrice, Stuart F.J.; Boeke, Jef D.
Ty1 retrotransposon RNA has the potential to fold into a variety of distinct structures, mutation of which affects retrotransposition frequencies. We show here that one potential functional structure is located at the 5′ end of the genome and can assume a pseudoknot conformation. Chemoenzymatic probing of wild-type and mutant mini-Ty1 RNAs supports the existence of such a structure, while molecular genetic analyses show that mutations disrupting pseudoknot formation interfere with retrotransposition, indicating that it provides a critical biological function. These defects are enhanced at higher temperatures. When these mutants are combined with compensatory changes, retrotransposition is restored, consistent with pseudoknot architecture. Analyses of mutants suggest a defect in Ty1 reverse transcription. Collectively, our data allow modeling of a three-dimensional structure for this novel critical cis-acting signal of the Ty1 genome. PMID:23329695
Youngson, Neil A; Kocialkowski, Sylvia; Peel, Nina; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C
Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons are rare in mammalian genomes despite their abundance in invertebrate and other vertebrate classes. Here we identify a family of nine conserved mammalian genes with homology to Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons but which have lost their ability to autonomously retrotranspose. Of these, five map to the X chromosome while the remaining four are autosomal. Comparative phylogenetic analyses show them to have strongest homology to the sushi-ichi element from Fugu rubripes. Two of the autosomal gene members, Peg10 and Rtl1, are known to be imprinted, being expressed from the paternally inherited chromosome homologue. This suggests, consistent with the host-parasite response theory of the evolution of the imprinting mechanism, that parental-origin specific epigenetic control may be mediated by genomic "parasitic" elements such as these. Alternatively, these elements may preferentially integrate into regions that are differentially modified on the two homologous chromosomes such as imprinted domains and the X chromosome and acquire monoallelic expression. We assess the imprinting status of the remaining autosomal members of this family and show them to be biallelically expressed in embryo and placenta. Furthermore, the methylation status of Rtl1 was assayed throughout development and was found to resemble that of actively, silenced repetitive elements rather than imprinted sequences. This indicates that the ability to undergo genomic imprinting is not an inherent property of all members of this family of retroelements. Nonetheless, the conservation but functional divergence between the different members suggests that they have undergone positive selection and acquired distinct endogenous functions within their mammalian hosts.
Sciamanna, Ilaria; Gualtieri, Alberto; Cossetti, Cristina; Osimo, Emanuele Felice; Ferracin, Manuela; Macchia, Gianfranco; Aricò, Eleonora; Prosseda, Gianni; Vitullo, Patrizia; Misteli, Tom; Spadafora, Corrado
LINE-1 elements make up the most abundant retrotransposon family in the human genome. Full-length LINE-1 elements encode a reverse transcriptase (RT) activity required for their own retrotranpsosition as well as that of non-autonomous Alu elements. LINE-1 are poorly expressed in normal cells and abundantly in cancer cells. Decreasing RT activity in cancer cells, by either LINE-1-specific RNA interference, or by RT inhibitory drugs, was previously found to reduce proliferation and promote differentiation and to antagonize tumor growth in animal models. Here we have investigated how RT exerts these global regulatory functions. We report that the RT inhibitor efavirenz (EFV) selectively downregulates proliferation of transformed cell lines, while exerting only mild effects on non-transformed cells; this differential sensitivity matches a differential RT abundance, which is high in the former and undetectable in the latter. Using CsCl density gradients, we selectively identify Alu and LINE-1 containing DNA:RNA hybrid molecules in cancer but not in normal cells. Remarkably, hybrid molecules fail to form in tumor cells treated with EFV under the same conditions that repress proliferation and induce the reprogramming of expression profiles of coding genes, microRNAs (miRNAs) and ultraconserved regions (UCRs). The RT-sensitive miRNAs and UCRs are significantly associated with Alu sequences. The results suggest that LINE-1-encoded RT governs the balance between single-stranded and double-stranded RNA production. In cancer cells the abundant RT reverse-transcribes retroelement-derived mRNAs forming RNA:DNA hybrids. We propose that this impairs the formation of double-stranded RNAs and the ensuing production of small regulatory RNAs, with a direct impact on gene expression. RT inhibition restores the ‘normal’ small RNA profile and the regulatory networks that depend on them. Thus, the retrotransposon-encoded RT drives a previously unrecognized mechanism crucial to the
Raghavan, Nithya; Tettelin, Hervé; Miller, André; Hostetler, Jessica; Tallon, Luke; Knight, Matty
The freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata is closely associated with the transmission of human schistosomiasis. An ecologically sound method has been proposed to control schistosomiasis using genetically modified snails to displace endemic, susceptible ones. To assess the viability of this form of biological control, studies towards understanding the molecular makeup of the snail relative to the presence of endogenous mobile genetic elements are being undertaken since they can be exploited for genetic transformation studies. We previously cloned a 1.95kb BamHI fragment in B. glabrata (BGR2) with sequence similarity to the human long interspersed nuclear element (LINE or L1). A contiguous, full-length sequence corresponding to BGR2, hereafter-named nimbus (BgI), has been identified from a B. glabrata bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. Sequence analysis of the 65,764bp BAC insert contained one full-length, complete nimbus (BgI) element (element I), two full-length elements (elements II and III) containing deletions and flanked by target site duplications and 10 truncated copies. The intact nimbus (BgI) contained two open-reading frames (ORFs 1 and 2) encoding the characteristic hallmark domains found in non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons belonging to the I-clade; a nucleic acid binding protein in ORF1 and an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, reverse transcriptase and RNase H in ORF2. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that nimbus (BgI) is closely related to Drosophila (I factor), mosquito Aedes aegypti (MosquI) and chordate ascidian Ciona intestinalis (CiI) retrotransposons. Nimbus (BgI) represents the first complete mobile element characterised from a mollusk that appears to be transcriptionally active and is widely distributed in snails of the neotropics and the Old World.
Ambrožová, Kateřina; Mandáková, Terezie; Bureš, Petr; Neumann, Pavel; Leitch, Ilia J.; Koblížková, Andrea; Macas, Jiří; Lysak, Martin A.
Background and Aims The genus Fritillaria (Liliaceae) comprises species with extremely large genomes (1C = 30 000–127 000 Mb) and a bicontinental distribution. Most North American species (subgenus Liliorhiza) differ from Eurasian Fritillaria species by their distinct phylogenetic position and increased amounts of heterochromatin. This study examined the contribution of major repetitive elements to the genome obesity found in Fritillaria and identified repeats contributing to the heterochromatin arrays in Liliorhiza species. Methods Two Fritillaria species of similar genome size were selected for detailed analysis, one from each phylogeographical clade: F. affinis (1C = 45·6 pg, North America) and F. imperialis (1C = 43·0 pg, Eurasia). Fosmid libraries were constructed from their genomic DNAs and used for identification, sequence characterization, quantification and chromosome localization of clones containing highly repeated sequences. Key Results and Conclusions Repeats corresponding to 6·7 and 4·7 % of the F. affinis and F. imperialis genome, respectively, were identified. Chromoviruses and the Tat lineage of Ty3/gypsy group long terminal repeat retrotransposons were identified as the predominant components of the highly repeated fractions in the F. affinis and F. imperialis genomes, respectively. In addition, a heterogeneous, extremely AT-rich satellite repeat was isolated from F. affinis. The FriSAT1 repeat localized in heterochromatic bands makes up approx. 26 % of the F. affinis genome and substantial genomic fractions in several other Liliorhiza species. However, no evidence of a relationship between heterochromatin content and genome size variation was observed. Also, this study was unable to reveal any predominant repeats which tracked the increasing/decreasing trends of genome size evolution in Fritillaria. Instead, the giant Fritillaria genomes seem to be composed of many diversified families of transposable elements. We hypothesize that the
Sciamanna, Ilaria; Gualtieri, Alberto; Cossetti, Cristina; Osimo, Emanuele Felice; Ferracin, Manuela; Macchia, Gianfranco; Aricò, Eleonora; Prosseda, Gianni; Vitullo, Patrizia; Misteli, Tom; Spadafora, Corrado
LINE-1 elements make up the most abundant retrotransposon family in the human genome. Full-length LINE-1 elements encode a reverse transcriptase (RT) activity required for their own retrotranpsosition as well as that of non-autonomous Alu elements. LINE-1 are poorly expressed in normal cells and abundantly in cancer cells. Decreasing RT activity in cancer cells, by either LINE-1-specific RNA interference, or by RT inhibitory drugs, was previously found to reduce proliferation and promote differentiation and to antagonize tumor growth in animal models. Here we have investigated how RT exerts these global regulatory functions. We report that the RT inhibitor efavirenz (EFV) selectively downregulates proliferation of transformed cell lines, while exerting only mild effects on non-transformed cells; this differential sensitivity matches a differential RT abundance, which is high in the former and undetectable in the latter. Using CsCl density gradients, we selectively identify Alu and LINE-1 containing DNA:RNA hybrid molecules in cancer but not in normal cells. Remarkably, hybrid molecules fail to form in tumor cells treated with EFV under the same conditions that repress proliferation and induce the reprogramming of expression profiles of coding genes, microRNAs (miRNAs) and ultraconserved regions (UCRs). The RT-sensitive miRNAs and UCRs are significantly associated with Alu sequences. The results suggest that LINE-1-encoded RT governs the balance between single-stranded and double-stranded RNA production. In cancer cells the abundant RT reverse-transcribes retroelement-derived mRNAs forming RNA:DNA hybrids. We propose that this impairs the formation of double-stranded RNAs and the ensuing production of small regulatory RNAs, with a direct impact on gene expression. RT inhibition restores the 'normal' small RNA profile and the regulatory networks that depend on them. Thus, the retrotransposon-encoded RT drives a previously unrecognized mechanism crucial to the
Cervera, Amelia; Urbina, Denisse; de la Peña, Marcos
Catalytic RNAs, or ribozymes, are regarded as fossils of a prebiotic RNA world that have remained in the genomes of modern organisms. The simplest ribozymes are the small self-cleaving RNAs, like the hammerhead ribozyme, which have been historically considered biological oddities restricted to some RNA pathogens. Recent data, however, indicate that small self-cleaving ribozymes are widespread in genomes, although their functions are still unknown. We reveal that hammerhead ribozyme sequences in plant genomes form part of a new family of small non-autonomous retrotransposons with hammerhead ribozymes, referred to as retrozymes. These elements contain two long terminal repeats of approximately 350 bp, each harbouring a hammerhead ribozyme that delimitates a variable region of 600-1000 bp with no coding capacity. Retrozymes are actively transcribed, which gives rise to heterogeneous linear and circular RNAs that accumulate differentially depending on the tissue or developmental stage of the plant. Genomic and transcriptomic retrozyme sequences are highly heterogeneous and share almost no sequence homology among species except the hammerhead ribozyme motif and two small conserved domains typical of Ty3-gypsy long terminal repeat retrotransposons. Moreover, we detected the presence of RNAs of both retrozyme polarities, which suggests events of independent RNA-RNA rolling-circle replication and evolution, similarly to that of infectious circular RNAs like viroids and viral satellite RNAs. Our work reveals that circular RNAs with hammerhead ribozymes are frequently occurring molecules in plant and, most likely, metazoan transcriptomes, which explains the ubiquity of these genomic ribozymes and suggests a feasible source for the emergence of circular RNA plant pathogens.
Patnala, Radhika; Lee, Sung-Hun; Dahlstrom, Jane E; Ohms, Stephen; Chen, Long; Dheen, S Thameem; Rangasamy, Danny
Long Interspersed Elements (L1 elements) are biologically active retrotransposons that are capable of autonomous replication using their own reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme. Expression of the normally repressed RT has been implicated in cancer cell growth. However, at present, little is known about the expression of L1-encoded RT activity or the molecular changes that are associated with RT activity in the development of breast cancer. Here, we report that RT activity is widespread in breast cancer cells. The expression of RT protein decreased markedly in breast cancer cells after treatment with the antiretroviral drug, efavirenz. While the majority of cells showed a significant reduction in proliferation, inhibition of RT was also accompanied by cell-specific differences in morphology. MCF7 cells displayed elongated microtubule extensions that adhered tightly to their substrate, while a large fraction of the T47D cells that we studied formed long filopodia projections. These morphological changes were reversible upon cessation of RT inhibition, confirming their dependence on RT activity. We also carried out gene expression profiling with microarrays and determined the genes that were differentially expressed during the process of cellular differentiation. Genes involved in proliferation, cell migration, and invasive activity were repressed in RT-inhibited cells. Concomitantly, genes involved in cell projection, formation of vacuolar membranes, and cell-to-cell junctions were significantly upregulated in RT-inhibited cells. qRT-PCR examination of the mRNA expression of these genes in additional cell lines yielded close correlation between their differential expression and the degree of cellular differentiation. Our study demonstrates that the inhibition of L1-encoded RT can reduce the rate of proliferation and promote differentiation of breast cancer cells. Together, these results provide a direct functional link between the expression of L1 retrotransposons and
Kagramanova, A S; Korolev, A L; Schal, C; Mukha, D V
Using polymerase chain reaction technique with primers flanking target sites of retrotransposons R1 and R2, integrated copies of these transposable elements were amplified in various cockroach species (Blattodea). It was shown that each species has a unique pattern of "5'-undertranscripts" with the definite set of amplified fragments of different lengths. Intraspecies polymorphism was revealed in analysis of German cockroach specimens obtained upon individual mating. This is the first report providing results of identifying, cloning, and sequencing extended fragments (5'-truncated copies) of Blatella germanica R1 and R2 retrotransposons. It may be assumed that patterns of 5'-truncated copies of R1 and R2 elements can be used as markers in population and phylogenetic studies. Moreover, cloned and sequenced fragments will be employed in our further studies for screening of the German cockroach genomic library in order to detect full-length copies in this class transposable elements.
