Science.gov

Sample records for copy images ii

  1. Digital image forensics for photographic copying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jing; Fang, Yanmei

    2012-03-01

    Image display technology has greatly developed over the past few decades, which make it possible to recapture high-quality images from the display medium, such as a liquid crystal display(LCD) screen or a printed paper. The recaptured images are not regarded as a separate image class in the current research of digital image forensics, while the content of the recaptured images may have been tempered. In this paper, two sets of features based on the noise and the traces of double JPEG compression are proposed to identify these recaptured images. Experimental results showed that our proposed features perform well for detecting photographic copying.

  2. Teaching Ad Copy--I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welty, Ward; Vanden Bergh, Bruce G.

    1981-01-01

    Ward Welty notes that the standard advertising course could be improved by including a unit of study in rhetoric, especially Aristotelian rhetoric. Bruce Vanden Bergh reports on research on the differences in creating advertising copy for radio versus the visual media of magazines, newspapers, and television. (RL)

  3. Copy-move forgery detection in digital image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alamro, Loai; Yusoff, Nooraini

    2016-08-01

    Copy-move is considered as one of the most popular kind of digital image tempering, in which one or more parts of a digital image are copied and pasted into different locations. Geometric transformation is among the major challenges in detecting copy-move forgery of a digital image. In such forgery, the copied and moved parts of a forged image are either rotated or/and re-scaled. Hence, in this study we propose a combination of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) to detect a copy-move activity. The experiments results prove that the proposed method is superior with overall accuracy 95%. The copy-move attacks in digital image has been successfully detected and the method is also can detect the fraud parts exposed to rotation and scaling issue.

  4. Detecting Copy Move Forgery In Digital Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ashima; Saxena, Nisheeth; Vasistha, S. K.

    2012-03-01

    In today's world several image manipulation software's are available. Manipulation of digital images has become a serious problem nowadays. There are many areas like medical imaging, digital forensics, journalism, scientific publications, etc, where image forgery can be done very easily. To determine whether a digital image is original or doctored is a big challenge. To find the marks of tampering in a digital image is a challenging task. The detection methods can be very useful in image forensics which can be used as a proof for the authenticity of a digital image. In this paper we propose the method to detect region duplication forgery by dividing the image into overlapping block and then perform searching to find out the duplicated region in the image.

  5. Color hard copy requirements for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cargill, Ellen B.

    1995-04-01

    Traditionally, color mapping has not been utilized for diagnostic medical imaging. Color mapping was not possible prior to the emergence of electronic imaging modalities. Diagnostic imaging is considered in view of its purpose and goals as distinguished from photographic and scientific imaging. The applications for color in digital imaging modalities are discussed, as well as research directions for color utilized as a means of increasing the information density available to an observer. Requirements for color hardcopy are discussed.

  6. Copy image of "'Under the Great Arch' of Refectory Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Copy image of "'Under the Great Arch' of Refectory Bridge connecting the Dining Room with the Practice House, Delta, and the Villa. The Refectory Cloister is seen beyond the arch"; a similar, but recent, view can be seen in MD-1109-A-16. (NPS view book, p. 25) - National Park Seminary, Main, Linden Lane, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  7. Photographic copy of computer enhanced color photographic image. Photographer and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of computer enhanced color photographic image. Photographer and computer draftsman unknown. Original photographic image located in the office of Modjeski and Masters, Consulting Engineers at 1055 St. Charles Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70130. COMPUTER ENHANCED COLOR PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING THE PROPOSED HUEY P. LONG BRIDGE WIDENING LOOKING FROM THE WEST BANK TOWARD THE EAST BANK. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  8. Robust labeling methods for copy protection of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langelaar, Gerhard C.; van der Lubbe, Jan C. A.; Lagendijk, Reginald L.

    1997-01-01

    In the European project SMASH a mass multimedia storage device for home usage is being developed. The success of such a storage system depends not only on technical advances, but also on the existence of an adequate copy protection method. Copy protection for visual data requires fast and robust labeling techniques. In this paper, two new labeling techniques are proposed. The first method extends an existing spatial labeling technique. This technique divides the image into blocks and searches an optimal label- embedding level for each block instead of using a fixed embedding-level for the complete image. The embedding-level for each block is dependent on a lower quality JPEG compressed version of the labeled block. The second method removes high frequency DCT-coefficients in some areas to embed a label. A JPEG quality factor and the local image structure determine how many coefficients are discarded during the labeling process. Using both methods a perceptually invisible label of a few hundred bits was embedded in a set of true color images. The label added by the spatial method is very robust against JPEG compression. However, this method is not suitable for real-time applications. Although the second DCT-based method is slightly less resistant to JPEG compression, it is more resistant to line-shifting and cropping than the first one and is suitable for real-time labeling.

  9. Internet Image Viewer (iiV)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joel T; Munch, Kristin R; Carlis, John V; Pardo, José V

    2008-01-01

    Background Visualizing 3-dimensional (3-D) datasets is an important part of modern neuroimaging research. Many tools address this problem; however, they often fail to address specific needs and flexibility, such as the ability to work with different data formats, to control how and what data are displayed, to interact with values, and to undo mistakes. Results iiV, an interactive software program for displaying 3-D brain images, is described. This tool was programmed to solve basic problems in 3-D data visualization. It is written in Java so it is extensible, is platform independent, and can display images within web pages. iiV displays 3-D images as 2-dimensional (2-D) slices with each slice being an independent object with independent features such as location, zoom, colors, labels, etc. Feature manipulation becomes easier by having a full set of editing capabilities including the following: undo or redo changes; drag, copy, delete and paste objects; and save objects with their features to a file for future editing. It can read multiple standard positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) file formats like ECAT, ECAT7, ANALYZE, NIfTI-1 and DICOM. We present sample applications to illustrate some of the features and capabilities. Conclusion iiV is an image display tool with many useful features. It is highly extensible, platform independent, and web-compatible. This report summarizes its features and applications, while illustrating iiV's usefulness to the biomedical imaging community. PMID:18510765

  10. Aviation Pilot Training I & II. Flight Syllabus. Field Review Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upchurch, Richard

    This guide for aviation pilot training I and II begins with a course description, resource information, and a course outline. The syllabus is designed to be used concurrently with the ground school program. A minimum of 29 flights are scheduled with a minimum of 40 hours total flight time. Tasks/competencies are categorized into five concept/duty…

  11. Single-image hard copy display of musculoskeletal digital radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legendre, Kevin; Steller Artz, Dorothy E.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1995-04-01

    Screen film radiography often fails to optimally display all regions of anatomy on muskuloskeletal exams due to the wide latitude of tissue densities present. Various techniques of image enhancement have been applied to such exams using computerized radiography but with limited success in improving visualization of structures whose final optical density lies at the extremes of the interpretable range of the film. An existing algorithm for compressing optical density extremes known as dynamic range compression has been used to increase the radiodensity of the retrocardiac region of the chest or to decrease the radiodensity of the edge of the breast in digital mammography. In the skeletal system, there are regions where a single image may contain both areas of decreased exposure that result in light images and areas of higher exposure that result in dark regions of the image. Faced with this problem, the senior author asked Fuji to formulate a modification of the DRC process that incorporates a combination of the curves used for chest and breast images. The newly designed algorithm can thus simultaneously lower the optical density of dark regions of the image and increase the optical density of the less exposed regions. The results of this modification of the DRC algorithm are presented in this paper.

  12. Aviation Pilot Training II. Task Analyses: [Year II.] Field Review Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upchurch, Richard

    This guide for aviation pilot II training begins with a course description, resource information, and a course outline. Tasks/competencies are categorized into 10 concept/duty areas: understanding aircraft staffs and procedures for safe recovery; understanding procedures for constant altitude turns; understanding procedures for traffic pattern…

  13. Shared and differential neural substrates of copying versus drawing: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Ferber, Susanne; Mraz, Richard; Baker, Nicole; Graham, Simon J

    2007-07-16

    Copying and drawing-from-memory tasks are popular clinical tests to assess visuo-motor skills in neurological patients. The tasks share some motor and visual processes; however, they differ substantially in their cognitive demands. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify brain regions underlying processes involved in these tasks while avoiding confounds related to basic motor requirements, through use of a specially developed functional magnetic resonance imaging-compatible computer tablet. For the copying task, activation was observed in brain regions subserving visual processing and crossmodal attention (e.g. left lingual gyrus, cuneus). Drawing activated the anterior cingulate, an area associated with motor control and linking intention with action. These findings suggest distinct neural networks subserving copying and drawing.

  14. Far upstream regions of class II MHC Ea are necessary for position-independent, copy-dependent expression of Ea transgene.

    PubMed Central

    Carson, S; Wiles, M V

    1993-01-01

    The chromatin upstream of the class II MHC Ea gene contains specific, DNase I hypersensitive (DH) sites (groups I-V), overlapping and extending the promoter proximal and distal control regions. To determine whether the Ea DH groups I-V define a functionally important chromatin domain or locus control region (LCR), we have used wild type Ead gene constructs to generate transgenic mouse lines from strains that do not express an endogenous Ea gene product. Constructs contained either DH groups I-V 'Longs' or DH groups I-II 'Shorts', of the hypersensitive sites defined within 20 kb 5' of Ea. We show that position-independent, copy number-dependent expression of the Ead gene occurs only with the Long construct (8/8 transgenic mouse lines, over a range of copy numbers, 1-30 copies); in contrast, the Short constructs are subject to position-dependent effects. This suggests that the region delineated by Ea DH groups I-II is necessary but not sufficient as an LCR, which requires the presence of the upstream regions containing DH III-V for complete position-independent, copy number-dependent expression. These results introduce an immunologically-important, putative LCR which can be used to target genes to cells of the B cell lineage, as well as to other class II MHC expressing cells, and highlight the importance of chromatin structure analysis as a means to locate DNA regions of regulatory interest which are dispersed over a large distance. Images PMID:8502547

  15. Research on Copy-Move Image Forgery Detection Using Features of Discrete Polar Complex Exponential Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yanfen; Zhong, Junliu

    2015-12-01

    With the aid of sophisticated photo-editing software, such as Photoshop, copy-move image forgery operation has been widely applied and has become a major concern in the field of information security in the modern society. A lot of work on detecting this kind of forgery has gained great achievements, but the detection results of geometrical transformations of copy-move regions are not so satisfactory. In this paper, a new method based on the Polar Complex Exponential Transform is proposed. This method addresses issues in image geometric moment, focusing on constructing rotation invariant moment and extracting features of the rotation invariant moment. In order to reduce rounding errors of the transform from the Polar coordinate system to the Cartesian coordinate system, a new transformation method is presented and discussed in detail at the same time. The new method constructs a 9 × 9 shrunk template to transform the Cartesian coordinate system back to the Polar coordinate system. It can reduce transform errors to a much greater degree. Forgery detection, such as copy-move image forgery detection, is a difficult procedure, but experiments prove our method is a great improvement in detecting and identifying forgery images affected by the rotated transform.

  16. Passive forensics for copy-move image forgery using a method based on DCT and SVD.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Guo, Jichang

    2013-12-10

    As powerful image editing tools are widely used, the demand for identifying the authenticity of an image is much increased. Copy-move forgery is one of the tampering techniques which are frequently used. Most existing techniques to expose this forgery need to improve the robustness for common post-processing operations and fail to precisely locate the tampering region especially when there are large similar or flat regions in the image. In this paper, a robust method based on DCT and SVD is proposed to detect this specific artifact. Firstly, the suspicious image is divided into fixed-size overlapping blocks and 2D-DCT is applied to each block, then the DCT coefficients are quantized by a quantization matrix to obtain a more robust representation of each block. Secondly, each quantized block is divided non-overlapping sub-blocks and SVD is applied to each sub-block, then features are extracted to reduce the dimension of each block using its largest singular value. Finally, the feature vectors are lexicographically sorted, and duplicated image blocks will be matched by predefined shift frequency threshold. Experiment results demonstrate that our proposed method can effectively detect multiple copy-move forgery and precisely locate the duplicated regions, even when an image was distorted by Gaussian blurring, AWGN, JPEG compression and their mixed operations.

  17. Functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity analyses reveal efference-copy to primary somatosensory area, BA2.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fang; Arnstein, Dan; Thomas, Rajat Mani; Maurits, Natasha M; Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Some theories of motor control suggest efference-copies of motor commands reach somatosensory cortices. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to test these models. We varied the amount of efference-copy signal by making participants squeeze a soft material either actively or passively. We found electromyographical recordings, an efference-copy proxy, to predict activity in primary somatosensory regions, in particular Brodmann Area (BA) 2. Partial correlation analyses confirmed that brain activity in cortical structures associated with motor control (premotor and supplementary motor cortices, the parietal area PF and the cerebellum) predicts brain activity in BA2 without being entirely mediated by activity in early somatosensory (BA3b) cortex. Our study therefore provides valuable empirical evidence for efference-copy models of motor control, and shows that signals in BA2 can indeed reflect an input from motor cortices and suggests that we should interpret activations in BA2 as evidence for somatosensory-motor rather than somatosensory coding alone.

  18. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Connectivity Analyses Reveal Efference-Copy to Primary Somatosensory Area, BA2

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Fang; Arnstein, Dan; Thomas, Rajat Mani; Maurits, Natasha M.; Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Some theories of motor control suggest efference-copies of motor commands reach somatosensory cortices. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to test these models. We varied the amount of efference-copy signal by making participants squeeze a soft material either actively or passively. We found electromyographical recordings, an efference-copy proxy, to predict activity in primary somatosensory regions, in particular Brodmann Area (BA) 2. Partial correlation analyses confirmed that brain activity in cortical structures associated with motor control (premotor and supplementary motor cortices, the parietal area PF and the cerebellum) predicts brain activity in BA2 without being entirely mediated by activity in early somatosensory (BA3b) cortex. Our study therefore provides valuable empirical evidence for efference-copy models of motor control, and shows that signals in BA2 can indeed reflect an input from motor cortices and suggests that we should interpret activations in BA2 as evidence for somatosensory-motor rather than somatosensory coding alone. PMID:24416222

  19. Improved DCT-based detection of copy-move forgery in images.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanping; Lu, Wei; Sun, Wei; Long, Dongyang

    2011-03-20

    Techniques for digital image tampering are becoming more and more sophisticated and widespread. Copy-move forgery is one of the tampering techniques that are frequently used. In this paper, an improved DCT-based method is developed to detect this specific artifact. Firstly, the image is divided into fixed-size overlapping blocks and, DCT is applied to each block to represent its features. Truncating is employed to reduce the dimension of the features. Then the feature vectors are lexicographically sorted and, duplicated image blocks will be neighboring in the sorted list. Thus duplicated image blocks will be compared in the matching step. To make the method more robust, a scheme to judge whether two feature vectors are similar is imported. Experiment results demonstrated that the proposed method can detect the duplicated regions even when an image was distorted by JPEG compression, blurring or additive white Gaussian noise.

  20. TRIIG - Time-lapse reproduction of images through interactive graphics. [digital processing of quality hard copy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckner, J. D.; Council, H. W.; Edwards, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    Description of the hardware and software implementing the system of time-lapse reproduction of images through interactive graphics (TRIIG). The system produces a quality hard copy of processed images in a fast and inexpensive manner. This capability allows for optimal development of processing software through the rapid viewing of many image frames in an interactive mode. Three critical optical devices are used to reproduce an image: an Optronics photo reader/writer, the Adage Graphics Terminal, and Polaroid Type 57 high speed film. Typical sources of digitized images are observation satellites, such as ERTS or Mariner, computer coupled electron microscopes for high-magnification studies, or computer coupled X-ray devices for medical research.

  1. The gray-scale ink-jet printer: value in making hard copies of digital images.

    PubMed

    Combs, M J; Snell, J; Cail, W S; Maier, T; Buck, D A

    1995-01-01

    Referring physicians often are supplied with copies of images to illustrate a report of the findings of a radiologic study or so that the radiologist can retain the original images. The increasing costs of production, film, and recovery of chemicals have enhanced the requirement for a clean, low-cost dry printing process. An ink-jet gray-scale paper printer (Unitone, Scitex Medical Systems, Bedford, MA) can print high-quality (300 dots per inch [dpi]) images with an effective 10-bit gray scale range by using the Hertz continuous ink-jet method [1-3], which does not require the use of a darkroom or hazardous chemicals. Several types of media (matte paper, glossy paper, transparency film) with a printing area of 26.9 x 43.7 cm (10.6 x 17.4 inches) may be used. The consumables are approximately 50-70% less expensive than the cost of silver halide film, providing a cost advantage over film for referral and archival copies. The results of an initial evaluation of the ink-jet printer at our institution are reported here.

  2. Single-image hard-copy display of the spine utilizing digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, Dorothy S.; Janchar, Timothy; Milzman, David; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1997-04-01

    Regions of the entire spine contain a wide latitude of tissue densities within the imaged field of view presenting a problem for adequate radiological evaluation. With screen/film technology, the optimal technique for one area of the radiograph is sub-optimal for another area. Computed radiography (CR) with its inherent wide dynamic range, has been shown to be better than screen/film for lateral cervical spine imaging, but limitations are still present with standard image processing. By utilizing a dynamic range control (DRC) algorithm based on unsharp masking and signal transformation prior to gradation and frequency processing within the CR system, more vertebral bodies can be seen on a single hard copy display of the lateral cervical, thoracic, and thoracolumbar examinations. Examinations of the trauma cross-table lateral cervical spine, lateral thoracic spine, and lateral thoracolumbar spine were collected on live patient using photostimulable storage phosphor plates, the Fuji FCR 9000 reader, and the Fuji AC-3 computed radiography reader. Two images were produced from a single exposure; one with standard image processing and the second image with the standard process and the additional DRC algorithm. Both sets were printed from a Fuji LP 414 laser printer. Two different DRC algorithms were applied depending on which portion of the spine was not well visualized. One algorithm increased optical density and the second algorithm decreased optical density. The resultant image pairs were then reviewed by a panel of radiologists. Images produced with the additional DRC algorithm demonstrated improved visualization of previously 'under exposed' and 'over exposed' regions within the same image. Where lung field had previously obscured bony detail of the lateral thoracolumbar spine due to 'over exposure,' the image with the DRC applied to decrease the optical density allowed for easy visualization of the entire area of interest. For areas of the lateral cervical spine

  3. Computer Based Direct Digital Film Recording For Hard Copy Of Medical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Bruce S.

    1984-06-01

    With the introduction of digital medical imaging modalities and picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) the necessary and desirable capabilities of a film recorder for hard-copy output will vary from the specifications of the current video-based recorder. Image data can be presented to the film recorder in a digital rather than analog video format. The resulting film image is no longer subject to degradation due to nonlinearities in the video portion of the recorder. Spatial resolution is also greatly enhanced (4096 x 4096 pixels). The inherent data processing capabilities of the digital film recorder allow a number of additional functions to be performed internally. Features of the system to be discussed include automatic calibration, automatic failure diagnosis, data compression and expansion, data error detection and correction, gamma and exposure compensation, alphanumeric and graphic frame identification, graphic image recording (EKG, EEG, EMG), color capability, data format conversion, multi-format multi-modality sequences, print spooling from multiple image sources and direct connection to a PACS network.

  4. Preparing Colorful Astronomical Images II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levay, Z. G.; Frattare, L. M.

    2002-12-01

    We present additional techniques for using mainstream graphics software (Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator) to produce composite color images and illustrations from astronomical data. These techniques have been used on numerous images from the Hubble Space Telescope to produce photographic, print and web-based products for news, education and public presentation as well as illustrations for technical publication. We expand on a previous paper to present more detail and additional techniques, taking advantage of new or improved features available in the latest software versions. While Photoshop is not intended for quantitative analysis of full dynamic range data (as are IRAF or IDL, for example), we have had much success applying Photoshop's numerous, versatile tools to work with scaled images, masks, text and graphics in multiple semi-transparent layers and channels.

  5. Image copy-move forgery detection based on sped-up robust features descriptor and adaptive minimal-maximal suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Sun, Xingming; Xin, Xiangyang; Hu, Weifeng; Wu, Youxin

    2015-11-01

    Region duplication is a simple and effective operation to create digital image forgeries, where a continuous portion of pixels in an image is copied and pasted to a different location in the same image. Many prior copy-move forgery detection methods suffer from their inability to detect the duplicated region, which is subjected to various geometric transformations. A keypoint-based approach is proposed to detect the copy-move forgery in an image. Our method starts by extracting the keypoints through a fast Hessian detector. Then the adaptive minimal-maximal suppression (AMMS) strategy is developed for distributing the keypoints evenly throughout an image. By using AMMS and a sped-up robust feature descriptor, the proposed method is able to deal with the problem of insufficient keypoints in the almost uniform area. Finally, the geometric transformation performed in cloning is recovered by using the maximum likelihood estimation of the homography. Experimental results show the efficacy of this technique in detecting copy-move forgeries and estimating the geometric transformation parameters. Compared with the state of the art, our approach obtains a higher true positive rate and a lower false positive rate.

  6. The Value of Imaging Part II: Value beyond Image Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' value, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the value of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate value beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive value, research that demonstrates the value of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported.

  7. The Value of Imaging Part II: Value beyond Image Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' value, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the value of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate value beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive value, research that demonstrates the value of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported. PMID:26683509

  8. Zodiac II: Debris Disk Imaging Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub Wesley; Bryden, Geoff; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Chen, Pin; Trauger, John

    2011-01-01

    Zodiac II is a proposed coronagraph on a balloon-borne platform, for the purpose of observing debris disks around nearby stars. Zodiac II will have a 1.2-m diameter telescope mounted in a balloon-borne gondola capable of arcsecond quality pointing, and with the capability to make long-duration (several week) flights. Zodiac II will have a coronagraph able to make images of debris disks, meaning that its scattered light speckles will be at or below an average contrast level of about 10(exp -7) in three narrow (7 percent) bands centered on the V band, and one broad (20%) one at I band. We will discuss the potential science to be done with Zodiac II.

  9. Comparative evaluation of cephalometric measurements of monitor-displayed images by Nemoceph software and its hard copy by manual tracing

    PubMed Central

    Tikku, Tripti; Khanna, Rohit; Maurya, R.P.; Srivastava, Kamna; Bhushan, Rastra

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the cephalometric measurements obtained from computerized tracing of direct digital radiographs and hand tracing of their digital radiographic printouts. Material and methods The soft- and hard-copies of pre-treatment lateral cephalograms of 40 subjects (both males and females) within the age group of 10–30 years, irrespective of the type of malocclusion were taken. Total 26 measurements (13 linear and 13 angular) were obtained using both the manual and the digital technique. Results Amongst the linear measurements, Anterior facial height (AFH), Posterior facial height (PFH), Upper lip length (ULL), Lower lip length (LLL), Anterior cranial base length (ACBL), Posterior cranial base length (PCBL), Maxillary length (MxL), Mandibular length (MdL), Lower incisor to NB line (L1 to NB) and Lower lip protrusion (LLP) showed statistically significant difference between the two techniques but were clinically acceptable (difference between the digital and manual technique were less than 2 units (1 unit = 1 mm for linear measurements and 1° for angular measurements). While amongst the angular measurements, only occlusal plane angle showed statistically significant difference between the two techniques that was not clinically acceptable. Conclusion Digital measurements obtained from monitor-displayed images (soft copy) were found to be reproducible and comparable to the manual method done on its hard copy, for all the measurements except occlusal plane angle (SN-occlusal plane). PMID:25737917

  10. The ELISE II Project: A Digital Image Library for Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunz, Bob; Waters, Mairead

    This paper describes the progress made under the ELISE II electronic image library project from a technical standpoint. The ELISE II project is a European-wide initiative that aims to provide a comprehensive electronic image library service for Europe. It is funded under the European Commission, DG XIII-E, Telematics for Libraries Initiative. The…

  11. Multispectral imaging with type II superlattice detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyawansa, Gamini; Duran, Joshua M.; Grupen, Matt; Scheihing, John E.; Nelson, Thomas R.; Eismann, Michael T.

    2012-06-01

    Infrared (IR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) with multispectral detector elements promise significant advantages for airborne threat warning, surveillance, and targeting applications. At present, the use of type II superlattice (T2SL) structures based on the 6.1Å-family materials (InAs, GaSb, and AlSb) has become an area of interest for developing IR detectors and their FPAs. The ability to vary the bandgap in the IR range, suppression of Auger processes, prospective reduction of Shockley-Read-Hall centers by improved material growth capabilities, and the material stability are a few reasons for the predicted dominance of the T2SL technology over presently leading HgCdTe and quantum well technologies. The focus of the work reported here is on the development of T2SL based dual-band IR detectors and their applicability for multispectral imaging. A new NpBPN detector designed for the detection of IR in the 3-5 and 8-12 μm atmospheric windows is presented; comparing its advantages over other T2SL based approaches. One of the key challenges of the T2SL dual-band detectors is the spectral crosstalk associated with the LWIR band. The properties of the state-of-the-art T2SLs (i.e., absorption coefficient, minority carrier lifetime and mobility, etc.) and the present growth limitations that impact spectral crosstalk are discussed.

  12. Active stable maintenance functions in low copy-number plasmids of Gram-positive bacteria II. Post-segregational killing systems.

    PubMed

    Dmowski, Michał; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

    2013-01-01

    Active support is needed for low copy-number plasmids to be stably maintained in bacterial cells. The mechanisms that fulfill this role are (i) partition systems (PAR) acting to separate plasmid molecules to daughter cells and (ii) toxin-andidote (TA) (post-segregational killing-PSK) systems which arrest cell growth until the plasmid reaches the correct copy-number or kill the cells that have not inherited the plasmid. Our knowledge of toxin-antidote systems comes mainly from studies on Gram-negative bacteria. However, some addiction systems of Gram-positive bacteria have been characterized in detail or recently identified. Altogether, they bring new interesting data on toxin-antidote functioning in bacteria.

  13. A population genetic study of the evolution of SINEs. II. Sequence evolution under the master copy model

    SciTech Connect

    Tachida, Hidenori

    1996-06-01

    A transient population genetic model of SINE (short interspersed repetitive element) evolution is presented, assuming the master copy model is theoretically investigated. Means and variances of consensus frequency of nucleotides, nucleotide homozygosity, and the number of shared differences that are considered to have been caused by mutations occurring in the master copy lineages are computed. All quantities investigated are shown to be monotone functions of the duration of the expansion period. Thus, they can be used to estimate the expansion period although their sampling variances are generally large. Using the theoretical results, the Sb subfamily of human Alu sequences is analyzed. First, the expansion period is estimated from the observed mean and variance of homozygosity. The expansion period is shown to be short compared to the time since the end of the expansion of the subfamily. However, the observed number of the shared differences is more than twice that expected under the master copy model with the estimated expansion period. Alternative models to explain this observation are discussed, including one with multiple master copy loci. 38 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Evaluation of the image quality of ink-jet printed paper copies of digital chest radiographs as compared with film: a receiver operating characteristic study.

    PubMed

    Lyttkens, K; Kirkhorn, T; Kehler, M; Andersson, B; Ebbesen, A; Hochbergs, P; Jarlman, O; Lindberg, C G; Holmer, N G

    1994-05-01

    Paper copies of digital radiographs printed with the continuous ink-jet technique have proved to be of a high enough quality for demonstration purposes. We present a study on the image quality of ink-jet printed paper copies of digital chest radiographs, based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Eighty-three digital radiographs of a chest phantom with simulated tumors in the mediastinum and right lung, derived from a computed radiography (CR) system were presented in two series of hard copies as ink-jet printed paper copies and as laser recorded film. The images, with a matrix of 1,760 x 2,140 pixels, were printed with a spatial resolution of 10 pixels/mm in the CR film recorder as well as in the ink-jet printer. On film, every image was recorded in two versions, one optimized for the mediastinum and one for the lungs. On paper, only one image was printed; this constituted an effort to optimize both the mediastinum and the lungs. The ink-jet printed images, printed on a matt coated paper, were viewed as on-sight images with reflected light. The examinations were reviewed by six radiologists, and ROC curves were constructed. No significant difference was found between the performance of film and that of ink-jet paper prints. Because the cost for a paper copy is only a tenth of that of film, remarkable cost reductions can be achieved by using the ink jet technique instead. Our results show that further quality studies of ink-jet printed images are worthwhile.

  15. Texture Analysis for Classification of Risat-Ii Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, D.; Thakur, S.; Jeyaram, A.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2012-08-01

    RISAT-II or Radar Imaging satellite - II is a microwave-imaging satellite lunched by ISRO to take images of the earth during day and night as well as all weather condition. This satellite enhances the ISRO's capability for disaster management application together with forestry, agricultural, urban and oceanographic applications. The conventional pixel based classification technique cannot classify these type of images since it do not take into account the texture information of the image. This paper presents a method to classify the high-resolution RISAT-II microwave images based on texture analysis. It suppress the speckle noise from the microwave image before analysis the texture of the image since speckle is essentially a form of noise, which degrades the quality of an image; make interpretation (visual or digital) more difficult. A local adaptive median filter is developed that uses local statistics to detect the speckle noise of microwave image and to replace it with a local median value. Local Binary Pattern (LBP) operator is proposed to measure the texture around each pixel of the speckle suppressed microwave image. It considers a series of circles (2D) centered on the pixel with incremental radius values and the intersected pixels on the perimeter of the circles of radius r (where r = 1, 3 and 5) are used for measuring the LBP of the center pixel. The significance of LBP is that it measure the texture around each pixel of the image and computationally simple. ISODATA method is used to cluster the transformed LBP image. The proposed method adequately classifies RISAT-II X band microwave images without human intervention.

  16. Installing a copy of the ARPA/DMA image understanding testbed at the US Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, A. J.

    1985-06-01

    The principal objective of this effort was to establish a functional copy of the SRI Image Understanding Testbed system of hardware and software at the U.S. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories (ETL) Research Institute at Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Representative tasks included advising on the preparation of the ETL site for the Testbed system installation, purchasing the required hardware for installation at ETL, and arranging for availability of Testbed software systems. Other major tasks included supplementary hardware acquisition, installing Testbed software systems, and developing support software to enhance the overall capabilities of the system. We also assisted in establishing the ETL site as a node on the DDN ARPANET/MILNET network. Final tasks included installation of Lisp Machine software and associated consultation, as well as other general assistance and troubleshooting. The main beneficial results of this effort were the establishment at ETL of a state of the art research facility and the transfer to ETL of a large body of research technology carried out by SRI, as well as by other contributors to the DARPA Image Understanding research program. This project has provided essential elements of the foundation required to support the mission of the newly formed ETL Center for Artificial Intelligence.

  17. Digital image centering. II. [for astronomical photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, L. H.; Van Altena, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    Digital image centering algorithms were compared in a test involving microdensitometer raster scans of a refractor parallax series consisting of 22 stars on 26 plates. The highest accuracy in determining stellar image positions was provided by an algorithm which involved fitting of a symmetric Gaussian curve and a flat background to the image marginal density distributions. Algorithms involving transmission marginals instead of density marginals were found to be less accurate. The repeatability and computational efficiency of the digital image centering technique were also studied.

  18. Image degradation in aerial imagery duplicates. [photographic processing of photographic film and reproduction (copying)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    A series of Earth Resources Aircraft Program data flights were made over an aerial test range in Arizona for the evaluation of large cameras. Specifically, both medium altitude and high altitude flights were made to test and evaluate a series of color as well as black-and-white films. Image degradation, inherent in duplication processing, was studied. Resolution losses resulting from resolution characteristics of the film types are given. Color duplicates, in general, are shown to be degraded more than black-and-white films because of the limitations imposed by available aerial color duplicating stock. Results indicate that a greater resolution loss may be expected when the original has higher resolution. Photographs of the duplications are shown.

  19. Autocorrelation and regularization in digital images. II - Simple image models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jupp, David L. B.; Strahler, Alan H.; Woodcock, Curtis E.

    1989-01-01

    The variogram function used in geostatistical analysis is a useful statistic in the analysis of remotely sensed images. Using the results derived by Jupp et al. (1988), the basic second-order, or covariance, properties of scenes modeled by simple disks of varying size and spacing after imaging into disk-shaped pixels are analyzed to explore the relationship betwee image variograms and discrete object scene structure. The models provide insight into the nature of real images of the earth's surface and the tools for a complete analysis of the more complex case of three-dimensional illuminated discrete-object images.

  20. Do SE(II) electrons really degrade SEM image quality?

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Gary H; Carter, Andrew D; Joy, David C

    2013-01-01

    Generally, in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging, it is desirable that a high-resolution image be composed mainly of those secondary electrons (SEs) generated by the primary electron beam, denoted SE(I) . However, in conventional SEM imaging, other, often unwanted, signal components consisting of backscattered electrons (BSEs), and their associated SEs, denoted SE(II) , are present; these signal components contribute a random background signal that degrades contrast, and therefore signal-to-noise ratio and resolution. Ideally, the highest resolution SEM image would consist only of the SE(I) component. In SEMs that use conventional pinhole lenses and their associated Everhart-Thornley detectors, the image is composed of several components, including SE(I) , SE(II) , and some BSE, depending on the geometry of the detector. Modern snorkel lens systems eliminate the BSEs, but not the SE(II) s. We present a microfabricated diaphragm for minimizing the unwanted SE(II) signal components. We present evidence of improved imaging using a microlithographically generated pattern of Au, about 500 nm thick, that blocks most of the undesired signal components, leaving an image composed mostly of SE(I) s. We refer to this structure as a "spatial backscatter diaphragm."

  1. Digitizing Images for Curriculum 21: Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Alice D.

    Although visual databases exist for the study of art, architecture, geography, health care, and other areas, readily accessible sources of quality images are not available for engineering faculty interested in developing multimedia modules or for student projects. Presented here is a brief review of Phase I of the Engineering Visual Database…

  2. Imaging Observations of a Very High Frequency Type II Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, S. M.; Mercier, C.; Bradley, R.; Bastian, T.; Kerdraon, A.; Pick, M.

    2006-05-01

    A remarkable Type II burst was detected by the high-frequency system of the Green Bank Solar Radio Burst Spectrometer on 2005 November 14. The harmonic branch of the Type II extended up to 800 MHz, making it one of the highest frequency Type II bursts ever detected, but it failed to propagate to heights corresponding to frequencies below 100 MHz. At such high frequencies, it implies the formation of a shock relatively low in the corona. No coronal mass ejection was evident in the LASCO data for this east limb event. It is one of the few Type II bursts to be observable at every frequency of observation of the Nancay Radio Heliograph (164-432 MHz). Here we present analysis of images of the event, including simultaneous imaging of the fundamental and harmonic branches.

  3. Structured Forms Reference Set of Binary Images II (SFRS2)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Structured Forms Reference Set of Binary Images II (SFRS2) (PC database for purchase)   The second NIST database of structured forms (Special Database 6) consists of 5,595 pages of binary, black-and-white images of synthesized documents containing hand-print. The documents in this database are 12 different tax forms with the IRS 1040 Package X for the year 1988.

  4. A small-molecule dye for NIR-II imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antaris, Alexander L.; Chen, Hao; Cheng, Kai; Sun, Yao; Hong, Guosong; Qu, Chunrong; Diao, Shuo; Deng, Zixin; Hu, Xianming; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yaghi, Omar K.; Alamparambil, Zita R.; Hong, Xuechuan; Cheng, Zhen; Dai, Hongjie

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescent imaging of biological systems in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II) can probe tissue at centimetre depths and achieve micrometre-scale resolution at depths of millimetres. Unfortunately, all current NIR-II fluorophores are excreted slowly and are largely retained within the reticuloendothelial system, making clinical translation nearly impossible. Here, we report a rapidly excreted NIR-II fluorophore (~90% excreted through the kidneys within 24 h) based on a synthetic 970-Da organic molecule (CH1055). The fluorophore outperformed indocyanine green (ICG)--a clinically approved NIR-I dye--in resolving mouse lymphatic vasculature and sentinel lymphatic mapping near a tumour. High levels of uptake of PEGylated-CH1055 dye were observed in brain tumours in mice, suggesting that the dye was detected at a depth of ~4 mm. The CH1055 dye also allowed targeted molecular imaging of tumours in vivo when conjugated with anti-EGFR Affibody. Moreover, a superior tumour-to-background signal ratio allowed precise image-guided tumour-removal surgery.

  5. A small-molecule dye for NIR-II imaging.

    PubMed

    Antaris, Alexander L; Chen, Hao; Cheng, Kai; Sun, Yao; Hong, Guosong; Qu, Chunrong; Diao, Shuo; Deng, Zixin; Hu, Xianming; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yaghi, Omar K; Alamparambil, Zita R; Hong, Xuechuan; Cheng, Zhen; Dai, Hongjie

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescent imaging of biological systems in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II) can probe tissue at centimetre depths and achieve micrometre-scale resolution at depths of millimetres. Unfortunately, all current NIR-II fluorophores are excreted slowly and are largely retained within the reticuloendothelial system, making clinical translation nearly impossible. Here, we report a rapidly excreted NIR-II fluorophore (∼90% excreted through the kidneys within 24 h) based on a synthetic 970-Da organic molecule (CH1055). The fluorophore outperformed indocyanine green (ICG)-a clinically approved NIR-I dye-in resolving mouse lymphatic vasculature and sentinel lymphatic mapping near a tumour. High levels of uptake of PEGylated-CH1055 dye were observed in brain tumours in mice, suggesting that the dye was detected at a depth of ∼4 mm. The CH1055 dye also allowed targeted molecular imaging of tumours in vivo when conjugated with anti-EGFR Affibody. Moreover, a superior tumour-to-background signal ratio allowed precise image-guided tumour-removal surgery. PMID:26595119

  6. Deep Imaging of Eridanus II and Its Lone Star Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crnojević, D.; Sand, D. J.; Zaritsky, D.; Spekkens, K.; Willman, B.; Hargis, J. R.

    2016-06-01

    We present deep imaging of the most distant dwarf discovered by the Dark Energy Survey, Eridanus II (Eri II). Our Magellan/Megacam stellar photometry reaches ˜3 mag deeper than previous work and allows us to confirm the presence of a stellar cluster whose position is consistent with Eri II’s center. This makes Eri II, at {M}V=-7.1, the least luminous galaxy known to host a (possibly central) cluster. The cluster is partially resolved, and at {M}V=-3.5 it accounts for ˜4% of Eri II’s luminosity. We derive updated structural parameters for Eri II, which has a half-light radius of ˜280 pc and is elongated (ɛ ˜ 0.48) at a measured distance of D ˜ 370 kpc. The color-magnitude diagram displays a blue, extended horizontal branch, as well as a less populated red horizontal branch. A central concentration of stars brighter than the old main-sequence turnoff hints at a possible intermediate-age (˜3 Gyr) population; alternatively, these sources could be blue straggler stars. A deep Green Bank Telescope observation of Eri II reveals no associated atomic gas. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  7. Fluorescence imaging of single-copy DNA sequences within the human genome using PNA-directed padlock probe assembly

    PubMed Central

    Yaroslavsky, Anastasia I.; Smolina, Irina V.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We present a novel approach for fluorescent in situ detection of short, single-copy sequences within genomic DNA in human cells. The single copy sensitivity and single base specificity of our method is achieved due to the combination of three components. First, a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe locally opens a chosen target site, which allows a padlock DNA probe to access the site and become ligated. Second, rolling circle amplification (RCA) generates thousands of single-stranded copies of the target sequence. Finally, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is used to visualize the amplified DNA. We validate this new technique by successfully detecting six unique target sites on human mitochondrial and autosomal DNA. We also demonstrate the high specificity of this method by detecting X- and Y- specific sequences on human sex chromosomes and by simultaneously detecting three unique target sites. Finally, we discriminate two target sites that differ by two nucleotides. The PNA-RCA-FISH approach is a unique in situ hybridization method capable of multi-target visualization within human chromosomes and nuclei that does not require DNA denaturation and is extremely sequence specific. PMID:23521801

  8. Comparison between Mg II k and Ca II H images recorded by SUNRISE/SuFI

    SciTech Connect

    Danilovic, S.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Berkefeld, T.; Schmidt, W.; Knölker, M.; Rodríguez, J. Blanco; Iniesta, J. C. Del Toro

    2014-03-20

    We present a comparison of high-resolution images of the solar surface taken in the Mg II k and Ca II H channels of the Filter Imager on the balloon-borne solar observatory SUNRISE. The Mg and Ca lines are sampled with 0.48 nm and 0.11 nm wide filters, respectively. The two channels show remarkable qualitative and quantitative similarities in the quiet Sun, in an active region plage and during a small flare. However, the Mg filtergrams display 1.4-1.7 times higher intensity contrast and appear more smeared and smoothed in the quiet Sun. In addition, the fibrils in a plage are wider. Although the exposure time is 100 times longer for Mg images, the evidence suggests that these differences cannot be explained only with instrumental effects or the evolution of the solar scene. The differences at least partially arise because of different line-formation heights, the stronger response of Mg k emission peaks to the higher temperatures, and the larger height range sampled by the broad Mg filter used here. This is evidently manifested during the flare when a surge in Mg evolves differently than in Ca.

  9. SHIELD II: TRGB Distance Measurements from HST Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, John M.; McQuinn, Kristen B.; Skillman, Evan D.; SHIELD Team

    2016-01-01

    The "Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs II" ("SHIELD II") is a multiwavelength, legacy-class observational campaign that is facilitating the study of both internal and global evolutionary processes in low-mass dwarf galaxies discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. The observations and science expand on the results from detailed studies of 12 similarly low-mass dwarf galaxies from the original SHIELD campaign. New HST observations of 18 SHIELD II galaxies have allowed us to determine their TRGB distances, thus anchoring the physical scales on which our ongoing analysis is based. Combined with the HST observations of the original 12 SHIELD galaxies presented in McQuinn et al. (2014, 2015), these HST optical images enable a holistic study of the fundamental parameters and characteristics of a statistically robust sample of 30 extremely low-mass galaxies. Additional science goals include an accurate census of the dark matter contents of these galaxies, a spatial and temporal study of star formation within them, and a characterization of the fundamental parameters that change as galaxy masses range from "mini-halo" to star-forming dwarf.Support for this work was provided by NSF grant AST-1211683 to JMC at Macalester College, and by NASA through grant GO-13750 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  10. Evaluation of Laser Stabilization and Imaging Systems for LCLS-II - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Matthew

    2015-08-19

    This presentation covers data collected on two commercial laser stabilization systems, Guidestar-II and MRC, and two optical imaging systems. Additionally, general information about LCLS-II and how to go about continuing-testing is covered.

  11. Optical Imaging of Paramagnetic Bead-DNA Aggregation Inhibition Allows for Low Copy Number Detection of Infectious Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    DuVall, Jacquelyn A.; Borba, Juliane C.; Shafagati, Nazly; Luzader, Deborah; Shukla, Nishant; Li, Jingyi; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Kendall, Melissa M.; Feldman, Sanford H.; Landers, James P.

    2015-01-01

    DNA-paramagnetic silica bead aggregation in a rotating magnetic field facilitates the quantification of DNA with femtogram sensitivity, but yields no sequence-specific information. Here we provide an original description of aggregation inhibition for the detection of DNA and RNA in a sequence-specific manner following loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The fragments generated via LAMP fail to induce chaotrope-mediated bead aggregation; however, due to their ability to passivate the bead surface, they effectively inhibit bead aggregation by longer ‘trigger’ DNA. We demonstrate the utility of aggregation inhibition as a method for the detection of bacterial and viral pathogens with sensitivity that approaches single copies of the target. We successfully use this methodology for the detection of notable food-borne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica, as well as Rift Valley fever virus, a weaponizable virus of national security concern. We also show the concentration dependence of aggregation inhibition, suggesting the potential for quantification of target nucleic acid in clinical and environmental samples. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to rapidly detect infectious pathogens by utilizing a cell phone and custom-written application (App), making this novel detection modality fully portable for point-of-care use. PMID:26068926

  12. Optical Imaging of Paramagnetic Bead-DNA Aggregation Inhibition Allows for Low Copy Number Detection of Infectious Pathogens.

    PubMed

    DuVall, Jacquelyn A; Borba, Juliane C; Shafagati, Nazly; Luzader, Deborah; Shukla, Nishant; Li, Jingyi; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Kendall, Melissa M; Feldman, Sanford H; Landers, James P

    2015-01-01

    DNA-paramagnetic silica bead aggregation in a rotating magnetic field facilitates the quantification of DNA with femtogram sensitivity, but yields no sequence-specific information. Here we provide an original description of aggregation inhibition for the detection of DNA and RNA in a sequence-specific manner following loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The fragments generated via LAMP fail to induce chaotrope-mediated bead aggregation; however, due to their ability to passivate the bead surface, they effectively inhibit bead aggregation by longer 'trigger' DNA. We demonstrate the utility of aggregation inhibition as a method for the detection of bacterial and viral pathogens with sensitivity that approaches single copies of the target. We successfully use this methodology for the detection of notable food-borne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica, as well as Rift Valley fever virus, a weaponizable virus of national security concern. We also show the concentration dependence of aggregation inhibition, suggesting the potential for quantification of target nucleic acid in clinical and environmental samples. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to rapidly detect infectious pathogens by utilizing a cell phone and custom-written application (App), making this novel detection modality fully portable for point-of-care use. PMID:26068926

  13. Optical Imaging of Paramagnetic Bead-DNA Aggregation Inhibition Allows for Low Copy Number Detection of Infectious Pathogens.

    PubMed

    DuVall, Jacquelyn A; Borba, Juliane C; Shafagati, Nazly; Luzader, Deborah; Shukla, Nishant; Li, Jingyi; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Kendall, Melissa M; Feldman, Sanford H; Landers, James P

    2015-01-01

    DNA-paramagnetic silica bead aggregation in a rotating magnetic field facilitates the quantification of DNA with femtogram sensitivity, but yields no sequence-specific information. Here we provide an original description of aggregation inhibition for the detection of DNA and RNA in a sequence-specific manner following loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The fragments generated via LAMP fail to induce chaotrope-mediated bead aggregation; however, due to their ability to passivate the bead surface, they effectively inhibit bead aggregation by longer 'trigger' DNA. We demonstrate the utility of aggregation inhibition as a method for the detection of bacterial and viral pathogens with sensitivity that approaches single copies of the target. We successfully use this methodology for the detection of notable food-borne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica, as well as Rift Valley fever virus, a weaponizable virus of national security concern. We also show the concentration dependence of aggregation inhibition, suggesting the potential for quantification of target nucleic acid in clinical and environmental samples. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to rapidly detect infectious pathogens by utilizing a cell phone and custom-written application (App), making this novel detection modality fully portable for point-of-care use.

  14. Estimating the Mg II Index from 1961 Through 1981 Using Ca II K Images from the MtWilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullin, D.; Morrill, J. S.; Floyd, L. E.; Weaver, S. J.; Ulrich, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    An empirical model of solar UV spectral irradiance has been developed that is based on observed spectral radiance measurements and full disk Ca II K images. The Mg II index is then calculated from the estimated spectra in a narrow wavelength range (180 Å) near theMg II doublet at 2800 Å. Our long term goal is to expand this wavelength range from 10 to 4000 Å in continuing studies based on spectral data covering this wavelength range (e.g. Skylab, UARS/SUSIM, TIMED/SEE, etc.). Our previous modeling effort produced spectra in this 180 Å range and the resulting Mg II index values for the period from 1991 through 1995 and we have used observations during this time period to validate the model results. The current paper presents results from this model based on a 21-year portion of the recently digitized Ca II K images from the Mt Wilson Observatory (MWO) film archive. Here we present details of the model, the required model modifications, and the resulting Mg II index from 1961 through 1981. Since the NOAA Mg II index did not begin until 1978, the present model results are compared to a Mg II index estimated from the F10.7 radio flux over this 21-year period. The NOAA Mg II index, which is derived from measured UV spectra, is also included for comparison from late 1978 through 1981.

  15. TNTCAM MARK II: First light Mid-IR Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stencel, R. E.; Theil, D.; Klebe, D.

    1999-12-01

    First light observations were achieved with our redesigned mid-infrared array camera, TNTCAM2 at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) atop Mauna Kea on May 2-5, 1999. Collaborative observations were made of Jupiter, in support of a Galileo spacecraft encounter (Glenn Orton et al. JPL), Mars at opposition (Terry Martin, JPL), Nova Sgr (Robert Gehrz et al. U.Minnesota), plus YSOs, star forming regions and planetary nebulae, using intermediate and narrow band filters from 5 to 24 microns. TNTCAM2 (Ten and Twenty μ m Camera Mark II) represents an improvement over the original optical and cryostat design described by (Klebe et al., 1996, ASP Conf. Series, v97, p.79). Image quality and cryostat hold time objectives were met (see Theil et al. 1999 SPIE Proceedings, vol.3786C Conference on Optomechanical Engineering). The complete system will also include an upgrade from the current Rockwell HF16 128x128 Si:As array, and polarimetry across these mid-infrared filter regions as well, with sensitivities as small as 0.4% (at 6.0 mag/sq.arcsec on a 2.4m telescope in 4 hours). Frequent use of the instrument is planned as part of a cooperative access agreement with the University of Wyoming's Infrared Observatory (WIRO), and is offered for collaborative community access beginning this year. We are happy to acknowledge support via NSF grant AST-9724506.

  16. Current developments for type-II superlattice imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutz, Frank; Rehm, Robert; Walther, Martin; Kirste, Lutz; Masur, Michael; Wörl, Andreas; Schmitz, Johannes; Wauro, Matthias; Niemasz, Jasmin; Scheibner, Ralf; Ziegler, Johann

    2011-06-01

    InAs/GaSb-based type-II superlattice photodiodes have considerably gained interest as high-performance infrared detectors. Beside the excellent properties of InAs/GaSb superlattices, like the relatively high effective electron mass suppressing tunneling currents, the low Auger recombination rate, and a high quantum efficiency, the bandgap can be widely adjusted within the infrared spectral range from 3 - 30 μm depending on the layer thickness rather than on composition. Superlattice growth and process technology have shown tremendous progress during the last years. Fully integrated superlattice cameras have been demonstrated by several groups worldwide. Within very few years, the InAs/GaSb superlattice technology has proven its suitability for high-performance infrared imaging detector arrays. At Fraunhofer IAF and AIM, the efforts have been focused on developing a mature fabrication technology for bispectral InAs/GaSb superlattice focal plane arrays for a simultaneous, co-located detection at 3-4 μm and 4-5 μm in the mid-wavelength infrared atmospheric transmission window. A very low number of pixel outages and cluster defects is mandatory for dual-color detector arrays. Sources for pixel outages are manifold and might be caused by dislocations in the substrate, the epitaxial growth process or by imperfections during the focal plane array fabrication process. Process refinements, intense root cause analysis and specific test methodologies employed at various stages during the process have proven to be the key for yield enhancements.

  17. Study protocol: the Whitehall II imaging sub-study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Whitehall II (WHII) study of British civil servants provides a unique source of longitudinal data to investigate key factors hypothesized to affect brain health and cognitive ageing. This paper introduces the multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol and cognitive assessment designed to investigate brain health in a random sample of 800 members of the WHII study. Methods/design A total of 6035 civil servants participated in the WHII Phase 11 clinical examination in 2012–2013. A random sample of these participants was included in a sub-study comprising an MRI brain scan, a detailed clinical and cognitive assessment, and collection of blood and buccal mucosal samples for the characterisation of immune function and associated measures. Data collection for this sub-study started in 2012 and will be completed by 2016. The participants, for whom social and health records have been collected since 1985, were between 60–85 years of age at the time the MRI study started. Here, we describe the pre-specified clinical and cognitive assessment protocols, the state-of-the-art MRI sequences and latest pipelines for analyses of this sub-study. Discussion The integration of cutting-edge MRI techniques, clinical and cognitive tests in combination with retrospective data on social, behavioural and biological variables during the preceding 25 years from a well-established longitudinal epidemiological study (WHII cohort) will provide a unique opportunity to examine brain structure and function in relation to age-related diseases and the modifiable and non-modifiable factors affecting resilience against and vulnerability to adverse brain changes. PMID:24885374

  18. 37 CFR 1.13 - Copies and certified copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies and certified copies... Patent and Trademark Office § 1.13 Copies and certified copies. (a) Non-certified copies of patents, and... States Patent and Trademark Office to any person, and copies of other records or papers will be...

  19. 37 CFR 2.201 - Copies and certified copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies and certified copies... Trademark Office § 2.201 Copies and certified copies. (a) Non-certified copies of trademark registrations... appropriate fee required by § 2.6. (b) Certified copies of trademark registrations and of any...

  20. Chromatic adaptation in hard copy/soft copy comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, Mark D.

    1993-06-01

    The human visual system has evolved with a sophisticated set of mechanisms to produce stable perceptions of object colors across changes in illumination. This phenomenon is typically referred to as chromatic adaptation or color constancy. When viewing scenes or hard-copy reproductions, it is generally assumed that one adapts almost completely to the color and luminance of the prevailing light source. This is likely not the case when soft-copy image displays are viewed. Differences in the degree of chromatic adaptation to hard-copy and soft- copy displays point to two types of chromatic-adaptation mechanisms: sensory and cognitive. Sensory mechanisms are those that act automatically in response to the stimulus, such as retinal gain control. Cognitive mechanisms are those that rely on observers' knowledge of scene content. A series of experiments that measured the spatial, temporal, and chromatic properties of chromatic-adaptation mechanisms are reviewed and a mathematical model for predicting these chromatic adaptation effects is briefly described along with some practical recommendations, based on psychophysical experiments, on how to approach these problems in typical cross-media color reproduction situations.

  1. Structural Optimization of Zn(II)-Activated MR Imaging Probes

    PubMed Central

    Matosziuk, Lauren M.; Leibowitz, Jonathan H.; Heffern, Marie C.; MacRenaris, Keith W.; Ratner, Mark A.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the structural optimization and mechanistic investigation of a series of bio-activated MRI contrast agents that transform from low relaxivity to high relaxivity in the presence of Zn(II). The change in relaxivity results from a structural transformation of the complex that alters the coordination environment about the Gd(III) center. Here, we have performed a series of systematic modifications to determine the structure which provides the optimal change in relaxivity in response to the presence of Zn(II). Relaxivity measurements in the presence and absence of Zn(II) were used in conjunction with regarding water access (namely number of water molecules bound) to the Gd(III) center and temperature-dependent 13C NMR spectroscopy to determine how the coordination environment about the Gd(III) center is affected by: the distance between the Zn(II)-binding domain and the Gd(III)-chelate, the number of functional groups on the Zn(II)-binding domain, and the presence of Zn(II). The results of this study provide valuable insight into the elucidation of design principles for future bio-activated MR probes. PMID:23777423

  2. Copy-left and Copy-right

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanderPlas, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Any discussion of open licensing almost invariably devolves into a debate between copy-left licenses and permissive licenses, both sides defending their views with a nearly religious fervor. Copy-left licenses, typified by the GPL family of licenses, require all derived products to maintain the open, GPL license. Permissive licenses, typified by the BSD family of licenses, do not impose such requirements. I'll briefly explore the common arguments put forth in favor of either approach, and discuss some concrete examples of where these approaches have helped or hindered the software packages that used them.

  3. Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images--Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ken

    2005-01-01

    In Part I of this study (Burke, 2005), the author presented the essentials of Image Presentation Theory--IPT--and its application to the analytical explication of various spatial designs in and psychological responses to images, from the illusions of depth in what is referred to as "windows" in cinema theory to the more patterned abstractions of…

  4. Evaluation of Laser Stabilization and Imaging Systems for LCLS-II - Final Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Matthew

    2015-08-20

    By combining the top performing commercial laser beam stabilization system with the most ideal optical imaging configuration, the beamline for the Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) will deliver the highest quality and most stable beam to the cathode. To determine the optimal combination, LCLS-II beamline conditions were replicated and the systems tested with a He-Ne laser. The Guidestar-II and MRC active laser beam stabilization systems were evaluated for their ideal positioning and stability. Both a two and four lens optical imaging configuration was then evaluated for beam imaging quality, magnification properties, and natural stability. In their best performances when tested over fifteen hours, Guidestar-II kept the beam stable over approximately 70-110um while the MRC system kept it stable over approximately 90-100um. During short periods of time, Guidestar-II kept the beam stable between 10-20um, but was more susceptible to drift over time, while the MRC system maintained the beam between 30-50um with less overall drift. The best optical imaging configuration proved to be a four lens system that images to the iris located in the cathode room and from there, imaged to the cathode. The magnification from the iris to the cathode was 2:1, within an acceptable tolerance to the expected 2.1:1 magnification. The two lens configuration was slightly more stable in small periods of time (less than 10 minutes) without the assistance of a stability system, approximately 55um compared to approximately 70um, but the four lens configurations beam image had a significantly flatter intensity distribution compared to the two lens configuration which had a Gaussian distribution. A final test still needs to be run with both stability systems running at the same time through the four lens system. With this data, the optimal laser beam stabilization system can be determined for the beamline of LCLS-II.

  5. Apple Image Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  6. Planetary Data Systems (PDS) Imaging Node Atlas II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanboli, Alice; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Planetary Image Atlas (PIA) is a Rich Internet Application (RIA) that serves planetary imaging data to the science community and the general public. PIA also utilizes the USGS Unified Planetary Coordinate system (UPC) and the on-Mars map server. The Atlas was designed to provide the ability to search and filter through greater than 8 million planetary image files. This software is a three-tier Web application that contains a search engine backend (MySQL, JAVA), Web service interface (SOAP) between server and client, and a GWT Google Maps API client front end. This application allows for the search, retrieval, and download of planetary images and associated meta-data from the following missions: 2001 Mars Odyssey, Cassini, Galileo, LCROSS, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Express, Magellan, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, MESSENGER, Phoe nix, Viking Lander, Viking Orbiter, and Voyager. The Atlas utilizes the UPC to translate mission-specific coordinate systems into a unified coordinate system, allowing the end user to query across missions of similar targets. If desired, the end user can also use a mission-specific view of the Atlas. The mission-specific views rely on the same code base. This application is a major improvement over the initial version of the Planetary Image Atlas. It is a multi-mission search engine. This tool includes both basic and advanced search capabilities, providing a product search tool to interrogate the collection of planetary images. This tool lets the end user query information about each image, and ignores the data that the user has no interest in. Users can reduce the number of images to look at by defining an area of interest with latitude and longitude ranges.

  7. 7 CFR 97.179 - Copies and certified copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copies and certified copies. 97.179 Section 97.179... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Fees and Charges § 97.179 Copies and certified copies. (a) Upon request, copies of applications, certificates, or of any records, books, papers, drawings, or photographs in...

  8. Phase II trials in heart failure: The role of cardiovascular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sanjiv J.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Lang, Roberto M.

    2013-01-01

    The development of new therapies for heart failure (HF), especially acute HF, has proven to be quite challenging; and therapies evaluated in HF have greatly outnumbered treatments that are eventually successful in obtaining regulatory approval. Thus, the development of therapies for HF remains a vexing problem for pharmaceutical and device companies, clinical trialists, and health care professionals. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the phase II HF clinical trial, in which the goal is to determine whether an investigational agent should move forward to a phase III trial. Recent advancements in noninvasive cardiovascular imaging have allowed a new era of comprehensive phenotyping of cardiac structure and function in phase II HF trials. Besides using imaging parameters to predict success of subsequent phase III outcome studies, it is essential to also use imaging in phase II HF trials in a way that increases understanding of drug or device mechanism. Determination of the patients who would benefit most from a particular drug or device could decrease heterogeneity of phase III trial participants and lead to more successful HF clinical trials. In this review, we outline advantages and disadvantages of imaging various aspects of cardiac structure and function that are potential targets for therapy in HF, compare and contrast imaging modalities, provide practical advice for the use of cardiovascular imaging in drug development, and conclude with some novel uses of cardiac imaging in phase II HF trials. PMID:21742085

  9. Fundamental performance differences between CMOS and CCD imagers: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janesick, James; Andrews, James; Tower, John; Grygon, Mark; Elliott, Tom; Cheng, John; Lesser, Michael; Pinter, Jeff

    2007-09-01

    A new class of CMOS imagers that compete with scientific CCDs is presented. The sensors are based on deep depletion backside illuminated technology to achieve high near infrared quantum efficiency and low pixel cross-talk. The imagers deliver very low read noise suitable for single photon counting - Fano-noise limited soft x-ray applications. Digital correlated double sampling signal processing necessary to achieve low read noise performance is analyzed and demonstrated for CMOS use. Detailed experimental data products generated by different pixel architectures (notably 3TPPD, 5TPPD and 6TPG designs) are presented including read noise, charge capacity, dynamic range, quantum efficiency, charge collection and transfer efficiency and dark current generation. Radiation damage data taken for the imagers is also reported.

  10. Imaging performance of annular apertures. II - Line spread functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschunko, H. F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Line images formed by aberration-free optical systems with annular apertures are investigated in the whole range of central obstruction ratios. Annular apertures form lines images with central and side line groups. The number of lines in each line group is given by the ratio of the outer diameter of the annular aperture divided by the width of the annulus. The theoretical energy fraction of 0.889 in the central line of the image formed by an unobstructed aperture increases for centrally obstructed apertures to 0.932 for the central line group. Energy fractions for the central and side line groups are practically constant for all obstruction ratios and for each line group. The illumination of rectangular secondary apertures of various length/width ratios by apertures of various obstruction ratios is discussed.

  11. Ulnar-sided wrist pain. II. Clinical imaging and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Atsuya; Souza, Felipe; Vezeridis, Peter S.; Blazar, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Pain at the ulnar aspect of the wrist is a diagnostic challenge for hand surgeons and radiologists due to the small and complex anatomical structures involved. In this article, imaging modalities including radiography, arthrography, ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), CT arthrography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR arthrography are compared with regard to differential diagnosis. Clinical imaging findings are reviewed for a more comprehensive understanding of this disorder. Treatments for the common diseases that cause the ulnar-sided wrist pain including extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendonitis, flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) tendonitis, pisotriquetral arthritis, triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) lesions, ulnar impaction, lunotriquetral (LT) instability, and distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability are reviewed. PMID:20012039

  12. Multifunctional in vivo vascular imaging using near-infrared II fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Guosong; Lee, Jerry C.; Robinson, Joshua T.; Raaz, Uwe; Xie, Liming; Huang, Ngan F.; Cooke, John P.; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    In vivo real-time epifluorescence imaging of mouse hindlimb vasculatures in the second near-infrared region (NIR-II, 1.1–1.4 µm) is performed using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as fluorophores. Both high spatial resolution (~30 µm) and temporal resolution (<200 ms/frame) for small vessel imaging are achieved 1~3 mm deep in the tissue owing to the beneficial NIR-II optical window that affords deep anatomical penetration and low scattering. This spatial resolution is unattainable by traditional NIR imaging (NIR-I, 0.75–0.9 µm) or microscopic computed tomography (micro-CT), while the temporal resolution far exceeds scanning microscopic imaging techniques. Arterial and venous vessels are unambiguously differentiated using a dynamic contrast-enhanced NIR-II imaging technique based on their distinct hemodynamics. Further, the deep tissue penetration, high spatial and temporal resolution of NIR-II imaging allow for precise quantifications of blood velocity in both normal and ischemic femoral arteries, which are beyond the capability of ultrasonography at lower blood velocity. PMID:23160236

  13. Phase contrast radiography. II. Imaging of complex objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arhatari, Benedicta D.; Nugent, Keith A.; Peele, Andrew G.; Thornton, John

    2005-11-01

    An image model for phase contrast in projection radiography of complex objects is presented and tested experimentally. The model includes the wavelength distribution of the radiation. The model is used to optimize the contrast of a radiograph of a piece of aluminium containing a fine crack.

  14. Biosonar navigation above water II: exploiting mirror images.

    PubMed

    Genzel, Daria; Hoffmann, Susanne; Prosch, Selina; Firzlaff, Uwe; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2015-02-15

    As in vision, acoustic signals can be reflected by a smooth surface creating an acoustic mirror image. Water bodies represent the only naturally occurring horizontal and acoustically smooth surfaces. Echolocating bats flying over smooth water bodies encounter echo-acoustic mirror images of objects above the surface. Here, we combined an electrophysiological approach with a behavioral experimental paradigm to investigate whether bats can exploit echo-acoustic mirror images for navigation and how these mirrorlike echo-acoustic cues are encoded in their auditory cortex. In an obstacle-avoidance task where the obstacles could only be detected via their echo-acoustic mirror images, most bats spontaneously exploited these cues for navigation. Sonar ensonifications along the bats' flight path revealed conspicuous changes of the reflection patterns with slightly increased target strengths at relatively long echo delays corresponding to the longer acoustic paths from the mirrored obstacles. Recordings of cortical spatiotemporal response maps (STRMs) describe the tuning of a unit across the dimensions of elevation and time. The majority of cortical single and multiunits showed a special spatiotemporal pattern of excitatory areas in their STRM indicating a preference for echoes with (relative to the setup dimensions) long delays and, interestingly, from low elevations. This neural preference could effectively encode a reflection pattern as it would be perceived by an echolocating bat detecting an object mirrored from below. The current study provides both behavioral and neurophysiological evidence that echo-acoustic mirror images can be exploited by bats for obstacle avoidance. This capability effectively supports echo-acoustic navigation in highly cluttered natural habitats. PMID:25411457

  15. Biosonar navigation above water II: exploiting mirror images.

    PubMed

    Genzel, Daria; Hoffmann, Susanne; Prosch, Selina; Firzlaff, Uwe; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2015-02-15

    As in vision, acoustic signals can be reflected by a smooth surface creating an acoustic mirror image. Water bodies represent the only naturally occurring horizontal and acoustically smooth surfaces. Echolocating bats flying over smooth water bodies encounter echo-acoustic mirror images of objects above the surface. Here, we combined an electrophysiological approach with a behavioral experimental paradigm to investigate whether bats can exploit echo-acoustic mirror images for navigation and how these mirrorlike echo-acoustic cues are encoded in their auditory cortex. In an obstacle-avoidance task where the obstacles could only be detected via their echo-acoustic mirror images, most bats spontaneously exploited these cues for navigation. Sonar ensonifications along the bats' flight path revealed conspicuous changes of the reflection patterns with slightly increased target strengths at relatively long echo delays corresponding to the longer acoustic paths from the mirrored obstacles. Recordings of cortical spatiotemporal response maps (STRMs) describe the tuning of a unit across the dimensions of elevation and time. The majority of cortical single and multiunits showed a special spatiotemporal pattern of excitatory areas in their STRM indicating a preference for echoes with (relative to the setup dimensions) long delays and, interestingly, from low elevations. This neural preference could effectively encode a reflection pattern as it would be perceived by an echolocating bat detecting an object mirrored from below. The current study provides both behavioral and neurophysiological evidence that echo-acoustic mirror images can be exploited by bats for obstacle avoidance. This capability effectively supports echo-acoustic navigation in highly cluttered natural habitats.

  16. Difference Image Analysis of Galactic Microlensing. II. Microlensing Events

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, C.; Allsman, R. A.; Alves, D.; Axelrod, T. S.; Becker, A. C.; Bennett, D. P.; Cook, K. H.; Drake, A. J.; Freeman, K. C.; Griest, K.

    1999-09-01

    The MACHO collaboration has been carrying out difference image analysis (DIA) since 1996 with the aim of increasing the sensitivity to the detection of gravitational microlensing. This is a preliminary report on the application of DIA to galactic bulge images in one field. We show how the DIA technique significantly increases the number of detected lensing events, by removing the positional dependence of traditional photometry schemes and lowering the microlensing event detection threshold. This technique, unlike PSF photometry, gives the unblended colors and positions of the microlensing source stars. We present a set of criteria for selecting microlensing events from objects discovered with this technique. The 16 pixel and classical microlensing events discovered with the DIA technique are presented. (c) (c) 1999. The American Astronomical Society.

  17. FT-IR microscopy imaging on oral cavity tumours, II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, C.; Giorgini, E.; Pieramici, T.; Rubini, C.; Tosi, G.

    2005-06-01

    Changes in the biochemistry of oral cavity tissues have been studied by FT-IR microscopy. Various aspects of squamous cell carcinomas of cheek mucosa, of tongue, of gingiva, and of the floor of the mouth have been analyzed through FT-IR imaging with the aim to relate spectral patterns with histopathological results. In particular, changes in frequency and intensity of proteins, connective and nucleic acids vibrational modes as well as the visualization of biochemical single wavenumber or band ratio images allowed a quali- and quantitative evaluation of the changes in the proliferating activity from displastic to neoplastic states. 'Supervised' and 'unsupervised' procedures of data handling afforded a satisfactory degree of accordance between spectroscopic and histological findings.

  18. A lucky imaging multiplicity study of exoplanet host stars - II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginski, C.; Mugrauer, M.; Seeliger, M.; Buder, S.; Errmann, R.; Avenhaus, H.; Mouillet, D.; Maire, A.-L.; Raetz, S.

    2016-04-01

    The vast majority of extrasolar planets are detected by indirect detection methods such as transit monitoring and radial velocity measurements. While these methods are very successful in detecting short-periodic planets, they are mostly blind to wide sub-stellar or even stellar companions on long orbits. In our study, we present high-resolution imaging observations of 60 exoplanet hosts carried out with the lucky imaging instrument AstraLux at the Calar Alto 2.2 m telescope as well as with the new Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (SPHERE) high-resolution adaptive optics imager at the ESO/VLT in the case of a known companion of specific interest. Our goal is to study the influence of stellar multiplicity on the planet formation process. We detected and confirmed four previously unknown stellar companions to the exoplanet hosts HD 197037, HD 217786, Kepler-21 and Kepler-68. In addition, we detected 11 new low-mass stellar companion candidates which must still be confirmed as bound companions. We also provide new astrometric and photometric data points for the recently discovered very close binary systems WASP-76 and HD 2638. Furthermore, we show for the first time that the previously detected stellar companion to the HD 185269 system is a very low mass binary. Finally, we provide precise constraints on additional companions for all observed stars in our sample.

  19. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Grochowska, Elżbieta; Gietka, Piotr; Płaza, Mateusz; Pracoń, Grzegorz; Saied, Fadhil; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common autoimmune systemic disease of the connective tissue affecting individuals in the developmental age. Radiography, which was described in the first part of this publication, is the standard modality in the assessment of this condition. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging enable early detection of the disease which affects soft tissues, as well as bones. Ultrasound assessment involves: joint cavities, tendon sheaths and bursae for the presence of synovitis, intraand extraarticular fat tissue to visualize signs of inflammation, hyaline cartilage, cartilaginous epiphysis and subchondral bone to detect cysts and erosions, and ligaments, tendons and their entheses for signs of enthesopathies and tendinopathies. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis for assessment of inflammation in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths and bursae, bone marrow involvement and identification of inflammatory lesions in whole-body MRI, particularly when the clinical picture is unclear. Also, MRI of the spine and spinal cord is used in order to diagnose synovial joint inflammation, bone marrow edema and spondylodiscitis as well as to assess their activity, location, and complications (spinal canal stenosis, subluxation, e.g. in the atlantoaxial region). This article discusses typical pathological changes seen on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. The role of these two methods for disease monitoring, its identification in the pre-clinical stage and establishing its remission are also highlighted. PMID:27679727

  20. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and MRI.

    PubMed

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Grochowska, Elżbieta; Gietka, Piotr; Płaza, Mateusz; Pracoń, Grzegorz; Saied, Fadhil; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta

    2016-09-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common autoimmune systemic disease of the connective tissue affecting individuals in the developmental age. Radiography, which was described in the first part of this publication, is the standard modality in the assessment of this condition. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging enable early detection of the disease which affects soft tissues, as well as bones. Ultrasound assessment involves: joint cavities, tendon sheaths and bursae for the presence of synovitis, intraand extraarticular fat tissue to visualize signs of inflammation, hyaline cartilage, cartilaginous epiphysis and subchondral bone to detect cysts and erosions, and ligaments, tendons and their entheses for signs of enthesopathies and tendinopathies. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis for assessment of inflammation in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths and bursae, bone marrow involvement and identification of inflammatory lesions in whole-body MRI, particularly when the clinical picture is unclear. Also, MRI of the spine and spinal cord is used in order to diagnose synovial joint inflammation, bone marrow edema and spondylodiscitis as well as to assess their activity, location, and complications (spinal canal stenosis, subluxation, e.g. in the atlantoaxial region). This article discusses typical pathological changes seen on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. The role of these two methods for disease monitoring, its identification in the pre-clinical stage and establishing its remission are also highlighted.

  1. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and MRI.

    PubMed

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Grochowska, Elżbieta; Gietka, Piotr; Płaza, Mateusz; Pracoń, Grzegorz; Saied, Fadhil; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta

    2016-09-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common autoimmune systemic disease of the connective tissue affecting individuals in the developmental age. Radiography, which was described in the first part of this publication, is the standard modality in the assessment of this condition. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging enable early detection of the disease which affects soft tissues, as well as bones. Ultrasound assessment involves: joint cavities, tendon sheaths and bursae for the presence of synovitis, intraand extraarticular fat tissue to visualize signs of inflammation, hyaline cartilage, cartilaginous epiphysis and subchondral bone to detect cysts and erosions, and ligaments, tendons and their entheses for signs of enthesopathies and tendinopathies. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis for assessment of inflammation in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths and bursae, bone marrow involvement and identification of inflammatory lesions in whole-body MRI, particularly when the clinical picture is unclear. Also, MRI of the spine and spinal cord is used in order to diagnose synovial joint inflammation, bone marrow edema and spondylodiscitis as well as to assess their activity, location, and complications (spinal canal stenosis, subluxation, e.g. in the atlantoaxial region). This article discusses typical pathological changes seen on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. The role of these two methods for disease monitoring, its identification in the pre-clinical stage and establishing its remission are also highlighted. PMID:27679727

  2. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Grochowska, Elżbieta; Gietka, Piotr; Płaza, Mateusz; Pracoń, Grzegorz; Saied, Fadhil; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common autoimmune systemic disease of the connective tissue affecting individuals in the developmental age. Radiography, which was described in the first part of this publication, is the standard modality in the assessment of this condition. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging enable early detection of the disease which affects soft tissues, as well as bones. Ultrasound assessment involves: joint cavities, tendon sheaths and bursae for the presence of synovitis, intraand extraarticular fat tissue to visualize signs of inflammation, hyaline cartilage, cartilaginous epiphysis and subchondral bone to detect cysts and erosions, and ligaments, tendons and their entheses for signs of enthesopathies and tendinopathies. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis for assessment of inflammation in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths and bursae, bone marrow involvement and identification of inflammatory lesions in whole-body MRI, particularly when the clinical picture is unclear. Also, MRI of the spine and spinal cord is used in order to diagnose synovial joint inflammation, bone marrow edema and spondylodiscitis as well as to assess their activity, location, and complications (spinal canal stenosis, subluxation, e.g. in the atlantoaxial region). This article discusses typical pathological changes seen on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. The role of these two methods for disease monitoring, its identification in the pre-clinical stage and establishing its remission are also highlighted.

  3. Circuit design of partial gating image based on Cyclone II and HTPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing; Tang, Yuanhe; Liu, Kai; Liu, Hanchen; Gao, Haiyang; Zhang, Ruixia; Zhao, Gaoxiang; Ye, Na; Liang, Yuan; Yang, Xusan

    2008-12-01

    In order to enhance the dynamic range of digital imaging system, we have brought forward processing image by the Cyclone II chip and controlling HTPS's high-density liquid crystal unit. The system in this paper proposed a kind of low cost solution, the luminous intensity entering each pixel of CCD can be adjusted directly accurately. Meanwhile, the attenuation luminance coefficients set by system algorithm and precision parameters can be adjusted artificially on the physical level to satisfy different needs. It is proving that the function of partial gating image is realized by the image processing experiment in which the details of the final image are more obvious and clear than the original. Then the system latitude problem is solved fundamentally. The image of partial gating is obtained through the experiment, and then the anticipated goal has achieved successfully.

  4. Near infrared fluorescence quenching properties of copper (II) ions for potential applications in biological imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Dolonchampa; Zhou, Mingzhou; Sarder, Pinaki; Achilefu, Samuel

    2014-03-01

    Fluorescence quenching properties of copper(II) ions have been used for designing Cu(II) sensitive fluorescent molecular probes. In this paper, we demonstrate that static quenching plays a key role in free Cu(II)-mediated fluorescence quenching of a near infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye cypate. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant was calculated to be KSV = 970,000 M-1 in 25 mM MES buffer, pH 6.5 at room temperature. We synthesized LS835, a compound containing cypate attached covalently to chelated Cu(II) to study fluorescence quenching by chelated Cu(II). The fluorescence quenching mechanism of chelated Cu(II) is predominantly dynamic or collisional quenching. The quenching efficiency of chelated Cu(II) was calculated to be 58% ± 6% in dimethylsulfoxide at room temperature. Future work will involve further characterization of the mechanism of NIR fluorescence quenching by Cu(II) and testing its reversibility for potential applications in designing fluorophore-quencher based molecular probes for biological imaging.

  5. Artificial auroras in the upper atmosphere. II - Imaging results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, S. B.; Burch, J. L.; Swenson, G. R.; Aamodt, E. K.; Geller, S. P.; Rairden, R. L.; Hassler, P. L.

    1993-01-01

    On the ATLAS 1 mission (STS-45, launched March 24, 1992) two experiments, AEPI (Atmospheric Emissions Photometric Imaging) and SEPAC (Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators) performed the first of a series of active experiments intended to probe the atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere with electron beams. The luminous artificial aurora generated by the electron beam interaction was detected and measured by AEPI both in white light and in a narrow wavelength band at 427.8 nm (peak intensity 5 kR). Modelling calculation showed that there was a significant contribution from emissions originating near the spacecraft. The spatial intensity distribution of the observed auroral patch is consistent with emission contribution from both high and low altitude regions. An extended tail in the direction of the shuttle wake was observed in the 427.8 nm channel, consistent with a decay time associated with the dissipation of the hot electron plasma.

  6. FXI: a full-field imaging beamline at NSLS-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wah-Keat; Reininger, Ruben; Loo, William; Gambella, Richard; O'Hara, Steven; Chu, Yong S.; Zhong, Zhong; Wang, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The Full-field X-ray Imaging (FXI) beamline at the NSLS-II is designed for optimum performance of a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM). When complete, FXI will enable the TXM to obtain individual 2D projection images at 30 nm spatial resolution and up to 40 microns field of view (FOV) with exposure times of < 50 ms per image. A complete 3D nanotomography data set should take less than 1 minute. This will open opportunities for many real-time in-operando studies.

  7. Diagnostic imaging of psoriatic arthritis. Part II: magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Pracoń, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Plain radiography reveals specific, yet late changes of advanced psoriatic arthritis. Early inflammatory changes are seen both on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound within peripheral joints (arthritis, synovitis), tendons sheaths (tenosynovitis, tendovaginitis) and entheses (enthesitis, enthesopathy). In addition, magnetic resonance imaging enables the assessment of inflammatory features in the sacroiliac joints (sacroiliitis), and the spine (spondylitis). In this article, we review current opinions on the diagnostics of some selective, and distinctive features of psoriatic arthritis concerning magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound and present some hypotheses on psoriatic arthritis etiopathogenesis, which have been studied with the use of magnetic resonance imaging. The following elements of the psoriatic arthritis are discussed: enthesitis, extracapsular inflammation, dactylitis, distal interphalangeal joint and nail disease, and the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate undifferentiated arthritis, the value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:27446601

  8. Photographic copy of reproduced photograph dated 1942. Exterior view, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of reproduced photograph dated 1942. Exterior view, west elevation. Building camouflaged during World War II. - Grand Central Air Terminal, 1310 Air Way, Glendale, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 32. Photographic copy of the Post Engineer drawing (original is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photographic copy of the Post Engineer drawing (original is located at Fort Hood) compressor, evaporative condenser & unit cooler schedules, plan number PE 1268 - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Cold Storage Building, Seventeenth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  10. Imaging of a radio type II burst relative to the CME shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krucker, S.; Dauphin, C.; Vilmer, N. R.

    2006-05-01

    Radio type II emission is thought to be produced by energetic electrons that are accelerated at shocks in the solar corona and in interplanetary space. Simultaneous imaging observations of both, the radio emission and the shock, are rare, especially in the lower corona. Here, we present imaging observations in radio waves and soft X-rays of a type II burst that occurred on November 3, 2003 during a GOES X3 flare. The radio type II burst starts at an unusally high frequency (600 MHz) and can therefore be imaged with the Nancay radio heliograph. Simultaneous soft X-ray observations provided by GOES SXI show a faint, fast moving (~800 km/s) loop-like emission in the lower corona (0.1-0.3 solar radius above the photosphere) that spatially and temporally correlates with the Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) later seen in white-light with SOHO/LASCO. Therefore, the observed SXR front is most likely emitted when the CME shock is in the lower corona. The radio type II emission is observed to occur infront of the SXR emission and is only seen from a single location, but not all along the shock front.

  11. TU-B-19A-01: Image Registration II: TG132-Quality Assurance for Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, K; Mutic, S

    2014-06-15

    AAPM Task Group 132 was charged with a review of the current approaches and solutions for image registration in radiotherapy and to provide recommendations for quality assurance and quality control of these clinical processes. As the results of image registration are always used as the input of another process for planning or delivery, it is important for the user to understand and document the uncertainty associate with the algorithm in general and the Result of a specific registration. The recommendations of this task group, which at the time of abstract submission are currently being reviewed by the AAPM, include the following components. The user should understand the basic image registration techniques and methods of visualizing image fusion. The disclosure of basic components of the image registration by commercial vendors is critical in this respect. The physicists should perform end-to-end tests of imaging, registration, and planning/treatment systems if image registration is performed on a stand-alone system. A comprehensive commissioning process should be performed and documented by the physicist prior to clinical use of the system. As documentation is important to the safe implementation of this process, a request and report system should be integrated into the clinical workflow. Finally, a patient specific QA practice should be established for efficient evaluation of image registration results. The implementation of these recommendations will be described and illustrated during this educational session. Learning Objectives: Highlight the importance of understanding the image registration techniques used in their clinic. Describe the end-to-end tests needed for stand-alone registration systems. Illustrate a comprehensive commissioning program using both phantom data and clinical images. Describe a request and report system to ensure communication and documentation. Demonstrate an clinically-efficient patient QA practice for efficient evaluation of image

  12. Ultraviolet imaging telescope and optical emission-line observations of H II regions in M81

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Jesse K.; Cheng, K.-P.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Cornett, Robert H.; Hintzen, P. M. N.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew M.; Smith, Eric P.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1995-01-01

    Images of the type Sab spiral galaxy M81 were obtained in far-UV and near-UV bands by the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) during the Astro-1 Spacelab mission of 1990 December. Magnitudes in the two UV bands are determined for 52 H II regions from the catalog of Petit, Sivan, & Karachentsev (1988). Fluxes of the H-alpha and H-beta emission lines are determined from CCD images. Extinctions for the brightest H II regions are determined from observed Balmer decrements. Fainter H II regions are assigned the average of published radio-H-alpha extinctions for several bright H II regions. The radiative transfer models of Witt, Thronson, & Capuano (1992) are shown to predict a relationship between Balmer Decrement and H-alpha extinction consistent with observed line and radio fluxes for the brightest 7 H II regions and are used to estimate the UV extinction. Ratios of Lyman continuum with ratios predicted by model spectra computed for initial mass function (IMF) slope equal to -1.0 and stellar masses ranging from 5 to 120 solar mass. Ages and masses are estimated by comparing the H-alpha and far-UV fluxes and their ratio with the models. The total of the estimated stellar masses for the 52 H II regions is 1.4 x 10(exp 5) solar mass. The star-formation rate inferred for M81 from the observed UV and H-alpha fluxes is low for a spiral galaxy at approximately 0.13 solar mass/yr, but consistent with the low star-formation rates obtained by Kennicutt (1983) and Caldwell et al. (1991) for early-type spirals.

  13. A survey of partition-based techniques for copy-move forgery detection.

    PubMed

    Diane, Wandji Nanda Nathalie; Xingming, Sun; Moise, Fah Kue

    2014-01-01

    A copy-move forged image results from a specific type of image tampering procedure carried out by copying a part of an image and pasting it on one or more parts of the same image generally to maliciously hide unwanted objects/regions or clone an object. Therefore, detecting such forgeries mainly consists in devising ways of exposing identical or relatively similar areas in images. This survey attempts to cover existing partition-based copy-move forgery detection techniques.

  14. A Survey of Partition-Based Techniques for Copy-Move Forgery Detection

    PubMed Central

    Nathalie Diane, Wandji Nanda; Xingming, Sun; Moise, Fah Kue

    2014-01-01

    A copy-move forged image results from a specific type of image tampering procedure carried out by copying a part of an image and pasting it on one or more parts of the same image generally to maliciously hide unwanted objects/regions or clone an object. Therefore, detecting such forgeries mainly consists in devising ways of exposing identical or relatively similar areas in images. This survey attempts to cover existing partition-based copy-move forgery detection techniques. PMID:25152931

  15. Image transfer through cirrus clouds. II. Wave-front segmentation and imaging.

    PubMed

    Landesman, Barbara T; Matson, Charles L

    2002-12-20

    A hybrid technique to simulate the imaging of space-based objects through cirrus clouds is presented. The method makes use of standard Huygens-Fresnel propagation beyond the cloud boundary and a novel vector trace approach within the cloud. At the top of the cloud, the wave front is divided into an array of input gradient vectors, which are in turn transmitted through the cloud model by use of the Coherent Illumination Ray Trace and Imaging Software for Cirrus. At the bottom of the cloud, the output vector distribution is used to reconstruct a wave front that continues propagating to the ground receiver. Images of the object as seen through cirrus clouds with different optical depths are compared with a diffraction-limited image. Turbulence effects from the atmospheric propagation are not included.

  16. A Solar type-II radio burst from CME-coronal ray interaction: simultaneous radio and EUV imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Du, G.; Feng, L.; Feng, S.; Kong, X.; Guo, F.; Wang, B.; Li, G.

    2014-12-01

    Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white-light imaging data are examined for a solar type II radioburst occurring on 2010 March 18 to deduce its source location. Using a bow-shock model, we reconstruct thethree-dimensional EUV wave front (presumably the type-II-emitting shock) based on the imaging data of the twoSolar TErrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft. It is then combined with the Naņcay radio imaging data toinfer the three-dimensional position of the type II source. It is found that the type II source coincides with theinterface between the coronal mass ejection (CME) EUV wave front and a nearby coronal ray structure, providingevidence that the type II emission is physically related to the CME-ray interaction. This result, consistent withthose of previous studies, is based on simultaneous radio and EUV imaging data for the first time.

  17. A Solar Type II Radio Burst from Coronal Mass Ejection-Coronal Ray Interaction: Simultaneous Radio and Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yao; Du, Guohui; Feng, Li; Feng, Shiwei; Kong, Xiangliang; Guo, Fan; Wang, Bing; Li, Gang

    2014-05-01

    Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white-light imaging data are examined for a solar type II radio burst occurring on 2010 March 18 to deduce its source location. Using a bow-shock model, we reconstruct the three-dimensional EUV wave front (presumably the type-II-emitting shock) based on the imaging data of the two Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft. It is then combined with the Nançay radio imaging data to infer the three-dimensional position of the type II source. It is found that the type II source coincides with the interface between the coronal mass ejection (CME) EUV wave front and a nearby coronal ray structure, providing evidence that the type II emission is physically related to the CME-ray interaction. This result, consistent with those of previous studies, is based on simultaneous radio and EUV imaging data for the first time.

  18. A solar type II radio burst from coronal mass ejection-coronal ray interaction: Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yao; Du, Guohui; Feng, Shiwei; Kong, Xiangliang; Wang, Bing; Feng, Li; Guo, Fan; Li, Gang

    2014-05-20

    Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white-light imaging data are examined for a solar type II radio burst occurring on 2010 March 18 to deduce its source location. Using a bow-shock model, we reconstruct the three-dimensional EUV wave front (presumably the type-II-emitting shock) based on the imaging data of the two Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft. It is then combined with the Nançay radio imaging data to infer the three-dimensional position of the type II source. It is found that the type II source coincides with the interface between the coronal mass ejection (CME) EUV wave front and a nearby coronal ray structure, providing evidence that the type II emission is physically related to the CME-ray interaction. This result, consistent with those of previous studies, is based on simultaneous radio and EUV imaging data for the first time.

  19. Near-infrared (Fe II) and Pa Beta imaging and spectroscopy of Arp 220

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armus, L.; Shupe, D. L.; Matthews, K.; Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.

    1995-01-01

    We have imaged the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 in light of the near-infrared (Fe II) 1.257 micron and Pa-beta lines, and have obtained spectra in the J- and H-band atmospheric windows. Arp 220 is a strong source of (Fe II) and Pa-beta emission, with luminosities of 1.3 x 10(exp 41) and 9.2 x 10(exp 40) ergs/s, respectively. The (Fe II) and Pa-beta emission are both extended over the central 2 sec-3 sec, but with different morphologies. We suggest that the extended (Fe II) emission is produced through the interaction of fast shocks with ambient gas in the interstellar medium (ISM) at the base of the outflowing, supernovae-driven superwind mapped by Heckman et al. (1987). The bolometric luminosity of the starburst required to power this wind is estimated to be at least 2 x 10(exp 11) solar luminosity. If the spatially unresolved (Fe II) emission is produced via a large number of supernova remnants, the implied rate is approximately 0.6/yr. The overall luminosity of such a starburst could account for a large fraction (1/2-1/3) of the Arp 220 energy budget, but the large deficit of ionizing photons (as counted by the Pa-beta luminosity) requires that the starburst be rapidly declining and/or have a low upper mass cutoff. Alternatively, dust may effectively compete with the gas for ionizing photons, or much of the ionizing radiation may escape through 'holes' in the ISM. It is also possible that a buried active galactic nuclei (AGN) produces a large fraction of the unresolved (Fe II) and Pa-beta emission. We briefly discuss these possibilities in light of these new imaging and spectroscopic data.

  20. Simultaneous Radio and EUV Imaging of a Multi-lane Coronal Type II Radio Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, S. W.; Du, G. H.; Chen, Y.; Kong, X. L.; Li, G.; Guo, F.

    2015-04-01

    A multi-lane solar type II radio burst was observed by several solar spectrographs on 16 February 2011. The event was also recorded by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH) at several metric wavelengths, by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) onboard the Solar TErrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) in a number of EUV passbands. These multi-wavelength data provide a rare opportunity to reveal the emission source of the multiple type II lanes. Our study shows that all lanes are associated with a single EUV wave, presumably the radio-emitting shock. The EUV wave was driven by a coronal mass ejection (CME) associated with an M1.6 flare and a filament eruption. With the NRH data and the three-dimensional (3D) bow-shock reconstruction that we built using the multi-viewpoint data of the EUV wave, we are able to deduce the 3D coordinates of the radio sources. We conclude that all the three type II lanes originated from the western flank of the shock, with two of them from closely adjacent locations on the southern part, the other one from a distinct location on the northern part. This case study demonstrates how the type II origin can be pinpointed by combining analyses of different data sets.

  1. Copying Machine Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Manufacturer of the Model 2210 copying machine was looking for a plastic valve bushing material that could be produced by a low-cost injection molding process to replace the unsuitable valve bushing they were using. NERAC conducted a computer search of the NASA database and was able to supply Nashua Corporation with several technical reports in their area of interest. Information aided the company's development of a urethane valve bushing which solved the problem and created a dramatic reduction in unit cost.

  2. Sono-photoacoustic imaging of gold nanoemulsions: Part II. Real time imaging

    PubMed Central

    Arnal, Bastien; Wei, Chen-Wei; Perez, Camilo; Nguyen, Thu-Mai; Lombardo, Michael; Pelivanov, Ivan; Pozzo, Lilo D.; O’Donnell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging using exogenous agents can be limited by degraded specificity due to strong background signals. This paper introduces a technique called sono-photoacoustics (SPA) applied to perfluorohexane nanodroplets coated with gold nanospheres. Pulsed laser and ultrasound (US) excitations are applied simultaneously to the contrast agent to induce a phase-transition ultimately creating a transient microbubble. The US field present during the phase transition combined with the large thermal expansion of the bubble leads to 20–30 dB signal enhancement. Aqueous solutions and phantoms with very low concentrations of this agent were probed using pulsed laser radiation at diagnostic exposures and a conventional US array used both for excitation and imaging. Contrast specificity of the agent was demonstrated with a coherent differential scheme to suppress US and linear PA background signals. SPA shows great potential for molecular imaging with ultrasensitive detection of targeted gold coated nanoemulsions and cavitation-assisted theranostic approaches. PMID:25893170

  3. AN IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF FOUR STRONG Mg II ABSORBERS REVEALED BY GRB 060418

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, L. K.; Prochaska, J. X.; Chen, H.-W.; Bloom, J. S.

    2009-08-20

    We present results from an imaging and spectroscopic study of four strong Mg II absorbers of W(2796) {approx}> 1 A revealed by the afterglow of GRB 060418 at z{sub GRB} = 1.491. These absorbers, at z = 0.603, 0.656, 1.107, and z {sub GRB}, exhibit large ion abundances that suggest neutral gas columns characteristic of damped Ly{alpha} systems. The imaging data include optical images obtained using Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS) on the Keck I telescope and using Advanced Camera for Surveys on board Hubble Space Telescope, and near-infrared H-band images obtained using Persson's Auxiliary Nasmyth Infrared Camera on the Magellan Baade Telescope and K'-band images obtained using NIRC2 with laser guide star adaptive optics on the Keck II telescope. These images reveal six distinct objects at {delta} {theta} {approx}< 3.''5 of the afterglow's position, two of which exhibit well-resolved mature disk morphology, one shows red colors, and three are blue compact sources. Follow-up spectroscopic observations using LRIS confirm that one of the disk galaxies coincides with the Mg II absorber at z = 0.656. The observed broadband spectral energy distributions of the second disk galaxy and the red source indicate that they are associated with the absorbers at z = 0.603 and z = 1.107, respectively. These results show that strong Mg II absorbers identified in gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow spectra are associated with typical galaxies of luminosity {approx}0.1 - 1 L{sub *} at impact parameter of {rho} {approx}< 10 h {sup -1} kpc. The close angular separation would preclude easy detections toward a bright quasar. Finally, we associate the remaining three blue compact sources with the GRB host galaxy, noting that they are likely star-forming knots located at projected distances of {rho} = 2 - 12 h {sup -1} kpc from the afterglow. At the afterglow's position, we derive a 2{sigma} upper limit to the underlying star-formation rate intensity of 0.0074 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} kpc

  4. The Solid Gold Copy Editor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riblet, Carl, Jr.

    This book discusses the role of the newspaper copy editor on a daily newspaper and contains lessons instructing editors on how to prepare copy for print. The book is specifically designed to polish the skills of the already experienced newspaper copy editor, although a beginner will find the lessons useful and instructive. Contained in the lessons…

  5. Design of site specific radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging. (Parts I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dort, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Part I. Synthetic methods were developed for the preparation of several iodinated benzoic acid hydrazides as labeling moieties for indirect tagging of carbonyl-containing bio-molecules and potential tumor-imaging agents. Biodistribution studies conducted in mice on the derivatives having the I-125 label ortho to a phenolic OH demonstrated a rapid in vivo deiodination. Part II. The reported high melanin binding affinity of quinoline and other heterocyclic antimalarial drugs led to the development of many analogues of such molecules as potential melanoma-imaging agents. Once such analogue iodochloroquine does exhibit high melanin binding, but has found limited clinical use due to appreciable accumulation in non-target tissues such as the adrenal cortex and inner ear. This project developed a new series of candidate melanoma imaging agents which would be easier to radio-label, could yield higher specific activity product, and which might demonstrate more favorable pharmacokinetic and dosimetric characteristics compared to iodochloroquine.

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of (18)F-labeled ATP competitive inhibitors of topoisomerase II as probes for imaging topoisomerase II expression.