Rico-Leo, Eva M; Moreno-Marín, Nuria; González-Rico, Francisco J; Barrasa, Eva; Ortega-Ferrusola, Cristina; Martín-Muñoz, Patricia; Sánchez-Guardado, Luis O; Llano, Elena; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Infante-Campos, Ascensión; Catalina-Fernández, Inmaculada; Hidalgo-Sánchez, Matías; de Rooij, Dirk G; Pendás, Alberto M; Peña, Fernando J; Merino, Jaime M; Fernández-Salguero, Pedro M
Previous studies suggested that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) contributes to mice reproduction and fertility. However, the mechanisms involved remain mostly unknown. Retrotransposon silencing by Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) is essential for germ cell maturation and, remarkably, AhR has been identified as a regulator of murine B1-SINE retrotransposons. Here, using littermate AhR(+/+) and AhR(-/-) mice, we report that AhR regulates the general course of spermatogenesis and oogenesis by a mechanism likely to be associated with piRNA-associated proteins, piRNAs and retrotransposons. piRNA-associated proteins MVH and Miwi are upregulated in leptotene to pachytene spermatocytes with a more precocious timing in AhR(-/-) than in AhR(+/+) testes. piRNAs and transcripts from B1-SINE, LINE-1 and IAP retrotransposons increased at these meiotic stages in AhR-null testes. Moreover, B1-SINE transcripts colocalize with MVH and Miwi in leptonema and pachynema spermatocytes. Unexpectedly, AhR(-/-) males have increased sperm counts, higher sperm functionality and enhanced fertility than AhR(+/+) mice. In contrast, piRNA-associated proteins and B1-SINE and IAP-derived transcripts are reduced in adult AhR(-/-) ovaries. Accordingly, AhR-null female mice have lower numbers of follicles when compared with AhR(+/+) mice. Thus, AhR deficiency differentially affects testis and ovary development possibly by a process involving piRNA-associated proteins, piRNAs and transposable elements. © 2016 The Authors.
Meignin, Carine; Coiffet, Michael; Vaury, Chantal
Background In the Drosophila germ line, repeat-associated small interfering RNAs (rasiRNAs) ensure genomic stability by silencing endogenous transposable elements. This RNA silencing involves small RNAs of 26-30 nucleotides that are mainly produced from the antisense strand and function through the Piwi protein. Piwi belongs to the subclass of the Argonaute family of RNA interference effector proteins, which are expressed in the germline and in surrounding somatic tissues of the reproductive apparatus. In addition to this germ-line expression, Piwi has also been implicated in diverse functions in somatic cells. Principal Findings Here, we show that two LTR retrotransposons from Drosophila melanogaster, ZAM and Idefix, are silenced by an RNA silencing pathway that has characteristics of the rasiRNA pathway and that specifically recognizes and destroys the sense-strand RNAs of the retrotransposons. This silencing depends on Piwi in the follicle cells surrounding the oocyte. Interestingly, this silencing is active in all the somatic tissues examined from embryos to adult flies. In these somatic cells, while the silencing still involves the strict recognition of sense-strand transcripts, it displays the marked difference of being independent of the Piwi protein. Finally, we present evidence that in all the tissues examined, the repression is controlled by the heterochromatic COM locus. Conclusion Our data shed further light on the silencing mechanism that acts to target Drosophila LTR retrotransposons in somatic cells throughout fly development. They demonstrate that different RNA silencing pathways are involved in ovarian versus other somatic tissues, since Piwi is necessary for silencing in the former tissues but is dispensable in the latter. They further demonstrate that these pathways are controlled by the heterochromatic COM locus which ensures the overall protection of Drosophila against the detrimental effects of random retrotransposon mobilization. PMID
Rico-Leo, Eva M.; Moreno-Marín, Nuria; González-Rico, Francisco J.; Barrasa, Eva; Ortega-Ferrusola, Cristina; Martín-Muñoz, Patricia; Sánchez-Guardado, Luis O.; Llano, Elena; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Infante-Campos, Ascensión; Catalina-Fernández, Inmaculada; Hidalgo-Sánchez, Matías; de Rooij, Dirk G.; Pendás, Alberto M.; Peña, Fernando J.; Merino, Jaime M.
Previous studies suggested that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) contributes to mice reproduction and fertility. However, the mechanisms involved remain mostly unknown. Retrotransposon silencing by Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) is essential for germ cell maturation and, remarkably, AhR has been identified as a regulator of murine B1-SINE retrotransposons. Here, using littermate AhR+/+ and AhR−/− mice, we report that AhR regulates the general course of spermatogenesis and oogenesis by a mechanism likely to be associated with piRNA-associated proteins, piRNAs and retrotransposons. piRNA-associated proteins MVH and Miwi are upregulated in leptotene to pachytene spermatocytes with a more precocious timing in AhR−/− than in AhR+/+ testes. piRNAs and transcripts from B1-SINE, LINE-1 and IAP retrotransposons increased at these meiotic stages in AhR-null testes. Moreover, B1-SINE transcripts colocalize with MVH and Miwi in leptonema and pachynema spermatocytes. Unexpectedly, AhR−/− males have increased sperm counts, higher sperm functionality and enhanced fertility than AhR+/+ mice. In contrast, piRNA-associated proteins and B1-SINE and IAP-derived transcripts are reduced in adult AhR−/− ovaries. Accordingly, AhR-null female mice have lower numbers of follicles when compared with AhR+/+ mice. Thus, AhR deficiency differentially affects testis and ovary development possibly by a process involving piRNA-associated proteins, piRNAs and transposable elements. PMID:28003471
Ruminski, Dana J.; Webb, Chiu-Ho T.; Riccitelli, Nathan J.; Lupták, Andrej
Many non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons lack internal promoters and are co-transcribed with their host genes. These transcripts need to be liberated before inserting into new loci. Using structure-based bioinformatics, we show that several classes of retrotransposons in phyla-spanning arthropods, nematodes, and chordates utilize self-cleaving ribozymes of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) family for processing their 5′ termini. Ribozyme-terminated retrotransposons include rDNA-specific R2, R4, and R6, telomere-specific SART, and Baggins and RTE. The self-scission of the R2 ribozyme is strongly modulated by the insertion site sequence in the rDNA, with the most common insertion sequences promoting faster processing. The ribozymes also promote translation initiation of downstream open reading frames in vitro and in vivo. In some organisms HDV-like and hammerhead ribozymes appear to be dedicated to processing long and short interspersed elements, respectively. HDV-like ribozymes serve several distinct functions in non-LTR retrotransposition, including 5′ processing, translation initiation, and potentially trans-templating. PMID:21994949
Novick, Peter A; Basta, Holly; Floumanhaft, Mark; McClure, Marcella A; Boissinot, Stéphane
The genome of the lizard Anolis carolinensis (the green anole) is the first nonavian reptilian genome sequenced. It offers a unique opportunity to comparatively examine the evolution of amniote genomes. We analyzed the abundance and diversity of non-LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposons in the anole using the Genome Parsing Suite. We found that the anole genome contains an extraordinary diversity of elements. We identified 46 families of elements representing five clades (L1, L2, CR1, RTE, and R4). Within most families, elements are very similar to each other suggesting that they have been inserted recently. The rarity of old elements suggests a high rate of turnover, the insertion of new elements being offset by the loss of element-containing loci. Consequently, non-LTR retrotransposons accumulate in the anole at a low rate and are found in low copy number. This pattern of diversity shows some striking similarity with the genome of teleostean fish but contrasts greatly with the low diversity and high copy number of mammalian L1 elements, suggesting a fundamental difference in the way mammals and nonmammalian vertebrates interact with their genomic parasites. The scarcity of divergent elements in anoles suggests that insertions have a deleterious effect and are eliminated by natural selection. We propose that the low abundance of non-LTR retrotransposons in the anole is related directly or indirectly to a higher rate of ectopic recombination in the anole relative to mammals.
Monden, Yuki; Yamamoto, Ayaka; Shindo, Akiko; Tahara, Makoto
In many crop species, DNA fingerprinting is required for the precise identification of cultivars to protect the rights of breeders. Many families of retrotransposons have multiple copies throughout the eukaryotic genome and their integrated copies are inherited genetically. Thus, their insertion polymorphisms among cultivars are useful for DNA fingerprinting. In this study, we conducted a DNA fingerprinting based on the insertion polymorphisms of active retrotransposon families (Rtsp-1 and LIb) in sweet potato. Using 38 cultivars, we identified 2,024 insertion sites in the two families with an Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform. Of these insertion sites, 91.4% appeared to be polymorphic among the cultivars and 376 cultivar-specific insertion sites were identified, which were converted directly into cultivar-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using these insertion sites, which corresponded well with known pedigree information, thereby indicating their suitability for genetic diversity studies. Thus, the genome-wide comparative analysis of active retrotransposon insertion sites using the bench-top MiSeq sequencing platform is highly effective for DNA fingerprinting without any requirement for whole genome sequence information. This approach may facilitate the development of practical polymerase chain reaction-based cultivar diagnostic system and could also be applied to the determination of genetic relationships. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.
Iwasaki, Sawa; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Pelekanos, Matthew; Clark, Helen; Ono, Ryuichi; Shaw, Geoff; Renfree, Marilyn B.; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ishino, Fumitoshi
Two major gene families derived from Ty3/Gypsy long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons were recently identified in mammals. The sushi-ichi retrotransposon homologue (SIRH) family comprises 12 genes: 11 in eutherians including Peg10 and Peg11/Rtl1 that have essential roles in the eutherian placenta and 1 that is marsupial specific. Fifteen and 12 genes were reported in the second gene family, para-neoplastic antigen MA (PNMA), in humans and mice, respectively, although their biological functions and evolutionary history remain largely unknown. Here, we identified two novel candidate PNMA genes, PNMA-MS1 and -MS2 in marsupials. Like all eutherian-specific PNMA genes, they exhibit the highest homology to a Gypsy12_DR (DR, Danio rerio) Gag protein. PNMA-MS1 is conserved in both Australian and South American marsupial species, the tammar wallaby and grey short-tailed opossum. However, no PNMA-MS1 orthologue was found in eutherians, monotremes or non-mammalian vertebrates. PNMA-MS1 was expressed in the ovary, mammary gland and brain during development and growth in the tammar, suggesting that PNMA-MS1 may have acquired a marsupial-specific function. However, PNMA-MS2 seems to be a pseudogene. The absence of marsupial orthologues of eutherian PNMA genes suggests that the retrotransposition events of the Gypsy12_DR-related retrotransposons that gave rise to the PNMA family occurred after the divergence of marsupials and eutherians. PMID:23704700
Iwasaki, Sawa; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Pelekanos, Matthew; Clark, Helen; Ono, Ryuichi; Shaw, Geoff; Renfree, Marilyn B; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ishino, Fumitoshi
Two major gene families derived from Ty3/Gypsy long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons were recently identified in mammals. The sushi-ichi retrotransposon homologue (SIRH) family comprises 12 genes: 11 in eutherians including Peg10 and Peg11/Rtl1 that have essential roles in the eutherian placenta and 1 that is marsupial specific. Fifteen and 12 genes were reported in the second gene family, para-neoplastic antigen MA (PNMA), in humans and mice, respectively, although their biological functions and evolutionary history remain largely unknown. Here, we identified two novel candidate PNMA genes, PNMA-MS1 and -MS2 in marsupials. Like all eutherian-specific PNMA genes, they exhibit the highest homology to a Gypsy12_DR (DR, Danio rerio) Gag protein. PNMA-MS1 is conserved in both Australian and South American marsupial species, the tammar wallaby and grey short-tailed opossum. However, no PNMA-MS1 orthologue was found in eutherians, monotremes or non-mammalian vertebrates. PNMA-MS1 was expressed in the ovary, mammary gland and brain during development and growth in the tammar, suggesting that PNMA-MS1 may have acquired a marsupial-specific function. However, PNMA-MS2 seems to be a pseudogene. The absence of marsupial orthologues of eutherian PNMA genes suggests that the retrotransposition events of the Gypsy12_DR-related retrotransposons that gave rise to the PNMA family occurred after the divergence of marsupials and eutherians.