    PubMed

    Daumar, Pierre; Zeglis, Brian M; Ramos, Nicholas; Divilov, Vadim; Sevak, Kuntal Kumar; Pillarsetty, NagaVaraKishore; Lewis, Jason S

    2014-10-30

    Type II topoisomerase (Topo-II) is an ATP-dependent enzyme that is essential in the transcription, replication, and chromosome segregation processes and, as such, represents an attractive target for cancer therapy. Numerous studies indicate that the response to treatment with Topo-II inhibitors is highly dependent on both the levels and the activity of the enzyme. Consequently, a non-invasive assay to measure tumoral Topo-II levels has the potential to differentiate responders from non-responders. With the ultimate goal of developing a radiofluorinated tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, we have designed, synthesized, and evaluated a set of fluorinated compounds based on the structure of the ATP-competitive Topo-II inhibitor QAP1. Compounds 18 and 19b showed inhibition of Topo-II in in vitro assays and exhibited moderate, Topo-II level dependent cytotoxicity in SK-BR-3 and MCF-7 cell lines. Based on these results, (18)F-labeled analogs of these two compounds were synthesized and evaluated as PET probes for imaging Topo-II overexpression in mice bearing SK-BR-3 xenografts. [(18)F]-18 and [(18)F]-19b were synthesized from their corresponding protected tosylated derivatives by fluorination and subsequent deprotection. Small animal PET imaging studies indicated that both compounds do not accumulate in tumors and exhibit poor pharmacokinetics, clearing from the blood pool very rapidly and getting metabolized over. The insights gained from the current study will surely aid in the design and construction of future generations of PET agents for the non-invasive delineation of Topo-II expression.

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of 18F-labeled ATP competitive inhibitors of topoisomerase II as probes for imaging topoisomerase II expression

    PubMed Central

    Daumar, Pierre; Zeglis, Brian M.; Ramos, Nicholas; Divilov, Vadim; Sevak, Kuntal Kumar; Pillarsetty, NagaVaraKishore; Lewis, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    Type II topoisomerase (Topo-II) is an ATP-dependent enzyme that is essential in the transcription, replication, and chromosome segregation processes and, as such, represents an attractive target for cancer therapy. Numerous studies indicate that the response to treatment with Topo-II inhibitors is highly dependent on both the levels and the activity of the enzyme. Consequently, a non-invasive assay to measure tumoral Topo-II levels has the potential to differentiate responders from non-responders. With the ultimate goal of developing a radiofluorinated tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, we have designed, synthesized, and evaluated a set of fluorinated compounds based on the structure of the ATP-competitive Topo-II inhibitor QAP1. Compounds 18 and 19b showed inhibition of Topo-II in in vitro assays and exhibited moderate, Topo-II level dependent cytotoxicity in SK-BR-3 and MCF-7 cell lines. Based on these results, 18F-labeled analogs of these two compounds were synthesized and evaluated as PET probes for imaging Topo-II overexpression in mice bearing SK-BR-3 xenografts. [18F]-18 and [18F]-19b were synthesized from their corresponding protected tosylated derivatives by fluorination and subsequent deprotection. Small animal PET imaging studies indicated that both compounds do not accumulate in tumors and exhibit poor pharmacokinetics, clearing from the blood pool very rapidly and getting metabolized over. The insights gained from the current study will surely aid in the design and construction of future generations of PET agents for the non-invasive delineation of Topo-II expression. PMID:25240701

  8. Digital authentication with copy-detection patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Justin

    2004-06-01

    Technologies for making high-quality copies of documents are getting more available, cheaper, and more efficient. As a result, the counterfeiting business engenders huge losses, ranging to 5% to 8% of worldwide sales of brand products, and endangers the reputation and value of the brands themselves. Moreover, the growth of the Internet drives the business of counterfeited documents (fake IDs, university diplomas, checks, and so on), which can be bought easily and anonymously from hundreds of companies on the Web. The incredible progress of digital imaging equipment has put in question the very possibility of verifying the authenticity of documents: how can we discern genuine documents from seemingly "perfect" copies? This paper proposes a solution based on creating digital images with specific properties, called a Copy-detection patterns (CDP), that is printed on arbitrary documents, packages, etc. CDPs make an optimal use of an "information loss principle": every time an imae is printed or scanned, some information is lost about the original digital image. That principle applies even for the highest quality scanning, digital imaging, printing or photocopying equipment today, and will likely remain true for tomorrow. By measuring the amount of information contained in a scanned CDP, the CDP detector can take a decision on the authenticity of the document.

  9. A functional ruthenium(ii) complex for imaging biothiols in living bodies.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhiqiang; Gao, Quankun; An, Xin; Song, Bo; Yuan, Jingli

    2015-05-01

    A unique ruthenium(ii) complex, [Ru(bpy)2(DNS-bpy)](PF6)2 [bpy: 2,2'-bipyridine, DNS-bpy: 4-(2,4-dinitrophenylthio)-2,2'-bipyridine], that can act as a probe for the recognition and luminescence sensing of biothiols has been designed and synthesized. Due to the presence of effective photo-induced electron transfer (PET) from the potent electron donor (Ru-bpy centre) to the strong electron acceptor (2,4-dinitrophenyl moiety), the Ru(ii) complex itself is weakly luminescent. Reaction of [Ru(bpy)2(DNS-bpy)](PF6)2 with biothiols leads to the replacement of the 2,4-dinitrophenyl moiety by biothiols, which results in the loss of PET within the complex, to allow recovery of the MLCT-based emission of the Ru(ii) complex with an 80-fold increase in luminescence intensity. Taking advantage of the high specificity and sensitivity, and the excellent photophysical properties of Ru(ii) complexes, [Ru(bpy)2(DNS-bpy)](PF6)2 was successfully applied to the luminescence imaging of biothiols in living Daphnia magna. The results demonstrated the practical applicability of [Ru(bpy)2(DNS-bpy)](PF6)2 as a luminescent probe for the monitoring of biothiols in living bodies.

  10. Airflow analyses using thermal imaging in Arizona's Meteor Crater as part of METCRAX II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grudzielanek, A. Martina; Vogt, Roland; Cermak, Jan; Maric, Mateja; Feigenwinter, Iris; Whiteman, C. David; Lehner, Manuela; Hoch, Sebastian W.; Krauß, Matthias G.; Bernhofer, Christian; Pitacco, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    In October 2013 the second Meteor Crater Experiment (METCRAX II) took place at the Barringer Meteorite Crater (aka Meteor Crater) in north central Arizona, USA. Downslope-windstorm-type flows (DWF), the main research objective of METCRAX II, were measured by a comprehensive set of meteorological sensors deployed in and around the crater. During two weeks of METCRAX II five infrared (IR) time lapse cameras (VarioCAM® hr research & VarioCAM® High Definition, InfraTec) were installed at various locations on the crater rim to record high-resolution images of the surface temperatures within the crater from different viewpoints. Changes of surface temperature are indicative of air temperature changes induced by flow dynamics inside the crater, including the DWF. By correlating thermal IR surface temperature data with meteorological sensor data during intensive observational periods the applicability of the IR method of representing flow dynamics can be assessed. We present evaluation results and draw conclusions relative to the application of this method for observing air flow dynamics in the crater. In addition we show the potential of the IR method for METCRAX II in 1) visualizing airflow processes to improve understanding of these flows, and 2) analyzing cold-air flows and cold-air pooling.

  11. Rare Copy Number Variants

    PubMed Central

    Grozeva, Detelina; Kirov, George; Ivanov, Dobril; Jones, Ian R.; Jones, Lisa; Green, Elaine K.; St Clair, David M.; Young, Allan H.; Ferrier, Nicol; Farmer, Anne E.; McGuffin, Peter; Holmans, Peter A.; Owen, Michael J.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Craddock, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Context Recent studies suggest that copy number variation in the human genome is extensive and may play an important role in susceptibility to disease, including neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. The possible involvement of copy number variants (CNVs) in bipolar disorder has received little attention to date. Objectives To determine whether large (>100 000 base pairs) and rare (found in <1% of the population) CNVs are associated with susceptibility to bipolar disorder and to compare with findings in schizophrenia. Design A genome-wide survey of large, rare CNVs in a case-control sample using a high-density microarray. Setting The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Participants There were 1697 cases of bipolar disorder and 2806 nonpsychiatric controls. All participants were white UK residents. Main Outcome Measures Overall load of CNVs and presence of rare CNVs. Results The burden of CNVs in bipolar disorder was not increased compared with controls and was significantly less than in schizophrenia cases. The CNVs previously implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia were not more common in cases with bipolar disorder. Conclusions Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder differ with respect to CNV burden in general and association with specific CNVs in particular. Our data are consistent with the possibility that possession of large, rare deletions may modify the phenotype in those at risk of psychosis: those possessing such events are more likely to be diagnosed as having schizophrenia, and those without them are more likely to be diagnosed as having bipolar disorder. PMID:20368508

  12. A User Approach To Image Interpretation (II) Keys With Low Altitude, Large-Scale Reconnaissance (LALSR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, James W.

    1990-02-01

    As new high-detailed imaging systems develop, new keys to interpretation must also be developed, especially when distance and perspective are changed dramatically. Low altitude, large-scale reconnaissance (LALSR) imagery is close enough to the ground to eliminate many of the traditional visual cues that exist in most aerial images. The perspective involved can be compared to looking at rust on wire bristles without seeing the whole brush. Now, individual species of plants are recorded, rather than general types of vegetation. Because of increased surface detail with LALSR, a publication covering image interpretation (II) keys would be too voluminous. For this reason, a user approach to the development of II keys for LALSR appears to be more useful and economical. The user, knowing his needs and environment, can best select and create those keys which apply. The selected keys will be based on the visual cues, perspective, and scales, peculiar to LALSR. Keys of this type can be enhanced by the system operator during flights because of his proximity in the target area. The potential of this system for on-site processing also assists the user in key definition. Example projects are outlined.

  13. MightySat II.1 Fourier-transform hyperspectral imager payload performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Leonard J.; Sellar, R. Glenn; Rafert, J. Bruce

    1995-12-01

    Using a new microsat called MightySat II as a platform, Kestrel Corporation is designing and building the first Fourier transform hyperspectral imager (FTHSI) to be operated from a spacecraft. This payload will also be the first to fly on the Phillips Laboratory MightySat II spacecraft series, a new, innovative approach, to affordable space testing of high risk, high payoff technologies. Performance enhancements offered by the Fourier transform approach have shown it to be one of the more promising spaceborne hyperspectral concepts. Simulations of the payload's performance have shown that the instrument is capable of separating a wide range of subtle spectral differences. Variations in the return from the Georges Bank and shoals are discernible and various types of coastal grasses (sea oats and spartina) can be isolated against a sand background.

  14. Stereotactic Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Using the HI-ART II Helical Tomotherapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Timothy W. Hudes, Richard; Dziuba, Sylwester; Kazi, Abdul; Hall, Mark; Dawson, Dana

    2008-07-01

    The highly integrated adaptive radiation therapy (HI-ART II) helical tomotherapy unit is a new radiotherapy machine designed to achieve highly precise and accurate treatments at all body sites. The precision and accuracy of the HI-ART II is similar to that provided by stereotactic radiosurgery systems, hence the historical distinction between external beam radiotherapy and stereotactic procedures based on differing precision requirements is removed for this device. The objectives of this work are: (1) to describe stereotactic helical tomotherapy processes (SRS, SBRT); (2) to show that the precision and accuracy of the HI-ART meet the requirements defined for SRS and SBRT; and (3) to describe the clinical implementation of a stereotactic image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) system that incorporates optical motion management.

  15. MONSTIR II: A 32-channel, multispectral, time-resolved optical tomography system for neonatal brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Robert J. Magee, Elliott; Everdell, Nick; Magazov, Salavat; Varela, Marta; Airantzis, Dimitrios; Gibson, Adam P.; Hebden, Jeremy C.

    2014-05-15

    We detail the design, construction and performance of the second generation UCL time-resolved optical tomography system, known as MONSTIR II. Intended primarily for the study of the newborn brain, the system employs 32 source fibres that sequentially transmit picosecond pulses of light at any four wavelengths between 650 and 900 nm. The 32 detector channels each contain an independent photo-multiplier tube and temporally correlated photon-counting electronics that allow the photon transit time between each source and each detector position to be measured with high temporal resolution. The system's response time, temporal stability, cross-talk, and spectral characteristics are reported. The efficacy of MONSTIR II is demonstrated by performing multi-spectral imaging of a simple phantom.

  16. Custom instruction for NIOS II processor FFT implementation for image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararajana, Sindhuja; Meyer-Baese, Uwe; Botella, Guillermo

    2016-05-01

    Image processing can be considered as signal processing in two dimensions (2D). Filtering is one of the basic image processing operation. Filtering in frequency domain is computationally faster when compared to the corresponding spatial domain operation as the complex convolution process is modified as multiplication in frequency domain. The popular 2D transforms used in image processing are Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). The common values for resolution of an image are 640x480, 800x600, 1024x768 and 1280x1024. As it can be seen, the image formats are generally not a power of 2. So power of 2 FFT lengths are not required and these cannot be built using shorter Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) blocks. Split radix based FFT algorithms like Good-Thomas FFT algorithm simplifies the implementation logic required for such applications and hence can be implemented in low area and power consumption and also meet the timing constraints thereby operating at high frequency. The Good-Thomas FFT algorithm which is a Prime Factor FFT algorithm (PFA) provides the means of computing DFT with least number of multiplication and addition operations. We will be providing an Altera FPGA based NIOS II custom instruction implementation of Good-Thomas FFT algorithm to improve the system performance and also provide the comparison when the same algorithm is completely implemented in software.

  17. 12. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works construction drawing dated January 15, 1951. Drawn by W.A. Doe for the Twin Lakes Reservoir and Canal Co. (copy in possession of Bureau of Reclamation, location of original unknown) 'AS CONSTRUCTED' PLANS OF 1949-50, REHABILITATION OF TWIN LAKES RESERVOIR OUTLET WORKS, DETAILS OF DISCHARGE BASIN. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  18. 11. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works construction drawing dated January 15, 1951. Drawn by W.A. Doe for the Twin Lakes Reservoir and Canal Co. (copy in possession of Bureau of Reclamation, location of original unknown) 'AS CONSTRUCTED' PLANS OF 1949-1950, REHABILITATION OF TWIN LAKES RESERVOIR OUTLET WORKS, DETAILS OF UPSTREAM WING WALLS. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  19. [Fe II] 1.64 μm IMAGING OBSERVATIONS OF THE OUTFLOW FEATURES AROUND ULTRACOMPACT H II REGIONS IN THE FIRST GALACTIC QUADRANT

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, Jong-Ho; Kim, Kee-Tae; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kyeong, Jaemann; Hwang, Narae; Park, Byeong-Gon; Lee, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Koo, Bon-Chul; Pyo, Tae-Soo

    2014-09-01

    We present [Fe II] 1.644 μm features around ultracompact H II regions (UCHIIs) found on a quest for the ''footprint'' outflow features of UCHIIs—the features produced by outflowing materials ejected during an earlier, active accretion phase of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs). We surveyed 237 UCHIIs in the first Galactic quadrant, employing the CORNISH UCHII catalog and UWIFE data, which is an imaging survey in [Fe II] 1.644 μm performed with UKIRT-WFCAM under ∼0.''8 seeing conditions. The [Fe II] features were found around five UCHIIs, one of which was less plausible. We interpret the [Fe II] features to be shock-excited by outflows from YSOs and estimate the outflow mass-loss rates from the [Fe II] flux which are ∼1 × 10{sup –6}-4 × 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We propose that the [Fe II] features might be the ''footprint'' outflow features, but more studies are required to clarify whether or not this is the case. This is based on the morphological relation between the [Fe II] and 5 GHz radio features, the outflow mass-loss rate, the travel time of the [Fe II] features, and the existence of several YSO candidates near the UCHIIs. The UCHIIs accompanying the [Fe II] features have relatively higher peak flux densities. The fraction of UCHIIs accompanying the [Fe II] features, 5/237, is small when compared to the ∼90% detection rate of high-velocity CO gas around UCHIIs. We discuss some possible explanations for the low detection rate.

  20. Accurate segmentation of leukocyte in blood cell images using Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy and interval Type II fuzzy set theory.

    PubMed

    Chaira, Tamalika

    2014-06-01

    In this paper automatic leukocyte segmentation in pathological blood cell images is proposed using intuitionistic fuzzy and interval Type II fuzzy set theory. This is done to count different types of leukocytes for disease detection. Also, the segmentation should be accurate so that the shape of the leukocytes is preserved. So, intuitionistic fuzzy set and interval Type II fuzzy set that consider either more number of uncertainties or a different type of uncertainty as compared to fuzzy set theory are used in this work. As the images are considered fuzzy due to imprecise gray levels, advanced fuzzy set theories may be expected to give better result. A modified Cauchy distribution is used to find the membership function. In intuitionistic fuzzy method, non-membership values are obtained using Yager's intuitionistic fuzzy generator. Optimal threshold is obtained by minimizing intuitionistic fuzzy divergence. In interval type II fuzzy set, a new membership function is generated that takes into account the two levels in Type II fuzzy set using probabilistic T co norm. Optimal threshold is selected by minimizing a proposed Type II fuzzy divergence. Though fuzzy techniques were applied earlier but these methods failed to threshold multiple leukocytes in images. Experimental results show that both interval Type II fuzzy and intuitionistic fuzzy methods perform better than the existing non-fuzzy/fuzzy methods but interval Type II fuzzy thresholding method performs little bit better than intuitionistic fuzzy method. Segmented leukocytes in the proposed interval Type II fuzzy method are observed to be distinct and clear.

  1. ALFALFA DISCOVERY OF THE NEARBY GAS-RICH DWARF GALAXY LEO P. II. OPTICAL IMAGING OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Van Sistine, Angela; Young, Michael D.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Cannon, John M.; Skillman, Evan D.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W. E-mail: slaz@astro.indiana.edu E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu

    2013-06-15

    We present results from ground-based optical imaging of a low-mass dwarf galaxy discovered by the ALFALFA 21 cm H I survey. Broadband (BVR) data obtained with the WIYN 3.5 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) are used to construct color-magnitude diagrams of the galaxy's stellar population down to V{sub o} {approx} 25. We also use narrowband H{alpha} imaging from the KPNO 2.1 m telescope to identify a H II region in the galaxy. We use these data to constrain the distance to the galaxy to be between 1.5 and 2.0 Mpc. This places Leo P within the Local Volume but beyond the Local Group. Its properties are extreme: it is the lowest-mass system known that contains significant amounts of gas and is currently forming stars.

  2. TNTCAM MARK II: A New Mid-IR Array Imager/Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klebe, D. I.; Stencel, R. E.; Theil, D.

    1997-12-01

    We present design considerations for a new mid-IR (5-25mu m) imaging polarimeter, TNTCAM II. Built around a 256x256 Si:As BIB array from Boeing, as an imager the camera will be unparalleled by any instrument currently in use at these wavelengths. Access to this instrument is planned as part of the funding agreement under the NSF Major Research Infrastructure grant supporting its development. This camera can contribute to the understanding of YSOs and evolved stars, obtaining high resolution mid-IR observations of dusty environments immediately surrounding these objects. In ordinary imaging mode mosaics of extended objects can be made in 2x2 arcmin intervals. In polarimetry mode, assuming adequate grain alignment timescales, magnetic fields in YSOs can be probed by dust emission from hot cores. The camera can better constrain grain alignment scenarios in young stellar environments. Emission (rather than scattering) dominates signal at mid-IR wavelengths, allowing determination of grain alignment in a source. This enables distinction between models explaining near-IR polarization seen in dust shells surrounding late red giants, i.e. scattering from asymmetric shells or aligned grains. There are no mid-IR array polarimeters in operation. In polarimetry mode, TNTCAM II will be sensitive to linear polarizations as small as 0.2%. We have chosen the simple approach of imaging one state at a time and modulating polarization at a frequency high enough to remove atmospheric and system noise fluctuations. Dewar design and the optical system are discussed, including the pros and cons of rotating waveplates or an Abbe-Konig "K"-mirror to modulate the polarization, and the use of a rotating window assembly allowing on-the-fly f-ratio adjustment and observation across the entire 5-25mu m band. We acknowledge support under NSF grant AST-9724506 to the University of Denver.

  3. Phase II Trial of Concurrent Sunitinib and Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Oligometastases

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Charles C. L.; Ko, Eric C.; Sung, Max W.; Cesaretti, Jamie A.; Stock, Richard G.; Packer, Stuart H.; Forsythe, Kevin; Genden, Eric M.; Schwartz, Myron; Lau, K. H. Vincent; Galsky, Matthew; Ozao-Choy, Junko; Chen, Shu-hsia; Kao, Johnny

    2012-01-01

    Background Preclinical data suggest that sunitinib enhances the efficacy of radiotherapy. We tested the combination of sunitinib and hypofractionated image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) in a cohort of patients with historically incurable distant metastases. Methods Twenty five patients with oligometastases, defined as 1–5 sites of active disease on whole body imaging, were enrolled in a phase II trial from 2/08 to 9/10. The most common tumor types treated were head and neck, liver, lung, kidney and prostate cancers. Patients were treated with the recommended phase II dose of 37.5 mg daily sunitinib (days 1–28) and IGRT 50 Gy (days 8–12 and 15–19). Maintenance sunitinib was used in 33% of patients. Median follow up was 17.5 months (range, 0.7 to 37.4 months). Results The 18-month local control, distant control, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 75%, 52%, 56% and 71%, respectively. At last follow-up, 11 (44%) patients were alive without evidence of disease, 7 (28%) were alive with distant metastases, 3 (12%) were dead from distant metastases, 3 (12%) were dead from comorbid illness, and 1 (4%) was dead from treatment-related toxicities. The incidence of acute grade ≥ 3 toxicities was 28%, most commonly myelosuppression, bleeding and abnormal liver function tests. Conclusions Concurrent sunitinib and IGRT achieves major clinical responses in a subset of patients with oligometastases. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00463060 PMID:22761653

  4. 10. Photographic copy of copy of original construction drawing, dated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photographic copy of copy of original construction drawing, dated 1899?. Original in possession of Twin Lakes Reservoir and Canal Company, Ordway, Colorado. PLAN OF DAM AND HEAD GATES FOR THE TWIN LAKES RESERVOIR. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  5. Counting copy number and calories.

    PubMed

    White, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) at several genomic loci has been associated with different human traits and diseases, but in many cases the findings could not be replicated. A new study provides insights into the degree of variation present at the amylase locus and calls into question a previous association between amylase copy number and body mass index. PMID:26220133

  6. Bacterial Imaging and Photodynamic Inactivation Using Zinc(II)-Dipicolylamine BODIPY Conjugates†

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Douglas R.; Gan, Haiying; Smith, Bradley D.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted imaging and antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (PDI) are emerging methods for detecting and eradicating pathogenic microorganisms. This study describes two structurally related optical probes that are conjugates of a zinc(II)-dipicolylamine targeting unit and a BODIPY chromophore. One probe is a microbial targeted fluorescent imaging agent, mSeek, and the other is an oxygen photosensitizing analogue, mDestroy. The conjugates exhibited high fluorescence quantum yield and singlet oxygen production, respectively. Fluorescence imaging and detection studies examined four bacterial strains: E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumonia, and B. thuringiensis vegetative cells and purified spores. The fluorescent probe, mSeek, is not phototoxic and enabled detection of all tested bacteria at concentrations of ~100 CFU/mL for B. thuringiensis spores, ~1000 CFU/mL for S. aureus and ~10,000 CFU/mL for E. coli. The photosensitizer analogue, mDestroy, inactivated 99–99.99% of bacterial samples and selectively killed bacterial cells in the presence of mammalian cells. However, mDestroy was ineffective against B. thuringiensis spores. Together, the results demonstrate a new two-probe strategy to optimize PDI of bacterial infection/contamination. PMID:26063101

  7. Payload qualification and optical performance test results for the MightySat II.1 hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Leonard J.; Meigs, Andrew D.; Jones, Bernard A.; Prinzing, Philip; Fronterhouse, Don S.

    1998-12-01

    Previous papers have described the concept behind the MightySat II.1 program, the satellite' Fourier Transform imaging spectrometer's optical design, and the design for the hyperspectral imaging payload. Initial qualification testing of the payload has been completed. All component level qualification tests have been finished. The solid block optics, interferometer, camera and telescope where all successfully tested and a payload Critical Deign Review was passed. Early optical testing of the monolithic interferometer has shown that it has the designed spectral resolution of less than 100 cm(superscript -1). Bench testing of a custom VME data interface board that operates the sensor in a variety of spatial and spectral resolution modes can transfer data satisfactorily at data rates up to 24.3 Mbytes/sec over a VSB bus to spacecraft solid state memory. Problems in manufacturing the hardened C-40 processors has caused a change to an unhardened version of the C-40 using tantalum foil for protection. This still allows all hyperspectral 'smart' imaging spectrometer demonstrations including a 10:1 data compression technique. The payload is scheduled to be delivered in April 1999 for integration on to the spacecraft bus.

  8. Detection of Copy-Rotate-Move Forgery Using Zernike Moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Seung-Jin; Lee, Min-Jeong; Lee, Heung-Kyu

    As forgeries have become popular, the importance of forgery detection is much increased. Copy-move forgery, one of the most commonly used methods, copies a part of the image and pastes it into another part of the the image. In this paper, we propose a detection method of copy-move forgery that localizes duplicated regions using Zernike moments. Since the magnitude of Zernike moments is algebraically invariant against rotation, the proposed method can detect a forged region even though it is rotated. Our scheme is also resilient to the intentional distortions such as additive white Gaussian noise, JPEG compression, and blurring. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is appropriate to identify the forged region by copy-rotate-move forgery.

  9. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging of Physiological Free Cu(II) Levels in Live Cells with a Cu(II)-Selective Carbonic Anhydrase-Based Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    McCranor, Bryan J.; Szmacinski, Henryk; Zeng, Hui Hui; Stoddard, A.K.; Hurst, Tamiika; Fierke, Carol A.; Lakowicz, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Copper is a required trace element that plays key roles in a number of human enzymes, such that copper deficiency or genetic defects in copper transport lead to serious or fatal disease. Rae, et al., had famously predicted that free copper ion levels in the cell cytoplasm were extremely low, typically too low to be observable. We recently developed a variant of human apocarbonic anhydrase II for sensing metal ions that exhibits 25-fold better selectivity for Cu(II) over Zn(II) than the wild type protein, enabling us to accurately measure Cu(II) in the presence of ordinary cellular (picomolar) concentrations of free zinc. We inserted a fluorescent labeled Cu(II)-specific variant of human apocarbonic anhydrase into PC-12 cells and found that the levels are indeed extremely low (in the femtomolar range). We imaged the free Cu(II) levels in living cells by means of frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime microscopy. Implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:24671220

  10. Manganese (II) Chelate Functionalized Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles for Efficient Magnetic Resonance/Photoacoustic Dual-Modal Imaging Guided Photothermal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Renfa; Jing, Lijia; Peng, Dong; Li, Yong; Tian, Jie; Dai, Zhifei

    2015-01-01

    The integration of diagnostic and therapeutic functionalities into one nanoplatform shows great promise in cancer therapy. In this research, manganese (II) chelate functionalized copper sulfide nanoparticles were successfully prepared using a facile hydrothermal method. The obtained ultrasmall nanoparticles exhibit excellent photothermal effect and photoaoustic activity. Besides, the high loading content of Mn(II) chelates makes the nanoparticles attractive T1 contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In vivo photoacoustic imaging (PAI) results showed that the nanoparticles could be efficiently accumulated in tumor site in 24 h after systematic administration, which was further validated by MRI tests. The subsequent photothermal therapy of cancer in vivo was achieved without inducing any observed side effects. Therefore, the copper sulfide nanoparticles functionalized with Mn(II) chelate hold great promise as a theranostic nanomedicine for MR/PA dual-modal imaging guided photothermal therapy of cancer.

  11. Manganese (II) Chelate Functionalized Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles for Efficient Magnetic Resonance/Photoacoustic Dual-Modal Imaging Guided Photothermal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Renfa; Jing, Lijia; Peng, Dong; Li, Yong; Tian, Jie; Dai, Zhifei

    2015-01-01

    The integration of diagnostic and therapeutic functionalities into one nanoplatform shows great promise in cancer therapy. In this research, manganese (II) chelate functionalized copper sulfide nanoparticles were successfully prepared using a facile hydrothermal method. The obtained ultrasmall nanoparticles exhibit excellent photothermal effect and photoaoustic activity. Besides, the high loading content of Mn(II) chelates makes the nanoparticles attractive T1 contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In vivo photoacoustic imaging (PAI) results showed that the nanoparticles could be efficiently accumulated in tumor site in 24 h after systematic administration, which was further validated by MRI tests. The subsequent photothermal therapy of cancer in vivo was achieved without inducing any observed side effects. Therefore, the copper sulfide nanoparticles functionalized with Mn(II) chelate hold great promise as a theranostic nanomedicine for MR/PA dual-modal imaging guided photothermal therapy of cancer. PMID:26284144

  12. Characterization and monitoring of Flamingos-II, a near-IR imager and spectrograph at Gemini South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogsrud, David; Diaz, Ruben; Ferrero, Gabriel; Mora, Marcelo; Navarete, Felipe; Schirmer, Mischa

    2015-01-01

    We present results of the characterization and continual monitoring of the Flamingos-II instrument. Currently installed at Gemini South Observatory, Flamingos-II is a near-IR imager and longslit/multi-object spectrograph. In addition to the characterization of the detector, methodologies and results of the Science Verification pipeline, Telluric corrections, and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) mask design software are presented.

  13. Quantitating MHC class II trafficking in primary dendritic cells using imaging flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Hennies, Cassandra M.; Lehn, Maria A.; Janssen, Edith M.

    2015-01-01

    Presentation of antigenic peptides in MHC class II (MHCII) on dendritic cells (DCs) is the first step in the activation of antigen-specific CD4+T cells. The expression of surface MHCII-peptide complexes is tightly regulated as the frequency of MHCII-peptide complexes can affect the magnitude, as well as the phenotype of the ensuing CD4+T cell response. The surface MHCII-peptide levels are determined by the balance between expression of newly generated complexes, complex internalization, and their subsequent re-emergence or degradation. However, the molecular mechanisms that underpin these processes are still poorly understood. Here we describe a multispectral imaging flow cytometry assay to visualize MHCII trafficking that can be used as a tool to dissect the molecular mechanisms that regulate MHCII homeostasis in primary mouse and human DCs. PMID:25967952

  14. Images in the rocket ultraviolet - Young clusters in H II regions of M83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlin, Ralph C.; Cornett, Robert H.; Hill, Jesse K.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1990-01-01

    UV images of M83 at 1540 and 2360 A reveal 18 compact sources that are associated with H II regions. E(B - V) values were estimated individually from the observed UV and optical colors and the Galactic UV extinction curve, using theoretical flux distributions. The dereddened colors are consistent with ages up to 3 x 10 to the 6th yr. A maximum possible age of 6.5 x 10 to the 6th yr is obtained assuming foreground reddening only. The distribution of observed colors is consistent with the Galactic reddening curve but not with enhanced far-UV extinction, as in the LMC 30 Dor curve. The H-alpha fluxes suggest either that dust within the H II regions absorbs up to 70 percent of the Lyman continuum radiation or that a similar fraction of the H-alpha flux is below the surface brightness detection limit. Cluster mass estimates depend on the range of stellar masses present but are probably in the range 10,000-100,000 solar masses.

  15. Angiotensin II-induced angiotensin II type I receptor lysosomal degradation studied by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hewang; Yu, Peiying; Felder, Robin A.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Jose, Pedro A.

    2009-02-01

    Upon activation, the angiotensin (Ang) II type 1 receptor (AT1Rs) rapidly undergoes endocytosis. After a series of intracellular processes, the internalized AT1Rs recycle back to the plasma membrane or are trafficked to proteasomes or lysosomes for degradation. We recently reported that AT1Rs degrades in proteasomes upon stimulation of the D5 dopamine receptor (D5R) in human renal proximal tubule and HEK-293 cells. This is in contrast to the degradation of AT1R in lysosomes upon binding Ang II. However, the dynamic regulation of the AT1Rs in lysosomes is not well understood. Here we investigated the AT1Rs lysosomal degradation using FRET-FLIM in HEK 293 cells heterologously expressing the human AT1R tagged with EGFP as the donor fluorophore. Compared to its basal state, the lifetime of AT1Rs decreased after a 5-minute treatment with Ang II treatment and colocalized with Rab5 but not Rab7 and LAMP1. With longer Ang II treatment (30 min), the AT1Rs lifetime decreased and co-localized with Rab5, as well as Rab7 and LAMP1. The FLIM data are corroborated with morphological and biochemical co-immunoprecipitation studies. These data demonstrate that Ang II induces the internalization of AT1Rs into early sorting endosomes prior to trafficking to late endosomes and subsequent degradation in lysosomes.

  16. Simulation of Collimator for Neutron Imaging Facility of TRIGA MARK II PUSPATI Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, Muhammad Rawi Mohamed; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Yazid, Khairiah; Hussain, Hishamuddin; Yazid, Hafizal; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Azman, Azraf; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Hamzah, Nai'im Syaugi; Abu, Mohamad Puad

    Neutron Radiography facility in TRIGA MARK II PUSPATI reactor is being upgraded to obtain better image resolution as well as reducing exposure time. Collimator and exposure room are the main components have been designed for fabrication. This article focuses on the simulation part that was carried out to obtain the profile of collimated neutron beam by utilizing the neutron transport protocol code in the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) software. Particular interest is in the selection of materials for inlet section of the collimator. Results from the simulation indicates that a combination of Bismuth and Sapphire, each of which has 5.0 cm length that can significantly filter both the gamma radiation and the fast neutrons. An aperture made of Cadmium with 1.0 cm opening diameter provides thermal neutron flux about 1.8 x108 ncm-2s-1 at the inlet, but reduces to 2.7 x106 ncm-2s-1 at the sample plane. Still the flux obtained is expected to reduces exposure time as well as gaining better image resolution.

  17. Thermal imaging QC for silicon strip staves of the ATLAS phase II upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergel Infante, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    A new silicon strip detector is part of the phase II upgrade of the ATLAS inner tracker. Light-material carbon fiber honeycomb sandwich staves serve as mechanical support for the strip sensors and readout modules and to move the dissipated heat out of the detector. A cooling pipe inside the stave is embedded in heat-conducting foam that thermally connects the pipe with the readout modules. The staves are required to pass a set of quality control (QC) tests before they are populated with readout modules. One test uses a non-invasive inspection method of infrared (IR) thermal imaging of the heat path while the stave is cooled to around -40°C at ambient room temperature. Imperfections in the manufacturing, such as the delamination of the stave facing from the foam, will exhibit a different temperature profile compared to a flawless stave. We report on the current status of the thermal imaging QC measurements including a characterization of various contributions to the uncertainties in the temperature reading of the IR camera such as pedestal variations, common-mode noise, vignetting, and statistical fluctuations across the field of view.

  18. Performance confirmation of the Belle II imaging Time Of Propogation (iTOP) prototype counter

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Alan; Liu, Yang; Belhorn, Matt; Browder, Thomas; Varner, Gary; Andrew, Matt; Rosen, Marc; Barrett, Matthew; Nishimura, Kurtis; Anderson, Eric Iijima, Toru; /Nagoya U. /PNL, Richland

    2011-10-17

    modest image expansion volume and more highly pixelated image plane improve the theoretical detector performance, since timing alone is limited by chromatic dispersion of the Cherenkov photons. This imaging-TOP (or iTOP) counter is the basis of Belle II barrel PID upgrade. However, a number of critical performance parameters must be demonstrated prior to releasing this prototype design for production manufacture.

  19. The discrimination of type I and type II collagen and the label-free imaging of engineered cartilage tissue.

    PubMed

    Su, Ping-Jung; Chen, Wei-Liang; Li, Tsung-Hsien; Chou, Chen-Kuan; Chen, Te-Hsuen; Ho, Yi-Yun; Huang, Chi-Hsiu; Chang, Shwu-Jen; Huang, Yi-You; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2010-12-01

    Using excitation polarization-resolved second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, we measured SHG intensity as a function of the excitation polarization angle for type I and type II collagens. We determined the second order susceptibility (χ((2))) tensor ratios of type I and II collagens at each pixel, and displayed the results as images. We found that the χ((2)) tensor ratios can be used to distinguish the two types of collagen. In particular, we obtained χ(zzz)/χ(zxx) = 1.40 ± 0.04 and χ(xzx)/χ(zxx) = 0.53 ± 0.10 for type I collagen from rat tail tendon, and χ(zzz)/χ(zxx) = 1.14 ± 0.09 and χ(xzx)/χ(zxx) = 0.29 ± 0.11 for type II collagen from rat trachea cartilage. We also applied this methodology on the label-free imaging of engineered cartilage tissue which produces type I and II collagen simultaneously. By displaying the χ((2)) tensor ratios in the image format, the variation in the χ((2)) tensor ratios can be used as a contrast mechanism for distinguishing type I and II collagens. PMID:20875682

  20. Copy-choice illegitimate DNA recombination revisited.

    PubMed Central

    d'Alençon, E; Petranovic, M; Michel, B; Noirot, P; Aucouturier, A; Uzest, M; Ehrlich, S D

    1994-01-01

    Nearly precise excision of a transposon related to Tn10 from an Escherichia coli plasmid was used as a model to study illegitimate DNA recombination between short direct repeats. The excision was stimulated 100-1000 times by induction of plasmid single-stranded DNA synthesis and did not involve transfer of DNA from the parental to the progeny molecule. We conclude that it occurred by copy-choice DNA recombination, and propose that other events of recombination between short direct repeats might be a result of the same process. Images PMID:8013470

  1. A STUDY OF DIFFERENTIAL ROTATION ON II PEGASI VIA PHOTOMETRIC STARSPOT IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Roettenbacher, Rachael M.; Harmon, Robert O.; Vutisalchavakul, Nalin; Henry, Gregory W.

    2011-04-15

    We present the results of a study of differential rotation on the K2 IV primary of the RS CVn binary II Pegasi (HD 224085) performed by inverting light curves to produce images of the dark starspots on its surface. The data were obtained in the standard Johnson B and V filter passbands via the Tennessee State University T3 0.4 m Automated Photometric Telescope from JD 2447115.8086-2455222.6238 (1987 November 16-2010 January 26). The observations were subdivided into 79 data sets consisting of pairs of B and V light curves, which were then inverted using a constrained nonlinear inversion algorithm that makes no a priori assumptions regarding the number of spots or their shapes. The resulting surface images were then assigned to 24 groups corresponding to time intervals over which we could observe the evolution of a given group of spots (except for three groups consisting of single data sets). Of these 24 groups, six showed convincing evidence of differential rotation over time intervals of several months. For the others, the spot configuration was such that differential rotation was neither exhibited nor contraindicated. The differential rotation we infer is in the same sense as that on the Sun: lower latitudes have shorter rotation periods. From plots of the range in longitude spanned by the spotted regions versus time, we obtain estimates of the differential rotation coefficient k defined as in earlier work by Henry et al. and show that our results for its value are consistent with the value obtained therein.

  2. Zero-Copy Objects System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Zero-Copy Objects System software enables application data to be encapsulated in layers of communication protocol without being copied. Indirect referencing enables application source data, either in memory or in a file, to be encapsulated in place within an unlimited number of protocol headers and/or trailers. Zero-copy objects (ZCOs) are abstract data access representations designed to minimize I/O (input/output) in the encapsulation of application source data within one or more layers of communication protocol structure. They are constructed within the heap space of a Simple Data Recorder (SDR) data store to which all participating layers of the stack must have access. Each ZCO contains general information enabling access to the core source data object (an item of application data), together with (a) a linked list of zero or more specific extents that reference portions of this source data object, and (b) linked lists of protocol header and trailer capsules. The concatenation of the headers (in ascending stack sequence), the source data object extents, and the trailers (in descending stack sequence) constitute the transmitted data object constructed from the ZCO. This scheme enables a source data object to be encapsulated in a succession of protocol layers without ever having to be copied from a buffer at one layer of the protocol stack to an encapsulating buffer at a lower layer of the stack. For large source data objects, the savings in copy time and reduction in memory consumption may be considerable.

  3. SMILE-II: Balloon-Borne Telescope for Background-Suppressed Soft Gamma-Ray Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawano, T.; Tanimori, T.; Kubo, H.; Takada, A.; Parker, J. D.; Mizumoto, T.; Sonoda, S.; Mizumura, Y.; Tomono, D.; Nakamura, K.; Matsuoka, Y.; Komura, S.; Sato, Y.; Nakamura, S.; Miuchi, K.; Kabuki, S.; Kishimoto, Y.; Kurosawa, S.; Iwaki, S.; Tanaka, M.; Ikeno, M.; Uchida, T.

    We have developed an Electron-Tracking Compton Camera (ETCC) for an all-sky survey at the MeV gamma-ray band. The ETCC consists of a gaseous tracker and a position sensitive scintillation camera to measure the momentum of the Compton-recoil electron and the scattering gamma ray so that we can reconstruct the energy and momentum of the incident gamma ray photon by photon. Also the ETCC has strong background rejection methods using tracking information such as the dE/dx particle identification and theCompton kinematics test. To confirm feasibility of observing celestial objects in space, we performed a balloon experiment to successfully observe the diffuse cosmic and atmospheric gamma rays, which confirmed the effectiveness of the background rejection capability. Based on the first balloon experiment result, we are developing a large ETCC and plan to launch it for the test of the imaging property. The performance of the SMILE-II ETCC is simulated and then it will obtain an effective area of 1.1 cm2 for 200 keV by improving the electron track reconstruction efficiency by a factor of about 10, which results in the detection of Crab nebula at >5σ level for several-hour observation in the middle latitude with an altitude of 40 km.

  4. Evaluation of soft copy distribution of diagnostic studies before soft copy interpretation.

    PubMed

    McEnery, Kevin W; Suitor, Charles T; Thompson, Stephen K; Shepard, Jeffrey S; Murphy, William A

    2002-01-01

    To meet the imaging needs of an expanding clinical campus and clinical volume, a web-based image distribution system (Stentor, San Francisco, CA) was implemented before the implementation of soft copy interpretation. This study sought to assess system utilization as a metric of system's capability to meet demand for enterprise image review. Study period included all examinations stored on the system and subsequently viewed from June 1, 2001 to August 8, 2001. Server log files were analyzed for study storage and subsequent study retrieval. A total of 24,887 studies were stored on the server and available for immediate retrieval, and, of these, 12,458 studies (50%) subsequently were reviewed. Modality-specific study review included 65% for computed radiography, 46% for digital radiography, 56% magnetic resonance, 54% for computed tomography, and 18% for ultrasound scan. Enterprise image distribution before the implementation of picture archiving communication system is a viable operational decision and can be implemented successfully before implementation of soft copy interpretation. System utilization indicates a great value in the electronic availability of image studies. PMID:12105702

  5. Mg ii Lines Observed During the X-class Flare on 29 March 2014 by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Heinzel, P.; Kleint, L.; Kašparová, J.

    2015-12-01

    Mg ii lines represent one of the strongest emissions from the chromospheric plasma during solar flares. In this article, we studied the Mg ii lines observed during the X1 flare on 29 March 2014 (SOL2014-03-29T17:48) by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). IRIS detected large intensity enhancements of the Mg ii h and k lines, subordinate triplet lines, and several other metallic lines at the flare footpoints during this flare. We have used the advantage of the slit-scanning mode (rastering) of IRIS and performed, for the first time, a detailed analysis of spatial and temporal variations of the spectra. Moreover, we were also able to identify positions of strongest hard X-ray (HXR) emissions using the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observations and to correlate them with the spatial and temporal evolution of IRIS Mg ii spectra. The light curves of the Mg ii lines increase and peak contemporarily with the HXR emissions but decay more gradually. There are large red asymmetries in the Mg ii h and k lines after the flare peak. We see two spatially well-separated groups of Mg ii line profiles, non-reversed and reversed. In some cases, the Mg ii footpoints with reversed profiles are correlated with HXR sources. We show the spatial and temporal behavior of several other line parameters (line metrics) and briefly discuss them. Finally, we have synthesized the Mg ii k line using our non-LTE code with the Multilevel Accelerated Lambda Iteration (MALI) technique. Two kinds of models are considered, the flare model F2 of Machado et al. ( Astrophys. J. 242, 336, 1980) and the models of Ricchiazzi and Canfield ( Astrophys. J. 272, 739, 1983, RC models). Model F2 reproduces the peak intensity of the non-reversed Mg ii k profile at flare maximum, but does not account for high wing intensities. On the other hand, the RC models show the sensitivity of Mg ii line intensities to various electron-beam parameters. Our simulations also show that

  6. APPLEPIPS /Apple Personal Image Processing System/ - An interactive digital image processing system for the Apple II microcomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masuoka, E.; Rose, J.; Quattromani, M.

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments related to microprocessor-based personal computers have made low-cost digital image processing systems a reality. Image analysis systems built around these microcomputers provide color image displays for images as large as 256 by 240 pixels in sixteen colors. Descriptive statistics can be computed for portions of an image, and supervised image classification can be obtained. The systems support Basic, Fortran, Pascal, and assembler language. A description is provided of a system which is representative of the new microprocessor-based image processing systems currently on the market. While small systems may never be truly independent of larger mainframes, because they lack 9-track tape drives, the independent processing power of the microcomputers will help alleviate some of the turn-around time problems associated with image analysis and display on the larger multiuser systems.

  7. Photographic copy of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Worth, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Worth, Texas, drawing (original located at Fort Hood, Texas), 1989 Site plan of North Fort Hood - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  8. Photographic copy of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Worth, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Worth, Texas, drawing (original located at Fort Hood, Texas), 1989 Site plan of South Fort Hood - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  9. 1 CFR 18.5 - Certified copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified copies. 18.5 Section 18.5 General... DOCUMENTS PREPARATION AND TRANSMITTAL OF DOCUMENTS GENERALLY § 18.5 Certified copies. The certified copies or duplicate originals of each document must be submitted with the original. Each copy or...

  10. The International Deep Planet Survey. II. The frequency of directly imaged giant exoplanets with stellar mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galicher, R.; Marois, C.; Macintosh, B.; Zuckerman, B.; Barman, T.; Konopacky, Q.; Song, I.; Patience, J.; Lafrenière, D.; Doyon, R.; Nielsen, E. L.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Radial velocity and transit methods are effective for the study of short orbital period exoplanets but they hardly probe objects at large separations for which direct imaging can be used. Aims: We carried out the international deep planet survey of 292 young nearby stars to search for giant exoplanets and determine their frequency. Methods: We developed a pipeline for a uniform processing of all the data that we have recorded with NIRC2/Keck II, NIRI/Gemini North, NICI/Gemini South, and NACO/VLT for 14 yr. The pipeline first applies cosmetic corrections and then reduces the speckle intensity to enhance the contrast in the images. Results: The main result of the international deep planet survey is the discovery of the HR 8799 exoplanets. We also detected 59 visual multiple systems including 16 new binary stars and 2 new triple stellar systems, as well as 2279 point-like sources. We used Monte Carlo simulations and the Bayesian theorem to determine that 1.05+2.80-0.70% of stars harbor at least one giant planet between 0.5 and 14 MJ and between 20 and 300 AU. This result is obtained assuming uniform distributions of planet masses and semi-major axes. If we consider power law distributions as measured for close-in planets instead, the derived frequency is 2.30+5.95-1.55%, recalling the strong impact of assumptions on Monte Carlo output distributions. We also find no evidence that the derived frequency depends on the mass of the hosting star, whereas it does for close-in planets. Conclusions: The international deep planet survey provides a database of confirmed background sources that may be useful for other exoplanet direct imaging surveys. It also puts new constraints on the number of stars with at least one giant planet reducing by a factor of two the frequencies derived by almost all previous works. Tables 11-15 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  11. Velocity Fields in H II Regions Using High Resolution Imaging Fabry-Perot Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seema, P.