Zhao, Huiru; Gu, Yunhong; Ya, Huiyuan; Jiao, Zhen; Qin, Guangyong
Mutagenesis and retrotransposons have a close relationship, but little attention has been paid yet to the activity of retrotransposons produced by physical mutagens. The variation of retrotransposon WIS 2-1A activity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) embryos at three different growth times (30 h, 45 h and 60 h) was investigated after they had been treated with N+ implantation in a vacuum of 5 × 10-2 Pa and irradiation by 60Coγ-ray respectively. For each of the three growth times the expression of WIS 2-1A showed almost entirely a same trend of downregulation, upregulation, then downregulation, and upregulation again with the increase in dose of N+ implantation, but the expression appeared irregular with the increase in irradiation of 60Coγ-ray. In conclusion, the acutely activating effect of WIS 2-1A stimulated by vacuum and high dose N+ implantation within a shorter incubation time may provide a convenient tool to advance the research on mutagenic breeding and function genes.
Watanabe, Toshiaki; Takeda, Atsushi; Tsukiyama, Tomoyuki; Mise, Kazuyuki; Okuno, Tetsuro; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Minami, Naojiro; Imai, Hiroshi
Small RNAs ranging in size between 18 and 30 nucleotides (nt) are found in many organisms including yeasts, plants, and animals. Small RNAs are involved in the regulation of gene expression through translational repression, mRNA degradation, and chromatin modification. In mammals, microRNAs (miRNAs) are the only small RNAs that have been well characterized. Here, we have identified two novel classes of small RNAs in the mouse germline. One class consists of ∼20- to 24-nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from mouse oocytes, which are derived from retroelements including LINE, SINE, and LTR retrotransposons. Addition of retrotransposon-derived sequences to the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of a reporter mRNA destabilizes the mRNA significantly when injected into full-grown oocytes. These results suggest that retrotransposons are suppressed through the RNAi pathway in mouse oocytes. The other novel class of small RNAs is 26- to 30-nt germline small RNAs (gsRNAs) from testes. gsRNAs are expressed during spermatogenesis in a developmentally regulated manner, are mapped to the genome in clusters, and have strong strand bias. These features are reminiscent of Tetrahymena ∼23- to 24-nt small RNAs and Caenorhabditis elegans X-cluster small RNAs. A conserved novel small RNA pathway may be present in diverse animals. PMID:16766679
Zhou, Yihong; Cahan, Sara Helms
We report the first described non-plant family of TRIMs (terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature), which are small nonautonomous LTR retrotransposons, from the whole-genome sequence of the red harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus (Hymenoptera: Myrmicinae). Members of this retrotransposon family, named PbTRIM, have typical features of plant TRIMs in length and structure, although they share no overall sequence similarity. PbTRIM elements and their solo-LTRs are abundant in the host genome and exhibit an uneven distribution pattern. Elements are preferentially inserted into TA-rich regions with ATAT as the most common pattern of target site duplication (TSD). PbTRIM is most likely mobile as indicated by the young age of many complete elements, the high degree of sequence similarity among elements at different genomic locations, the abundance of elements in the host genome, and the presence of 4-bp target site duplications (TSDs) flanking the elements and solo-LTRs. Many PbTRIM elements and their solo-LTRs are located within or near genes, suggesting their potential roles in restructuring the host genes and genome. Database search, PCR and sequencing analysis revealed the presence of homologous PbTRIM elements in other ant species. The high sequence similarity between elements from distantly related ant species, the incongruence between the phylogenies of PbTRIM and its hosts, and the patchy distribution of the retroelement within the Myrmicinae subfamily indicate possible horizontal transfer events of the retroelement. PMID:23285291
Siol, Oliver; Boutliliss, Moustapha; Chung, Thanh; Glöckner, Gernot; Dingermann, Theodor; Winckler, Thomas
In the compact Dictyostelium discoideum genome, non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons known as TREs avoid accidental integration-mediated gene disruption by targeting the vicinity of tRNA genes. In this study we provide the first evidence that proteins of a non-LTR retrotransposon interact with a target-specific transcription factor to direct its integration. We applied an in vivo selection system that allows for the isolation of natural TRE5-A integrations into a known genomic location upstream of tRNA genes. TRE5-A frequently modified the integration site in a way characteristic of other non-LTR retrotransposons by adding nontemplated extra nucleotides and generating small and extended target site deletions. Mutations within the B-box promoter of the targeted tRNA genes interfered with both the in vitro binding of RNA polymerase III transcription factor TFIIIC and the ability of TRE5-A to target these genes. An isolated B box was sufficient to enhance TRE5-A integration in the absence of a surrounding tRNA gene. The RNA polymerase III-transcribed ribosomal 5S gene recruits TFIIIC in a B-box-independent manner, yet it was readily targeted by TRE5-A in our assay. These results suggest a direct role of an RNA polymerase III transcription factor in the targeting process. PMID:16982688
Monden, Yuki; Yamamoto, Ayaka; Shindo, Akiko; Tahara, Makoto
In many crop species, DNA fingerprinting is required for the precise identification of cultivars to protect the rights of breeders. Many families of retrotransposons have multiple copies throughout the eukaryotic genome and their integrated copies are inherited genetically. Thus, their insertion polymorphisms among cultivars are useful for DNA fingerprinting. In this study, we conducted a DNA fingerprinting based on the insertion polymorphisms of active retrotransposon families (Rtsp-1 and LIb) in sweet potato. Using 38 cultivars, we identified 2,024 insertion sites in the two families with an Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform. Of these insertion sites, 91.4% appeared to be polymorphic among the cultivars and 376 cultivar-specific insertion sites were identified, which were converted directly into cultivar-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using these insertion sites, which corresponded well with known pedigree information, thereby indicating their suitability for genetic diversity studies. Thus, the genome-wide comparative analysis of active retrotransposon insertion sites using the bench-top MiSeq sequencing platform is highly effective for DNA fingerprinting without any requirement for whole genome sequence information. This approach may facilitate the development of practical polymerase chain reaction-based cultivar diagnostic system and could also be applied to the determination of genetic relationships. PMID:24935865
Renaut, Sebastien; Rowe, Heather C; Ungerer, Mark C; Rieseberg, Loren H
Hybridization is thought to play an important role in plant evolution by introducing novel genetic combinations and promoting genome restructuring. However, surprisingly little is known about the impact of hybridization on transposable element (TE) proliferation and the genomic response to TE activity. In this paper, we first review the mechanisms by which homoploid hybrid species may arise in nature. We then present hybrid sunflowers as a case study to examine transcriptional activity of long terminal repeat retrotransposons in the annual sunflowers Helianthus annuus, Helianthus petiolaris and their homoploid hybrid derivatives (H. paradoxus, H. anomalus and H. deserticola) using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing technologies (RNAseq). Sampling homoploid hybrid sunflower taxa revealed abundant variation in TE transcript accumulation. In addition, genetic diversity for several candidate genes hypothesized to regulate TE activity was characterized. Specifically, we highlight one candidate chromatin remodelling factor gene with a direct role in repressing TE activity in a hybrid species. This paper shows that TE amplification in hybrid lineages is more idiosyncratic than previously believed and provides a first step towards identifying the mechanisms responsible for regulating and repressing TE expansions.
Scavariello, Claudia; Luchetti, Andrea; Martoni, Francesco; Bonandin, Livia; Mantovani, Barbara
Horizontal transfer (HT) is an event in which the genetic material is transferred from one species to another, even if distantly related, and it has been demonstrated as a possible essential part of the lifecycle of transposable elements (TEs). However, previous studies on the non-LTR R2 retrotransposon, a metazoan-wide distributed element, indicated its vertical transmission since the Radiata-Bilateria split. Here we present the first possible instances of R2 HT in stick insects of the genus Bacillus (Phasmida). Six R2 elements were characterized in the strictly bisexual subspecies B. grandii grandii, B. grandii benazzii and B. grandii maretimi and in the obligatory parthenogenetic taxon B. atticus. These elements were compared with those previously retrieved in the facultative parthenogenetic species B. rossius. Phylogenetic inconsistencies between element and host taxa, and age versus divergence analyses agree and support at least two HT events. These HT events can be explained by taking into consideration the complex Bacillus reproductive biology, which includes also hybridogenesis, gynogenesis and androgenesis. Through these non-canonical reproductive modes, R2 elements may have been transferred between Bacillus genomes. Our data suggest, therefore, a possible role of hybridization for TEs survival and the consequent reshaping of involved genomes. PMID:28165062
Saenko, Suzanne V.; Lamichhaney, Sangeet; Barrio, Alvaro Martinez; Rafati, Nima; Andersson, Leif; Milinkovitch, Michel C.
The corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) is a new model species particularly appropriate for investigating the processes generating colours in reptiles because numerous colour and pattern mutants have been isolated in the last five decades. Using our captive-bred colony of corn snakes, transcriptomic and genomic next-generation sequencing, exome assembly, and genotyping of SNPs in multiple families, we delimit the genomic interval bearing the causal mutation of amelanism, the oldest colour variant observed in that species. Proceeding with sequencing the candidate gene OCA2 in the uncovered genomic interval, we identify that the insertion of an LTR-retrotransposon in its 11th intron results in a considerable truncation of the p protein and likely constitutes the causal mutation of amelanism in corn snakes. As amelanistic snakes exhibit white, instead of black, borders around an otherwise normal pattern of dorsal orange saddles and lateral blotches, our results indicate that melanocytes lacking melanin are able to participate to the normal patterning of other colours in the skin. In combination with research in the zebrafish, this work opens the perspective of using corn snake colour and pattern variants to investigate the generative processes of skin colour patterning shared among major vertebrate lineages. PMID:26597053
Stacey, Simon N.; Kehr, Birte; Gudmundsson, Julius; Zink, Florian; Jonasdottir, Aslaug; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A.; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Halldorsson, Bjarni V.; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R.; Aben, Katja K.H.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Cremers, Ruben G.; Panadero, Angeles; Helfand, Brian T.; Cooper, Phillip R.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Jinga, Viorel; Okamoto, Ichiro; Jonasson, Jon G.; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kristinsdottir, Anna M.; Masson, Gisli; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Iordache, Paul D.; Helgason, Agnar; Helgason, Hannes; Sulem, Patrick; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Kong, Augustine; Jonsson, Eirikur; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Einarsson, Gudmundur V.; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Mates, Ioan N.; Neal, David E.; Catalona, William J.; Mayordomo, José I.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Stefansson, Kari
Transcriptional and splicing anomalies have been observed in intron 8 of the CASP8 gene (encoding procaspase-8) in association with cutaneous basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) and linked to a germline SNP rs700635. Here, we show that the rs700635[C] allele, which is associated with increased risk of BCC and breast cancer, is protective against prostate cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 0.91, P = 1.0 × 10−6]. rs700635[C] is also associated with failures to correctly splice out CASP8 intron 8 in breast and prostate tumours and in corresponding normal tissues. Investigation of rs700635[C] carriers revealed that they have a human-specific short interspersed element-variable number of tandem repeat-Alu (SINE-VNTR-Alu), subfamily-E retrotransposon (SVA-E) inserted into CASP8 intron 8. The SVA-E shows evidence of prior activity, because it has transduced some CASP8 sequences during subsequent retrotransposition events. Whole-genome sequence (WGS) data were used to tag the SVA-E with a surrogate SNP rs1035142[T] (r2 = 0.999), which showed associations with both the splicing anomalies (P = 6.5 × 10−32) and with protection against prostate cancer (OR = 0.91, P = 3.8 × 10−7). PMID:26740556
Sangesland, Maya; Atwood-Moore, Angela; Rai, Sudhir K; Levin, Henry L
Transposition and homologous recombination assays are valuable genetic tools to measure the production and integration of cDNA from the long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon Tf1 in the fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe). Here we describe two genetic assays, one that measures the transposition activity of Tf1 by monitoring the mobility of a drug resistance marked Tf1 element expressed from a multi-copy plasmid and another assay that measures homologous recombination between Tf1 cDNA and the expression plasmid. While the transposition assay measures insertion of full-length Tf1 cDNA mediated by the transposon integrase, the homologous recombination assay measures levels of cDNA present in the nucleus and is independent of integrase activity. Combined, these assays can be used to systematically screen large collections of strains to identify mutations that specifically inhibit the integration step in the retroelement life cycle. Such mutations can be identified because they reduce transposition activity but nevertheless have wild-type frequencies of homologous recombination. Qualitative assays of yeast patches on agar plates detect large defects in integration and recombination, while the quantitative approach provides a precise method of determining integration and recombination frequencies.