    1996-05-01

    The thesis comprises of two parts: I. Instrumentation II. Observations, results and discussion. An imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer (IFPS) is designed and constructed for the studies on kinematics of extended astronomical objects (Seema et al., 1992). IFPS comprises of a field aperture, collimating lens and a two dimensional imaging sensor called Imaging Photon Detector (IPD). It is the first time that IPD which uses a resistive anode for position determination is being used in the spectroscopic studies of astronomical objects. Observations were made on Orion and Trifid nebula covering a wide field of view using a 35cm Celestron-14 telescope (f/11 cassegrain) at Gurushikhar, Mt.Abu, India. Orion Nebula: Observations were made in [OIII] 5007A, line with a spectral resolution of 6 km/sec and spatial resolution of 4" covering a field of view of 10.5', to study (i) general velocity flow (ii) high velocity flow and (iii)random motions. Line profiles generated for about 2000 positions showed an asymmetric shape with (a)a narrow component 20 +- 3 km/sec and (b) a broad component 50 +- 3 km/sec. The two components could be interpreted in terms of the interaction of the ionized gas (from the trapezium stars) with the condensations present in the nebula, resulting in the secondary flows. The iso-velocity contour map generated for both the components showed velocity flow in agreement with the champagne flow model (Tenorio-Tagle 1982). A model emission line profile constructed assuming a champagne flow in [OIII] 5007A, line for a position 2' away from theta-1 C Ori showed a reasonably good agreement with the narrow component of the observed profile. Certain high velocity flow (~50 km/s) regions are observed to be superimposed on the main flow of the narrow component. These flows are either radiation pressure driven stellar winds or jets generated during the formation phase of Young stellar objects. The radial velocity was found to be low with no high velocity flow regions in

  12. Analysis of Ca II K images aiming to determine long-term trends in solar irradiance variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Anuradha; Ermolli, Ilaria; Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami

    2013-04-01

    The change in radiative output of the Sun on time scales longer than a day is attributed to the variability in solar surface magnetic fields. Direct irradiance measurements are only available for less than four decades. To reconstruct long term trends in solar total and spectral irradiance, proxies of solar surface magnetism like sunspot, facular and network areas are needed. Currently, sunspot records alone are used for this purpose, from which the deduction of facular and network areas is rather indirect. Historical records of full disk images of the Sun taken in the Ca II K spectral line (393.3 nm) have the potential to provide far more direct information about the distribution and evolution of faculae and network elements. The latter appear as bright regions in the Ca II K spectroheliograms and their intensity is correlated with the magnetic field strength of the features on the solar surface. Solar full disk images in the Ca II K line have been recorded since the beginning of the 20th century at a number of solar observatories such as at Arcetri (Italy), Mount Wilson(California, US) and Kodaikanal (India). The images are available in digitized archives that contain the data processed for standard instrumental calibrations. To utilize these records for irradiance studies, the next step is to identify the bright magnetic features from the images using feature recognition techniques. We test different feature identification methods which are first applied to a set of recent images from the PSPT instrument at the Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, taken during three periods characterized by high, medium and low levels of activity. Then the performance of these methods to historical images from Arcetri, Mt. Wilson and Kodaikanal archives is tested. The results will be presented and discussed here.

  13. Osmium(II) polypyridyl polyarginine conjugate as a probe for live cell imaging; a comparison of uptake, localization and cytotoxicity with its ruthenium(II) analogue.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Aisling; Dolan, Ciarán; Moriarty, Roisin D; Martin, Aaron; Neugebauer, Ute; Forster, Robert J; Davies, Anthony; Volkov, Yuri; Keyes, Tia E

    2015-08-28

    A first investigation into the application of a luminescent osmium(ii) bipyridine complex to live cell imaging is presented. Osmium(ii) (bis-2,2-bipyridyl)-2(4-carboxylphenyl) imidazo[4,5f][1,10]phenanthroline was prepared and conjugated to octaarginine, a cell penetrating peptide. The photophysics, cell uptake and cytotoxicity of this osmium complex conjugate were performed and compared with its ruthenium analogue. Cell uptake and distribution of both ruthenium and osmium conjugates were very similar with rapid transmembrane transport of the osmium probe (complete within approx. 20 min) and dispersion throughout the cytoplasm and organelles. The near-infrared (NIR) emission of the osmium complex (λmax 726 nm) coincides well with the biological optical window and this facilitated luminescent and luminescence lifetime imaging of the cell which was well resolved from cell autofluorescence. The large Stokes shift of the emission also permitted resonance Raman mapping of the dye within CHO cells. Rather surprisingly, the osmium conjugate exhibited very low cytotoxicity when incubated both in the dark and under visible irradiation. This was attributed to the remarkable stability of this complex which was reflected by the complete absence of photo-bleaching of the complex even under extended continuous irradiation. In addition, when compared to its ruthenium analogue its luminescence was short-lived in water therefore rendering it insensitive to O2. PMID:26197944

  14. Osmium(II) polypyridyl polyarginine conjugate as a probe for live cell imaging; a comparison of uptake, localization and cytotoxicity with its ruthenium(II) analogue.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Aisling; Dolan, Ciarán; Moriarty, Roisin D; Martin, Aaron; Neugebauer, Ute; Forster, Robert J; Davies, Anthony; Volkov, Yuri; Keyes, Tia E

    2015-08-28

    A first investigation into the application of a luminescent osmium(ii) bipyridine complex to live cell imaging is presented. Osmium(ii) (bis-2,2-bipyridyl)-2(4-carboxylphenyl) imidazo[4,5f][1,10]phenanthroline was prepared and conjugated to octaarginine, a cell penetrating peptide. The photophysics, cell uptake and cytotoxicity of this osmium complex conjugate were performed and compared with its ruthenium analogue. Cell uptake and distribution of both ruthenium and osmium conjugates were very similar with rapid transmembrane transport of the osmium probe (complete within approx. 20 min) and dispersion throughout the cytoplasm and organelles. The near-infrared (NIR) emission of the osmium complex (λmax 726 nm) coincides well with the biological optical window and this facilitated luminescent and luminescence lifetime imaging of the cell which was well resolved from cell autofluorescence. The large Stokes shift of the emission also permitted resonance Raman mapping of the dye within CHO cells. Rather surprisingly, the osmium conjugate exhibited very low cytotoxicity when incubated both in the dark and under visible irradiation. This was attributed to the remarkable stability of this complex which was reflected by the complete absence of photo-bleaching of the complex even under extended continuous irradiation. In addition, when compared to its ruthenium analogue its luminescence was short-lived in water therefore rendering it insensitive to O2.

  15. Asteroid (16) Psyche: Triaxial Ellipsoid Dimensions and Rotational Pole from Keck II NIRC2 AO Images and Keck I OSIRIS Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, Jack D.; Conrad, Al; Reddy, Vishnu; de Kleer, Katherine R.; Adamkovics, Mate; de Pater, Imke; Merline, William J.; Tamblyn, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) images of asteroid (16) Psyche obtained at 4 epochs with the NIRC2 camera at the 10m W. M. Keck Observatory (Keck II) on UT 2015 December 25 lead to triaxial ellipsoid diameters of 279±4 x 230±2 x 195±14 km, and a rotational pole at RA=29° and Dec=-2°. Adding 6 more epochs obtained nearly simultaneously with the OSIRIS system at Keck I, as well as two more epochs from Keck II in 2009, yields diameters of 273±2 x 232±2 x 165±3 km, and a pole at RA=37° and Dec=+1°. (Errors are formal fit parameter uncertainties; an additional 4% uncertainty is possible from systematic biases.) The differing perspectives between 2015 (sub-Earth latitude Θ=-50°) and 2009 (Θ=-6°) improves primarily the c dimension and the location of the rotational pole, but illustrates how well images from even a single night can determine the size, shape, and pole of an asteroid. The 2015 observations were obtained as part of a campaign to study Psyche with many techniques over a few months, including radar from Arecibo and images from Magellan.These handful of images show the same rugged outline as the radius vector model available on the DAMIT website, constructed from many lightcurves and scaled by previous Keck AO images. In fact Psyche has rotated some 125,350 times between the first lightcurve in 1955 and our 2015 AO images, exactly 60 years apart to the day. Since the asteroid has such a high obliquity, these lightcurves have scanned well into both northern and southern hemispheres. The difference between the pole derived from our images and the radius vector model pole is only 7°, and the mean diameters of Psyche are 219 and 211 km, respectively.

  16. Copy number variation and mutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Brian; Weidner, Jacob; Wabick, Kevin

    2009-11-01

    Until very recently, the standard model of DNA included two genes for each trait. This dated model has given way to a model that includes copies of some genes well in excess of the canonical two. Copy number variations in the human genome play critical roles in causing or aggravating a number of syndromes and diseases while providing increased resistance to others. We explore the role of mutation, crossover, inversion, and reproduction in determining copy number variations in a numerical simulation of a population. The numerical model consists of a population of individuals, where each individual is represented by a single strand of DNA with the same number of genes. Each gene is initially assigned to one of two traits. Fitness of the individual is determined by the two most fit genes for trait one, and trait two genetic material is treated as a reservoir of junk DNA. After a sufficient number of generations, during which the genetic distribution is allowed to reach a steady-state, the mean numberof genes per trait and the copy number variation are recorded. Here, we focus on the role of mutation and compare simulation results to theory.

  17. 53. PRODUCTION MOLDS. THESE MOLDS ARE COPIES OF THE ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. PRODUCTION MOLDS. THESE MOLDS ARE COPIES OF THE ORIGINAL MOLDS IN THE MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS COLLECTION, AND ARE USED TO PRESS TILES. THE FACTORY KEEPS TEN PRODUCTION MOLDS FOR EACH IMAGE. THE ORIGINAL MOLDS ARE NOT USED IN PRODUCTION. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  18. Super-resolution imaging of fluorescently labeled, endogenous RNA Polymerase II in living cells with CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Ki; Jayanth, Namrata; Mullen, Susan; Tan, Tzer Han; Jung, Yoon J.; Cissé, Ibrahim I.

    2016-01-01

    Live cell imaging of mammalian RNA polymerase II (Pol II) has previously relied on random insertions of exogenous, mutant Pol II coupled with the degradation of endogenous Pol II using a toxin, α-amanitin. Therefore, it has been unclear whether over-expression of labeled Pol II under an exogenous promoter may have played a role in reported Pol II dynamics in vivo. Here we label the endogenous Pol II in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system. Using single-molecule based super-resolution imaging in the living cells, we captured endogenous Pol II clusters. Consistent with previous studies, we observed that Pol II clusters were short-lived (cluster lifetime ~8 s) in living cells. Moreover, dynamic responses to serum-stimulation, and drug-mediated transcription inhibition were all in agreement with previous observations in the exogenous Pol II MEF cell line. Our findings suggest that previous exogenously tagged Pol II faithfully recapitulated the endogenous polymerase clustering dynamics in living cells, and our approach may in principle be used to directly label transcription factors for live cell imaging. PMID:27782203

  19. SAR of Cu (II) thiosemicarbazone complexes as hypoxic imaging agents: MM3 analysis and prediction of biologic properties.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sweta; Tiwari, Anjani K; Ojha, Himanshu; Kumar, Nitin; Singh, Bachcha; Mishra, Anil K

    2010-02-01

    Copper(II) bis(thiosemicarbazone) are very useful for blood flow and hypoxic imaging. The aim of this study was to identify structure-activity relationships (SARs) within a series of analogues with different substitution patterns in the ligands, in order to design improved hypoxia imaging agents and elucidate hypoxia selectivity mechanisms. Genetic algorithms (GAs) were used to develop specific copper metal-ligand force field parameters for the MM3 force-field calculations. These new parameters produced results in good agreement with experiment and previously reported copper metal-ligand parameters. A successful quantitative SAR (QSAR) for predicting the several classes of Cu(II)-chelating ligands was built using a training set of 21 Cu(II) complexes. The QSAR exhibited a correlation between the predicted and experimental test set. The QSAR preformed with great accuracy; r(2) = 0.95 and q(2) = 0.90 utilizing a leave-one-out cross-validation with multiple linear regression analysis to find correlation between different calculated molecular descriptors of these complexes. The final QSAR mathematical models were found as the following: Log P = {3.01698 (+/-0.0590)} - LUMO {0.1248 (+/-0.068)} + MR {0.3219 (+/-0.086)} n = 21 |r| = 0.972 s = 0.188 F = 98.102 The resulting models could act as an efficient strategy for estimating the hypoxic conditions through imaging and provide some insights into the structural features related to the biological activity of these compounds.

  20. Evaluation of storage phosphor imaging for quantitative analysis of 2-D gels using the Quest II system.

    PubMed

    Patterson, S D; Latter, G I

    1993-12-01

    The advent of storage phosphor technology has been of considerable benefit to the imaging of gel-separated radiolabeled proteins due to the rapid and quantitative nature of the data acquisition process. Previously, times over one month were required to obtain fluorographs of the same gel to yield data of sufficient dynamic range for quantitative analysis of high-resolution two-dimensional (2-D) gels. As we are in the process of building a human 2-D gel protein database, and therefore have a high throughput of 2-D gels both to image and quantitate using the Quest II software, we undertook an evaluation of a storage phosphor imager, including an evaluation of signal fade. The results of this evaluation demonstrate the feasibility of using such a system, and we describe the procedures that allow us to use this technique for quantitative analysis of many complex 2-D gel patterns. These procedures include a useful batch printing program that allows printing of many images in a non-interactive mode. Examples will be presented of how autoradiography, using storage phosphor plates and the Quest II system, have enabled us to begin building a human 2-D gel protein database including posttranslational modification information, without the previous time constraints associated with such a project.

  1. Advanced imaging techniques II: using a compound microscope for photographing point-mount specimens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digital imaging technology has revolutionized the practice photographing insects for scientific study. Herein described are lighting and mounting techniques designed for imaging micro Hymenoptera. Techniques described here are applicable to all small insects, as well as other invertebrates. The ke...

  2. Library synthesis, screening, and discovery of modified Zinc(II)-Bis(dipicolylamine) probe for enhanced molecular imaging of cell death.

    PubMed

    Plaunt, Adam J; Harmatys, Kara M; Wolter, William R; Suckow, Mark A; Smith, Bradley D

    2014-04-16

    Zinc(II)-bis(dipicolylamine) (Zn-BDPA) coordination complexes selectively target the surfaces of dead and dying mammalian cells, and they have promise as molecular probes for imaging cell death. A necessary step toward eventual clinical imaging applications is the development of next-generation Zn-BDPA complexes with enhanced affinity for the cell death membrane biomarker, phosphatidylserine (PS). This study employed an iterative cycle of library synthesis and screening, using a novel rapid equilibrium dialysis assay, to discover a modified Zn-BDPA structure with high and selective affinity for vesicles containing PS. The lead structure was converted into a deep-red fluorescent probe and its targeting and imaging performance was compared with an unmodified control Zn-BDPA probe. The evaluation process included a series of FRET-based vesicle titration studies, cell microscopy experiments, and rat tumor biodistribution measurements. In all cases, the modified probe exhibited comparatively higher affinity and selectivity for the target membranes of dead and dying cells. The results show that this next-generation deep-red fluorescent Zn-BDPA probe is well suited for preclinical molecular imaging of cell death in cell cultures and animal models. Furthermore, it should be possible to substitute the deep-red fluorophore with alternative reporter groups that enable clinically useful, deep-tissue imaging modalities, such as MRI and nuclear imaging.

  3. Live 3D image overlay for arterial duct closure with Amplatzer Duct Occluder II additional size.

    PubMed

    Goreczny, Sebstian; Morgan, Gareth J; Dryzek, Pawel

    2016-03-01

    Despite several reports describing echocardiography for the guidance of ductal closure, two-dimensional angiography remains the mainstay imaging tool; three-dimensional rotational angiography has the potential to overcome some of the drawbacks of standard angiography, and reconstructed image overlay provides reliable guidance for device placement. We describe arterial duct closure solely from venous approach guided by live three-dimensional image overlay.

  4. Copy number variation and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    St Clair, David

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 12 months, a series of major articles have reported associations with schizophrenia of copy number variants at 1q21, 15q11.2, 15q13.3, 16p11.2, 22q12, and Neurexin 1 loci. These are rare high-penetrant mutations that increase risk not only of schizophrenia but also of a range of other psychiatric disorders including autism and mental retardation. In some cases, the same phenotype can occur irrespective of whether the copy number variant causes a deletion or duplication. Some of these mutations occur at very high rates in human populations, but because of reduced fecundity associated with major psychiatric disorders the overall frequency in the population remains low. These new findings raise fundamental clinical and scientific questions concerning classification of major neuropsychiatric disorders, modes of inheritance, diagnostics, and genetic counseling. Although the loci identified so far account for only a small proportion of cases, many more are likely to be discovered over the next few years. A major focus of research will be to identify the key, the genetic and environmental determinants of schizophrenia risk in carriers of these copy number variants, and to discover whether their rates of mutation are unstable or fixed. PMID:18990708

  5. Intravital Imaging Reveals Angiotensin II-Induced Transcytosis of Albumin by Podocytes.

    PubMed

    Schießl, Ina Maria; Hammer, Anna; Kattler, Veronika; Gess, Bernhard; Theilig, Franziska; Witzgall, Ralph; Castrop, Hayo

    2016-03-01

    Albuminuria is a hallmark of kidney disease of various etiologies and usually caused by deterioration of glomerular filtration barrier integrity. We recently showed that angiotensin II (Ang II) acutely increases albumin filtration in the healthy kidney. Here, we used intravital microscopy to assess the effects of Ang II on podocyte function in rats. Acute infusion of 30, 60, or 80 ng/kg per minute Ang II enhanced the endocytosis of albumin by activation of the type 1 Ang II receptor and resulted in an average (±SEM) of 3.7±2.2, 72.3±18.6 (P<0.001), and 239.4±34.6 µm(3) (P<0.001) albumin-containing vesicles per glomerulus, respectively, compared with none at baseline or 10 ng/kg per minute Ang II. Immunostaining of Ang II-infused kidneys confirmed the presence of albumin-containing vesicles, which colocalized with megalin, in podocin-positive cells. Furthermore, podocyte endocytosis of albumin was markedly reduced in the presence of gentamicin, a competitive inhibitor of megalin-dependent endocytosis. Ang II infusion increased the concentration of albumin in the subpodocyte space, a potential source for endocytic protein uptake, and gentamicin further increased this concentration. Some endocytic vesicles were acidified and colocalized with LysoTracker. Most vesicles migrated from the capillary to the apical aspect of the podocyte and were eventually released into the urinary space. This transcytosis accounted for approximately 10% of total albumin filtration. In summary, the transcellular transport of proteins across the podocyte constitutes a new pathway of glomerular protein filtration. Ang II enhances the endocytosis and transcytosis of plasma albumin by podocytes, which may eventually impair podocyte function.

  6. 48 CFR 1501.105-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Purpose, Authority, Issuance 1501.105-3 Copies. Copies of the EPAAR in Federal Register and CFR form may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office (GPO), Washington,...

  7. 48 CFR 1501.105-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Purpose, Authority, Issuance 1501.105-3 Copies. Copies of the EPAAR in Federal Register and CFR form may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office (GPO), Washington,...

  8. A Deep Narrowband Imaging Search for C IV and He II Emission from Lyα Blobs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigoni Battaia, Fabrizio; Yang, Yujin; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Matsuda, Yuichi; Yamada, Toru; Hayashino, Tomoki

    2015-05-01

    We conduct a deep narrowband imaging survey of 13 Lyα blobs (LABs) located in the SSA22 proto-cluster at z ˜ 3.1 in the C iv and He ii emission lines in an effort to constrain the physical process powering the Lyα emission in LABs. Our observations probe down to unprecedented surface brightness (SB) limits of (2.1-3.4) × 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2 per 1 arcsec2 aperture (5σ) for the He ii λ1640 and C iv λ1549 lines, respectively. We do not detect extended He ii and C iv emission in any of the LABs, placing strong upper limits on the He ii/Lyα and C iv/Lyα line ratios, of 0.11 and 0.16, for the brightest two LABs in the field. We conduct detailed photoionization modeling of the expected line ratios and find that, although our data constitute the deepest ever observations of these lines, they are still not deep enough to rule out a scenario where the Lyα emission is powered by the ionizing radiation from an obscured active galactic nucleus. Our models can accommodate He ii/Lyα and C iv/Lyα ratios as low as ≃0.05 and ≃0.07, respectively, implying that one needs to reach SB as low as (1-1.5) × 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2 (at 5σ) in order to rule out a photoionization scenario. These depths will be achievable with the new generation of image-slicing integral field units such as the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on VLT and the Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI). We also model the expected He ii/Lyα and C iv/Lyα in a different scenario, where Lyα emission is powered by shocks generated in a large-scale superwind, but find that our observational constraints can only be met for shock velocities vs ≳ 250 km s-1, which appear to be in conflict with recent observations of quiescent kinematics in LABs. .

  9. 48 CFR 1501.105-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Copies. 1501.105-3 Section 1501.105-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Purpose, Authority, Issuance 1501.105-3 Copies. Copies of the EPAAR in Federal Register and CFR form...

  10. 48 CFR 1401.105-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies. 1401.105-3 Section 1401.105-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 1401.105-3 Copies. Copies of...

  11. 14 CFR 1206.207 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Copies. 1206.207 Section 1206.207 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Records Available § 1206.207 Copies. The furnishing of a single copy of the...

  12. 14 CFR 1206.207 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copies. 1206.207 Section 1206.207 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Records Available § 1206.207 Copies. The furnishing of a single copy of the...

  13. Patterns, Correlates, and Reduction of Homework Copying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palazzo, David J.; Lee, Young-Jin; Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Submissions to an online homework tutor were analyzed to determine whether they were copied. The fraction of copied submissions increased rapidly over the semester, as each weekly deadline approached and for problems later in each assignment. The majority of students, who copied less than 10% of their problems, worked steadily over the three days…

  14. 36 CFR 703.20 - File copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false File copies. 703.20 Section... Is Not a Party § 703.20 File copies. The Office of the General Counsel will maintain the official file of copies of all demands served on the Library and deciding officials' responses....

  15. 14 CFR § 1206.207 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Copies. § 1206.207 Section § 1206.207 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Records Available § 1206.207 Copies. The furnishing of a single copy of the...

  16. 14 CFR 1206.207 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Copies. 1206.207 Section 1206.207 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Records Available § 1206.207 Copies. The furnishing of a single copy of the...

  17. 14 CFR 1206.207 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Copies. 1206.207 Section 1206.207 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Records Available § 1206.207 Copies. The furnishing of a single copy of the...

  18. 49 CFR 7.8 - Copies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies 7.8 Section 7.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Information Required To Be Made Public by DOT § 7.8 Copies Copies of any material covered by this subpart that is not published...

  19. 48 CFR 1.105-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 1.105-3 Copies. Copies of the FAR in Federal Register, loose-leaf, CD-ROM and CFR form may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, Government... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies. 1.105-3 Section...

  20. 48 CFR 3401.104-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 3401.104-3 Copies. Copies of the EDAR in the Federal Register and Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) form may be purchased from the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies. 3401.104-3...

  1. 48 CFR 1001.105-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TREASURY ACQUISITION REGULATORY (DTAR) SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 1001.105-3 Copies. Copies of the DTAR in Federal Register or CFR form may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, Government... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies. 1001.105-3...

  2. 48 CFR 2001.104-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 2001.104-3 Copies. Copies of the NRCAR in Federal Register and CFR form may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Copies. 2001.104-3...

  3. 48 CFR 901.104-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies. 901.104-3 Section 901.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 901.104-3 Copies. Copies of the DEAR published in the...

  4. 44 CFR 6.81 - Additional copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional copies. 6.81... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Fees § 6.81 Additional copies. A reasonable number of additional copies shall be provided for the applicable fee to a requestor who...

  5. 22 CFR 92.76 - Copying documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Copying documents. 92.76 Section 92.76 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Copying, Recording, Translating and Procuring Documents § 92.76 Copying documents. (a) Consular authority. The consular officer...

  6. 22 CFR 92.76 - Copying documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Copying documents. 92.76 Section 92.76 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Copying, Recording, Translating and Procuring Documents § 92.76 Copying documents. (a) Consular authority. The consular officer...

  7. 22 CFR 92.76 - Copying documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copying documents. 92.76 Section 92.76 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Copying, Recording, Translating and Procuring Documents § 92.76 Copying documents. (a) Consular authority. The consular officer...

  8. 22 CFR 92.76 - Copying documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Copying documents. 92.76 Section 92.76 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Copying, Recording, Translating and Procuring Documents § 92.76 Copying documents. (a) Consular authority. The consular officer...

  9. 22 CFR 92.76 - Copying documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Copying documents. 92.76 Section 92.76 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Copying, Recording, Translating and Procuring Documents § 92.76 Copying documents. (a) Consular authority. The consular officer...

  10. 14 CFR 187.7 - Copies; seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... H of 49 CFR part 7. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Copies; seal. 187.7 Section 187.7... REGULATIONS FEES § 187.7 Copies; seal. The fees for furnishing photostatic or similar copies of documents...

  11. 14 CFR 187.7 - Copies; seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... H of 49 CFR part 7. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Copies; seal. 187.7 Section 187.7... REGULATIONS FEES § 187.7 Copies; seal. The fees for furnishing photostatic or similar copies of documents...

  12. 14 CFR 187.7 - Copies; seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... H of 49 CFR part 7. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Copies; seal. 187.7 Section 187.7... REGULATIONS FEES § 187.7 Copies; seal. The fees for furnishing photostatic or similar copies of documents...

  13. 14 CFR 187.7 - Copies; seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... H of 49 CFR part 7. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copies; seal. 187.7 Section 187.7... REGULATIONS FEES § 187.7 Copies; seal. The fees for furnishing photostatic or similar copies of documents...

  14. 14 CFR 187.7 - Copies; seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... H of 49 CFR part 7. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Copies; seal. 187.7 Section 187.7... REGULATIONS FEES § 187.7 Copies; seal. The fees for furnishing photostatic or similar copies of documents...

  15. Surface coil MR imaging of abdominal viscera. Part II. The adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    White, E M; Edelman, R R; Stark, D D; Simeone, J F; Mueller, P R; Brady, T J; Wittenberg, J; Butch, R J; Ferrucci, J T

    1985-11-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the adrenal glands with a prototype surface coil was compared with conventional body coil images in five healthy volunteers and 15 patients with adrenal disease. The spectrum of abnormalities included five nonfunctioning cortical adenomas, of which two were in hyperplastic glands, four adrenal metastases, three pheochromocytomas, a functioning adenoma, a myelolipoma, and a partially calcified, cystic adrenal mass. In both body and surface coil images, anatomic detail was superior on T1-weighted images compared with T2-weighted images obtained with identical imaging time because of decreased motion artifact and superior contrast. In the T1-weighted studies, high-resolution surface coil images showed a threefold improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over body coil images, which was manifest by better intrinsic resolution of small adrenal lesions and clearer definition of the extrinsic relationships of large masses to nearby organs. In addition, inferior vena caval invasion by two right adrenal metastases was better demonstrated using the surface coil than body coil MR or computed tomography (CT). Limitations of surface coil imaging include restriction in the field of view to a single gland and additional time required for patient positioning. Since the sensitivity of surface coils diminishes with depth, gains in SNR were limited in large patients with deeper adrenal glands. Despite these limitations, dramatic improvements in SNR and anatomic resolution indicate that surface coil MR imaging will be competitive with CT for examining the adrenal glands. PMID:4048451

  16. Copying and Evolution of Neuronal Topology

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Chrisantha; Karishma, K. K.; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2008-01-01

    We propose a mechanism for copying of neuronal networks that is of considerable interest for neuroscience for it suggests a neuronal basis for causal inference, function copying, and natural selection within the human brain. To date, no model of neuronal topology copying exists. We present three increasingly sophisticated mechanisms to demonstrate how topographic map formation coupled with Spike-Time Dependent Plasticity (STDP) can copy neuronal topology motifs. Fidelity is improved by error correction and activity-reverberation limitation. The high-fidelity topology-copying operator is used to evolve neuronal topologies. Possible roles for neuronal natural selection are discussed. PMID:19020662

  17. Automatic estimation and compensation of geometric distortions in video copies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupeau, B.; Massoudi, A.; Lefèbvre, F.

    2007-01-01

    The proliferation of pirate copies of feature films on peer-to-peer networks arouses a great interest to countermeasures such as the insertion of (invisible) forensic marks in projected movies, to deter their illegal capture. The registration of pirate copies with the original content is however a prerequisite to the recovery of such embedded messages, as severe geometric distortions often occur in illegally camcorded contents. After a brief state-of-the-art in image registration, the paper details an algorithm for video registration, focusing on the compensation of geometric distortions. Control points are automatically extracted in original and copy pictures, followed by pre- and post-matching filtering steps to discard not relevant control points and erroneous matched pairs of control points respectively. This enables the accurate numerical estimation of an 8-parameter homographic distortion model, used to register the copy frames with the original reference grid. Such an image registration algorithm is inserted into a general video registration scheme. Results are presented on both natural and synthetic test material.

  18. Simple approach to soft-copy quality monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiker, Gregory G.; Gohel, Nilesh R.; Muka, Edward; Blaine, G. James

    1992-07-01

    As presentation of medical radiographic images on soft-copy displays (cathode ray tubes) becomes increasingly prevalent in electronic radiography, methods of quality assurance must be developed to ensure that radiologists can effectively transfer film-based reading skills. Luminance measurements provide the basis for evaluating the state of soft-copy displays. An integrated approach has been implemented at Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (MIR) which facilitates measurement of geographically distributed soft-copy displays with centralized data logging, performance tracking and calibration. MIR''s central radiology image manager (RIM) exercises the display station which drives the monitor, harvests the measurement data, stores the results and submits the resulting data for additional processing. The luminance measurements are collected by a small, portable photometric instrument designed at MIR that includes a serial port which is accessed via local area terminal service (LAT) supported by the RIM. The design details of the photometric instrument and example luminance characteristics of several soft-copy displays used at the Mallinckrodt Institute are presented in this paper.

  19. [Dual copy-supplement collimator].

    PubMed

    Wang, Z K; Lian, X; Wang, Y

    2001-01-01

    Dual Copy-Supplement Collimator consists of two lead conic sections centered on one common radioactive source and having a lot of small square holes on them. When scanning electron beams strike X-Ray target and create some X-Ray fields while passing through the primary section, they penetrate the secondary section and generate even smaller field units(FU). Using these FUs would compose various treatment fields with different energy (dosage). It is able not only to replace many existing collimators such as MLC, but also to make the conformal radiotherapy easier.

  20. Deep Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of IC 1613. II. The Star Formation History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skillman, Evan D.; Tolstoy, Eline; Cole, Andrew A.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Saha, Abhijit; Gallagher, J. S.; Dohm-Palmer, R. C.; Mateo, Mario

    2003-10-01

    We have taken deep images of an outlying field in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 with the WFPC2 aboard the Hubble Space Telescope in the standard broadband F555W (V, 8 orbits) and F814W (I, 16 orbits) filters. The photometry reaches to V=27.7 (MV=+3.4) and I=27.1 (MI=+2.8) at the 50% completeness level, the deepest to date for an isolated dwarf irregular galaxy. We analyze the resulting color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and compare it with CMDs created from theoretical stellar models using three different methods to derive a star formation history (SFH) as well as constrain the chemical evolution for IC 1613. All three methods find an enhanced star formation rate (SFR), at roughly the same magnitude (factor of 3), over roughly the same period (from 3 to 6 Gyr ago). Additionally, all three methods were driven to similar age-metallicity relationships (AMR) that show an increase from [Fe/H]~-1.3 at earliest times to [Fe/H]~-0.7 at present. Good agreement is found between the AMR which is derived from the CMD analysis and that which can be inferred from the derived SFH at all but the earliest ages. The agreement between the three models and the self-consistency of the derived chemical enrichment history support the reality of the derived SFH of IC 1613 and, more generally, are supportive of the practice of constructing galaxy SFHs from CMDs. A comparison of the newly observed outer field with an earlier studied central field of IC 1613 shows that the SFR in the outer field has been significantly depressed during the last Gyr. This implies that the optical scale length of the galaxy has been decreasing with time and that comparison of galaxies at intermediate redshift with present-day galaxies should take this effect into account. Comparing the CMD of the outer field of IC 1613 with CMDs of Milky Way dSph companions, we find strong similarities between IC 1613 and the more distant dSph companions (Carina, Fornax, Leo I, and Leo II) in that all are dominated

  1. Anatomical noise in contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Part II. Dual-energy imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Melissa L.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Mainprize, James G.; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Saab-Puong, Sylvie; Iordache, Răzvan; Muller, Serge; Jong, Roberta A.; Dromain, Clarisse

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Dual-energy (DE) contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) uses an iodinated contrast agent in combination with digital mammography (DM) to evaluate lesions on the basis of tumor angiogenesis. In DE imaging, low-energy (LE) and high-energy (HE) images are acquired after contrast administration and their logarithms are subtracted to cancel the appearance of normal breast tissue. Often there is incomplete signal cancellation in the subtracted images, creating a background “clutter” that can impair lesion detection. This is the second component of a two-part report on anatomical noise in CEDM. In Part I the authors characterized the anatomical noise for single-energy (SE) temporal subtraction CEDM by a power law, with model parameters α and β. In this work the authors quantify the anatomical noise in DE CEDM clinical images and compare this with the noise in SE CEDM. The influence on the anatomical noise of the presence of iodine in the breast, the timing of imaging postcontrast administration, and the x-ray energy used for acquisition are each evaluated.Methods: The power law parameters, α and β, were measured from unprocessed LE and HE images and from DE subtracted images to quantify the anatomical noise. A total of 98 DE CEDM cases acquired in a previous clinical pilot study were assessed. Conventional DM images from 75 of the women were evaluated for comparison with DE CEDM. The influence of the imaging technique on anatomical noise was determined from an analysis of differences between the power law parameters as measured in DM, LE, HE, and DE subtracted images for each subject.Results: In DE CEDM, weighted image subtraction lowers β to about 1.1 from 3.2 and 3.1 in LE and HE unprocessed images, respectively. The presence of iodine has a small but significant effect in LE images, reducing β by about 0.07 compared to DM, with α unchanged. Increasing the x-ray energy, from that typical in DM to a HE beam, significantly decreases α by about 2

  2. TU-D-BRD-01: Image Guided SBRT II: Challenges ' Pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Z; Yin, F; Cho, J

    2014-06-15

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has been effective treatment for the management of various diseases, which often delivers high radiation dose in a single or a few fractions. SBRT therefore demands precise treatment delivery to the tumor while sparing adjacent healthy tissue. Recent developments in image guidance enable target localization with increased accuracy. With such improvements in localization, image-guided SBRT has been widely adopted into clinical practice. In SBRT, high radiation dose is generally delivered with small fields. Therefore, it is crucial to accurately measure dosimetric data for the small fields during commissioning. In addition, image-guided SBRT demands accurate image localization to ensure safety and quality of patient care. Lately, the reports of AAPM TG 142 and TG 104 have been published and added recommendations for imaging devices that are integrated with the linear accelerator for SBRT. Furthermore, various challenges and potential pitfalls lie in the clinical implementation of image-guided SBRT. In this lecture, these challenges and pitfalls of image-guided SBRT will be illustrated and discussed from dosimetric, technical and clinical perspectives.Being a promising technique, image-guided SBRT has shown great potentials, and will lead to more accurate and safer SBRT treatments. Learning Objectives: To understand dosimetric challenges and pitfalls for IGRT application in SBRT. To understand major clinical challenges and pitfalls for IGRT application in SBRT. To understand major technical challenges and pitfalls for IGRT application in SBRT.

  3. WE-PIS-Exhibit Hall-01: Tools for TG-142 Linac Imaging QA II

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, N; Murray, B

    2014-06-15

    Partners in Solutions is an exciting new program in which AAPM partners with our vendors to present practical “hands-on” information about the equipment and software systems that we use in our clinics. The therapy topic this year is solutions for TG-142 recommendations for linear accelerator imaging QA. Note that the sessions are being held in a special purpose room built on the Exhibit Hall Floor, to encourage further interaction with the vendors. Using DoseLab to Perform TG-142 Imaging QA The goals of this session will be to present a clinical overview of acquiring images for TG-142 Imaging QA, as well as analyzing and evaluating results using DoseLab software. DoseLab supports planar imaging QA analysis using almost any QA phantom provided by numerous vendors. General advantages and disadvantages of selecting each of these phantoms will be briefly summarized. Best practices for selecting image acquisition parameters will be presented. A demonstration of using DoseLab software to perform a series of TG-142 tests will be performed. We will disuss why DoseLab uses its own set of imaging QA formulas, and why imaging QA measurement values of the same nominal properties will vary between TG- 142 software packages. Because TG-142 does not specify baseline and tolerance values for imaging QA, the presentation will recommend performing the manufacturer's acceptance test procedure to validate the equipment is functioning correctly. Afterwards, results can be obtained using the clinic's selected set of phantoms, image acquisition parameters, and TG-142 software to set proper baseline values. This presentation will highlight the reasons why comparing imaging QA results can be trickier than comparing linear accelerator treatment results and what physicists should keep in mind when comparing imaging QA results for different machines. Physicists are often unsure of the next step when there is an issue discovered during Imaging QA. Therefore, a few common examples of

  4. Far ultraviolet wide field imaging and photometry - Spartan-202 Mark II Far Ultraviolet Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, George R.; Heckathorn, Harry M.; Opal, Chet B.; Witt, Adolf N.; Henize, Karl G.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory' Mark II Far Ultraviolet Camera, which is expected to be a primary scientific instrument aboard the Spartan-202 Space Shuttle mission, is described. This camera is intended to obtain FUV wide-field imagery of stars and extended celestial objects, including diffuse nebulae and nearby galaxies. The observations will support the HST by providing FUV photometry of calibration objects. The Mark II camera is an electrographic Schmidt camera with an aperture of 15 cm, a focal length of 30.5 cm, and sensitivity in the 1230-1600 A wavelength range.

  5. Review of ultrasound image guidance in external beam radiotherapy part II: intra-fraction motion management and novel applications.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Tuathan; Bamber, Jeffrey; Fontanarosa, Davide; van der Meer, Skadi; Verhaegen, Frank; Harris, Emma

    2016-04-21

    Imaging has become an essential tool in modern radiotherapy (RT), being used to plan dose delivery prior to treatment and verify target position before and during treatment. Ultrasound (US) imaging is cost-effective in providing excellent contrast at high resolution for depicting soft tissue targets apart from those shielded by the lungs or cranium. As a result, it is increasingly used in RT setup verification for the measurement of inter-fraction motion, the subject of Part I of this review (Fontanarosa et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 R77-114). The combination of rapid imaging and zero ionising radiation dose makes US highly suitable for estimating intra-fraction motion. The current paper (Part II of the review) covers this topic. The basic technology for US motion estimation, and its current clinical application to the prostate, is described here, along with recent developments in robust motion-estimation algorithms, and three dimensional (3D) imaging. Together, these are likely to drive an increase in the number of future clinical studies and the range of cancer sites in which US motion management is applied. Also reviewed are selections of existing and proposed novel applications of US imaging to RT. These are driven by exciting developments in structural, functional and molecular US imaging and analytical techniques such as backscatter tissue analysis, elastography, photoacoustography, contrast-specific imaging, dynamic contrast analysis, microvascular and super-resolution imaging, and targeted microbubbles. Such techniques show promise for predicting and measuring the outcome of RT, quantifying normal tissue toxicity, improving tumour definition and defining a biological target volume that describes radiation sensitive regions of the tumour. US offers easy, low cost and efficient integration of these techniques into the RT workflow. US contrast technology also has potential to be used actively to assist RT by manipulating the tumour cell environment and by

  6. Review of ultrasound image guidance in external beam radiotherapy part II: intra-fraction motion management and novel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, Tuathan; Bamber, Jeffrey; Fontanarosa, Davide; van der Meer, Skadi; Verhaegen, Frank; Harris, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Imaging has become an essential tool in modern radiotherapy (RT), being used to plan dose delivery prior to treatment and verify target position before and during treatment. Ultrasound (US) imaging is cost-effective in providing excellent contrast at high resolution for depicting soft tissue targets apart from those shielded by the lungs or cranium. As a result, it is increasingly used in RT setup verification for the measurement of inter-fraction motion, the subject of Part I of this review (Fontanarosa et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 R77-114). The combination of rapid imaging and zero ionising radiation dose makes US highly suitable for estimating intra-fraction motion. The current paper (Part II of the review) covers this topic. The basic technology for US motion estimation, and its current clinical application to the prostate, is described here, along with recent developments in robust motion-estimation algorithms, and three dimensional (3D) imaging. Together, these are likely to drive an increase in the number of future clinical studies and the range of cancer sites in which US motion management is applied. Also reviewed are selections of existing and proposed novel applications of US imaging to RT. These are driven by exciting developments in structural, functional and molecular US imaging and analytical techniques such as backscatter tissue analysis, elastography, photoacoustography, contrast-specific imaging, dynamic contrast analysis, microvascular and super-resolution imaging, and targeted microbubbles. Such techniques show promise for predicting and measuring the outcome of RT, quantifying normal tissue toxicity, improving tumour definition and defining a biological target volume that describes radiation sensitive regions of the tumour. US offers easy, low cost and efficient integration of these techniques into the RT workflow. US contrast technology also has potential to be used actively to assist RT by manipulating the tumour cell environment and by

  7. DETECTING ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI USING MULTI-FILTER IMAGING DATA. II. INCORPORATING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, X. Y.; De Robertis, M. M.

    2013-10-01

    This is the second paper of the series Detecting Active Galactic Nuclei Using Multi-filter Imaging Data. In this paper we review shapelets, an image manipulation algorithm, which we employ to adjust the point-spread function (PSF) of galaxy images. This technique is used to ensure the image in each filter has the same and sharpest PSF, which is the preferred condition for detecting AGNs using multi-filter imaging data as we demonstrated in Paper I of this series. We apply shapelets on Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey Wide Survey ugriz images. Photometric parameters such as effective radii, integrated fluxes within certain radii, and color gradients are measured on the shapelets-reconstructed images. These parameters are used by artificial neural networks (ANNs) which yield: photometric redshift with an rms of 0.026 and a regression R-value of 0.92; galaxy morphological types with an uncertainty less than 2 T types for z ≤ 0.1; and identification of galaxies as AGNs with 70% confidence, star-forming/starburst (SF/SB) galaxies with 90% confidence, and passive galaxies with 70% confidence for z ≤ 0.1. The incorporation of ANNs provides a more reliable technique for identifying AGN or SF/SB candidates, which could be very useful for large-scale multi-filter optical surveys that also include a modest set of spectroscopic data sufficient to train neural networks.

  8. Radio reflection imaging of asteroid and comet interiors II: Results and recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Robert E.; Stillman, David E.; Sava, Paul; Ittharat, Detchai

    2015-05-01

    We modeled orbital surface-penetrating radar of an asteroid and comet using two-dimensional finite-difference wavefield migration, in order to assess key target properties and experiment parameters required to fully image internal structure. Migration places radar echoes in their correct positions in a complex subsurface and is a complementary tool to travel-time tomography. The target shape was scaled from 433 Eros to 0.5-km mean diameter for an asteroid and 10 km for a comet. The interiors were populated with a power-law distribution of spherical blocks. We used an image structural similarity index to compare the internal surfaces reconstructed under different assumptions to a "best" image using optimum parameters. We found that successful internal imaging of the asteroid was not sensitive to whether the block interstices were regolith or void. Frequency dependence between 5 and 15 MHz was also minor. Internal interfaces could also be imaged if the attenuation was higher than that inferred within volcanic plains on Mars, but not as high as measured in a strongly fractured volcanic tuff on Earth. The overall imaging quality for the comet was statistically similar to the asteroid, but there was less variability due to smaller internal contrasts. A key finding is that imaging was vastly improved by using a second spacecraft as a radar receiver. A subsatellite with a different orbit will eventually provide a range of different illumination geometries over each part of the target. Finally, the results depend strongly on the specified internal velocity distribution, representing partial progress in complementary tomographic velocity estimation. The modeled impedance contrasts within the asteroid are larger than those typically encountered in exploration seismology and very much larger than in medical imaging, and so the velocity used to migrate the reflections must be close to the actual distribution. This again emphasizes the need for joint traveltime tomography and

  9. GEOSTAR-II: A Prototype Water Vapor Imager/Sounder for the Path Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, Todd; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Lim, Boon; Tanner, Alan; Harding, Dennis; Owen, Heather; Soria, Mary; ODwyer, Ian; Ruf, Christopher; Miller, Ryan; Block, Bruce; Flynn, Michael; Whitaker, Sterling

    2011-01-01

    We describe the development and progress of the GeoSTAR-II risk reduction activity for the NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey PATH Mission. The activity directly addresses areas of technical risk including the system design, low noise receiver production, sub-array development, signal distribution and digital signal processing.

  10. Imaging appearance of entrapped periosteum within a distal femoral Salter-Harris II fracture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Johnathan; Abel, Mark F; Fox, Michael G

    2015-10-01

    Salter Harris II fractures of the distal femur are associated with a high incidence of complications, especially premature physeal closure. Many risk factors for this high rate of premature physeal closure have been proposed. More recently, entrapment of periosteum within the physis has been suggested as an additional predisposing factor for premature physeal closure. The radiographic diagnosis of entrapped soft tissues, including periosteum, can be suggested in the setting of a Salter-Harris II fracture when the fracture does not reduce and physeal widening >3 mm remains. We report a patient who sustained a distal femoral Salter-Harris II fracture following a valgus injury. The patient had persistent distal medial physeal widening >5 mm following attempted reduction. A subsequent MRI revealed a torn periosteum entrapped within the distal femoral physis. Following removal of the periosteum, the patient developed a leg length discrepancy which required physiodesis of the contralateral distal femur. We present this case to raise awareness of the importance of having a high index of suspicion of periosteal entrapment in the setting of Salter-Harris II fractures since most consider entrapped periosteum an indication for surgery.

  11. Image Making and Personal Narratives with Japanese-American Survivors of World War II Internment Camps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Carleen; Kuwada, Kali; Potter, Penelope; Cameron, Danielle; Hoshino, Janice

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the verbal and art making responses of Japanese-American elders who experienced the trauma of internment during World War II. Six Nisei (second generation Japanese-Americans) were asked to recall memories of their experiences during and immediately following internment; 3 of the participants also created art images…

  12. A Nonenhancing World Health Organization Grade II Intramedullary Spinal Ependymoma in the Conus: Case Illustration and Review of Imaging Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Fanous, Andrew A; Jost, Gregory F; Schmidt, Meic H

    2012-03-01

    Spinal ependymomas comprise ~60% of all intramedullary tumors in adults. Ependymomas demonstrate distinct imaging features, such as central location within the spinal cord, symmetrical expansion, intra- and extratumoral cysts, hemosiderin caps, and strong enhancement on contrast-injected, T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In adults, most ependymomas are myxopapillary, and in children, most are nonmyxopapillary. In general, nonmyxopapillary or classic ependymomas are hyperintense on T2- and hypointense on T1-weighted MR imaging, but whereas the signal intensity on T1 and T2 is variable, homogeneous contrast enhancement is usually a characteristic finding. Here, the authors provide an overview on spinal ependymomas with an emphasis on imaging characteristics and morphological background and present the case of a World Health Organization grade II ependymoma in the conus that did not enhance. Interestingly, the tumor contained a large hemorrhagic cyst. Just as hemorrhagic metastatic tumors may not enhance, a hemorrhagic ependymoma may likewise not enhance after administration of contrast agent. Thus, the differential diagnosis of a nonenhancing intramedullary lesion in the conus should include ependymoma, particularly if there is concomitant hemorrhage.

  13. Fourier Analysis and Structure Determination. Part II: Pulse NMR and NMR Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesick, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Uses simple pulse NMR experiments to discuss Fourier transforms. Studies the generation of spin echoes used in the imaging procedure. Shows that pulse NMR experiments give signals that are additions of sinusoids of differing amplitudes, frequencies, and phases. (MVL)

  14. POLARIS-II - An acousto-optic imaging spectropolarimeter for ground-based astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenar, D. A.; Hillman, J. J.; Saif, B.; Bergstralh, J.

    1992-01-01

    A compact, acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) imaging spectropolarimeter for ground based astronomy from 400-1100 nm has been constructed at NASA/GSFC. The key components of this instrument are a TeO2 non-collinear AOTF, CCD camera, and an all-reflective optical relay assembly which uses a single elliptical mirror to produce side-by-side orthogonally polarized spectral images. The instrument was used at the Lowell Observatory 42-inch telescope for 'first light' planetary imaging and measurements of photometric standard stars. Narrow-band images of Saturn near 700 nm appear to show polarization effects which result from multiple scattering by aerosols. The instrument has recently been upgraded in order to integrate the RF drive electronics and eliminate contamination by scattered light. Design of the instrument and some initial results are presented.