Sanchez-Luque, Francisco J; Richardson, Sandra R; Faulkner, Geoffrey J
Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) are of critical importance in genomics and developmental biology. Polymorphic and somatic MGE insertions have the potential to impact the phenotype of an individual, depending on their genomic locations and functional consequences. However, the identification of polymorphic and somatic insertions among the plethora of copies residing in the genome presents a formidable technical challenge. Whole genome sequencing has the potential to address this problem; however, its efficacy depends on the abundance of cells carrying the new insertion. Robust detection of somatic insertions present in only a subset of cells within a given sample can also be prohibitively expensive due to a requirement for high sequencing depth. Here, we describe retrotransposon capture sequencing (RC-seq), a sequence capture approach in which Illumina libraries are enriched for fragments containing the 5' and 3' termini of specific MGEs. RC-seq allows the detection of known polymorphic insertions present in an individual, as well as the identification of rare or private germline insertions not previously described. Furthermore, RC-seq can be used to detect and characterize somatic insertions, providing a valuable tool to elucidate the extent and characteristics of MGE activity in healthy tissues and in various disease states.
Cartault, François; Munier, Patrick; Benko, Edgar; Desguerre, Isabelle; Hanein, Sylvain; Boddaert, Nathalie; Bandiera, Simonetta; Vellayoudom, Jeanine; Krejbich-Trotot, Pascale; Bintner, Marc; Hoarau, Jean-Jacques; Girard, Muriel; Génin, Emmanuelle; de Lonlay, Pascale; Fourmaintraux, Alain; Naville, Magali; Rodriguez, Diana; Feingold, Josué; Renouil, Michel; Munnich, Arnold; Westhof, Eric; Fähling, Michael; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Henrion-Caude, Alexandra
The human genome is densely populated with transposons and transposon-like repetitive elements. Although the impact of these transposons and elements on human genome evolution is recognized, the significance of subtle variations in their sequence remains mostly unexplored. Here we report homozygosity mapping of an infantile neurodegenerative disease locus in a genetic isolate. Complete DNA sequencing of the 400-kb linkage locus revealed a point mutation in a primate-specific retrotransposon that was transcribed as part of a unique noncoding RNA, which was expressed in the brain. In vitro knockdown of this RNA increased neuronal apoptosis, consistent with the inappropriate dosage of this RNA in vivo and with the phenotype. Moreover, structural analysis of the sequence revealed a small RNA-like hairpin that was consistent with the putative gain of a functional site when mutated. We show here that a mutation in a unique transposable element-containing RNA is associated with lethal encephalopathy, and we suggest that RNAs that harbor evolutionarily recent repetitive elements may play important roles in human brain development. PMID:22411793
Gainetdinov, Ildar V; Kapitskaya, Kristina Yu; Rykova, Elena Yu; Ponomaryova, Anastasia A; Cherdyntseva, Nadezda V; Vlassov, Valentin V; Laktionov, Pavel P; Azhikina, Tatyana L
Circulating DNA has recently gained attention as a fast and non-invasive way to assess tumor biomarkers. Since hypomethylation of LINE-1 repetitive elements was described as one of the key hallmarks of tumorigenesis, we aimed to establish whether the methylation level of LINE-1 retrotransposons changes in cell-surface-bound fraction of circulating DNA (csbDNA) of lung cancer patients. Methylated CpG Island Recovery Assay (MIRA) coupled to qPCR-based quantitation was performed to assess integral methylation level of LINE-1 promoters in csbDNA of non-small cell lung cancer patients (n=56) and healthy controls (n=44). Deep sequencing of amplicons revealed that hypomethylation of LINE-1 promoters in csbDNA of lung cancer patients is more pronounced for the human-specific L1Hs family. Statistical analysis demonstrates significant difference in LINE-1 promoter methylation index between cancer patients and healthy individuals (ROC-curve analysis: n=100, AUC=0.69, p=0.0012) and supports the feasibility of MIRA as a promising non-invasive approach.
Naville, M; Warren, I A; Haftek-Terreau, Z; Chalopin, D; Brunet, F; Levin, P; Galiana, D; Volff, J-N
Viruses and transposable elements, once considered as purely junk and selfish sequences, have repeatedly been used as a source of novel protein-coding genes during the evolution of most eukaryotic lineages, a phenomenon called 'molecular domestication'. This is exemplified perfectly in mammals and other vertebrates, where many genes derived from long terminal repeat (LTR) retroelements (retroviruses and LTR retrotransposons) have been identified through comparative genomics and functional analyses. In particular, genes derived from gag structural protein and envelope (env) genes, as well as from the integrase-coding and protease-coding sequences, have been identified in humans and other vertebrates. Retroelement-derived genes are involved in many important biological processes including placenta formation, cognitive functions in the brain and immunity against retroelements, as well as in cell proliferation, apoptosis and cancer. These observations support an important role of retroelement-derived genes in the evolution and diversification of the vertebrate lineage. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tapia, Gerardo; Verdugo, Isabel; Yañez, Mónica; Ahumada, Iván; Theoduloz, Cristina; Cordero, Cecilia; Poblete, Fernando; González, Enrique; Ruiz-Lara, Simón
The TLC1 family is one of the four families of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons identified in the genome of Lycopersicon chilense. Here, we show that this family of retroelements is transcriptionally active and its expression is induced in response to diverse stress conditions such as wounding, protoplast preparation, and high salt concentrations. Several stress-associated signaling molecules, including ethylene, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, are capable of inducing TLC1 family expression in vivo. A representative of this family, named TLC1.1, was isolated from a genomic library from L. chilense. Transient expression assays in leaf protoplasts and stably transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants demonstrate that the U3 domain of the 5'-LTR region of this element can drive stress-induced transcriptional activation of the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Two 57-bp tandem repeated sequences are found in this region, including an 8-bp motif, ATTTCAAA, previously identified as an ethylene-responsive element box in the promoter region of ethylene-induced genes. Expression analysis of wild-type LTR and single and double ethylene-responsive element box mutants fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene shows that these elements are required for ethylene-responsive gene expression in protoplasts and transgenic plants. We suggest that ethylene-dependent signaling is the main signaling pathway involved in the regulation of the expression of the TLC1.1 element from L. chilense.
Conte, Caroline; Dastugue, Bernard; Vaury, Chantal
We recently reported a novel transposition system in which two retroelements from Drosophila melanogaster, ZAM and Idefix, are highly mobilized and preferentially insert within intergenic regions. Among the loci where new copies are detected, a hot spot for their insertion was identified at the white locus, where up to three elements occurred within a 3-kb fragment upstream of the transcriptional start site of white. We have used these insertions as molecular entry points to throw light on the mutagenic effect exerted by multiple insertions of retrotransposons within intergenic regions of a genome. Analysis of the molecular mechanisms by which ZAM and Idefix elements interfere with the regulation of the white gene has shown that ZAM bears cis-acting regulatory sequences able to enhance transcription of the white gene in the eyes of the flies. This activation may be counteracted by Idefix, which acts as an insulator able to isolate the white gene from the upstream ZAM enhancer. In addition to revealing a novel insulator sequence with its own specific features, our data clearly illustrate how retroelements can act as epigenetic factors able to interfere with the transcriptional regulation of their host.
Irie, Masahito; Yoshikawa, Masanobu; Ono, Ryuichi; Iwafune, Hirotaka; Furuse, Tamio; Yamada, Ikuko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yamashita, Yui; Abe, Takaya; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko
Gene targeting of mouse S ushi- i chi-related r etrotransposon h omologue 11 / Z inc finger CCHC domain-containing 16 (Sirh11/Zcchc16) causes abnormal behaviors related to cognition, including attention, impulsivity and working memory. Sirh11/Zcchc16 encodes a CCHC type of zinc-finger protein that exhibits high homology to an LTR retrotransposon Gag protein. Upon microdialysis analysis of the prefrontal cortex region, the recovery rate of noradrenaline (NA) was reduced compared with dopamine (DA) after perfusion of high potassium-containing artificial cerebrospinal fluid in knockout (KO) mice. These data indicate that Sirh11/Zcchc16 is involved in cognitive function in the brain, possibly via the noradrenergic system, in the contemporary mouse developmental systems. Interestingly, it is highly conserved in three out of the four major groups of the eutherians, euarchontoglires, laurasiatheria and afrotheria, but is heavily mutated in xenarthran species such as the sloth and armadillo, suggesting that it has contributed to brain evolution in the three major eutherian lineages, including humans and mice. Sirh11/Zcchc16 is the first SIRH gene to be involved in brain function, instead of just the placenta, as seen in the case of Peg10, Peg11/Rtl1 and Sirh7/Ldoc1. PMID:26402067
Renaut, Sebastien; Rowe, Heather C.; Ungerer, Mark C.; Rieseberg, Loren H.
Hybridization is thought to play an important role in plant evolution by introducing novel genetic combinations and promoting genome restructuring. However, surprisingly little is known about the impact of hybridization on transposable element (TE) proliferation and the genomic response to TE activity. In this paper, we first review the mechanisms by which homoploid hybrid species may arise in nature. We then present hybrid sunflowers as a case study to examine transcriptional activity of long terminal repeat retrotransposons in the annual sunflowers Helianthus annuus, Helianthus petiolaris and their homoploid hybrid derivatives (H. paradoxus, H. anomalus and H. deserticola) using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing technologies (RNAseq). Sampling homoploid hybrid sunflower taxa revealed abundant variation in TE transcript accumulation. In addition, genetic diversity for several candidate genes hypothesized to regulate TE activity was characterized. Specifically, we highlight one candidate chromatin remodelling factor gene with a direct role in repressing TE activity in a hybrid species. This paper shows that TE amplification in hybrid lineages is more idiosyncratic than previously believed and provides a first step towards identifying the mechanisms responsible for regulating and repressing TE expansions. PMID:24958919
Dramard, Xavier; Heidmann, Thierry; Jensen, Silke
Transposable elements are major components of most eukaryotic genomes. Such sequences are generally defective for transposition and have little or no coding capacity. Because transposition can be highly mutagenic, mobile elements that remain functional are tightly repressed in all living species. Drosophila pericentromeric heterochromatin naturally contains transposition-defective, non-coding derivatives of a LINE retrotransposon related to the I-factor. The I-factor is a good model to study the regulation of transposition in vivo because, under specific conditions, current functional copies of this mobile element can transpose at high frequency, specifically in female germ cells, with deleterious effects including female sterility. However, this high transpositional activity becomes spontaneously repressed upon ageing or heat treatment, by a maternally transmitted, transgenerational epigenetic mechanism of unknown nature. We have analyzed, by quantitative real time RT-PCR, the RNA profile of the transposition-defective I-related sequences, in the Drosophila ovary during ageing and upon heat treatment, and also in female somatic tissues and in males, which are not permissive for I-factor transposition. We found evidence for a role of transcripts from these ancestral remnants in the natural epigenetic protection of the Drosophila melanogaster genome against the deleterious effects of new invasions by functional I-factors. These results provide a molecular basis for a probably widespread natural protection against transposable elements by persisting vestiges of ancient invasions.
Lyubomirskaya, N V; Smirnova, J B; Razorenova, O V; Karpova, N N; Surkov, S A; Avedisov, S N; Kim, A I; Ilyin, Y V
Two variants of the Drosophila melanogaster retrotransposon gypsy were subjected to detailed structural and functional analysis. A series of hybrid constructs containing various combinations of "active" and "inactive" gypsy copies were tested for their ability to produce new DNA copies in cultured cells by means of reverse transcription. It was shown that the previously demonstrated variations in retrotranspositional activity are associated with either one or both of two amino acid substitutions at the beginning of ORF2. The first substitution is located at the boundary between the putative protease and reverse transcriptase domains and, hence, may influence the processing of the polyprotein. The other substitution may alter reverse transcriptase activity since it is located in the second of the seven conserved domains of the RT gene. To address the question of the evolutionary relationship between the two gypsy variants, their distribution was analyzed in among various fly stocks. Southern analysis revealed that all D. melanogaster strains studied so far contain the "inactive" gypsy variant, while the "active" copies are present only in some strains; most of the latter were established from flies recently isolated from natural populations. Finally, in stocks carrying the flamenco mutation the "active" gypsy variant is much more abundant than the "inactive" form. Possible scenarios for the orgin of the "active" form of gypsy are discussed.