  15. Characterization of statistical prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS): II. Application to dose reduction

    PubMed Central

    Lauzier, Pascal Thériault; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The ionizing radiation imparted to patients during computed tomography exams is raising concerns. This paper studies the performance of a scheme called dose reduction using prior image constrained compressed sensing (DR-PICCS). The purpose of this study is to characterize the effects of a statistical model of x-ray detection in the DR-PICCS framework and its impact on spatial resolution. Methods: Both numerical simulations with known ground truth and in vivo animal dataset were used in this study. In numerical simulations, a phantom was simulated with Poisson noise and with varying levels of eccentricity. Both the conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) and the PICCS algorithms were used to reconstruct images. In PICCS reconstructions, the prior image was generated using two different denoising methods: a simple Gaussian blur and a more advanced diffusion filter. Due to the lack of shift-invariance in nonlinear image reconstruction such as the one studied in this paper, the concept of local spatial resolution was used to study the sharpness of a reconstructed image. Specifically, a directional metric of image sharpness, the so-called pseudopoint spread function (pseudo-PSF), was employed to investigate local spatial resolution. Results: In the numerical studies, the pseudo-PSF was reduced from twice the voxel width in the prior image down to less than 1.1 times the voxel width in DR-PICCS reconstructions when the statistical model was not included. At the same noise level, when statistical weighting was used, the pseudo-PSF width in DR-PICCS reconstructed images varied between 1.5 and 0.75 times the voxel width depending on the direction along which it was measured. However, this anisotropy was largely eliminated when the prior image was generated using diffusion filtering; the pseudo-PSF width was reduced to below one voxel width in that case. In the in vivo study, a fourfold improvement in CNR was achieved while qualitatively maintaining sharpness

  16. ARFI Imaging for Noninvasive Material Characterization of Atherosclerosis Part II: Toward In Vivo Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Behler, Russell H.; Nichols, Timothy C.; Zhu, Hongtu; Merricks, Elizabeth P.; Gallippi, Caterina M.

    2011-01-01

    Seventy percent of cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths are attributed to atherosclerosis. Despite their clinical significance, nonstenotic atherosclerotic plaques are not effectively detected by conventional atherosclerosis imaging methods. Moreover, conventional imaging methods are insufficient for describing plaque composition, which is relevant to cardiovascular risk assessment. Atherosclerosis imaging technologies capable of improving plaque detection and stratifying cardiovascular risk are needed. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) ultrasound, a novel imaging method for noninvasively differentiating the mechanical properties of tissue, is demonstrated for in vivo detection of nonstenotic plaques and plaque material assessment in this pilot investigation. In vivo ARFI imaging was performed on four iliac arteries: 1) of a normocholesterolemic pig with no atherosclerosis as a control, 2) of a familial hypercholesterolemic pig with diffuse atherosclerosis, 3) of a normocholesterolemic pig fed a high-fat diet with early atherosclerotic plaques and 4) of a familial hypercholesterolemic pig with diffuse atherosclerosis and a small, minimally-occlusive plaque. ARFI results were compared to spatially matched immunohistochemistry, showing correlations between elastin and collagen content and ARFI-derived peak displacement and recovery time parameters. Faster recoveries from ARFI-induced peak displacements and smaller peak displacements were observed in areas of higher elastin and collagen content. Importantly, spatial correlations between tissue content and ARFI results were consistent and observable in both large and highly evolved as well as small plaques. ARFI imaging successfully distinguished nonstenotic plaques, while conventional B-Mode ultrasound did not. This work validates the potential relevance of ARFI imaging as a noninvasive imaging technology for in vivo detection and material assessment of atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:19026483

  17. Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Images of Herbig-Haro Energy Sources: [Fe II] Jets, Binarity, and Envelope Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, Bo; Yu, Ka Chun; Heathcote, Steve; Bally, John; Rodríguez, Luis F.

    2000-09-01

    We have observed seven regions surrounding the driving sources of Herbig-Haro flows using the NICMOS infrared camera on board the Hubble Space Telescope. These Herbig-Haro energy sources, which power the HH 34, 47, 83, 111, 199, 300, and 454 flows, have all been previously detected in the centimeter-wavelength radio continuum. The regions were imaged in two broadband filters, F160W and F205W, which, in addition to stellar continuum, principally transmit the [Fe II] 1.644 μm and H2 2.122 μm lines, respectively, of shocks present in the images. Highly collimated infrared jets emerge from the sources of HH 34, 111, 300, and 454. In all of these cases, the [Fe II] emission transmitted in the F160W filter is much stronger than the H2 emission in the F205W band. Combined with previously published NICMOS images of the bright [Fe II] HH 1 jet, these data suggest that [Fe II] emission may be as important a tracer of shocked jets in the infrared as [S II] emission is in the optical. [Fe II] emission may be enhanced near the driving sources relative to the H2 emission by a combination of high jet density and strong far-ultraviolet (7.6-13.6 eV) radiation from the forming star. The HH 454 [Fe II] jet, which emanates from the L1551 NE source, is pointed directly at the bright shock HH 29, providing further evidence that this young star, rather than L1551 IRS 5, is the source of the brightest Herbig-Haro object in the L1551 outflow complex. In five regions, the driving sources are visible at 2 μm. Among these, the sources powering HH 47 and HH 300 are found to be binary stars. One other young stellar system, the source of the HH 111 protostellar jet, is triple. When combined with other studies, these results indicate that 36% of 14 Herbig-Haro energy sources observed with NICMOS are multiple at near-infrared wavelengths with component separations greater than 0.15"-0.20". Therefore, considering incompleteness, obscuration, and faintness of possible companions in the observed

  18. Guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A gene disruption causes increased adrenal angiotensin II and aldosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Di; Vellaichamy, Elangovan; Somanna, Naveen K; Pandey, Kailash N

    2007-07-01

    Disruption of the guanylyl cyclase-A/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) gene leads to elevated arterial blood pressure and congestive heart failure in mice lacking NPRA. This study was aimed at determining whether Npr1 (coding for GC-A/NPRA) gene copy number affects adrenal ANG II and aldosterone (Aldo) levels in a gene-dose-dependent manner in Npr1 gene-targeted mice. Adrenal ANG II and Aldo levels increased in 1-copy mice compared with 2-copy mice, but decreased in 3-copy and 4-copy mice. In contrast, renal ANG II levels decreased in 1-copy (25%), 3-copy (38%), and 4-copy (39%) mice compared with 2-copy mice. The low-salt diet stimulated adrenal ANG II and Aldo levels in 1-copy (20 and 2,441%), 2-copy (15 and 2,339%), 3-copy (20 and 424%), and 4-copy (31 and 486%) mice, respectively. The high-salt diet suppressed adrenal ANG II and Aldo levels in 1-copy (46 and 29%) and 2-copy (38 and 17%) mice. On the other hand, the low-salt diet stimulated renal ANG II levels in 1-copy (45%), 2-copy (45%), 3-copy (59%), and 4-copy (48%) mice. However, the high-salt diet suppressed renal ANG II levels in 1-copy (28%) and 2-copy (27%) mice. In conclusion, NPRA signaling antagonizes adrenal ANG II and Aldo levels in a gene-dose dependent manner. Increased adrenal ANG II and Aldo levels may play an important role in elevated arterial blood pressure and progressive hypertension, leading to renal and vascular injury in Npr1 gene-disrupted mice.

  19. 92. PRODUCTION MOLDS. THESE MOLDS ARE COPIES OF THE ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    92. PRODUCTION MOLDS. THESE MOLDS ARE COPIES OF THE ORIGINAL MOLDS IN THE MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS COLLECTION, AND ARE USED TO PRESS TILES. THE FACTORY KEEPS TEN PRODUCTION MOLDS FOR EACH IMAGE. THE ORIGINAL MOLDS ARE NOT USED IN PRODUCTION. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-53. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  20. WE-F-BRD-01: HDR Brachytherapy II: Integrating Imaging with HDR

    SciTech Connect

    Craciunescu, O; Todor, D; Leeuw, A de

    2014-06-15

    In recent years, with the advent of high/pulsed dose rate afterloading technology, advanced treatment planning systems, CT/MRI compatible applicators, and advanced imaging platforms, image-guided adaptive brachytherapy treatments (IGABT) have started to play an ever increasing role in modern radiation therapy. The most accurate way to approach IGABT treatment is to provide the infrastructure that combines in a single setting an appropriate imaging device, a treatment planning system, and a treatment unit. The Brachytherapy Suite is not a new concept, yet the modern suites are incorporating state-of-the-art imaging (MRI, CBCT equipped simulators, CT, and /or US) that require correct integration with each other and with the treatment planning and delivery systems. Arguably, an MRI-equipped Brachytherapy Suite is the ideal setup for real-time adaptive brachytherapy treatments. The main impediment to MRI-IGABT adoption is access to MRI scanners. Very few radiation oncology departments currently house MRI scanners, and even fewer in a dedicated Brachytherapy Suite. CBCT equipped simulators are increasingly offered by manufacturers as part of a Brachytherapy Suite installation. If optimized, images acquired can be used for treatment planning, or can be registered with other imaging modalities. This infrastructure is relevant for all forms of brachytherapy, especially those utilizing multi-fractionated courses of treatment such as prostate and cervix. Moreover, for prostate brachytherapy, US imaging systems can be part of the suite to allow for real-time HDR/LDR treatments. Learning Objectives: Understand the adaptive workflow of MR-based IGBT for cervical cancer. Familiarize with commissioning aspects of a CBCT equipped simulator with emphasis on brachytherapy applications Learn about the current status and future developments in US-based prostate brachytherapy.

  1. Aggregate Remote Memory Copy Interface

    2006-02-23

    The purpose of the Aggregate Remote Memory Copy (ARMCI) library is to provide a general- purpose, efficient, and Widely portable remote memory access (RMA) operations (one-sided communication) optimized for Contiguous and noncontiguous (strided, scatter/gather, I/O vector) data transfers. In addition, ARMCI includes a set of atomic and mutual exclusion operations. The development ARMCI is driven by the need to support the global-addres space communication model in context of distributed regular or irregular distributed data structures,more » communication libraries, and compilers. ARMCI is a standalone system that could be used to support user-level libraries and applications that use MPI or PVM.« less

  2. Iron(II) complexes containing octadentate tetraazamacrocycles as paraCEST magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Dorazio, Sarina J; Morrow, Janet R

    2012-07-16

    Iron(II) complexes of the macrocyclic ligands 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(carbamoylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (TCMC) and (1S,4S,7S,10S)-1,4,7,10-tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (STHP) contain a highly stabilized Fe(II) center in the high-spin state, which is encapsulated by an octadentate macrocycle. The complexes are resistant to acid, metal cations, phosphate, carbonate, and oxygen in aqueous solution. [Fe(TCMC)](2+) contains exchangeable amide protons, and [Fe(STHP)](2+) contains exchangeable protons attributed to alcohol OH donors, which give chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) peaks at physiological pH and 37 °C at 50 and 54 ppm from bulk water, respectively. The distinct pH dependence of the CEST peak of the two complexes over the range of pH 6-8 shows that these two groups may be useful in the development of ratiometric pH sensors based on iron(II).

  3. Demonstration of dual-band infrared thermal imaging for bridge inspection. Phase II, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, P.F.; Del Grande, N.K.; Schaich, P.C.

    1996-03-01

    Developing and implementing methods of effective bridge rehabilitation is a major issue for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). The nation spends $5 billion annually to replace, rehabilitate or construct new bridges. According to the National Bridge Inventory, over 100,000 U.S. bridges are structurally deficient. About 40,000 of these bridges have advanced deck deterioration. The most common causes of serious deck deterioration is delamination. Delaminations result when steel reinforcements within the bridge deck corrode, creating gaps that separate the concrete into layers. A reliable inspection technology, capable of identifying delaminations, would represent a power new tool in bridge maintenance. To date, most bridge inspections rely on human interpretation of surface visual features of chain dragging. These methods are slow, disruptive, unreliable and raise serious safety concerns. Infrared thermal imaging detects subsurface delaminations and surface clutter, which is introduced by foreign material on the roadway. Typically, foreign material which is not always evident on a video tape image, produces a unique IR reflectance background unlike the thermal response of a subsurface delamination. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses dual-band infrared (DBIR) thermal imaging to identify and remove nonthermal IR reflectance backgrounds from foreign material on the roadway. DBIR methods improve the performance of IR thermal imaging by a factor of ten, compared to single-band infrared (SBIR) methods. DBIR thermal imaging allows precise temperature measurement to reliably locate bridge deck delaminations and remove wavelength-dependent emissivity variations due to foreign material on the roadway.

  4. Multimodality Molecular Imaging of Cardiac Cell Transplantation: Part II. In Vivo Imaging of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in Swine with PET/CT and MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Parashurama, Natesh; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Ziv, Keren; Ito, Ken; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Willmann, Jürgen K; Chung, Jaehoon; Ikeno, Fumiaki; Swanson, Julia C; Merk, Denis R; Lyons, Jennifer K; Yerushalmi, David; Teramoto, Tomohiko; Kosuge, Hisanori; Dao, Catherine N; Ray, Pritha; Patel, Manishkumar; Chang, Ya-Fang; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Cohen, Jeff Eric; Goldstone, Andrew Brooks; Habte, Frezghi; Bhaumik, Srabani; Yaghoubi, Shahriar; Robbins, Robert C; Dash, Rajesh; Yang, Phillip C; Brinton, Todd J; Yock, Paul G; McConnell, Michael V; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To quantitatively determine the limit of detection of marrow stromal cells (MSC) after cardiac cell therapy (CCT) in swine by using clinical positron emission tomography (PET) reporter gene imaging and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with cell prelabeling. Materials and Methods Animal studies were approved by the institutional administrative panel on laboratory animal care. Seven swine received 23 intracardiac cell injections that contained control MSC and cell mixtures of MSC expressing a multimodality triple fusion (TF) reporter gene (MSC-TF) and bearing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NP) (MSC-TF-NP) or NP alone. Clinical MR imaging and PET reporter gene molecular imaging were performed after intravenous injection of the radiotracer fluorine 18-radiolabeled 9-[4-fluoro-3-(hydroxyl methyl) butyl] guanine ((18)F-FHBG). Linear regression analysis of both MR imaging and PET data and nonlinear regression analysis of PET data were performed, accounting for multiple injections per animal. Results MR imaging showed a positive correlation between MSC-TF-NP cell number and dephasing (dark) signal (R(2) = 0.72, P = .0001) and a lower detection limit of at least approximately 1.5 × 10(7) cells. PET reporter gene imaging demonstrated a significant positive correlation between MSC-TF and target-to-background ratio with the linear model (R(2) = 0.88, P = .0001, root mean square error = 0.523) and the nonlinear model (R(2) = 0.99, P = .0001, root mean square error = 0.273) and a lower detection limit of 2.5 × 10(8) cells. Conclusion The authors quantitatively determined the limit of detection of MSC after CCT in swine by using clinical PET reporter gene imaging and clinical MR imaging with cell prelabeling. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:27332865

  5. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications.

    PubMed

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis. PMID:23298127

  6. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications

    PubMed Central

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis. PMID:23298127

  7. Automatic spent fuel ID-number reader (II) image-processing technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, K.; Mizuguchi, H.; Miyazawa, T. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an image-processing technique for automatic spent fuel ID-number reader system. As a result, efficiency and reliability of the reader system is improved. To obtain reliable ID-number identification-capability, there are many items to be considered. Some of the important ones are appropriate lighting, high speed processors and suitable algorithm. After developing the technique on the items, the applicability of the image-processing technique for the reader system is verified. ID-numbers are accurately identified, and the time required for one ID-number reading is obtained in about 2 seconds. The result is one tenth of the conventional visual identification.

  8. Live-cell Imaging of Pol II Promoter Activity to Monitor Gene expression with RNA IMAGEtag reporters

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Ilchung; Ray, Judhajeet; Gupta, Vinayak; Ilgu, Muslum; Beasley, Jonathan; Bendickson, Lee; Mehanovic, Samir; Kraus, George A.; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2014-04-20

    We describe a ribonucleic acid (RNA) reporter system for live-cell imaging of gene expression to detect changes in polymerase II activity on individual promoters in individual cells. The reporters use strings of RNA aptamers that constitute IMAGEtags (Intracellular MultiAptamer GEnetic tags) that can be expressed from a promoter of choice. For imaging, the cells are incubated with their ligands that are separately conjugated with one of the FRET pair, Cy3 and Cy5. The IMAGEtags were expressed in yeast from the GAL1, ADH1 or ACT1 promoters. Transcription from all three promoters was imaged in live cells and transcriptional increases from the GAL1 promoter were observed with time after adding galactose. Expression of the IMAGEtags did not affect cell proliferation or endogenous gene expression. Advantages of this method are that no foreign proteins are produced in the cells that could be toxic or otherwise influence the cellular response as they accumulate, the IMAGEtags are short lived and oxygen is not required to generate their signals. The IMAGEtag RNA reporter system provides a means of tracking changes in transcriptional activity in live cells and in real time.

  9. Motion correction of PET brain images through deconvolution: II. Practical implementation and algorithm optimization.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, N; Faber, T L; Suryanarayanan, S; Votaw, J R

    2009-02-01

    Image quality is significantly degraded even by small amounts of patient motion in very high-resolution PET scanners. When patient motion is known, deconvolution methods can be used to correct the reconstructed image and reduce motion blur. This paper describes the implementation and optimization of an iterative deconvolution method that uses an ordered subset approach to make it practical and clinically viable. We performed ten separate FDG PET scans using the Hoffman brain phantom and simultaneously measured its motion using the Polaris Vicra tracking system (Northern Digital Inc., Ontario, Canada). The feasibility and effectiveness of the technique was studied by performing scans with different motion and deconvolution parameters. Deconvolution resulted in visually better images and significant improvement as quantified by the Universal Quality Index (UQI) and contrast measures. Finally, the technique was applied to human studies to demonstrate marked improvement. Thus, the deconvolution technique presented here appears promising as a valid alternative to existing motion correction methods for PET. It has the potential for deblurring an image from any modality if the causative motion is known and its effect can be represented in a system matrix.

  10. Automatic Detection and Tracking of Coronal Mass Ejections. II. Multiscale Filtering of Coronagraph Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Jason P.; Morgan, Huw; Habbal, Shadia R.; Gallagher, Peter T.

    2012-06-01

    Studying coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in coronagraph data can be challenging due to their diffuse structure and transient nature, and user-specific biases may be introduced through visual inspection of the images. The large amount of data available from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO), and future coronagraph missions also makes manual cataloging of CMEs tedious, and so a robust method of detection and analysis is required. This has led to the development of automated CME detection and cataloging packages such as CACTus, SEEDS, and ARTEMIS. Here, we present the development of a new CORIMP (coronal image processing) CME detection and tracking technique that overcomes many of the drawbacks of current catalogs. It works by first employing the dynamic CME separation technique outlined in a companion paper, and then characterizing CME structure via a multiscale edge-detection algorithm. The detections are chained through time to determine the CME kinematics and morphological changes as it propagates across the plane of sky. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by its application to a selection of SOHO/LASCO and STEREO/SECCHI images, as well as to synthetic coronagraph images created from a model corona with a variety of CMEs. The algorithms described in this article are being applied to the whole LASCO and SECCHI data sets, and a catalog of results will soon be available to the public.

  11. AUTOMATIC DETECTION AND TRACKING OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. II. MULTISCALE FILTERING OF CORONAGRAPH IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Jason P.; Morgan, Huw; Habbal, Shadia R.; Gallagher, Peter T.

    2012-06-20

    Studying coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in coronagraph data can be challenging due to their diffuse structure and transient nature, and user-specific biases may be introduced through visual inspection of the images. The large amount of data available from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO), and future coronagraph missions also makes manual cataloging of CMEs tedious, and so a robust method of detection and analysis is required. This has led to the development of automated CME detection and cataloging packages such as CACTus, SEEDS, and ARTEMIS. Here, we present the development of a new CORIMP (coronal image processing) CME detection and tracking technique that overcomes many of the drawbacks of current catalogs. It works by first employing the dynamic CME separation technique outlined in a companion paper, and then characterizing CME structure via a multiscale edge-detection algorithm. The detections are chained through time to determine the CME kinematics and morphological changes as it propagates across the plane of sky. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by its application to a selection of SOHO/LASCO and STEREO/SECCHI images, as well as to synthetic coronagraph images created from a model corona with a variety of CMEs. The algorithms described in this article are being applied to the whole LASCO and SECCHI data sets, and a catalog of results will soon be available to the public.

  12. A review of potential image fusion methods for remote sensing-based irrigation management: Part II

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Satellite-based sensors provide data at either greater spectral and coarser spatial resolutions, or lower spectral and finer spatial resolutions due to complementary spectral and spatial characteristics of optical sensor systems. In order to overcome this limitation, image fusion has been suggested ...

  13. Development of automated image co-registration techniques: Part II - multisensor imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Lundeen, T.F.; Andrews, A.K.; Perry, E.M.; Whyatt, M.V.; Steinmaus, K.L.

    1996-10-01

    This is the second in a series of PNNL Multispectral Imagery (ST474D) reports on automated co-registration and rectification of multisensor imagery. In the first report, a semi-automated registration procedure was introduced based on methods proposed by Chen and Lee which emphasized registration of same sensor imagery. The Chen and Lee approach is outlined in Figure 1, and is described in detail in the first report. PNNL made several enhancements to the Chen and Lee approach; these modifications are outlined in Figure 2 and are also described in detail in the first report. The PNNL enhancements to the Chen and Lee approach introduced in the first phase have been named Multisensor Image Registration Automation (MIRA). These improvements increased computational efficiency and offered additional algorithms for coarse matching of disparate image types. In the MIRA approach, one set of optimum GCP locations are determined based on a Delaunay triangulation technique using an initial set of GCPs provided by the user, rather than repeating this step for each added control point as is proposed by Chen and Lee. The Chen and Lee approach uses an adjacent pixel difference algorithm for coarse matching patches of the reference image with the source image, while the MIRA approach adds other algorithms. Also the MIRA approach checks to determine if the a newly determined GCP fits the existing warping equation.

  14. Cone-beam optical computed tomography for gel dosimetry II: imaging protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olding, Tim; Schreiner, L. John

    2011-03-01

    This work develops imaging protocols for improved dose readout of a Fricke-xylenol orange-gelatin (FXG) gel-filled 1 L polyethylene terephthalate (PETE) jar dosimeter using a commercial VistaTM cone-beam optical computed tomography (CT) scanner from Modus Medical Devices Inc. (London, ON, Canada). To ensure good management of light source-detector stability, it was determined that (a) a minimum of 2 h warm-up time is necessary prior to dosimeter scanning, (b) the light source should be kept on until the completion of the last data scan except for the minimum amount of time required to acquire dark field images, and (c) the optional Vista software projection image normalization routine should be used in image reconstruction. The institution of dosimeter scan time and temperature control was strongly indicated from the experiments. A standard post-irradiation wait time of 30 min measured to within ±30 s was established to minimize the measurement uncertainties due to dosimeter development and diffusion. To alleviate thermochromic behavior leading to inaccurate dose readout, holding bath warm up and pre-scan temperature adjustment procedures were developed to control dosimeter temperature to within ±0.2 °C. The possibility of stray light minimizing protocols was also investigated and deemed to be unnecessary. The largest significant sources of stray light in the system were identified as being due to angled scatter from the dosimeter gelatin matrix and refraction from the jar wall interfaces. It was concluded that these phenomena would be better addressed through dosimeter modification and an inter-jar dose-to-attenuation calibration methodology, rather than by setting additional imaging protocols.

  15. Zn(II)-coordination modulated ligand photophysical processes – the development of fluorescent indicators for imaging biological Zn(II) ions

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhao; Simmons, J. Tyler; Sreenath, Kesavapillai

    2014-01-01

    Molecular photophysics and metal coordination chemistry are the two fundamental pillars that support the development of fluorescent cation indicators. In this article, we describe how Zn(II)-coordination alters various ligand-centered photophysical processes that are pertinent to developing Zn(II) indicators. The main aim is to show how small organic Zn(II) indicators work under the constraints of specific requirements, including Zn(II) detection range, photophysical requirements such as excitation energy and emission color, temporal and spatial resolutions in a heterogeneous intracellular environment, and fluorescence response selectivity between similar cations such as Zn(II) and Cd(II). In the last section, the biological questions that fluorescent Zn(II) indicators help to answer are described, which have been motivating and challenging this field of research. PMID:25071933

  16. A dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex as turn-on luminescent probe for hypochlorous acid and its application for in vivo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zonglun; Gao, Kuo; Wang, Beng; Yan, Hui; Xing, Panfei; Zhong, Chongmin; Xu, Yongqian; Li, Hongjuan; Chen, Jianxin; Wang, Wei; Sun, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    A dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex Ruazo was designed and synthesized, in which oxidative cyclization of the azo and o-amino group was employed for the detection of hypochlorous acid (HClO) in aqueous solution. The non-emissive Ruazo formed highly luminescent triazole-ruthenium(II) complex in presence of HClO and successfully imaged HClO in living cell and living mouse. PMID:27356618

  17. A dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex as turn-on luminescent probe for hypochlorous acid and its application for in vivo imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zonglun; Gao, Kuo; Wang, Beng; Yan, Hui; Xing, Panfei; Zhong, Chongmin; Xu, Yongqian; Li, Hongjuan; Chen, Jianxin; Wang, Wei; Sun, Shiguo

    2016-06-01

    A dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex Ruazo was designed and synthesized, in which oxidative cyclization of the azo and o-amino group was employed for the detection of hypochlorous acid (HClO) in aqueous solution. The non-emissive Ruazo formed highly luminescent triazole-ruthenium(II) complex in presence of HClO and successfully imaged HClO in living cell and living mouse.

  18. MORPH-II, a software package for the analysis of scanning-electron-micrograph images for the assessment of the fractal dimension of exposed stone surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mossotti, Victor G.; Eldeeb, A. Raouf

    2000-01-01

    Turcotte, 1997, and Barton and La Pointe, 1995, have identified many potential uses for the fractal dimension in physicochemical models of surface properties. The image-analysis program described in this report is an extension of the program set MORPH-I (Mossotti and others, 1998), which provided the fractal analysis of electron-microscope images of pore profiles (Mossotti and Eldeeb, 1992). MORPH-II, an integration of the modified kernel of the program MORPH-I with image calibration and editing facilities, was designed to measure the fractal dimension of the exposed surfaces of stone specimens as imaged in cross section in an electron microscope.

  19. Impact of an etched EUV mask black border on imaging: part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydova, Natalia; de Kruif, Robert; Morimoto, Hiroaki; Sakata, Yo; Kotani, Jun; Fukugami, Norihito; Kondo, Shinpei; Imoto, Tomohiro; Connolly, Brid; van Gestel, Dries; Oorschot, Dorothe; Rio, David; Zimmerman, John; Harned, Noreen

    2013-09-01

    The image border is a pattern free dark area around the die on the photomask serving as transition area between the parts of the mask that is shielded from the exposure light by the Reticle Masking (ReMa) blades and the die. When printing a die at dense spacing on an EUV scanner, the reflection from its image border overlaps with the edges of neighboring dies affecting CD and contrast in this area. This is related to the fact that EUV absorber stack has 1-3% reflectance for actinic light. For a 55nm thick absorber the induced CD drop at the edges is found to be 4-5 nm for 27 nm dense lines. In this work we will show an overview of the absorber reflection impact on CD at the edge of the field across EUV scanner generations, for several imaging nodes and multiple absorber heights. Increasing spacing between dies on the wafer would prevent the unwanted exposure but results in an unacceptable loss of valuable wafer real estate thereby reducing the yield per wafer and is thus not a viable manufacturing solution. In order to mitigate the reflection from the image border one needs to create a so called black border. The most promising approach is removal of the absorber and the underlying multilayer down to the low reflective LTEM substrate by multilayer etching. It was shown in the previous study that the impact on CD was reduced essentially for 27 nm dense lines exposed on ASML NXE:3100. In this work we will continue the study of a multilayer etched black border impact on imaging. In particular, 22 nm lines/spaces imaging on ASML NXE:3300 EUV scanner will be investigated in the areas close to the black border as well as die to die effects. We will look closer into the CD uniformity impact by DUV Out-of-Band light reflected from black border and its mitigation. A possible OPC approach will also be evaluated.

  20. Image Pretreatment Tools II: Normalization Techniques for 2-DE and 2-D DIGE.

    PubMed

    Robotti, Elisa; Marengo, Emilio; Quasso, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis is usually applied to identify different protein expression profiles in biological samples (e.g., control vs. pathological, control vs. treated). Information about the effect to be investigated (a pathology, a drug, a ripening effect, etc.) is however generally confounded with experimental variability that is quite large in 2-DE and may arise from small variations in the sample preparation, reagents, sample loading, electrophoretic conditions, staining and image acquisition. Obtaining valid quantitative estimates of protein abundances in each map, before the differential analysis, is therefore fundamental to provide robust candidate biomarkers. Normalization procedures are applied to reduce experimental noise and make the images comparable, improving the accuracy of differential analysis. Certainly, they may deeply influence the final results, and to this respect they have to be applied with care. Here, the most widespread normalization procedures are described both for what regards the applications to 2-DE and 2D Difference Gel-electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) maps.

  1. TESTING THE NO-HAIR THEOREM WITH OBSERVATIONS IN THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM. II. BLACK HOLE IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Johannsen, Tim; Psaltis, Dimitrios E-mail: dpsaltis@email.arizona.ed

    2010-07-20

    According to the no-hair theorem, all astrophysical black holes are fully described by their masses and spins. This theorem can be tested observationally by measuring (at least) three different multipole moments of the spacetimes of black holes. In this paper, we analyze images of black holes within a framework that allows us to calculate observables in the electromagnetic spectrum as a function of the mass, spin, and, independently, the quadrupole moment of a black hole. We show that a deviation of the quadrupole moment from the expected Kerr value leads to images of black holes that are either prolate or oblate depending on the sign and magnitude of the deviation. In addition, there is a ring-like structure around the black hole shadow with a diameter of {approx}10 black hole masses that is substantially brighter than the image of the underlying accretion flow and that is independent of the astrophysical details of accretion flow models. We show that the shape of this ring depends directly on the mass, spin, and quadrupole moment of the black hole and can be used for an independent measurement of all three parameters. In particular, we demonstrate that this ring is highly circular for a Kerr black hole with a spin a {approx}< 0.9 M, independent of the observer's inclination, but becomes elliptical and asymmetric if the no-hair theorem is violated. Near-future very long baseline interferometric observations of Sgr A* will image this ring and may allow for an observational test of the no-hair theorem.

  2. Assessment of the size of acute myocardial infarction. II: Electrocardiography and imaging methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bruschke, A.V.; van der Laarse, A.; van der Wall, E.E. )

    1990-09-01

    The electrocardiogram gives a reasonable estimate of infarct size but the confidence limits are wide, and the estimates are unreliable in inferior wall infarction. Infarct size also can be determined from perfusion scintigraphy, assessment of left ventricular dimensions, wall motion disturbances, and other characteristics of the left ventricular wall. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, particularly with contrast enhancement, has the greatest potential for accuracy. 73 references.

  3. The pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis in radiological studies. Part II: Imaging studies in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Zaniewicz-Kaniewska, Katarzyna; Warczyńska, Agnieszka; Matuszewska, Genowefa; Saied, Fadhil; Kunisz, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis followed by early initiation of treatment, prevent the destruction of joints and progression to disability in the majority of patients. A traditional X-ray fails to capture early inflammatory changes, while late changes (e.g. erosions) appear after a significant delay, once 20–30% of bone mass has been lost. Sonography and magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown that erosions are seen in the first 3 months from the appearance of symptoms in 10–26% of patients, while in 75% they are seen in the first 2 years of the disease. Power Doppler ultrasound and dynamic magnetic resonance studies allow for qualitative, semiquantitative and quantitative monitoring of the vascularization of the synovium. In addition, magnetic resonance enables assessment of the bone marrow. The ultrasonographic examination using a state-of-the-art apparatus with a high-frequency probe allows for images with great spatial resolution and for the visualization of soft tissues and bone surfaces. However, the changes seen in ultrasonography (synovial pathologies, the presence of exudate, tendons changes, cartilage and bone lesions, pathologies of tendon attachments and ligaments – enthesopathies) are not only specific for rheumatoid arthritis and occur in other rheumatic diseases. Qualitative methods are sufficient for diagnosing the disease through ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging. Whereas semiquantitative and quantitative scales serve to monitor the disease course – efficacy of conservative treatment and qualification for radioisotope synovectomy or surgical synovectomy – and to assess treatment efficacy. PMID:26673409

  4. Theoretical foundations of spatially-variant mathematical morphology part ii: gray-level images.

    PubMed

    Bouaynaya, Nidhal; Schonfeld, Dan

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we develop a spatially-variant (SV) mathematical morphology theory for gray-level signals and images in the Euclidean space. The proposed theory preserves the geometrical concept of the structuring function, which provides the foundation of classical morphology and is essential in signal and image processing applications. We define the basic SV gray-level morphological operators (i.e., SV gray-level erosion, dilation, opening, and closing) and investigate their properties. We demonstrate the ubiquity of SV gray-level morphological systems by deriving a kernel representation for a large class of systems, called V-systems, in terms of the basic SV graylevel morphological operators. A V-system is defined to be a gray-level operator, which is invariant under gray-level (vertical) translations. Particular attention is focused on the class of SV flat gray-level operators. The kernel representation for increasing V-systems is a generalization of Maragos' kernel representation for increasing and translation-invariant function-processing systems. A representation of V-systems in terms of their kernel elements is established for increasing and upper-semi-continuous V-systems. This representation unifies a large class of spatially-variant linear and non-linear systems under the same mathematical framework. Finally, simulation results show the potential power of the general theory of gray-level spatially-variant mathematical morphology in several image analysis and computer vision applications. PMID:18369253

  5. Modeling of Direct Detection Doppler Wind Lidar. II. The Fringe Imaging Technique.

    PubMed

    McKay, J A

    1998-09-20

    A simple analytic model is developed for the shot-noise-limited measurement precision of Doppler wind lidars based on the fringe imaging technique by use of either molecular or aerosol atmospheric backscatter. The model leads to etalon design parameters for an instrument optimized for precision. The ultimate measurement precision possible is two to four times the limit for a perfect, lossless receiver. The corresponding result for the double-edge Doppler analyzer was a ratio of 2.5, showing that the two methods are little different in this respect. For aerosol backscatter instruments, the wind speed dynamic range of the fringe imager is substantially greater than that for the edge detector. The etalon aperture needed to meet system etendue requirements is derived and shown to be approximately half that of each of the two etalons required by the double-edge technique. A comparison with more detailed modeling of fringe imaging Doppler-shift analyzers shows good agreement for the Rayleigh model and fair for the aerosol version, confirming the validity of this simpler technique for analyzer design and performance prediction. PMID:18286156

  6. 48 CFR 401.105-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 401.105-3 Copies. Copies of the AGAR published in CFR form may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Requests should reference Chapter 4 of Title 48 CFR....

  7. 48 CFR 401.105-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 401.105-3 Copies. Copies of the AGAR published in CFR form may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Requests should reference Chapter 4 of Title 48 CFR....

  8. Copy-Editing: The Cambridge Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Judith

    This handbook is designed as a reference manual for copy editors who prepare typescript for printing. It deals with the following topics: the copy editor's function; the work to be done at each stage in the production process; some difficult points of spelling, capitalization, and other features collectively known as "house style"; the parts of a…

  9. 14 CFR 249.4 - Photographic copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Photographic copies. 249.4 Section 249.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS PRESERVATION OF AIR CARRIER RECORDS General Instructions § 249.4 Photographic copies. (a)...

  10. 22 CFR 401.13 - Copies required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Copies required. 401.13 Section 401.13 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE Applications § 401.13 Copies required. (a) Subject to paragraph (c) of this section, two duplicate originals and fifty...

  11. 48 CFR 601.105-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies. 601.105-3 Section 601.105-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 601.105-3 Copies. The DOSAR is available...

  12. 48 CFR 201.105-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies. 201.105-3 Section 201.105-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 201.105-3 Copies....

  13. 48 CFR 3001.105-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies. 3001.105-3 Section 3001.105-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY....105-3 Copies. The HSAR is available in the Federal Register and electronically at...

  14. 48 CFR 501.105-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES ADMINISTRATION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 501.105-3 Copies. The GSAR in CFR form may be purchased from: Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies. 501.105-3...

  15. Structure and mechanism of COPI vesicle biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lauren P

    2014-08-01

    Distinct trafficking pathways within the secretory and endocytic systems ensure prompt and precise delivery of specific cargo molecules to different cellular compartments via small vesicular (50-150nm) and tubular carriers. The COPI vesicular coat is required for retrograde trafficking from the cis-Golgi back to the ER and within the Golgi stack. Recent structural data have been obtained from X-ray crystallographic studies on COPI coat components alone and on COPI subunits in complex with either cargo motifs or Arf1, and from reconstructions of COPI coated vesicles by electron tomography. These studies provide important molecular information and indicate key differences in COPI coat assembly as compared with clathrin-based and COPII-based coats. PMID:24840894

  16. Photographic copy of drawing by Modjeski and Masters, Engineers of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of drawing by Modjeski and Masters, Engineers of the proposed Huey P. Long Bridge Widening. Original drawing located in the office of Modjeski and Masters, Consulting Engineers at 1055 St. Charles Avenue, New Orleans, LA. 70130. MAY 13, 2005 DRAWING OF THE PROPOSED HUEY P. LONG BRIDGE WIDENING, U.S. 90, MAIN BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURE, SHOWING STRUCTURE PLAN AND ELEVATION -2 AND TYPICAL SECTION THROUGH BRIDGE AT PIER I AND II. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  17. Photographic copy of drawing by Modjeski and Masters, Engineers of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of drawing by Modjeski and Masters, Engineers of the proposed Huey P. Long Bridge Widening. Original drawing located in the office of Modjeski and Masters, Consulting Engineers at 1055 St. Charles Avenue, New Orleans, LA. 70130. MAY 13, 2005 DRAWING OF THE PROPOSED HUEY P. LONG BRIDGE WIDENING, U.S. 90, MAIN BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURE, SHOWING ELEVATION AND SECTIONS AT PIER I AND II AND GENERAL DETAILS – 1. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  18. Integrated imaging of hepatic tumors in childhood. Part II. Benign lesions (congenital, reparative, and inflammatory)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.; Greenspan, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have encountered benign liver masses as frequently as malignant lesions in children with hepatomegaly. Lesions studied included abscesses, cavernous hemangioma/hemangioendothelioma, adenoma of glycogen storage disease, choledochal cysts, focal nodular hyperplasia, cystic hepatoblastoma, and hamartoma. An intergrated imaging protocol involving ultrasound, computed tomography, and scintigraphy proved to be more helpful than any one modality in establishing the benign or malignant nature of a hepatic neoplasm and the type of tumor, which is of particular importance when surgical exploration and/or biopsy is contraindicated.

  19. Automated image processing of Landsat II digital data for watershed runoff prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasso, R. R.; Jensen, J. R.; Estes, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Digital image processing of Landsat data from a 230 sq km area was examined as a possible means of generating soil cover information for use in the watershed runoff prediction of Kern County, California. The soil cover information included data on brush, grass, pasture lands and forests. A classification accuracy of 94% for the Landsat-based soil cover survey suggested that the technique could be applied to the watershed runoff estimate. However, problems involving the survey of complex mountainous environments may require further attention

  20. High-throughput assessment of transgene copy number in sugarcane using real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Casu, Rosanne E; Selivanova, Alexandra; Perroux, Jai M

    2012-01-01

    Accurate and timely detection of transgene copy number in sugarcane is currently hampered by the requirement to use Southern blotting, needing relatively large amounts of genomic DNA and, therefore, the continued growth and maintenance of bulky plants in containment glasshouses. In addition, the sugarcane genome is both polyploid and aneuploid, complicating the identification of appropriate genes for use as references in the development of a high-throughput method. Using bioinformatic techniques followed by in vitro testing, two genes that appear to occur once per base genome of sugarcane were identified. Using these genes as reference genes, a high-throughput assay employing RT-qPCR was developed and tested using a group of sugarcane plants that contained unknown numbers of copies of the nptII gene encoding kanamycin resistance. Using this assay, transgene copy numbers from 3 to more than 50 were identified. In comparison, Southern blotting accurately identified the number of transgene copies for one line and by inference for another, but was not able to provide an accurate estimation for transgenic lines containing numerous copies of the nptII gene. Using the reference genes identified in this study, a high-throughput assay for the determination of transgene copy number was developed and tested for sugarcane. This method requires much less input DNA, can be performed much earlier in the production of transgenic sugarcane plants and allows much more efficient assessment of numerous potentially transgenic lines than Southern blotting.

  1. Research on copying system of dynamic multiplex holographic stereograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Huaiping; Yang, Hong; Zheng, Tong

    2003-05-01

    The most important advantage of holographic stereograms over conventional hologram is that they can produce 3D images at any desired scale with movement, holographers in many countries involved in the studies towards it. We began our works in the early 80's and accomplished two research projects automatic system for making synthetic holograms and multiplex synthetic rainbow holograms, Based on these works, a large scale holographic stereogram of an animated goldfish was made by us for practical advertisement. In order to meet the needs of the market, a copying system for making multiplex holographic stereograms, and a special kind of silver halide holographic film developed by us recently. The characteristic of the copying system and the property of the special silver-halide emulsion are introduced in this paper.

  2. Development and Test of a Neutron Imaging Setup at the PGAA Instrument at FRM II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söllradl, S.; Mühlbauer, M. J.; Kudejova, P.; Türler, A.

    We report on the developments of a neutron tomography setup at the instrument for prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) at the Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum(MLZ). The recent developments are driven by the idea of combining the spatial information obtained with neutron tomography with the elemental information determined with PGAA, i.e. to further combine both techniques to an investigative technique called prompt gamma activation imaging (PGAI).At the PGAA instrument, a cold neutron flux of up to 6 x 1010 cm-2 s-1 (thermal equivalent) is available in the focus of an elliptically tapered neutron guide. In the reported experiments, the divergence of the neutron beam was investigated, the resolution of the installed detector system tested, and a proof-of-principle tomography experiment performed. In our study a formerly used camera box was upgraded with a better camera and an optical resolution of 8 line pairs/mm was achieved. The divergence of the neutron beam was measured by a systematic scan along the beam axis. Based on the acquired data, a neutron imaging setup with a L/D ratio of 200 was installed. The resolution of the setup was testedin combination with a gadolinium test target and different scintillator screens. The test target was irradiated at two positions to determine the maximum resolution and the resolution at the actual sample position. The performance of the installed tomography setup was demonstrated bya tomography experiment of an electric amplifier tube.

  3. THE TRENDS HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING SURVEY. II. DIRECT DETECTION OF THE HD 8375 TERTIARY

    SciTech Connect

    Crepp, Justin R.; Johnson, John Asher; Yantek, Scott M.; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoff W.; Isaacson, Howard; Fischer, Debra A.; Wright, Jason T.; Feng Ying

    2013-07-01

    We present the direct imaging detection of a faint tertiary companion to the single-lined spectroscopic binary HD 8375 AB. Initially noticed as an 53 m s{sup -1} yr{sup -1} Doppler acceleration by Bowler et al., we have obtained high-contrast adaptive optics observations at Keck using NIRC2 that spatially resolve HD 8375 C from its host(s). Astrometric measurements demonstrate that the companion shares a common proper-motion. We detect orbital motion in a clockwise direction. Multiband relative photometry measurements are consistent with an early M-dwarf spectral type ({approx}M1V). Our combined Doppler and imaging observations place a lower-limit of m {>=} 0.297 M{sub Sun} on its dynamical mass. We also provide a refined orbit for the inner pair using recent radial velocity measurements obtained with the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer. HD 8375 is one of many triple-star systems that are apparently missing in the solar neighborhood.

  4. Cloning Hubble Deep Fields. II. Models for Evolution by Bright Galaxy Image Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwens, Rychard; Broadhurst, Tom; Silk, Joseph

    1998-10-01

    In a companion paper, we outlined a methodology for generating parameter-free, model-independent ``no-evolution'' fields of faint galaxy images, demonstrating the need for significant evolution in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) at faint magnitudes. Here we incorporate evolution into our procedure, by transforming the input bright galaxy images with redshift, for comparison with the HDF at faint magnitudes. Pure luminosity evolution is explored with the assumption that galaxy surface brightness evolves uniformly, at a rate chosen to reproduce the I-band counts. This form of evolution exacerbates the size discrepancy identified by our no-evolution simulations by increasing the area of a galaxy visible to a fixed isophote. Reasonable dwarf-augmented models are unable to generate the count excess invoking moderate rates of stellar evolution. A plausible fit to the counts and sizes is provided by ``mass-conserving'' density-evolution, consistent with small-scale hierarchical growth, in which the product of disk area and space density is conserved with redshift. Here the increased surface brightness generated by stellar evolution is accommodated by the reduced average galaxy size, for a wide range of geometries. These models are useful for calculating the rates of incompleteness and the degree of overcounting. Finally we demonstrate the potential for improvement in quantifying evolution at fainter magnitudes using the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera, with its superior UV and optical performance.

  5. Intercomparison of methods for image quality characterization. II. Noise power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbins, James T. III; Samei, Ehsan; Ranger, Nicole T.; Chen Ying

    2006-05-15

    Second in a two-part series comparing measurement techniques for the assessment of basic image quality metrics in digital radiography, in this paper we focus on the measurement of the image noise power spectrum (NPS). Three methods were considered: (1) a method published by Dobbins et al. [Med. Phys. 22, 1581-1593 (1995)] (2) a method published by Samei et al. [Med. Phys. 30, 608-622 (2003)], and (3) a new method sanctioned by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 62220-1, 2003), developed as part of an international standard for the measurement of detective quantum efficiency. In addition to an overall comparison of the estimated NPS between the three techniques, the following factors were also evaluated for their effect on the measured NPS: horizontal versus vertical directional dependence, the use of beam-limiting apertures, beam spectrum, and computational methods of NPS analysis, including the region-of-interest (ROI) size and the method of ROI normalization. Of these factors, none was found to demonstrate a substantial impact on the amplitude of the NPS estimates ({<=}3.1% relative difference in NPS averaged over frequency, for each factor considered separately). Overall, the three methods agreed to within 1.6%{+-}0.8% when averaged over frequencies >0.15 mm{sup -1}.

  6. Turn-by-Turn Imaging of the Transverse Beam Profile in PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Alan A.; Petree, Mark; /SLAC

    2006-12-18

    During injection or instability, the transverse profile of an individual bunch in a storage ring can change significantly in a few turns. However, most synchrotron-light imaging techniques are not designed for this time scale. We have developed a novel diagnostic that enhances the utility of a fast gated camera by adding, inexpensively, some features of a dual-axis streak camera, in order to watch the turn-by-turn evolution of the transverse profile, in both x and y. The beam's elliptical profile is reshaped using cylindrical lenses to form a tall and narrow ellipse--essentially the projection of the full ellipse onto one transverse axis. We do this projection twice, by splitting the beam into two paths at different heights, and rotating the ellipse by 90{sup o} on one path. A rapidly rotating mirror scans these vertical ''pencils'' of light horizontally across the photocathode of the camera, which is gated for 3 ns on every Nth ring turn. A single readout of the camera captures 100 images, looking like a stroboscopic photograph of a moving object. We have observed the capture of injected charge into a bunch and the rapid change of beam size at the onset of a fast instability.

  7. Hypothesis: hypersensitive plasmid copy number control for ColE1.

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenberg, M

    1996-01-01

    Initiation of replication of the plasmid ColE1 is primed by the cis-acting RNA II. Copy numbers are regulated by inhibition of RNA II by the antisense RNA I, whose concentration is proportional to the plasmid concentration. This inhibition is enhanced by a protein. Rom, and takes place during a time set by the transcription of 250 bases of the gene for RNA II. When this transcription is dominated by several steps of about equal duration, the probability for RNA II to prime DNA replication is approximately determined by e-constant[RNA I]. For large values of the "constant" small changes in [RNA I] give large variations in the priming probability. It is shown, first, that this type of mechanism can reduce the rate of plasmid loss and enable single copies of ColE1 to duplicate at a well-defined time in the cell cycle; second, that when the rate of initiation of transcription of RNA II increases, plasmid losses decrease and the distribution of single copy duplication times becomes narrower; third, that the action of Rom may further reduce plasmid losses and further narrow the distribution of duplication times in the single-copy case. PMID:8770193

  8. Type-II superlattice detector for long-wave infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipstein, P. C.; Avnon, E.; Benny, Y.; Fraenkel, A.; Glozman, A.; Hojman, E.; Ilan, E.; Kahanov, E.; Klin, O.; Langof, L.; Livneh, Y.; Lukomsky, I.; Nitzani, M.; Shkedy, L.; Shtrichman, I.; Snapi, N.; Talmor, R.; Tuito, A.; Vaserman, S.; Weiss, E.

    2015-06-01

    When incorporated into the active layer of a "XBp" detector structure, Type II InAs/GaSb superlattices (T2SLs) offer a high quantum efficiency (QE) and a low diffusion limited dark current, close to MCT Rule 07. Using a simulation tool that was developed to predict the QE as a function of the T2SL period dimensions and active layer stack thickness, we have designed and fabricated a new focal plane array (FPA) T2SL XBp detector. The detector goes by the name of "Pelican-D LW", and has a format of 640 ×512 pixels with a pitch of 15 μm. The FPA has a QE of 50% (one pass), a cut-off of ~9.5 μm, and operates at 77K with a high operability, background limited performance and good stability. It uses a new digital read-out integrated circuit, and the integrated detector cooler assembly (IDCA) closely follows the configuration of SCD's Pelican-D MWIR detector.

  9. Intracranial vascular malformations: imaging of charged-particle radiosurgery. Part II. Complications

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, M.P.; Delapaz, R.L.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Frankel, K.A.; Phillips, M.H.; Levy, R.P.; Enzmann, D.R.

    1988-08-01

    Seven of 24 patients with intracranial vascular malformations who were treated with helium-ion Bragg-peak radiosurgery had complications of therapy. New symptoms and corresponding radiologic abnormalities developed 4-28 months after therapy. Five patients had similar patterns of white matter changes and mass effect on computed tomographic scans and magnetic resonance images. The abnormalities were centered in the radiation field. Gray matter changes and abnormal enhancement in the thalamus and hypothalamus outside the radiation field developed in one patient. This patient also had vasculopathic changes on angiograms. Rapidly progressive large vessel vasculopathy developed in another patient and caused occlusion of major vessels. Thus, different mechanisms may be involved in the complications of heavy-ion radiosurgery.

  10. Phase II Trial of Hypofractionated Image-Guided Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jarad M.; Rosewall, Tara; Bayley, Andrew; Bristow, Robert; Chung, Peter; Crook, Juanita; Gospodarowicz, Mary; McLean, Michael; Menard, Cynthia; Milosevic, Michael; Warde, Padraig; Catton, Charles

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To assess in a prospective trial the feasibility and late toxicity of hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had clinical stage T1c-2cNXM0 disease. They received 60 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks with intensity-modulated radiotherapy including daily on-line image guidance with intraprostatic fiducial markers. Results: Between June 2001 and March 2004, 92 patients were treated with hypofractionated RT. The cohort had a median prostate-specific antigen value of 7.06 ng/mL. The majority had Gleason grade 5-6 (38%) or 7 (59%) disease, and 82 patients had T1c-T2a clinical staging. Overall, 29 patients had low-risk, 56 intermediate-risk, and 7 high-risk disease. Severe acute toxicity (Grade 3-4) was rare, occurring in only 1 patient. Median follow-up was 38 months. According to the Phoenix definition for biochemical failure, the rate of biochemical control at 14 months was 97%. According to the previous American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition, biochemical control at 3 years was 76%. The incidence of late toxicity was low, with no severe (Grade {>=}3) toxicity at the most recent assessment. Conclusions: Hypofractionated RT using 60 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks with image guidance is feasible and is associated with low rates of late bladder and rectal toxicity. At early follow-up, biochemical outcome is comparable to that reported for conventionally fractionated controls. The findings are being tested in an ongoing, multicenter, Phase III trial.

  11. The Lyman alpha reference sample. II. Hubble space telescope imaging results, integrated properties, and trends

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger; Adamo, Angela; Schaerer, Daniel; Verhamme, Anne; Orlitová, Ivana; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Otí-Floranes, Héctor; Cannon, John M.; Pardy, Stephen; Atek, Hakim; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter; Herenz, E. Christian

    2014-02-10

    We report new results regarding the Lyα output of galaxies, derived from the Lyman Alpha Reference Sample, and focused on Hubble Space Telescope imaging. For 14 galaxies we present intensity images in Lyα, Hα, and UV, and maps of Hα/Hβ, Lyα equivalent width (EW), and Lyα/Hα. We present Lyα and UV radial light profiles and show they are well-fitted by Sérsic profiles, but Lyα profiles show indices systematically lower than those of the UV (n ≈ 1-2 instead of ≳ 4). This reveals a general lack of the central concentration in Lyα that is ubiquitous in the UV. Photometric growth curves increase more slowly for Lyα than the far ultraviolet, showing that small apertures may underestimate the EW. For most galaxies, however, flux and EW curves flatten by radii ≈10 kpc, suggesting that if placed at high-z only a few of our galaxies would suffer from large flux losses. We compute global properties of the sample in large apertures, and show total Lyα luminosities to be independent of all other quantities. Normalized Lyα throughput, however, shows significant correlations: escape is found to be higher in galaxies of lower star formation rate, dust content, mass, and nebular quantities that suggest harder ionizing continuum and lower metallicity. Six galaxies would be selected as high-z Lyα emitters, based upon their luminosity and EW. We discuss the results in the context of high-z Lyα and UV samples. A few galaxies have EWs above 50 Å, and one shows f{sub esc}{sup Lyα} of 80%; such objects have not previously been reported at low-z.

  12. 25 CFR 571.13 - Copies of audit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... submit to the Commission two paper copies or one electronic copy of the financial statements and audits... Commission two paper copies or one electronic copy of the financial statements, reports, and audits required... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copies of audit reports. 571.13 Section 571.13...

  13. Image-derived and arterial blood sampled input functions for quantitative PET imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Tao; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.; Li, Xin; Vranesic, Melin; Lodge, Martin A.; Gulaldi, Nedim C. M.; Szabo, Zsolt

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: The radioligand {sup 11}C-KR31173 has been introduced for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney in vivo. To study the biokinetics of {sup 11}C-KR31173 with a compartmental model, the input function is needed. Collection and analysis of arterial blood samples are the established approach to obtain the input function but they are not feasible in patients with renal diseases. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative technique that can provide an accurate image-derived input function (ID-IF) to replace the conventional invasive arterial sampling and test the method in pigs with the goal of translation into human studies. Methods: The experimental animals were injected with [{sup 11}C]KR31173 and scanned up to 90 min with dynamic PET. Arterial blood samples were collected for the artery derived input function (AD-IF) and used as a gold standard for ID-IF. Before PET, magnetic resonance angiography of the kidneys was obtained to provide the anatomical information required for derivation of the recovery coefficients in the abdominal aorta, a requirement for partial volume correction of the ID-IF. Different image reconstruction methods, filtered back projection (FBP) and ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM), were investigated for the best trade-off between bias and variance of the ID-IF. The effects of kidney uptakes on the quantitative accuracy of ID-IF were also studied. Biological variables such as red blood cell binding and radioligand metabolism were also taken into consideration. A single blood sample was used for calibration in the later phase of the input function. Results: In the first 2 min after injection, the OS-EM based ID-IF was found to be biased, and the bias was found to be induced by the kidney uptake. No such bias was found with the FBP based image reconstruction method. However, the OS-EM based image reconstruction was found to reduce variance in the subsequent

  14. Nitroimidazole conjugates of bis(thiosemicarbazonato)64Cu(II) - Potential combination agents for the PET imaging of hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Bonnitcha, Paul D; Bayly, Simon R; Theobald, Mark B M; Betts, Helen M; Lewis, Jason S; Dilworth, Jonathan R

    2010-02-01

    Combination agents comprising two different pharmacophores with the same biological target have the potential to show additive or synergistic activity. Bis(thiosemicarbazonato)copper(II) complexes (e.g. (64)Cu-ATSM) and nitroimidazoles (e.g. (18)F-MISO) are classes of tracer used for the delineation of tumor hypoxia by positron emission tomography (PET). Three nitroimidazole-bis(thiosemicarbazonato)copper(II) conjugates were produced in order to investigate their potential as combination hypoxia imaging agents. Two were derived from the known bifunctional bis(thiosemicarbazone) H(2)ATSM/A and the third from the new precursor diacetyl-2-(4-N-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone)-3-(4-N-ethylamino-3-thiosemicarbazone) - H(2)ATSM/en. Oxygen-dependent uptake studies were performed using the (64)Cu radiolabelled complexes in EMT6 carcinoma cells. All the complexes displayed appreciable hypoxia selectivity, with the nitroimidazole conjugates displaying greater selectivity than a simple propyl derivative used as a control. Participation of the nitroimidazole group in the trapping mechanism is indicated by the increased hypoxic uptake of the 2- vs. the 4-substituted (64)Cu-ATSM/A derivatives. The 2-nitroimidazole derivative of (64)Cu-ATSM/en demonstrated superior hypoxia selectivity to (64)Cu-ATSM over the range of oxygen concentrations tested. Biodistribution of the radiolabelled 2-nitroimidazole conjugates was carried out in EMT6 tumor-bearing mice. The complexes showed significantly different uptake trends in comparison to each other and previously studied Cu-ATSM derivatives. Uptake of the Cu-ATSM/en conjugate in non-target organs was considerably lower than for derivatives based on Cu-ATSM/A.

  15. Adaptive Optics Images. II. 12 Kepler Objects of Interest and 15 Confirmed Transiting Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, E. R.; Dupree, A. K.; Kulesa, C.; McCarthy, D.

    2013-07-01

    All transiting planet observations are at risk of contamination from nearby, unresolved stars. Blends dilute the transit signal, causing the planet to appear smaller than it really is, or producing a false positive detection when the target star is blended with an eclipsing binary. High spatial resolution adaptive optics images are an effective way of resolving most blends. Here we present visual companions and detection limits for 12 Kepler planet candidate host stars, of which 4 have companions within 4''. One system (KOI 1537) consists of two similar-magnitude stars separated by 0.''1, while KOI 174 has a companion at 0.''5. In addition, observations were made of 15 transiting planets that were previously discovered by other surveys. The only companion found within 1'' of a known planet is the previously identified companion to WASP-2b. An additional four systems have companions between 1'' and 4'': HAT-P-30b (3.''7, ΔKs = 2.9), HAT-P-32b (2.''9, ΔKs = 3.4), TrES-1b (2.''3, ΔKs = 7.7), and WASP-P-33b (1.''9, ΔKs = 5.5), some of which have not been reported previously. Depending on the spatial resolution of the transit photometry for these systems, these companion stars may require a reassessment of the planetary parameters derived from transit light curves. For all systems observed, we report the limiting magnitudes beyond which additional fainter objects located 0.''1-4'' from the target may still exist. Based on observations obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona.

  16. Feasibility of High Frequency Acoustic Imaging for Inspection of Containments: Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Rudzinsky, J.; Bondaryk, J.; Conti, M.

    1999-07-01

    The nuclear power industry is concerned with corrosive thinning of portions of the metallic pressure boundary, particularly in areas that are not directly accessible for inspection. This study investigated the feasibility of detecting these thickness degradations using ultrasonic imaging. A commercial ultrasonic system was used to carry out several full-scale, controlled laboratory experiments. Measurements of 0.5 MHz shear wave levels propagated in 25-mm-thick steel plate embedded in concrete showed 1.4-1.6 dB of signal loss for each centimeter of two-way travel in the steel plate (compared to previous numerical predictions of 3-4 dB), and 1.3 dB of signal loss per centimeter of two-way travel in steel plates embedded in concrete prior to setting of the concrete (i.e., plastic). Negligible losses were measured in plates with a decoupling treatment applied between the steel and concrete to simulate the unbonded portions of the pressure boundary. Scattered signals from straight slots of different size and shape were investigated. The return from a 4-mm-deep rectangular slots exhibited levels 23 dB down relative to incidence and 4-6 dB higher than those obtained from both ''v'' shaped and rounded slots of similar depth. The system displayed an input/output dynamic range of 125 dB and measurement variability less than 1-2dB. Based on these results, a 4-mm-deep, rounded degradation embedded 30 cm in concrete has expected returns of -73dB relative to the input and should therefore be detectable. Results of this and a prior study indicate that the technique has merit and should be developed more fully and demonstrated in the field.

  17. Spatial distribution of intrinsic and scattering seismic attenuation in active volcanic islands - II: Deception Island images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudencio, Janire; Ibáñez, Jesús M.; García-Yeguas, Araceli; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Posadas, Antonio M.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we present regional maps of the inverse intrinsic quality factor (Qi-1), the inverse scattering quality factor (Qs-1) and total inverse quality factor (Qt-1) for the volcanic environment of Deception Island (Antarctica). Our attenuation study is based on diffusion approximation, which permits us to obtain the attenuation coefficients for every single couple source-receiver separately. The data set used in this research is derived from an active seismic experiment using more than 5200 offshore shots (air guns) recorded at 32 onshore seismic stations and four ocean bottom seismometers. To arrive at a regional distribution of these values, we used a new mapping technique based on a Gaussian space probability function. This approach led us to create `2-D probabilistic maps' of values of intrinsic and scattering seismic attenuation. The 2-D tomographic images confirm the existence of a high attenuation body below an inner bay of Deception Island. This structure, previously observed in 2-D and 3-D velocity tomography of the region, is associated with a massive magma reservoir. Magnetotelluric studies reach a similar interpretation of this strong anomaly. Additionally, we observed areas with lower attenuation effects that bear correlation with consolidated structures described in other studies and associated with the crystalline basement of the area. Our calculations of the transport mean-free path and absorption length for intrinsic attenuation gave respective values of ≈ 950 m and 5 km, which are lower than the values obtained in tectonic regions or volcanic areas such as Tenerife Island. However, as observed in other volcanic regions, our results indicate that scattering effects dominate strongly over the intrinsic attenuation.

  18. Kinetic versus Energetic Discrimination in Biological Copying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, Pablo; Pigolotti, Simone

    2013-05-01

    We study stochastic copying schemes in which discrimination between a right and a wrong match is achieved via different kinetic barriers or different binding energies of the two matches. We demonstrate that, in single-step reactions, the two discrimination mechanisms are strictly alternative and cannot be mixed to further reduce the error fraction. Close to the lowest error limit, kinetic discrimination results in a diverging copying velocity and dissipation per copied bit. On the other hand, energetic discrimination reaches its lowest error limit in an adiabatic regime where dissipation and velocity vanish. By analyzing experimentally measured kinetic rates of two DNA polymerases, T7 and Polγ, we argue that one of them operates in the kinetic and the other in the energetic regime. Finally, we show how the two mechanisms can be combined in copying schemes implementing error correction through a proofreading pathway.

  19. NASA printing, duplicating, and copying management handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This handbook provides information and procedures for the implementation of NASA policy and applicable laws and regulations relating to printing, duplicating, and copying. The topics addressed include a description of relevant laws and regulations, authorizations required, and responsible entities for NASA printing, duplicating, and copying. The policy of NASA is to ensure understanding and application of authority and responsibility on printing matters. Where necessary, the handbook clarifies the intent of basic laws and regulations applicable to NASA.

  20. 20 CFR 408.405 - When do we require original records or copies as evidence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When do we require original records or copies as evidence? 408.405 Section 408.405 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements General Information § 408.405 When do...

  1. 20 CFR 408.405 - When do we require original records or copies as evidence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When do we require original records or copies as evidence? 408.405 Section 408.405 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements General Information § 408.405 When do...

  2. 20 CFR 408.405 - When do we require original records or copies as evidence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When do we require original records or copies as evidence? 408.405 Section 408.405 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements General Information § 408.405 When do...

  3. 20 CFR 408.405 - When do we require original records or copies as evidence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When do we require original records or copies as evidence? 408.405 Section 408.405 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements General Information § 408.405 When do...

  4. 20 CFR 408.405 - When do we require original records or copies as evidence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When do we require original records or copies as evidence? 408.405 Section 408.405 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements General Information § 408.405 When do...

  5. COPI Is Required for Enterovirus 71 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianmin; Wu, Zhiqiang; Jin, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a member of the Picornaviridae family, is found in Asian countries where it causes a wide range of human diseases. No effective therapy is available for the treatment of these infections. Picornaviruses undergo RNA replication in association with membranes of infected cells. COPI and COPII have been shown to be involved in the formation of picornavirus-induced vesicles. Replication of several picornaviruses, including poliovirus and Echovirus 11 (EV11), is dependent on COPI or COPII. Here, we report that COPI, but not COPII, is required for EV71 replication. Replication of EV71 was inhibited by brefeldin A and golgicide A, inhibitors of COPI activity. Furthermore, we found EV71 2C protein interacted with COPI subunits by co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assay, indicating that COPI coatomer might be directed to the viral replication complex through viral 2C protein. Additionally, because the pathway is conserved among different species of enteroviruses, it may represent a novel target for antiviral therapies. PMID:22662263

  6. Design of a Highly Specific And Noninvasive Biosensor Suitable for Real-Time in Vivo Imaging of Mercury (II) Uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Chapleau, R.R.; Blomberg, R.; Ford, P.C.; Sagermann, M.

    2009-05-12

    Mercury is a ubiquitous pollutant that when absorbed is extremely toxic to a wide variety of biochemical processes. Mercury (II) is a strong, invisible poison that is rapidly absorbed by tissues of the intestinal tract, kidneys, and liver upon ingestion. In this study, a novel fluorescence-based biosensor is presented that allows for the direct monitoring of the uptake and distribution of the metal under noninvasive in vivo conditions. With the introduction of a cysteine residue at position 205, located in close proximity to the chromophore, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Aequorea victoria was converted into a highly specific biosensor for this metal ion. The mutant protein exhibits a dramatic absorbance and fluorescence change upon mercuration at neutral pH. Absorbance and fluorescence properties with respect to the metal concentration exhibit sigmoidal binding behavior with a detection limit in the low nanomolar range. Time-resolved binding studies indicate rapid subsecond binding of the metal to the protein. The crystal structures obtained of mutant eGFP205C indicate a possible access route of the metal into the core of the protein. To our knowledge, this engineered protein is a first example of a biosensor that allows for noninvasive and real-time imaging of mercury uptake in a living cell. A major advantage is that its expression can be genetically controlled in many organisms to enable unprecedented studies of tissue specific mercury uptake.

  7. The Surface Brightness Contribution of II Peg: A Comparison of TiO Band Analysis and Doppler Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senavci, H. V.; O'Neal, D.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Barnes, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the surface brightness contribution of the very well known active SB1 binary II Pegasi , to determine the star spot filling factor and the spot temperature parameters. In this context, we analyze 54 spectra of the system taken over 6 nights in September - October of 1996, using the 2.1m Otto Struve Telescope equipped with SES at the McDonald Observatory. We measure the spot temperatures and spot filling factors by fitting TiO molecular bands in this spectroscopic dataset, with model atmosphere approximation using ATLAS9 and with proxy stars obtained with the same instrument. The same dataset is then used to also produce surface spot maps using the Doppler imaging technique. We compare the spot filling factors obtained with the two independent techniques in order to better characterise the spot properties of the system and to better assess the limitations inherent to both techniques. The results obtained from both techniques show that the variation of spot filling factor as a function of phase agree well with each other, while the amount of TiO and DI spot

  8. Optimization of the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite II Global Imager channels by use of radiative transfer calculations.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, T Y; Nakajima, T; Nakajima, M; Fukushima, H; Kuji, M; Uchiyama, A; Kishino, M

    1998-05-20

    The channel specifications of the Global Imager onboard the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite II have been determined by extensive numerical experiments. The results show that there is an optimum feasible position for each ocean color channel. The bandwidth of the 0.763-microm channel should be less than 10 nm for good sensitivity to the cloud top height and geometric thickness of the cloud layer; a 40-nm bandwidth is suitable for the 1.38-microm channel to have the strongest contrast between cloudy and clear radiance with a sufficient radiant energy; and a 3.7-microm channel is better than a 3.95-microm channel for estimation of the sea surface temperature (SST) and determination of the cloud particle size when the bandwidth of the channel is 0.33 microm. A three-wavelength combination of 6.7, 7.3, and 7.5 microm is an optimized choice for water vapor profiling. The combination of 8.6, 10.8, and 12.0 microm is suitable for cloud microphysics and SST retrievals with the split-window technique.

  9. Theoretical Design and Material Growth of Type-II Antimonide-based Superlattices for Infrared Detection and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Binh-Minh

    dark current until the device performance is dominated by the surface component. The results of this thesis' work show that the design and material quality of bulk Type-II-superlattice is thus not a limiting factor for optimal device performance. Further employment of the M-structure superlattice has resulted in a novel device architecture called the pMp design. This novel device is a hybrid between conventional photoconductive and photovoltaic detectors. Profiting from the advantages of its parents' configurations, the pMp design has shown numerous advantageous for infrared detections such as low generation-recombination current, suppressed tunneling current, and reduced surface leakage while keeping high optical efficiency of the detectors based on long-diffusion-length minority electrons. This design can also be used as a simple architecture for bias-selectable dual color detection which is proven to mitigate the difficulties of both the material growth and the device fabrication. In addition to improving the performance of single element detectors, this work also contributed to the successful demonstration of focal plane arrays at the Center for Quantum Devices. For the first time, the polarity of Type-II photodiodes has been matched with the requirement of commercially available Read Out Integrated Circuits (ROICs) through the realization of n-type InAsSb This polarity matching has significantly improved the imaging quality because it allows the bias and carrier types to be correctly utilized. Furthermore, attempts on 3" in diameter superlattice growth wafer were made, which resulted in excellent material uniformity across the whole wafer. Finally, targetting "color" imaging, different sophisticated architectures for dual spectral detection were demonstrated, in which each channel exhibited similar performance as that of single element detectors. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  10. Horizontal flow fields observed in Hinode G-band images. II. Flow fields in the final stages of sunspot decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, M.; Balthasar, H.; Deng, N.; Liu, C.; Shimizu, T.; Wang, H.; Denker, C.

    2012-02-01

    Context. Generation and dissipation of magnetic fields is a fundamental physical process on the Sun. In comparison to flux emergence and the initial stages of sunspot formation, the demise of sunspots still lacks a comprehensive description. Aims: The evolution of sunspots is most commonly discussed in terms of their intensity and magnetic field. Here, we present additional information about the three-dimensional flow field in the vicinity of sunspots towards the end of their existence. Methods: We present a subset of multi-wavelengths observations obtained with the Japanese Hinode mission, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain during the time period 2010 November 18-23. Horizontal proper motions were derived from G-band and Ca ii H images, whereas line-of-sight velocities were extracted from VTT echelle Hα λ656.28 nm spectra and Fe i λ630.25 nm spectral data of the Hinode/Spectro-Polarimeter, which also provided three-dimensional magnetic field information. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board SDO provided continuum images and line-of-sight magnetograms, in addition to the high-resolution observations for the entire disk passage of the active region. Results: We perform a quantitative study of photospheric and chromospheric flow fields in and around decaying sunspots. In one of the trailing sunspots of active region NOAA 11126, we observe moat flow and moving magnetic features (MMFs), even after its penumbra had decayed. We also detect a superpenumbral structure around this pore. We find that MMFs follow well-defined, radial paths from the spot all the way to the border of a supergranular cell surrounding the spot. In contrast, flux emergence near the other sunspot prevents the establishment of similar well ordered flow patterns, which could be discerned around a tiny pore of merely 2 Mm diameter. After the disappearance of the sunspots/pores, a coherent patch of abnormal

  11. Cloud Fragmentation and Proplyd-like Features in H II Regions Imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, Orsola; O'Dell, C. R.; Gelfond, Pamela; Rubin, R. H.; Glover, S. C. O.

    2006-05-01

    We have analyzed Hubble Space Telescope ACS and WFPC2 new and archival images of eight H II regions to look for new protoplanetary disks (proplyds) similar to those found in the Orion Nebula. We find a wealth of features similar in size (although many are larger) to the bright cusps around the Orion Nebula proplyds. None of them, however, contains a definitive central star. From this, we deduce that the new cusps may not be proplyds but instead fragments of molecular cloud material. Out of all the features found in the eight H II regions examined, only one, an apparent edge-on silhouette in M17, may have a central star. This feature might join the small number of bona fide proplyds found outside the Orion Nebula, in M8, M20, and possibly M16. In line with the results found recently by Smith et al., the paucity of proplyds outside the Orion Nebula can be explained by their transient nature, as well as by the specific environmental conditions under which they can be observed. Several fragments are seen as dark silhouettes against a bright background. We have reanalyzed those found in IC 2944 by Reipurth et al. and found new, similar ones in M16. None of these fragments contains a central star, and we exclude the possibility that they are disks. Reipurth et al. concluded that the IC 2944 silhouettes are not star forming. We argue here that their assumption of a constant optical depth for these fragments is not physical and that it is more likely that these fragments are star forming, a condition that is supported, although not proved, by their shapes and distributions. The process of cloud fragmentation and photoevaporation produces a large number of small fragments, while the size hierarchy expected in a photoevaporative environment would not favor small fragments. The size distributions observed will constrain any future theories of cloud fragmentation. One bright microjet candidate is found in M17, protruding from a large, limb-brightened fragment. A second, larger

  12. Creating Single-Copy Genetic Circuits.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Wook; Gyorgy, Andras; Cameron, D Ewen; Pyenson, Nora; Choi, Kyeong Rok; Way, Jeffrey C; Silver, Pamela A; Del Vecchio, Domitilla; Collins, James J

    2016-07-21

    Synthetic biology is increasingly used to develop sophisticated living devices for basic and applied research. Many of these genetic devices are engineered using multi-copy plasmids, but as the field progresses from proof-of-principle demonstrations to practical applications, it is important to develop single-copy synthetic modules that minimize consumption of cellular resources and can be stably maintained as genomic integrants. Here we use empirical design, mathematical modeling, and iterative construction and testing to build single-copy, bistable toggle switches with improved performance and reduced metabolic load that can be stably integrated into the host genome. Deterministic and stochastic models led us to focus on basal transcription to optimize circuit performance and helped to explain the resulting circuit robustness across a large range of component expression levels. The design parameters developed here provide important guidance for future efforts to convert functional multi-copy gene circuits into optimized single-copy circuits for practical, real-world use. PMID:27425413

  13. In vivo imaging of oxidative stress in the kidney of diabetic mice and its normalization by angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker

    SciTech Connect

    Sonta, Toshiyo; Inoguchi, Toyoshi . E-mail: toyoshi@intmed3.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Matsumoto, Shingo; Yasukawa, Keiji; Inuo, Mieko; Tsubouchi, Hirotaka; Sonoda, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Utsumi, Hideo; Nawata, Hajime

    2005-05-06

    This study was undertaken to evaluate oxidative stress in the kidney of diabetic mice by electron spin resonance (ESR) imaging technique. Oxidative stress in the kidney was evaluated as organ-specific reducing activity with the signal decay rates of carbamoyl-PROXYL probe using ESR imaging. The signal decay rates were significantly faster in corresponding image pixels of the kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice than in those of controls. This technique further demonstrated that administration of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), olmesartan (5 mg/kg), completely restored the signal decay rates in the diabetic kidneys to control values. In conclusion, this study provided for the first time the in vivo evidence for increased oxidative stress in the kidneys of diabetic mice and its normalization by ARB as evaluated by ESR imaging. This technique would be useful as a means of further elucidating the role of oxidative stress in diabetic nephropathy.

  14. Spatial organization of RNA polymerase II inside a mammalian cell nucleus revealed by reflected light-sheet superresolution microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ziqing W.; Roy, Rahul; Gebhardt, J. Christof M.; Suter, David M.; Chapman, Alec R.; Xie, X. Sunney

    2014-01-01

    Superresolution microscopy based on single-molecule centroid determination has been widely applied to cellular imaging in recent years. However, quantitative imaging of the mammalian nucleus has been challenging due to the lack of 3D optical sectioning methods for normal-sized cells, as well as the inability to accurately count the absolute copy numbers of biomolecules in highly dense structures. Here we report a reflected light-sheet superresolution microscopy method capable of imaging inside the mammalian nucleus with superior signal-to-background ratio as well as molecular counting with single-copy accuracy. Using reflected light-sheet superresolution microscopy, we probed the spatial organization of transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) molecules and quantified their global extent of clustering inside the mammalian nucleus. Spatiotemporal clustering analysis that leverages on the blinking photophysics of specific organic dyes showed that the majority (>70%) of the transcription foci originate from single RNAP II molecules, and no significant clustering between RNAP II molecules was detected within the length scale of the reported diameter of “transcription factories.” Colocalization measurements of RNAP II molecules equally labeled by two spectrally distinct dyes confirmed the primarily unclustered distribution, arguing against a prevalent existence of transcription factories in the mammalian nucleus as previously proposed. The methods developed in our study pave the way for quantitative mapping and stoichiometric characterization of key biomolecular species deep inside mammalian cells. PMID:24379392

  15. Spatial organization of RNA polymerase II inside a mammalian cell nucleus revealed by reflected light-sheet superresolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ziqing W; Roy, Rahul; Gebhardt, J Christof M; Suter, David M; Chapman, Alec R; Xie, X Sunney

    2014-01-14

    Superresolution microscopy based on single-molecule centroid determination has been widely applied to cellular imaging in recent years. However, quantitative imaging of the mammalian nucleus has been challenging due to the lack of 3D optical sectioning methods for normal-sized cells, as well as the inability to accurately count the absolute copy numbers of biomolecules in highly dense structures. Here we report a reflected light-sheet superresolution microscopy method capable of imaging inside the mammalian nucleus with superior signal-to-background ratio as well as molecular counting with single-copy accuracy. Using reflected light-sheet superresolution microscopy, we probed the spatial organization of transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) molecules and quantified their global extent of clustering inside the mammalian nucleus. Spatiotemporal clustering analysis that leverages on the blinking photophysics of specific organic dyes showed that the majority (>70%) of the transcription foci originate from single RNAP II molecules, and no significant clustering between RNAP II molecules was detected within the length scale of the reported diameter of "transcription factories." Colocalization measurements of RNAP II molecules equally labeled by two spectrally distinct dyes confirmed the primarily unclustered distribution, arguing against a prevalent existence of transcription factories in the mammalian nucleus as previously proposed. The methods developed in our study pave the way for quantitative mapping and stoichiometric characterization of key biomolecular species deep inside mammalian cells.

  16. 15. Photographic copy englargement from a 4x5 copy negative (Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photographic copy englargement from a 4x5 copy negative (Original drawing located on abandoned NASA site, currently owned by the City of Downey, Downey, California). 1980 BLDG 10, BLDG 42 FLOOR PLAN, NASA MARCH 15 1980. - NASA Industrial Plant, Maintenance Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 14. Photographic copy englargement from a 4x5 copy negative (Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photographic copy englargement from a 4x5 copy negative (Original photograph by original photographer located on abandoned NASA site, currently owned by the City of Downey, Downey, California). AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH 1935-1936 CONSOLIDATED VULTEE AIRCRAFT CORPORATION FROM WEST TO EAST - NASA Industrial Plant, Maintenance Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 22. Photographic copy enlargement from a 4x5 copy negative of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photographic copy enlargement from a 4x5 copy negative of a print. (Original print located on abandoned NASA site, currently owned by the City of Downey, Downey, California). 1954 USAF PLANT 16 AERIAL BUILDING 41 NORTH TO SOUTH. - NASA Industrial Plant, Missile Research Laboratory, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 9. Photographic copy enlargement from a 4x5 copy negative. (Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photographic copy enlargement from a 4x5 copy negative. (Original drawing located on abandoned NASA site, currently owned by the City of Downey, Downey, California). 1976 BLDGS.25, 41 SITE PLAN. - NASA Industrial Plant, Storage Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 23. Photographic copy enlargement from a 4x5 copy negative of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photographic copy enlargement from a 4x5 copy negative of a drawing (Original drawing located on abandoned NASA site, currently owned by the City of Downey, Downey, Calfornia). JANUARY 1960 USAF PLANT 16 MASTER PLOT AND GRID PLAN. - NASA Industrial Plant, Missile Research Laboratory, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 43 CFR 4.437 - Copies of transcript.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies of transcript. 4.437 Section 4.437... Fact § 4.437 Copies of transcript. Each party shall pay for any copies of the transcript obtained by him. Unless a summary of the evidence is stipulated to, the Government will file the original copy...

  2. 22 CFR 1471.4 - Copies and service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Copies and service. 1471.4 Section 1471.4... SERVICE IMPASSE DISPUTES PANEL PROCEDURES OF THE PANEL § 1471.4 Copies and service. Any party submitting a... file an original and one copy with the Panel, shall serve a copy promptly on the other party to...

  3. 22 CFR 1423.6 - Filing and service of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Filing and service of copies. 1423.6 Section... LABOR PRACTICE PROCEEDINGS § 1423.6 Filing and service of copies. (a) An original and four (4) copies of the charge together with one copy for each additional charged party named shall be filed with...

  4. 7 CFR 46.42 - Copies of records; how obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copies of records; how obtained. 46.42 Section 46.42... REGULATIONS (OTHER THAN RULES OF PRACTICE) UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930 Copies of Records § 46.42 Copies of records; how obtained. Copies of records pertaining to licensees under the...

  5. 49 CFR 1310.6 - Furnishing copies of tariff publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnishing copies of tariff publications. 1310.6... REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.6 Furnishing copies of tariff publications. (a) Copies of... copies of tariff publications to interested persons. If a charge is made, the charge must be...

  6. 40 CFR 121.11 - Copies of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of documents. 121.11 Section....11 Copies of documents. (a) Upon receipt from an applicant of an application for a license or permit... copy of the application to the appropriate certifying agency and two copies to the...

  7. 33 CFR 401.94 - Keeping copies of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Keeping copies of regulations..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.94 Keeping copies of regulations. (a) A copy of these Regulations (subpart A of part 401), a copy of the vessel's valid...

  8. 22 CFR 1429.25 - Number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Number of copies. 1429.25 Section 1429.25... AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General Requirements § 1429.25 Number of copies. Unless otherwise provided by... therewith, shall be submitted in an original and four (4) copies. A clean copy capable of being used as...

  9. Luminescent Ruthenium(II) Complex Bearing Bipyridine and N-Heterocyclic Carbene-based C∧N∧C Pincer Ligand for Live-Cell Imaging of Endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Wai-Kuen; Chung, Lai-Hon; Wong, Matthew Man-Kin; Tsang, Wai-Him; Lo, Hoi-Shing; Liu, Yaxiang; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Chiu, Sung-Kay; Wong, Chun-Yuen

    2015-03-01

    Luminescent ruthenium(II)-cyanide complex with N-heterocyclic carbene pincer ligand C∧N∧C = 2,6-bis(1-butylimidazol-2-ylidene)pyridine and 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) shows minimal cytotoxicity to both human breast carcinoma cell (MCF-7) and human retinal pigmented epithelium cell (RPE) in a wide range of concentration (0.1-500 μM), and can be used for the luminescent imaging of endocytosis of the complex in these cells.

  10. Using copy milling technology in restorative dentistry.

    PubMed

    McLaren, E A

    1997-03-01

    A technique for the fabrication of copy milled ceramic restorations has been presented. Both direct and indirect fabrication techniques of inlays, onlays, veneers, and crowns are possible. A copy milling machine can mill accurately fitting restorations with a marginal gap of 50 microns. The machine uses premanufactured porcelain blanks, which have improved physical properties over conventional porcelains used in standard techniques. Recently, the ability to mill In-Ceram crowns from presintered alumina blocks and Spinell crowns from alumina/magnesia blocks has been added to the system. The copings are veneered with aluminous porcelain as in the conventional In-Ceram technique.

  11. Image understanding and the man-machine interface II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 17, 18, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, E.B.; Pearson, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Image understanding concepts and models, image understanding systems and applications, advanced digital processors and software tools, and advanced man-machine interfaces are among the topics discussed. Particular papers are presented on such topics as neural networks for computer vision, object-based segmentation and color recognition in multispectral images, the application of image algebra to image measurement and feature extraction, and the integration of modeling and graphics to create an infrared signal processing test bed.

  12. The Effects of Answer Copying on the Ability Level Estimates of Cheater Examinees in Answer Copying Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zopluoglu, Cengiz; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of answer copying on the ability level estimates of cheater examinees in answer copying pairs. The study generated answer copying pairs for each of 1440 conditions, source ability (12) x cheater ability (12) x amount of copying (10). The average difference between the ability level estimates…

  13. Architecture For An Image Filing And Indexing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, Stanley N.; Paoni, Robert A.; Robeson, Glenn H.

    1986-06-01

    We are developing an in-house Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) targeted to the centralized storage of images acquired from our computer-assisted imaging modalities and to the display of these images on multi-modality viewing stations. The central image database is distributed between two system modules with image processing capabilities located at the viewing stations. The first module of the image database is an image filing subsystem used for the storage and retrieval of complete image files. In our initial work, this module consists of a Data General MV/6000 computer system with 1.16 Gbytes of on-line disk storage. However, more efficient dedicated filing systems may be substituted for this general purpose computer in future revisions. The second module is an image file indexing subsystem which has been implemented on a DEC PDP-11/44 computer and is tightly integrated with our MARS II (ADAC Laboratories) Radiology Information System. These two image database modules communicate via low-speed, serial communications lines. This report focuses on our developmental work on the image file indexing subsystem and its communications protocol with the image filing subsystem. The image file indexing subsystem automatically inserts image file locators for studies referenced by patient when an image is transmitted from the acquisition device (eg, CT) to the image filing subsystem. It also locates image files at the request of a viewing station user based on patient name, physician name, or study type for either read or unread studies. Other capabilities include cross-referencing patient attributes with the MARS II system, deleting studies based on predefined criteria, storing requests for hard copy, storing user selected image processing attributes for individual images, flagging the archival status of an image, and complete managerial functions. This central-ized image filing and indexing system comprises what will become the central element of our PACS.

  14. Ribosomal DNA and Stellate gene copy number variation on the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Lyckegaard, E M; Clark, A G

    1989-01-01

    Multigene families on the Y chromosome face an unusual array of evolutionary forces. Both ribosomal DNA and Stellate, the two families examined here, have multiple copies of similar sequences on the X and Y chromosomes. Although the rate of sequence divergence on the Y chromosome depends on rates of mutation, gene conversion and exchange with the X chromosome, as well as purifying selection, the regulation of gene copy number may also depend on other pleiotropic functions, such as maintenance of chromosome pairing. Gene copy numbers were estimated for a series of 34 Y chromosome replacement lines using densitometric measurements of slot blots of genomic DNA from adult Drosophila melanogaster. Scans of autoradiographs of the same blots probed with the cloned alcohol dehydrogenase gene, a single copy gene, served as internal standards. Copy numbers span a 6-fold range for ribosomal DNA and a 3-fold range for Stellate DNA. Despite this magnitude of variation, there was no association between copy number and segregation variation of the sex chromosomes. Images PMID:2494656

  15. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) mapping of single copy genes on Trichomonas vaginalis chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Zubáčová, Zuzana; Krylov, Vladimír; Tachezy, Jan

    2011-04-01

    The highly repetitive nature of the Trichomonas vaginalis genome and massive expansion of various gene families has caused difficulties in genome assembly and has hampered genome mapping. Here, we adapted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for T. vaginalis, which is sensitive enough to detect single copy genes on metaphase chromosomes. Sensitivity of conventional FISH, which did not allow single copy gene detection in T. vaginalis, was increased by means of tyramide signal amplification. Two selected single copy genes, coding for serine palmitoyltransferase and tryptophanase, were mapped to chromosome I and II, respectively, and thus could be used as chromosome markers. This established protocol provides an amenable tool for the physical mapping of the T. vaginalis genome and other essential applications, such as development of genetic markers for T. vaginalis genotyping. PMID:21195113

  16. Copyright & Home Copying. Technology Challenges the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Home recording technologies allow today's consumer to make near-perfect copies of recorded music, television shows, movies, and other copyrighted works for private use at home. With the advance of digital recording equipment, consumers will be able to reproduce these copyrighted works with even greater accuracy. This is an issue of great concern…

  17. 36 CFR 703.20 - File copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 703.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS DISCLOSURE OR PRODUCTION OF RECORDS OR INFORMATION Testimony by Employees and Production of Documents in Certain Legal Proceedings Where the Library... file of copies of all demands served on the Library and deciding officials' responses....

  18. 36 CFR 703.20 - File copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 703.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS DISCLOSURE OR PRODUCTION OF RECORDS OR INFORMATION Testimony by Employees and Production of Documents in Certain Legal Proceedings Where the Library... file of copies of all demands served on the Library and deciding officials' responses....

  19. 36 CFR 703.20 - File copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 703.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS DISCLOSURE OR PRODUCTION OF RECORDS OR INFORMATION Testimony by Employees and Production of Documents in Certain Legal Proceedings Where the Library... file of copies of all demands served on the Library and deciding officials' responses....

  20. Do Scribes Learn? Copying and Information Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Joy H.; Streitenberger, Denise C.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses two field studies that observed the behavior of 11th-grade students as they used reference sources to write research papers. Topics include plagiarism, citing sources correctly, paraphrasing, and the intervention role of the teacher of information skills and composition. Examples of copying are appended. (Author/LRW)

  1. Copy to contiguous example using C descriptor

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, Craig E

    2011-01-18

    In N1838-2 there is an example of how to use the CFI-cdesc-t type in a C implementation of a BIND (C) interface. This paper provides another example of using the CFI-cdesc-t type in C. This new example provides code to copy an array (possibly noncontiguous) into a contiguous buffer.

  2. Copy milling ceramic inlays from resin analogs: a practicable approach with the CELAY system.

    PubMed

    Eidenbenz, S; Lehner, C R; Schärer, P

    1994-01-01

    The CELAY system for producing ceramic inlays and onlays using a resin pattern and copy milling is described. The mechanism uses no electronic assistance or imaging. Two different resin patterns are used, and direct and indirect techniques are described. All internal and external surfaces are reproduced by the technique.

  3. COPI selectively drives maturation of the early Golgi

    DOE PAGES

    Papanikou, Effrosyni; Day, Kasey J.; Austin, Jotham; Glick, Benjamin S.

    2015-12-28

    COPI coated vesicles carry material between Golgi compartments, but the role of COPI in the secretory pathway has been ambiguous. Previous studies of thermosensitive yeast COPI mutants yielded the surprising conclusion that COPI was dispensable both for the secretion of certain proteins and for Golgi cisternal maturation. To revisit these issues, we optimized the anchor-away method, which allows peripheral membrane proteins such as COPI to be sequestered rapidly by adding rapamycin. Video fluorescence microscopy revealed that COPI inactivation causes an early Golgi protein to remain in place while late Golgi proteins undergo cycles of arrival and departure. These dynamics generatemore » partially functional hybrid Golgi structures that contain both early and late Golgi proteins, explaining how secretion can persist when COPI has been inactivated. Our findings suggest that cisternal maturation involves a COPI-dependent pathway that recycles early Golgi proteins, followed by multiple COPI-independent pathways that recycle late Golgi proteins.« less

  4. A DEEP NARROWBAND IMAGING SEARCH FOR C iv AND He ii EMISSION FROM Lyα BLOBS

    SciTech Connect

    Battaia, Fabrizio Arrigoni; Yang, Yujin; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Matsuda, Yuichi; Yamada, Toru; Hayashino, Tomoki

    2015-05-01

    We conduct a deep narrowband imaging survey of 13 Lyα blobs (LABs) located in the SSA22 proto-cluster at z ∼ 3.1 in the C iv and He ii emission lines in an effort to constrain the physical process powering the Lyα emission in LABs. Our observations probe down to unprecedented surface brightness (SB) limits of (2.1–3.4) × 10{sup −18} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} arcsec{sup −2} per 1 arcsec{sup 2} aperture (5σ) for the He ii λ1640 and C iv λ1549 lines, respectively. We do not detect extended He ii and C iv emission in any of the LABs, placing strong upper limits on the He ii/Lyα and C iv/Lyα line ratios, of 0.11 and 0.16, for the brightest two LABs in the field. We conduct detailed photoionization modeling of the expected line ratios and find that, although our data constitute the deepest ever observations of these lines, they are still not deep enough to rule out a scenario where the Lyα emission is powered by the ionizing radiation from an obscured active galactic nucleus. Our models can accommodate He ii/Lyα and C iv/Lyα ratios as low as ≃0.05 and ≃0.07, respectively, implying that one needs to reach SB as low as (1–1.5) × 10{sup −18} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} arcsec{sup −2} (at 5σ) in order to rule out a photoionization scenario. These depths will be achievable with the new generation of image-slicing integral field units such as the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on VLT and the Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI). We also model the expected He ii/Lyα and C iv/Lyα in a different scenario, where Lyα emission is powered by shocks generated in a large-scale superwind, but find that our observational constraints can only be met for shock velocities v{sub s} ≳ 250 km s{sup −1}, which appear to be in conflict with recent observations of quiescent kinematics in LABs.

  5. A Fluorescent Indicator for Imaging Lysosomal Zinc(II) with Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-Enhanced Photostability and a Narrow Band of Emission

    PubMed Central

    Sreenath, Kesavapillai; Yuan, Zhao; Allen, John R.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a strategy to transfer the zinc(II) sensitivity of a fluoroionophore with low photostability and a broad emission band to a bright and photostable fluorophore with a narrow emission band. The two fluorophores are covalently connected to afford an intramolecular Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) conjugate. The FRET donor in the conjugate is a zinc(II)-sensitive arylvinylbipyridyl fluoroionophore, the absorption and emission of which undergo bathochromic shifts upon zinc(II) coordination. When the FRET donor is excited, efficient intramolecular energy transfer occurs to result in the emission of the acceptor boron dipyrromethene (4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene or BODIPY) as a function of zinc(II) concentration. The broad emission band of the donor/zinc(II) complex is transformed into the strong, narrow emission band of the BODIPY acceptor in the FRET conjugates, which can be captured within the narrow emission window that is preferred for multicolor imaging experiments. In addition to competing with other nonradiative decay processes of the FRET donor, the rapid intramolecular FRET of the excited FRET-conjugate molecule protects the donor fluorophore from photobleaching, thus enhancing the photostability of the indicator. FRET conjugates 3 and 4 contain aliphatic amino groups, which selectively target lysosomes in mammalian cells. This subcellular localization preference was verified by using confocal fluorescence microscopy, which also shows the zinc(II)-enhanced emission of 3 and 4 in lysosomes. It was further shown using two-color structured illumination microscopy (SIM), which is capable of extending the lateral resolution over the Abbe diffraction limit by a factor of two, that the morpholino-functionalized compound 4 localizes in the interior of lysosomes, rather than anchoring on the lysosomal membranes, of live HeLa cells. PMID:25382395

  6. Active sensing without efference copy: referent control of perception.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Anatol G

    2016-09-01

    Although action and perception are different behaviors, they are likely to be interrelated, as implied by the notions of perception-action coupling and active sensing. Traditionally, it has been assumed that the nervous system directly preprograms motor commands required for actions and uses a copy of them called efference copy (EC) to also influence our senses. This review offers a critical analysis of the EC concept by identifying its limitations. An alternative to the EC concept is based on the experimentally confirmed notion that sensory signals from receptors are perceived relative to referent signals specified by the brain. These referents also underlie the control of motor actions by predetermining where, in the spatial domain, muscles can work without preprogramming how they should work in terms of motor commands or EC. This approach helps solve several problems of action and explain several sensory experiences, including position sense and the sense that the world remains stationary despite changes in its retinal image during eye or body motion (visual space constancy). The phantom limb phenomenon and other kinesthetic illusions are also explained within this framework. PMID:27306668

  7. Demonstration of digital radiographs by means of ink jet-printed paper copies: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kirkhorn, T; Kehler, M; Nilsson, J; Lyttkens, K; Andersson, B; Holmer, N G

    1992-11-01

    Different digital medical images have been printed on paper with a continuous ink jet printer, and the quality has been evaluated. The emphasis has been on digital chest radiographs from a computed radiography system. The ink jet printing technique is described as well as the handling of the image data from image source to printer. Different versions of paper prints and viewing conditions were compared to find the optimum alternative. The evaluation has been performed to maximize the quality of the paper images to make them conform with the corresponding film prints and monitor images as much as possible. The continuous ink jet technique offers high-quality prints on paper at a considerably lower cost per copy compared with the cost of a film print. With a future switch-over from diagnosing of digital images on film to diagnosing them on monitors, hard copies for demonstration purposes will occasionally be needed. This need can be filled by ink jet-printed paper copies.