Zanni, Vanessa; Eymery, Angéline; Coiffet, Michael; Zytnicki, Matthias; Luyten, Isabelle; Quesneville, Hadi; Vaury, Chantal; Jensen, Silke
Most of our understanding of Drosophila heterochromatin structure and evolution has come from the annotation of heterochromatin from the isogenic y; cn bw sp strain. However, almost nothing is known about the heterochromatin’s structural dynamics and evolution. Here, we focus on a 180-kb heterochromatic locus producing Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNA cluster), the flamenco (flam) locus, known to be responsible for the control of at least three transposable elements (TEs). We report its detailed structure in three different Drosophila lines chosen according to their capacity to repress or not to repress the expression of two retrotransposons named ZAM and Idefix, and we show that they display high structural diversity. Numerous rearrangements due to homologous and nonhomologous recombination, deletions and segmental duplications, and loss and gain of TEs are diverse sources of active genomic variation at this locus. Notably, we evidence a correlation between the presence of ZAM and Idefix in this piRNA cluster and their silencing. They are absent from flam in the strain where they are derepressed. We show that, unexpectedly, more than half of the flam locus results from recent TE insertions and that most of the elements concerned are prone to horizontal transfer between species of the melanogaster subgroup. We build a model showing how such high and constant dynamics of a piRNA master locus open the way to continual emergence of new patterns of piRNA biogenesis leading to changes in the level of transposition control. PMID:24248389
Zanni, Vanessa; Eymery, Angéline; Coiffet, Michael; Zytnicki, Matthias; Luyten, Isabelle; Quesneville, Hadi; Vaury, Chantal; Jensen, Silke
Most of our understanding of Drosophila heterochromatin structure and evolution has come from the annotation of heterochromatin from the isogenic y; cn bw sp strain. However, almost nothing is known about the heterochromatin's structural dynamics and evolution. Here, we focus on a 180-kb heterochromatic locus producing Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNA cluster), the flamenco (flam) locus, known to be responsible for the control of at least three transposable elements (TEs). We report its detailed structure in three different Drosophila lines chosen according to their capacity to repress or not to repress the expression of two retrotransposons named ZAM and Idefix, and we show that they display high structural diversity. Numerous rearrangements due to homologous and nonhomologous recombination, deletions and segmental duplications, and loss and gain of TEs are diverse sources of active genomic variation at this locus. Notably, we evidence a correlation between the presence of ZAM and Idefix in this piRNA cluster and their silencing. They are absent from flam in the strain where they are derepressed. We show that, unexpectedly, more than half of the flam locus results from recent TE insertions and that most of the elements concerned are prone to horizontal transfer between species of the melanogaster subgroup. We build a model showing how such high and constant dynamics of a piRNA master locus open the way to continual emergence of new patterns of piRNA biogenesis leading to changes in the level of transposition control.
Bae, Young-An; Ahn, Jong-Sook; Kim, Seon-Hee; Rhyu, Mun-Gan; Kong, Yoon; Cho, Seung-Yull
Background Retrotransposons have been known to involve in the remodeling and evolution of host genome. These reverse transcribing elements, which show a complex evolutionary pathway with diverse intermediate forms, have been comprehensively analyzed from a wide range of host genomes, while the information remains limited to only a few species in the phylum Platyhelminthes. Results A LTR retrotransposon and its homologs with a strong phylogenetic affinity toward CsRn1 of Clonorchis sinensis were isolated from a trematode parasite Paragonimus westermani via a degenerate PCR method and from an insect species Anopheles gambiae by in silico analysis of the whole mosquito genome, respectively. These elements, designated PwRn1 and AgCR-1 – AgCR-14 conserved unique features including a t-RNATrp primer binding site and the unusual CHCC signature of Gag proteins. Their flanking LTRs displayed >97% nucleotide identities and thus, these elements were likely to have expanded recently in the trematode and insect genomes. They evolved heterogeneous expression strategies: a single fused ORF, two separate ORFs with an identical reading frame and two ORFs overlapped by -1 frameshifting. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the elements with the separate ORFs had evolved from an ancestral form(s) with the overlapped ORFs. The mobile potential of PwRn1 was likely to be maintained differentially in association with the karyotype of host genomes, as was examined by the presence/absence of intergenomic polymorphism and mRNA transcripts. Conclusion Our results on the structural diversity of CsRn1-like elements can provide a molecular tool to dissect a more detailed evolutionary episode of LTR retrotransposons. The PwRn1-associated genomic polymorphism, which is substantial in diploids, will also be informative in addressing genomic diversification following inter-/intra-specific hybridization in P. westermani populations. PMID:18851759
Rangasamy, D.; Lenka, N.; Ohms, S.; Dahlstrom, J.E.; Blackburn, A.C.; Board, P.G.
Epithelial cancers comprise 80-90% of human cancers. During the process of cancer progression, cells lose their epithelial characteristics and acquire stem-like mesenchymal features that are resistant to chemotherapy. This process, termed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), plays a critical role in the development of metastases. Because of the unique migratory and invasive properties of cells undergoing the EMT, therapeutic control of the EMT offers great hope and new opportunities for treating cancer. In recent years, a plethora of genes and noncoding RNAs, including miRNAs, have been linked to the EMT and the acquisition of stem cell-like properties. Despite these advances, questions remain unanswered about the molecular processes underlying such a cellular transition. In this article, we discuss how expression of the normally repressed LINE-1 (or L1) retrotransposons activates the process of EMT and the development of metastases. L1 is rarely expressed in differentiated stem cells or adult somatic tissues. However, its expression is widespread in almost all epithelial cancers and in stem cells in their undifferentiated state, suggesting a link between L1 activity and the proliferative and metastatic behaviour of cancer cells. We present an overview of L1 activity in cancer cells including how genes involved in proliferation, invasive and metastasis are modulated by L1 expression. The role of L1 in the differential expression of the let-7 family of miRNAs (that regulate genes involved in the EMT and metastasis) is also discussed. We also summarize recent novel insights into the role of the L1-encoded reverse transcriptase enzyme in epithelial cell plasticity that suggest it might be a potential therapeutic target that could reverse the EMT and the metastasis-associated stem cell-like properties of cancer cells. PMID:26321759
Kojima, Kenji K; Seto, Yosuke; Fujiwara, Haruhiko
Transposons, or transposable elements, are the major components of genomes in most eukaryotes. Some groups of transposons have developed target specificity that limits the integration sites to a specific nonessential sequence or a genomic region to avoid gene disruption caused by insertion into an essential gene. R2 is one of the most intensively investigated groups of sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons and is inserted at a specific site inside of 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. R2 is known to be distributed among at least six animal phyla even though its occurrence is reported to be patchy. Here, in order to obtain a more detailed picture of the distribution of R2, we surveyed R2 using both in silico screening and degenerate PCR, particularly focusing on actinopterygian fish. We found two families of the R2C lineage from vertebrates, although it has previously only been found in platyhelminthes. We also revealed the apparent movement of insertion sites of a lineage of actinopterygian R2, which was likely concurrent with the acquisition of a 28S rRNA-derived sequence in their 3' UTR. Outside of actinopterygian fish, we revealed the maintenance of a single R2 lineage in birds; the co-existence of four lineages of R2 in the leafcutter bee Megachile rotundata; the first examples of R2 in Ctenophora, Mollusca, and Hemichordata; and two families of R2 showing no target specificity. These findings indicate that R2 is relatively stable and universal, while differences in the distribution and maintenance of R2 lineages probably reflect characteristics of some combination of both R2 lineages and host organisms.
Couldrey, Christine; Maclean, Paul; Wells, David N
Public perception of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in the production of agricultural animals is surrounded by fear, which is exacerbated by the inability to differentiate animals generated by SCNT from those generated by natural mating or artificial insemination (AI). Unfortunately, the DNA sequence of animals produced by SCNT is indistinguishable from those generated by fertilization. With the current banning of all SCNT animal products from entering the food supply in some countries, the lack of a diagnostic test to identify SCNT animals may jeopardize market access for producers. The aim of this research was to exploit differences in epigenetic reprogramming that occur during SCNT and fertilization in the early embryo. The resulting differences in epigenetic signatures that persist to adulthood are proposed as the basis for a diagnostic test to identify animals generated by SCNT. Here we describe differences in DNA methylation at eight CpG sites in the retrotransposon-like 1 (Rtl1) promoter region in cattle blood and test whether these differences could be used as a diagnostic tool. For a definitive diagnosis, it is critical that no overlap in DNA methylation levels is observed between individuals produced by SCNT and fertilization. This was the case for the cohort of SCNT animals studied, their female half-siblings generated by AI, and a collection of unrelated cows also generated by AI. Further rigorous testing is required to determine what effects donor cell type, age, sex, genetic background, SCNT methods, and the environment have on the DNA methylation across this region, but the Rtl1 promoter is currently a promising candidate for the identification of SCNT generated cattle.
Tian, Zhixi; Rizzon, Carene; Du, Jianchang; Zhu, Liucun; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Jackson, Scott A; Gaut, Brandon S; Ma, Jianxin
In flowering plants, the accumulation of small deletions through unequal homologous recombination (UR) and illegitimate recombination (IR) is proposed to be the major process counteracting genome expansion, which is caused primarily by the periodic amplification of long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs). However, the full suite of evolutionary forces that govern the gain or loss of transposable elements (TEs) and their distribution within a genome remains unclear. Here, we investigated the distribution and structural variation of LTR-RTs in relation to the rates of local genetic recombination (GR) and gene densities in the rice (Oryza sativa) genome. Our data revealed a positive correlation between GR rates and gene densities and negative correlations between LTR-RT densities and both GR and gene densities. The data also indicate a tendency for LTR-RT elements and fragments to be shorter in regions with higher GR rates; the size reduction of LTR-RTs appears to be achieved primarily through solo LTR formation by UR. Comparison of indica and japonica rice revealed patterns and frequencies of LTR-RT gain and loss within different evolutionary timeframes. Different LTR-RT families exhibited variable distribution patterns and structural changes, but overall LTR-RT compositions and genes were organized according to the GR gradients of the genome. Further investigation of non-LTR-RTs and DNA transposons revealed a negative correlation between gene densities and the abundance of DNA transposons and a weak correlation between GR rates and the abundance of long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs)/short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs). Together, these observations suggest that GR and gene density play important roles in shaping the dynamic structure of the rice genome.
Takahashi, H; Okazaki, S; Fujiwara, H
The telomeres of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, consist of pentanucleotide repeats (TTAGG)n . We previously characterized the non-LTR element TRAS1, which terminates with oligo (A) in a head to tail orientation at the exact position (between A and C) of the (CCTAA) n repeats. Here we characterized another family of telomere-specific non-LTR retrotransposon named SART1. The SART1 family was inserted at another site of the (TTAGG) n in a reverse orientation from that of TRAS1. The complete unit of SART1, 6.7 kb in length with a poly (A) stretch, contains two open reading frames encoding putative gag and pol products, overlapping by 54 bp in the -1 reading frame. Most of the 600 SART1 copies in the silkworm haploid genome are completely conserved in structure without 5'truncation. All SART1 sequences analyzed were inserted at the same position (between T and A) within the (TTAGG) n repeats. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that many of the SART1 copies were localized in the chromosomal ends. A phylogenetic tree showed that the SART1, TRAS1 and two other site-specific elements, R1 and RT, which insert into 28S ribosomal RNA genes in insects, belong to the same group. Based on the orientation for the chromosomal insertion and structural similarities, these elements could be further classified into two subgroups, R1/TRAS1 and RT/SART1, suggesting that the target specificity of the two telomere-associated elements was changed independently. PMID:9092665
Seto, Yosuke; Fujiwara, Haruhiko
Transposons, or transposable elements, are the major components of genomes in most eukaryotes. Some groups of transposons have developed target specificity that limits the integration sites to a specific nonessential sequence or a genomic region to avoid gene disruption caused by insertion into an essential gene. R2 is one of the most intensively investigated groups of sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons and is inserted at a specific site inside of 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. R2 is known to be distributed among at least six animal phyla even though its occurrence is reported to be patchy. Here, in order to obtain a more detailed picture of the distribution of R2, we surveyed R2 using both in silico screening and degenerate PCR, particularly focusing on actinopterygian fish. We found two families of the R2C lineage from vertebrates, although it has previously only been found in platyhelminthes. We also revealed the apparent movement of insertion sites of a lineage of actinopterygian R2, which was likely concurrent with the acquisition of a 28S rRNA-derived sequence in their 3′ UTR. Outside of actinopterygian fish, we revealed the maintenance of a single R2 lineage in birds; the co-existence of four lineages of R2 in the leafcutter bee Megachile rotundata; the first examples of R2 in Ctenophora, Mollusca, and Hemichordata; and two families of R2 showing no target specificity. These findings indicate that R2 is relatively stable and universal, while differences in the distribution and maintenance of R2 lineages probably reflect characteristics of some combination of both R2 lineages and host organisms. PMID:27662593
Habibi, Laleh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Motamedi, Mahdieh; Akrami, Seyed Mohammad
L1 retrotransposons are the most active mobile DNA elements in human genome. Unregulated L1 retrotransposition may have deleterious effect by disrupting vital genes and inducing genomic instabilities. Therefore, human cells control L1 elements by silencing their activities through epigenetic mechanisms. It has been shown that cell division and heavy metals stimulate the frequency of L1 activities. Removal of silencing by L1 motivators may restart L1 element functions. Here, we have proposed that weather neurotoxic environmental heavy metals (as L1 stimulating factors) have a role in removing L1 silencing and restating its activities in nondividing neuronal cells. L1-RP green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged knock-in human neuroblastoma clones were prepared. Single-cell clone was treated with mitomycin-c combined with nontoxic and toxic concentrations of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and mercury (Hg). Silencing status of engineered L1 elements in dividing and nondividing cells was determined through measuring the amount of GFP expressing cells with flow cytometry. The cytotoxic effect of mitomycin-c combined with metals was measured by MTT assay. Hg in nondividing cells and Fe, Cu, and Hg in dividing neuroblastoma cells could significantly remove L1 silencing. Also, mitomycin-c treatment did not have any effect on metal toxicity status in neuroblastoma cells. Totally, our findings have shown that cell division has a role in removing L1 silencing as well as L1 retrotransposition induced by environmental heavy metals. It has been also indicated that Hg at all concentrations could remove silencing of engineered L1 element regardless of cell cycle state.