  8. Late diagenetic indicators of buried oil and gas: II, Direct detection experiment at Cement and Garza oil fields, Oklahoma and Texas, using enhanced LANDSAT I and II images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donovan, Terrence J.; Termain, Patricia A.; Henry, Mitchell E.

    1979-01-01

    The Cement oil field, Oklahoma, was a test site for an experiment designed to evaluate LANDSAT's capability to detect an alteration zone in surface rocks caused by hydrocarbon microseepage. Loss of iron and impregnation of sandstone by carbonate cements and replacement of gypsum by calcite are the major alteration phenomena at Cement. The bedrock alterations are partially masked by unaltered overlying beds, thick soils, and dense natural and cultivated vegetation. Interpreters biased by detailed ground truth were able to map the alteration zone subjectively using a magnified, filtered, and sinusoidally stretched LANDSAT composite image; other interpreters, unbiased by ground truth data, could not duplicate that interpretation. Similar techniques were applied at a secondary test site (Garza oil field, Texas), where similar alterations in surface rocks occur. Enhanced LANDSAT images resolved the alteration zone to a biased interpreter and some individual altered outcrops could be mapped using higher resolution SKYLAB color and conventional black and white aerial photographs suggesting repeat experiments with LANDSAT C and D.

  9. The use of the decision tree technique and image cytometry to characterize aggressiveness in World Health Organization (WHO) grade II superficial transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Decaestecker, C; van Velthoven, R; Petein, M; Janssen, T; Salmon, I; Pasteels, J L; van Ham, P; Schulman, C; Kiss, R

    1996-03-01

    The aggressiveness of human bladder tumours can be assessed by means of various classification systems, including the one proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). According to the WHO classification, three levels of malignancy are identified as grades I (low), II (intermediate), and III (high). This classification system operates satisfactorily for two of the three grades in forecasting clinical progression, most grade I tumours being associated with good prognoses and most grade III with bad. In contrast, the grade II group is very heterogeneous in terms of their clinical behaviour. The present study used two computer-assisted methods to investigate whether it is possible to sub-classify grade II tumours: computer-assisted microscope analysis (image cytometry) of Feulgen-stained nuclei and the Decision Tree Technique. This latter technique belongs to the Supervised Learning Algorithm and enables an objective assessment to be made of the diagnostic value associated with a given parameter. The combined use of these two methods in a series of 292 superficial transitional cell carcinomas shows that it is possible to identify one subgroup of grade II tumours which behave clinically like grade I tumours and a second subgroup which behaves clinically like grade III tumours. Of the nine ploidy-related parameters computed by means of image cytometry [the DNA index (DI), DNA histogram type (DHT), and the percentages of diploid, hyperdiploid, triploid, hypertriploid, tetraploid, hypertetraploid, and polyploid cell nuclei], it was the percentage of hyperdiploid and hypertetraploid cell nuclei which enabled identification, rather than conventional parameters such as the DI or the DHT. PMID:8778332

  10. Gene copy number and cell cycle arrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Bhaswar; Bose, Indrani

    2006-03-01

    The cell cycle is an orderly sequence of events which ultimately lead to the division of a single cell into two daughter cells. In the case of DNA damage by radiation or chemicals, the damage checkpoints in the G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle are activated. This results in an arrest of the cell cycle so that the DNA damage can be repaired. Once this is done, the cell continues with its usual cycle of activity. We study a mathematical model of the DNA damage checkpoint in the G2 phase which arrests the transition from the G2 to the M (mitotic) phase of the cell cycle. The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays a key role in activating the pathways leading to cell cycle arrest in mammalian systems. If the DNA damage is severe, the p53 proteins activate other pathways which bring about apoptosis, i.e., programmed cell death. Loss of the p53 gene results in the proliferation of cells containing damaged DNA, i.e., in the growth of tumors which may ultimately become cancerous. There is some recent experimental evidence which suggests that the mutation of a single copy of the p53 gene (in the normal cell each gene has two identical copies) is sufficient to trigger the formation of tumors. We study the effect of reducing the gene copy number of the p53 and two other genes on cell cycle arrest and obtain results consistent with experimental observations.

  11. Finding-specific display presets for computed radiography soft-copy reading.

    PubMed

    Andriole, K P; Gould, R G; Webb, W R

    1999-05-01

    Much work has been done to optimize the display of cross-sectional modality imaging examinations for soft-copy reading (i.e., window/level tissue presets, and format presentations such as tile and stack modes, four-on-one, nine-on-one, etc). Less attention has been paid to the display of digital forms of the conventional projection x-ray. The purpose of this study is to assess the utility of providing presets for computed radiography (CR) soft-copy display, based not on the window/level settings, but on processing applied to the image optimized for visualization of specific findings, pathologies, etc (i.e., pneumothorax, tumor, tube location). It is felt that digital display of CR images based on finding-specific processing presets has the potential to: speed reading of digital projection x-ray examinations on soft copy; improve diagnostic efficacy; standardize display across examination type, clinical scenario, important key findings, and significant negatives; facilitate image comparison; and improve confidence in and acceptance of soft-copy reading. Clinical chest images are acquired using an Agfa-Gevaert (Mortsel, Belgium) ADC 70 CR scanner and Fuji (Stamford, CT) 9000 and AC2 CR scanners. Those demonstrating pertinent findings are transferred over the clinical picture archiving and communications system (PACS) network to a research image processing station (Agfa PS5000), where the optimal image-processing settings per finding, pathologic category, etc, are developed in conjunction with a thoracic radiologist, by manipulating the multiscale image contrast amplification (Agfa MUSICA) algorithm parameters. Soft-copy display of images processed with finding-specific settings are compared with the standard default image presentation for 50 cases of each category. Comparison is scored using a 5-point scale with the positive scale denoting the standard presentation is preferred over the finding-specific processing, the negative scale denoting the finding

  12. Fault systems of the 1971 San Fernando and 1994 Northridge earthquakes, southern California: Relocated aftershocks and seismic images from LARSE II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuis, G.S.; Clayton, R.W.; Davis, P.M.; Ryberg, T.; Lutter, W.J.; Okaya, D.A.; Hauksson, E.; Prodehl, C.; Murphy, J.M.; Benthien, M.L.; Baher, S.A.; Kohler, M.D.; Thygesen, K.; Simila, G.; Keller, Gordon R.

    2003-01-01

    We have constructed a composite image of the fault systems of the M 6.7 San Fernando (1971) and Northridge (1994), California, earthquakes, using industry reflection and oil test well data in the upper few kilometers of the crust, relocated aftershocks in the seismogenic crust, and LARSE II (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, Phase II) reflection data in the middle and lower crust. In this image, the San Fernando fault system appears to consist of a decollement that extends 50 km northward at a dip of ???25?? from near the surface at the Northridge Hills fault, in the northern San Fernando Valley, to the San Andreas fault in the middle to lower crust. It follows a prominent aseismic reflective zone below and northward of the main-shock hypocenter. Interpreted upward splays off this decollement include the Mission Hills and San Gabriel faults and the two main rupture planes of the San Fernando earthquake, which appear to divide the hanging wall into shingle- or wedge-like blocks. In contrast, the fault system for the Northridge earthquake appears simple, at least east of the LARSE II transect, consisting of a fault that extends 20 km southward at a dip of ???33?? from ???7 km depth beneath the Santa Susana Mountains, where it abuts the interpreted San Fernando decollement, to ???20 km depth beneath the Santa Monica Mountains. It follows a weak aseismic reflective zone below and southward of the mainshock hypocenter. The middle crustal reflective zone along the interpreted San Fernando decollement appears similar to a reflective zone imaged beneath the San Gabriel Mountains along the LARSE I transect, to the east, in that it appears to connect major reverse or thrust faults in the Los Angeles region to the San Andreas fault. However, it differs in having a moderate versus a gentle dip and in containing no mid-crustal bright reflections.

  13. Fault systems of the 1971 San Fernando and 1994 Northridge earthquakes, southern California: Relocated aftershocks and seismic images from LARSE II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuis, Gary S.; Clayton, Robert W.; Davis, Paul M.; Ryberg, Trond; Lutter, William J.; Okaya, David A.; Hauksson, Egill; Prodehl, Claus; Murphy, Janice M.; Benthien, Mark L.; Baher, Shirley A.; Kohler, Monica D.; Thygesen, Kristina; Simila, Gerry; Keller, G. Randy

    2003-02-01

    We have constructed a composite image of the fault systems of the M 6.7 San Fernando (1971) and Northridge (1994), California, earthquakes, using industry reflection and oil test well data in the upper few kilometers of the crust, relocated aftershocks in the seismogenic crust, and LARSE II (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, Phase II) reflection data in the middle and lower crust. In this image, the San Fernando fault system appears to consist of a decollement that extends 50 km northward at a dip of ˜25° from near the surface at the Northridge Hills fault, in the northern San Fernando Valley, to the San Andreas fault in the middle to lower crust. It follows a prominent aseismic reflective zone below and northward of the main-shock hypocenter. Interpreted upward splays off this decollement include the Mission Hills and San Gabriel faults and the two main rupture planes of the San Fernando earthquake, which appear to divide the hanging wall into shingle- or wedge-like blocks. In contrast, the fault system for the Northridge earthquake appears simple, at least east of the LARSE II transect, consisting of a fault that extends 20 km southward at a dip of ˜33° from ˜7 km depth beneath the Santa Susana Mountains, where it abuts the interpreted San Fernando decollement, to ˜20 km depth beneath the Santa Monica Mountains. It follows a weak aseismic reflective zone below and southward of the main-shock hypocenter. The middle crustal reflective zone along the interpreted San Fernando decollement appears similar to a reflective zone imaged beneath the San Gabriel Mountains along the LARSE I transect, to the east, in that it appears to connect major reverse or thrust faults in the Los Angeles region to the San Andreas fault. However, it differs in having a moderate versus a gentle dip and in containing no mid-crustal bright reflections.

  14. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...

  15. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...

  16. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...

  17. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...

  18. A Simulation Model for Purchasing Duplicate Copies in a Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arms, W. Y.; Walter, T. P.

    1974-01-01

    A method of estimating the number of duplicate copies of books needed based on a computer simulation which takes into account number of copies available, number of loans, total underlying demand, satisfaction level, percentage time on shelf. (LS)

  19. 13. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF HISTORIC POSTCARD, THE HOSE FIGHT, HOMECOMING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF HISTORIC POSTCARD, THE HOSE FIGHT, HOMECOMING, 1911 (Original copy in possession of Mrs. Elizabeth C. Arnesi) - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Grand River at Bridge Street, Portland, Ionia County, MI

  20. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...

  1. 40 CFR 262.22 - Number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.22 Number of copies. The manifest consists of at least the number of copies which will provide the generator, each transporter, and the owner... returned to the generator....

  2. 40 CFR 262.22 - Number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.22 Number of copies. The manifest consists of at least the number of copies which will provide the generator, each transporter, and the owner... returned to the generator....

  3. 40 CFR 262.22 - Number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.22 Number of copies. The manifest consists of at least the number of copies which will provide the generator, each transporter, and the owner... returned to the generator....

  4. 40 CFR 262.22 - Number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.22 Number of copies. The manifest consists of at least the number of copies which will provide the generator, each transporter, and the owner... returned to the generator....

  5. 40 CFR 262.22 - Number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.22 Number of copies. The manifest consists of at least the number of copies which will provide the generator, each transporter, and the owner... returned to the generator....

  6. To copy or not to copy: A compile-time technique for assessing when data copying should be used to eliminate cache conflicts

    SciTech Connect

    Temam, O.; Granston, E.D.; Jalby, W.

    1993-12-31

    In recent years, loop tiling has become an increasingly popular technique for increasing cache effectiveness. This is accomplished by transforming a loop nest so that the temporal and spatial locality can be better exploited for a given cache size. However, this optimization only targets the reduction of capacity misses. As recently demonstrated by several groups of researchers, conflict misses can still preclude effective cache utilization. Moreover, the severity of cache conflicts can vary greatly with slight variations in problem size and starting addresses, making performance difficult to even predict, let alone optimize. To reduce conflict misses, data copying has been proposed. With this technique, data layout in cache is adjusted by copying array tiles into temporary arrays that exhibit better cache behavior. Although copying has been proposed as the panacea to the problem of cache conflicts, this solution experiences a cost proportional to the amount of data being copied. To date, there has been no discussion regarding either this tradeoff or the problem of determining what and when to copy. In this paper, the authors present a compile-time technique for making this determination, and present a selective copying strategy based on this methodology. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that, because of the sensitivity of cache conflicts to small changes in problem size and base addresses, selective copying can lead to better overall performance than either no copying, complete copying, or copying based on manually applied heuristics.

  7. Laser Detection Of Latent Fingerprints: Tris(2,2'-Bipyridyl)Ruthenium(II) Chloride Hexahydrate As A Staining Dye For Time-Resolved Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, E. R.

    1988-04-01

    The compound tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chloride hexahydrate is suitable for laser detection of latent fingerprints on difficult surfaces such as wood and masking tape, as well as surfaces such as polyethylene, metal, etc. The fingerprint treatment can Involve either dusting with powder blended with this compound or by solution staining. The compound displays a strong d-n phosphorescence with a lifetime of about 10-6 and is thus very well suited for time-resolved imaging to suppress background fluorescence.

  8. Synthesis and spectroscopic evaluation of PbS quantum dots emitting at 1300 nm for optimized imaging in optical window II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydt, Alexander P.; Blair, Shane; Zhang, Hairong; Chernomordik, Boris D.; Beard, Matthew C.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.

    2016-03-01

    Contrast agents for optical imaging have traditionally been designed for the near-infrared (NIR) spectral range (700-900 nm, Optical Window I) where absorption and scattering of tissue are relatively low. Recently, another window beyond 1000 nm has been discovered known as Optical Window II or the extended Near Infrared (exNIR) with improved transparency. In this work, we present a method to synthesize quantum dots emitting at 1300 nanometers, the optimal wavelength. The quantum dots were synthesized in organic solvents, and a method of transforming them into water is discussed. Optical characterizations including absolute quantum yield and the fluorescence lifetime are presented.

  9. Luminescent Ruthenium(II) Complex Bearing Bipyridine and N-Heterocyclic Carbene-based C∧N∧C Pincer Ligand for Live-Cell Imaging of Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Wai-Kuen; Chung, Lai-Hon; Wong, Matthew Man-Kin; Tsang, Wai-Him; Lo, Hoi-Shing; Liu, Yaxiang; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Chiu, Sung-Kay; Wong, Chun-Yuen

    2015-01-01

    Luminescent ruthenium(II)-cyanide complex with N-heterocyclic carbene pincer ligand C∧N∧C = 2,6-bis(1-butylimidazol-2-ylidene)pyridine and 2,2′-bipyridine (bpy) shows minimal cytotoxicity to both human breast carcinoma cell (MCF-7) and human retinal pigmented epithelium cell (RPE) in a wide range of concentration (0.1–500 μM), and can be used for the luminescent imaging of endocytosis of the complex in these cells. PMID:25765974

  10. 42 CFR 456.612 - Copies of reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies of reports. 456.612 Section 456.612 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Institutions for Mental Diseases § 456.612 Copies of reports. The agency must send a copy of each...

  11. 27 CFR 18.64 - Photographic copies of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Photographic copies of records. 18.64 Section 18.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Reports § 18.64 Photographic copies of records. Proprietors may record, copy, or reproduce...

  12. 27 CFR 31.192 - Photographic copies of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Photographic copies of records. 31.192 Section 31.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Records and Files § 31.192 Photographic copies of records. (a) General. Dealers may record, copy,...

  13. 27 CFR 22.165 - Photographic copies of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Photographic copies of records. 22.165 Section 22.165 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Transactions § 22.165 Photographic copies of records. (a) General. Permittees may record, copy, or...

  14. 49 CFR 390.31 - Copies of records or documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... retention period. (b) To be acceptable in lieu of original records, photographic copies of records must meet the following minimum requirements: (1) Photographic copies shall be no less readily accessible than... facilities shall be available to locate, identify, read, and reproduce such photographic copies. (2)...

  15. 27 CFR 19.725 - Photographic copies of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Photographic copies of records. 19.725 Section 19.725 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Photographic copies of records. (a) Application. Proprietors who desire to record, copy or reproduce...

  16. 27 CFR 20.268 - Photographic copies of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Photographic copies of records. 20.268 Section 20.268 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Reports § 20.268 Photographic copies of records. (a) General. Permittees may record, copy, or...

  17. Syllables as Functional Units in a Copying Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Sonia; Valdois, Sylviane

    2006-01-01

    This research used a copying task to study spelling acquisition from a perception and action perspective. First to fifth graders copied words and pseudo-words on a digitiser. Simultaneously, a camera registered the children's gaze lifts. First and second graders copied the first syllable and then produced a gaze lift to obtain information on the…

  18. Readability as a Factor in Magazine Ad Copy Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the relationship between advertising copy readability and advertising effectiveness. Finds that recall is improved when the copy style is either fairly easy or fairly hard to read. Suggests the value of considering copy readability as a potential contributor, though a minor one, to the success of magazine advertising. (RS)

  19. 1 CFR 18.1 - Original and copies required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Original and copies required. 18.1 Section 18.1... PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION AND TRANSMITTAL OF DOCUMENTS GENERALLY § 18.1 Original and copies... two duplicate originals or certified copies. 1 However, if the document is printed or processed...

  20. 1 CFR 18.1 - Original and copies required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Original and copies required. 18.1 Section 18.1... PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION AND TRANSMITTAL OF DOCUMENTS GENERALLY § 18.1 Original and copies... two duplicate originals or certified copies. 1 However, if the document is printed or processed...

  1. 1 CFR 18.1 - Original and copies required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Original and copies required. 18.1 Section 18.1... PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION AND TRANSMITTAL OF DOCUMENTS GENERALLY § 18.1 Original and copies... two duplicate originals or certified copies. 1 However, if the document is printed or processed...

  2. 75 FR 4031 - Streamlining Hard-Copy Postage Statement Processing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... 111 Streamlining Hard-Copy Postage Statement Processing AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Proposed... Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM ), to reflect changes in the processing of hard-copy postage... complete the ``USPS Use Only'' section of, or round date, hard-copy postage statements...

  3. 47 CFR 3.25 - Number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Number of copies. 3.25 Section 3.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL AUTHORIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF ACCOUNTING... copies. One original and one copy of FCC Form 44, “Application For Certification As An...

  4. 7 CFR 1200.12 - Copies of the transcript.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copies of the transcript. 1200.12 Section 1200.12... Governing Proceedings To Formulate and Amend an Order § 1200.12 Copies of the transcript. (a) During the period in which the proceeding has an active status in the Department, a copy of the transcript...

  5. 26 CFR 601.525 - Certification of copies of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification of copies of documents. 601.525... Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.525 Certification of copies of documents. The provisions of paragraph (e) of § 601.504 with respect to certification of copies are applicable to a power...

  6. 46 CFR 67.539 - Copies of instruments and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Fees § 67.539 Copies of instruments and documents. The fee charged for furnishing a copy of any instrument or document is calculated in the same manner as described in 49 CFR 7.95. ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies of instruments and documents. 67.539 Section...

  7. 40 CFR 374.5 - Copy of complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copy of complaint. 374.5 Section 374.5... COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS § 374.5 Copy of complaint. At the time of filing an action under this Act, the plaintiff must provide a copy of the complaint to the...

  8. 47 CFR 78.67 - Copies of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies of rules. 78.67 Section 78.67... SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.67 Copies of rules. The licensee of a CARS station shall have a current copy of this part 78, and, in cases where aeronautical obstruction marking of antennas...

  9. 7 CFR 46.8 - Copies of licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copies of licenses. 46.8 Section 46.8 Agriculture... THAN RULES OF PRACTICE) UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930 Licenses § 46.8 Copies of licenses. Copies of licenses may be issued upon request and upon the payment of a fee of...

  10. 18 CFR 385.1904 - Copies of transcripts (Rule 1904).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copies of transcripts... § 385.1904 Copies of transcripts (Rule 1904). The Commission will cause to be made a stenographic record of public hearings and such copies of the transcript thereof as it requires for its own...

  11. 12 CFR 269b.730 - Number of copies; form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Number of copies; form. 269b.730 Section 269b... SYSTEM CHARGES OF UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICES General Rules § 269b.730 Number of copies; form. Except as... copies in addition to the original. All matters filed shall be printed, typed, or otherwise...

  12. 7 CFR 900.11 - Copies of the transcript.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copies of the transcript. 900.11 Section 900.11....11 Copies of the transcript. (a) During the period in which the proceeding has an active status in the Department, a copy of the transcript and exhibits shall be kept on file in the office of...

  13. 45 CFR 1309.40 - Copies of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies of documents. 1309.40 Section 1309.40 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... § 1309.40 Copies of documents. Certified copies of the deed, lease, loan instrument, mortgage, and...

  14. 44 CFR 5.85 - Authentication and attestation of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... attestation of copies. 5.85 Section 5.85 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT... Authentication and attestation of copies. The Administrator, Deputy Administrators, Regional Administrators... name of the Administrator to authenticate and attest for copies or reproductions of...

  15. 5 CFR 2423.6 - Filing and service of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing and service of copies. 2423.6..., Investigating, Resolving, and Acting on Charges § 2423.6 Filing and service of copies. (a) Where to file. A... Charging Party is not required to file an original copy of the charge with the Region. A Charging...

  16. 40 CFR 264.53 - Copies of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of contingency plan. 264.53 Section 264.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.53 Copies of contingency plan. A copy of the contingency...

  17. 37 CFR 360.5 - Copies of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of claims. 360.5... § 360.5 Copies of claims. A claimant shall, for each claim submitted to the Copyright Royalty Board by hand delivery or by mail, file an original and one copy of the claim to cable royalty fees....

  18. 45 CFR 2106.4 - Requests for copies of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requests for copies of records. 2106.4 Section... FOR COMPLIANCE WITH 5 U.S.C. 552a, THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 2106.4 Requests for copies of records. Rules governing requests for copies of records are the same as those for the granting of access to...

  19. 40 CFR 51.281 - Copies of rules and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of rules and regulations. 51.281... Requirements § 51.281 Copies of rules and regulations. Emission limitations and other measures necessary for... requirements of subpart L must be adopted as rules and regulations enforceable by the State agency. Copies...

  20. 34 CFR 5.52 - Copies of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of records. 5.52 Section 5.52 Education Office.... L. 90-23 (Eff. until 7-14-10) Procedures for Requesting Access to Records § 5.52 Copies of records. Copies of available records shall be produced as promptly as possible upon receipt of the fee...

  1. 33 CFR 88.05 - Copy of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copy of rules. 88.05 Section 88... RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.05 Copy of rules. The operator of each self-propelled vessel 12 meters or more in length shall carry on board and maintain for ready reference a copy of the...

  2. 19 CFR 210.55 - Content of service copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Content of service copies. 210.55 Section 210.55... TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.55 Content of service copies. (a) Any purported confidential business information that is deleted from the nonconfidential service copies of...

  3. 27 CFR 478.95 - Certified copy of license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified copy of license... Conduct of Business § 478.95 Certified copy of license. The license furnished to each person licensed... the licensee desires an additional copy of the license for certification (instead of making...

  4. 47 CFR 95.673 - Copy of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copy of rules. 95.673 Section 95.673... SERVICES Technical Regulations Additional Certification Requirements for Cb Transmitters § 95.673 Copy of rules. A copy of part 95, subpart D, of the FCC Rules, current at the time of packing of the...

  5. 40 CFR 35.935-10 - Copies of contract documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of contract documents. 35.935-10... Copies of contract documents. In addition to the notification of project changes under § 30.900 of this chapter, a grantee must promptly submit to the Regional Administrator a copy of any prime contract...

  6. 49 CFR 1312.13 - Furnishing copies of tariff publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with 49 CFR 1312.13 has been made. (d) Charges. (1) If any charge is made, the charge for copies of... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnishing copies of tariff publications. 1312.13... CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.13 Furnishing copies of tariff publications....

  7. 47 CFR 1.356 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies of exhibits. 1.356 Section 1.356....356 Copies of exhibits. No document or exhibit, or part thereof, shall be received as, or admitted in... offered in evidence, copies shall be furnished to other counsel unless the presiding officer...

  8. 37 CFR 360.14 - Copies of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of claims. 360.14... Claims § 360.14 Copies of claims. A claimant shall, for each claim submitted to the Copyright Royalty Board by hand delivery or by mail, file an original and one copy of the claim to satellite...

  9. 29 CFR 1905.7 - Form of documents; subscription; copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Form of documents; subscription; copies. 1905.7 Section...; subscription; copies. (a) No particular form is prescribed for applications and other papers which may be filed.... An original and six copies of any application or other papers shall be filed. The original shall...

  10. 46 CFR 502.168 - Copies of data or evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies of data or evidence. 502.168 Section 502.168... Hearings; Presiding Officers; Evidence § 502.168 Copies of data or evidence. Every person compelled to submit data or evidence shall be entitled to retain or, on payment of proper costs, procure a copy...

  11. 33 CFR 72.01-40 - Single copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Single copies. 72.01-40 Section 72.01-40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION MARINE INFORMATION Notices to Mariners § 72.01-40 Single copies. Single copies of the “Notice...

  12. 49 CFR 1001.2 - Certified copies of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certified copies of records. 1001.2 Section 1001.2... OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF RECORDS § 1001.2 Certified copies of records. Copies of and extracts from public records will be certified by the Records Officer....

  13. 30 CFR 47.72 - Cost for copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost for copies. 47.72 Section 47.72 Mineral... COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Making HazCom Information Available § 47.72 Cost for copies. (a) The operator must provide the first copy and each revision of the HazCom material without cost. (b) Fees for a...

  14. 47 CFR 78.67 - Copies of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Copies of rules. 78.67 Section 78.67 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.67 Copies of rules. The licensee of a CARS station shall have a current copy of this part 78, and,...

  15. 47 CFR 78.67 - Copies of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Copies of rules. 78.67 Section 78.67 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.67 Copies of rules. The licensee of a CARS station shall have a current copy of this part 78, and,...

  16. 47 CFR 78.67 - Copies of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Copies of rules. 78.67 Section 78.67 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.67 Copies of rules. The licensee of a CARS station shall have a current copy of this part 78, and,...

  17. 47 CFR 78.67 - Copies of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Copies of rules. 78.67 Section 78.67 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.67 Copies of rules. The licensee of a CARS station shall have a current copy of this part 78, and,...

  18. 18 CFR 33.8 - Number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Number of copies. 33.8 Section 33.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... Number of copies. An original and eight copies of the application under this part must be submitted....

  19. 1 CFR 18.1 - Original and copies required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Original and copies required. 18.1 Section 18.1... PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION AND TRANSMITTAL OF DOCUMENTS GENERALLY § 18.1 Original and copies... two duplicate originals or certified copies. 1 However, if the document is printed or processed...

  20. 1 CFR 18.1 - Original and copies required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original and copies required. 18.1 Section 18.1... PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION AND TRANSMITTAL OF DOCUMENTS GENERALLY § 18.1 Original and copies... two duplicate originals or certified copies. 1 However, if the document is printed or processed...

  1. Filtering Chromatic Aberration for Wide Acceptance Angle Electrostatic Lenses II--Experimental Evaluation and Software-Based Imaging Energy Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Fazekas, Ádám; Daimon, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Tóth, László

    2016-03-01

    Here, the experimental results of the method of filtering the effect of chromatic aberration for wide acceptance angle electrostatic lens-based system are described. This method can eliminate the effect of chromatic aberration from the images of a measured spectral image sequence by determining and removing the effect of higher and lower kinetic energy electrons on each different energy image, which leads to significant improvement of image and spectral quality. The method is based on the numerical solution of a large system of linear equations and equivalent with a multivariate strongly nonlinear deconvolution method. A matrix whose elements describe the strongly nonlinear chromatic aberration-related transmission function of the lens system acts on the vector of the ordered pixels of the distortion free spectral image sequence, and produces the vector of the ordered pixels of the measured spectral image sequence. Since the method can be applied not only on 2D real- and $k$ -space diffraction images, but also along a third dimension of the image sequence that is along the optical or in the 3D parameter space, the energy axis, it functions as a software-based imaging energy analyzer (SBIEA). It can also be applied in cases of light or other type of optics for different optical aberrations and distortions. In case of electron optics, the SBIEA method makes possible the spectral imaging without the application of any other energy filter. It is notable that this method also eliminates the disturbing background significantly in the present investigated case of reflection electron energy loss spectra. It eliminates the instrumental effects and makes possible to measure the real physical processes better. PMID:26863662

  2. Selective removal of natural occlusal caries by coupling near-infrared imaging with a CO II laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, You-Chen; Fried, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    Laser removal of dental hard tissue can be combined with optical, spectral or acoustic feedback systems to selectively ablate dental caries and restorative materials. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging has considerable potential for the optical discrimination of sound and demineralized tissue. Last year we successfully demonstrated that near-IR images can be used to guide a CO2 laser ablation system for the selective removal of artificial caries lesions on smooth surfaces. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that two-dimensional near-infrared images of natural occlusal caries can be used to guide a CO2 laser for selective removal. Two-dimensional NIR images were acquired at 1310-nm of extracted human molar teeth with occlusal caries. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) was also used to acquire depth-resolved images of the lesion areas. An imaging processing module was developed to analyze the NIR imaging output and generate optical maps that were used to guide a CO2 laser to selectively remove the lesions at a uniform depth. Post-ablation NIR images were acquired to verify caries removal. Based on the analysis of the NIR images, caries lesions were selectively removed with a CO2 laser while sound tissues were conserved. However, the removal rate varied markedly with the severity of decay and multiple passes were required for caries removal. These initial results are promising but indicate that the selective removal of natural caries is more challenging than the selective removal of artificial lesions due to varying tooth geometry, the highly variable organic/mineral ratio in natural lesions and more complicated lesion structure.

  3. Emotion regulation deficits in euthymic bipolar I versus bipolar II disorder: a functional and diffusion-tensor imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Caseras, Xavier; Murphy, Kevin; Lawrence, Natalia S; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Watts, Jessica; Jones, Derek K; Phillips, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Emotion regulation deficits are a core feature of bipolar disorder. However, their potential neurobiological underpinnings and existence beyond bipolar I disorder remain unexplored. Our main goal was to investigate whether both individuals with bipolar I and bipolar II disorder show deficits in emotion regulation during an attention control task, and to explore the neurophysiological underpinnings of this potential deficit. Methods Twenty healthy controls, 16 euthymic participants with bipolar I disorder, and 19 euthymic participants with bipolar II disorder completed psychometric and clinical assessments, a neuroimaging emotion regulation paradigm, and an anatomical diffusion-weighted scan. Groups were matched for age, gender, and verbal IQ. Results During the presence of emotional distracters, subjects with bipolar I disorder showed slowed reaction times to targets, and increased blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the amygdala, accumbens, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, but not increased inverse functional connectivity between these prefrontal and subcortical areas, and altered white matter microstructure organization in the right uncinate fasciculus. Subjects with bipolar II disorder showed no altered reaction times, increased BOLD responses in the same brain areas, increased inverse functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, and no abnormalities in white matter organization. Conclusions Participants with bipolar I disorder showed abnormalities in functional and anatomical connectivity between prefrontal cortices and subcortical structures in emotion regulation circuitry. However, these deficits did not extend to subjects with bipolar II disorder, suggesting fundamental differences in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder subtypes. PMID:25771686

  4. Midrange affinity fluorescent Zn(II) sensors of the Zinpyr family: syntheses, characterization, and biological imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Elizabeth M; Jaworski, Jacek; Racine, Maryann E; Sheng, Morgan; Lippard, Stephen J

    2006-11-27

    The syntheses and photophysical characterization of ZP9, 2-{2-chloro-6-hydroxy-3-oxo-5-[(2-{[pyridin-2-ylmethyl-(1H-pyrrol-2-ylmethyl)amino]methyl}phenylamino)methyl]-3H-xanthen-9-yl}benzoic acid, and ZP10, 2-{2-chloro-6-hydroxy-5-[(2-{[(1-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-ylmethyl)pyridin-2-ylmethylamino]methyl}phenylamino)methyl]-3-oxo-3H-xanthen-9-yl}benzoic acid, two asymmetrically derivatized fluorescein-based dyes, are described. These sensors each contain an aniline-based ligand moiety functionalized with a pyridyl-amine-pyrrole group and have dissociation constants for Zn(II) in the sub-micromolar (ZP9) and low-micromolar (ZP10) range, which we define as "midrange". They give approximately 12- (ZP9) and approximately 7-fold (ZP10) fluorescence turn-on immediately following Zn(II) addition at neutral pH and exhibit improved selectivity for Zn(II) compared to the di-(2-picolyl)amine-based Zinpyr (ZP) sensors. Confocal microscopy studies indicate that such asymmetrical fluorescein-based probes are cell permeable and Zn(II) responsive in vivo.

  5. Haplotype Phasing and Inheritance of Copy Number Variants in Nuclear Families

    PubMed Central

    Palta, Priit; Kaplinski, Lauris; Nagirnaja, Liina; Veidenberg, Andres; Möls, Märt; Nelis, Mari; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Laan, Maris; Remm, Maido

    2015-01-01

    DNA copy number variants (CNVs) that alter the copy number of a particular DNA segment in the genome play an important role in human phenotypic variability and disease susceptibility. A number of CNVs overlapping with genes have been shown to confer risk to a variety of human diseases thus highlighting the relevance of addressing the variability of CNVs at a higher resolution. So far, it has not been possible to deterministically infer the allelic composition of different haplotypes present within the CNV regions. We have developed a novel computational method, called PiCNV, which enables to resolve the haplotype sequence composition within CNV regions in nuclear families based on SNP genotyping microarray data. The algorithm allows to i) phase normal and CNV-carrying haplotypes in the copy number variable regions, ii) resolve the allelic copies of rearranged DNA sequence within the haplotypes and iii) infer the heritability of identified haplotypes in trios or larger nuclear families. To our knowledge this is the first program available that can deterministically phase null, mono-, di-, tri- and tetraploid genotypes in CNV loci. We applied our method to study the composition and inheritance of haplotypes in CNV regions of 30 HapMap Yoruban trios and 34 Estonian families. For 93.6% of the CNV loci, PiCNV enabled to unambiguously phase normal and CNV-carrying haplotypes and follow their transmission in the corresponding families. Furthermore, allelic composition analysis identified the co-occurrence of alternative allelic copies within 66.7% of haplotypes carrying copy number gains. We also observed less frequent transmission of CNV-carrying haplotypes from parents to children compared to normal haplotypes and identified an emergence of several de novo deletions and duplications in the offspring. PMID:25853576

  6. Thinking beyond the block: block matching for copy-move forgery detection revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, Matthias; Schöttle, Pascal; Riess, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Detection of copy{move forgeries is one of the most actively researched topics in image forensics. It has been shown that so-called block-based methods give the highest pixel-wise accuracy for detecting copy{move forgeries. However, matching of block-based features can be computationally extremely demanding. Hence, the current predominant line of thought is that block-based algorithms are too slow to be applicable in practice. In this paper, we revisit the matching stage of block-based copy{move forgery detection methods. We propose an efficient approach for finding duplicate patterns of a given size in integer-valued input data. By design, we focus on the spatial relation of potentially duplicated elements. This allows us to locate copy{move forgeries via bit-wise operations, without expensive block comparisons in the feature space. Experimental investigation of different matching strategies shows that the proposed method has its benefits. However, on a broader scale, our experiments demonstrate that the performance of matching by lexicographic sorting might have been underestimated in previous work, despite its remarkable speed benefit on large images. In fact, in a practical setting, where accuracy and computational efficiency have to be balanced, lexicographic sorting may be considered the method of choice.

  7. Getting DNA copy numbers without control samples

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The selection of the reference to scale the data in a copy number analysis has paramount importance to achieve accurate estimates. Usually this reference is generated using control samples included in the study. However, these control samples are not always available and in these cases, an artificial reference must be created. A proper generation of this signal is crucial in terms of both noise and bias. We propose NSA (Normality Search Algorithm), a scaling method that works with and without control samples. It is based on the assumption that genomic regions enriched in SNPs with identical copy numbers in both alleles are likely to be normal. These normal regions are predicted for each sample individually and used to calculate the final reference signal. NSA can be applied to any CN data regardless the microarray technology and preprocessing method. It also finds an optimal weighting of the samples minimizing possible batch effects. Results Five human datasets (a subset of HapMap samples, Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), Ovarian, Prostate and Lung Cancer experiments) have been analyzed. It is shown that using only tumoral samples, NSA is able to remove the bias in the copy number estimation, to reduce the noise and therefore, to increase the ability to detect copy number aberrations (CNAs). These improvements allow NSA to also detect recurrent aberrations more accurately than other state of the art methods. Conclusions NSA provides a robust and accurate reference for scaling probe signals data to CN values without the need of control samples. It minimizes the problems of bias, noise and batch effects in the estimation of CNs. Therefore, NSA scaling approach helps to better detect recurrent CNAs than current methods. The automatic selection of references makes it useful to perform bulk analysis of many GEO or ArrayExpress experiments without the need of developing a parser to find the normal samples or possible batches within the data. The method is

  8. Predictability of visual perturbation during locomotion: implications for corrective efference copy signaling.

    PubMed

    Chagnaud, Boris P; Simmers, John; Straka, Hans

    2012-12-01

    In guiding adaptive behavior, efference copy signals or corollary discharge are traditionally considered to serve as predictors of self-generated sensory inputs and by interfering with their central processing are able to counter unwanted consequences of an animal's own actions. Here, in a speculative reflection on this issue, we consider a different functional role for such intrinsic predictive signaling, namely in stabilizing gaze during locomotion where resultant changes in head orientation in space require online compensatory eye movements in order to prevent retinal image slip. The direct activation of extraocular motoneurons by locomotor-related efference copies offers a prospective substrate for assisting self-motion derived sensory feedback, rather than being subtracted from the sensory signal to eliminate unwanted reafferent information. However, implementing such a feed-forward mechanism would be critically dependent on an appropriate phase coupling between rhythmic propulsive movement and resultant head/visual image displacement. We used video analyzes of actual locomotor behavior and basic theoretical modeling to evaluate head motion during stable locomotion in animals as diverse as Xenopus laevis tadpoles, teleost fish and horses in order to assess the potential suitability of spinal efference copies to the stabilization of gaze during locomotion. In all three species, and therefore regardless of aquatic or terrestrial environment, the head displacements that accompanied locomotor action displayed a strong correlative spatio-temporal relationship in correspondence with a potential predictive value for compensatory eye adjustments. Although spinal central pattern generator-derived efference copies offer appropriately timed commands for extraocular motor control during self-generated motion, it is likely that precise image stabilization requires the additional contributions of sensory feedback signals. Nonetheless, the predictability of the visual

  9. Toward in vivo diagnosis of skin cancer using multimode imaging dermoscopy: (II) molecular mapping of highly pigmented lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nicholas; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a multimode imaging dermoscope that combines polarization and hyperspectral imaging with a computationally rapid analytical model. This approach employs specific spectral ranges of visible and near infrared wavelengths for mapping the distribution of specific skin bio-molecules. This corrects for the melanin-hemoglobin misestimation common to other systems, without resorting to complex and computationally intensive tissue optical models that are prone to inaccuracies due to over-modeling. Various human skin measurements including a melanocytic nevus, and venous occlusion conditions were investigated and compared with other ratiometric spectral imaging approaches. Access to the broad range of hyperspectral data in the visible and near-infrared range allows our algorithm to flexibly use different wavelength ranges for chromophore estimation while minimizing melanin-hemoglobin optical signature cross-talk.

  10. Imaging the Moon II: Webcam CCD Observations and Analysis (a Two-Week Lab for Non-Majors)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.

    2014-07-01

    Imaging the Moon is a successful two-week lab involving real sky observations of the Moon in which students make telescopic observations and analyze their own images. Originally developed around the 35 mm film camera, a common household object adapted for astronomical work, the lab now uses webcams as film photography has evolved into an obscure specialty technology and increasing numbers of students have little familiarity with it. The printed circuit board with the CCD is harvested from a commercial webcam and affixed to a tube to mount on a telescope in place of an eyepiece. Image frames are compiled to form a lunar mosaic, and crater sizes are measured. Students also work through the logistical steps of telescope time assignment and scheduling. They learn to keep a schedule and work with uncertainties of weather in ways paralleling research observations. Because there is no need for a campus observatory, this lab can be replicated at a wide variety of institutions.

  11. Optimizing technology development and adoption in medical imaging using the principles of innovation diffusion, part II: practical applications.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2012-02-01

    Successful adoption of new technology development can be accentuated by learning and applying the scientific principles of innovation diffusion. This is of particular importance to areas within the medical imaging practice which have lagged in innovation; perhaps, the most notable of which is reporting which has remained relatively stagnant for over a century. While the theoretical advantages of structured reporting have been well documented throughout the medical imaging community, adoption to date has been tepid and largely relegated to the academic and breast imaging communities. Widespread adoption will likely require an alternative approach to innovation, which addresses the heterogeneity and diversity of the practicing radiologist community along with the ever-changing expectations in service delivery. The challenges and strategies for reporting innovation and adoption are discussed, with the goal of adapting and customizing new technology to the preferences and needs of individual end-users.

  12. Image

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, Amber; Harsch, Tim; Pitt, Julie; Firpo, Mike; Lekin, April; Pardes, Elizabeth

    2007-08-31

    The computer side of the IMAGE project consists of a collection of Perl scripts that perform a variety of tasks; scripts are available to insert, update and delete data from the underlying Oracle database, download data from NCBI's Genbank and other sources, and generate data files for download by interested parties. Web scripts make up the tracking interface, and various tools available on the project web-site (image.llnl.gov) that provide a search interface to the database.

  13. Multiple scattering of light in a spherical cometary atmosphere with an axisymmetric dust jet. II - Image simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chick, Kenneth M.; Gombosi, Tamas I.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical solution for the multiple light scattering in spherical axisymmetric geometry is applied to the simulation of images of a coma as it would appear to a near-flying satellite such as Giotto. The appearance of symmetric comas and dust jets is examined in detail; the nucleus visibility is studied; the effect of forward scattering is considered; and single and multiple scattering effects are quantified. Attention is given to simulated images of a coma with a hollow cone of dust, as predicted by dust-gas hydrodynamic modeling. The cone's appearance is very similar to the northern area of activity on Comet Halley, observed by the Giotto HMC.

  14. Morphology-dependent stimulated Raman scattering imaging. II. Experimental studies of solvent structure in the diffuse electric double layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-Xiang; Moortgat, Philip A.; Aker, Pamela M.

    1996-11-01

    Experimental confirmation that morphology-dependent stimulated Raman scattering can be used as an optical imaging technique is given. The water structure variations present at a charged water/air interface have been mapped. The measured structure variations track precisely that given by the Gouy-Chapman theory. We present, to our knowledge, the first experimental investigations of water solvent response in the diffuse part of the electric double layer. Imaging experiments on droplets charged to both positive and negative values have enabled us to determine the neutral water/air interface potential.

  15. Morphology-dependent stimulated Raman scattering imaging. II. Experimental studies of solvent structure in the diffuse electric double layer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Moortgat, P.A.; Aker, P.M.

    1996-11-01

    Experimental confirmation that morphology-dependent stimulated Raman scattering can be used as an optical imaging technique is given. The water structure variations present at a charged water/air interface have been mapped. The measured structure variations track precisely that given by the Gouy{endash}Chapman theory. We present, to our knowledge, the first experimental investigations of water solvent response in the diffuse part of the electric double layer. Imaging experiments on droplets charged to both positive and negative values have enabled us to determine the neutral water/air interface potential. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Dual charge-coupled device /CCD/, astronomical spectrometer and direct imaging camera. II - Data handling and control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, D.; Ricker, G. R.

    The data collection system for the MASCOT (MIT Astronomical Spectrometer/Camera for Optical Telescopes) is described. The system relies on an RCA 1802 microprocessor-based controller, which serves to collect and format data, to present data to a scan converter, and to operate a device communication bus. A NOVA minicomputer is used to record and recall frame images and to perform refined image processing. The RCA 1802 also provides instrument mode control for the MASCOT. Commands are issued using STOIC, a FORTH-like language. Sufficient flexibility has been provided so that a variety of CCDs can be accommodated.

  17. Copying Actions and Copying Outcomes: Social Learning through the Second Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The present work documents how the logic of a model's demonstration and the communicative cues that the model provides interact with age to influence how children engage in social learning. Children at ages 12, 18, and 24 months (n = 204) watched a model open a series of boxes. Twelve-month-old subjects only copied the specific actions of the…

  18. Imitation in Young Children: When Who Gets Copied Is More Important than What Gets Copied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Mark; Blank, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    Unlike other animals, human children will copy all of an adult's goal-directed actions, including ones that are clearly unnecessary for achieving the demonstrated goal. Here we highlight how social affiliation is key to this species-specific behavior. Preschoolers watched 2 adults retrieve a toy from a novel apparatus. One adult included…

  19. [Accelerated partial breast irradiation with image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy following breast-conserving surgery - preliminary results of a phase II clinical study].