Yamaji, Naoki; Fujii-Kashino, Miho
High aluminum (Al) tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa) is controlled by multiple tolerance genes, but the regulatory mechanisms underlying the differential expression of these genes are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the factors regulating the expression of OsFRDL4, a gene encoding a citrate efflux transporter involved in Al-induced citrate secretion from the roots. Analysis with chromosome segment substitution lines derived from cv Nipponbare (high OsFRDL4 expression) and cv Kasalath (low OsFRDL4 expression) revealed that the differential expression of OsFRDL4 is responsible for the quantitative trait locus for Al tolerance detected previously on chromosome 1. Comparison of the OsFRDL4 gene structure in cv Nipponbare and cv Kasalath showed that there was no difference in the position of the transcriptional start site, but a 1.2-kb insertion showing high similarity to the solo long terminal repeat of the retrotransposon was found in the promoter region of OsFRDL4 in cv Nipponbare. This insertion showed higher promoter activity and contained nine cis-acting elements for ALUMINUM RESISTANCE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1 (ART1). However, this insertion did not alter the spatial expression or cellular localization of OsFRDL4. Furthermore, this insertion was found in most japonica varieties but was largely absent from indica varieties or wild rice species. These results indicate that the 1.2-kb insertion in the OsFRDL4 promoter region in japonica subspecies is responsible for their higher expression level of OsFRDL4 due to the increased number of cis-acting elements of ART1. Our results also suggest that this insertion event happened at the initial stage of domestication of japonica subspecies. PMID:27744299
Roulin, Anne; Piegu, Benoit; Fortune, Philippe M; Sabot, François; D'Hont, Angélique; Manicacci, Domenica; Panaud, Olivier
Background Horizontal transfers (HTs) refer to the transmission of genetic material between phylogenetically distant species. Although most of the cases of HTs described so far concern genes, there is increasing evidence that some involve transposable elements (TEs) in Eukaryotes. The availability of the full genome sequence of two cereal species, (i.e. rice and Sorghum), as well as the partial genome sequence of maize, provides the opportunity to carry out genome-wide searches for TE-HTs in Poaceae. Results We have identified an LTR-retrotransposon, that we named Route66, with more than 95% sequence identity between rice and Sorghum. Using a combination of in silico and molecular approaches, we are able to present a substantial phylogenetic evidence that Route66 has been transferred horizontally between Panicoideae and several species of the genus Oryza. In addition, we show that it has remained active after these transfers. Conclusion This study constitutes a new case of HTs for an LTR-retrotransposon and we strongly believe that this mechanism could play a major role in the life cycle of transposable elements. We therefore propose to integrate classe I elements into the previous model of transposable element evolution through horizontal transfers. PMID:19291296
Sutton, P. R.; Liebman, S. W.
The structures of two unusual deletions from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are described. These deletions extend from a single Ty1 retrotransposon to an endpoint near a repetitive tRNA(Gly) gene. The deletions suggest that unique sequences flanked by two nonidentical repetitive sequences, or bordered on only one side by a transposable element, have the potential to be mobilized in the yeast genome. Models for the formation of these two unusual deletions were tested by isolating and analyzing 32 additional unusual deletions of the CYC1 region that extend from a single Ty1 retrotransposon. Unlike the most common class of deletions recovered in this region, these deletions are not attributable solely to homologous recombination among repetitive Ty1 or delta elements. They arose by two distinct mechanisms. In an SPT8 genetic background, most unusual deletions arose by transposition of a Ty1 element to a position adjacent to a tRNA(Gly) gene followed by Ty1-Ty1 recombination. In an spt8 strain, where full-length Ty1 transcription and, therefore, transposition are reduced, most deletions were due to gene conversion of a 7-kb chromosomal interval flanked by a Ty1 element and a tRNA(Gly) gene. PMID:1325387
Ono, Ryuichi; Ishii, Masayuki; Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Kitazawa, Moe; Usami, Takako; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Kanno, Jun; Ikawa, Masahito; Ishino, Fumitoshi
The CRISPR/Cas system efficiently introduces double strand breaks (DSBs) at a genomic locus specified by a single guide RNA (sgRNA). The DSBs are subsequently repaired through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR). Here, we demonstrate that DSBs introduced into mouse zygotes by the CRISPR/Cas system are repaired by the capture of DNA sequences deriving from retrotransposons, genomic DNA, mRNA and sgRNA. Among 93 mice analysed, 57 carried mutant alleles and 22 of them had long de novo insertion(s) at DSB-introduced sites; two were spliced mRNAs of Pcnt and Inadl without introns, indicating the involvement of reverse transcription (RT). Fifteen alleles included retrotransposons, mRNAs, and other sequences without evidence of RT. Two others were sgRNAs with one containing T7 promoter-derived sequence suggestive of a PCR product as its origin. In conclusion, RT-product-mediated DSB repair (RMDR) and non-RMDR repair were identified in the mouse zygote. We also confirmed that both RMDR and non-RMDR take place in CRISPR/Cas transfected NIH-3T3 cells. Finally, as two de novo MuERV-L insertions in C57BL/6 mice were shown to have characteristic features of RMDR in natural conditions, we hypothesize that RMDR contributes to the emergence of novel DNA sequences in the course of evolution.
Roulin, Anne; Piegu, Benoit; Fortune, Philippe M; Sabot, François; D'Hont, Angélique; Manicacci, Domenica; Panaud, Olivier
Horizontal transfers (HTs) refer to the transmission of genetic material between phylogenetically distant species. Although most of the cases of HTs described so far concern genes, there is increasing evidence that some involve transposable elements (TEs) in Eukaryotes. The availability of the full genome sequence of two cereal species, (i.e. rice and Sorghum), as well as the partial genome sequence of maize, provides the opportunity to carry out genome-wide searches for TE-HTs in Poaceae. We have identified an LTR-retrotransposon, that we named Route66, with more than 95% sequence identity between rice and Sorghum. Using a combination of in silico and molecular approaches, we are able to present a substantial phylogenetic evidence that Route66 has been transferred horizontally between Panicoideae and several species of the genus Oryza. In addition, we show that it has remained active after these transfers. This study constitutes a new case of HTs for an LTR-retrotransposon and we strongly believe that this mechanism could play a major role in the life cycle of transposable elements. We therefore propose to integrate classe I elements into the previous model of transposable element evolution through horizontal transfers.
Tcheressiz, S; Calco, V; Arnaud, F; Arthaud, L; Dastugue, B; Vaury, C
Retrotransposons are transcriptionally activated in different tissues and cell types by a variety of genomic and environmental factors. Transcription of LTR retrotransposons is controlled by cis-acting regulatory sequences in the 5' LTR. Mobilization of two LTR retroelements, Idefix and ZAM, occurs in the unstable RevI line of Drosophila melanogaster, in which their copy numbers are high, while they are low in all other stocks tested. Here we show that both a full-length and a subgenomic Idefix transcript that are necessary for its mobilization are present in the Rev1 line, but not in the other lines. Studies on transgenic strains demonstrate that the 5' LTR of Idefix contains sequences that direct the tissue-specific expression of the retroelement in testes and ovaries of adult flies. In ovaries, expression occurs in the early follicle and in other somatic cells of the germarium, and is strictly associated with the unstable genetic context conferred by the RevI line. Control of tissue-specific Idefix expression by interactions between cis-acting sequences of its LTR and trans-acting genomic factors provides an opportunity to use this retroelement as a tool for the study of the early follicle cell lineage in the germarium.
Hara, Toru; Hirai, Yuriko; Jahan, Israt; Hirai, Hirohisa; Koga, Akihiko
Hoolock hoolock (the western hoolock gibbon) is a species of the family Hylobatidae (small apes), which constitutes the superfamily Hominoidea (hominoids) together with Hominidae (great apes and human). Here, we report that centromeres or their vicinities in this gibbon species contain tandem repeat sequences that consist of 35-50-bp repeat units, and exhibit a sequence similarity with the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) region of the SVA, LAVA and PVA transposons. SVA is a composite retrotransposon thought to have been formed by fusion of three solo elements in the common ancestor of hominoids. LAVA and PVA are recently identified retrotransposons that have the same basic structure as SVA. Thus, the large-scale tandem repeats in the centromere region may have been derived from one or more of SVA-type transposons, including the three mentioned above and other yet unknown elements, or the repeat sequences could have served as a source for such elements. Amplification of VNTR-related sequences in another gibbon species, Hoolock leuconedys (eastern hoolock gibbon), has recently been reported, but it is yet to be examined whether the large-scale tandem repeats observed in the two species originated from a single event that occurred in their common ancestor. The repeat sequences in the western hoolock gibbon are mostly 40 kb or more in length, are present in 28 of the 38 chromosomes of the somatic cells, and are homozygous for chromosomal presence/absence.
Tsoumani, Konstantina T.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D.
Sex chromosomes have many unusual features relative to autosomes. The in depth exploration of their structure will improve our understanding of their origin and divergence (degeneration) as well as the evolution of genetic sex determination pathways which, most often are attributed to them. In Tephritids, the structure of Y chromosome, where the male-determining factor M is localized, is largely unexplored and limited data concerning its sequence content and evolution are available. In order to get insight into the structure and organization of the Y chromosome of the major olive insect pest, the olive fly Bactrocera oleae, we characterized sequences from a Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE)-isolated Y chromosome. Here, we report the discovery of the first olive fly LTR retrotransposon with increased presence on the Y chromosome. The element belongs to the BEL-Pao superfamily, however, its sequence comparison with the other members of the superfamily suggests that it constitutes a new family that we termed Achilles. Its ~7.5 kb sequence consists of the 5’LTR, the 5’non-coding sequence and the open reading frame (ORF), which encodes the polyprotein Gag-Pol. In situ hybridization to the B. oleae polytene chromosomes showed that Achilles is distributed in discrete bands dispersed on all five autosomes, in all centromeric regions and in the granular heterochromatic network corresponding to the mitotic sex chromosomes. The between sexes comparison revealed a variation in Achilles copy number, with male flies possessing 5–10 copies more than female (CI range: 18–38 and 12–33 copies respectively per genome). The examination of its transcriptional activity demonstrated the presence of at least one intact active copy in the genome, showing a differential level of expression between sexes as well as during embryonic development. The higher expression was detected in male germline tissues (testes). Moreover, the presence of Achilles-like elements in different
Background The genetic diversity of crop species is the result of natural selection on the wild progenitor and human intervention by ancient and modern farmers and breeders. The genomes of modern cultivars, old cultivated landraces, ecotypes and wild relatives reflect the effects of these forces and provide insights into germplasm structural diversity, the geographical dimension to species diversity and the process of domestication of wild organisms. This issue is also of great practical importance for crop improvement because wild germplasm represents a rich potential source of useful under-exploited alleles or allele combinations. The aim of the present study was to analyse a major Pisum germplasm collection to gain a broad understanding of the diversity and evolution of Pisum and provide a new rational framework for designing germplasm core collections of the genus. Results 3020 Pisum germplasm samples from the John Innes Pisum germplasm collection were genotyped for 45 retrotransposon based insertion polymorphism (RBIP) markers by the Tagged Array Marker (TAM) method. The data set was stored in a purpose-built Germinate relational database and analysed by both principal coordinate analysis and a nested application of the Structure program which yielded substantially similar but complementary views of the diversity of the genus Pisum. Structure revealed three Groups (1-3) corresponding approximately to landrace, cultivar and wild Pisum respectively, which were resolved by nested Structure analysis into 14 Sub-Groups, many of which correlate with taxonomic sub-divisions of Pisum, domestication related phenotypic traits and/or restricted geographical locations. Genetic distances calculated between these Sub-Groups are broadly supported by principal coordinate analysis and these, together with the trait and geographical data, were used to infer a detailed model for the domestication of Pisum. Conclusions These data provide a clear picture of the major distinct gene
Irie, Masahito; Koga, Akihiko; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ishino, Fumitoshi
Amongst the 11 eutherian-specific genes acquired from a sushi-ichi retrotransposon is the CCHC type zinc-finger protein-encoding gene SIRH11/ZCCHC16. Its contribution to eutherian brain evolution is implied because of its involvement in cognitive function in mice, possibly via the noradrenergic system. Although, the possibility that Sirh11/Zcchc16 functions as a non-coding RNA still remains, dN/dS ratios in pairwise comparisons between its orthologs have provided supportive evidence that it acts as a protein. It became a pseudogene in armadillos (Cingulata) and sloths (Pilosa), the only two extant orders of xenarthra, which prompted us to examine the lineage-specific variations of SIRH11/ZCCHC16 in eutherians. We examined the predicted SIRH11/ZCCHC16 open reading frame (ORF) in 95 eutherian species based on the genomic DNA information in GenBank. A large variation in the SIRH11/ZCCHC16 ORF was detected in several lineages. These include a lack of a CCHC RNA-binding domain in its C-terminus, observed in gibbons (Hylobatidae: Primates) and megabats (Megachiroptera: Chiroptera). A lack of the N-terminal half, on the other hand, was observed in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini: Primates) and species belonging to New World and African Hystricognaths (Caviomorpha and Bathyergidae: Rodents) along with Cetacea and Ruminantia (Cetartiodactyla). Among the hominoids, interestingly, three out of four genera of gibbons have lost normal SIRH11/ZCCHC16 function by deletion or the lack of the CCHC RNA-binding domain. Our extensive dN/dS analysis suggests that such truncated SIRH11/ZCCHC16 ORFs are functionally diversified even within lineages. Combined, our results show that SIRH11/ZCCHC16 may contribute to the diversification of eutherians by lineage-specific structural changes after its domestication in the common eutherian ancestor, followed by putative species-specific functional changes that enhanced fitness and occurred as a consequence of complex natural selection events
Blass, Eryn; Bell, Michael; Boissinot, Stéphane
The diversity and abundance of non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons (nLTR-RT) differ drastically among vertebrate genomes. At one extreme, the genome of placental mammals is littered with hundreds of thousands of copies resulting from the activity of a single clade of nLTR-RT, the L1 clade. In contrast, fish genomes contain a much more diverse repertoire of nLTR-RT, represented by numerous active clades and families. Yet, the number of nLTR-RT copies in teleostean fish is two orders of magnitude smaller than in mammals. The vast majority of insertions appear to be very recent, suggesting that nLTR-RT do not accumulate in fish genomes. This pattern had previously been explained by a high rate of turnover, in which the insertion of new elements is offset by the selective loss of deleterious inserts. The turnover model was proposed because of the similarity between fish and Drosophila genomes with regard to their nLTR-RT profile. However, it is unclear if this model applies to fish. In fact, a previous study performed on the puffer fish suggested that transposable element insertions behave as neutral alleles. Here we examined the dynamics of amplification of nLTR-RT in the three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). In this species, the vast majority of nLTR-RT insertions are relatively young, as suggested by their low level of divergence. Contrary to expectations, a majority of these insertions are fixed in lake and oceanic populations; thus, nLTR-RT do indeed accumulate in the genome of their fish host. This is not to say that nLTR-RTs are fully neutral, as the lack of fixed long elements in this genome suggests a deleterious effect related to their length. This analysis does not support the turnover model and strongly suggests that a much higher rate of DNA loss in fish than in mammals is responsible for the relatively small number of nLTR-RT copies and for the scarcity of ancient elements in fish genomes. We further demonstrate that nLTR-RT decay
Background Penelope-like elements (PLEs) are an enigmatic group of retroelements sharing a common ancestor with telomerase reverse transcriptases. In our previous studies, we identified endonuclease-deficient PLEs that are associated with telomeres in bdelloid rotifers, small freshwater invertebrates best known for their long-term asexuality and high foreign DNA content. Completion of the high-quality draft genome sequence of the bdelloid rotifer Adineta vaga provides us with the opportunity to examine its genomic transposable element (TE) content, as well as TE impact on genome function and evolution. Results We performed an exhaustive search of the A. vaga genome assembly, aimed at identification of canonical PLEs combining both the reverse transcriptase (RT) and the GIY-YIG endonuclease (EN) domains. We find that the RT/EN-containing Penelope families co-exist in the A. vaga genome with the EN-deficient RT-containing Athena retroelements. Canonical PLEs are present at very low copy numbers, often as a single-copy, and there is no evidence that they might preferentially co-mobilize EN-deficient PLEs. We also find that Penelope elements can participate in expansion of A. vaga multigene families via trans-action of their enzymatic machinery, as evidenced by identification of intron-containing host genes framed by the Penelope terminal repeats and characteristic target-site duplications generated upon insertion. In addition, we find that Penelope open reading frames (ORFs) in several families have incorporated long stretches of coding sequence several hundred amino acids (aa) in length that are highly enriched in asparagine residues, a phenomenon not observed in other retrotransposons. Conclusions Our results show that, despite their low abundance and low transcriptional activity in the A. vaga genome, endonuclease-containing Penelope elements can participate in expansion of host multigene families. We conclude that the terminal repeats represent the cis
The evolutionary course of the CsRn1 long-terminal-repeat (LTR) retrotransposon was predicted by conducting a phylogenetic analysis with its paralog LTR sequences. Based on the clustering patterns in the phylogenetic tree, multiple CsRn1 copies could be grouped into four subsets, which were shown to have different integration times. Their differential sequence divergences and heterogeneous integration patterns strongly suggested that these subsets appeared sequentially in the genome of C. sinensis. Members of recently expanding subset showed the lowest level of divergence in their LTR and reverse transcriptase gene sequences. They were also shown to be highly polymorphic among individual genomes of the trematode. The CsRn1 element exhibited a preference for repetitive, agenic chromosomal regions in terms of selecting integration targets. Our results suggested that CsRn1 might induce a considerable degree of intergenomic variation and, thereby, have influenced the evolution of the C. sinensis genome. PMID:14699262
Ott, Kristen M; Nguyen, Tram; Navarro, Caryn
Transposable selfish genetic elements have the potential to cause debilitating mutations as they replicate and reinsert within the genome. Therefore, it is critical to keep the cellular levels of these elements low. This is especially true in the germline where these mutations could affect the viability of the next generation. A class of small noncoding RNAs, the Piwi-associated RNAs, is responsible for silencing transposable elements in the germline of most organisms. Several proteins have been identified as playing essential roles in piRNA generation and transposon silencing. However, for the most part their function in piRNA generation is currently unknown. One of these proteins is the Drosophila melanogaster DExH box/Tudor domain protein Spindle-E, whose activity is necessary for the generation of most germline piRNAs. In this study we molecularly and phenotypically characterized 14 previously identified spindle-E alleles. Of the alleles that express detectable Spindle-E protein, we found that five had mutations in the DExH box domain. Additionally, we found that processes that depend on piRNA function, including Aubergine localization, Dynein motor movement, and retrotransposon silencing, were severely disrupted in alleles with DExH box domain mutations. The phenotype of many of these alleles is as severe as the strongest spindle-E phenotype, whereas alleles with mutations in other regions of Spindle-E did not affect these processes as much. From these data we conclude that the DExH box domain of Spindle-E is necessary for its function in the piRNA pathway and retrotransposon silencing.
Selinger, David A.; Chandler, Vicki L.
The maize (Zea mays) b1 gene encodes a transcription factor that regulates the anthocyanin pigment pathway. Of the b1 alleles with distinct tissue-specific expression, B-Peru and B-Bolivia are the only alleles that confer seed pigmentation. B-Bolivia produces variable and weaker seed expression but darker, more regular plant expression relative to B-Peru. Our experiments demonstrated that B-Bolivia is not expressed in the seed when transmitted through the male. When transmitted through the female the proportion of kernels pigmented and the intensity of pigment varied. Molecular characterization of B-Bolivia demonstrated that it shares the first 530 bp of the upstream region with B-Peru, a region sufficient for seed expression. Immediately upstream of 530 bp, B-Bolivia is completely divergent from B-Peru. These sequences share sequence similarity to retrotransposons. Transient expression assays of various promoter constructs identified a 33-bp region in B-Bolivia that can account for the reduced aleurone pigment amounts (40%) observed with B-Bolivia relative to B-Peru. Transgenic plants carrying the B-Bolivia promoter proximal region produced pigmented seeds. Similar to native B-Bolivia, some transgene loci are variably expressed in seeds. In contrast to native B-Bolivia, the transgene loci are expressed in seeds when transmitted through both the male and female. Some transgenic lines produced pigment in vegetative tissues, but the tissue-specificity was different from B-Bolivia, suggesting the introduced sequences do not contain the B-Bolivia plant-specific regulatory sequences. We hypothesize that the chromatin context of the B-Bolivia allele controls its epigenetic seed expression properties, which could be influenced by the adjacent highly repeated retrotransposon sequence. PMID:11244116
Xiong, Y.; Eickbush, T.H.
Two types of insertion elements, R1 and R2 (previously called type I and type II), are known to interrupt the 28S ribosomal genes of several insect species. In the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, each element occupies approximately 10% of the estimated 240 ribosomal DNA units, while at most only a few copies are located outside the ribosomal DNA units. The authors present here the complete nucleotide sequence of an R1 insertion from B. mori (R1Bm). This 5.1-kilobase element contains two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) which together occupy 88% of its length. ORF1 is 461 amino acids in length and exhibits characteristics of retroviral gag genes. ORF2 is 1,051 amino acids in length and contains homology to reverse transcriptase-like enzymes. The analysis of 3' and 5' ends of independent isolates from the ribosomal locus supports the suggestion that R1 is still functioning as a transposable element. The precise location of the element within the genome implies that its transposition must occur with remarkable insertion sequence specificity. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences from six retrotransposons, R1 and R2 of B. mori, I factor and F element of Drosophila melanogaster, L1 of Mus domesticus, and Ingi of Trypanosoma brucei, reveals a relatively high level of sequence homology in the reverse transcriptase region. Like R1, these elements lack long terminal repeats. The authors therefore named this class of related elements the non-long-terminal-repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons.
Anzai, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Fujiwara, Haruhiko
The telomere of the silkworm Bombyx mori consists of (TTAGG/CCTAA)n repeats and harbors a large number of telomeric repeat-specific non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons, such as TRAS1 and SART1. To understand how these retrotransposons recognize and integrate into the telomeric repeat in a sequence-specific manner, we expressed the apurinic-apryrimidinic endonuclease-like endonuclease domain of TRAS1 (TRAS1 EN), which is supposed to digest the target DNA, and characterized its enzymatic properties. Purified TRAS1 EN could generate specific nicks on both strands of the telomeric repeat sequence between T and A of the (TTAGG)n strand (bottom strand) and between C and T of the (CCTAA)n strand (top strand). These sites are consistent with insertion sites expected from the genomic structure of boundary regions of TRAS1. Time course studies of nicking activities on both strands revealed that the cleavages on the bottom strand preceded those on the top strand, supporting the target-primed reverse transcription model. TRAS1 EN could cleave the telomeric repeats specifically even if it was flanked by longer tracts of nontelomeric sequence, indicating that the target site specificity of the TRAS1 element was mainly determined by its EN domain. Based on mutation analyses, TRAS1 EN recognizes less than 10 bp around the initial cleavage site (upstream 7 bp and downstream 3 bp), and the GTTAG sequence especially is essential for the cleavage reaction on the bottom strand (5′. . . TTAGGTT ↓ AGG . . . 3′). TRAS1 EN, the first identified endonuclease digesting telomeric repeats, may be used as a genetic tool to shorten the telomere in insects and some other organisms. PMID:11113185
Marsano, R M; Marconi, S; Moschetti, R; Barsanti, P; Caggese, C; Caizzi, R
A homogeneous array of 80 tandem repeats of the Bari1 transposon is located in the pericentromeric h39 region of chromosome 2 of Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we report that the Bari1 cluster is interrupted by an 8556-bp insertion. DNA sequencing and database searches identified this insertion as a previously unannotated retrotransposon that we have named MAX. MAX possesses two ORFs; ORF1 putatively encodes a polyprotein comprising GAG and RT domains, while ORF2 could encode a 288-amino acid protein of unknown function. Alignment with the RT domains of known LTR retrotransposons shows that MAX belongs to the BEL-Pao family, which remarkable for its widespread presence in different taxa, including lower chordates. We have analyzed the distribution of MAX elements within representative species of the Sophophora subgroup and found that they are restricted to the species of the melanogaster complex, where they are heavily represented in the heterochromatin of all autosomes and on the Y chromosome.