    PubMed

    Mészáros, Norbert; Major, Tibor; Stelczer, Gábor; Zaka, Zoltán; Mózsa, Emõke; Fodor, János; Polgár, Csaba

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to implement accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) by means of image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for low-risk early invasive breast cancer. Between July 2011 and March 2014, 60 patients with low-risk early invasive (St I-II) breast cancer who underwent BCS were enrolled in our phase II prospective study. Postoperative APBI was given by means of step and shoot IG-IMRT using 4 to 5 fields to a total dose of 36.9 Gy (9×4.1 Gy) using a twice-a-day fractionation. Before each fraction, series of CT images were taken from the region of the target volume using a kV CT on-rail mounted in the treatment room. An image fusion software was used for automatic image registration of the planning and verification CT images. Patient set-up errors were detected in three directions (LAT, LONG, VERT), and inaccuracies were adjusted by automatic movements of the treatment table. Breast cancer related events, acute and late toxicities, and cosmetic results were registered and analysed. At a median follow-up of 24 months (range 12-44) neither locoregional nor distant failure was observed. Grade 1 (G1), G2 erythema, G1 oedema, and G1 and G2 pain occurred in 21 (35%), 2 (3.3%), 23 (38.3%), 6 (10%) and 2 (3.3%) patients, respectively. No G3-4 acute side effects were detected. Among late radiation side effects G1 pigmentation, G1 fibrosis, and G1 fat necrosis occurred in 5 (8.3%), 7 (11.7%), and 2 (3.3%) patients, respectively. No ≥G2 late toxicity was detected. Excellent and good cosmetic outcome was detected in 45 (75%) and 15 (25%) patients. IG-IMRT is a reproducible and feasible technique for the delivery of APBI following conservative surgery for the treatment of low-risk, early-stage invasive breast carcinoma. Preliminary results are promising, early radiation side effects are minimal, and cosmetic results are excellent. PMID:26035158

  20. Conditionally Amplifiable BACs: Switching From Single-Copy to High-Copy Vectors and Genomic Clones

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Jadwiga; Hradecna, Zdenka; Szybalski, Waclaw

    2002-01-01

    The widely used, very-low-copy BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) vectors are the mainstay of present genomic research. The principal advantage of BACs is the high stability of inserted clones, but an important disadvantage is the low yield of DNA, both for vectors alone and when carrying genomic inserts. We describe here a novel class of single-copy/high-copy (SC/HC) pBAC/oriV vectors that retain all the advantages of low-copy BAC vectors, but are endowed with a conditional and tightly controlled oriV/TrfA amplification system that allows: (1) a yield of ∼100 copies of the vector per host cell when conditionally induced with l-arabinose, and (2) analogous DNA amplification (only upon induction and with copy number depending on the insert size) of pBAC/oriV clones carrying >100-kb inserts. Amplifiable clones and libraries facilitate high-throughput DNA sequencing and other applications requiring HC plasmid DNA. To turn on DNA amplification, which is driven by the oriV origin of replication, we used copy-up mutations in the gene trfA whose expression was very tightly controlled by the araC–ParaBAD promoter/regulator system. This system is inducible by l-arabinose, and could be further regulated by glucose and fucose. Amplification of DNA upon induction with l-arabinose and its modulation by glucose are robust and reliable. Furthermore, we discovered that addition of 0.2% d-glucose to the growth medium helped toward the objective of obtaining a real SC state for all BAC systems, thus enhancing the stability of their maintenance, which became equivalent to cloning into the host chromosome. [The following individuals kindly provided reagents, samples or unpublished information as indicated in the paper: F.R. Blattner D. Helinski, S. Valla, F. Schomburg, C. Small, R. Bogden, C. Gaskins, M.P. Mayer, D.C. Schwartz, and O. Azzam.] PMID:12213781

  1. A Trimodality Comparison of Volumetric Bone Imaging Technologies. Part II: 1-Yr Change, Long-Term Precision, and Least Significant Change

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Andy K. O.; Beattie, Karen A.; Min, Kevin K. H.; Merali, Zamir; Webber, Colin E.; Gordon, Christopher L.; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Cheung, Angela M. W.; Adachi, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    The previous article in this 3-part series demonstrated short-term precision and validity for volumetric bone outcome quantification using in vivo peripheral (p) quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities at resolutions 200 μm or higher. However, 1-yr precision error and clinically significant references are yet to be reported for these modalities. This study examined 59 women with mean age of 75 ± 9 yr and body mass index of 26.84 ± 4.77 kg/m2, demonstrating the lowest 1-yr precision error, standard errors of the estimate, and least significant change values for high-resolution (hr) pQCT followed by pQCT, and 1.0-T pMRI for all volumetric bone outcomes except trabecular number. Like short-term precision, 1-yr statistics for trabecular separation were similar across modalities. Excluding individuals with a previous history of fragility fractures, or who were current users of antiresorptives reduced 1-yr change for bone outcomes derived from pQCT and pMR images, but not hr-pQCT images. In Part II of this 3-part series focused on trimodality comparisons of 1-yr changes, hr-pQCT was recommended to be the prime candidate for quantifying change where smaller effect sizes are expected, but pQCT was identified as a feasible alternative for studies expecting larger changes. PMID:25129406

  2. Evaluation of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-manganese(II) complexes modified by narrow molecular weight distribution of chitosan oligosaccharides as potential magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Qi; Dai, Xueqin; Wu, Jingbo

    2011-05-01

    Novel conjugates of narrow molecular weight distribution of chitosan oligosaccharides (CSn; n=6, 8, 11) with manganese-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Mn-DTPA) as potential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents were synthesized. The structures were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectra, (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance, size exclusion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The characterization results showed that Mn-DTPA was successfully linked to aminated CSn by an amide function. The magnetic properties were characterized by in vitro and T(1)-weighted FLASH image experiments. Relaxivities studies indicated that Mn-DTPA-CSn (n=8, 11) provided higher relaxivity, either in aqueous or bovine serum albumin solution (0.725 mM), than commercial contrast agent Gd-DTPA. The stability results showed that Mn-DTPA-CSn in aqueous were stable enough to prevent Mn(II) ions from releasing. The preliminary in vitro and T(1)-weighted FLASH image studies suggested that Mn-DTPA-CSn had the advantage of becoming promising MRI contrast agents.

  3. Copy Number Variants in pharmacogenetic genes

    PubMed Central

    He, Yijing; Hoskins, Janelle M.; McLeod, Howard L.

    2011-01-01

    Variation in drug efficacy and toxicity remains an important clinical concern. Presently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) only explain a portion of this problem, even in situations where the pharmacological trait is clearly heritable. The Human CNV Project identified copy number variations (CNVs) across approximately 12% of the human genome, and these CNVs were considered causes of diseases. Although the contribution of CNVs to the pathogenesis of many common diseases is questionable, CNVs play a clear role in drug related genes by altering drug metabolizing and drug response. Here we provide a comprehensive review of the clinical relevance of CNVs to drug efficacy, toxicity, disease prevalence in world populations and discuss the implication of using CNVs as diagnosis in clinical intervention. PMID:21388883

  4. Imperfect mirror copies of the standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryman, Jeffrey M.; de Gouvêa, André; Hernández, Daniel; Kelly, Kevin J.

    2016-08-01

    Inspired by the standard model of particle physics, we discuss a mechanism for constructing chiral, anomaly-free gauge theories. The gauge symmetries and particle content of such theories are identified using subgroups and complex representations of simple anomaly-free Lie groups, such as S O (10 ) or E6. We explore, using mostly S O (10 ) and the 16 representation, several of these "imperfect copies" of the standard model, including U (1 )N theories, S U (5 )⊗U (1 ) theories, S U (4 )⊗U (1 )2 theories with 4-plets and 6-plets, and chiral S U (3 )⊗S U (2 )⊗U (1 ) . A few general properties of such theories are discussed, as is how they might shed light on nonzero neutrino masses, the dark matter puzzle, and other phenomenologically relevant questions.

  5. Double-copy constructions and unitarity cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bern, Zvi; Davies, Scott; Nohle, Josh

    2016-05-01

    The duality between color and kinematics enables the construction of multiloop gravity integrands directly from corresponding gauge-theory integrands. This has led to new nontrivial insights into the structure of gravity theories, including the discovery of enhanced ultraviolet cancellations. To continue to gain deeper understandings and probe these new properties, it is crucial to further improve techniques for constructing multiloop gravity integrands. In this paper, we show by example how one can alleviate difficulties encountered at the multiloop level by relaxing the color-kinematics duality conditions to hold manifestly only on unitarity cuts instead of globally on loop integrands. As an example, we use a minimal Ansatz to construct an integrand for the two-loop four-point nonsupersymmetric pure Yang-Mills amplitude in D dimensions that is compatible with these relaxed color-kinematics duality constraints. We then immediately obtain a corresponding gravity integrand through the double-copy procedure. Comments on ultraviolet divergences are also included.

  6. Direct observation of cosmic strings via their strong gravitational lensing effect - II. Results from the HST/ACS image archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morganson, Eric; Marshall, Phil; Treu, Tommaso; Schrabback, Tim; Blandford, Roger D.

    2010-08-01

    We have searched 4.5deg2 of archival Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS) images for cosmic strings, identifying close pairs of similar, faint galaxies and selecting groups whose alignment is consistent with gravitational lensing by a long, straight string. We find no evidence for cosmic strings in five large-area HST treasury surveys (covering a total of 2.22deg2) or in any of 346 multifilter guest observer images (1.18deg2). Assuming that simulations accurately predict the number of cosmic strings in the Universe, this non-detection allows us to place upper limits on the dimensionless Universal cosmic string tension of Gμ/c2 < 2.3 × 10-6 and cosmic string density of Ωs < 2.1 × 10-5 at the 95per cent confidence level (marginalizing over the other parameter in each case). We find four dubious cosmic string candidates in 318 single-filter guest observer images (1.08deg2), which we are unable to conclusively eliminate with existing data. The confirmation of any of these candidates as cosmic strings would imply Gμ/c2 ~ 10-6 and Ωs ~ 10-5. However, we estimate that there is at least a 92per cent chance that these string candidates are random alignments of galaxies. If we assume that these candidates are indeed false detections, our final limits on Gμ/c2 and Ωs fall to 6.5 × 10-7 and 7.3 × 10-6, respectively. Due to the extensive sky coverage of the HST/ACS image archive, the above limits are universal. They are quite sensitive to the number of fields being searched and could be further reduced by more than a factor of 2 using forthcoming HST data.

  7. Physical model from 3D ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging scan data reconstruction of lumbosacral myelomeningocele in a fetus with Chiari II malformation.

    PubMed

    Werner, Heron; Lopes, Jorge; Tonni, Gabriele; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2015-04-01

    Rapid prototyping is becoming a fast-growing and valuable technique for physical models in case of congenital anomalies. Manufacturing models are generally built from three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound, computed tomography, and fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan data. Physical prototype has demonstrated to be clinically of value in case of complex fetal malformations and may improve antenatal management especially in cases of craniosynostosis, orofacial clefts, and giant epignathus. In addition, it may enhance parental bonding in visually impaired parents and have didactic value in teaching program. Hereby, the first 3D physical model from 3D ultrasound and MRI scan data reconstruction of lumbosacral myelomeningocele in a third trimester fetus affected by Chiari II malformation is reported. PMID:25686895

  8. Physical model from 3D ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging scan data reconstruction of lumbosacral myelomeningocele in a fetus with Chiari II malformation.

    PubMed

    Werner, Heron; Lopes, Jorge; Tonni, Gabriele; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2015-04-01

    Rapid prototyping is becoming a fast-growing and valuable technique for physical models in case of congenital anomalies. Manufacturing models are generally built from three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound, computed tomography, and fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan data. Physical prototype has demonstrated to be clinically of value in case of complex fetal malformations and may improve antenatal management especially in cases of craniosynostosis, orofacial clefts, and giant epignathus. In addition, it may enhance parental bonding in visually impaired parents and have didactic value in teaching program. Hereby, the first 3D physical model from 3D ultrasound and MRI scan data reconstruction of lumbosacral myelomeningocele in a third trimester fetus affected by Chiari II malformation is reported.

  9. 38 CFR 1.526 - Copies of records and papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... papers. 1.526 Section 1.526 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Copies of records and papers. (a) Any person desiring a copy of any record or document in the custody of... plain one-sided paper copies of a standard size (81/2″ × 11″; 81/2″ × 14″; 11″ × 14″) $0.15 per...

  10. Noninvasive positron emission tomography imaging of cell death using a novel small-molecule probe, (18)F labeled bis(zinc(II)-dipicolylamine) complex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongliang; Tang, Xiaolan; Tang, Ganghua; Huang, Tingting; Liang, Xiang; Hu, Kongzhen; Deng, Huaifu; Yi, Chang; Shi, Xinchong; Wu, Kening

    2013-08-01

    The synthetic bis(zinc(II)-dipicolylamine) (DPAZn2) coordination complexes are known to have a high specific and selective affinity to target the exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) on the surface of dead and dying cells. An (18)F-labeled DPAZn2 complex (4-(18)F-Fluoro-benzoyl-bis(zinc(II)-dipicolylamine), (18)F-FB-DPAZn2) as positron emission tomography (PET) tracer was developed and evaluated for in vivo imaging of tumor treated with a chemical agent. The in vitro cell stain studies revealed that fluorescent DPAZn2 complexes (Dansyl-DPAZn2) stained the same cells (apoptotic and necrotic cells) as fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled Annexin V (FITC-Annexin V). The radiosynthesis of (18)F-FB-DPAZn2 was achieved through the amidation the precursor bis(2,2'-dipicolylamine) derivative (DPA2) with the prosthetic group N-succinimidyl-4-[(18)F]-fluorobenzoate ((18)F-SFB) and chelation with zinc nitrate. In the biodistribution study, the fast clearance of (18)F-FB-DPAZn2 from blood and kidney was observed and high uptake in liver and intestine within 90 min postinjection was also found. For the PET imaging, significantly higher tumor uptake of (18)F-FB-DPAZn2 was observed in the adriamycin (ADM)-treated Hepa1-6 hepatocellular carcinoma-bearing mice than that in the untreated tumor-model mice, while a slightly decreased tumor uptake of (18)F-FDG was found in the ADM-treated tumor-bearing mice. The results indicate that (18)F-FB-DPAZn2 has the similar capability of apoptosis detection as FITC-Annexin V and seems to be a potential PET tracer for noninvasive evaluation and monitoring of anti-tumor chemotherapy. The high uptake of (18)F-FB-DPAZn2 in the abdomen needs to optimize the structure for improving its pharmacokinetics characteristics in the future work.

  11. 6. Photographic copy of historic photograph (from Wind Cave National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of historic photograph (from Wind Cave National Park), photographer unknown, date unknown. Route 87, Pigtail Bridge, elevation. - Pigtail Bridge, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  12. COPI selectively drives maturation of the early Golgi

    PubMed Central

    Papanikou, Effrosyni; Day, Kasey J; Austin, Jotham; Glick, Benjamin S

    2015-01-01

    COPI coated vesicles carry material between Golgi compartments, but the role of COPI in the secretory pathway has been ambiguous. Previous studies of thermosensitive yeast COPI mutants yielded the surprising conclusion that COPI was dispensable both for the secretion of certain proteins and for Golgi cisternal maturation. To revisit these issues, we optimized the anchor-away method, which allows peripheral membrane proteins such as COPI to be sequestered rapidly by adding rapamycin. Video fluorescence microscopy revealed that COPI inactivation causes an early Golgi protein to remain in place while late Golgi proteins undergo cycles of arrival and departure. These dynamics generate partially functional hybrid Golgi structures that contain both early and late Golgi proteins, explaining how secretion can persist when COPI has been inactivated. Our findings suggest that cisternal maturation involves a COPI-dependent pathway that recycles early Golgi proteins, followed by multiple COPI-independent pathways that recycle late Golgi proteins. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13232.001 PMID:26709839

  13. Ru(ii)-polypyridyl surface functionalised gold nanoparticles as DNA targeting supramolecular structures and luminescent cellular imaging agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Calvo, Miguel; Orange, Kim N.; Elmes, Robert B. P.; La Cour Poulsen, Bjørn; Williams, D. Clive; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur

    2015-12-01

    The development of Ru(ii) functionalized gold nanoparticles 1-3.AuNP is described. These systems were found to be mono-disperse with a hydrodynamic radius of ca. 15 nm in water but gave rise to the formation of higher order structures in buffered solution. The interaction of 1-3.AuNP with DNA was also studied by spectroscopic and microscopic methods and suggested the formation of large self-assembly structures in solution. The uptake of 1-3.AuNP by cancer cells was studied using both confocal fluorescence as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with the aim of investigating their potential as tools for cellular biology. These systems displaying a non-toxic profile with favourable photophysical properties may have application across various biological fields including diagnostics and therapeutics.The development of Ru(ii) functionalized gold nanoparticles 1-3.AuNP is described. These systems were found to be mono-disperse with a hydrodynamic radius of ca. 15 nm in water but gave rise to the formation of higher order structures in buffered solution. The interaction of 1-3.AuNP with DNA was also studied by spectroscopic and microscopic methods and suggested the formation of large self-assembly structures in solution. The uptake of 1-3.AuNP by cancer cells was studied using both confocal fluorescence as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with the aim of investigating their potential as tools for cellular biology. These systems displaying a non-toxic profile with favourable photophysical properties may have application across various biological fields including diagnostics and therapeutics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05598a

  14. Quantification of Fewer than Ten Copies of a DNA Biomarker without Amplification or Labeling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youngkyu; Lee, Donggyu; Roy, Dhruvajyoti; Park, Joon Won

    2016-06-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a highly sensitive diagnosis technique for detection of nucleic acids and for monitoring residual disease; however, PCR can be unreliable for samples containing very few target molecules. Here, we describe a quantification method, using force-distance (FD) curve based atomic force microscopy (AFM) to detect a target DNA bound to small (1.4-1.9 μm diameter) probe DNA spots, allowing mapping of entire spots to nanometer resolution. Using a synthetic BCR-ABL fusion gene sequence target, we examined samples containing between one and 10 target copies. A high degree of correlation (r(2) = 0.994) between numbers of target copies and detected probe clusters was observed, and the approach could detect the BCR-ABL biomarker when only a single copy was present, although multiple screens were required. Our results clearly demonstrate that FD curve-based imaging is suitable for quantitative analysis of fewer than 10 copies of DNA biomarkers without amplification, modification, or labeling. PMID:27175474

  15. From the meso to the nanoscopic scale through synchrotron imaging approaches: advances and near future at the NSLS-II SRX beamline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Andrade, V.; Thieme, J.; Ganne, J.; Beck, P.; Fayard, B.; Salomé, M.

    2012-12-01

    instrument for Earth Sciences. SRX is one of the first 6 project beamlines of the new National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II). Operating from 4.65 to 28 keV, SRX will comprise a high flux station and a nanoprobe (switchable within a couple of minutes), both operating with a world leading flux. SRX will start early science experiments in spring 2014. References [1] De Andrade, V., Susini, et al., "Submicrometer Hyperspectral X-ray Imaging of Heterogeneous Rocks and Geomaterials: Applications at the Fe K-Edge," Analytical Chemistry, 83(11), 4220-4227 (2011). [2] Beck P., De Andrade V., et al., "The redox state of iron in the matrix of CI, CM and metamorphosed CM chondrites by XANES spectroscopy". In press GCA. [3] Ganne J., De Andrade, et al., "Modern-style plate subduction and HP-LT rocks preserved in the Palaeoproterozoic West African Craton," Nature Geosciences, 5, 60-65, (2012). [4] De Andrade V., Thieme, J, et al., "The sub-micron resolution X-ray spectroscopy beamline at NSLS-II", Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A, 649(1), 46-48 (2011).

  16. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF THE OUTBURST SITE OF M31 RV. II. NO BLUE REMNANT IN QUIESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Howard E.

    2011-08-10

    M31 RV is a red transient that erupted in 1988 in the Andromeda bulge, reaching a luminosity intermediate between novae and supernovae. It was cool throughout its outburst, unlike a normal classical nova. In 2006, Bond and Siegel examined archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical images of the M31 RV site, obtained in 1999. We found only old red giants at the site and no stars of unusual color. However, Shara et al. recently claimed to have detected (1) a bright UV source within the error box in HST UV images taken in 1995, (2) a hot (T{sub eff} > 40, 000 K) optical source in the same 1999 images that we examined, and (3) cooling of this source from 1999 to 2008. Shara et al. argue that this source's behavior is consistent with a classical-nova outburst occurring on a low-mass white dwarf. I have re-examined all of the HST frames, including new ones obtained in 2009-2010. I find that (1) the bright 1995 UV source reported by Shara et al. was actually due to cosmic rays striking the same pixel in two successive exposures; (2) the claim that an optically bright star in the error box is very hot is actually due to misinterpretation of red-giant colors in the STmagnitude system; (3) there is no evidence for variability of any source within the error box from 1999 to 2010; and (4) there are no stars of unusually blue or red color in the error box. Our 2006 conclusions remain valid: either M31 RV had faded below HST detectability by 1999, or its remnant is an unresolved companion of a red giant in the field, or the remnant is one of the red giants.

  17. High-resolution teleseismic body wave tomography beneath SE-Romania - II. Imaging of a slab detachment scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M.; Wenzel, F.

    2006-03-01

    Non-linear teleseismic bodywave tomography with data of the 1999 CALIXTO field experiment (Carpathian Arc Lithosphere X-Tomography) in Romania provides high-resolution imaging of the upper-mantle structure. In this paper, we present the relative P-wave velocity distribution of the lithosphere/asthenosphere system. Smearing from strong crustal velocity anomalies into the upper mantle is successfully suppressed by traveltime corrections with an a priori 3-D regional crustal velocity model (see Martin et al. 2005, herein referenced as paper 1). Our high-resolution image shows a high-velocity body beneath Vrancea and the Moesian platform with a NE-SW orientation between 70 and 200 km depth. Beneath 200 km a change in the orientation from NE-SW to N-S can be observed. The body reaches a maximum depth of about 350-370 km. The velocity perturbation is maximal between 110 and 150 km depth (5.2-5.8 per cent) and almost constant for depths beneath 200 km (3.2-3.8 per cent). As most authors of previous studies agree on Miocene subduction along the arc followed by soft continental collision we interpret the high-velocity body as the subducted, yet not fully detached slab. The NE-part of the slab appears to be mechanically coupled to the Moesian lithosphere and hosts the intermediate depth seismicity. In contrast the aseismic SW-part is interpreted as decoupled from the overlying lithosphere and torn off from the underlying lithospheric material beneath 200 km depth. Low velocity anomalies NW of the slab above 110 km depth are interpreted as a shallow asthenospheric upwelling. Further low-velocity anomalies are in agreement with a lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary at 110-150 km depth below the Moesian platform and deeper than 200 km under the East European platform (EEP). The tomographic images support models proposing slab rollback during subduction/collision, followed by slab steepening and lithospheric delamination. The different degrees of mechanical coupling of the slab

  18. Venus: Cloud level circulation during 1982 as determined from Pioneer cloud photopolarimeter images. II - Solar longitude dependent circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Sanjay S.

    1988-01-01

    Pioneer Venus Orbiter images obtained in 1982 indicate a marked solar-locked dependence of cloud level circulation in both averaged cloud motions and cloud layer UV reflectivity. An apparent relationship is noted between horizontal divergence and UV reflectivity: the highest reflectivities are associated with regions of convergence at high latitudes, while lower values are associated with equatorial latitude regions where the motions are divergent. In solar-locked coordinates, the rms deviation of normalized UV brightness is higher at 45-deg latitudes than in equatorial regions.

  19. A six-membered-ring incorporated Si-rhodamine for imaging of copper(ii) in lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baogang; Cui, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Chai, Xiaoyun; Ding, Hao; Wu, Qiuye; Guo, Zhongwu; Wang, Ting

    2016-07-12

    The regulation of copper homeostasis in lysosomes of living cells is closely related to various physiological and pathological processes. Thus, it is of urgent need to develop a fluorescent probe for selectively and sensitively monitoring the location and concentration of lysosomal Cu(2+). Herein, a six-membered ring, thiosemicarbazide, was incorporated into a Si-rhodamine (SiR) scaffold for the first time, affording a SiR-based fluorescent probe SiRB-Cu. Through the effective Cu(2+)-triggered ring-opening process, the probe exhibits fast NIR chromogenic and fluorogenic responses to Cu(2+) within 2 min as the result of formation of a highly fluorescent product SiR-NCS. Compared with a five-membered ring, the expanded ring retains great tolerance to H(+), ensuring the superior sensitivity with a detection limit as low as 7.7 nM and 200-fold enhancement of relative fluorescence in the presence of 1.0 equiv. of Cu(2+) in pH = 5.0 solution, the physiological pH of lysosome. Moreover, the thiosemicarbazide moiety acts not only as the chelating and reactive site, but also as an efficient lysosome-targeting group, leading to the proactive accumulation of the probe into lysosomes. Taking advantage of these distinct properties, SiRB-Cu provides a functional probe suitable for imaging exogenous and endogenous lysosomal Cu(2+) with high imaging contrast and fidelity. PMID:27314426

  20. Signal-to-noise performance analysis of streak tube imaging lidar systems. II. Theoretical analysis and discussion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Hongru; Yu, Bing; Chen, Chao; Yang, Bin; Yuan, Liang; Wu, Lipeng; Xue, Zhanli; Li, Gaoping; Wu, Baoning

    2012-12-20

    In the preceding paper (referred to here as paper I), we presented a general signal-to-noise performance analysis of a streak tube imaging lidar (STIL) system within the framework of linear cascaded systems theory. A cascaded model is proposed for characterizing the signal-to-noise performance of a STIL system with an internal or external intensified streak tube receiver. The STIL system can be decomposed into a series of cascaded imaging chains whose signal and noise transfer properties are described by the general (or the spatial-frequency dependent) noise factors (NFs). Equations for the general NFs of the cascaded chains (or the main components) in the STIL system are derived. This work investigates the signal-to-noise performance of an external intensified STIL system. The implementation of the cascaded model for predicting and evaluating the signal-to-noise performance of the external intensified STIL system is described. Some factors that limit the signal-to-noise performance of the external intensified STIL system are analyzed and discussed.

  1. Signal-to-noise performance analysis of streak tube imaging lidar systems. II. Theoretical analysis and discussion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Hongru; Yu, Bing; Chen, Chao; Yang, Bin; Yuan, Liang; Wu, Lipeng; Xue, Zhanli; Li, Gaoping; Wu, Baoning

    2012-12-20

    In the preceding paper (referred to here as paper I), we presented a general signal-to-noise performance analysis of a streak tube imaging lidar (STIL) system within the framework of linear cascaded systems theory. A cascaded model is proposed for characterizing the signal-to-noise performance of a STIL system with an internal or external intensified streak tube receiver. The STIL system can be decomposed into a series of cascaded imaging chains whose signal and noise transfer properties are described by the general (or the spatial-frequency dependent) noise factors (NFs). Equations for the general NFs of the cascaded chains (or the main components) in the STIL system are derived. This work investigates the signal-to-noise performance of an external intensified STIL system. The implementation of the cascaded model for predicting and evaluating the signal-to-noise performance of the external intensified STIL system is described. Some factors that limit the signal-to-noise performance of the external intensified STIL system are analyzed and discussed. PMID:23262623

  2. Accuracy estimation of foamy virus genome copying

    PubMed Central

    Gärtner, Kathleen; Wiktorowicz, Tatiana; Park, Jeonghae; Mergia, Ayalew; Rethwilm, Axel; Scheller, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Background Foamy viruses (FVs) are the most genetically stable viruses of the retrovirus family. This is in contrast to the in vitro error rate found for recombinant FV reverse transcriptase (RT). To investigate the accuracy of FV genome copying in vivo we analyzed the occurrence of mutations in HEK 293T cell culture after a single round of reverse transcription using a replication-deficient vector system. Furthermore, the frequency of FV recombination by template switching (TS) and the cross-packaging ability of different FV strains were analyzed. Results We initially sequenced 90,000 nucleotides and detected 39 mutations, corresponding to an in vivo error rate of approximately 4 × 10-4 per site per replication cycle. Surprisingly, all mutations were transitions from G to A, suggesting that APOBEC3 activity is the driving force for the majority of mutations detected in our experimental system. In line with this, we detected a late but significant APOBEC3G and 3F mRNA by quantitative PCR in the cells. We then analyzed 170,000 additional nucleotides from experiments in which we co-transfected the APOBEC3-interfering foamy viral bet gene and observed a significant 50% drop in G to A mutations, indicating that APOBEC activity indeed contributes substantially to the foamy viral replication error rate in vivo. However, even in the presence of Bet, 35 out of 37 substitutions were G to A, suggesting that residual APOBEC activity accounted for most of the observed mutations. If we subtract these APOBEC-like mutations from the total number of mutations, we calculate a maximal intrinsic in vivo error rate of 1.1 × 10-5 per site per replication. In addition to the point mutations, we detected one 49 bp deletion within the analyzed 260000 nucleotides. Analysis of the recombination frequency of FV vector genomes revealed a 27% probability for a template switching (TS) event within a 1 kilobase (kb) region. This corresponds to a 98% probability that FVs undergo at least one

  3. Quantum entanglement in manganese(II) hexakisimidazole nitrate: on electronic structure imaging - A polarized neutron diffraction and DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Warren A.

    2016-04-01

    Quantum entanglement has been visualized for the first time, in view of the spin density distribution and electronic structure for manganese in manganese(II)hexakisimidazole nitrate. Using polarized neutron diffraction and density functional theory modelling we have found for the complex, which crystallizes in the R3¯ spacegroup, a = b = 12.4898(3) Å, c = 14.5526(4) Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 120°, Z = 3, that spatially antisymmetric and spatially symmetric shaped regions of negative spin density, in the spin density map for manganese, are a result of quantum entanglement of the high spin d5 configuration due to dative imidazole- manganese π- donation and σ-bonding interactions respectively. We have found leakage of the entangled states for manganese observed as regions of positive spin density with spherical (3.758(2) μB) and non-spherical (1.242(3) μB) contributions. Our results, which are supportive of Einstein's theory of general relativity, provide evidence for the existence of a black hole spin density distribution at the origin of an electronic structure and also address the paradoxical views of entanglement and quantum mechanics. We have also found the complex, which is an insulator, to be suitable for spintronic studies.

  4. In Vivo Detection of Oxidation-Specific Epitopes in Atherosclerotic Lesions Using Bio-Compatible Mn(II) Molecular Magnetic Imaging Probes

    PubMed Central

    Briley-Saebo, Karen C.; Hoang, Tuyen; Saeboe, Alexander M.; Cho, Young Seok; Ryu, Sung Kee; Volkava, Eugenia; Dickson, Stephen; Leibundgut, Gregor; Weisner, Philipp; Green, Simone; Casanada, Florence; Miller, Yury I.; Shaw, Walter; Witztum, Joseph L; Fayad, Zahi A.; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging efficacy of manganese (Mn(II)) molecular imaging probes targeted to oxidation-specific epitopes (OSE). Background OSE are critical in the initiation, progression and de-stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. Gadolinium (Gd(III)) based MR imaging agents can be associated with systemic toxicity. Mn is an endogenous, bio-compatible, paramagnetic metal ion that has poor MR efficacy when chelated, but strong efficacy when released within cells. Methods Multimodal Mn-micelles were generated to contain rhodamine for confocal microscopy and conjugated with either the murine monoclonal IgG antibody MDA2 targeted to malondialdehyde (MDA)-lysine epitopes or the human single-chain Fv antibody fragment IK17 targeted to MDA-like epitopes (‘targeted micelles”). Micelle formulations were characterized in vitro and in vivo and their MR efficacy (9.4 Tesla) evaluated in apoE−/− and LDLR−/− mice (0.05 mmol Mn/Kg dose) (total of 120 mice for all experiments). In vivo competitive inhibition studies were performed to evaluate target specificity. Untargeted, MDA2-Gd and IK17-Gd micelles (0.075 mmol Gd/Kg) were included as controls. Results In vitro studies demonstrated that targeted Mn-micelles accumulate in macrophages when pre-exposed to MDA-LDL with ~10X increase in longitudinal relativity. Following intravenous injection, strong MR signal enhancement was observed 48–72 hours after administration of targeted Mn-micelles, with co-localization within intraplaque macrophages. Co-injection of free MDA2 with the MDA2-Mn micelles resulted in full suppression of MR signal in the arterial wall confirming target specificity. Similar MR efficacy was noted in apoE−/− and LDLR−/− mice with aortic atherosclerosis. No significant differences in MR efficacy were noted between targeted Mn and Gd micelles. Conclusions This study demonstrates that bio-compatible multimodal Mn-based molecular imaging probes

  5. Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey. II. Adaptive Optics Imaging of 969 Kepler Exoplanet Candidate Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas M.; Morton, Tim; Riddle, Reed; Atkinson, Dani; Schonhut, Jessica; Crepp, Justin

    2016-07-01

    We initiated the Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey in 2012 to observe each Kepler exoplanet candidate host star with high angular resolution, visible light, laser adaptive optics (AOs) imaging. Our goal is to find nearby stars lying in Kepler's photometric apertures that are responsible for the relatively high probability of false-positive exoplanet detections and that cause underestimates of the size of transit radii. Our comprehensive survey will also shed light on the effects of stellar multiplicity on exoplanet properties and will identify rare exoplanetary architectures. In this second part of our ongoing survey, we observed an additional 969 Kepler planet candidate hosts and we report blended stellar companions up to {{Δ }}m≈ 6 that contribute to Kepler's measured light curves. We found 203 companions within ˜4″ of 181 of the Kepler stars, of which 141 are new discoveries. We measure the nearby star probability for this sample of Kepler planet candidate host stars to be 10.6% ± 1.1% at angular separations up to 2.″5, significantly higher than the 7.4% ± 1.0% probability discovered in our initial sample of 715 stars; we find the probability increases to 17.6% ± 1.5% out to a separation of 4.″0. The median position of Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) observed in this survey are 1.°1 closer to the galactic plane, which may account for some of the nearby star probability enhancement. We additionally detail 50 Keck AO images of Robo-AO observed KOIs in order to confirm 37 companions detected at a <5σ significance level and to obtain additional infrared photometry on higher significance detected companions.

  6. Vocal copying of individually distinctive signature whistles in bottlenose dolphins

    PubMed Central

    King, Stephanie L.; Sayigh, Laela S.; Wells, Randall S.; Fellner, Wendi; Janik, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocal learning is relatively common in birds but less so in mammals. Sexual selection and individual or group recognition have been identified as major forces in its evolution. While important in the development of vocal displays, vocal learning also allows signal copying in social interactions. Such copying can function in addressing or labelling selected conspecifics. Most examples of addressing in non-humans come from bird song, where matching occurs in an aggressive context. However, in other animals, addressing with learned signals is very much an affiliative signal. We studied the function of vocal copying in a mammal that shows vocal learning as well as complex cognitive and social behaviour, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Copying occurred almost exclusively between close associates such as mother–calf pairs and male alliances during separation and was not followed by aggression. All copies were clearly recognizable as such because copiers consistently modified some acoustic parameters of a signal when copying it. We found no evidence for the use of copying in aggression or deception. This use of vocal copying is similar to its use in human language, where the maintenance of social bonds appears to be more important than the immediate defence of resources. PMID:23427174

  7. 14 CFR 1206.206 - Availability for copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Availability for copying. 1206.206 Section 1206.206 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Records Available § 1206.206 Availability for copying. Except as...

  8. 14 CFR 1206.206 - Availability for copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability for copying. 1206.206 Section 1206.206 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Records Available § 1206.206 Availability for copying. Except as...

  9. 7 CFR 295.6 - Public inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public inspection and copying. 295.6 Section 295.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC § 295.6 Public inspection and copying. 5 U.S.C....

  10. 56. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1934, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1934, by Sverdrup and Parcel, Consulting Engineers, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Bar bill and bending details - Mark Twain Memorial Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at US Route 36, Hannibal, Marion County, MO

  11. 52. Photocopy of copy of original Officers' Duplex Quarters drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Photocopy of copy of original Officers' Duplex Quarters drawing by Copeland, 7 April 1932 (Original in possession of Veterans Administration, Wichita, Kansas, copy at Ablah Library, Wichita State University). Heating - Veterans Administration Center, Officers Duplex Quarters, 5302 East Kellogg (Legal Address); 5500 East Kellogg (Common Address), Wichita, Sedgwick County, KS

  12. COPI is essential for Golgi cisternal maturation and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Midori; Suda, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Proteins synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are transported to the Golgi and then sorted to their destinations. For their passage through the Golgi, one widely accepted mechanism is cisternal maturation. Cisternal maturation is fulfilled by the retrograde transport of Golgi-resident proteins from later to earlier cisternae, and candidate carriers for this retrograde transport are coat protein complex I (COPI)-coated vesicles. We examined the COPI function in cisternal maturation directly by 4D observation of the transmembrane Golgi-resident proteins in living yeast cells. COPI temperature-sensitive mutants and induced degradation of COPI proteins were used to knockdown COPI function. For both methods, inactivation of COPI subunits Ret1 and Sec21 markedly impaired the transition from cis to medial and to trans cisternae. Furthermore, the movement of cisternae within the cytoplasm was severely restricted when COPI subunits were depleted. Our results demonstrate the essential roles of COPI proteins in retrograde trafficking of the Golgi-resident proteins and dynamics of the Golgi cisternae. PMID:27445311

  13. 48. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 192627, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1926-27, by Harrington, Howard, and Ash, Consulting Engineers, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City, Missouri. 671 FT. SPAN, JOINTS L9 TO L12 - Cape Girardeau Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at State Highway 146, Cape Girardeau, Cape Girardeau County, MO

  14. 55. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 192627, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1926-27, by Harrington, Howard, and Ash, Consulting Engineers, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City, Missouri. 671 FT. SPAN, JOINTS U17 TO U20 - Cape Girardeau Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at State Highway 146, Cape Girardeau, Cape Girardeau County, MO

  15. 54. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 192627, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1926-27, by Harrington, Howard, and Ash, Consulting Engineers, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City, Missouri. 671 FT. SPAN, JOINTS U13 TO U16 - Cape Girardeau Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at State Highway 146, Cape Girardeau, Cape Girardeau County, MO

  16. 47. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 192627, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1926-27, by Harrington, Howard, and Ash, Consulting Engineers, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City, Missouri. 671 FT. SPAN, JOINTS L5 TO L8 - Cape Girardeau Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at State Highway 146, Cape Girardeau, Cape Girardeau County, MO

  17. 46. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 192627, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1926-27, by Harrington, Howard, and Ash, Consulting Engineers, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City, Missouri. 671 FT. SPAN, JOINTS L1 TO L4 - Cape Girardeau Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at State Highway 146, Cape Girardeau, Cape Girardeau County, MO

  18. 52. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 192627, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1926-27, by Harrington, Howard, and Ash, Consulting Engineers, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City, Missouri. 671 FT. SPAN, JOINTS U5 TO U8 - Cape Girardeau Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at State Highway 146, Cape Girardeau, Cape Girardeau County, MO

  19. 49. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 192627, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1926-27, by Harrington, Howard, and Ash, Consulting Engineers, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City, Missouri. 671 FT. SPAN, JOINTS L13 TO L16 - Cape Girardeau Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at State Highway 146, Cape Girardeau, Cape Girardeau County, MO

  20. 53. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 192627, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1926-27, by Harrington, Howard, and Ash, Consulting Engineers, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City, Missouri. 671 FT. SPAN, JOINTS U9 TO U12 - Cape Girardeau Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at State Highway 146, Cape Girardeau, Cape Girardeau County, MO

  1. 50. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 192627, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1926-27, by Harrington, Howard, and Ash, Consulting Engineers, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City, Missouri. 671 FT. SPAN, JOINTS L17 TO L20 - Cape Girardeau Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at State Highway 146, Cape Girardeau, Cape Girardeau County, MO

  2. 29 CFR 2570.51 - Public inspection and copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Public inspection and copies. 2570.51 Section 2570.51 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.51 Public inspection and copies. (a) The...

  3. 51. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 192627, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1926-27, by Harrington, Howard, and Ash, Consulting Engineers, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City, Missouri. 671 FT. SPAN, JOINTS L0, U2 TO U4, PORTAL AT U2 - Cape Girardeau Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at State Highway 146, Cape Girardeau, Cape Girardeau County, MO

  4. 29 CFR 2570.51 - Public inspection and copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Public inspection and copies. 2570.51 Section 2570.51 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.51 Public inspection and copies. (a) The...

  5. 51. Photocopy of copy of original Officers' Duplex Quarters drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photocopy of copy of original Officers' Duplex Quarters drawing by B.S. Elliott, 7 April 1932 (original in possession of Veterans Administration, Wichita, Kansas, copy at Ablah Library, Wichita State University). Plumbing - Veterans Administration Center, Officers Duplex Quarters, 5302 East Kellogg (Legal Address); 5500 East Kellogg (Common Address), Wichita, Sedgwick County, KS

  6. 40 CFR 716.30 - Submission of copies of studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Submission of copies of studies. 716.30 Section 716.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... studies. (a)(1) Except as provided in §§ 716.5, 716.20, and 716.50, persons must send to EPA copies of...

  7. 40 CFR 716.30 - Submission of copies of studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Submission of copies of studies. 716.30 Section 716.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... studies. (a)(1) Except as provided in §§ 716.5, 716.20, and 716.50, persons must send to EPA copies of...

  8. 36 CFR 1254.64 - Will NARA certify copies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will NARA certify copies? 1254.64 Section 1254.64 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS Copying...

  9. 36 CFR 1254.60 - What are NARA's copying services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are NARA's copying services? 1254.60 Section 1254.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS Copying...

  10. 37. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by Kansas City Structural Steel Company, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Details of 200' span - Van Buren Bridge, Spanning Current River at US Route 60, Van Buren, Carter County, MO

  11. 29. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by Missouri State Highway Department, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. General elevation and plan - Van Buren Bridge, Spanning Current River at US Route 60, Van Buren, Carter County, MO

  12. 38. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by Kansas City Structural Steel Company, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Details of 200' span - Van Buren Bridge, Spanning Current River at US Route 60, Van Buren, Carter County, MO

  13. 32. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by Missouri State Highway Department, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Details of intermediate bends and bent 14 - Van Buren Bridge, Spanning Current River at US Route 60, Van Buren, Carter County, MO

  14. 30. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by Missouri State Highway Department, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Details of pier 2 and 3 - Van Buren Bridge, Spanning Current River at US Route 60, Van Buren, Carter County, MO

  15. 35. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by Kansas City Structural Steel Company, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Details of 120' span - Van Buren Bridge, Spanning Current River at US Route 60, Van Buren, Carter County, MO

  16. 39. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by Kansas City Structural Steel Company, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Details of 80' span - Van Buren Bridge, Spanning Current River at US Route 60, Van Buren, Carter County, MO

  17. 36. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by Kansas City Structural Steel Company, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Beams and laterals - Van Buren Bridge, Spanning Current River at US Route 60, Van Buren, Carter County, MO

  18. 33. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1925, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1925, by Missouri State Highway Department, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Details of abutment no. 1 (revised) - Van Buren Bridge, Spanning Current River at US Route 60, Van Buren, Carter County, MO

  19. 31. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by Missouri State Highway Department, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Details of pier 9 and abutment 1 - Van Buren Bridge, Spanning Current River at US Route 60, Van Buren, Carter County, MO

  20. 34. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by Kansas City Structural Steel Company, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Plans and elevations - Van Buren Bridge, Spanning Current River at US Route 60, Van Buren, Carter County, MO

  1. 36 CFR 404.5 - Inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inspection and copying. 404.5 Section 404.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION PROCEDURES AND GUIDELINES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 404.5 Inspection and copying. When a...

  2. 36 CFR 404.5 - Inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inspection and copying. 404.5 Section 404.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION PROCEDURES AND GUIDELINES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 404.5 Inspection and copying. When a...

  3. 36 CFR 404.5 - Inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection and copying. 404.5 Section 404.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION PROCEDURES AND GUIDELINES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 404.5 Inspection and copying. When a...

  4. 36 CFR 404.5 - Inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Inspection and copying. 404.5 Section 404.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION PROCEDURES AND GUIDELINES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 404.5 Inspection and copying. When a...

  5. 36 CFR 404.5 - Inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inspection and copying. 404.5 Section 404.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION PROCEDURES AND GUIDELINES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 404.5 Inspection and copying. When a...

  6. 13. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, dated August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, dated August 1914, from blueprint copy in possession of Utah County Engineering office, Provo, Utah. JORDAN RIVER BRIDGE ON NORTH BOUNDARY, SECTION 12T5S, R1W (SIDE AND END VIEWS) - Jordan Narrows Bridge, Crossing Jordan River at 9600 North, Lehi, Utah County, UT

  7. 6. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION DRAWING, DATED MAY 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION DRAWING, DATED MAY 15, 1919, 7TH CAVALRY CANTONMENT POST EXCHANGE, WAR DEPARTMENT, CONSTRUCTION DIVISION, PLAN No. 357, COPY ON FILE IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OFFICE, FORT BLISS - Fort Bliss, 7th Cavalry Buildings, U.S. Army Air Defence Artillery Center & Fort Bliss, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  8. 18. Photocopy of copy of drawing of boiler plant and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of copy of drawing of boiler plant and shops building, dated June 15, 1944. Copy of drawing stored at 436 Civil Engineer Squadron, Design Management Element Cece, 600 8th Street, Dover AFB, DE - Dover Air Force Base, Hangar No. 1301, Dover, Kent County, DE

  9. 4. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION DRAWING, DATED MAY 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION DRAWING, DATED MAY 13, 1919, DETACHMENT BARRACK WITHOUT MESS, WAR DEPARTMENT, CONSTRUCTION DIVISION, PLAN # 353, COPY ON FILE IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OFFICE, FORT BLISS - Fort Bliss, 7th Cavalry Buildings, U.S. Army Air Defence Artillery Center & Fort Bliss, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  10. 8. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH, DATED CA. 19201925, FORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH, DATED CA. 1920-1925, FORT BLISS, ARROW POINTS TO 7TH CAVALRY CANTONMENT, COPY ON FILE IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OFFICE, FORT BLISS - Fort Bliss, 7th Cavalry Buildings, U.S. Army Air Defence Artillery Center & Fort Bliss, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  11. 5. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION DRAWING, DATED JUNE 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION DRAWING, DATED JUNE 14, 1919, 7TH CAVALRY CANTONMENT MESS BUILDING, WAR DEPARTMENT, CONSTRUCTION DIVISION, PLAN No. 316A, COPY ON FILE IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OFFICE, FORT BLISS - Fort Bliss, 7th Cavalry Buildings, U.S. Army Air Defence Artillery Center & Fort Bliss, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  12. 17. Photocopy of copy of drawing of Hangar 1301, dated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of copy of drawing of Hangar 1301, dated June 15, 1944. Copy of drawing stored at 436 Civil Engineer Squadron, Design Management Element Cece, 600 8th Street, Dover Air Force Base, DE - Dover Air Force Base, Hangar No. 1301, Dover, Kent County, DE

  13. Photo copy of historic photograph, 1944. BUILDING 652, LOOKING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photo copy of historic photograph, 1944. BUILDING 652, LOOKING SOUTH. OCT. 14, 1944. File no. 141. Copy print on file at Library, Corps of Engineers, New England Division, Waltham, Massachusetts - Watertown Arsenal, Building No. 652, Arsenal Street, Watertown, Middlesex County, MA

  14. 48 CFR 6302.25 - Copies of papers (Rule 25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Copies of papers (Rule 25). 6302.25 Section 6302.25 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS RULES OF PROCEDURE 6302.25 Copies of papers (Rule 25). When books, records, papers,...

  15. 6. Photo copy of photograph, (original owned by Mary Gaudineer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photo copy of photograph, (original owned by Mary Gaudineer, Beckley, WV, copy at National Forest Office, Elkins, WV), Don Gaudineer, 1934. CONSTRUCTION OF FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST BUNKHOUSE AND GARAGE. (see also historic photograph WV-237-13) - Parsons Nursery, Fernow Experimental Forest Residence, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  16. Vocal copying of individually distinctive signature whistles in bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    King, Stephanie L; Sayigh, Laela S; Wells, Randall S; Fellner, Wendi; Janik, Vincent M

    2013-04-22

    Vocal learning is relatively common in birds but less so in mammals. Sexual selection and individual or group recognition have been identified as major forces in its evolution. While important in the development of vocal displays, vocal learning also allows signal copying in social interactions. Such copying can function in addressing or labelling selected conspecifics. Most examples of addressing in non-humans come from bird song, where matching occurs in an aggressive context. However, in other animals, addressing with learned signals is very much an affiliative signal. We studied the function of vocal copying in a mammal that shows vocal learning as well as complex cognitive and social behaviour, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Copying occurred almost exclusively between close associates such as mother-calf pairs and male alliances during separation and was not followed by aggression. All copies were clearly recognizable as such because copiers consistently modified some acoustic parameters of a signal when copying it. We found no evidence for the use of copying in aggression or deception. This use of vocal copying is similar to its use in human language, where the maintenance of social bonds appears to be more important than the immediate defence of resources.

  17. An Evidence-Informed Picture of Course-Related Copying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Rumi

    2016-01-01

    Recent changes in Canadian copyright law have prompted Canada's educational institutions to reexamine their need for a blanket copying license. Users' rights under the amended Copyright Act now include fair dealing for purposes of education, and the Supreme Court has established that copying short excerpts for classroom use can qualify as fair…

  18. 48. Photocopy of copy of original Officers' Duplex Quarters drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of copy of original Officers' Duplex Quarters drawing by Turner, 7 April 1932 (original in possession of Veterans Administration, Wichita, Kansas, copy at Ablah Library, Wichita State University). Attic and roof, basement, first floor, and second floor plans - Veterans Administration Center, Officers Duplex Quarters, 5302 East Kellogg (Legal Address); 5500 East Kellogg (Common Address), Wichita, Sedgwick County, KS

  19. 50. Photocopy of copy of original Officers' Duplex Quarters drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Photocopy of copy of original Officers' Duplex Quarters drawing by Turner, 7 April 1932 (original in possession of Veterans Administration, Wichita, Kansas, copy at Ablah Library, Wichita State University. Detail of front entrance and of gable dormer - Veterans Administration Center, Officers Duplex Quarters, 5302 East Kellogg (Legal Address); 5500 East Kellogg (Common Address), Wichita, Sedgwick County, KS

  20. 49. Photocopy of copy of original Officers' Duplex Quarters drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of copy of original Officers' Duplex Quarters drawing by Turner, 7 April 1932 (original in possession of Veterans Administration, Wichita, Kansas, copy at Ablah Library, Wichita State University). Front, rear, and side elevations, and cross-section - Veterans Administration Center, Officers Duplex Quarters, 5302 East Kellogg (Legal Address); 5500 East Kellogg (Common Address), Wichita, Sedgwick County, KS