Sistla, Srivani; Pang, Junxiong Vincent; Wang, Cui Xia; Balasundaram, David
The nucleoporin Nup124p is a host protein required for the nuclear import of both, retrotransposon Tf1-Gag as well as the retroviral HIV-1 Vpr in fission yeast. The human nucleoporin Nup153 and the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nup1p were identified as orthologs of Nup124p. In this study, we show that all three nucleoporins share a large FG/FXFG-repeat domain and a C-terminal peptide sequence, GRKIxxxxxRRKx, that are absolutely essential for Tf1 retrotransposition. Though the FXFG domain was essential, the FXFG repeats themselves could be eliminated without loss of retrotransposon activity, suggesting the existence of a common element unrelated to FG/FXFG motifs. The Nup124p C-terminal peptide, GRKIAVPRSRRKR, was extremely sensitive to certain single amino acid changes within stretches of the basic residues. On the basis of our comparative study of Nup124p, Nup1p, and Nup153 domains, we have developed peptides that specifically knockdown retrotransposon activity by disengaging the Tf1-Gag from its host nuclear transport machinery without any harmful consequence to the host itself. Our results imply that those domains challenged a specific pathway affecting Tf1 transposition. Although full-length Nup1p or Nup153 does not complement Nup124p, the functionality of their conserved domains with reference to Tf1 activity suggests that these three proteins evolved from a common ancestor.
Sistla, Srivani; Pang, Junxiong Vincent; Wang, Cui Xia
The nucleoporin Nup124p is a host protein required for the nuclear import of both, retrotransposon Tf1-Gag as well as the retroviral HIV-1 Vpr in fission yeast. The human nucleoporin Nup153 and the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nup1p were identified as orthologs of Nup124p. In this study, we show that all three nucleoporins share a large FG/FXFG-repeat domain and a C-terminal peptide sequence, GRKIxxxxxRRKx, that are absolutely essential for Tf1 retrotransposition. Though the FXFG domain was essential, the FXFG repeats themselves could be eliminated without loss of retrotransposon activity, suggesting the existence of a common element unrelated to FG/FXFG motifs. The Nup124p C-terminal peptide, GRKIAVPRSRRKR, was extremely sensitive to certain single amino acid changes within stretches of the basic residues. On the basis of our comparative study of Nup124p, Nup1p, and Nup153 domains, we have developed peptides that specifically knockdown retrotransposon activity by disengaging the Tf1-Gag from its host nuclear transport machinery without any harmful consequence to the host itself. Our results imply that those domains challenged a specific pathway affecting Tf1 transposition. Although full-length Nup1p or Nup153 does not complement Nup124p, the functionality of their conserved domains with reference to Tf1 activity suggests that these three proteins evolved from a common ancestor. PMID:17615301
Background Abdominal segment deformity disease (ASDD) of cultivated whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei causes economic loss of approximately 10% in affected specimens because of the unsightliness of distorted abdominal muscles. It is associated with the presence of viral-like particles seen by electron microscopy in the ventral nerve cords of affected shrimp. Thus, shotgun cloning was carried out to seek viral-like sequences in affected shrimp. Results A new retrovirus-like element of 5052 bp (named abdominal segment deformity element or ASDE) was compiled by shotgun cloning and 3′ and 5′ RACE using RNA and DNA extracted from ventral nerve cords of ASDD shrimp. ASDE contained 7 putative open reading frames (ORF). One ORF (called the PENS sub-domain), had a deduced amino acid (aa) sequence homologous to the GIY-YIG endonuclease domain of penelope-like retrotransposons while two others were homologous to the reverse transcriptase (RT) and RNaseH domains of the pol gene of non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons (called the NLRS sub-domain). No single amplicon of 5 kb containing both these elements was obtained by PCR or RT-PCR from ASDD shrimp. Subsequent analysis indicated that PENS and NLRS were not contiguous and that NLRS was a host genetic element. In situ hybridization using a dioxygenin-labeled NLRS probe revealed that NLRS gave positive reactions in abdominal-ganglion neurons of ASDD shrimp but not normal shrimp. Preliminary analysis indicated that long-term use of female broodstock after eyestalk ablation in the hatchery increased the intensity of RT-PCR amplicons for NLRS and also the prevalence of ASDD in mysis 3 offspring of the broodstock. The deformities persist upon further cultivation until shrimp harvest but do not increase in prevalence and do not affect growth or survival. Conclusions Our results suggested that NLRS is a shrimp genetic element associated with ASDD and that immediate preventative measures could include
Kaneko, Miyuki; Inukai, Yoshiaki; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Itoh, Hironori; Izawa, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Yuhko; Hattori, Tsukaho; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto
GAMYB was first isolated as a positive transcriptional regulator of gibberellin (GA)-dependent α-amylase expression in barley aleurone cells, and its molecular and biochemical properties have been well characterized. However, the role of GAMYB elsewhere in the plant is not well understood. To investigate the molecular function of GAMYB outside of the aleurone cells, we isolated loss-of-function mutants from a panel of rice mutants produced by the insertion of a retrotransposon, Tos17. Through PCR screening using primers for rice GAMYB (OsGAMYB) and Tos17, we isolated three independent mutant alleles that contained Tos17 inserted in the exon region. No α-amylase expression in the endosperm was induced in these mutants in response to GA treatment, indicating that the Tos17 insertion had knocked out OsGAMYB function. We found no significant defects in the growth and development of the mutants at the vegetative stage. After the phase transition to the reproductive stage, however, shortened internodes and defects in floral organ development, especially a defect in pollen development, were observed. On the other hand, no difference was detected in flowering time. High-level OsGAMYB expression was detected in the aleurone cells, inflorescence shoot apical region, stamen primordia, and tapetum cells of the anther, but only low-level expression occurred in organs at the vegetative stage or in the elongating stem. These results demonstrate that, in addition to its role in the induction of α-amylase in aleurone, OsGAMYB also is important for floral organ development and essential for pollen development. PMID:14688295
Luchetti, Andrea; Mingazzini, Valentina; Mantovani, Barbara
The 28S rRNA genes of several metazoans are interrupted by site-specific targeting non-LTR retrotransposons, such as R2. R2 elements have been deeply analyzed but aspects of their retrotransposition mechanism and the origin of the wide diversity observed are still debated. We characterized six new R2 lineages in four tadpole shrimp species (Notostraca), samples deriving from a parthenogenetic population of Triops cancriformis (R2Tc_it) and from bisexual Lepidurus populations of L. lubbocki (R2Ll), L. couesii (R2LcA, R2LcB, R2LcC) and L. arcticus (R2La). All elements fit the canonical R2 structure but R2Ll which turned out to be a chimera with an additional ORF originating from another R2. Consistently with data on LINEs, R2Ll could be the result of recombination due to reverse transcriptase template jump. The analysis of 28S/R2 5' end junctions further suggests aberrant homologous recombination, as observed in RNA viruses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yi-Brunozzi, Hye Young; Brinson, Robert G.; Brabazon, Danielle M.; Lener, Daniela; Le Grice, Stuart F.J.; Marino, John P.
Summary A purine-rich region of the plus-strand RNA genome of retroviruses and long terminal repeat (LTR)-containing retrotransposons, known as the polypurine tract (PPT), is resistant to hydrolysis by the RNase H domain of reverse transcriptase (RT) and ultimately serves as a primer for plus-strand DNA synthesis. The mechanisms underlying PPT resistance and selective processing remain largely unknown. Here, two RNA/DNA hybrids derived from the PPTs of HIV-1 and Ty3 were probed using high-resolution NMR for preexisting structural distortions in the absence of RT. The PPTs were selectively modified through base-pair changes or by incorporation of the thymine isostere, 2,4-difluoro-5-methyl-benzene (dF), into the DNA strand. Although both wild-type (WT) and mutated hybrids adopted global A-form-like helical geometries, observed structural perturbations in the base-pair and dF-modified hybrids suggested that the PPT hybrids may function as structurally coupled domains. PMID:18355725
Tapia, Gerardo; Verdugo, Isabel; Yañez, Mónica; Ahumada, Iván; Theoduloz, Cristina; Cordero, Cecilia; Poblete, Fernando; González, Enrique; Ruiz-Lara, Simón
The TLC1 family is one of the four families of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons identified in the genome of Lycopersicon chilense. Here, we show that this family of retroelements is transcriptionally active and its expression is induced in response to diverse stress conditions such as wounding, protoplast preparation, and high salt concentrations. Several stress-associated signaling molecules, including ethylene, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, are capable of inducing TLC1 family expression in vivo. A representative of this family, named TLC1.1, was isolated from a genomic library from L. chilense. Transient expression assays in leaf protoplasts and stably transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants demonstrate that the U3 domain of the 5′-LTR region of this element can drive stress-induced transcriptional activation of the β-glucuronidase reporter gene. Two 57-bp tandem repeated sequences are found in this region, including an 8-bp motif, ATTTCAAA, previously identified as an ethylene-responsive element box in the promoter region of ethylene-induced genes. Expression analysis of wild-type LTR and single and double ethylene-responsive element box mutants fused to the β-glucuronidase gene shows that these elements are required for ethylene-responsive gene expression in protoplasts and transgenic plants. We suggest that ethylene-dependent signaling is the main signaling pathway involved in the regulation of the expression of the TLC1.1 element from L. chilense. PMID:16040666
El Hage, Aziz; Webb, Shaun; Kerr, Alastair; Tollervey, David
During transcription, the nascent RNA can invade the DNA template, forming extended RNA-DNA duplexes (R-loops). Here we employ ChIP-seq in strains expressing or lacking RNase H to map targets of RNase H activity throughout the budding yeast genome. In wild-type strains, R-loops were readily detected over the 35S rDNA region, transcribed by Pol I, and over the 5S rDNA, transcribed by Pol III. In strains lacking RNase H activity, R-loops were elevated over other Pol III genes, notably tRNAs, SCR1 and U6 snRNA, and were also associated with the cDNAs of endogenous TY1 retrotransposons, which showed increased rates of mobility to the 5′-flanking regions of tRNA genes. Unexpectedly, R-loops were also associated with mitochondrial genes in the absence of RNase H1, but not of RNase H2. Finally, R-loops were detected on actively transcribed protein-coding genes in the wild-type, particularly over the second exon of spliced ribosomal protein genes. PMID:25357144
del Carmen Seleme, Maria; Disson, Olivier; Robin, Stéphanie; Brun, Christine; Teninges, Danielle; Bucheton, Alain
According to the current model of non-LTR retrotransposon (NLR) mobilization, co-expression of the RNA transposition intermediate, and the proteins it encodes (ORF1p and ORF2p), is a requisite for the formation of cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes which contain necessary elements to complete a retrotransposition cycle later in the nucleus. To understand these early processes of NLR mobilization, here we analyzed in vivo the protein and RNA expression patterns of the I factor, a model NLR in Drosophila. We show that ORF1p and I factor RNA, specifically produced during transposition, are co-expressed and tightly co-localize with a specific pattern (Loc+) exclusively in the cytoplasm of germ cells permissive for retrotransposition. Using an ORF2 mutated I factor, we show that ORF2p plays no role in the Loc+ patterning. With deletion derivatives of an I factor we define an RNA localization signal required to display the Loc+ pattern. Finally, by complementation experiments we show that ORF1p is necessary for the efficient localization of I factor RNA. Our data suggest that ORF1p is involved in proper folding and stabilization of I factor RNA for efficient targeting, through Loc+ patterning, to the nuclear neighborhood where downstream steps of the retrotransposition process occur. PMID:15687386
Grapevine retrotransposons belonging to the Tvv1 family share a single, highly conserved open reading frame but differ by their untranslated leader (UTL) region, which is highly variable in size. Amplification of the UTL region of Tvv1 elements from 94 Vitaceae accessions reveals that each of them shows a unique pattern of UTL-derived bands, which is inherited in progenies but conserved between clones vegetatively propagated. The overall organization of genetic diversity of the Vitaceae at the inter and intraspecific level and relatedness among accessions described by UTL-derived bands was compared to those obtained using 15 microsatellite loci. Both fingerprinting methods show a similar grouping of Vitis vinifera accessions but UTL-based fingerprinting more accurately isolates the muscadine grapes from the American and Asian Vitis. Finally, sequence analysis of seven UTL regions determines that their size variation is essentially caused by large deletions/insertions within the internal region, whereas flanking regions are more conserved. UTL-based fingerprinting could be considered as a novel marker system specific of the genus Vitis; moreover, as this multiband genotype is stable between clones it is suitable to be used as a "DNA barcode" for Vitis identification.